Calculation program development for spinning reserve
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1979-01-01
This study is about optimal holding of spinning reserve and optimal operation for it. It deals with the purpose and contents of the study, introduction of the spinning reserve electricity, speciality of the spinning reserve power, the result of calculation, analysis for limited method of optimum load, calculation of requirement for spinning reserve, analysis on measurement of system stability with summary, purpose of the analysis, cause of impact of the accident, basics on measurement of spinning reserve and conclusion. It has the reference on explanation for design of spinning reserve power program and using and trend about spinning reserve power in Korea.
Transfer Area Mechanical Handling Calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dianda, B.
2004-01-01
This calculation is intended to support the License Application (LA) submittal of December 2004, in accordance with the directive given by DOE correspondence received on the 27th of January 2004 entitled: ''Authorization for Bechtel SAX Company L.L. C. to Include a Bare Fuel Handling Facility and Increased Aging Capacity in the License Application, Contract Number DE-AC--28-01R W12101'' (Arthur, W.J., I11 2004). This correspondence was appended by further Correspondence received on the 19th of February 2004 entitled: ''Technical Direction to Bechtel SAIC Company L.L. C. for Surface Facility Improvements, Contract Number DE-AC--28-OIRW12101; TDL No. 04-024'' (BSC 2004a). These documents give the authorization for a Fuel Handling Facility to be included in the baseline. The purpose of this calculation is to establish preliminary bounding equipment envelopes and weights for the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) transfer areas equipment. This calculation provides preliminary information only to support development of facility layouts and preliminary load calculations. The limitations of this preliminary calculation lie within the assumptions of section 5 , as this calculation is part of an evolutionary design process. It is intended that this calculation is superseded as the design advances to reflect information necessary to support License Application. The design choices outlined within this calculation represent a demonstration of feasibility and may or may not be included in the completed design. This calculation provides preliminary weight, dimensional envelope, and equipment position in building for the purposes of defining interface variables. This calculation identifies and sizes major equipment and assemblies that dictate overall equipment dimensions and facility interfaces. Sizing of components is based on the selection of commercially available products, where applicable. This is not a specific recommendation for the future use of these components or their
IGT calculates world reserves of fossil fuels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1986-01-01
The Institute of Gas Technology has published the IGT World Reserves Survey, giving their latest tabulation of world reserves of fossil fuels and uranium. The report contains 120 Tables and 41 Figures. Estimates are provided for proved reserves, resources, current production, and life indexes of the non-renewable energy sources of the US and of the world as a whole. World regional data are also provided in many cases. The data are summarized here. 2 figures, 5 tables
Engineering calculations in radiative heat transfer
Gray, W A; Hopkins, D W
1974-01-01
Engineering Calculations in Radiative Heat Transfer is a six-chapter book that first explains the basic principles of thermal radiation and direct radiative transfer. Total exchange of radiation within an enclosure containing an absorbing or non-absorbing medium is then described. Subsequent chapters detail the radiative heat transfer applications and measurement of radiation and temperature.
Methods for calculating anisotropic transfer cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cai, Shaohui; Zhang, Yixin.
1985-01-01
The Legendre moments of the group transfer cross section, which are widely used in the numerical solution of the transport calculation can be efficiently and accurately constructed from low-order (K = 1--2) successive partial range moments. This is convenient for the generation of group constants. In addition, a technique to obtain group-angle correlation transfer cross section without Legendre expansion is presented. (author)
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR EFFICIENCY CALCULATION WITH HEAT TRANSFER
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valeriu Dragan
2017-12-01
and manner under which the efficiency itself is calculated. The paper presents a more robust approach to measuring efficiency, regardless of the heat transfer within the turbomachinery itself. Possible applications of the study may range from cold-start regime simulation to the optimization of inter-cooling setup or even flow angle control without mechanically actuated OGV
DRY TRANSFER FACILITY CRITICALITY SAFETY CALCULATIONS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
C.E. Sanders
2005-01-01
This design calculation updates the previous criticality evaluation for the fuel handling, transfer, and staging operations to be performed in the Dry Transfer Facility (DTF) including the remediation area. The purpose of the calculation is to demonstrate that operations performed in the DTF and RF meet the nuclear criticality safety design criteria specified in the ''Project Design Criteria (PDC) Document'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171599], Section 4.9.2.2), the nuclear facility safety requirement in ''Project Requirements Document'' (Canori and Leitner 2003 [DIRS 166275], p. 4-206), the functional/operational nuclear safety requirement in the ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' document (Curry 2004 [DIRS 170557], p. 75), and the functional nuclear criticality safety requirements described in the ''Dry Transfer Facility Description Document'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173737], p. 3-8). A description of the changes is as follows: (1) Update the supporting calculations for the various Category 1 and 2 event sequences as identified in the ''Categorization of Event Sequences for License Application'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 171429], Section 7). (2) Update the criticality safety calculations for the DTF staging racks and the remediation pool to reflect the current design. This design calculation focuses on commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies, i.e., pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) SNF. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) owned SNF is evaluated in depth in the ''Canister Handling Facility Criticality Safety Calculations'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173284]) and is also applicable to DTF operations. Further, the design and safety analyses of the naval SNF canisters are the responsibility of the U.S. Department of the Navy (Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program) and will not be included in this document. Also, note that the results for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Site specific Cask (MSC) calculations are limited to the
Nodewise analytical calculation of the transfer function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makai, Mihaly
1994-01-01
The space dependence of neutron noise has so far been mostly investigated in homogeneous core models. Application of core diagnostic methods to locate a malfunction requires however that the transfer function be calculated for real, inhomogeneous cores. A code suitable for such purpose must be able to handle complex arithmetic and delta-function source. Further requirements are analytical dependence in one spatial variable and fast execution. The present work describes the TIDE program written to fulfil the above requirements. The core is subdivided into homogeneous, square assemblies. An analytical solution is given, which is a generalisation of the inhomogeneous response matrix method. (author)
Use of gamma logging for calculating reserves of hydrogenic deposits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polkanov, Yu.G.
1992-01-01
Recently, in studies of hydrogenic deposits of uranium, great importance was laid on investigating the effect of radium halos, incorrect accounting of which leads to overestimates of the depth of the mineralization and to errors in determining the uranium content by radiographic methods. Radium halos are located both in the rear and in the front of ore deposits. Ores located in the front of ore deposits are primarily formed from the diffusion of radium into rocks near the ores. Radium halos located in the rear of the deposits are called residual halos. They are caused by the retention of radium in sections from which the uranium already has been carried away. In order to consider the radium halos, which are confined to zones of stratified oxidation and adjoining ore intervals, one uses the dependence of the edge mass fraction of radium at the boundaries of the (uranium) ore intervals on the average radium mass fraction in the intervals. This method makes it possible to separate with satisfactory accuracy sections on the γ-ray logging curves which corresponds to zones of stratified oxidation (red-colored rock) and to exclude them in calculating the reserves
User's guide for the Uranium Ore Reserve Calculation System (URAD)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1988-12-01
The URAD (Uranium Reserves and Data) system consists of four computer programs designed to facilitate the evaluation of uranium ore reserves analysis and the handling of basic uranium assay data. URAD is designed specifically as a training tool for anyone unfamiliar with the methodology, data requirements, and/or general computer applications in the field of uranium ore reserves analysis. However, it can effectively be used in a 'production' environment involving considerable amounts of data. The resulting programs are written in Microsoft FORTRAN (Version 3.1) and may be run on any IBM-compatible microcomputer under DOS 2.1 (or later). Only a basic working knowledge of DOS 2.1 is needed to maintain the system and run the programs. This guide includes the overview of the URAD system, the review of sample data and a complete description of the file structure and sample type formats of the basic sample data files. Program URDAT explains the initial processing of the primary UDAT files to obtain standard output listings and gamma-log interpretations of radiometric data, and to create intermediate UDAT files which are used by the ore reserves programs - RESUV, ORSAC, and SCOR. Figs and tabs
Distorted wave calculations for double electron transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinez, A.E.; Rivarola, R.D.; Gayet, R.; Hanssen, J.
1992-01-01
The resonant double electron capture by alpha particles in helium targets is studied, at intermediate and high collision energies, using the Continuum Distorted Wave - Eikonal Initial State (CDW-EIS) model. Differential and total cross sections for capture into the He (1 s 2 ) final state are calculated in the framework of an Independent Electron Approximation (IEA). Theoretical results are compared with the experimental data available at present for capture into any final state of helium. (author)
An introduction to heat transfer principles and calculations
Ede, A J; Ower, E
1967-01-01
An Introduction to Heat Transfer Principles and Calculations is an introductory text to the principles and calculations of heat transfer. The theory underlying heat transfer is described, and the principal results and formulae are presented. Available techniques for obtaining rapid, approximate solutions to complicated problems are also considered. This book is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with a brief account of some of the concepts, methods, nomenclature, and other relevant information about heat transfer. The reader is then introduced to radiation, conduction, convection, and boiling
Bivariational calculations for radiation transfer in an inhomogeneous participating media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Wakil, S.A.; Machali, H.M.; Haggag, M.H.; Attia, M.T.
1986-07-01
Equations for radiation transfer are obtained for dispersive media with space dependent albedo. Bivariational bound principle is used to calculate the reflection and transmission coefficients for such media. Numerical results are given and compared. (author)
Method of calculating heat transfer in furnaces of small power
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khavanov Pavel
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This publication presents the experiences and results of generalization criterion equation of importance in the analysis of the processes of heat transfer and thermal calculations of low-power heat generators cooled combustion chambers. With generalizing depending estimated contribution of radiation and convective heat transfer component in the complex for the combustion chambers of small capacity boilers. Determined qualitative and quantitative dependence of the integrated radiative-convective heat transfer from the main factors working combustion chambers of small volume.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souza Amaral Filho, J.B. de.
1991-01-01
This dissertation makes the analysis of resources transfer and centralization in Brazilian electrical sector, through reversion global reserve (RGR) and guarantee global reserve (GGR). RGR and GGR are funds. RGR finances sectorial investments in electric power and GGR aims the supply of deficient concessionaires. Governmental investments and the results of this application are showing. (M.V.M.). 55 refs, 2 figs, 61 tabs
26 CFR 1.409A-4 - Calculation of income inclusion. [Reserved
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of income inclusion. [Reserved] 1.409A-4 Section 1.409A-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Calculation of income inclusion. [Reserved] ...
A new approach for soil-plant transfer calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorp, F. van; Eleveld, R.; Frissel, M.J.
1979-01-01
Models to calculate radiation doses to man caused by normal or accidental release of radionuclides from nuclear industries often include the transfer of these nuclides from soil to plant. This soil-plant transfer is mostly described with a black box approach by using concentration factors. This approach has several disadvantages, the most important being the lack of physical meaning of a concentration factor. We propose to describe the soil-plant transfer of radionuclides as a function of plant and soil parameters all having a physical meaning. The separate parameters are open to experimental determination but a realistic estimation of the parameters is also possible, or the use of a combination of both. Depending on the purpose of the calculation, realistic or conservative values of the parameters can be used and the degree of conservatism can be indicated. (author)
Magnetization transfer MR of cerebrovascular disorders using calculated images
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Enomoto, Kyoko; Watabe, Tsuneya; Amanuma, Makoto; Heshiki, Atsuko [Saitama Medical School, Moroyama, Saitama (Japan)
1997-06-01
This study applied a magnetization transfer contrast method to patients with cerebrovascular disorders. A 1.5 T superconducting MR unit was used, and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) images were calculated by evaluating two paired images before and after off-resonance gradient echo pulse sequences. The normal white matter showed the highest MTRs, CSF the lowest, and gray matter, intermediate. Cerebral ischemic patients showed two patterns according to the chronological stage of the affected area. Lesions in the acute and subacute stages revealed higher transfer rates than those in the chronic stage. Patients with cerebral hemorrhage were divided into three groups: the hyperacute group showed a low transfer pattern; the acute group presented inhomogeneous high transfer rates; and the subacute group showed remarkably low transfer rates. In the acute and subacute ischemic stages, increased macromolecules caused higher MTRs than in the chronic stage. In hemorrhagic groups, low MTRs in subacute hemorrhage reflected the transfer of methemoglobin. High MTRs in acute hemorrhage with rich deoxyhemoglobin suggested increased fibrin, plasma, and serum components of macromolecules. The MTC method provided new chronological information on cerebral hemorrhage, adding to that provided by routine MR images. (author)
Available transfer capability calculation considering voltage stability margin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pan, Xiong; Xu, Guoyu
2005-01-01
To make the electricity trades carry out successfully, the calculation of available transfer capability (ATC) must coordinate the relationship between the security and economic benefits. In this paper, a model for ATC calculations accorded with trade-off mechanism in electricity market was set up. The impact of branch outage contingency on the static voltage stability margin was analyzed, and contingency ranking was performed through sensitivity indices of branch flows with respect to the loading margin. Optimal power flow based on primal-dual interior point method was applied to obtain ATC when the N-1 security constraints were included. The calculation results of IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 118-bus systems show that the proposed model and method are valid. (author) (N-1 security constraints; Electricity market; Available transfer capability; Optimal power flow; Voltage stability)
Determination of intermolecular transfer integrals from DFT calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baumeier, Bjoern; Andrienko, Denis [Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz (Germany)
2010-07-01
Theoretical studies of charge transport in organic conducting systems pose a unique challenge since they require multiscale schemes that combine quantum-chemical, molecular dynamics and kinetic Monte-Carlo calculations. The description of the mobility of electrons and holes in the hopping regime relies on the determination of intermolecular hopping rates in large scale morphologies. Using Marcus theory these rates can be calculated from intermolecular transfer integrals and on-site energies. Here we present a detailed computational study on the accuracy and efficiency of density-functional theory based approaches to the determination of intermolecular transfer integrals. First, it is demonstrated how these can be obtained from quantum-chemistry calculations by forming the expectation value of a dimer Fock operator with frontier orbitals of two neighboring monomers based on a projective approach. We then consider the prototypical example of one pair out of a larger morphology of Tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminium (Alq3) and study the influence of computational parameters, e.g. the choice of basis sets, exchange-correlation functional, and convergence criteria, on the calculated transfer integrals. The respective accuracies and efficiencies are compared in order to derive an optimal strategy for future simulations based on the full morphology.
Higher order energy transfer. Quantum electrodynamical calculations and graphical representation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jenkins, R.D.
2000-01-01
In Chapter 1, a novel method of calculating quantum electrodynamic amplitudes is formulated using combinatorial theory. This technique is used throughout instead of conventional time-ordered methods. A variety of hyperspaces are discussed to highlight isomorphism between a number of A generalisation of Pascal's triangle is shown to be beneficial in determining the form of hyperspace graphs. Chapter 2 describes laser assisted resonance energy transfer (LARET), a higher order perturbative contribution to the well-known process resonance energy transfer, accommodating an off resonance auxiliary laser field to stimulate the migration. Interest focuses on energy exchanges between two uncorrelated molecular species, as in a system where molecules are randomly oriented. Both phase-weighted and standard isotropic averaging are required for the calculations. Results are discussed in terms of a laser intensity-dependent mechanism. Identifying the applied field regime where LARET should prove experimentally significant, transfer rate increases of up to 30% are predicted. General results for three-center energy transfer are elucidated in chapter 3. Cooperative and accretive mechanistic pathways are identified with theory formulated to elicit their role in a variety of energy transfer phenomena and their relative dominance. In multichromophoric the interplay of such factors is analysed with regard to molecular architectures. The alignments and magnitudes of donor and acceptor transition moments and polarisabilities prove to have profound effects on achievable pooling efficiency for linear configurations. Also optimum configurations are offered. In ionic lattices, although both mechanisms play significant roles in pooling and cutting processes, only the accretive is responsible for sensitisation. The local, microscopic level results are used to gauge the lattice response, encompassing concentration and structural effects. (author)
Ore reserve calculations of a sedimentary uranium deposit in Figueira, PR-Brazil
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guerra, P.A.G.; Censi, A.C.; Marques, J.P.M.; Huijbregts, Ch.
1978-01-01
The are reserve calculations of a sedimentary uranium deposit in Figueira-PR-Brazil are presented. The evalution of reserves was based on chemical and/or radiometric analisys from boreholes. Geoestatistical methods were used to study the spacial correlation between radiometric and'in situ' uranium content and to calculate the equivalent uranium content without the need for chemical analysis. To this end, a new method was developed based on the regression between accumulated chemical and radiometric grades as determined by increasing thicknesses defined from the maximum peak of the γ-ray logs. Thus, the effect of non-focalization of the probe and of the continuous logging was eliminated. The system of evalution used was two-dimensional using classical Kriging to calculate thicknesses and accumulations determined using distinct cut-off grades. (Author) [pt
Proton transfers in the Strecker reaction revealed by DFT calculations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shinichi Yamabe
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The Strecker reaction of acetaldehyde, NH3, and HCN to afford alanine was studied by DFT calculations for the first time, which involves two reaction stages. In the first reaction stage, the aminonitrile was formed. The rate-determining step is the deprotonation of the NH3+ group in MeCH(OH-NH3+ to form 1-aminoethanol, which occurs with an activation energy barrier (ΔE≠ of 9.6 kcal/mol. The stereochemistry (R or S of the aminonitrile product is determined at the NH3 addition step to the carbonyl carbon of the aldehyde. While the addition of CN− to the carbon atom of the protonated imine 7 appears to scramble the stereochemistry, the water cluster above the imine plane reinforces the CN− to attack the imine group below the plane. The enforcement hinders the scrambling. In the second stage, the aminonitrile transforms to alanine, where an amide Me-CH(NH2-C(=O-NH2 is the key intermediate. The rate-determining step is the hydrolysis of the cyano group of N(amino-protonated aminonitrile which occurs with an ΔE≠ value of 34.7 kcal/mol. In the Strecker reaction, the proton transfer along the hydrogen bonds plays a crucial role.
Calculation of benefit reserves based on true m-thly benefit premiums
Riaman; Susanti, Dwi; Supriatna, Agus; Nurani Ruchjana, Budi
2017-10-01
Life insurance is a form of insurance that provides risk mitigation in life or death of a human. One of its advantages is measured life insurance. Insurance companies ought to give a sum of money as reserves to the customers. The benefit reserves are an alternative calculation which involves net and cost premiums. An insured may pay a series of benefit premiums to an insurer equivalent, at the date of policy issue, to the sum of to be paid on the death of the insured, or on survival of the insured to the maturity date. A balancing item is required and this item is a liability for one of the parties and the other is an asset. The balancing item, in loan, is the outstanding principle, an asset for the lender and the liability for the borrower. In this paper we examined the benefit reserves formulas corresponding to the formulas for true m-thly benefit premiums by the prospective method. This method specifies that, the reserves at the end of the first year are zero. Several principles can be used for the determined of benefit premiums, an equivalence relation is established in our discussion.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex
2010-01-28
Scientific applications already generate many terabytes and even petabytes of data from supercomputer runs and large-scale experiments. The need for transferring data chunks of ever-increasing sizes through the network shows no sign of abating. Hence, we need high-bandwidth high speed networks such as ESnet (Energy Sciences Network). Network reservation systems, i.e. ESnet's OSCARS (On-demand Secure Circuits and Advance Reservation System) establish guaranteed bandwidth of secure virtual circuits at a certain time, for a certain bandwidth and length of time. OSCARS checks network availability and capacity for the specified period of time, and allocates requested bandwidth for that user if it is available. If the requested reservation cannot be granted, no further suggestion is returned back to the user. Further, there is no possibility from the users view-point to make an optimal choice. We report a new algorithm, where the user specifies the total volume that needs to be transferred, a maximum bandwidth that he/she can use, and a desired time period within which the transfer should be done. The algorithm can find alternate allocation possibilities, including earliest time for completion, or shortest transfer duration - leaving the choice to the user. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent networks, and a new polynomial algorithm to find possible reservation options according to given constraints. We have implemented our algorithm for testing and incorporation into a future version of ESnet?s OSCARS. Our approach provides a basis for provisioning end-to-end high performance data transfers over storage and network resources.
Simulation and analysis of main steam control system based on heat transfer calculation
Huang, Zhenqun; Li, Ruyan; Feng, Zhongbao; Wang, Songhan; Li, Wenbo; Cheng, Jiwei; Jin, Yingai
2018-05-01
In this paper, after thermal power plant 300MW boiler was studied, mat lab was used to write calculation program about heat transfer process between the main steam and boiler flue gas and amount of water was calculated to ensure the main steam temperature keeping in target temperature. Then heat transfer calculation program was introduced into Simulink simulation platform based on control system multiple models switching and heat transfer calculation. The results show that multiple models switching control system based on heat transfer calculation not only overcome the large inertia of main stream temperature, a large hysteresis characteristic of main stream temperature, but also adapted to the boiler load changing.
An Online Scheduling Algorithm with Advance Reservation for Large-Scale Data Transfers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balman, Mehmet; Kosar, Tevfik
2010-05-20
Scientific applications and experimental facilities generate massive data sets that need to be transferred to remote collaborating sites for sharing, processing, and long term storage. In order to support increasingly data-intensive science, next generation research networks have been deployed to provide high-speed on-demand data access between collaborating institutions. In this paper, we present a practical model for online data scheduling in which data movement operations are scheduled in advance for end-to-end high performance transfers. In our model, data scheduler interacts with reservation managers and data transfer nodes in order to reserve available bandwidth to guarantee completion of jobs that are accepted and confirmed to satisfy preferred time constraint given by the user. Our methodology improves current systems by allowing researchers and higher level meta-schedulers to use data placement as a service where theycan plan ahead and reserve the scheduler time in advance for their data movement operations. We have implemented our algorithm and examined possible techniques for incorporation into current reservation frameworks. Performance measurements confirm that the proposed algorithm is efficient and scalable.
Accurate magnetic field calculations for contactless energy transfer coils
Sonntag, C.L.W.; Spree, M.; Lomonova, E.A.; Duarte, J.L.; Vandenput, A.J.A.
2007-01-01
In this paper, a method for estimating the magnetic field intensity from hexagon spiral windings commonly found in contactless energy transfer applications is presented. The hexagonal structures are modeled in a magneto-static environment using Biot-Savart current stick vectors. The accuracy of the
Accurate magnetic field calculations for contactless energy transfer coils
Sonntag, C.L.W.; Spree, M.; Lomonova, E.A.; Duarte, J.L.; Vandenput, A.J.A.
2007-01-01
In this paper, a method for estimating the magnetic field intensity from hexagon spiral windings commonly found in contactless energy transfer applications is presented. The hexagonal structures are modeled in a magneto-static environment using Biot-Savart current stick vectors. The accuracy of the models are evaluated by mapping the current sticks and the hexagon spiral winding tracks to a local twodimensional plane, and comparing their two-dimensional magnetic field intensities. The accurac...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guadalupe de la Lanza Espino
2014-03-01
status to be achieved within the watershed to maintain the integrity of existing ecosystems or when they believe that they are degraded, contributing to the recovery or rehabilitation; and annual percentage rate recommended for environmental protection. Based on this, the purpose of this study was to quantify the river flow of the Piaxtla river, in the state of Sinaloa. The river runoff data bases for 36 and nine years were compared, showed differences mainly between the frequency of maximum runoff and its origin, and indicated that it is advisable to use a data base of more than 20 years. However, results were similar in the final calculation of the environmental or ecological river flows; that is to say, total runoff volume was 62.1% considering 36 years and 57.7% for nine years of information. We conclude that the ecological importance of Piaxtla river was very high and the use of water pressure was low (considering that database runoff only included until 1999 and did not take into account population growth and activities. To determine the final volume reserved for the environment or ecological flow, could be estimated not only with a database of 36 years, but for nine years also confirming that those rivers that have databases of 10 years can the methodology used hydrological indicated by the NMX said. Particularly in this study it was determined that for parameters more detailed as the volume of the base rate of the annual volume, according to the frequency of occurrence, both very dry years, dry, average and wet, and influence of meteorological events that determine periods separate return, it is advisable to use minimum data bases as brand NMX 20 years.
Fault Specific Seismic Hazard Maps as Input to Loss Reserves Calculation for Attica Buildings
Deligiannakis, Georgios; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Zimbidis, Alexandros; Roberts, Gerald
2014-05-01
Athens, using detailed data derived from published papers, neotectonic maps and fieldwork observations. Moreover, we incorporated background seismicity models from the historic record and also the subduction zone earthquakes distribution, for the integration of strong deep earthquakes that could also affect Attica region. We created 4 high spatial resolution seismic hazard maps for the region of Attica, one for each of the intensities VII - X (MM). These maps offer a locality specific shaking recurrence record, which represents the long-term shaking record in a more complete way, since they incorporate several seismic cycles of the active faults that could affect Attica. Each one of these high resolution seismic hazard maps displays both the spatial distribution and the recurrence, over a specific time period, of the relevant intensity. Time - independent probabilities were extracted based on these average recurrence intervals, using the stationary Poisson model P = 1 -e-Λt. The 'Λ' value was provided by the intensities recurrence, as displayed in the seismic hazard maps. However, the insurance contracts usually lack of detailed spatial information and they refer to Postal Codes level, akin to CRESTA zones. To this end, a time-independent probability of shaking at intensities VII - X was calculated for every Postal Code, for a given time period, using the Poisson model. The reserves calculation on buildings portfolio combines the probability of events of specific intensities within the Postal Codes, with the buildings characteristics, such as the building construction type and the insured value. We propose a standard approach for the reserves calculation K(t) for a specific time period: K (t) = x2 ·[x1 ·y1 ·P1(t) + x1 ·y2 ·P2(t) + x1 ·y3 ·P3(t) + x1 ·y4 ·P4(t)] x1 which is a function of the probabilities of occurrence for the seismic intensities VII - X (P1(t) -P4(t)) for the same period, the value of the building x1, the insured value x2 and the
Calculation of Post-Closure Natural Convection Heat and Mass Transfer in Yucca Mountain Drifts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Webb, S.; Itamura, M.
2004-01-01
Natural convection heat and mass transfer under post-closure conditions has been calculated for Yucca Mountain drifts using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT. Calculations have been performed for 300, 1000, 3000, and 10,000 years after repository closure. Effective dispersion coefficients that can be used to calculate mass transfer in the drift have been evaluated as a function of time and boundary temperature tilt
Heat transfer calculations on the KNK II emergency cooling system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vossebrecker, H.; Groenefeld, G.
1976-12-01
The Licensing Authority had demanded that in case of the change of the KNK thermal core into a fast core the decay heat removal system must be improved by a diverse and spatially separated emergency cooling system. In order to meet this requirement an existing nitrogen system of the facility is extended in such a manner that the decay heat will be removed by a nitrogen flow passing through the gap between reactor vessel and guard vessel. The heat transport from the core to the vessel is accomplished by natural convection flow rates which are generated by density differences between the hot core subassemblies, the reflector subassemblies and other passages between the upper and the lower plenum. The calculations show that the maximum temperatures in the core do not reach the sodium boiling-point. The maximum vessel temperature is 673 deg. C. In this report the function of the emergency cooling system and the methods of calculation are described, the input data and the results are stated and it is shown that the calculated temperatures are conservative [de
Calculation codes for radiant heat transfers; Les codes de calcul de rayonnement thermique
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1997-12-31
This document reports on 12 papers about computerized simulation and modeling of radiant heat transfers and fluid flows in various industrial and domestic situations: space heating, metal industry (furnaces, boilers..), aerospace industry (turbojet engines, combustion chambers) etc.. This workshop was organized by the ``radiation`` section of the French society of thermal engineers. (J.S.)
Calculation codes for radiant heat transfers; Les codes de calcul de rayonnement thermique
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1996-12-31
This document reports on 12 papers about computerized simulation and modeling of radiant heat transfers and fluid flows in various industrial and domestic situations: space heating, metal industry (furnaces, boilers..), aerospace industry (turbojet engines, combustion chambers) etc.. This workshop was organized by the ``radiation`` section of the French society of thermal engineers. (J.S.)
Numerical fluid flow and heat transfer calculations on multiprocessor systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oehman, G.A.; Malen, T.E.; Kuusela, P.
1989-01-01
The first part of the report presents the basic principles of parallel processing, and factors influencing tbe efficiency of practical applications are discussed. In a multiprocessor computer, different parts of the program code are executed in parallel, i.e. simultaneous with respect to time, on different processors, and thus it becomes possible to decrease the overall computation time by a factor, which in the ideal case is equal to the number of processors. The application study starts from the numerical solution of the twodimesional Laplace equation, which describes the steady heat conduction in a solid plate and advances through the solution of the three dimensional Laplace equation to the case of study laminar fluid flow in a twodimensional box at Reynolds numbers up to 20. Hereby the stream function-vorticity method is first applied and the SIMPLER method. The conventional (sequential) numerical algoritms for these fluid flow and heat transfer problems are found not to be ideally suited for conversion to parallel computation, but sped-up ratios considerably above 50 % of the theoretical maximum are regularly achieved in the runs. The numerical procedures we coded in the OCCAM-2 language and the test runs were performed at who Akademi on the imperimental HATHI-computers containing 16 T4l4 and 100 INMOS T800 transputers respectively.
Numerical fluid flow and heat transfer calculations on multiprocessor systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oehman, G.A.; Malen, T.E.; Kuusela, P.
1989-12-31
The first part of the report presents the basic principles of parallel processing, and factors influencing tbe efficiency of practical applications are discussed. In a multiprocessor computer, different parts of the program code are executed in parallel, i.e. simultaneous with respect to time, on different processors, and thus it becomes possible to decrease the overall computation time by a factor, which in the ideal case is equal to the number of processors. The application study starts from the numerical solution of the twodimesional Laplace equation, which describes the steady heat conduction in a solid plate and advances through the solution of the three dimensional Laplace equation to the case of study laminar fluid flow in a twodimensional box at Reynolds numbers up to 20. Hereby the stream function-vorticity method is first applied and the SIMPLER method. The conventional (sequential) numerical algoritms for these fluid flow and heat transfer problems are found not to be ideally suited for conversion to parallel computation, but sped-up ratios considerably above 50 % of the theoretical maximum are regularly achieved in the runs. The numerical procedures we coded in the OCCAM-2 language and the test runs were performed at who Akademi on the imperimental HATHI-computers containing 16 T4l4 and 100 INMOS T800 transputers respectively.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marques, J.P.M.
1982-12-01
The conventional calculation of Geological Reserves from AN-13 Anomaly, Lagoa Real, with the limit ratio of U sub(3) O sub(8) at 700 ppm by Linear Method is presented. The information of 49 boreholes with chemical analysis and radiometric profile is included, evaluating the reserves to a maximum of 189 m deep. (author)
Calculation of local bed to wall heat transfer in a fluidized-bed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kilkis, B.I.
1987-01-01
Surface to bed heat transfer in a fluidized-bed largely depends upon its local and global hydrodynamical behavior including particle velocity, particle trajectory, gas velocity, and void fraction. In this study, a computer program was developed in order to calculate the local bed to wall heat transfer, by accounting for the local and global instantaneous hydrodynamics of the bed. This is accomplished by utilizing the CHEMFLUB computer program. This information at a given location is interpreted so that the most appropriate heat transfer model is utilized for each time increment. These instantaneous heat transfer coefficient for the given location. Repeating the procedure for different locations, a space average heat transfer coefficient is also calculated. This report briefly summarizes the various heat transfer models employed and gives sample computer results reporting the case study for Mickley - Trilling's experimental set-up. Comparisons with available experimental data and correlations are also provided in order to compare and evaluate the computer results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, K.H.; Gonzalez-Santalo, J.M.; Tien, C.L.
1976-01-01
A model has been developed to calculate the heat transfer coefficients from the fuel rods to the steam-droplet mixture typical of Boiling Water Reactors under Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) operation conditions during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident. The model includes the heat transfer by convection to the vapor, the radiation from the surfaces to both the water droplets and the vapor, and the effects of droplet evaporation. The combined convection and radiation heat transfer coefficient can be evaluated with respect to the characteristic droplet size. Calculations of the heat transfer coefficient based on the droplet sizes obtained from the existing literature are consistent with those determined empirically from the Full-Length-Emergency-Cooling-Heat-Transfer (FLECHT) program. The present model can also be used to assess the effects of geometrical distortions (or deviations from nominal dimensions) on the heat transfer to the cooling medium in a rod bundle
Shielding Calculations for PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) Fuel Transfer Cask with Micro shield
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nurhayati Ramli; Ahmad Nabil Abdul Rahim; Ariff Shah Ismail
2011-01-01
The shielding calculations for RTP fuel transfer cask was performed by using computer code Micro shield 7.02. Micro shield is a computer code designed to provide a model to be used for shielding calculations. The results of the calculations can be obtained fast but the code is not suitable for complex geometries with a shielding composed of more than one material. Nevertheless, the program is sufficient for As Low As Reasonable Achievable (ALARA) optimization calculations. In this calculation, a geometry based on the conceptual design of RTP fuel transfer cask was modeled. Shielding material used in the calculations were lead (Pb) and stainless steel 304 (SS304). The results obtained from these calculations are discussed in this paper. (author)
Calculation of energy transfer by fission fragments from plane uranium layer to thin wire
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pikulev, A.A.
2006-01-01
Energy transfer from a flat fissile uranium slab to a fine wire via fission fragments is calculated. The rate of energy transfer versus the thicknesses of the slab and protecting aluminum film, as well as the wire-slab gap, is found. An expression for the absorption coefficient of the wire is derived, and the effect the thickness of the wire has on the energy transfer process is studied. The amount of the edge effect for a finite-size uranium slab is demonstrated with calculations for vacuum conditions and for argon under a pressure of 0.25 atm [ru
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transfer of allowances from the replacement of thermal energy-process sources. [Reserved] 74.48 Section 74.48 Protection of Environment... energy—process sources. [Reserved] ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirna, A.
1979-01-01
To calculate the radiation exposure of the population in the surroundings of nuclear technical plants, the knowledge of the transfer of emitted radionuclides to plants, animals, and food is an essential precondition. Recent data from the literature about transfer factors (food/meat) of cesium-137 (Cs-137) for calves, cattle, and pigs have revealed considerable differences between the species mentioned and the value in the 'general calculation fundaments for the determination of radiation exposure by emission of radioactive substances with waste air' (12). In the FR of Germany mainly pork is eaten, therefore, it is interesting to know if the transfer of Cs-137 in the individual animal species is so far the same that it is justified to only use the exposure path grass-cattle for calculation. The values presented here have suggested for the transfer of fall-out Cs-137 from the food into the meat a value, on an average, six times as high as had been assumed up to day. In pork meat, there was even an increase by 2 tenth powers. (orig.) [de
Calculating the heat transfer coefficient of frame profiles with internal cavities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Noyé, Peter Anders; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend
2004-01-01
. The heat transfer coefficient is determined by two-dimensional numerical calculations and by measurements. Calculations are performed in Therm (LBNL (2001)), which is developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA. The calculations are performed in accordance with the future European standards...... correspondence between measured and calculated values. Hence, when determining the heat transfer coefficient of frame profiles with internal cavities by calculations, it is necessary to apply a more detailed radiation exchange model than described in the prEN ISO 10077-2 standard. The ISO-standard offers......Determining the energy performance of windows requires detailed knowledge of the thermal properties of their different elements. A series of standards and guidelines exist in this area. The thermal properties of the frame can be determined either by detailed two-dimensional numerical methods...
Waste retrieval sluicing system campaign number 1 solids volume transferred calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
BAILEY, J.W.
1999-01-01
This calculation has been prepared to document the volume of sludge removed from tank 241-C-106 during Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS) Sluicing Campaign No.1. This calculation will be updated, if necessary, to incorporate new data. This calculation supports the declaration of completion of WRSS Campaign No.1 and, as such, is also the documentation for completion of Performance Agreement TWR 1.2.1 , C-106 Sluicing Performance Expectations. It documents the performance of all the appropriate tank 241-C-106 mass transfer verifications, evaluations, and appropriate adjustments discussed in HNF-SD-WM-PROC-021, Chapter 23, ''Process Engineering Calculations for Tank 241-C-106 Sluicing and Retrieval''
Waste retrieval sluicing system campaign number 1 solids volume transferred calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
BAILEY, J.W.
1999-01-01
This calculation has been prepared to document the volume of sludge removed from tank 241-C-106 during Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS) Sluicing Campaign No.1. This calculation will be updated, if necessary, to incorporate new data. This calculation supports the declaration of completion of WRSS Campaign No.1 and, as such, is also the documentation for completion of Performance Agreement TWR 1.2.1 C-106 Sluicing Performance Expectations. It documents the performance of all the appropriate tank 241-C-106 mass transfer verifications, evaluations, and appropriate adjustments discussed in HNF-SD-WM-PROC-021, Chapter 23, ''Process Engineering Calculations for Tank 241-C-106 Sluicing and Retrieval''
The FLUFF code for calculating finned surface heat transfer -description and user's guide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fry, C.J.
1985-08-01
FLUFF is a computer code for calculating heat transfer from finned surfaces by convection and radiation. It can also represent heat transfer by radiation to a partially emitting and absorbing medium within the fin cavity. The FLUFF code is useful not only for studying the behaviour of finned surfaces but also for deriving heat fluxes which can be applied as boundary conditions to other heat transfer codes. In this way models of bodies with finned surfaces may be greatly simplified since the fins need not be explicitly represented. (author)
Voit, Florian; Schäfer, Jan; Kienle, Alwin
2009-09-01
We present a methodology to compare results of classical radiative transfer theory against exact solutions of Maxwell theory for a high number of spheres. We calculated light propagation in a cubic scattering region (20 x 20 x 20 microm(3)) consisting of different concentrations of polystyrene spheres in water (diameter 2 microm) by an analytical solution of Maxwell theory and by a numerical solution of radiative transfer theory. The relative deviation of differential as well as total scattering cross sections obtained by both approaches was evaluated for each sphere concentration. For the considered case, we found that deviations due to radiative transfer theory remain small, even for concentrations up to ca. 20 vol. %.
Wave packet methods for the direct calculation of energy-transfer moments in molecular collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bradley, K.S.; Schatz, G.C.; Balint-Kurti, G.G.
1999-01-01
The authors present a new wave packet based theory for the direct calculation of energy-transfer moments in molecular collision processes. This theory does not contain any explicit reference to final state information associated with the collision dynamics, thereby avoiding the need for determining vibration-rotation bound states (other than the initial state) for the molecules undergoing collision and also avoiding the calculation of state-to-state transition probabilities. The theory applies to energy-transfer moments of any order, and it generates moments for a wide range of translational energies in a single calculation. Two applications of the theory are made that demonstrate its viability; one is to collinear He + H 2 and the other to collinear He + CS 2 (with two active vibrational modes in CS 2 ). The results of these applications agree well with earlier results based on explicit calculation of transition probabilities
On the calculation of length scales for turbulent heat transfer correlation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barrett, M.J.; Hollingsworth, D.K.
1999-07-01
Turbulence length scale calculation methods were critically reviewed for their usefulness in boundary layer heat transfer correlations. Merits and deficiencies in each calculation method were presented. A rigorous method for calculating an energy-based integral scale was introduced. The method uses the variance of the streamwise velocity and a measured dissipation spectrum to calculate the length scale. Advantages and disadvantages of the new method were discussed. A principal advantage is the capability to decisively calculate length scales in a low-Reynolds-number turbulent boundary layer. The calculation method was tested with data from grid-generated, free-shear-layer, and wall-bounded turbulence. In each case, the method proved successful. The length scale is well behaved in turbulent boundary layers with momentum thickness Reynolds numbers from 400 to 2,100 and in flows with turbulent Reynolds numbers as low as 90.
Numerical calculation of wall-to-bed heat transfer coefficients in gas-fluidized beds
Kuipers, J.A.M.; Prins, W.; van Swaaij, W.P.M.
1992-01-01
A computer model for a hot gas-fluidized bed has been developed. The theoretical description is based on a two-fluid model (TFM) approach in which both phases are considered to be continuous and fully interpenetrating. Local wall-to-bed heat-transfer coefficients have been calculated by the
Calculations of film boiling heat transfer above the quench front during reflooding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, K.C.; Yadigaroglu, G.
1980-01-01
An analytical method for calculating inverted-annular film boiling heat transfer above the quench front during the reflooding phase of a LOCA is presented. A two-fluid model comprising a laminar vapor film and a turbulent liquid-vapor mixture core is used. 12 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nowak, P.F.
1993-01-01
A grey diffusion acceleration method is presented and is shown by Fourier analysis and test calculations to be effective in accelerating radiative transfer calculations. The spectral radius is bounded by 0.9 for the continuous equations, but is significantly smaller for the discretized equations, especially in the optically thick regimes characteristic to radiation transport problems. The GDA method is more efficient than the multigroup DSA method because its slightly higher iteration count is more than offset by the much lower cost per iteration. A wide range of test calculations confirm the efficiency of GDA compared to multifrequency DSA. (orig.)
Calculation of the mass transfer coefficient for the combustion of a carbon particle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scala, Fabrizio [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione - CNR, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)
2010-01-15
In this paper we address the calculation of the mass transfer coefficient around a burning carbon particle in an atmosphere of O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, and H{sub 2}O. The complete set of Stefan-Maxwell equations is analytically solved under the assumption of no homogeneous reaction in the boundary layer. An expression linking the oxygen concentration and the oxygen flux at the particle surface (as a function of the bulk gas composition) is derived which can be used to calculate the mass transfer coefficient. A very simple approximate explicit expression is also given for the mass transfer coefficient, that is shown to be valid in the low oxygen flux limit or when the primary combustion product is CO{sub 2}. The results are given in terms of a correction factor to the equimolar counter-diffusion mass transfer coefficient, which is typically available in the literature for specific geometries and/or fluid-dynamic conditions. The significance of the correction factor and the accuracy of the different available expressions is illustrated for several cases of practical interest. Results show that under typical combustion conditions the use of the equimolar counter-diffusion mass transfer coefficient can lead to errors up to 10%. Larger errors are possible in oxygen-enriched conditions, while the error is generally low in oxy-combustion. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Božidar Liščić
2012-02-01
Full Text Available This paper explains the need for a database of cooling intensities for liquid quenchants, in order to predict the quench hardness, microstructure, stresses and distortion, when real engineering components of complex geometry are quenched. The existing laboratory procedures for cooling intensity evaluation, using small test specimens, and Lumped-Heat-Capacity Method for calculation of heat transfer coefficient, are presented. Temperature Gradient Method for heat transfer calculation in workshop conditions, when using the Liscic/Petrofer probe, has been elaborated. Critical heat flux densities and their relation to the initial heat flux density, is explained. Specific facilities for testing quenching intensity in workshop conditions, are shown. The two phase project of the International Federation for Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering (IFHTSE, as recently approved, is mentioned.
Uranium and radium in Finnsjoen - an experimental approach for calculation of transfer factors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evans, S.; Bergman, R.
1981-01-01
The radiological safety studies for underground disposal of HLW show that the future individual and collective doses to an important extent may originate from groundwater borne radium and uranium which reach the biosphere. Indications that the dispersion rates presently used give rise to overestimations of calculated doses justified an investigation for more realistic turnover rates of radium and uranium than those which now are in use. Within one of the sites selected for testing, the area around lake Finnsjoen, a small number of environmental samples were collected and analyzed with respect to radium and uranium and the new transfer coefficients between soil and lake water were derived. The dose rates obtained with the new transfer factors show a close agreement for radium and a slight increase for uranium compared with earlier calculations. (Auth.)
W-320 waste retrieval sluicing system transfer line flushing volume and frequency calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bailey, J.W.
1997-01-01
The calculations contained in this analysis document establish the technical basis for the volume, frequency, and flushing fluid to be utilized for routine Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS) process line flushes. The WRSS was installed by Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 Sluicing. The double contained pipelines being flushed have 4 inch stainless steel primary pipes. The flushes are intended to prevent hydrogen buildup in the transfer lines and to provide ALARA conditions for maintenance personnel
Kruis, Nathanael J. F.
Heat transfer from building foundations varies significantly in all three spatial dimensions and has important dynamic effects at all timescales, from one hour to several years. With the additional consideration of moisture transport, ground freezing, evapotranspiration, and other physical phenomena, the estimation of foundation heat transfer becomes increasingly sophisticated and computationally intensive to the point where accuracy must be compromised for reasonable computation time. The tools currently available to calculate foundation heat transfer are often either too limited in their capabilities to draw meaningful conclusions or too sophisticated to use in common practices. This work presents Kiva, a new foundation heat transfer computational framework. Kiva provides a flexible environment for testing different numerical schemes, initialization methods, spatial and temporal discretizations, and geometric approximations. Comparisons within this framework provide insight into the balance of computation speed and accuracy relative to highly detailed reference solutions. The accuracy and computational performance of six finite difference numerical schemes are verified against established IEA BESTEST test cases for slab-on-grade heat conduction. Of the schemes tested, the Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) scheme demonstrates the best balance between accuracy, performance, and numerical stability. Kiva features four approaches of initializing soil temperatures for an annual simulation. A new accelerated initialization approach is shown to significantly reduce the required years of presimulation. Methods of approximating three-dimensional heat transfer within a representative two-dimensional context further improve computational performance. A new approximation called the boundary layer adjustment method is shown to improve accuracy over other established methods with a negligible increase in computation time. This method accounts for the reduced heat transfer
Komatsu, Y.; Umemura, M.; Shoji, M.; Shiraishi, K.; Kayanuma, M.; Yabana, K.
2014-03-01
Among several proposed biosignatures, red edge is a direct evidence of photosynthetic life if it is detected (Kiang et al 2007). Red edge is a sharp change in reflectance spectra of vegetation in NIR region (about 700-750 nm). The sign of red edge is observed by Earthshine or remote sensing (Wolstencroft & Raven 2002, Woolf et al 2002). But, why around 700-750 nm? The photosynthetic organisms on Earth have evolved to optimize the sunlight condition. However, if we consider about photosynthetic organism on extrasolar planets, they should have developed to utilize the spectra of its principal star. Thus, it is not strange even if it shows different vegetation spectra. In this study, we focused on the light absorption mechanism of photosynthetic organisms on Earth and investigated the fundamental properties of the light harvesting mechanisms, which is the first stage for the light absorption. Light harvesting complexes contain photosynthetic pigments like chlorophylls. Effective light absorption and the energy transfer are accomplished by the electronic excitations of collective photosynthetic pigments. In order to investigate this mechanism, we constructed an energy transfer model by using a dipole-dipole approximation for the interactions between electronic excitations. Transition moments and transition energies of each pigment are calculated at the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) level (Marques & Gross 2004). Quantum dynamics simulation for the excitation energy transfer was calculated by the Liouvelle's equation. We adopted the model to purple bacteria, which has been studied experimentally and known to absorb lower energy. It is meaningful to focus on the mechanism of this bacteria, since in the future mission, M planets will become a important target. We calculated the oscillator strengths in one light harvesting complex and confirmed the validity by comparing to the experimental data. This complex is made of an inner and an outer ring. The
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Groshev, A.I.; Slobodchuk, V.I.
1986-01-01
The results of numerical calculation of the conjugated problem of convective heat transfer under unsteady conditions are presented. The equations describing heat transfer take into account longitudinal heat diffusion in liquid and in a wall. The formulae for calculating local heat flows at the wall-liquid surface in the case of an arbitrary law of temperature variation at the outer wall surface along the channel length are proposed for steady-state heat transfer conditions
Comparison of the methods for calculating the interfacial heat transfer coefficient in hot stamping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Kunmin; Wang, Bin; Chang, Ying; Tang, Xinghui; Yan, Jianwen
2015-01-01
This paper presents a hot stamping experimentation and three methods for calculating the Interfacial Heat Transfer Coefficient (IHTC) of 22MnB5 boron steel. Comparison of the calculation results shows an average error of 7.5% for the heat balance method, 3.7% for the Beck's nonlinear inverse estimation method (the Beck's method), and 10.3% for the finite-element-analysis-based optimization method (the FEA method). The Beck's method is a robust and accurate method for identifying the IHTC in hot stamping applications. The numerical simulation using the IHTC identified by the Beck's method can predict the temperature field with a high accuracy. - Highlights: • A theoretical formula was derived for direct calculation of IHTC. • The Beck's method is a robust and accurate method for identifying IHTC. • Finite element method can be used to identify an overall equivalent IHTC
Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Campaign Number 3 Solids Volume Transferred Calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
CAROTHERS, K.G.
1999-01-01
Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS) operations at tank 241-C-106 began on Wednesday, November 18, 1998. The purpose of this system is to retrieve and transfer the high-heat sludge from the tank for storage in double-shell tank 241-AY-102, thereby resolving the high-heat safety issue for the tank, and to demonstrate modernized past-practice retrieval technology for single-shell tank waste. Performance Agreement (PA) TWR 1.2.2, C-106 Sluicing, was established by the Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (ORP) for achieving completion of sluicing retrieval of waste from tank 241-C-106 by September 30, 1999. This level of sludge removal is defined in the PA as either removal of approximately 72 inches of sludge or removal of 172,000 gallons of sludge (approximately 62 inches) and less than 6,000 gallons (approximately 2 inches) of sludge removal per 12 hour sluice batch for three consecutive batches. Preliminary calculations of the volume of tank 241-C-106 sludge removed as of September 29, 1999 were provided to ORP documenting completion of PA TWR 1.2.2 (Allen 1999a). The purpose of this calculation is to document the final sludge volume removed from tank 241-C-106 up through September 30, 1999. Additionally, the results of an extra batch completed October 6, 1999 is included to show the total volume of sludge removed through the end of WRSS operations. The calculation of the sludge volume transferred from the tank is guided by engineering procedure HNF-SD-WM-PROC-021, Section 15.0,Rev. 3, sub-section 4.4, ''Calculation of Sludge Transferred.''
Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Campaign Number 3 Solids Volume Transferred Calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
CAROTHERS, K.G.
1999-01-01
Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS) operations at tank 241-C-106 began on Wednesday, November 18,1998. The purpose of this system is to retrieve and transfer the high-heat sludge from the tank for storage in double-shell tank 241-AY-102, thereby resolving the high-heat safety issue for the tank, and to demonstrate modernized past-practice retrieval technology for single-shell tank waste. Performance Agreement (PA) TWR 1.2.2, C-106 Sluicing, was established by the Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (ORP) for achieving completion of sluicing retrieval of waste from tank 241-C-106 by September 30,1999. This level of sludge removal is defined in the PA as either removal of approximately 72 inches of sludge or removal of 172,000 gallons of sludge (approximately 62 inches) and less than 6,000 gallons (approximately 2 inches) of sludge removal per 12 hour sluice batch for three consecutive batches. Preliminary calculations of the volume of tank 241-C-106 sludge removed as of September 29, 1999 were provided to ORP documenting completion of PA TWR 1.2.2 (Allen 1999a). The purpose of this calculation is to document the final sludge volume removed from tank 241-C-106 up through September 30, 1999. Additionally, the results of an extra batch completed October 6, 1999 is included to show the total volume of sludge removed through the end of WRSS operations. The calculation of the sludge volume transferred from the tank is guided by engineering procedure HNF-SD-WM-PROC-021, Section 15.0,Rev. 3, sub-section 4.4, ''Calculation of Sludge Transferred.''
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boccaccini, L.V.
1986-07-01
To take advantages of the semi-implicit computer models - to solve the two phase flow differential system - a proper averaging procedure is also needed for the source terms. In fact, in some cases, the correlations normally used for the source terms - not time averaged - fail using the theoretical time step that arises from the linear stability analysis used on the right handside. Such a time averaging procedure is developed with reference to the bubbly flow regime. Moreover, the concept of mass that must be exchanged to reach equilibrium from a non-equilibrium state is introduced to limit the mass transfer during a time step. Finally some practical calculations are performed to compare the different correlations for the average mass transfer rate developed in this work. (orig.) [de
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pogosyan, T A
1983-01-01
The article is dedicated to the solution of systems of differential equations which describe the transfer processes in an electric power system (EES) by implicit methods of numerical integration. The distinguishing feature of the implicit methods (Euler's reverse method and the trapeze method) is their absolute stability and, consequently, the relatively small accumulation of errors in each step of integration. Therefore, they are found to be very convenient for solving problems of electric power engineering, when the transfer processes are described by a rigid system of differential equations. The rigidity is associated with the range of values of the time constants considered. The advantage of the implicit methods over explicit are shown in a specific example (calculation of the dynamic stability of the simplest electric power system), along with the field of use of the implicit methods and the expedience of their use in power engineering problems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ziemys Arturas
2001-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous kinetic investigations of fungal-peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of N-aryl hydroxamic acids (AHAs and N-aryl-N-hydroxy urethanes (AHUs revealed that the rate of reaction was independent of the formal redox potential of substrates. Moreover, the oxidation rate was 3–5 orders of magnitude less than for oxidation of physiological phenol substrates, though the redox potential was similar. Results To explain the unexpectedly low reactivity of AHAs and AHUs we made ab initio calculations of the molecular structure of the substrates following in silico docking in the active center of the enzyme. Conclusions AHAs and AHUs were docked at the distal side of heme in the sites formed by hydrophobic amino acid residues that retarded a proton transfer and finally the oxidation rate. The analogous phenol substrates were docked at different sites permitting fast proton transfer in the relay of distal His and water that helped fast substrate oxidation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tornow, Sabine [Theoretische Physik III, Elektronische Korrelationen und Magnetismus, Universitaet Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Tong, Ning-Hua [Institut fuer Theorie der Kondensierten Materie, Universitaet Karlsruhe, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bulla, Ralf [Theoretische Physik III, Elektronische Korrelationen und Magnetismus, Universitaet Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany)
2006-07-05
We present a detailed model study of exciton transfer processes in donor-bridge-acceptor (DBA) systems. Using a model which includes the intermolecular Coulomb interaction and the coupling to a dissipative environment we calculate the phase diagram, the absorption spectrum as well as dynamic equilibrium properties with the numerical renormalization group. This method is non-perturbative and therefore allows one to cover the full parameter space, especially the case when the intermolecular Coulomb interaction is of the same order as the coupling to the environment and perturbation theory cannot be applied. For DBA systems with up to six sites we found a transition to the localized phase (self-trapping) depending on the coupling to the dissipative environment. We discuss various criteria which favour delocalized exciton transfer.
Tornow, Sabine; Tong, Ning-Hua; Bulla, Ralf
2006-07-05
We present a detailed model study of exciton transfer processes in donor-bridge-acceptor (DBA) systems. Using a model which includes the intermolecular Coulomb interaction and the coupling to a dissipative environment we calculate the phase diagram, the absorption spectrum as well as dynamic equilibrium properties with the numerical renormalization group. This method is non-perturbative and therefore allows one to cover the full parameter space, especially the case when the intermolecular Coulomb interaction is of the same order as the coupling to the environment and perturbation theory cannot be applied. For DBA systems with up to six sites we found a transition to the localized phase (self-trapping) depending on the coupling to the dissipative environment. We discuss various criteria which favour delocalized exciton transfer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Möhlenkamp Stefan
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The pressure drop – flow relations in myocardial bridges and the assessment of vascular heart disease via fractional flow reserve (FFR have motivated many researchers the last decades. The aim of this study is to simulate several clinical conditions present in myocardial bridges to determine the flow reserve and consequently the clinical relevance of the disease. From a fluid mechanical point of view the pathophysiological situation in myocardial bridges involves fluid flow in a time dependent flow geometry, caused by contracting cardiac muscles overlying an intramural segment of the coronary artery. These flows mostly involve flow separation and secondary motions, which are difficult to calculate and analyse. Methods Because a three dimensional simulation of the haemodynamic conditions in myocardial bridges in a network of coronary arteries is time-consuming, we present a boundary layer model for the calculation of the pressure drop and flow separation. The approach is based on the assumption that the flow can be sufficiently well described by the interaction of an inviscid core and a viscous boundary layer. Under the assumption that the idealised flow through a constriction is given by near-equilibrium velocity profiles of the Falkner-Skan-Cooke (FSC family, the evolution of the boundary layer is obtained by the simultaneous solution of the Falkner-Skan equation and the transient von-Kármán integral momentum equation. Results The model was used to investigate the relative importance of several physical parameters present in myocardial bridges. Results have been obtained for steady and unsteady flow through vessels with 0 – 85% diameter stenosis. We compare two clinical relevant cases of a myocardial bridge in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD. The pressure derived FFR of fixed and dynamic lesions has shown that the flow is less affected in the dynamic case, because the distal
Calculation code of mass and heat transfer in a pulsed column for Purex process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsukada, Takeshi; Takahashi, Keiki
1993-01-01
A calculation code for extraction behavior analysis in a pulsed column employed at an extraction process of a reprocessing plant was developed. This code was also combined with our previously developed calculation code for axial temperature profiles in a pulsed column. The one-dimensional dispersion model was employed for both of the extraction behavior analysis and the axial temperature profile analysis. The reported values of the fluid characteristics coefficient, the transfer coefficient and the diffusivities in the pulsed column were used. The calculated concentration profiles of HNO 3 , U and Pu for the steady state have a good agreement with the reported experimental results. The concentration and temperature profiles were calculated under the operation conditions which induce the abnormal U extraction behavior, i.e. U extraction zone is moved to the bottom of the column. Thought there is slight difference between calculated and experimental value, it is appeared that our developed code can be applied to the simulation under the normal operation condition and the relatively slowly transient condition. Pu accumulation phenomena was analyzed with this code and the accumulation tendency is similar to the reported analysis results. (author)
Li, Changping
2014-11-10
In this report, we propose a fast numerical solution for the steady state radiative transfer equation in order to calculate the path loss due to light absorption and scattering in various type of underwater channels. In the proposed scheme, we apply a direct non-uniform method to discretize the angular space and an upwind type finite difference method to discretize the spatial space. A Gauss-Seidel iterative method is then applied to solve the fully discretized system of linear equations. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed scheme is validated by Monte Carlo simulations.
Li, Changping; Park, Ki-Hong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2014-01-01
In this report, we propose a fast numerical solution for the steady state radiative transfer equation in order to calculate the path loss due to light absorption and scattering in various type of underwater channels. In the proposed scheme, we apply a direct non-uniform method to discretize the angular space and an upwind type finite difference method to discretize the spatial space. A Gauss-Seidel iterative method is then applied to solve the fully discretized system of linear equations. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed scheme is validated by Monte Carlo simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Z.D.; Fraser, D.; Samarasekera, I.V.
2002-01-01
Within a hot strip steel mill, red hot steel is hot rolled into a long continuous slab that is led onto what is called the runout table. Temperatures of the steel at the beginning of this table are around 900 o C. Above and below the runout table are banks of water jets, sprays or water curtains that rapidly cool the steel slab. The heat transfer process itself may be considered one of the most complicated in the industrial world. The cooling process that occurs on the runout table is crucial and governs the final mechanical properties and flatness of a steel strip. However, very limited data of industrial conditions has been available and that which is available is poorly understood. To study heat transfer during runout table cooling, an industrial scale pilot runout table facility was constructed at the University of British Columbia (UBC). This paper describes the experimental details, data acquisition and data handling techniques for steel plates during water jet impingement cooling by one circular water jet from industrial headers. The effect of cooling water temperature and initial steel plate temperature as well as varying water jet diameters on heat transfer was systematically investigated. A two-dimensional finite element scheme based inverse heat conduction model was developed to calculate surface heat transfer coefficients along the impinging surface. Heat flux curves at the stagnation area were obtained for selected tests. A quantitative relationship between adjustable processing parameters and heat transfer coefficients along the impinging surface during runout table operation is discussed. The results of the study were used to upgrade an extensive process model developed at UBC. The model ties in the cooling rate and hence two dimensional temperature gradients to the resulting microstructure and final mechanical properties of the steel. This process model is widely used by major steel industries in Canada and the United States. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ancuţa JURCO
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the calculation regarding thermal transmission due to closing elements for cattle shelter kept loose housing. The shelter is compound from 2 compartments, splitted in the middle by a cross alley. The compartments are divided in feeding area and resting area. The shelter has the opening of 16.35 m, total hall lenght is 40.95 m, with surface about 669.53 sqm and the maximum hight about 6.40 m. After analyzing the calculation of heat transfer through closing elements for a cattle shelter kept in loose housing show that the amount of heat lost through external walls with heterogeneous structure is minimal compared to the classical exterior wall with homogeneous structure.
Effect of the improvement of the HITRAN database on the radiative transfer calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng Xuan; Zhao Fengsheng; Gao Wenhua
2007-01-01
The line parameters of the HITRAN 2004 have been updated, as compared with the older editions (the 2000 edition and the 1996 edition). In order to know the effect of the modifications on radiative transfer calculation with high spectral resolution, comparison in optical depth and radiance spectrum have been given between different editions. Four infrared spectral regions are selected, and they cover the three bands of atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS) and one of geosynchronous imaging fourier transform spectrometer (GIFTS). The comparison has shown that the relative difference between HITRAN 2000 and 2004 and that between HITRAN 1996 and 2004 is decreasing. But the maximal discrepancy between the latest two editions in some spectral intervals is over 1%. It is important to estimate the error of calculation with the line parameters correctly or one has to use the new edition of HITRAN
Alherz, Abdulaziz; Lim, Chern-Hooi; Hynes, James T; Musgrave, Charles B
2018-01-25
We propose a method to approximate the kinetic properties of hydride donor species by relating the nucleophilicity (N) of a hydride to the activation free energy ΔG ⧧ of its corresponding hydride transfer reaction. N is a kinetic parameter related to the hydride transfer rate constant that quantifies a nucleophilic hydridic species' tendency to donate. Our method estimates N using quantum chemical calculations to compute ΔG ⧧ for hydride transfers from hydride donors to CO 2 in solution. A linear correlation for each class of hydrides is then established between experimentally determined N values and the computationally predicted ΔG ⧧ ; this relationship can then be used to predict nucleophilicity for different hydride donors within each class. This approach is employed to determine N for four different classes of hydride donors: two organic (carbon-based and benzimidazole-based) and two inorganic (boron and silicon) hydride classes. We argue that silicon and boron hydrides are driven by the formation of the more stable Si-O or B-O bond. In contrast, the carbon-based hydrides considered herein are driven by the stability acquired upon rearomatization, a feature making these species of particular interest, because they both exhibit catalytic behavior and can be recycled.
Heat Transfer Coefficient at Cast-Mold Interface During Centrifugal Casting: Calculation of Air Gap
Bohacek, Jan; Kharicha, Abdellah; Ludwig, Andreas; Wu, Menghuai; Karimi-Sibaki, Ebrahim
2018-06-01
During centrifugal casting, the thermal resistance at the cast-mold interface represents a main blockage mechanism for heat transfer. In addition to the refractory coating, an air gap begins to form due to the shrinkage of the casting and the mold expansion, under the continuous influence of strong centrifugal forces. Here, the heat transfer coefficient at the cast-mold interface h has been determined from calculations of the air gap thickness d a based on a plane stress model taking into account thermoelastic stresses, centrifugal forces, plastic deformations, and a temperature-dependent Young's modulus. The numerical approach proposed here is rather novel and tries to offer an alternative to the empirical formulas usually used in numerical simulations for a description of a time-dependent heat transfer coefficient h. Several numerical tests were performed for different coating thicknesses d C, rotation rates Ω, and temperatures of solidus T sol. Results demonstrated that the scenario at the interface is unique for each set of parameters, hindering the possibility of employing empirical formulas without a preceding experiment being performed. Initial values of h are simply equivalent to the ratio of the coating thermal conductivity and its thickness ( 1000 Wm-2 K-1). Later, when the air gap is formed, h drops exponentially to values at least one order of magnitude smaller ( 100 Wm-2 K-1).
Chen, Xiaol; Guo, Bei; Tuo, Jinliang; Zhou, Ruixin; Lu, Yang
2017-08-01
Nowadays, people are paying more and more attention to the noise reduction of household refrigerator compressor. This paper established a sound field bounded by compressor shell and ISO3744 standard field points. The Acoustic Transfer Vector (ATV) in the sound field radiated by a refrigerator compressor shell were calculated which fits the test result preferably. Then the compressor shell surface is divided into several parts. Based on Acoustic Transfer Vector approach, the sound pressure contribution to the field points and the sound power contribution to the sound field of each part were calculated. To obtain the noise radiation in the sound field, the sound pressure cloud charts were analyzed, and the contribution curves in different frequency of each part were acquired. Meanwhile, the sound power contribution of each part in different frequency was analyzed, to ensure those parts where contributes larger sound power. Through the analysis of acoustic contribution, those parts where radiate larger noise on the compressor shell were determined. This paper provides a credible and effective approach on the structure optimal design of refrigerator compressor shell, which is meaningful in the noise and vibration reduction.
Microscopic calculation of absolute values of two-nucleon transfer cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Potel, G.; Bayman, B. F.; Barranco, F.
2009-01-01
Arguably, the greatest achievement of many-body physics in the fifties was that of providing the basis for a complete description and a thorough understanding of superconductivity in metals. At the basis of it one finds BCS theory and Josephson effect. The first recognized the central role played by the appearance of a macroscopic coherent field -usually viewed as a condensate of strongly overlapping Cooper pairs-, the quasiparticle vacuum. The second realized that a true gap is not essential for such a state of matter to exist, but rather a finite expectation value of the pair field. Consequently, the specific probe to study the superconducting state is Cooper pair tunneling. Important progress in the understanding of pairing in atomic nuclei may arise from the systematic study of two-particle transfer reactions. Although this subject of research started about the time of the BCS papers, the quantitative calculation of absolute cross sections taking properly into account the full non-locality of the Cooper pairs (correlation length much larger than nuclear dimensions) is still an open problem. We present in this talk the results obtained within a second order DWBA framework for two- nucleon transfer reactions around the Coulomb barrier induced both by heavy and light ions. The calculations were done using a computer code developed for this purpose including the sequential and simultaneous contributions to the process, with microscopic form factors which take into account the relevant structure aspects of the process, such as the nature of the single-particle wavefunctions, the spectroscopic factors, and the interaction potential responsible for the transfer. Reasonable agreement with the experimental absolute values of the differential cross section is obtained without any parameter adjustment (see Figure 1).(author)
Monte Carlo calculations of resonance radiative transfer through a semi-infinite atmosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slater, G.; Salpeter, E.E.; Wasserman, I.
1982-01-01
The results of Monte Carlo calculations of radiative transfer through a semi-infinite plane-parallel atmosphere of resonant scatterers are presented. With a photon source at optical depth tau/sub ES/ we model the semi-infinite geometry by embedding a perfectly reflecting mirror at depth tau/sub MS/+tau/sub ES/. Although some quantities characterizing the emergent photons diverge as tau/sub MS/→infinity, the mean number of scatters, N/sub ES/, and path length, L/sub ES/, accumulated between the source and the edge of the atmosphere converge. Accurate results of N/sub ES/, L/sub ES/, X/sub pk/, the most probable frequency shift of the escaping photons, and tau/sub LAST/, the mean optical depth at which they last scatter, are obtained by choosing tau/sub MS/ = 4tau/sub ES/. Approximate analytic calculations of N/sub ES/, L/sub ES/, N, the mean total number of scatters undergone by escaping photons, L, their mean total path length, and , their mean (absolute) frequency shift, are presented for a symmetric slab with αtau/sub ES/>>1 and tau/sub MS/>>tau/sub ES/. Analogous calculations for an asymmetric slab are discussed. Analytic fitting formulae for N/sub ES/, L/sub ES/, X/sub pk/, and tau/sub LAST/ are given
Essa, Mohammed Sh.; Chiad, Bahaa T.; Hussein, Khalil A.
2018-05-01
Chemical thermal deposition techniques are highly depending on deposition platform temperature as well as surface substrate temperatures, so in this research thermal distribution and heat transfer was calculated to optimize the deposition platform temperature distribution, determine the power required for the heating element, to improve thermal homogeneity. Furthermore, calculate the dissipated thermal power from the deposition platform. Moreover, the thermal imager (thermal camera) was used to estimate the thermal destitution in addition to, the temperature allocation over 400cm2 heated plate area. In order to reach a plate temperature at 500 oC, a plate supported with an electrical heater of power (2000 W). Stainless steel plate of 12mm thickness was used as a heated plate and deposition platform and subjected to lab tests using element analyzer X-ray fluorescence system (XRF) to check its elemental composition and found the grade of stainless steel and found to be 316 L. The total heat losses calculated at this temperature was 612 W. Homemade heating element was used to heat the plate and can reach 450 oC with less than 15 min as recorded from the system.as well as the temperatures recorded and monitored using Arduino/UNO microcontroller with cold-junction-compensated K-thermocouple-to-digital converter type MAX6675.
Application of the Lion's integral to calculate heat transfer with the N2O4 turbulent flow in a tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrovich, V.Yu.; Tverkovkin, B.E.; Nesterenko, V.B.
1976-01-01
When carrying out engineering calculation of heat transfer in the case of turbulent flow of non-equilibrium reacting gas in a tube, it is necessary to dispose of criterion dependence to calculate Nusselt number. As a rule, dependences obtained by empirical methods are not widely adopted. It is proposed that the integral of Lion type be used for the heat transfer calculation in the form of which an expression for Nusselt number has been written under the conditions of turbulent flow with a non-equilibrium chemical reaction. On calculating turbulent fluctuations Millionshchikov two-layer model is used. A simple approximation of source-discharge of the mass of mixture components is suggested for the sake of simplification of Lion integral. The proposed theoretical dependences for the heat transfer calculation when chemical reactions are available substantially extend the field of application of Lion integral and may be used designing equipment with a chemically reacting coolant
The simulation calculation of acoustics energy transfer through the material structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zvolenský Peter
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with the modification of the rail passenger coach floor design aimed at improvement of sound reduction index. Refurbishing was performed by using a new acoustic material with a filamentary microstructure. The materials proposed in research were compared by simulation calculation of acoustic energy transfer trough porous microstructure of filamentary material, and the effect of material porosity on sound reduction index and sound absorption coefficient were observed. This proposed filamentary material can be used in the railway bed structure, too. High degree of noise absorbing, resistance to climate conditions, low specific mass, enable to choose a system of low anti-noise barriers having similar properties as standard high anti-noise walls..
An Algorithm to Compress Line-transition Data for Radiative-transfer Calculations
Cubillos, Patricio E.
2017-11-01
Molecular line-transition lists are an essential ingredient for radiative-transfer calculations. With recent databases now surpassing the billion-line mark, handling them has become computationally prohibitive, due to both the required processing power and memory. Here I present a temperature-dependent algorithm to separate strong from weak line transitions, reformatting the large majority of the weaker lines into a cross-section data file, and retaining the detailed line-by-line information of the fewer strong lines. For any given molecule over the 0.3-30 μm range, this algorithm reduces the number of lines to a few million, enabling faster radiative-transfer computations without a significant loss of information. The final compression rate depends on how densely populated the spectrum is. I validate this algorithm by comparing Exomol’s HCN extinction-coefficient spectra between the complete (65 million line transitions) and compressed (7.7 million) line lists. Over the 0.6-33 μm range, the average difference between extinction-coefficient values is less than 1%. A Python/C implementation of this algorithm is open-source and available at https://github.com/pcubillos/repack. So far, this code handles the Exomol and HITRAN line-transition format.
Calculation of laminar incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer during spherical annulus filling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tuft, D.B.
1979-04-01
A method of computing laminar incompressible fluid-flow and heat transfer during the filling of a spherical annulus is presented. Transient fluid temperatures and heat flux rates in the spherical annulus are calculated for an insulated outer sphere and a constant temperature inner sphere with heated water filling the annulus from the bottom. To achieve a solution, laminar axially symmetric flow is assumed and the Marker-and-Cell (MAC) free surface computational method is applied to this problem in spherical coordinates. Changes in the standard MAC treatment are incorporated and special methods for handling the free surface are introduced. A variable mesh is used to improve resolution near the inner sphere where temperature and velocity gradients are steep and the governing equations are derived for variable fluid properties to allow an eddy viscosity turbulence model to be applied later. Calculations of velocity, temperature, and inner sphere heat flux in a spherical annulus of 139.7 mm inner radius, and 168.3 mm outer radius within an inlet tube diameter of 38.1 mm are presented
2011-10-18
... is not the party entitled to interest compensation under article 4A, the bank must pass the benefit... the definition of ``remittance transfer'' under the Electronic Fund Transfer Act. DATES: Comments must... even if that funds transfer also meets the definition of ``remittance transfer'' under the recently...
Containment fan cooler heat transfer calculation during main steam line break for Maanshan PWR plant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yuann, Yng-Ruey, E-mail: ryyuann@iner.gov.tw; Kao, Lain-Su, E-mail: lskao@iner.gov.tw
2013-10-15
Highlights: • Evaluate component cooling water (CCW) thermal response during MSLB for Maanshan. • Using GOTHIC to calculate CCW temperature and determine time required to boil CCW. • Both convective and condensation heat transfer from the air side are considered. • Boiling will not occur since T{sub B} is sufficiently longer than CCW pump restart time. -- Abstract: A thermal analysis has been performed for the Containment Fan Cooler Unit (FCU) during Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) accident, concurrent with loss of offsite power, for Maanshan PWR plant. The analysis is performed in order to address the waterhammer and two-phase flow issues discussed in USNRC's Generic Letter 96-06 (GL 96-06). Maanshan plant is a twin-unit Westinghouse 3-loop PWR currently operated at rated core thermal power of 2822 MWt for each unit. The design basis for containment temperature is Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) accident at power of 2830.5 MWt, which results in peak vapor temperature of 387.6 °F. The design is such that when MSLB occurs concurrent with loss of offsite power (MSLB/LOOP), both the coolant pump on the secondary side and the fan on the air side of the FCU loose power and coast down. The pump has little inertia and coasts down in 2–3 s, while the FCU fan coasts down over much longer period. Before the pump is restored through emergency diesel generator, there is potential for boiling the coolant in the cooling coils by the high-temperature air/steam mixture entering the FCU. The time to boiling depends on the operating pressure of the coolant before the pump is restored. The prediction of the time to boiling is important because it determines whether there is potential for waterhammer or two-phase flow to occur before the pump is restored. If boiling occurs then there exists steam region in the pipe, which may cause the so called condensation induced waterhammer or column closure waterhammer. In either case, a great amount of effort has to be spent to
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Efremenko, Dmitry S.; Loyola, Diego G.; Spurr, Robert J.D.; Doicu, Adrian
2014-01-01
In the independent pixel approximation (IPA), radiative transfer computations involving cloudy scenes require two separate calls to the radiative transfer model (RTM), one call for a clear sky scenario, the other for an atmosphere containing clouds. In this paper, clouds are considered as an optically homogeneous layer. We present two novel methods for RTM performance enhancement with particular application to trace gas retrievals under cloudy conditions. Both methods are based on reusing results from clear-sky RTM calculations to speed up corresponding calculations for the cloud-filled scenario. The first approach is numerically exact, and has been applied to the discrete-ordinate with matrix exponential (DOME) RTM. Results from the original clear sky computation can be saved in the memory and reused for the non-cloudy layers in the second computation. In addition, for the whole-atmosphere boundary-value approach to the determination of the intensity field, we can exploit a ’telescoping technique’ to reduce the dimensionality (and hence the computational effort for the solution) of the boundary value problem in the absence of Rayleigh scattering contributions for higher azimuthal components of the radiation field. The second approach is (for the cloudy scenario) to generate a spectral correction applied to the radiation field from a fast two-stream RTM. This correction is based on the use of principal-component analysis (PCA) applied to a given window of spectral optical property data, in order to exploit redundancy in the data and confine the number of full-stream multiple scatter computations to the first few EOFs (Empirical Orthogonal Functions) arising from the PCA. This method has been applied to the LIDORT RTM; although the method involves some approximation, it provides accuracy better than 0.2%, and a speed-up factor of approximately 2 compared with two calls of RTM. -- Highlights: • Reusing results from clear-sky computations for a model with a
Supel'nyak, M. I.
2017-11-01
Features of calculation of temperature oscillations which are damped in a surface layer of a solid and which are having a small range in comparison with range of temperature of the fluid medium surrounding the solid at heat transfer coefficient changing in time under the periodic law are considered. For the specified case the equations for approximate definition of constant and oscillating components of temperature field of a solid are received. The possibility of use of appropriately chosen steady-state coefficient when calculating the temperature oscillations instead of unsteady heat-transfer coefficient is investigated. Dependence for definition of such equivalent constant heat-transfer coefficient is determined. With its help the research of temperature oscillations of solids with canonical form for some specific conditions of heat transfer is undertaken. Comparison of the obtained data with results of exact solutions of a problem of heat conductivity by which the limits to applicability of the offered approach are defined is carried out.
47 CFR 54.902 - Calculation of Interstate Common Line Support for transferred exchanges.
2010-10-01
... filed pursuant to § 54.903(a)(4) shall reflect the transfer of exchanges. All post-transaction... transfer of exchanges. All post-transaction Interstate Common Line Support shall be subject to true up by... for transferred exchanges. 54.902 Section 54.902 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nomura, Yasushi; Someya, Hiroyuki; Ito, Haruhiko.
1992-11-01
Capsules for irradiation tests in the JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor), consist of irradiation specimens surrounded by a cladding tube, holders, an inner tube and a container tube (from 30mm to 65mm in diameter). And the annular gaps between these structural materials in the capsule are filled with liquids or gases. Cooling of the capsule is done by reactor primary coolant flowing down outside the capsule. Most of the heat generated by fission in fuel specimens and gamma absorption in structural materials is directed radially to the capsule container outer surface. In thermal performance calculations for capsule design, an one(r)-dimensional heat transfer computer code entitled (Generalyzed Gap Temperature Calculation), GENGTC, originally developed in Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S.A., has been frequently used. In designing a capsule, are needed many cases of parametric calculations with respect to changes materials and gap sizes. And in some cases, two(r,z)-dimensional heat transfer calculations are needed for irradiation test capsules with short length fuel rods. Recently the authors improved the original one-dimensional code GENGTC, (1) to simplify preparation of input data, (2) to perform automatic calculations for parametric survey based on design temperatures, ect. Moreover, the computer code has been improved to perform r-z two-dimensional heat transfer calculation. This report describes contents of the preparation of the one-dimensional code GENGTC and the improvement for the two-dimensional code GENGTC-2, together with their code manuals. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jerg, Matthias; Trautmann, Thomas
2007-01-01
The radiative transfer perturbation theory (RTPT), which has already been introduced in atmospheric radiative transfer several years ago, is applied to cloud related problems. The RTPT requires the solution of the radiative transfer equation in the forward and the adjoint mode. The basic principles of this technique are presented as well as its extensions to isotropic surface reflection and its conjunction with the Hermite interpolation. This set of methods is applied to different atmospheric conditions including realistic cloud scenes. The results are compared with the usual (forward) independent-pixel calculations with respect to errors of individual pixels and domain-averaged values. The RTPT turns out to be sufficiently accurate in the case the clouds' internal vertical variations remain moderate. It is also shown that, depending on the specific radiative transfer problem, the RTPT can offer some advantages on computational speed. However, the limitations of the RTPT with regard to realistic clouds are addressed as well
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grabezhnaya, V.A.
2008-01-01
Paper reviews the numerical investigation into the heat transfer in the supercritical water cooled fuel assemblies on the basis of the various commercial codes. The turbulence available models specified in the codes describe adequately the experimental data in tubes within the range of flow temperatures away from the pseudocritical point, as well as under high mass velocities. There are k-ε type turbulence models that show qualitatively the local acceleration (slowdown) of the heat transfer in tubes, but they fail to describe the mentioned phenomena quantitatively. To determine the effect of grid spacers on the suppression of the heat transfer local slowdown and on the heat transfer acceleration in fuel assemblies and to ensure more accurate calculation of the fuel element cladding maximum temperature one should perform a number of the experiments making use of the fuel assembly models [ru
Johnson, M. T.
2010-02-01
The transfer velocity determines the rate of exchange of a gas across the air-water interface for a given deviation from Henry's law equilibrium between the two phases. In the thin film model of gas exchange, which is commonly used for calculating gas exchange rates from measured concentrations of trace gases in the atmosphere and ocean/freshwaters, the overall transfer is controlled by diffusion-mediated films on either side of the air-water interface. Calculating the total transfer velocity (i.e. including the influence from both molecular layers) requires the Henry's law constant and the Schmidt number of the gas in question, the latter being the ratio of the viscosity of the medium and the molecular diffusivity of the gas in the medium. All of these properties are both temperature and (on the water side) salinity dependent and extensive calculation is required to estimate these properties where not otherwise available. The aim of this work is to standardize the application of the thin film approach to flux calculation from measured and modelled data, to improve comparability, and to provide a numerical framework into which future parameter improvements can be integrated. A detailed numerical scheme is presented for the calculation of the gas and liquid phase transfer velocities (ka and kw respectively) and the total transfer velocity, K. The scheme requires only basic physical chemistry data for any gas of interest and calculates K over the full range of temperatures, salinities and wind-speeds observed in and over the ocean. Improved relationships for the wind-speed dependence of ka and for the salinity-dependence of the gas solubility (Henry's law) are derived. Comparison with alternative schemes and methods for calculating air-sea flux parameters shows good agreement in general but significant improvements under certain conditions. The scheme is provided as a downloadable program in the supplementary material, along with input files containing molecular
Mordik, S N
2002-01-01
The third-order transfer matrices are calculated for an electrostatic toroidal sector condenser using a rigorously conserved matrix method that implies the conservation of the beam phase volume at each step in the calculations. The transfer matrices (matrizants) obtained, include the fringing-field effect due to the stray fields. In the case of a rectangular distribution of the field components along the optical axis, the analytical expressions for all aberration coefficients, including the dispersion ones, are derived accurate to the third-order terms. In simulations of real fields with the stray field width other than zero, a smooth distribution of the field components is used for which similar aberration coefficients were calculated by means of the conserved numerical method . It has been found that for a smooth model, as the stray field width tends to zero, the aberration coefficients approach the corresponding aberration values in the rectangular model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mordik, S.N.; Ponomarev, A.G.
2002-01-01
The third-order transfer matrices are calculated for an electrostatic toroidal sector condenser using a rigorously conserved matrix method that implies the conservation of the beam phase volume at each step in the calculations. The transfer matrices (matrizants) obtained, include the fringing-field effect due to the stray fields. In the case of a rectangular distribution of the field components along the optical axis, the analytical expressions for all aberration coefficients, including the dispersion ones, are derived accurate to the third-order terms. In simulations of real fields with the stray field width other than zero, a smooth distribution of the field components is used for which similar aberration coefficients were calculated by means of the conserved numerical method . It has been found that for a smooth model, as the stray field width tends to zero, the aberration coefficients approach the corresponding aberration values in the rectangular model
American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia
2005-01-01
1.1 This test method covers the calculation from heat transfer theory of the stagnation enthalpy from experimental measurements of the stagnation-point heat transfer and stagnation pressure. 1.2 Advantages 1.2.1 A value of stagnation enthalpy can be obtained at the location in the stream where the model is tested. This value gives a consistent set of data, along with heat transfer and stagnation pressure, for ablation computations. 1.2.2 This computation of stagnation enthalpy does not require the measurement of any arc heater parameters. 1.3 Limitations and ConsiderationsThere are many factors that may contribute to an error using this type of approach to calculate stagnation enthalpy, including: 1.3.1 TurbulenceThe turbulence generated by adding energy to the stream may cause deviation from the laminar equilibrium heat transfer theory. 1.3.2 Equilibrium, Nonequilibrium, or Frozen State of GasThe reaction rates and expansions may be such that the gas is far from thermodynamic equilibrium. 1.3.3 Noncat...
Development of Empirical Correlation to Calculate Pool Boiling Heat Transfer of Tandem Tubes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, Myeong-Gie [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
The heat exchanging tubes are in vertical alignment. For the cases, the upper tube is affected by the lower tube. Since heat transfer is closely related to the conditions of tube surface, bundle geometry, and liquid, lots of studies have been carried out for the several decades to investigate the combined effects of those factors on pool boiling heat transfer. One of the most important parameters in the analysis of a tube array is the pitch ( P ) between tubes. Many researchers have been investigated its effect on heat transfer enhancement for the tube bundles and the tandem tubes. The effect of a tube array on heat transfer enhancement was also studied for application to the flooded evaporators. Cornwell and Schuller studied the sliding bubbles by high speed photography to account the enhancement of heat transfer observed at the upper tubes of a bundle. The study by Memory et al. shows the effects of the enhanced surface and oil adds to the heat transfer of tube bundles. They identified that, for the structured and porous bundles, oil addition leads to a steady decrease in performance. The flow boiling of n-pentane across a horizontal tube bundle was investigated experimentally by Roser et al. They identified that convective evaporation played a significant part of the total heat transfer. The fouling of the tube bundle under pool boiling was also studied by Malayeri et al. They identified that the mechanisms of fouling on the middle and top heater substantially differ from those at the bottom heater.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. T. Johnson
2010-10-01
Full Text Available The ocean-atmosphere flux of a gas can be calculated from its measured or estimated concentration gradient across the air-sea interface and the transfer velocity (a term representing the conductivity of the layers either side of the interface with respect to the gas of interest. Traditionally the transfer velocity has been estimated from empirical relationships with wind speed, and then scaled by the Schmidt number of the gas being transferred. Complex, physically based models of transfer velocity (based on more physical forcings than wind speed alone, such as the NOAA COARE algorithm, have more recently been applied to well-studied gases such as carbon dioxide and DMS (although many studies still use the simpler approach for these gases, but there is a lack of validation of such schemes for other, more poorly studied gases. The aim of this paper is to provide a flexible numerical scheme which will allow the estimation of transfer velocity for any gas as a function of wind speed, temperature and salinity, given data on the solubility and liquid molar volume of the particular gas. New and existing parameterizations (including a novel empirical parameterization of the salinity-dependence of Henry's law solubility are brought together into a scheme implemented as a modular, extensible program in the R computing environment which is available in the supplementary online material accompanying this paper; along with input files containing solubility and structural data for ~90 gases of general interest, enabling the calculation of their total transfer velocities and component parameters. Comparison of the scheme presented here with alternative schemes and methods for calculating air-sea flux parameters shows good agreement in general. It is intended that the various components of this numerical scheme should be applied only in the absence of experimental data providing robust values for parameters for a particular gas of interest.
Johnson, M. T.
2010-10-01
The ocean-atmosphere flux of a gas can be calculated from its measured or estimated concentration gradient across the air-sea interface and the transfer velocity (a term representing the conductivity of the layers either side of the interface with respect to the gas of interest). Traditionally the transfer velocity has been estimated from empirical relationships with wind speed, and then scaled by the Schmidt number of the gas being transferred. Complex, physically based models of transfer velocity (based on more physical forcings than wind speed alone), such as the NOAA COARE algorithm, have more recently been applied to well-studied gases such as carbon dioxide and DMS (although many studies still use the simpler approach for these gases), but there is a lack of validation of such schemes for other, more poorly studied gases. The aim of this paper is to provide a flexible numerical scheme which will allow the estimation of transfer velocity for any gas as a function of wind speed, temperature and salinity, given data on the solubility and liquid molar volume of the particular gas. New and existing parameterizations (including a novel empirical parameterization of the salinity-dependence of Henry's law solubility) are brought together into a scheme implemented as a modular, extensible program in the R computing environment which is available in the supplementary online material accompanying this paper; along with input files containing solubility and structural data for ~90 gases of general interest, enabling the calculation of their total transfer velocities and component parameters. Comparison of the scheme presented here with alternative schemes and methods for calculating air-sea flux parameters shows good agreement in general. It is intended that the various components of this numerical scheme should be applied only in the absence of experimental data providing robust values for parameters for a particular gas of interest.
Calculation of heat transfer in transversely stream-lined tube bundles with chess arrangement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Migaj, V.K.
1978-01-01
A semiempirical theory of heat transfer in transversely stream-lined chess-board tube bundles has been developed. The theory is based on a single cylinder model and involves external flow parameter evaluation on the basis of the solidification principle of a vortex zone. The effect of turbulence is estimated according to experimental results. The method is extended to both average and local heat transfer coefficients. Comparison with experiment shows satisfactory agreement
2012-04-12
... it is counted toward the balance maintained to satisfy a reserve balance requirement for purposes of... balance maintained to satisfy a reserve balance requirement for purposes of part 204 of this chapter... reserve balance requirement for purposes of part 204 of this chapter (Regulation D) nor make the proceeds...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soysal, A.O.; Semlyen, A.
1994-01-01
A general methodology is presented for the state equation approximation of a multiple input-output linear system from transfer matrix data. A complex transformation matrix, obtained by eigen analysis at a fixed frequency, is used for diagonalization of the transfer matrix over the whole frequency range. A scalar estimation procedure is applied for identification of the modal transfer functions. The state equations in the original coordinates are obtained by inverse transformation. An iterative Gauss-Newton refinement process is used to reduce the overall error of the approximation. The developed methodology is applied to the phase domain modeling of untransposed transmission lines. The approach makes it possible to perform EMTP calculations directly in the phase domain. This results in conceptual simplification and savings in computation time since modal transformations are not needed in the sequences of the transient analysis. The presented procedure is compared with the conventional modal approach in terms of accuracy and computation time
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Palukuru NAGENDRA
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In this study, the use of artificial neural network (ANN based model, multi-layer perceptron (MLP network, to compute the transfer capabilities in a multi-area power system was explored. The input for the ANN is load status and the outputs are the transfer capability among the system areas, voltage magnitudes and voltage angles at concerned buses of the areas under consideration. The repeated power flow (RPF method is used in this paper for calculating the power transfer capability, voltage magnitudes and voltage angles necessary for the generation of input-output patterns for training the proposed MLP neural network. Preliminary investigations on a three area 30-bus system reveal that the proposed model is computationally faster than the conventional method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greene, G.A.; Schwarz, C.E.
1982-01-01
In the event a commercial power reactor is subjected to a Class 9 accident resulting in gross core melting and reactor pressure vessel penetration, it has been shown that the containment integrity may subsequently be threatened by steam overpressurization, combustible gas reactions, and basemat penetration. A major contributor to these events would be the interaction of molten core debris with the structural concrete. Modeling of core-concrete interactions involves many poorly understood and complicated heat transfer phenomena for which there exists a sparse data base. One of these phenomena, which has been shown to have significant impact upon code calculations of core-concrete interactions, is the rate of heat transfer between overlying immiscible layers of core oxides and molten metals whose interface is agitated by transverse gas flow. A mathematical model is developed to analyze this heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shepherd, I.M.
1982-01-01
The computer code BUSH has been developed for the calculation of steady state heat transfer in a rod bundle. For a given power, flow and geometry it can calculate the temperatures in the rods, coolant and shroud assuming that at any axial level each rod can be described by one temperature and the coolant fluid is also radially uniform at this level. Heat transfer by convection and radiation are handled and the geometry is flexible enough to model nearly all types of envisaged shroud design for the SUPERSARA test series. The modular way in which BUSH has been written makes it suitable for future development, either within the present BUSH framework or as part of a more advanced code
A porous media calculation for the isolation condenser heat transfer and circulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaakko, Miettinen; Ismo, Karppinen
2003-01-01
In the development of advanced light water reactors, thermohydraulic phenomena are versatile in comparison with the present concepts. The new features include, for example, passive safety systems, where energy transport takes place by natural circulation instead of forced flow. In the isolation condenser, the steam generated in the reactor vessel is conduced into the heat transfer tubes. The tube bundle has been submerged into a large water pool, where the heat flux through the tube wall initially is heating the subcooled water, but rather soon boiling take place. The temperature differences and void fraction in the pool create large two-phase circulation. For modeling of the entire condenser a combined application of two types of simulation models has been selected. For the whole geometry, a porous media solution has been developed, where the existence of the heat transfer tubes in the water pool and their heat generation is described by the porous media approach. The 3-dimensional solution of two-phase equations is based on the drift-flux formalism. The condensation and liquid film generation inside the heat transfer tube is modelled using a 1-dimensional model considering the steam core, liquid film and heat transfer tube. The heat flux through the tube wall defines the boundary conditions for the water pool. Parallel to the porous media development for the entire process facility, the phase change models have been improved for Fluent 6 mixture model, and the code is used for analysing in detail the heat transfer around the tubing. The purpose in the analyses is to obtain more detailed information of the flow field and vapour distribution around the tube bundle. By combining the porous media model for the entire facility, with the CFD models for the two-phase flow details around the heat transfer tubes and experimental studies the most important mechanisms around the condensation pool can be gathered. In this context the porous media model is considered. (author)
CNDO/2-SCF and PCILO (MO) calculations on the 1-butene/NA/and (charge-transfer) complex
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lochmann, R; Meiler, W
1977-01-01
CNDO/2-SCF and PCILO (MO) calculations on the 1-Butene/Na/sup +/ (charge-transfer) complex involving the olefinic m electrons were made in connection with butene adsorption in zeolites, including the effect of the cation on the conformation of the butene in the zeolite cavity. Calculations were made of rotational energy barriers, preferred cation arrangements with respect to the butene molecule, and charge distributions by both methods. Taking into account systematic errors with the two methods, it is concluded that the PCILO method, which predicts a stabilization of the skew over the cis conformation by the cation, gives closer agreement with experiment. Graph, tables, diagrams, and 19 references.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tian Yong; Zhang Longqiang; Yang Zhen; Yu Bin
2014-01-01
In order to ensure a long-term reliable operation of the DCS cabinet's 220 V AC power cable, it was needed to confirm whether the conductor temperature rise of power cable meet the requirement of the cable specification. Based on the actual data in site and the theory of numerical heat transfer, conservative model was established, and the conductor temperature was calculated. The calculation results show that the cable arrangement on the cable tray will not lead to the conductor temperature rise of power cable over than the required temperature in technical specification. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bezrukov, Yu.A.; Shchekoldin, V.I.
2002-01-01
On the basis of the Gidropress OKB (Special Design Bureau) experimental data bank one verified the KORSAR code design models and correlations as to heat exchange crisis and overcrisis heat transfer as applied to the WWER reactor normal and emergency conditions. The VI.006.000 version of KORSAR code base calculations is shown to describe adequately the conducted experiments and to deviate insignificantly towards the conservative approach. So it may be considered as one of the codes ensuring more precise estimation [ru
2010-05-11
... the Use of Capacity Benefit Margins 24. In the Final Rule, the Commission determined that ISOs, RTOs... explicitly list reserve margin or resource adequacy requirements established by RTOs and ISOs among the...
Comparison of the 12C(e,e'p) cross section at low momentum transfer with a relativistic calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamae, T.; Sato, Y.; Yokokawa, T.; Asano, Y.; Kawabata, M.; Konno, O.; Nakagawa, I.; Nishikawa, I.; Hirota, K.; Yamazaki, H.; Kimura, R.; Miyase, H.; Tsubota, H.; Giusti, C.; Meucci, A.
2009-01-01
The (e,e ' p 0 ) cross section of 12 C has been measured at an energy transfer of 60 MeV and a momentum transfer of 104.4 MeV/c using a 197.5 MeV continuous electron beam. The cross section at missing momenta between 181.5 and 304.8 MeV/c obtained from the experiment is compared with theoretical calculations based on the relativistic distorted-wave impulse approximation with and without meson-exchange currents (MEC). The contribution of MEC due to the seagull current is large in the high-missing-momentum region, in particular for the longitudinal component. The cross sections calculated using three different current-conserving operators (cc1, cc2, and cc3) are similar, in contrast to the (γ,p) reaction, where the operators give very different results. The shape of the measured cross section is well described by the calculations, whereas its magnitude is slightly smaller than that described by the calculations.
Subcooled boiling heat transfer correlation to calculate the effects of dissolved gas in a liquid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zarkasi, Amin S.; Chao, W.W.; Kunze, Jay F.
2004-01-01
The water coolant in most operating power reactor systems is kept free of dissolved gas, so as to minimize corrosion. However, in most research reactors, which operate at temperatures below 70 deg. C, and between 1 and 5 atm. pressure, the dissolved gas remains present in the water coolant system during operation. This dissolved gas can have a significant effect during accident conditions (i.e. a LOCA), when the fluid quickly reaches boiling, coincident with flow stagnation and subsequent flow reversal. A benchmark experiment was conducted, with an electrically heated, closed loop channel, modeling a research reactor fuel coolant channels (2 mm thick). The results showed 'boiling (bubble) noise' occurring before wall temperatures reached saturation, and a significant increase (up to 50%) in the heat transfer coefficient in the subcooled boiling region when in the presence of dissolved gas, compared to degassed water. Since power reactors do not involve dissolved gas, the RELAP safety analysis code does not include any provisions for the effect of dissolved gas on heat transfer. In this work, the effects of the dissolved gas are evaluated for inclusion in the RELAP code, including provision for initiating 'nucleate boiling' at a lower temperature, and a provision for enhancing the heat transfer coefficient during the subcooled boiling region. Instead of relying on Chen's correlation alone, a modification of the superposition method of Bjorge was adopted. (author)
Calculation and validation of heat transfer coefficient for warm forming operations
Omer, Kaab; Butcher, Clifford; Worswick, Michael
2017-10-01
In an effort to reduce the weight of their products, the automotive industry is exploring various hot forming and warm forming technologies. One critical aspect in these technologies is understanding and quantifying the heat transfer between the blank and the tooling. The purpose of the current study is twofold. First, an experimental procedure to obtain the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) as a function of pressure for the purposes of a metal forming simulation is devised. The experimental approach was used in conjunction with finite element models to obtain HTC values as a function of die pressure. The materials that were characterized were AA5182-O and AA7075-T6. Both the heating operation and warm forming deep draw were modelled using the LS-DYNA commercial finite element code. Temperature-time measurements were obtained from both applications. The results of the finite element model showed that the experimentally derived HTC values were able to predict the temperature-time history to within a 2% of the measured response. It is intended that the HTC values presented herein can be used in warm forming models in order to accurately capture the heat transfer characteristics of the operation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersson, I.; Loensjoe, H.
1988-01-01
Studies were performed on two farms, B and R, in southern Sweden to calculate the consequences after a postulated nuclear reactor accident involving contamination of land by 137Cs (1 MBq per m2). The activity transfer to crops and animal products during the sixth year after the fallout was calculated for situations without and with counter-measures taken. The effects of counter-measures, fertilizing with potassium, deep-ploughing and also modified crop and animal production, were supposed to have reached all parts of the agricultural systems. Steady state conditions were assumed to be prevailing in both situations. Calculations based on the present (in 1985) production on the farms and compiled for the situation without any counter-measures taken, indicate the root uptake of 137Cs in the crops during the year to be 53 MBq (B) and 280 MBq (R) corresponding to 1.0 and 1.6 MBq per hectare, respectively. Through the crops 46 MBq (B) and 187 MBq (R) are ingested by the animals. On the basis of the mean daily activity intake per animal, a total of about 5 MBq on each farm is calculated to be transferred to the animal products (milk and meat). Related to the land area this corresponds to 0.09 and 0.03 MBq per hectare on B and R respectively. The mean internal radiation dose during the year per person on the farms through home-produced food is calculated to be 0.1 mSv (B) and 0.2 mSv (R), and the mean external radiation dose to people working on the farms to be the same as that from the natural background. Calculations for the year in the situation with counter-measures taken indicate that the transferred activity of 137Cs to the crops per hectare is reduced by factors of 10 (B) and 3 (R). The corresponding transfer to animal products is by factors of 23 or 45 (B) and 3 (R), although in the latter case the size of animal production is considerably increased. The external and possibly also the internal radiation doses to people on both farms will be reduced
Darbandi, Masoud; Abrar, Bagher
2018-01-01
The spectral-line weighted-sum-of-gray-gases (SLW) model is considered as a modern global model, which can be used in predicting the thermal radiation heat transfer within the combustion fields. The past SLW model users have mostly employed the reference approach to calculate the local values of gray gases' absorption coefficient. This classical reference approach assumes that the absorption spectra of gases at different thermodynamic conditions are scalable with the absorption spectrum of gas at a reference thermodynamic state in the domain. However, this assumption cannot be reasonable in combustion fields, where the gas temperature is very different from the reference temperature. Consequently, the results of SLW model incorporated with the classical reference approach, say the classical SLW method, are highly sensitive to the reference temperature magnitude in non-isothermal combustion fields. To lessen this sensitivity, the current work combines the SLW model with a modified reference approach, which is a particular one among the eight possible reference approach forms reported recently by Solovjov, et al. [DOI: 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2017.01.034, 2017]. The combination is called "modified SLW method". This work shows that the modified reference approach can provide more accurate total emissivity calculation than the classical reference approach if it is coupled with the SLW method. This would be particularly helpful for more accurate calculation of radiation transfer in highly non-isothermal combustion fields. To approve this, we use both the classical and modified SLW methods and calculate the radiation transfer in such fields. It is shown that the modified SLW method can almost eliminate the sensitivity of achieved results to the chosen reference temperature in treating highly non-isothermal combustion fields.
The physical properties of Santowax 'R' for heat transfer calculations (AERE R/M 183 revised)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bowring, R.W.; Garton, D.A.; Kinneir, J.H.
1961-03-01
Values of the following physical properties of Santowax 'R' are presented in graphical and/or tabular form in both English and Metric units: Vapour Pressure, Specific heat, Enthalpy, Density, Dynamic viscosity, Kinematic viscosity, Thermal conductivity, Prandtl number, Surface tension, Latent heat of vaporisation, Critical properties, Gas solubilities. The data were obtained by new experimental measurements, by calculation or from the published literature. Wherever possible an estimate of the probable error is given. Conversion factors and Tables are also presented to facilitate the conversion of any of the properties to convenient units required for calculations. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Attwood, C.; Barraclough, I.; Brown, J.
1998-06-01
There is a wide range of models available at NRPB to predict the transfer of radionuclides through the environment. Such models form an essential part of assessments of the radiological impact of releases of radionuclides into the environment. These models cover: the atmosphere; the aquatic environment; the geosphere; the terrestrial environment including foodchains. It is important that the models used for radiological impact assessments are robust, reliable and suitable for the assessment being undertaken. During model development it is, therefore, important that the model is both verified and validated. Verification of a model involves ensuring that it has been implemented correctly, while validation consists of demonstrating that the model is an adequate representation of the real environment. The extent to which a model can be verified depends on its complexity and whether similar models exist. For relatively simple models verification is straightforward, but for more complex models verification has to form part of the development, coding and testing of the model within quality assurance procedures. Validation of models should ideally consist of comparisons between the results of the models and experimental or environmental measurement data that were not used to develop the model. This is more straightforward for some models than for others depending on the quantity and type of data available. Validation becomes increasingly difficult for models which are intended to predict environmental transfer at long times or at great distances. It is, therefore, necessary to adopt qualitative validation techniques to ensure that the model is an adequate representation of the real environment. This report summarises the models used at NRPB to predict the transfer of radionuclides through the environment as part of a radiological impact assessment. It outlines the work carried out to verify and validate the models. The majority of these models are not currently available
3-D heat transfer computer calculations of the performance of the IAEA's air-bath calorimeters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elias, E.; Kaizermann, S.; Perry, R.B.; Fiarman, S.
1989-01-01
A three dimensional (3-D) heat transfer computer code was developed to study and optimize the design parameters and to better understand the performance characteristics of the IAEA's air-bath calorimeters. The computer model accounts for heat conduction and radiation in the complex materials of the calorimeter and for heat convection and radiation at its outer surface. The temperature servo controller is modelled as an integral part of the heat balance equations in the system. The model predictions will be validated against test data using the ANL bulk calorimeter. 11 refs., 6 figs
Calculating the Motion and Direction of Flux Transfer Events with Cluster
Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Sibeck, D. G.
2012-01-01
For many years now, the interactions of the solar wind plasma with the Earth's magnetosphere has been one of the most important problems for Space Physics. It is very important that we understand these processes because the high-energy particles and also the solar wind energy that cross the magneto sphere could be responsible for serious damage to our technological systems. The solar wind is inherently a dynamic medium, and the particles interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere can be steady or unsteady. Unsteady interaction include transient processes like bursty magnetic reconnection. Flux Transfer Events (FTEs) are magnetopause signatures that usually occur during transient times of reconnection. They exhibit bipolar signatures in the normal component of the magnetic field. We use multi-point timing analysis to determine the orientation and motion of ux transfer events (FTEs) detected by the four Cluster spacecraft on the high-latitude dayside and flank magnetopause during 2002 and 2003. During these years, the distances between the Cluster spacecraft were greater than 1000 km, providing the tetrahedral configuration needed to select events and determine velocities. Each velocity and location will be examined in detail and compared to the velocities and locations determined by the predictions of the component and antiparallel reconnection models for event formation, orientation, motion, and acceleration for a wide range of spacecraft locations and solar wind conditions.
Development of a model to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient of greenhouse covers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rasheed, A.; Lee, J. W.; Lee, H.L.
2017-07-01
A Building Energy Simulation (BES) model based on TRNSYS, was developed to investigate the overall heat transfer coefficient (U-value) of greenhouse covers including polyethylene (PE), polycarbonate (PC), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and horticultural glass (HG). This was used to determine the influences of inside-to-outside temperature difference, wind speed, and night sky radiation on the U-values of these materials. The model was calibrated using published values of the inside and outside convective heat transfer coefficients. Validation of the model was demonstrated by the agreement between the computed and experimental results for a single-layer PE film. The results from the BES model showed significant changes in U-value in response to variations in weather parameters and the use of single or double layer greenhouse covers. It was found that the U-value of PC, PVC, and HG was 9%, 4%, and 15% lower, respectively, than that for PE. In addition, by using double glazing a 34% reduction in heat loss was noted. For the given temperature U-value increases as wind speed increases. The slopes at the temperature differences of 20, 30, 40, and 50 °C, were approximately 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9, respectively. The results agree with those put forward by other researchers. Hence, the presented model is reliable and can play a valuable role in future work on greenhouse energy modelling.
Rodgers, R. J.; Latham, T. S.; Krascella, N. L.
1971-01-01
Calculation results are reviewed of the radiant heat transfer characteristics in the fuel and buffer gas regions of a nuclear light bulb engine based on the transfer of energy by thermal radiation from gaseous uranium fuel in a neon vortex, through an internally cooled transparent wall, to seeded hydrogen propellant. The results indicate that the fraction of UV energy incident on the transparent walls increases with increasing power level. For the reference engine power level of 4600 megw, it is necessary to employ space radiators to reject the UV radiated energy absorbed by the transparent walls. This UV energy can be blocked by employing nitric oxide and oxygen seed gases in the fuel and buffer gas regions. However, this results in increased UV absorption in the buffer gas which also requires space radiators to reject the heat load.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassan, Y.A.
1987-01-01
To date there is only very limited data for non-equilibrium convective film boiling in rod bundle geometries. A recent nine (3 x 3) rod bundle post-critical-flux (CHF) test from the Lehigh University test facility was simulated using RELAP5/MOD2, to assess its capabilities in predicting the overall convective mechanisms in post-CHF heat transfer in rod bundle geometries. The code calculations were compared with experimental data. The code predicted low vapor superheats and void fraction oscillations. A new interfacial heat transfer between the droplet/steam resulted in a reasonable prediction of vapor superheats. A revised dispersed flow film boiling correlation which accounts for the enhancement of steam convective cooling by droplet-induced turbulence was incorporated in the code. Comparison with the data showed a fair agreement
On the calculation of flow and heat transfer characteristics for CANDU-type 19-rod fuel bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuh-Shan Yueh; Ching-Chang Chieng
1987-01-01
A numerical study is reported of flow and heat transfer in a CANDU-type 19 rod fuel bundle. The flow domain of interest includes combinations of trangular, square, and peripheral subchannels. The basic equations of momentum and energy are solved with the standard k--ε model of turbulence. Isotropic turbulent viscosity is assumed and no secondary flow is considered for this steady-state, fully developed flow. Detailed velocity and temperature distributions with wall shear stress and Nusselt number distributions are obtained for turbulent flow of Re = 4.35 x 10 4 , 10 5 , 2 x 10 5 , and for laminar flow of Re--2400. Friction factor and heat transfer ceofficients of various subchannels inside the full bundle are compared with those of infinite rod arrays of triangular or square arrangements. The calculated velocity contours of peripheral subchannel agreed reasonably with measured data
2013-12-10
... Services Analyst (202) 453-3638, Division of Reserve Bank Operations and Payment Systems; or Kara Handzlik... notice of dishonor) before midnight of the banking day on which the paying bank received the check.\\3\\ A paying bank that has settled for a check before midnight of the banking day on which it received the...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huang Can
2014-08-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, a numerical model combining radiation and conduction for porous materials is developed based on the finite volume method. The model can be used to investigate high-temperature thermal insulations which are widely used in metallic thermal protection systems on reusable launch vehicles and high-temperature fuel cells. The effective thermal conductivities (ECTs which are measured experimentally can hardly be used separately to analyze the heat transfer behaviors of conduction and radiation for high-temperature insulation. By fitting the effective thermal conductivities with experimental data, the equivalent radiation transmittance, absorptivity and reflectivity, as well as a linear function to describe the relationship between temperature and conductivity can be estimated by an inverse problems method. The deviation between the calculated and measured effective thermal conductivities is less than 4%. Using the material parameters so obtained for conduction and radiation, the heat transfer process in multilayer thermal insulation (MTI is calculated and the deviation between the calculated and the measured transient temperatures at a certain depth in the multilayer thermal insulation is less than 6.5%.
Calculational model and code for corrosion products transfer in sodium systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iizawa, Katsuyuki; Kikuchi, Takao; Nihei, Isao; Horie, Junnosuke
1987-01-01
The parameters to predict LMFBR radioactive CP behaviour are obtained by fitting the model to the release rates and distribution of deposits in experimental sodium loops. Analysis of the downstream effect for Co-60 deposition confirms that the mechanism controlling Co-60 transfer is diffusion through the boundary sublayer in the flowing sodium. On the other hand, analysis of Mn-54 deposition suggests that the controlling mechanism for this nuclide is probably an intermediate case between diffusion-control in the liquid and reaction-control at steel surfaces. The super-stoichiometric release of Mn-54 and the sub-stoichiometric release of Co-60 are interpreted from their model parameters as being likely related to their solubilities in sodium. The computer code developed for this model is named PSYCHE. (orig./HP)
Applications of supercomputing and the utility industry: Calculation of power transfer capabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jensen, D.D.; Behling, S.R.; Betancourt, R.
1990-01-01
Numerical models and iterative simulation using supercomputers can furnish cost-effective answers to utility industry problems that are all but intractable using conventional computing equipment. An example of the use of supercomputers by the utility industry is the determination of power transfer capability limits for power transmission systems. This work has the goal of markedly reducing the run time of transient stability codes used to determine power distributions following major system disturbances. To date, run times of several hours on a conventional computer have been reduced to several minutes on state-of-the-art supercomputers, with further improvements anticipated to reduce run times to less than a minute. In spite of the potential advantages of supercomputers, few utilities have sufficient need for a dedicated in-house supercomputing capability. This problem is resolved using a supercomputer center serving a geographically distributed user base coupled via high speed communication networks
Wang, Xiaocong
2017-04-01
Effects of cloud condensate vertical alignment on radiative transfer process were investigated using cloud resolving model explicit simulations, which provide a surrogate for subgrid cloud geometry. Diagnostic results showed that the decorrelation length Lcw varies in the vertical dimension, with larger Lcw occurring in convective clouds and smaller Lcw in cirrus clouds. A new parameterization of Lcw is proposed that takes into account such varying features and gives rise to improvements in simulations of cloud radiative forcing (CRF) and radiative heating, i.e., the peak of bias is respectively reduced by 8 W m- 2 for SWCF and 2 W m- 2 for LWCF in comparison with Lcw = 1 km. The role of Lcw in modulating CRFs is twofold. On the one hand, larger Lcw tends to increase the standard deviation of optical depth στ, as dense and tenuous parts of the clouds would be increasingly aligned in the vertical dimension, thereby broadening the probability distribution. On the other hand, larger στ causes a decrease in the solar albedo and thermal emissivity, as implied in their convex functions on τ. As a result, increasing (decreasing) Lcwleads to decreased (increased) CRFs, as revealed by comparisons among Lcw = 0, Lcw = 1 km andLcw = ∞. It also affects the vertical structure of radiative flux and thus influences the radiative heating. A better representation of στ in the vertical dimension yields an improved simulation of radiative heating. Although the importance of vertical alignment of cloud condensate is found to be less than that of cloud cover in regards to their impacts on CRFs, it still has enough of an effect on modulating the cloud radiative transfer process.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stiller, W.
1985-01-01
A classical collision theory is used to describe thermal bimolecular rate coefficeints for reaction between positive and negative ions and polar molecules in a carrier gas. Special attention is paid to ion-molecule reaction in which proton transfer occurs. These reactions play an important role in terrestrial plasma devices, in ionosphere, in planetary atmospheres and in interstellar matter. The equilibrium rate coefficients of the reactions are calculated based on a microscopic reactive cross section derived from a long distance polar molecule-ion potential. The results are compared with experimental values of afterglow measurements. (D.Gy.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ukraintsev, V.F.; Kolesov, V.V.
2006-01-01
Usually for evaluation of reactor functionals uncertainties, the perturbation theory and sensitivity analysis techniques are used. Of cause linearization approach of perturbation theory is used. This approach has several disadvantages and that is why a new method, based on application of a special interval calculations technique has been created. Basically, the problem of dependency of fuel cycle characteristic uncertainties from source group neutron cross-sections and decay parameters uncertainties can be solved (to some extent) as well by use of sensitivity analysis. However such procedure is rather labor consuming and does not give guaranteed estimations for received parameters since it works, strictly speaking, only for small deviations because it is initially based on linearization of the mathematical problems. The technique of fuel cycle characteristics uncertainties estimation is based on so-called interval analysis (or interval calculations). The basic advantage of this technique is the opportunity of deriving correct estimations. This technique consists in introducing a new special type of data such as Interval data in codes and the definition for them of all arithmetic operations. A technique of problem decision for system of linear equations (isotope kinetics) with use of interval arithmetic for the fuel burning up problem, has been realized. Thus there is an opportunity to compute a neutron flux, fission and capture cross-section uncertainties impact on nuclide concentration uncertainties and on fuel cycle characteristics (such as K eff , breeding ratio, decay heat power etc). By this time the code for interval calculation of burn-up computing has been developed and verified
Hydraulics and heat transfer in the IFMIF liquid lithium target: CFD calculations
Peña, A.; Esteban, G.A.; Sancho, J.; Kolesnik, V.; Abánades Velasco, Alberto
2009-01-01
CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) calculation turns out to be a good approximation to the real behavior of the lithium (Li) flow of the target of the international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF). A three-dimensional (3D) modelling of the IFMIF design Li target assembly, made with the CFD commercial code ANSYS-FLUENT has been carried out. The simulation by a structural mesh is focused on the thermal-hydraulic analysis inside the Li jet flow. For, this purpose, the two deuteron ...
Plots, Calculations and Graphics Tools (PCG2). Software Transfer Request Presentation
Richardson, Marilou R.
2010-01-01
This slide presentation reviews the development of the Plots, Calculations and Graphics Tools (PCG2) system. PCG2 is an easy to use tool that provides a single user interface to view data in a pictorial, tabular or graphical format. It allows the user to view the same display and data in the Control Room, engineering office area, or remote sites. PCG2 supports extensive and regular engineering needs that are both planned and unplanned and it supports the ability to compare, contrast and perform ad hoc data mining over the entire domain of a program's test data.
Aksenov, Andrey; Malysheva, Anna
2018-03-01
An exact calculation of the heat exchange of evaporative surfaces is possible only if the physical processes of hydrodynamics of two-phase flows are considered in detail. Especially this task is relevant for the design of refrigeration supply systems for high-rise buildings, where powerful refrigeration equipment and branched networks of refrigerants are used. On the basis of experimental studies and developed mathematical model of asymmetric dispersed-annular flow of steam-water flow in horizontal steam-generating pipes, a calculation formula has been obtained for determining the boundaries of the zone of improved heat transfer and the critical value of the heat flux density. A new theoretical approach to the solution of the problem of the flow structure of a two-phase flow is proposed. The applied method of dissipative characteristics of a two-phase flow in pipes and the principle of a minimum rate of entropy increase in stabilized flows made it possible to obtain formulas that directly reflect the influence of the viscous characteristics of the gas and liquid media on their distribution in the flow. The study showed a significant effect of gravitational forces on the nature of the phase distribution in the cross section of the evaporative tubes. At a mass velocity of a two-phase flow less than 700 kg / m2s, the volume content of the liquid phase near the upper outer generating lines of the tube is almost an order of magnitude lower than the lower one. The calculation of the heat transfer crisis in horizontal evaporative tubes is obtained. The calculated dependence is in good agreement with the experimental data of the author and a number of foreign researchers. The formula generalizes the experimental data for pipes with the diameter of 6-40 mm in the pressure of 2-7 MPa.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harris, P.A.
1978-01-01
The operating environment for fuel requalification personnel has been reviewed. The review included both the use of heating and ventilating equipment and the waste-heat removal capabilities of the containment building during this operation. The results of the review indicate that the environment is acceptable for operating personnel without further modification to equipment designs. Operations personnel have stated that the major portion of the heating and ventilating system will be in continuous operation during all phases of LOFT reactor tests. Full isolation of the containment building will be used only when monitors indicate that a serious contamination hazard is present. The peak containment air temperature for the hottest summer day is calculated at 90F. Normal in-containment air temperature should be 75 to 85F. This temperature range is acceptable for operating personnel dressed in Anit-C clothing. Calculations of waste heat removal were prepared using three sets of assumptions and three pre-removal cooldown periods. A graphical representation of the results is attached
HEATMESH, Geometry Data Generator for Heat Transfer Calculation in Axisymmetric System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gabrielson, V.K.
1972-01-01
1 - Description of problem or function: HEATMESH is used to generate geometrical data required for studies of heat transfer in axisymmetric structures represented as surfaces of revolution. The program consists of two distinct phases. The first subdivides the given parts into a nodal network and evaluates the geometrical properties of the nodes. The second determines adjacent nodes and edits geometrical data for the thermal model. 2 - Method of solution: The structure to be studied, represented as a body of revolution, is divided into parts having common material properties and represented as bodies of revolution. Each part is then described as four surfaces of revolution subdivided into nodes which form a mesh. Data for each part are collected, i. e. volume, area, and part number of each node, and node surfaces on the part boundary and inside the part boundary. The distance between the center and the midpoint of each surface of the node is tabulated also. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Number of subdivisions between 1 and 50 for sides 1 and 3, Number of subdivisions between 1 and 12 for sides 2 and 4
Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Hunt, Ron; Fulcher, Clay; Towner, Robert; McDonald, Emmett
2012-01-01
The design and theoretical basis of a new database tool that quickly generates vibroacoustic response estimates using a library of transfer functions (TFs) is discussed. During the early stages of a launch vehicle development program, these response estimates can be used to provide vibration environment specification to hardware vendors. The tool accesses TFs from a database, combines the TFs, and multiplies these by input excitations to estimate vibration responses. The database is populated with two sets of uncoupled TFs; the first set representing vibration response of a bare panel, designated as H(sup s), and the second set representing the response of the free-free component equipment by itself, designated as H(sup c). For a particular configuration undergoing analysis, the appropriate H(sup s) and H(sup c) are selected and coupled to generate an integrated TF, designated as H(sup s +c). This integrated TF is then used with the appropriate input excitations to estimate vibration responses. This simple yet powerful tool enables a user to estimate vibration responses without directly using finite element models, so long as suitable H(sup s) and H(sup c) sets are defined in the database libraries. The paper discusses the preparation of the database tool and provides the assumptions and methodologies necessary to combine H(sup s) and H(sup c) sets into an integrated H(sup s + c). An experimental validation of the approach is also presented.
Radiative transfer calculations of the diffuse ionized gas in disc galaxies with cosmic ray feedback
Vandenbroucke, Bert; Wood, Kenneth; Girichidis, Philipp; Hill, Alex S.; Peters, Thomas
2018-05-01
The large vertical scale heights of the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) in disc galaxies are challenging to model, as hydrodynamical models including only thermal feedback seem to be unable to support gas at these heights. In this paper, we use a three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiation transfer code to post-process disc simulations of the Simulating the Life-Cycle of Molecular Clouds project that include feedback by cosmic rays. We show that the more extended discs in simulations including cosmic ray feedback naturally lead to larger scale heights for the DIG which are more in line with observed scale heights. We also show that including a fiducial cosmic ray heating term in our model can help to increase the temperature as a function of disc scale height, but fails to reproduce observed DIG nitrogen and sulphur forbidden line intensities. We show that, to reproduce these line emissions, we require a heating mechanism that affects gas over a larger density range than is achieved by cosmic ray heating, which can be achieved by fine tuning the total luminosity of ionizing sources to get an appropriate ionizing spectrum as a function of scale height. This result sheds a new light on the relation between forbidden line emissions and temperature profiles for realistic DIG gas distributions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jang, Sae Byul; Kim, Jong Jin; Ahn, Joon
2009-01-01
We develop a heat exchanger modules for a multi-burner boiler. The heat exchanger module is kind of a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). This heat recovery system has 8 heat exchanger modules. The 1st module consists of 27 bare tubes due to high temperature exhaust gas and the others consist of 27 finned tubes. The maximum steam pressure of each module is 1 MPa and tested steam pressure is 0.7 MPa. In order to test these heat exchanger modules, we make a 0.5 t/h flue tube boiler (LNG, 40 Nm 3 /h). We tested the heat exchanger module with changing the position of each heat exchanger module. We measured the inlet and outlet temperature of each heat exchanger module and calculated the heat exchange rate. Based on test results, we develop a heat transfer calculation program to predict flue gas. Calculation results show that temperature and temperature difference between measured and calculated flue gas exit temperature is less than 20 .deg. C when flue gas inlet temperature is 620 .deg. C.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pavanello, Michele [Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey 07102-1811 (United States); Van Voorhis, Troy [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4307 (United States); Visscher, Lucas [Amsterdam Center for Multiscale Modeling, VU University, De Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Neugebauer, Johannes [Theoretische Organische Chemie, Organisch-Chemisches Institut der Westfaelischen Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstrasse 40, 48149 Muenster (Germany)
2013-02-07
Quantum-mechanical methods that are both computationally fast and accurate are not yet available for electronic excitations having charge transfer character. In this work, we present a significant step forward towards this goal for those charge transfer excitations that take place between non-covalently bound molecules. In particular, we present a method that scales linearly with the number of non-covalently bound molecules in the system and is based on a two-pronged approach: The molecular electronic structure of broken-symmetry charge-localized states is obtained with the frozen density embedding formulation of subsystem density-functional theory; subsequently, in a post-SCF calculation, the full-electron Hamiltonian and overlap matrix elements among the charge-localized states are evaluated with an algorithm which takes full advantage of the subsystem DFT density partitioning technique. The method is benchmarked against coupled-cluster calculations and achieves chemical accuracy for the systems considered for intermolecular separations ranging from hydrogen-bond distances to tens of Angstroms. Numerical examples are provided for molecular clusters comprised of up to 56 non-covalently bound molecules.
Fasnacht, Z.; Qin, W.; Haffner, D. P.; Loyola, D. G.; Joiner, J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Spurr, R. J. D.
2017-12-01
In order to estimate surface reflectance used in trace gas retrieval algorithms, radiative transfer models (RTM) such as the Vector Linearized Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer Model (VLIDORT) can be used to simulate the top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiances with advanced models of surface properties. With large volumes of satellite data, these model simulations can become computationally expensive. Look up table interpolation can improve the computational cost of the calculations, but the non-linear nature of the radiances requires a dense node structure if interpolation errors are to be minimized. In order to reduce our computational effort and improve the performance of look-up tables, neural networks can be trained to predict these radiances. We investigate the impact of using look-up table interpolation versus a neural network trained using the smart sampling technique, and show that neural networks can speed up calculations and reduce errors while using significantly less memory and RTM calls. In future work we will implement a neural network in operational processing to meet growing demands for reflectance modeling in support of high spatial resolution satellite missions.
Pressure-induced absorption coefficients for radiative transfer calculations in Titan's atmosphere
Courtin, Regis
1988-01-01
The semiempirical theory of Birnbaum and Cohen (1976) is used to calculate the FIR pressure-induced absorption (PIA) spectra of N2, CH4, N2 + Ar, N2 + CH4, and N2 + H2 under conditions like those in the Titan troposphere. The results are presented graphically and compared with published data from laboratory measurements of PIA in the same gases and mixtures (Dagg et al., 1986; Dore et al., 1986). Good agreement is obtained, with only a slight underestimation of PIA at 300-400/cm in the case of CH4. The absorption coefficients are presented in tables, and it is suggested that the present findings are of value for evaluating the effects of tropospheric clouds on the Titan FIR spectrum and studying the greenhouse effect near the Titan surface.
A Study on the Consistency of Discretization Equation in Unsteady Heat Transfer Calculations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenhua Zhang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The previous studies on the consistency of discretization equation mainly focused on the finite difference method, but the issue of consistency still remains with several problems far from totally solved in the actual numerical computation. For instance, the consistency problem is involved in the numerical case where the boundary variables are solved explicitly while the variables away from the boundary are solved implicitly. And when the coefficient of discretization equation of nonlinear numerical case is the function of variables, calculating the coefficient explicitly and the variables implicitly might also give rise to consistency problem. Thus the present paper mainly researches the consistency problems involved in the explicit treatment of the second and third boundary conditions and that of thermal conductivity which is the function of temperature. The numerical results indicate that the consistency problem should be paid more attention and not be neglected in the practical computation.
Quantum mechanical calculations related to ionization and charge transfer in DNA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cauët, E; Liévin, J; Valiev, M; Weare, J H
2012-01-01
Ionization and charge migration in DNA play crucial roles in mechanisms of DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation, oxidizing agents and photo-irradiation. Therefore, an evaluation of the ionization properties of the DNA bases is central to the full interpretation and understanding of the elementary reactive processes that occur at the molecular level during the initial exposure and afterwards. Ab initio quantum mechanical (QM) methods have been successful in providing highly accurate evaluations of key parameters, such as ionization energies (IE) of DNA bases. Hence, in this study, we performed high-level QM calculations to characterize the molecular energy levels and potential energy surfaces, which shed light on ionization and charge migration between DNA bases. In particular, we examined the IEs of guanine, the most easily oxidized base, isolated and embedded in base clusters, and investigated the mechanism of charge migration over two and three stacked guanines. The IE of guanine in the human telomere sequence has also been evaluated. We report a simple molecular orbital analysis to explain how modifications in the base sequence are expected to change the efficiency of the sequence as a hole trap. Finally, the application of a hybrid approach combining quantum mechanics with molecular mechanics brings an interesting discussion as to how the native aqueous DNA environment affects the IE threshold of nucleobases.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe
Bogen er den første samlede indføring i transfer på dansk. Transfer kan anvendes som praksis-filosofikum. Den giver en systematisk indsigt til den studerende, der spørger: Hvordan kan teoretisk viden bruges til at reflektere over handlinger i situationer, der passer til min fremtidige arbejdsplads?...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chesse P.
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Usually, turbochargers used within internal combustion engine simulation software are modelled in an adiabatic manner. However, during our experimental tests we found that this is not necessarily the case. The direct use of the manufacturer’s map is not possible anymore. A simple method which considers the heat transfers is proposed. It is based on experimental tests made on hot air supplied turbocharger test bench. The difference with the adiabatic model is considerable mainly for low compressor power. This corresponds to internal combustion engine low loads. En général, les turbocompresseurs pris en compte dans les logiciels de simulation moteur sont modélisés de façon adiabatique. Cependant, les tests expérimentaux effectués au laboratoire montrent que ce n’est pas toujours le cas. L’utilisation directe des champs de fonctionnement fournis par les constructeurs de turbomachines n’est alors plus possible. Une évaluation quantitative de ces transferts, basée sur des tests réalisés sur un banc d’essais turbo à air chaud, est présentée. Puis ils sont pris en compte afin de calculer les caractéristiques réelles de fonctionnement d’un compresseur. La différence avec le modèle adiabatique apparaît très importante pour les faibles puissances compresseur. Ceci correspond aux faibles charges moteur.
Li, Changping; Park, Kihong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2015-01-01
In this letter, we propose a fast numerical solution for the steady state radiative transfer equation based on the approach in [1] in order to calculate the optical path loss of light propagation suffering from attenuation due to the absorption and scattering in various water types. We apply an optimal non-uniform method to discretize the angular space and an upwind type finite difference method to discretize the spatial space. A Gauss-Seidel iterative method is then applied to solve the fully discretized system of linear equations. Finally, we extend the resulting radiance in 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional by the azimuthal symmetric assumption to compute the received optical power under the given receiver aperture and field of view. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed scheme are validated by uniform RTE solver and Monte Carlo simulations.
Li, Changping
2015-07-22
In this letter, we propose a fast numerical solution for the steady state radiative transfer equation based on the approach in [1] in order to calculate the optical path loss of light propagation suffering from attenuation due to the absorption and scattering in various water types. We apply an optimal non-uniform method to discretize the angular space and an upwind type finite difference method to discretize the spatial space. A Gauss-Seidel iterative method is then applied to solve the fully discretized system of linear equations. Finally, we extend the resulting radiance in 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional by the azimuthal symmetric assumption to compute the received optical power under the given receiver aperture and field of view. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed scheme are validated by uniform RTE solver and Monte Carlo simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kratz, David P.
2008-01-01
Over the last quarter century, improvements in the determination of the spectroscopic characteristics of the infrared-active trace species have enhanced our ability to retrieve quantitative distributions of temperatures, clouds, and abundances for various trace species within the Earth's atmosphere. These improvements have also allowed for refinements in the estimates of climatic effects attributed to changes in the Earth's atmospheric composition. Modeling efforts, however, have frequently experienced significant delays in assimilating improved spectroscopic information. Such is the case for highly parameterized models, where considerable effort is typically required to incorporate any revisions. Thus, a line-by-line radiative transfer model has been used to investigate the magnitude of the effects resulting from modifications to the spectroscopic information. Calculations from this line-by-line model have demonstrated that recent modifications to the HITRAN (High Resolution Transmission) line parameters, the continuum formulation, and the CO 2 line-mixing formulation can significantly affect the interpretation of the high spectral resolution radiance and brightness temperature retrievals. For certain moderate-resolution satellite remote sensing channels, modifications to these spectroscopic parameters and formulations have shown the capacity to induce changes in the calculated radiances equivalent to brightness temperature differences of 1-2 K. Model calculations have further shown that modifications of the spectroscopic characteristics tend to have a modest effect on the determination of spectrally integrated radiances, fluxes, and radiative forcing estimates, with the largest differences being of order 1 W m -2 for the total thermal infrared fluxes, and of order 2-3% of the calculated radiative forcing at the tropopause attributed to the combined doubling of CO 2 , N 2 O, and CH 4 . The results from this investigation are intended to function as a guide to
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper reports on further studies on long range energy transfer between curcumine as donor and another thiazine dye, thionine, which is closely related to methylene blue as energy harvester (Figure 1). Since thionine is known to have a higher quantum yield of singlet oxygen sensitization than methylene blue [8], it is ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rak, Zs.; Rost, C. M.; Lim, M.; Maria, J.-P.; Brenner, D. W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7907 (United States); Sarker, P.; Toher, C.; Curtarolo, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and Center for Materials Genomics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)
2016-09-07
Density functional theory calculations were carried out for three entropic rocksalt oxides, (Mg{sub 0.1}Co{sub 0.1}Ni{sub 0.1}Cu{sub 0.1}Zn{sub 0.1})O{sub 0.5}, termed J14, and J14 + Li and J14 + Sc, to understand the role of charge neutrality and electronic states on their properties, and to probe whether simple expressions may exist that predict stability. The calculations predict that the average lattice constants of the ternary structures provide good approximations to that of the random structures. For J14, Bader charges are transferable between the binary, ternary, and random structures. For J14 + Sc and J14 + Li, average Bader charges in the entropic structures can be estimated from the ternary compositions. Addition of Sc to J14 reduces the majority of Cu, which show large displacements from ideal lattice sites, along with reduction of a few Co and Ni cations. Addition of Li to J14 reduces the lattice constant, consistent with experiment, and oxidizes some of Co as well as some of Ni and Cu. The Bader charges and spin-resolved density of states (DOS) for Co{sup +3} in J14 + Li are very different from Co{sup +2}, while for Cu and Ni the Bader charges form continuous distributions and the two DOS are similar for the two oxidation states. Experimental detection of different oxidation states may therefore be challenging for Cu and Ni compared to Co. Based on these results, empirical stability parameters for these entropic oxides may be more complicated than those for non-oxide entropic solids.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marsolat, F; De Marzi, L; Mazal, A; Pouzoulet, F
2016-01-01
In proton therapy, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) depends on various types of parameters such as linear energy transfer (LET). An analytical model for LET calculation exists (Wilkens’ model), but secondary particles are not included in this model. In the present study, we propose a correction factor, L sec , for Wilkens’ model in order to take into account the LET contributions of certain secondary particles. This study includes secondary protons and deuterons, since the effects of these two types of particles can be described by the same RBE-LET relationship. L sec was evaluated by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the GATE/GEANT4 platform and was defined by the ratio of the LET d distributions of all protons and deuterons and only primary protons. This method was applied to the innovative Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS) delivery systems and L sec was evaluated along the beam axis. This correction factor indicates the high contribution of secondary particles in the entrance region, with L sec values higher than 1.6 for a 220 MeV clinical pencil beam. MC simulations showed the impact of pencil beam parameters, such as mean initial energy, spot size, and depth in water, on L sec . The variation of L sec with these different parameters was integrated in a polynomial function of the L sec factor in order to obtain a model universally applicable to all PBS delivery systems. The validity of this correction factor applied to Wilkens’ model was verified along the beam axis of various pencil beams in comparison with MC simulations. A good agreement was obtained between the corrected analytical model and the MC calculations, with mean-LET deviations along the beam axis less than 0.05 keV μm −1 . These results demonstrate the efficacy of our new correction of the existing LET model in order to take into account secondary protons and deuterons along the pencil beam axis. (paper)
Accuracy and Transferability of Ab Initio Electronic Band Structure Calculations for Doped BiFeO3
Gebhardt, Julian; Rappe, Andrew M.
2017-11-01
BiFeO3 is a multiferroic material and, therefore, highly interesting with respect to future oxide electronics. In order to realize such devices, pn junctions need to be fabricated, which are currently impeded by the lack of successful p-type doping in this material. In order to guide the numerous research efforts in this field, we recently finished a comprehensive computational study, investigating the influence of many dopants onto the electronic structure of BiFeO3. In order to allow for this large scale ab initio study, the computational setup had to be accurate and efficient. Here we discuss the details of this assessment, showing that standard density-functional theory (DFT) yields good structural properties. The obtained electronic structure, however, suffers from well-known shortcomings. By comparing the conventional DFT results for alkali and alkaline-earth metal doping with more accurate hybrid-DFT calculations, we show that, in this case, the problems of standard DFT go beyond a simple systematic error. Conventional DFT shows bad transferability and the more reliable hybrid-DFT has to be chosen for a qualitatively correct prediction of doping induced changes in the electronic structure of BiFeO3.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clough, S.A.
1993-01-01
In the present study we are studying the effects of including carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, and the halocarbons in addition to water vapor in the radiating atmosphere. The study has focused on two principal issues: the effect on the spectral fluxes and cooling rates of carbon dioxide, ozone and the halocarbons at 1990 concentration levels and the change in fluxes and cooling rates as a consequence of the anticipated ten year change in the profiles of these species. For the latter study the water vapor profiles have been taken as invariant in time. The radiative line-by-line calculations using LBLRTM (Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model) have been performed for tropical (TRP), mid-latitude winter (MLW) and mid-latitude summer (MLS) model atmospheres. The halocarbons considered in the present study are CCl 4 , CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-22. In addition to considering the radiative effects of carbon dioxide at 355 ppM, the assumed current level, we have also obtained results for doubled carbon dioxide at 710 ppM. An important focus of the current research effort is the effect of the ozone depletion profile on atmospheric radiative effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Midori; Tanimura, Yoshitaka
2010-01-01
Multiple displaced oscillators coupled to an Ohmic heat bath are used to describe electron transfer (ET) in a dissipative environment. By performing a canonical transformation, the model is reduced to a multilevel system coupled to a heat bath with the Brownian spectral distribution. A reduced hierarchy equations of motion approach is introduced for numerically rigorous simulation of the dynamics of the three-level system with various oscillator configurations, for different nonadiabatic coupling strengths and damping rates, and at different temperatures. The time evolution of the reduced density matrix elements illustrates the interplay of coherences between the electronic and vibrational states. The ET reaction rates, defined as a flux-flux correlation function, are calculated using the linear response of the system to an external perturbation as a function of activation energy. The results exhibit an asymmetric inverted parabolic profile in a small activation regime due to the presence of the intermediate state between the reactant and product states and a slowly decaying profile in a large activation energy regime, which arises from the quantum coherent transitions.
Müller, Dirk K; Pampel, André; Möller, Harald E
2013-05-01
Quantification of magnetization-transfer (MT) experiments are typically based on the assumption of the binary spin-bath model. This model allows for the extraction of up to six parameters (relative pool sizes, relaxation times, and exchange rate constants) for the characterization of macromolecules, which are coupled via exchange processes to the water in tissues. Here, an approach is presented for estimating MT parameters acquired with arbitrary saturation schemes and imaging pulse sequences. It uses matrix algebra to solve the Bloch-McConnell equations without unwarranted simplifications, such as assuming steady-state conditions for pulsed saturation schemes or neglecting imaging pulses. The algorithm achieves sufficient efficiency for voxel-by-voxel MT parameter estimations by using a polynomial interpolation technique. Simulations, as well as experiments in agar gels with continuous-wave and pulsed MT preparation, were performed for validation and for assessing approximations in previous modeling approaches. In vivo experiments in the normal human brain yielded results that were consistent with published data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hellström, Matti; Spångberg, Daniel; Hermansson, Kersti
2015-12-15
We assess the consequences of the interface model-embedded-cluster or periodic-slab model-on the ability of DFT calculations to describe charge transfer (CT) in a particularly challenging case where periodic-slab calculations indicate a delocalized charge-transfer state. Our example is Cu atom adsorption on ZnO(10(1)0), and in fact the periodic slab calculations indicate three types of CT depending on the adsorption site: full CT, partial CT, and no CT. Interestingly, when full CT occurs in the periodic calculations, the calculated Cu atom adsorption energy depends on the underlying ZnO substrate supercell size, since when the electron enters the ZnO it delocalizes over as many atoms as possible. In the embedded-cluster calculations, the electron transferred to the ZnO delocalizes over the entire cluster region, and as a result the calculated Cu atom adsorption energy does not agree with the value obtained using a large periodic supercell, but instead to the adsorption energy obtained for a periodic supercell of roughly the same size as the embedded cluster. Different density functionals (of GGA and hybrid types) and basis sets (local atom-centered and plane-waves) were assessed, and we show that embedded clusters can be used to model Cu adsorption on ZnO(10(1)0), as long as care is taken to account for the effects of CT. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Schartmann, M.; Meisenheimer, K.; Camenzind, M.; Wolf, S.; Henning, Th.
2005-07-01
We explore physically self-consistent models of dusty molecular tori in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) with the goal of interpreting VLTI observations and fitting high resolution mid-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The input dust distribution is analytically calculated by assuming hydrostatic equilibrium between pressure forces - due to the turbulent motion of the gas clouds - and gravitational and centrifugal forces as a result of the contribution of the nuclear stellar distribution and the central black hole. For a fully three-dimensional treatment of the radiative transfer problem through the tori we employ the Monte Carlo code MC3D. We find that in homogeneous dust distributions the observed mid-infrared emission is dominated by the inner funnel of the torus, even when observing along the equatorial plane. Therefore, the stratification of the distribution of dust grains - both in terms of size and composition - cannot be neglected. In the current study we only include the effect of different sublimation radii which significantly alters the SED in comparison to models that assume an average dust grain property with a common sublimation radius, and suppresses the silicate emission feature at 9.7~μm. In this way we are able to fit the mean SED of both type I and type II AGN very well. Our fit of special objects for which high angular resolution observations (≤0.3´´) are available indicates that the hottest dust in NGC 1068 reaches the sublimation temperature while the maximum dust temperature in the low-luminosity AGN Circinus falls short of 1000 K.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kubas, Adam; Blumberger, Jochen, E-mail: j.blumberger@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hoffmann, Felix [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Lehrstuhl für Theoretische Chemie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstr. 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany); Heck, Alexander; Elstner, Marcus [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Fritz-Haber-Weg 6, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Oberhofer, Harald [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Munich, Lichtenbergstr. 4, 85747 Garching (Germany)
2014-03-14
We introduce a database (HAB11) of electronic coupling matrix elements (H{sub ab}) for electron transfer in 11 π-conjugated organic homo-dimer cations. High-level ab inito calculations at the multireference configuration interaction MRCI+Q level of theory, n-electron valence state perturbation theory NEVPT2, and (spin-component scaled) approximate coupled cluster model (SCS)-CC2 are reported for this database to assess the performance of three DFT methods of decreasing computational cost, including constrained density functional theory (CDFT), fragment-orbital DFT (FODFT), and self-consistent charge density functional tight-binding (FODFTB). We find that the CDFT approach in combination with a modified PBE functional containing 50% Hartree-Fock exchange gives best results for absolute H{sub ab} values (mean relative unsigned error = 5.3%) and exponential distance decay constants β (4.3%). CDFT in combination with pure PBE overestimates couplings by 38.7% due to a too diffuse excess charge distribution, whereas the economic FODFT and highly cost-effective FODFTB methods underestimate couplings by 37.6% and 42.4%, respectively, due to neglect of interaction between donor and acceptor. The errors are systematic, however, and can be significantly reduced by applying a uniform scaling factor for each method. Applications to dimers outside the database, specifically rotated thiophene dimers and larger acenes up to pentacene, suggests that the same scaling procedure significantly improves the FODFT and FODFTB results for larger π-conjugated systems relevant to organic semiconductors and DNA.
Collier, G.; Gibson, G.
1968-01-01
FORTRAN 4 program /P1-GAS/ calculates the P-O and P-1 transfer matrices for neutron moderation in a monatomic gas. The equations used are based on the conditions that there is isotropic scattering in the center-of-mass coordinate system, the scattering cross section is constant, and the target nuclear velocities satisfy a Maxwellian distribution.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ritschel, Gerhard; Roden, Jan; Eisfeld, Alexander; Strunz, Walter T
2011-01-01
A master equation derived from non-Markovian quantum state diffusion is used to calculate the excitation energy transfer in the photosynthetic Fenna-Matthews-Olson pigment-protein complex at various temperatures. This approach allows us to treat spectral densities that explicitly contain the coupling to internal vibrational modes of the chromophores. Moreover, the method is very efficient and as a result the transfer dynamics can be calculated within about 1 min on a standard PC, making systematic investigations w.r.t. parameter variations tractable. After demonstrating that our approach is able to reproduce the results of the numerically exact hierarchical equations of motion approach, we show how the inclusion of vibrational modes influences the transfer. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1998-04-01
The Secretary of Energy is authorized to produce the Naval Petroleum Reserves No. 3 (NPR-3) at its maximum efficient rate (MER) consistent with sound engineering practices, for a period extending to April 5, 2000 subject to extension. Production at NPR-3 peaked in 1981 and has declined since until it has become a mature stripper field, with the average well yielding less than 2 barrels per day. The Department of Energy (DOE) has decided to discontinue Federal operation of NPR-3 at the end of its life as an economically viable oilfield currently estimated to be 2003. Although changes in oil and gas markets or shifts in national policy could alter the economic limit of NPR-3, it productive life will be determined largely by a small and declining reserve base. DOE is proposing certain activities over the next six years in anticipation of the possible transfer of NPR-3 out of Federal operation. These activities would include the accelerated plugging and abandoning of uneconomic wells, complete reclamation and restoration of abandoned sites including dismantling surface facilities, batteries, roads, test satellites, electrical distribution systems and associated power poles, when they are no longer needed for production, and the continued development of the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC). DOE has prepared this environmental assessment that analyzes the proposed plugging and abandonment of wells, field restoration and development of RMOTC. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE finds that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). The preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1998-04-01
The Secretary of Energy is authorized to produce the Naval Petroleum Reserves No. 3 (NPR-3) at its maximum efficient rate (MER) consistent with sound engineering practices, for a period extending to April 5, 2000 subject to extension. Production at NPR-3 peaked in 1981 and has declined since until it has become a mature stripper field, with the average well yielding less than 2 barrels per day. The Department of Energy (DOE) has decided to discontinue Federal operation of NPR-3 at the end of its life as an economically viable oilfield currently estimated to be 2003. Although changes in oil and gas markets or shifts in national policy could alter the economic limit of NPR-3, it productive life will be determined largely by a small and declining reserve base. DOE is proposing certain activities over the next six years in anticipation of the possible transfer of NPR-3 out of Federal operation. These activities would include the accelerated plugging and abandoning of uneconomic wells, complete reclamation and restoration of abandoned sites including dismantling surface facilities, batteries, roads, test satellites, electrical distribution systems and associated power poles, when they are no longer needed for production, and the continued development of the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC). DOE has prepared this environmental assessment that analyzes the proposed plugging and abandonment of wells, field restoration and development of RMOTC. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE finds that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). The preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Souza Amaral Filho, J.B. de
1991-12-31
This dissertation makes the analysis of resources transfer and centralization in Brazilian electrical sector, through reversion global reserve (RGR) and guarantee global reserve (GGR). RGR and GGR are funds. RGR finances sectorial investments in electric power and GGR aims the supply of deficient concessionaires. Governmental investments and the results of this application are showing. (M.V.M.). 55 refs, 2 figs, 61 tabs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Souza Amaral Filho, J.B. de
1992-12-31
This dissertation makes the analysis of resources transfer and centralization in Brazilian electrical sector, through reversion global reserve (RGR) and guarantee global reserve (GGR). RGR and GGR are funds. RGR finances sectorial investments in electric power and GGR aims the supply of deficient concessionaires. Governmental investments and the results of this application are showing. (M.V.M.). 55 refs, 2 figs, 61 tabs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baptista Filho, B.D.; Konuk, A.A.
1981-01-01
A new method to calculate pressure drop (Δp) and shell-side heat transfer coefficient (h sub(c)) in a shell-and-tube heat exchanger with segmental baffles is presented. The method is based on the solution of the equations of conservation of mass and momentum between two baffles. The calculated distributions of pressure and velocities given respectively, Δp and h sub(c). The values of Δp and h sub(c) are correlated for a given geometry whit the shell side fluid properties and flow rate. The calculated and experimental results agree very well for a U-Tube heat exchanger. (Author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhaylov, A.V.; Moryakov, A.V.; Nikitin, A.V.
2012-09-01
. This mode makes it possible to simulate partial core refueling and reactor operation during several campaigns. With this done, the code will calculate the pHt and the solubility of spinel in the form of Fe 3-x Ni x O 4 . The next step is to solve the system of differential equations describing mass-transfer of non-irradiated and radioactive corrosion products. The total number of differential equations in the system can come to about a million, which leads to tougher requirements imposed on the hardware and more complicated input data setting. These difficulties are overcome with the help of the user-friendly interface and by the availability of two code versions - one designed for use at the IBM PC-compatible computer and the other for multiprocessor computer applications. While running, the code checks on the correctness of numerical computation and visualises the results as: - 3-D graphs in the axes of 'computation area - time - functional value'; - 2-D graphs (with the axes set by the user at will) and tables. (authors)
Garcia, F; Arruda-Neto, J D; Manso, M V; Helene, O M; Vanin, V R; Rodriguez, O; Mesa, J; Likhachev, V P; Filho, J W; Deppman, A; Perez, G; Guzman, F; de Camargo, S P
1999-10-01
A new and simple statistical procedure (STATFLUX) for the calculation of transfer coefficients of radionuclide transport to animals and plants is proposed. The method is based on the general multiple-compartment model, which uses a system of linear equations involving geometrical volume considerations. By using experimentally available curves of radionuclide concentrations versus time, for each animal compartment (organs), flow parameters were estimated by employing a least-squares procedure, whose consistency is tested. Some numerical results are presented in order to compare the STATFLUX transfer coefficients with those from other works and experimental data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia, F.; Manso, M.V.; Rodriguez, O.; Mesa, J.; Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Helene, O.M.; Vanin, V.R.; Likhachev, V.P.; Pereira Filho, J.W.; Deppman, A.; Perez, G.; Guzman, F.; Camargo, S.P. de
1999-01-01
A new and simple statistical procedure (STATFLUX) for the calculation of transfer coefficients of radionuclide transport to animals and plants is proposed. The method is based on the general multiple-compartment model, which uses a system of linear equations involving geometrical volume considerations. By using experimentally available curves of radionuclide concentrations versus time, for each animal compartment (organs), flow parameters were estimated by employing a least-squares procedure, whose consistency is tested. Some numerical results are presented in order to compare the STATFLUX transfer coefficients with those from other works and experimental data. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dalby, Arne Brejning
1994-01-01
A flow graph relating voltages and the forward and reflected propagation modes (¿ TEM) on multiple coupled transmission lines in an inhomogeneous dielectric medium is presented. This flow graph directy gives the different transfer functions, including S-parameters, in matrix form needed to calcul......A flow graph relating voltages and the forward and reflected propagation modes (¿ TEM) on multiple coupled transmission lines in an inhomogeneous dielectric medium is presented. This flow graph directy gives the different transfer functions, including S-parameters, in matrix form needed...
Fasnacht, Zachary; Qin, Wenhan; Haffner, David P.; Loyola, Diego; Joiner, Joanna; Krotkov, Nickolay; Vasilkov, Alexander; Spurr, Robert
2017-01-01
Surface Lambertian-equivalent reflectivity (LER) is important for trace gas retrievals in the direct calculation of cloud fractions and indirect calculation of the air mass factor. Current trace gas retrievals use climatological surface LER's. Surface properties that impact the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) as well as varying satellite viewing geometry can be important for retrieval of trace gases. Geometry Dependent LER (GLER) captures these effects with its calculation of sun normalized radiances (I/F) and can be used in current LER algorithms (Vasilkov et al. 2016). Pixel by pixel radiative transfer calculations are computationally expensive for large datasets. Modern satellite missions such as the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) produce very large datasets as they take measurements at much higher spatial and spectral resolutions. Look up table (LUT) interpolation improves the speed of radiative transfer calculations but complexity increases for non-linear functions. Neural networks perform fast calculations and can accurately predict both non-linear and linear functions with little effort.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loensjoe, H.; Rosen, K.; Haak, E.
1990-01-01
Extensive studies on the transfer of radiocaesium from soil to agricultural products under long term field conditions have been performed in Sweden since 1961. Effects of various remedial measures to be taken after farm land contamination have been studied in long term microplot experiments, in ploughing experiments and in conventional field experiments in Chernobyl fallout areas. Furthermore, the transfer of radiocaesium in various farm ecosystems, as influenced by farm management practices and the line of production applied, has been calculated. Fertilization with potassium has been found to effectively reduce the transfer of radiocaesium from the soil to various crops. The best effects were found on peat and sandy soils in the Chernobyl fallout areas, where a reduction by a factor of 2-5 or more has been recorded. Also, on clay soils heavy K application was found to depress the Cs transfer appreciably. Placement of the nuclide below the normal ploughing depth reduced the Cs transfer by a factor of 2-3 as compared with the effect of a homogeneous distribution in the plough layer. With a combination of deep placement and K fertilization a reduction by a factor of 10 or more has been obtained. It seems possible to reduce the caesium transfer from soil to food by a factor of 5-10 by changing the line of production on a farm in various ways. (author). 12 refs, 5 tabs
Feldbauer, Gregor; Wolloch, Michael; Bedolla, Pedro O.; Redinger, Josef; Vernes, András; Mohn, Peter
2018-03-01
The effect of monolayers of oxygen (O) and hydrogen (H) on the possibility of material transfer at aluminium/titanium nitride (Al/TiN) and copper/diamond (Cu/Cdia) interfaces, respectively, were investigated within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). To this end the approach, contact, and subsequent separation of two atomically flat surfaces consisting of the aforementioned pairs of materials were simulated. These calculations were performed for the clean as well as oxygenated and hydrogenated Al and Cdia surfaces, respectively. Various contact configurations were considered by studying several lateral arrangements of the involved surfaces at the interface. Material transfer is typically possible at interfaces between the investigated clean surfaces; however, the addition of O to the Al and H to the Cdia surfaces was found to hinder material transfer. This passivation occurs because of a significant reduction of the adhesion energy at the examined interfaces, which can be explained by the distinct bonding situations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vladimir A Kurganov; Yuri A Zeigarnik
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: Using of the supercritical-pressure (SCP) water as a working medium is an apparent way to increase specific capacity and economic efficiency of nuclear power installations. Nevertheless, to provide safe operation of SCP nuclear power units, it is necessary to considerably improve reliability and accuracy of calculations of pressure drop and heat transfer in the SCP working media and coolants flows and the methods of forecasting such a dangerous phenomenon as deterioration of the turbulent heat transfer at a certain level of heat flux density. A value of the latter changes within a very large range depending on the specific conditions of the process under consideration. In the paper, the main results of the experimental study of heat transfer, pressure drop, and velocity and temperature fields in both upward and downward flows of the SCP CO 2 in tubes are considered. This study was conducted at OIVT RAN under conditions of heat input and embraced the regimes of normal and deteriorated heat transfer as well. On the basis of this data, the concept regarding to physical mechanism of incipience of the regimes of deteriorated heat transfer was developed. Classification of different modes of heat transfer deterioration in vertical channels is proposed. A degree of a danger of certain regimes is assessed. It is shown that the above phenomenon is caused by transformation of the structure of nonisothermal flow of SCP fluid due to changes in proportions between the forces acting upon a flow, specifically, because of an increase in the inertia forces due to thermal acceleration of a flow and/or in Archimedes' (buoyancy) forces up to the level comparable or higher than that of friction forces. The efficiency of the most thorough correlations for calculating normal and deteriorated heat transfer in flows of SCP water and CO 2 is analyzed. Reliability of existed recommendations to determine boundaries of normal heat transfer regimes is considered
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eaton, R R; Reda, D C [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)
1982-06-01
This study assesses the relative influence of convective-energy transfer on predicted temperature distributions for a nuclear-waste repository located in water-saturated rock. Using results for energy transfer by conduction only (no water motion) as a basis of comparison, it is shown that a considerable amount of energy can be removed from the repository by pumping out water that migrates into the drift from regions adjacent to the buried waste canisters. Furthermore, the results show that the influence of convective-energy transfer on mine drift cooling requirements can be significant for cases where the in-situ permeability of the rock is greater than one millidarcy (a regime potentially encountered in repository scenarios).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Koncipko Natal'ja Vladimirovna
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Reindustrialization of the national economy of Russia in the conditions of tightening economic sanctions poses industrial corporations, particularly with state participation, the task of effective and rational use of private sources of funding. Today it is largely depends on the chosen and implemented, in fact, depreciation strategy of the state. In this regard, the main scientific idea of the article is in the economic justification of the amounts of material benefit when implementing different approaches for the calculation of depreciation in real terms of modern tax legislation of the Russian Federation. The object of the study selected the process of formation of own sources of financing of economic activity in conditions of re-industrialization of the domestic industry. The study serve as a methodological approaches used in practice to develop the depreciation policy, including methods and techniques to calculate the material benefits of different scenarios for the replenishment of own sources of financing production. To the main scientific result of the research is proposed by the authors of the financial mechanism of the formation and replenishment of own sources of financing is presented as a multi-level relationship between subjects and objects, principles and methods, including scenarios, tools, and methods of forming the effective depreciation policy (strategy of individual corporations and their groups. The proposed definition of effective depreciation policy under which the table presents the calculation of depreciation using bonus depreciation linear and nonlinear methods, which show the maximization depreciation income and minimize tax exemptions. For example, the economic activities of industrial corporations proved the legality of obtaining the maximum tax values, on the one hand, and economic (material benefits, on the other, and in the current field of modern Russian tax legislation.
Jana, Sankar; Dalapati, Sasanka; Ghosh, Shalini; Kar, Samiran; Guchhait, Nikhil
2011-07-01
The excited state intramolecular charge transfer process in donor-chromophore-acceptor system 5-(4-dimethylamino-phenyl)-penta-2,4-dienenitrile (DMAPPDN) has been investigated by steady state absorption and emission spectroscopy in combination with Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. This flexible donor acceptor molecule DMAPPDN shows dual fluorescence corresponding to emission from locally excited and charge transfer state in polar solvent. Large solvatochromic emission shift, effect of variation of pH and HOMO-LUMO molecular orbital pictures support excited state intramolecular charge transfer process. The experimental findings have been correlated with the calculated structure and potential energy surfaces based on the Twisted Intramolecular Charge Transfer (TICT) model obtained at DFT level using B3LYP functional and 6-31+G( d, p) basis set. The theoretical potential energy surfaces for the excited states have been generated in vacuo and acetonitrile solvent using Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) and Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Polarized Continuum Model (TDDFT-PCM) method, respectively. All the theoretical results show well agreement with the experimental observations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rustad, James R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Felmy, Andrew R.
2004-01-01
We present a molecular model for ferrous-ferric electron transfer in an aqueous solution that accounts for electronic polarizability and exhibits spontaneous cation hydrolysis. An extended Lagrangian technique is introduced for carrying out calculations of electron-transfer barriers in polarizable systems. The model predicts that the diabatic barrier to electron transfer increases with increasing pH, due to stabilization of the Fe 3+ by fluctuations in the number of hydroxide ions in its first coordination sphere, in much the same way as the barrier would increase with increasing dielectric constant in the Marcus theory. We have also calculated the effect of pH on the potential of mean force between two hydrolyzing ions in aqueous solution. As expected, increasing pH reduces the potential of mean force between the ferrous and ferric ions in the model system. The magnitudes of the predicted increase in diabatic transfer barrier and the predicted decrease in the potential of mean force nearly cancel each other at the canonical transfer distance of 0.55 nm. Even though hydrolysis is allowed in our calculations, the distribution of reorganization energies has only one maximum and is Gaussian to an excellent approximation, giving a harmonic free energy surface in the reorganization energy F(ΔE) with a single minimum. There is thus a surprising amount of overlap in electron-transfer reorganization energies for Fe 2+ -Fe(H 2 O) 6 3+ , Fe 2+ -Fe(OH)(H 2 O) 5 2+ , and Fe 2+ -Fe(OH) 2 (H 2 O) + couples, indicating that fluctuations in hydrolysis state can be viewed on a continuum with other solvent contributions to the reorganization energy. There appears to be little justification for thinking of the transfer rate as arising from the contributions of different hydrolysis states. Electronic structure calculations indicate that Fe(H 2 O) 6 2+ -Fe(OH) n (H 2 O) 6-n (3-n)+ complexes interacting through H 3 O 2 - bridges do not have large electronic couplings
Ihalainen, J.A.; Linnanto, J.; Myllyperkiö, P.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Ücker, B.; Scheer, H.; Korppi-Tommola, J.E.I.
2001-01-01
Two color transient absorption measurements were performed on a LH2 complex from Rhodospirillum molischianum by using several excitation wavelengths (790, 800, 810, and 830 nm) and probing in the spectral region from 790 to 870 nm at room temperature. The observed energy transfer time of ∼1.0 ps
Ihalainen, J.A.; Linnanto, J.; Myllyperkio, P.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Ucker, B.; Scheer, H.; Korppi-Tommola, J.E.I.
2001-01-01
Two color transient absorption measurements were performed on a LH2 complex from Rhodospirillum molischianum by using several excitation wavelengths (790, 800, 810, and 830 nm) and probing in the spectral region from 790 to 870 nm at room temperature. The observed energy transfer time of ∼1.0 ps
Zbiri, M.; Johnson, M.R.; Kearley, G.J.; Mulder, F.M.
2009-01-01
We investigate the effect of structural fluctuations on charge transfer integrals, overlap integrals, and site energies in a system of two stacked molecular 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakishexyloxytriphenylene (HAT6), which is a model system for conducting devices in organic photocell applications. A density
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Mikolajczyk, M. M.; Zalesny, R.; Czyznikowska, Z.; Toman, Petr; Leszczynski, J.; Bartkowiak, W.
2011-01-01
Roč. 17, č. 9 (2011), s. 2143-2149 ISSN 1610-2940 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/10/2280; GA MŠk MEB051010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : charge-transfer integral * density functional theory * long-range corrected functionals Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.797, year: 2011
Chen, Tao; Zhu, Shaobing; Li, Xiaolin; Qian, Jun; Wang, Yuzhu
2014-06-01
Using fitted model potential curves of the ground and lowest three excited states yielded by the relativistic Kramers-restricted multireference configuration interaction method with 19 electrons correlated, we theoretically investigate the rovibrational properties including the number of vibrational state and diagonally distributed Franck-Condon factors for a 87Rb84Sr molecule. Benefiting from a turning point at about v'=20 for the Franck-Condon factors between the ground state and spin-orbit 2(Ω=1/2) excited state, we choose |2(Ω=1/2),v'=21,J'=1> as the intermediate state in the three-level model to theoretically analyze the possibility of performing stimulated Raman adiabatic passage to transfer weakly bound RbSr molecules to the rovibrational ground state. With 1550 nm pump laser (2 W/cm2) and 1342 nm dump laser (10 mW/cm2) employed and appropriate settings of pulse time length (about 300 μs), we have formalistically achieved a round-trip transfer efficiency of 60%, namely 77% for one-way transfer. The results demonstrate the possibility of producing polar 87Rb84Sr molecules efficiently in a submicrokelvin regime, and further provide promising directions for future theoretical and experimental studies on alkali-alkaline(rare)-earth dimers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winzer, A.
1978-01-01
It is shown that a direct proportionality exists between the activation energy for the mass transfer at the respective crystal faces of ionic crystals and the frequency of the phonones (longitudinal-optical), Planck's constant being found once more as a proportionality constant. Thus it could be demonstrated that the different activation energies measured at different time intervals for the mass transfer processes at phase boundaries of ionic crystals can be attributed to the specific growth of the crystal faces. Thus, NaCl crystal fractions which were mechanically stressed (pulverized and sifted) and consequently contained a great amount of [111]- and [110]-faces, respectively, experimentally yielded an activation energy which agrees with the values determined by quantum theory when the frequency of propagation of the phonons is inserted into a derived equation. This relation was also confirmed by NaCl crystal fractions predominantly containing cubic faces. This also indicates that in mass transfer processes on phase boundaries of ionic crystals quantum mechanical laws are of importance. (author)
Komarov, I. I.; Rostova, D. M.; Vegera, A. N.
2017-11-01
This paper presents the results of study on determination of degree and nature of influence of operating conditions of burner units and flare geometric parameters on the heat transfer in a combustion chamber of the fire-tube boilers. Change in values of the outlet gas temperature, the radiant and convective specific heat flow rate with appropriate modification of an expansion angle and a flare length was determined using Ansys CFX software package. Difference between values of total heat flow and bulk temperature of gases at the flue tube outlet calculated using the known methods for thermal calculation and defined during the mathematical simulation was determined. Shortcomings of used calculation methods based on the results of a study conducted were identified and areas for their improvement were outlined.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vladimir Ya Kumaev; Andrei A Lebezov; Victor V Alexeev
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: The report is devoted to the development and application of the two-dimensional MASKA-LM computer code intended for numerical calculations of lead coolant flows, temperatures and transport of impurities in BREST-type reactors of the integral design. The description of heat and mass transfer in liquid metal systems, proceeding in the coolant and at the interface 'coolant - structural materials', is a complex problem involving the joint simulation of thermal-hydraulic, physical and chemical processes in view of the real configuration of the reactor circuit. The report presents the state-of-the-art in the development of the two-dimensional code MASKA-LM and the results of trial calculations of heat and mass transfer in the primary circuit of the lead cooled reactor. The set of governing equations to be solved is based on the porous body model and describes the thermal-hydraulic processes in the reactor as a whole. The numerical method for solution of the governing equations is discussed. To check the code workability and study the technique by the way of solution of a particular task, calculations were performed in reference to the chosen version of the lead cooled BREST reactor under design. The examined domain of the reactor was simulated by a porous body with the parameters corresponding to those of the real reactor medium in terms of heat generation, resistance and the geometry of the hydraulic path of coolant. Analysis of the calculated two-dimensional fields of velocities, pressure and temperatures shows the existence of a complex coolant flow with stagnant and vortex zones. A nonuniform distribution of the coolant flow rate along the core radius was obtained. The results of calculations of the impurity transport of iron, oxygen and magnetite in the primary reactor circuit are discussed as well. The developed code MASKA-LM allows one to evaluate the issue of components of structural materials into coolant as impurities, their
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drozdowicz, K.
1995-01-01
A comprehensive unified description of the application of Granada's Synthetic Model to the slow-neutron scattering by the molecular systems is continued. Detailed formulae for the zero-order energy transfer kernel are presented basing on the general formalism of the model. An explicit analytical formula for the total scattering cross section as a function of the incident neutron energy is also obtained. Expressions of the free gas model for the zero-order scattering kernel and for total scattering kernel are considered as a sub-case of the Synthetic Model. (author). 10 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubota, Tomohiro; Samukawa, Seiji; Watanabe, Naoki; Ohtsuka, Shingo; Iwasaki, Takuya; Ono, Kohei; Iriye, Yasuroh
2014-01-01
The charge transfer process between chlorine particles (ions or neutrals) and a graphite surface on collision was investigated by using a highly stable numerical simulator based on time-dependent density functional theory to understand the generation mechanism of a high-efficiency neutral beam developed by Samukawa et al (2001 Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 40 L779). A straightforward calculation was achieved by adopting a large enough unit cell. The dependence of the neutralization efficiency on the incident energy of the particle was investigated, and the trend of the experimental result was reproduced. It was also found that doping the electrons and holes into graphite could change the charge transfer process and neutralization probability. This result suggests that it is possible to develop a neutral beam source that has high neutralization efficiency for both positive and negative ions. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uehara, Yasushi; Uchida, Shunsuke; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Koshizuka, Seiichi
2009-01-01
In order to predict and mitigate flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) of carbon steel piping in PWR and BWR secondary systems, computer program packages for evaluating FAC have been developed by coupling one through three dimensional (1-3D) computational flow dynamics (CFD) models and corrosion models. To evaluate corrosive conditions, e.g., oxygen concentration and electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) along the flow path, flow pattern and temperature in each elemental volume were obtained with 1D computational flow dynamics (CFD) codes. Precise flow turbulence and mass transfer coefficients at the structure surface were calculated with 3D CFD codes to determine wall thinning rates. One of the engineering options is application of k-ε calculation as a 3D CFD code, which has limitation of detail evaluation of flow distribution at very surface of large scale piping. A combination of k-ε calculation and wall function was proposed to evaluate precise distribution of mass transfer coefficients with reasonable CPU volume and computing time and, at the same time, reasonable accuracy. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yousefkhani, M. Baghban; Ghadamian, H.; Massoudi, A.; Aminy, M.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Investigation of fuel utilization in PEMFC within transfer phenomenon approach. • The main defect of the theoretical calculation of U_F depends on Nernst equation. • U_F has a differential nature so it is employed to do theoretical calculation. - Abstract: In this study, fuel utilization (U_F) of a PEMFC have been investigated within transfer phenomenon approach. Description of the U_F and fuel consumption measurement is the main factor to obtain the U_F. The differences between the experimental study and theoretical calculations results in the previous research articles reveal the available theoretical equations should be studied more based on the fundamental affairs of the U_F. Hence, there is a substantial issue that the U_F description satisfies the principles, and then it can be validated by the experimental results. The results of this study indicate that the U_F and power grew by 1.1% and 1%, respectively, based on one degree increased temperature. In addition, for every 1 kPa pressure increment, U_F improved considerably by 0.25% and 0.173% in the 40 °C and 80 °C, respectively. Furthermore, in the constant temperature, the power improved by 22% based on one atmospheric growth of the pressure. Results of this research show that the U_F has a differential nature, therefore differential equations will be employed to do an accurate theoretical calculation. Accordingly, it seems that the main defect of the theoretical calculation depends on Nernst equation that can be modified by a differential nature coefficient.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rhodes, C.A.
1984-12-01
This report describes the computer program COXPRO-II, which was written for performing thermal analyses of irradiated fuel assemblies in a gaseous environment with no forced cooling. The heat transfer modes within the fuel pin bundle are radiation exchange among fuel pin surfaces and conduction by the stagnant gas. The array of parallel cylindrical fuel pins may be enclosed by a metal wrapper or shroud. Heat is dissipated from the outer surface of the fuel pin assembly by radiation and convection. Both equilateral triangle and square fuel pin arrays can be analyzed. Steady-state and unsteady-state conditions are included. Temperatures predicted by the COXPRO-II code have been validated by comparing them with experimental measurements. Temperature predictions compare favorably to temperature measurements in pressurized water reactor (PWR) and liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) simulated, electrically heated fuel assemblies. Also, temperature comparisons are made on an actual irradiated Fast-Flux Test Facility (FFTF) LMFBR fuel assembly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vertes, P.
1977-10-01
The goal of the program system TIBSO is the calculation of production, transfer, cumulation and filtration of radio isotopes in the cooling system of an atomic power plant. There is no restriction on the complexity of the cooling system, only the linearity and the time independence of technological parameters are assumed. The report contains the description of the basic idea of the method, the solution of the set of linear equations to be used and the description of the internal library files developed. (D.P.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El Ammouri, F; Plessier, R; Till, M; Marie, B; Djavdan, E [Air Liquide Centre de Recherche Claude Delorme, 78 - Jouy-en-Josas (France)
1997-12-31
Coupled reactive fluid dynamics and radiation calculations are performed in air and oxy-fuel furnaces using two gas radiative property models. The first one is the weighted sum of gray gases model (WSGG) and the second one is the correlated-k (CK) method which is a spectral model based on the cumulative distribution function of the absorption coefficient inside a narrow band. The WSGG model, generally used in industrial configurations, is less time consuming than the CK model. However it is found that it over-predicts radiative fluxes by about 12 % in industrial furnaces. (authors) 27 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El Ammouri, F.; Plessier, R.; Till, M.; Marie, B.; Djavdan, E. [Air Liquide Centre de Recherche Claude Delorme, 78 - Jouy-en-Josas (France)
1996-12-31
Coupled reactive fluid dynamics and radiation calculations are performed in air and oxy-fuel furnaces using two gas radiative property models. The first one is the weighted sum of gray gases model (WSGG) and the second one is the correlated-k (CK) method which is a spectral model based on the cumulative distribution function of the absorption coefficient inside a narrow band. The WSGG model, generally used in industrial configurations, is less time consuming than the CK model. However it is found that it over-predicts radiative fluxes by about 12 % in industrial furnaces. (authors) 27 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chakraborty, Amrita [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92, A. P. C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Kar, Samiran [Department of Organic Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Guchhait, Nikhil [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92, A. P. C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)], E-mail: nikhilg@postmark.net
2006-01-05
The photophysical behaviour of trans-methyl p-(dimethylamino) cinnamate (t-MDMAC) donor-acceptor system has been investigated by steady-state absorption and emission spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. The molecule t-MDMAC shows an emission from the locally excited state in non-polar solvents. In addition to weak local emission, a strong solvent dependent red shifted fluorescence in polar aprotic solvents is attributed to highly polar intramolecular charge transfer state. However, the formation of hydrogen-bonded clusters with polar protic solvents has been suggested from a linear correlation between the observed red shifted fluorescence band maxima with hydrogen bonding parameters ({alpha}). Calculations by ab initio and density functional theory show that the lone pair electron at nitrogen center is out of plane of the benzene ring in the global minimum ground state structure. In the gas phase, a potential energy surface along the twist coordinate at the donor (-NMe{sub 2}) and acceptor (-CH = CHCOOMe) sites shows stabilization of S{sub 1} state and destabilization S{sub 2} and S{sub 0} states. A similar potential energy calculation along the twist coordinate in acetonitrile solvent using non-equilibrium polarized continuum model also shows more stabilization of S{sub 1} state relative to other states and supports solvent dependent red shifted emission properties. In all types of calculations it is found that the nitrogen lone pair is delocalized over the benzene ring in the global minimum ground state and is localized on the nitrogen centre at the 90 deg. twisted configuration. The S{sub 1} energy state stabilization along the twist coordinate at the donor site and localized nitrogen lone pair at the perpendicular configuration support well the observed dual fluorescence in terms of proposed twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Macias, A.; Riera, A.; Yanez, M.
1983-01-01
A treatment of the He + -H collision is presented in an impact-parameter formalism for collision energies 0.5--30 keV. The origin dependence of the calculated total cross sections is studied in detail. It is shown that the branching ratio between reactions He + (1s)+H(1s)→He + (1s)+H(2n) and He + (1s)+H(1s)→He(1s2p)+H + oscillates as a function of the origin of electronic coordinates chosen in the calculation. This oscillation is strong enough so that at nuclear velocity 0.5 a.u., either both reactions are competitive or one of them can have a cross section for the reaction He(1s 2 )+H + →He + (1s)+H(1s) can either be negligble or comparable to those of the other reactions. We study the oscillatory behavior of the charge-exchange-transition probability as a function of 1/v. We show the similarity, for high velocity, between nonresonant and resonant change-exhange processes, the origin of the damping factor, and the influence of the rotatioal coupling on the transition probabilities as functions of 1/v. A connection between Lichten's and Denkov's models is established
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patrick, W.C.; Montan, D.N.; Ballou, L.B.
1981-01-01
The Spent Fuel Test in the Climax granitic stock at the DOE Nevada Test Site is a test of the feasibility of storage and retrieval of spent nuclear reactor fuel in a deep geologic environment. Eleven spent fuel elements, together with six thermally identical electrical resistance heaters and 20 peripheral guard heaters, are emplaced 420 m below surface in a three-drift test array. This array was designed to simulate the near-field effects of thousands of canisters of nuclear waste and to evaluate the effects of heat alone, and heat plus ionizing radiation on the rock. Thermal calculations and measurements are conducted to determine thermal transport from the spent fuel and electrical resistance heaters. Calculations associated with the as-built Spent Fuel Test geometry and thermal source histories are presented and compared with thermocouple measurements made throughout the test array. Comparisons in space begin at the spent fuel canister and include the first few metres outside the test array. Comparisons in time begin at emplacement and progress through the first year of thermal loading in this multi-year test
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Macias, A.; Riera, A.; Yanez, M.
1983-01-01
A treatment of the He/sup +/-H collision is presented in an impact-parameter formalism for collision energies 0.5--30 keV. The origin dependence of the calculated total cross sections is studied in detail. It is shown that the branching ratio between reactions He/sup +/(1s)+H(1s)..-->..He/sup +/(1s)+H(2n) and He/sup +/(1s)+H(1s)..-->..He(1s2p)+H/sup +/ oscillates as a function of the origin of electronic coordinates chosen in the calculation. This oscillation is strong enough so that at nuclear velocity 0.5 a.u., either both reactions are competitive or one of them can have a cross section for the reaction He(1s/sup 2/)+H/sup +/..-->..He/sup +/(1s)+H(1s) can either be negligble or comparable to those of the other reactions. We study the oscillatory behavior of the charge-exchange-transition probability as a function of 1/v. We show the similarity, for high velocity, between nonresonant and resonant change-exhange processes, the origin of the damping factor, and the influence of the rotatioal coupling on the transition probabilities as functions of 1/v. A connection between Lichten's and Denkov's models is established.
Training course about reserves and resources calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Techera, J.; Arrighetti, R.; Coronel, N.; Heinzen, W.; Pena, S.; Rossi, P.; Spoturno, J.; Tabo, F.; Vaz, N.
1981-01-01
This work shows the basic information to carry out the hydrogeologic investigation about the devonian aquifers in Uruguay. As the time the information obtained will be used to drill well of water in poor p oblations
Didari, Azadeh; Pinar Mengüç, M.
2017-08-01
Advances in nanotechnology and nanophotonics are inextricably linked with the need for reliable computational algorithms to be adapted as design tools for the development of new concepts in energy harvesting, radiative cooling, nanolithography and nano-scale manufacturing, among others. In this paper, we provide an outline for such a computational tool, named NF-RT-FDTD, to determine the near-field radiative transfer between structured surfaces using Finite Difference Time Domain method. NF-RT-FDTD is a direct and non-stochastic algorithm, which accounts for the statistical nature of the thermal radiation and is easily applicable to any arbitrary geometry at thermal equilibrium. We present a review of the fundamental relations for far- and near-field radiative transfer between different geometries with nano-scale surface and volumetric features and gaps, and then we discuss the details of the NF-RT-FDTD formulation, its application to sample geometries and outline its future expansion to more complex geometries. In addition, we briefly discuss some of the recent numerical works for direct and indirect calculations of near-field thermal radiation transfer, including Scattering Matrix method, Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD), Wiener Chaos Expansion, Fluctuating Surface Current (FSC), Fluctuating Volume Current (FVC) and Thermal Discrete Dipole Approximations (TDDA).
Belpassi, Leonardo; Reca, Michael L; Tarantelli, Francesco; Roncaratti, Luiz F; Pirani, Fernando; Cappelletti, David; Faure, Alexandre; Scribano, Yohann
2010-09-22
Integral cross-section measurements for the system water-H(2) in molecular-beam scattering experiments are reported. Their analysis demonstrates that the average attractive component of the water-H(2) intermolecular potential in the well region is about 30% stronger than dispersion and induction forces would imply. An extensive and detailed theoretical analysis of the electron charge displacement accompanying the interaction, over several crucial sections of the potential energy surface (PES), shows that water-H(2) interaction is accompanied by charge transfer (CT) and that the observed stabilization energy correlates quantitatively with CT magnitude at all distances. Based on the experimentally determined potential and the calculated CT, a general theoretical model is devised which reproduces very accurately PES sections obtained at the CCSD(T) level with large basis sets. The energy stabilization associated with CT is calculated to be 2.5 eV per electron transferred. Thus, CT is shown to be a significant, strongly stereospecific component of the interaction, with water functioning as electron donor or acceptor in different orientations. The general relevance of these findings for water's chemistry is discussed.
Teif, Vladimir B
2007-01-01
The transfer matrix methodology is proposed as a systematic tool for the statistical-mechanical description of DNA-protein-drug binding involved in gene regulation. We show that a genetic system of several cis-regulatory modules is calculable using this method, considering explicitly the site-overlapping, competitive, cooperative binding of regulatory proteins, their multilayer assembly and DNA looping. In the methodological section, the matrix models are solved for the basic types of short- and long-range interactions between DNA-bound proteins, drugs and nucleosomes. We apply the matrix method to gene regulation at the O(R) operator of phage lambda. The transfer matrix formalism allowed the description of the lambda-switch at a single-nucleotide resolution, taking into account the effects of a range of inter-protein distances. Our calculations confirm previously established roles of the contact CI-Cro-RNAP interactions. Concerning long-range interactions, we show that while the DNA loop between the O(R) and O(L) operators is important at the lysogenic CI concentrations, the interference between the adjacent promoters P(R) and P(RM) becomes more important at small CI concentrations. A large change in the expression pattern may arise in this regime due to anticooperative interactions between DNA-bound RNA polymerases. The applicability of the matrix method to more complex systems is discussed.
Vandenboom, Rene; Herron, Todd; Favre, Elizabeth; Albayya, Faris P.
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to implement a living myocyte in vitro model system to test whether a motor domain-deleted headless myosin construct could be incorporated into the sarcomere and affect contractility. To this end we used gene transfer to express a “headless” myosin heavy chain (headless-MHC) in complement with the native full-length myosin motors in the cardiac sarcomere. An NH2-terminal Flag epitope was used for unique detection of the motor domain-deleted headless-MHC. Total MHC content (i.e., headless-MHC + endogenous MHC) remained constant, while expression of the headless-MHC in transduced myocytes increased from 24 to 72 h after gene transfer until values leveled off at 96 h after gene transfer, at which time the headless-MHC comprised ∼20% of total MHC. Moreover, immunofluorescence labeling and confocal imaging confirmed expression and demonstrated incorporation of the headless-MHC in the A band of the cardiac sarcomere. Functional measurements in intact myocytes showed that headless-MHC modestly reduced amplitude of dynamic twitch contractions compared with controls (P < 0.05). In chemically permeabilized myocytes, maximum steady-state isometric force and the tension-pCa relationship were unaltered by the headless-MHC. These data suggest that headless-MHC can express to 20% of total myosin and incorporate into the sarcomere yet have modest to no effects on dynamic and steady-state contractile function. This would indicate a degree of functional tolerance in the sarcomere for nonfunctional myosin molecules. PMID:21112946
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1998-04-01
The Proposed Action includes the following principal elements: (1) The accelerated plugging and abandoning of uneconomic wells over the next six years. Uneconomic wells are operating wells which can no longer cover their direct and indirect costs. DOE estimates that there are 900 wells to be plugged and abandoned over the next six years, leaving approximately 200 wells for transfer by 2003. (2) Complete reclamation and restoration of abandoned sites. Restoration would include dismantling surface facilities, batteries, roads, test satellites, electrical distribution systems and associated power poles, when they are no longer needed for production. Soil contaminated by hydrocarbons would be biologically treated. Roads, facilities, batteries, and well sites would be ripped up, recontoured, disked and seeded with native vegetation. (3) The continued development of the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) through the establishment of a consortium of university, state and private institutions. RMOTC would continue to provide facilities and support to government and private industry for testing and evaluating new oilfield and environmental technologies. Based on the findings of the EA, DOE has determined that the proposal does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1998-04-01
The Proposed Action includes the following principal elements: (1) The accelerated plugging and abandoning of uneconomic wells over the next six years. Uneconomic wells are operating wells which can no longer cover their direct and indirect costs. DOE estimates that there are 900 wells to be plugged and abandoned over the next six years, leaving approximately 200 wells for transfer by 2003. (2) Complete reclamation and restoration of abandoned sites. Restoration would include dismantling surface facilities, batteries, roads, test satellites, electrical distribution systems and associated power poles, when they are no longer needed for production. Soil contaminated by hydrocarbons would be biologically treated. Roads, facilities, batteries, and well sites would be ripped up, recontoured, disked and seeded with native vegetation. (3) The continued development of the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) through the establishment of a consortium of university, state and private institutions. RMOTC would continue to provide facilities and support to government and private industry for testing and evaluating new oilfield and environmental technologies. Based on the findings of the EA, DOE has determined that the proposal does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required
Sackett, L. L.; Edelbaum, T. N.; Malchow, H. L.
1974-01-01
This manual is a guide for using a computer program which calculates time optimal trajectories for high-and low-thrust geocentric transfers. Either SEP or NEP may be assumed and a one or two impulse, fixed total delta V, initial high thrust phase may be included. Also a single impulse of specified delta V may be included after the low thrust state. The low thrust phase utilizes equinoctial orbital elements to avoid the classical singularities and Kryloff-Boguliuboff averaging to help insure more rapid computation time. The program is written in FORTRAN 4 in double precision for use on an IBM 360 computer. The manual includes a description of the problem treated, input/output information, examples of runs, and source code listings.
Ha, P. T. H.
2018-04-01
The architectural design orientation at the first design stage plays a key role and has a great impact on the energy consumption of a building throughout its life-cycle. To provide designers with a simple and useful tool in quantitatively determining and simply optimizing the energy efficiency of a building at the very first stage of conceptual design, a factor namely building envelope energy efficiency (Khqnl ) should be investigated and proposed. Heat transfer through windows and other glazed areas of mezzanine floors accounts for 86% of overall thermal transfer through building envelope, so the factor Khqnl of high-rise buildings largely depends on shading solutions. The author has established tables and charts to make reference to the values of Khqnl factor in certain high-rise apartment buildings in Hanoi calculated with a software program subject to various inputs including: types and sizes of shading devices, building orientations and at different points of time to be respectively analyzed. It is possible and easier for architects to refer to these tables and charts in façade design for a higher level of energy efficiency.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galindo, J.; Lujan, J.M.; Serrano, J.R.; Dolz, V. [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Guilain, S. [Renault s.a.s., Lardy (France)
2006-01-15
This paper describes a heat transfer model to be implemented in a global engine 1-D gas-dynamic code to calculate reciprocating internal combustion engine performance in steady and transient operations. A trade off between simplicity and accuracy has been looked for, in order to fit with the stated objective. To validate the model, the temperature of the exhaust manifold wall in a high-speed direct injection (HSDI) turbocharged diesel engine has been measured during a full load transient. In addition, an indirect assessment of the exhaust gas temperature during this transient process has been carried out. The results show good agreement between the measured and modelled data with good accuracy to predict the engine performance. A dual-walled air gap exhaust manifold has been tested in order to quantify the potential of exhaust gas thermal energy saving on engine transient performance. The experimental results together with the heat transfer model have been used to analyse the influence of thermal energy saving on dynamic performance during the load transient of an HSDI turbocharged diesel engine. (author)
Hsu, Juno; Prather, Michael J.; Cameron-Smith, Philip; Veidenbaum, Alex; Nicolau, Alex
2017-07-01
Solar-J is a comprehensive radiative transfer model for the solar spectrum that addresses the needs of both solar heating and photochemistry in Earth system models. Solar-J is a spectral extension of Cloud-J, a standard in many chemical models that calculates photolysis rates in the 0.18-0.8 µm region. The Cloud-J core consists of an eight-stream scattering, plane-parallel radiative transfer solver with corrections for sphericity. Cloud-J uses cloud quadrature to accurately average over correlated cloud layers. It uses the scattering phase function of aerosols and clouds expanded to eighth order and thus avoids isotropic-equivalent approximations prevalent in most solar heating codes. The spectral extension from 0.8 to 12 µm enables calculation of both scattered and absorbed sunlight and thus aerosol direct radiative effects and heating rates throughout the Earth's atmosphere.The Solar-J extension adopts the correlated-k gas absorption bins, primarily water vapor, from the shortwave Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for general circulation model (GCM) applications (RRTMG-SW). Solar-J successfully matches RRTMG-SW's tropospheric heating profile in a clear-sky, aerosol-free, tropical atmosphere. We compare both codes in cloudy atmospheres with a liquid-water stratus cloud and an ice-crystal cirrus cloud. For the stratus cloud, both models use the same physical properties, and we find a systematic low bias of about 3 % in planetary albedo across all solar zenith angles caused by RRTMG-SW's two-stream scattering. Discrepancies with the cirrus cloud using any of RRTMG-SW's three different parameterizations are as large as about 20-40 % depending on the solar zenith angles and occur throughout the atmosphere.Effectively, Solar-J has combined the best components of RRTMG-SW and Cloud-J to build a high-fidelity module for the scattering and absorption of sunlight in the Earth's atmosphere, for which the three major components - wavelength integration, scattering, and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Hsu
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Solar-J is a comprehensive radiative transfer model for the solar spectrum that addresses the needs of both solar heating and photochemistry in Earth system models. Solar-J is a spectral extension of Cloud-J, a standard in many chemical models that calculates photolysis rates in the 0.18–0.8 µm region. The Cloud-J core consists of an eight-stream scattering, plane-parallel radiative transfer solver with corrections for sphericity. Cloud-J uses cloud quadrature to accurately average over correlated cloud layers. It uses the scattering phase function of aerosols and clouds expanded to eighth order and thus avoids isotropic-equivalent approximations prevalent in most solar heating codes. The spectral extension from 0.8 to 12 µm enables calculation of both scattered and absorbed sunlight and thus aerosol direct radiative effects and heating rates throughout the Earth's atmosphere.The Solar-J extension adopts the correlated-k gas absorption bins, primarily water vapor, from the shortwave Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for general circulation model (GCM applications (RRTMG-SW. Solar-J successfully matches RRTMG-SW's tropospheric heating profile in a clear-sky, aerosol-free, tropical atmosphere. We compare both codes in cloudy atmospheres with a liquid-water stratus cloud and an ice-crystal cirrus cloud. For the stratus cloud, both models use the same physical properties, and we find a systematic low bias of about 3 % in planetary albedo across all solar zenith angles caused by RRTMG-SW's two-stream scattering. Discrepancies with the cirrus cloud using any of RRTMG-SW's three different parameterizations are as large as about 20–40 % depending on the solar zenith angles and occur throughout the atmosphere.Effectively, Solar-J has combined the best components of RRTMG-SW and Cloud-J to build a high-fidelity module for the scattering and absorption of sunlight in the Earth's atmosphere, for which the three major components – wavelength
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Engdahl, K.A.; Bivehed, H.; Ahlberg, P.; Saunders, W.H. Jr.
1983-01-01
Primary and secondary deuterium isotope effects have been measured by polarimetry, and primary isotope effects have been calculated for the classical bifunctional catalysis: 2-pyridinone-catalyzed mutarotation of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl-α-D-glucopyranose (α-TMG) in benzene. From the positively curved plot of the specific rate of epimerization vs. the mole fraction of 2 H in the ''pool'' of OH and NH hydrogens, the isotope effects k/sub HH//k/sub DD/ = 3.66 +/- 0.09, k/sub HH//k/sub DH/ = 1.5, and k/sub HH//k/sub HD/ = 2.4 have been calculated. A secondary isotope effect of 1.14 +/- 0.02 has been measured by using α-TMG and (1- 2 H)-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl-α-D-glucopyranose [(l- 2 H)-α-TMG], the synthesis of which is described in detail, together with those for (N- 2 H)-2-pyridinone and (1-O- 2 H)-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl-α-D-glucopyranose [(1-O- 2 H)-α-TMG]. The rate data obtained have also been analyzed by fractionation theory, yielding approximately equal fractionation factors (0.5). The interpretation of the results has been assisted by calculations of the primary deuterium isotope effects using the BEBOVIB IV program. Two models involving small and considerable coupling, respectively, of the transferring protons to heavy-atom motion have been considered. In the favored structure for the transition state of the rate-limiting step, two protons are in transit, and their motion is governed either by a potential with a barrier or by one without. Their motion is considerably coupled to the heavy-atom motion (i.e., the breakage of the ring C-O bond), and tunnel corrections to the isotope effects are found to be negligible
Mast, Jeffrey C.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Cageao, Richard P.; Kratz, David P.; Latvakoski, Harri; Johnson, David G.; Turner, David D.; Mlawer, Eli J.
2017-09-01
Downwelling radiances at the Earth's surface measured by the Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument in an environment with integrated precipitable water (IPW) as low as 0.03 cm are compared with calculated spectra in the far-infrared and mid-infrared. FIRST (a Fourier transform spectrometer) was deployed from August through October 2009 at 5.38 km MSL on Cerro Toco, a mountain in the Atacama Desert of Chile. There FIRST took part in the Radiative Heating in Unexplored Bands Campaign Part 2 (RHUBC-II), the goal of which is the assessment of water vapor spectroscopy. Radiosonde water vapor and temperature vertical profiles are input into the Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) to compute modeled radiances. The LBLRTM minus FIRST residual spectrum is calculated to assess agreement. Uncertainties (1-σ) in both the measured and modeled radiances are also determined. Measured and modeled radiances nearly all agree to within combined (total) uncertainties. Features exceeding uncertainties can be corrected into the combined uncertainty by increasing water vapor and model continuum absorption, however this may not be necessary due to 1-σ uncertainties (68% confidence). Furthermore, the uncertainty in the measurement-model residual is very large and no additional information on the adequacy of current water vapor spectral line or continuum absorption parameters may be derived. Similar future experiments in similarly cold and dry environments will require absolute accuracy of 0.1% of a 273 K blackbody in radiance and water vapor accuracy of ∼3% in the profile layers contributing to downwelling radiance at the surface.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heselhaus, A.
1997-05-01
In this work a hybrid program system consisting of a 3D finite-volume Navier-Stokes flow solver and a 3D finite-element heat conduction solver has been developed. It enables the coupled calculation of structure temperatures in diabatic solid/fluid configurations. The grids of both the finite element and the finite volume computational domain may be completely independent. The coupled program fully resolves the thermal interaction between heat transfer and the resulting material temperatures. The developed coupling algorithm is numerically stable, conservative and works without the need to define ambient temperatures in the flowfield. This allows for the simulation of any solid/fluid configuration. When simulating combined blade/endwall cooling or filmcooling, only a coupled procedure is capable to completely account for the interaction between all relevant thermal parameters. It is found that the coupled calculation of convective cooling in a realistic guide vane leads locally to 45 K higher and 107 K lower blade temperatures than the uncoupled calculation. This shows that accounting for the thermal interaction between the flow and the structure offers both potential to save cooling air and a lower margin of safety when designing cooling systems close to the thermal limits of the blade material. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde ein Verfahren zur Berechnung der Temperaturverteilung in diabat umstroemten Koerpern entwickelt, bei dem ein 3D-Finite Volumen Navier-Stokes Stroemungsloeser und ein 3D-Finite Elemente Waermeleitungsloeser zu einem hybriden Programmsystem gekoppelt werden. Dabei besteht die Moeglichkeit, voellig unabhaengige Rechennetze fuer Stroemung und Struktur zu verwenden. Mit dem gekoppelten Verfahren kann die Wechselwirkung zwischen resultierenden Materialtemperaturen und dem davon rueck-beeinflussten Waermeuebergang beruecksichtigt werden. Weiterhin ist der hier entwickelte, stabile und konservative Kopplungsalgorithmus nicht
HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.
2007-07-01
Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manning, Karessa L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dolislager, Fredrick G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bellamy, Michael B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2016-11-01
The Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) and Dose Compliance Concentration (DCC) calculators are screening level tools that set forth Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) recommended approaches, based upon currently available information with respect to risk assessment, for response actions at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites, commonly known as Superfund. The screening levels derived by the PRG and DCC calculators are used to identify isotopes contributing the highest risk and dose as well as establish preliminary remediation goals. Each calculator has a residential gardening scenario and subsistence farmer exposure scenarios that require modeling of the transfer of contaminants from soil and water into various types of biota (crops and animal products). New publications of human intake rates of biota; farm animal intakes of water, soil, and fodder; and soil to plant interactions require updates be implemented into the PRG and DCC exposure scenarios. Recent improvements have been made in the biota modeling for these calculators, including newly derived biota intake rates, more comprehensive soil mass loading factors (MLFs), and more comprehensive soil to tissue transfer factors (TFs) for animals and soil to plant transfer factors (BV's). New biota have been added in both the produce and animal products categories that greatly improve the accuracy and utility of the PRG and DCC calculators and encompass greater geographic diversity on a national and international scale.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manning, Karessa L.; Dolislager, Fredrick G.; Bellamy, Michael B.
2016-01-01
The Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) and Dose Compliance Concentration (DCC) calculators are screening level tools that set forth Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) recommended approaches, based upon currently available information with respect to risk assessment, for response actions at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites, commonly known as Superfund. The screening levels derived by the PRG and DCC calculators are used to identify isotopes contributing the highest risk and dose as well as establish preliminary remediation goals. Each calculator has a residential gardening scenario and subsistence farmer exposure scenarios that require modeling of the transfer of contaminants from soil and water into various types of biota (crops and animal products). New publications of human intake rates of biota; farm animal intakes of water, soil, and fodder; and soil to plant interactions require updates be implemented into the PRG and DCC exposure scenarios. Recent improvements have been made in the biota modeling for these calculators, including newly derived biota intake rates, more comprehensive soil mass loading factors (MLFs), and more comprehensive soil to tissue transfer factors (TFs) for animals and soil to plant transfer factors (BV's). New biota have been added in both the produce and animal products categories that greatly improve the accuracy and utility of the PRG and DCC calculators and encompass greater geographic diversity on a national and international scale.
Asakura, Daisuke; Nanba, Yusuke; Makinose, Yuki; Matsuda, Hirofumi; Glans, Per-Anders; Guo, Jinghua; Hosono, Eiji
2018-04-17
We analyzed the Fe 3d electronic structure in LiFePO 4 /FePO 4 (LFP/FP) nanowire with a high cyclability by using soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) combined with configuration-interaction full-multiplet (CIFM) calculation. The ex situ Fe L 2,3 -edge resonant XES (RXES) spectra for LFP and FP are ascribed to oxidation states of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ , respectively. CIFM calculations for Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ states reproduced the Fe L 3 RXES spectra for LFP and FP, respectively. In the calculations for both states, the charge-transfer energy was considerably larger than those for typical iron oxides, indicating very little electron transfer from the O 2p to Fe 3d orbitals and a weak hybridization on the Fe-O bond during the charge-discharge reactions. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja
2016-01-01
This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...
Cheng, Heming; Huang, Xieqing; Fan, Jiang; Wang, Honggang
1999-10-01
The calculation of a temperature field has a great influence upon the analysis of thermal stresses and stains during quenching. In this paper, a 42CrMo steel cylinder was used an example for investigation. From the TTT diagram of the 42CrMo steel, the CCT diagram was simulated by mathematical transformation, and the volume fraction of phase constituents was calculated. The thermal physical properties were treated as functions of temperature and the volume fraction of phase constituents. The rational approximation was applied to the finite element method. The temperature field with phase transformation and non-linear surface heat-transfer coefficients was calculated using this technique, which can effectively avoid oscillationin the numerical solution for a small time step. The experimental results of the temperature field calculation coincide with the numerical solutions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berlanger, M.; Grange, P.; Richert, J.; Hofmann, H.; Ngo, C.
1978-01-01
A dynamical model including both dissipation and statistical fluctuations is applied to the computation of triple differential cross sections for deep inelastic reactions. It is seen that for different Z values the overall pattern of the cross section (calculated, for the 280 MeV 40 Ar+ 58 Ni system) as a function of E and theta is fairly well reproduced - the mean angular momentum transfer for the 365MeV 63 Cu+ 197 Au system is calculated and compared with γ-multiplicity measurements. In both applications, possible implications of the remaining discrepancies are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varacalle, D.J. Jr.
1978-01-01
To accommodate the need for data generated by the nuclear community, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established a Reactor Safety Research Data Base Program. This program establishes the capability of depositing data related to nuclear safety experiments into a series of compatible data bases (for example, heat transfer, critical flow) such that they are easily available for analysis, comparison, and code verification. The overall Data Bank is comprised of the experimental facilities which produce the applicable test data, the technical service organizations which coordinate the input from the data sources, and the actual data repositories. The development of the Heat Transfer Data Bank is the topic of discussion of this paper
MAVRI, J; BERENDSEN, HJC
1995-01-01
The methodology for treatment of proton transfer processes by density matrix evolution (DME) with inclusion of many excited states is presented. The DME method (Berendsen, H. J. C.; Mavri, J. J. Phys. Chem. 1993, 97, 13464) that simulates the dynamics of quantum systems embedded in a classical
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sims, T.M.; Swanks, J.H.
1977-09-01
Heat transfer analyses, in support of the preparation of the HFIR technical specifications, were made to establish the bases for the safety limits and limiting safety system settings applicable to the HFIR. The results of these analyses, along with the detailed bases, are presented
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ismael Fernando Meza Castro
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Introduction: This project carried out an experimental research with the design, assembly, and commissioning of a convection heat transfer test bench. Objective: To determine new statistical correlations that allow knowing the heat transfer coefficients by air convection with greater accuracy in applications with different heating geometry configurations. Methodology: Three geometric configurations, such as flat plate, cylinders and tube banks were studied according to their physical properties through Reynolds and Prandtl numbers, using a data transmission interface using Arduino® controllers Measured the air temperature through the duct to obtain real-time data and to relate the heat transferred from the heating element to the fluid and to perform mathematical modeling in specialized statistical software. The study was made for the three geometries mentioned, one power per heating element and two air velocities with 10 repetitions. Results: Three mathematical correlations were obtained with regression coefficients greater than 0.972, one for each heating element, obtaining prediction errors in the heat transfer convective coefficients of 7.50% for the flat plate, 2.85% for the plate Cylindrical and 1.57% for the tube bank. Conclusions: It was observed that in geometries constituted by several individual elements, a much more accurate statistical adjustment was obtained to predict the behavior of the convection heat coefficients, since each unit reaches a stability in the surface temperature profile with Greater speed, giving the geometry in general, a more precise measurement of the parameters that govern the transfer of heat, as it is in the case of the geometry of the tube bank.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fialko, N.M.; Sharaevskij, G.I.; Sharaevskaya, E.I.; Babak, E.I.
2014-01-01
The article gives an analysis of the adequacy of computer software systems FASCICLE BM-DF and COBRA, which are designed to calculate the main parameters of the safety of water-cooled nuclear reactors. This calculation is based on determining the local thermal-hydraulic parameters of the flow of coolant in the fuel rod assembled elements. In this article introduced the results of the comparison of experiments performed to determine the distribution of the main thermal-hydraulic flow parameters characteristic of subchannels of fuel rod assembled elements with the data for calculating these parameters on the basis of declared computer codes. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of experimental and calculation data, by definition, burnout in rod fuel assembled elements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malenda, R. F.; Price, T. J.; Stevens, J.; Uppalapati, S. L.; Fragale, A.; Weiser, P. M.; Kuczala, A.; Hickman, A. P., E-mail: aph2@lehigh.edu [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, 16 Memorial Dr. East, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Talbi, D. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, UMR 5299, Université Montpellier, Place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier (France)
2015-06-14
We have performed extensive calculations to investigate thermal energy, rotationally inelastic collisions of NaK (A{sup 1}Σ{sup +}) with He. We determined a potential energy surface using a multi-reference configuration interaction wave function as implemented by the GAMESS electronic structure code, and we have performed coupled channel scattering calculations using the Arthurs and Dalgarno formalism. We also calculate the Grawert coefficients B{sub λ}(j, j′) for each j → j′ transition. These coefficients are used to determine the probability that orientation and alignment are preserved in collisions taking place in a cell environment. The calculations include all rotational levels with j or j′ between 0 and 50, and total (translational and rotational) energies in the range 0.0002–0.0025 a.u. (∼44–550 cm{sup −1}). The calculated cross sections for transitions with even values of Δj tend to be larger than those for transitions with odd Δj, in agreement with the recent experiments of Wolfe et al. (J. Chem. Phys. 134, 174301 (2011)). The calculations of the energy dependence of the cross sections and the calculations of the fraction of orientation and alignment preserved in collisions also exhibit distinctly different behaviors for odd and even values of Δj. The calculations also indicate that the average fraction of orientation or alignment preserved in a transition becomes larger as j increases. We interpret this behavior using the semiclassical model of Derouard, which also leads to a simple way of visualizing the distribution of the angles between the initial and final angular momentum vectors j and j′. Finally, we compare the exact quantum results for j → j′ transitions with results based on the simpler, energy sudden approximation. That approximation is shown to be quite accurate.
Electron transfer in keV Li+-Na(3s, 3p) collisions: I. Atomic basis coupled-channel calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nielsen, S.E.; Dubois, A.
1995-01-01
Integral cross sections for electron capture from the ground state Na(3s) and excited states Na(3p) to Li(nlm), n = 2, 3, are calculated by the semiclassical impact-parameter method, using a two-centre atomic basis expansion. In the impact energy range 1-50 keV, results are analysed with particular emphasis on the alignment and orientation of initial and final p-states. At intermediate velocities opposite initial alignment effects are found for capture to n = 2 and n = 3 states, respectively. Orientation effects in state-to-state capture cross sections are predicted from oriented and tilted aligned initial states. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fomina, V N; Titova, E Ya; Migai, V K; Bystrov, P G; Pis' mennyi, E N [Vsesoyuznyi Teplotekhnicheskii Institut (USSR)
1991-06-01
Comparatively evaluates methods for determination of optimum design of extended-surface tubes used in water walls of boilers fired with coal and other fuels in commercial power plants in the USSR. The standard calculation methods introduced in 1973 and other methods developed and tested by individual research institutes of the USSR are described. New and original formulae based on the results of physical and mathematical modeling are evaluated. Heat transfer from flue gases to water walls is analyzed. Arrangement of tube banks, design of extended-surface tubes and other factors that influence heat transfer are considered. Evaluations show that from among the analyzed calculation methods the method developed by the KPI institute is superior to others (it is most accurate and universal). Investigations show that the coefficient of thermal efficiency of the economizers (1st and 2nd stage) of boilers fired with coal amounts to about 0.85. The coefficient considers effects of buildup on the economizer tubes. Use of the method is explained on example of boilers fired with black coal from the Ehkibastuz. 13 refs.
Ha, Yang; Tenderholt, Adam L; Holm, Richard H; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O; Solomon, Edward I
2014-06-25
Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been used to determine the electronic structures of two complexes [Mo(IV)O(bdt)2](2-) and [Mo(VI)O2(bdt)2](2-) (bdt = benzene-1,2-dithiolate(2-)) that relate to the reduced and oxidized forms of sulfite oxidase (SO). These are compared with those of previously studied dimethyl sulfoxide reductase (DMSOr) models. DFT calculations supported by the data are extended to evaluate the reaction coordinate for oxo transfer to a phosphite ester substrate. Three possible transition states are found with the one at lowest energy, stabilized by a P-S interaction, in good agreement with experimental kinetics data. Comparison of both oxo transfer reactions shows that in DMSOr, where the oxo is transferred from the substrate to the metal ion, the oxo transfer induces electron transfer, while in SO, where the oxo transfer is from the metal site to the substrate, the electron transfer initiates oxo transfer. This difference in reactivity is related to the difference in frontier molecular orbitals (FMO) of the metal-oxo and substrate-oxo bonds. Finally, these experimentally related calculations are extended to oxo transfer by sulfite oxidase. The presence of only one dithiolene at the enzyme active site selectively activates the equatorial oxo for transfer, and allows facile structural reorganization during turnover.
Replacing reserve requirements
Edward J. Stevens
1993-01-01
An examination of the fading significance of the Federal Reserve System's reserve requirements and the recent flowering of required clearing balances, a rapidly growing feature of Reserve Bank operations.
SUNDÉN, B
2012-01-01
Presenting the basic mechanisms for transfer of heat, Introduction to Heat Transfer gives a deeper and more comprehensive view than existing titles on the subject. Derivation and presentation of analytical and empirical methods are provided for calculation of heat transfer rates and temperature fields as well as pressure drop. The book covers thermal conduction, forced and natural laminar and turbulent convective heat transfer, thermal radiation including participating media, condensation, evaporation and heat exchangers.
Comparisons of power transfer functions and flow transfer functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.
1987-01-01
Transfer functions may be used to calculate component feedbacks or temperature increments by convolution of the transfer function with the appropriate fractional change in system-quantity. Power-change transfer functions have been reported. The corresponding flow transfer functions for this case, and comparison with the power transfer functions, are reported here. Results of feedback simulation of ramped flow transients using flow transfer functions are also described
Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdul Hakim
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Clajus, M.; Albert, J.; Bruno, M.; Egun, P.M.; Glockle, W.; Glombik, A.; Gruebler, W.; Hautle, P.; Kretschmer, W.; Rauscher, A.; Schmelzbach, P.A.; Slaus, I.; Weidmann, R.; Witala, H. [Inst. fuer Mittelenergiephys., Eidgenoessische Tech. Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)
1995-10-01
The polarization transfer coefficients K{sub x}{sup x}', K{sub y}{sup y}' and K{sub z}{sup x}' in the reaction {sup 2}H(p,p){sup 2}H have been measured at an incident proton energy of 22.5 MeV. The results are compared to predictions from Faddeev calculations using various nucleon-nucleon potential models. The overall agreement is rather good. The comparison in more detail shows a pronounced sensitivity of the results, especially for K{sub y}{sup y}', to the {sup 3}S{sub 1}-{sup 3}D{sub 1} and {sup 1}P{sub 1} NN force components. As in nucleon-nucleon scattering, however, these two parameters are correlated, thus hampering definite conclusions. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
César Arnaldo Cisneros‐Ramírez
2014-05-01
Full Text Available La necesidad de disipar altas densidades de flujo de calor ha llevado a los investigadores y diseñadores a emplear el cambio de fase como mecanismo para lograr tal objetivo y con ello lograr equipos intercambiadores de calor más compactos. En el presente trabajo se realizó un estudio de la bibliográfica sobre la ebullición en minicanales y microcanales. Para ello se consultaron bibliografíasque datan desde los años 90 hasta la actualidad, con lo cual se revelaron los principales parámetros o tópicos que caracterizan a este proceso en minicanales y microcanales. Es así que se abordan los términos minicanales y microcanales, ebullición en flujo forzado y regímenes (mapa de flujo.Además se presenta un resumen de las ecuaciones para la determinación del coeficiente de traspaso de calor en régimen bifásico (hdf.Palabras claves: ebullición, microcanales, minicanales, coeficiente de traspaso de calor.____________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe necessity of transfer high heat flux had led to researchers and designers to use the change of phase in order to get this objective. In this work was made a review in more of seventy sources of information dating since 90´s up to the present, where were revealed the main parameters that characterize the boiling process in minichanels-microchannels. It deals with terms minimicrochannels,flow boiling and flow pattern map. Also, it is presented a summary of equations used for calculate the two-phase heat transfer coefficient.Key words: boiling, minichannels, microchannels, heat transfer coefficient.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 73.51 Section 73.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Transfers § 73.51 [Reserved] ...
Younis, Johnny S; Jadaon, Jimmy E; Haddad, Sami; Izhaki, Ido; Ben-Ami, Moshe
2011-04-01
To gain insight into the ovarian stromal blood flow in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) as compared with women with normal ovulation, good ovarian reserve, and infertility and to evaluate the role of stromal flow in these patients to predict clinical pregnancy in an assisted reproductive technologies setting. A prospective observational cohort study. A university-affiliated reproductive medicine unit. Eighteen consecutive patients with PCOS (study) compared with 101 patients with normal ovulation and infertility (control), undergoing their first IVF-ET treatment at our unit. Women with low ovarian reserve were excluded a priori from evaluation. Basal ovarian reserve parameters and stromal flow studies were conducted as routinely performed in our unit, in a natural cycle before starting treatment. None. Basal ovarian endocrine, sonographic, and stromal flow studies were compared between the groups. After completion of treatment, the stromal flow studies were compared between conception and nonconception cycles. Patients' characteristics and basal ovarian reserve, including endocrine and sonographic parameters, were similar between the PCOS and control groups. Only antral follicle count and LH/FSH ratio were higher in the PCOS as compared with the control group, corresponding to 15.11 ± 6.05 versus 9.05 ± 4.77 and 1.14 ± 0.64 versus 0.79 ± 0.37, respectively. Basal stromal flow indices were similar between the PCOS group and the group with normal ovulation and good ovarian reserve. Clinical pregnancy rate per initiated cycle was 50.0% and 39.6% in the PCOS and control groups, respectively, with no significant difference. Flow indices were similar between conception cycles in the PCOS and control groups. As well, the indices did not differ significantly between conception and nonconception cycles within the PCOS and control groups. Basal ovarian stromal blood flow does not differ between women with PCOS and women with normal ovulation, good ovarian
Heat transfer bibliography: russian works
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luikov, A V
1965-02-01
This bibliography of recent Russian publications in heat transfer is divided into the following categories: (1) books; (2) general; (3) experimental methods; (4) analytical calculation methods; (5) thermodynamics; (6) transfer processes involving phase conversions; ((7) transfer processes involving chemical conversions; (8) transfer processes involving very high velocities; (9) drying processes; (10) thermal properties of various materials, heat transfer agents and their determination methods; (11) high temperature physics and magneto- hydrodynamics; and (12) transfer processes in technological apparatuses. (357 refs.)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Declination is calculated using the current International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model. Declination is calculated using the current World Magnetic Model...
TRANSFERENCE BEFORE TRANSFERENCE.
Bonaminio, Vincenzo
2017-10-01
This paper is predominantly a clinical presentation that describes the transmigration of one patient's transference to another, with the analyst functioning as a sort of transponder. It involves an apparently accidental episode in which there was an unconscious intersection between two patients. The author's aim is to show how transference from one case may affect transference in another, a phenomenon the author calls transference before transference. The author believes that this idea may serve as a tool for understanding the unconscious work that takes place in the clinical situation. In a clinical example, the analyst finds himself caught up in an enactment involving two patients in which he becomes the medium of what happens in session. © 2017 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.
Introduction to calculations of recuperators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dollar, M.
1977-01-01
Physical principles of heat transfer between fluid under turbulent flow conditions and a wall of a duct are described. The methods of calculations of heat transfer coefficient and the theory of recuperative heat exchangers are presented. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the theory. (author)
Disclosure of oil and gas reserve information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emsile, B.H.
1998-01-01
The current regulations regarding disclosure of oil and gas reserve information in Canada are described. These regulations have been in place since the early 1980s and have generally worked well, but there are some issues that need to be updated. The Alberta Securities Commission Oil and Gas Securities Task Force was established to review the regulations and the major issues that need to be addressed. The issues under consideration are: (1) reserve definitions and price assumptions, (2) use of deterministic or probabilistic reserve calculation methods, (3) use of audits in reserve reporting, (4) abandonment costs, (5) calculation of barrels of oil equivalents, and (6) the calculation of various performance indicators such as finding and development costs and reserve replacement ratios
US Agency for International Development — Flight reservation application used for in-country flights by USAID and DoS staff in Afghanistan. The application is managed and maintained by the vendor and USAID...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansen, M.V.
1981-01-01
The current low level of demand, compounded by rapidly rising costs and low prices, has caused a significant reduction in drilling for uranium in the United States, and the trend is likely to continue for a few more years. The effect on uranium reserves will be fewer additions to reserves because less exploration is being done. Further reductions will occur, especially in low-cost reserves, because of increasing costs, continuing depletion through production, and erosion through the high grading of deposits to fulfill previous contractual commitments. During the past several years, it has been necessary to increase the upper reserve cost level twice to compensate for rising costs. Rising costs are reducing the $15 reserves, the cost category corresponding most closely to the present market price, to an insignificant level. An encouraging factor related to US uranium reserves is that the US position internationally, as far as quantity is concerned, is not bad for the longer term. Also, there is a general opinion that US consumers would rather contract for domestic uranium than for foreign because of greater assurance of supply. Still another factor, nearly impossible to assess, is what effect rising costs in other countries will have on their uranium reserves. The annual conferences between the Grand Junction Area Office staff and major uranium companies provide a broad overview of the industry's perception of the future. It is not optimistic for the short term. Many companies are reducing their exploration and mining programs; some are switching to other more marketable mineral commodities, and a few are investing more heavily in foreign ventures. However, there is general optimism for the long term, and many predict a growth in demand in the mid-1980s. If the industry can survive the few lean years ahead, rising prices may restore its viability to former levels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scholtyssek, W.
1995-01-01
In the first phase of a benchmark comparison, the CONTAIN code was used to calculate an assumed EPR accident 'medium-sized leak in the cold leg', especially for the first two days after initiation of the accident. The results for global characteristics compare well with those of FIPLOC, MELCOR and WAVCO calculations, if the same materials data are used as input. However, significant differences show up for local quantities such as flows through leakages. (orig.)
Lithium reserves and resources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evans, R.K.
1978-01-01
As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)
Bacon, D H
2013-01-01
Basic Heat Transfer aims to help readers use a computer to solve heat transfer problems and to promote greater understanding by changing data values and observing the effects, which are necessary in design and optimization calculations.The book is concerned with applications including insulation and heating in buildings and pipes, temperature distributions in solids for steady state and transient conditions, the determination of surface heat transfer coefficients for convection in various situations, radiation heat transfer in grey body problems, the use of finned surfaces, and simple heat exc
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marques, J.P.M.
1981-01-01
Due to a growing demand of electric power to support Brasil's development, the use of nuclear energy will be indispensable. The nuclear fuel cycle for the production of energy, starts with the uranium exploration. The work performed in this field led to the discovery of several deposits in the country, which to-date totalize a reserve of 236,300t of U 308 , ranking Brazil in the 6th place among the nations of the western world holding uranium reserves. (Author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bailey, R.; Crockford, G.
2001-01-01
The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)
African Journals Online (AJOL)
reserve, the total length being 66 km with six overnight huts. There are also the BokmakiePie. Nature Troil. and the Cheetah Interpretive Troil. which can be used by day visitors. The former has two loops, one of 10 km and another of 17 km. The. Cheetah Troil. is much shorter and various points of interest are interpreted en ...
School Shootings Stun Reservation
Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean
2005-01-01
This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1982-01-01
Figures released by the AAEC show that Australia's reasonably assured resources of uranium recoverable at US$80 a kg fell by 5,000 tonnes during 1980-81. Reserves at 30 June 1981 totalled 294,000 tonnes. This represented 17 per cent of the Western World's low cost reasonably assured resources
Ultrasound in evaluating ovarian reserve
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eman Ahmaed Shawky Sabek
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound (TVS, as a less invasive technique instead of hormonal assay to evaluate the ovarian reserve. This study included fifty-five females with breast cancer and we compared the ovarian reserve for these patients by hormonal assay through measuring the serum AntiMullerian Hormone (AMH level and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH level before and after chemotherapy, and by transvaginal ultrasound through the ovarian volume (OV calculation and counting the Antral follicles (AFC before and after chemotherapy treatment. There was decline in the AntiMullerian Hormone level after chemotherapy by 27 ± 11.19% and decrease in the Antral follicle counts by 21 ± 13.43%. In conclusion there was strong relation between AMH level and AFC which makes the use of transvaginal ultrasound is a reliable alternative method to the hormonal assay to detect the ovarian reserve.
Radiation and combined heat transfer in channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamonis, M.
1986-01-01
This book presents numerical methods of calculation of radiative and combined heat transfer in channel flows of radiating as well as nonradiating media. Results obtained in calculations for flow conditions of combustion products from organic fuel products are given and methods used in determining the spectral optical properties of molecular gases are analyzed. The book presents applications of heat transfer in solving problems. Topic covered are as follows: optical properties of molecular gases; transfer equations for combined heat transfer; experimental technique; convective heat transfer in heated gas flows; radiative heat transfer in gaseous media; combined heat transfer; and radiative and combined heat transfer in applied problems
12 CFR 211.43 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.
2010-01-01
... set forth in the “Instructions to Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies” (Form... specified. (3) Consolidation. A banking institution shall establish an ATRR, as required, on a consolidated... set forth in the instructions for preparation of Consolidated Reports of Condition and Income (FFIEC...
Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas
2012-01-01
Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, D.
1980-01-01
Reviewed is the effect of heat flux of different system parameters on critical density in order to give an initial view on the value of several parameters. A thorough analysis of different equations is carried out to calculate burnout is steam-water flows in uniformly heated tubes, annular, and rectangular channels and rod bundles. Effect of heat flux density distribution and flux twisting on burnout and storage determination according to burnout are commended [ru
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petersen, K.E.
1986-03-01
Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very complex systems. In order to increase the applicability of the programs variance reduction techniques can be applied to speed up the calculation process. Variance reduction techniques have been studied and procedures for implementation of importance sampling are suggested. (author)
McCarty, George
1982-01-01
How THIS BOOK DIFFERS This book is about the calculus. What distinguishes it, however, from other books is that it uses the pocket calculator to illustrate the theory. A computation that requires hours of labor when done by hand with tables is quite inappropriate as an example or exercise in a beginning calculus course. But that same computation can become a delicate illustration of the theory when the student does it in seconds on his calculator. t Furthermore, the student's own personal involvement and easy accomplishment give hi~ reassurance and en couragement. The machine is like a microscope, and its magnification is a hundred millionfold. We shall be interested in limits, and no stage of numerical approximation proves anything about the limit. However, the derivative of fex) = 67.SgX, for instance, acquires real meaning when a student first appreciates its values as numbers, as limits of 10 100 1000 t A quick example is 1.1 , 1.01 , 1.001 , •••• Another example is t = 0.1, 0.01, in the functio...
Modest, Michael F
2013-01-01
The third edition of Radiative Heat Transfer describes the basic physics of radiation heat transfer. The book provides models, methodologies, and calculations essential in solving research problems in a variety of industries, including solar and nuclear energy, nanotechnology, biomedical, and environmental. Every chapter of Radiative Heat Transfer offers uncluttered nomenclature, numerous worked examples, and a large number of problems-many based on real world situations-making it ideal for classroom use as well as for self-study. The book's 24 chapters cover the four major areas in the field: surface properties; surface transport; properties of participating media; and transfer through participating media. Within each chapter, all analytical methods are developed in substantial detail, and a number of examples show how the developed relations may be applied to practical problems. It is an extensive solution manual for adopting instructors. Features: most complete text in the field of radiative heat transfer;...
Are uranium reserves adequate?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
2006-01-01
Against a backdrop of growing concerns about global warming and geopolitical pressures on fossil energies, especially natural gas and oil, interest in nuclear power has revived considerably. Conscious of its addiction to oil and reeling from a series of gigantic blackouts, the United States, in the words of its president, must 'aggressively move forward with the construction of nuclear power plants'. Some European countries have approved new power plant construction (Finland and France), while the more reserved ones (Belgium, Germany and Sweden) have begun to show a change in attitude. Asia, meanwhile, is host to the planet's largest number of potential nuclear construction projects in this first half of the 21. century. All these signs point to a sharp rise in uranium consumption, the basic fuel for these plants. But are there enough resources to support a nuclear revival on a planetary scale? The publication of the Red Book on uranium in late May 2006 was an opportunity for Thierry Dujardin, Deputy Director of Science and Development at the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency, to take stock of resources. He gives his opinion in this paper
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Kurt Erling
1986-01-01
Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety...... and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic...... approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Heat transfer. Heat conduction in solid slab. Convective heat transfer. Non-linear temperature. variation due to flow. HEAT FLUX AT SURFACE. conduction/diffusion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saad, M.A.
1985-01-01
Heat transfer takes place between material systems as a result of a temperature difference. The transmission process involves energy conversions governed by the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The heat transfer proceeds from a high-temperature region to a low-temperature region, and because of the finite thermal potential, there is an increase in entropy. Thermodynamics, however, is concerned with equilibrium states, which includes thermal equilibrium, irrespective of the time necessary to attain these equilibrium states. But heat transfer is a result of thermal nonequilibrium conditions, therefore, the laws of thermodynamics alone cannot describe completely the heat transfer process. In practice, most engineering problems are concerned with the rate of heat transfer rather than the quantity of heat being transferred. Resort then is directed to the particular laws governing the transfer of heat. There are three distinct modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. Although these modes are discussed separately, all three types may occur simultaneously
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Søren Bo
2014-01-01
Against a background of rather mixed evidence about transfer pricing practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs) and varying attitudes on the part of tax authorities, this paper explores how multiple aims in transfer pricing can be pursued across four different transfer pricing regimes. A MNE h...
When will fossil fuel reserves be diminished?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shafiee, Shahriar; Topal, Erkan
2009-01-01
Crude oil, coal and gas are the main resources for world energy supply. The size of fossil fuel reserves and the dilemma that 'when non-renewable energy will be diminished' is a fundamental and doubtful question that needs to be answered. This paper presents a new formula for calculating when fossil fuel reserves are likely to be depleted and develops an econometrics model to demonstrate the relationship between fossil fuel reserves and some main variables. The new formula is modified from the Klass model and thus assumes a continuous compound rate and computes fossil fuel reserve depletion times for oil, coal and gas of approximately 35, 107 and 37 years, respectively. This means that coal reserves are available up to 2112, and will be the only fossil fuel remaining after 2042. In the Econometrics model, the main exogenous variables affecting oil, coal and gas reserve trends are their consumption and respective prices between 1980 and 2006. The models for oil and gas reserves unexpectedly show a positive and significant relationship with consumption, while presenting a negative and significant relationship with price. The econometrics model for coal reserves, however, expectedly illustrates a negative and significant relationship with consumption and a positive and significant relationship with price. Consequently, huge reserves of coal and low-level coal prices in comparison to oil and gas make coal one of the main energy substitutions for oil and gas in the future, under the assumption of coal as a clean energy source
77 FR 21846 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification
2012-04-12
... Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Board is amending Regulation D, Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions, to simplify the administration of reserve requirements. The final rule creates a...
A Novel TRM Calculation Method by Probabilistic Concept
Audomvongseree, Kulyos; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Verma, Suresh Chand; Nakachi, Yoshiki
In a new competitive environment, it becomes possible for the third party to access a transmission facility. From this structure, to efficiently manage the utilization of the transmission network, a new definition about Available Transfer Capability (ATC) has been proposed. According to the North American ElectricReliability Council (NERC)’s definition, ATC depends on several parameters, i. e. Total Transfer Capability (TTC), Transmission Reliability Margin (TRM), and Capacity Benefit Margin (CBM). This paper is focused on the calculation of TRM which is one of the security margin reserved for any uncertainty of system conditions. The TRM calculation by probabilistic method is proposed in this paper. Based on the modeling of load forecast error and error in transmission line limitation, various cases of transmission transfer capability and its related probabilistic nature can be calculated. By consideration of the proposed concept of risk analysis, the appropriate required amount of TRM can be obtained. The objective of this research is to provide realistic information on the actual ability of the network which may be an alternative choice for system operators to make an appropriate decision in the competitive market. The advantages of the proposed method are illustrated by application to the IEEJ-WEST10 model system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Debreczeny, Martin Paul [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1994-05-01
We have measured and assigned rate constants for energy transfer between chromophores in the light-harvesting protein C-phycocyanin (PC), in the monomeric and trimeric aggregation states, isolated from Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. In order to compare the measured rate constants with those predicted by Fdrster`s theory of inductive resonance in the weak coupling limit, we have experimentally resolved several properties of the three chromophore types ({beta}{sub 155} {alpha}{sub 84}, {beta}{sub 84}) found in PC monomers, including absorption and fluorescence spectra, extinction coefficients, fluorescence quantum yields, and fluorescence lifetimes. The cpcB/C155S mutant, whose PC is missing the {beta}{sub 155} chromophore, was, useful in effecting the resolution of the chromophore properties and in assigning the experimentally observed rate constants for energy transfer to specific pathways.
Advance Network Reservation and Provisioning for Science
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex
2009-07-10
We are witnessing a new era that offers new opportunities to conduct scientific research with the help of recent advancements in computational and storage technologies. Computational intensive science spans multiple scientific domains, such as particle physics, climate modeling, and bio-informatics simulations. These large-scale applications necessitate collaborators to access very large data sets resulting from simulations performed in geographically distributed institutions. Furthermore, often scientific experimental facilities generate massive data sets that need to be transferred to validate the simulation data in remote collaborating sites. A major component needed to support these needs is the communication infrastructure which enables high performance visualization, large volume data analysis, and also provides access to computational resources. In order to provide high-speed on-demand data access between collaborating institutions, national governments support next generation research networks such as Internet 2 and ESnet (Energy Sciences Network). Delivering network-as-a-service that provides predictable performance, efficient resource utilization and better coordination between compute and storage resources is highly desirable. In this paper, we study network provisioning and advanced bandwidth reservation in ESnet for on-demand high performance data transfers. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent transport networks with bandwidth guarantees. We plan to improve the current ESnet advance network reservation system, OSCARS [3], by presenting to the clients, the possible reservation options and alternatives for earliest completion time and shortest transfer duration. The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) provides high bandwidth connections between research laboratories and academic institutions for data sharing and video/voice communication. The ESnet On-Demand Secure Circuits and Advance Reservation System (OSCARS) establishes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rohde, Carsten; Rossing, Christian Plesner
trade internally as the units have to decide what prices should be paid for such inter-unit transfers. One important challenge is to uncover the consequences that different transfer prices have on the willingness in the organizational units to coordinate activities and trade internally. At the same time...... the determination of transfer price will affect the size of the profit or loss in the organizational units and thus have an impact on the evaluation of managers‟ performance. In some instances the determination of transfer prices may lead to a disagreement between coordination of the organizational units...
Status of fossil fuel reserves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laherrere, J.
2005-01-01
Reserves represent the sum of past and future productions up to the end of production. In most countries the reserve data of fields are confidential. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are badly known because the published data are more political than technical and many countries make a confusion between resources and reserves. The cumulated production of fossil fuels represents only between a third and a fifth of the ultimate reserves. The production peak will take place between 2020 and 2050. In the ultimate reserves, which extrapolate the past, the fossil fuels represent three thirds of the overall energy. This document analyses the uncertainties linked with fossil fuel reserves: reliability of published data, modeling of future production, comparison with other energy sources, energy consumption forecasts, reserves/production ratio, exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons (tar sands, extra-heavy oils, bituminous shales, coal gas, gas shales, methane in overpressure aquifers, methane hydrates), technology impacts, prices impact, and reserves growth. (J.S.)
77 FR 66361 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification
2012-11-05
... Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal... (Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions) published in the Federal Register on April 12, 2012. The... simplifications related to the administration of reserve requirements: 1. Create a common two-week maintenance...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haas A.
2006-11-01
Full Text Available L'erreur sur l'évaluation des réserves en place d'un gisement d'hydrocarbures dépend de trois facteurs : - erreur aux puits sur la détermination des porosités et saturations; - erreur géostatistique d'extension au gisement des mesures effectuées aux puits ; - erreur géométrique d'évaluation de la surface ou du volume du gisement. Dans ce texte nous avons étudié l'influence du nombre et de la distribution des puits sur l'erreur géostatistique dans le cas d'un gisement fictif de forme elliptique. Nous nous sommes placés à différents niveaux de reconnaissance, depuis l'implantation d'un seul puits en position variable jusqu'à la couverture complète du gisement par une grille régulière de 48 puits... La méthode utilisée est le « krigeage » élaboré par G. MATHERON de l'École des Mines de Paris. Les calculs ont été réalisés à l'aide du programme KRIGEPACK développé par une association CFP-SNPA. L'erreur d'estimation dépend de la position des puits dans le gisement, de la plus ou moins grande continuité spatiale de la variable et des erreurs aux puits. L'erreur que l'on peut calculer par la statistique classique ne dépend que du nombre de puits et suivant le cas peut être trop importante (si les puits sont implantés de manière optimale ou au contraire trop faible (si les puits sont mal disposés. The error in evaluating reserves in place in a hydrocarbon reservoir depends on The following three factors I - an erorr in wells when determining porosities and saturations ; 2 - a geosfatistical error in extending well measurements ta the entire reservoir; 3 - a geometric error in evaluating the area or volume of the reservoir. This article studies the influence of well number and distribution on the geostatistical error in the case of an elliptically-shaped imaginary reservoir. Various levels of exploration are considered, from the existence of a single well in various positions to full coverage of the reservoir by a
Williams, Charles William
Reserve-to-production ratios for oil and gas development are utilized by oil and gas producing states to monitor oil and gas reserve and production dynamics. These ratios are used to determine production levels for the manipulation of oil and gas prices while maintaining adequate reserves for future development. These aggregate reserve-to-production ratios do not provide information concerning development cost and the best time necessary to develop newly discovered reserves. Oil and gas reserves are a semi-finished inventory because development of the reserves must take place in order to implement production. These reserves are considered semi-finished in that they are not counted unless it is economically profitable to produce them. The development of these reserves is encouraged by profit maximization economic variables which must consider the legal, political, and geological aspects of a project. This development is comprised of a myriad of incremental operational decisions, each of which influences profit maximization. The primary purpose of this study was to provide a model for characterizing a single product multi-period inventory/production optimization problem from an unconstrained quantity of raw material which was produced and stored as inventory reserve. This optimization was determined by evaluating dynamic changes in new additions to reserves and the subsequent depletion of these reserves with the maximization of production. A secondary purpose was to determine an equation for exponential depletion of proved reserves which presented a more comprehensive representation of reserve-to-production ratio values than an inadequate and frequently used aggregate historical method. The final purpose of this study was to determine the most accurate delay time for a proved reserve to achieve maximum production. This calculated time provided a measure of the discounted cost and calculation of net present value for developing new reserves. This study concluded that
Estimating Quartz Reserves Using Compositional Kriging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Taboada
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine spatial distribution and volume of four commercial quartz grades, namely, silicon metal, ferrosilicon, aggregate, and kaolin (depending on content in impurities in a quartz seam. The chemical and mineralogical composition of the reserves in the seam were determined from samples collected from outcrops, blasting operations, and exploratory drilling, and compositional kriging was used to calculate the volume and distribution of the reserves. A more accurate knowledge of the deposit ensures better mine planning, leading to higher profitability and an improved relationship with the environment.
Fractional Reserve in Banking System
Valkonen, Maria
2016-01-01
This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...
How Required Reserve Ratio Affects Distribution and Velocity of Money
Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui
2005-01-01
In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money fo...
The role of the concentration scale in the definition of transfer free energies.
Moeser, Beate; Horinek, Dominik
2015-01-01
The Gibbs free energy of transferring a solute at infinite dilution between two solvents quantifies differences in solute-solvent interactions - if the transfer takes place at constant molarity of the solute. Yet, many calculation formulae and measuring instructions that are commonly used to quantify solute-solvent interactions correspond to transfer processes in which not the molarity of the solute but its concentration measured in another concentration scale is constant. Here, we demonstrate that in this case, not only the change in solute-solvent interactions is quantified but also the entropic effect of a volume change during the transfer. Consequently, the "phenomenon" which is known as "concentration-scale dependence" of transfer free energies is simply explained by a volume-entropy effect. Our explanations are of high importance for the study of cosolvent effects on protein stability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
"Transfer Shock" or "Transfer Ecstasy?"
Nickens, John M.
The alleged characteristic drop in grade point average (GPA) of transfer students and the subsequent rise in GPA was investigated in this study. No statistically significant difference was found in first term junior year GPA between junior college transfers and native Florida State University students after the variance accounted for by the…
Planning outstanding reserves in general insurance
Raeva, E.; Pavlov, V.
2017-10-01
Each insurance company have to ensure its solvency through presentation of accounts for its own reserves in the start of the year. Usually the task of the actuary is to estimate the state of the company on an annual basis and the expectation of the status of the company for a future period. One of the major problem when calculating the liabilities of the incurred claims, is related to the delay of payments. Object of consideration in the present note are the outstanding claim reserves, which are set aside to cover claims, occurred before the date of the annual account, but still not paid, and related with them expenses. There may be different reasons for the delay of claims settlement. For example, continuation the process of the liquidation of the damage waiting for necessary documents or the presence of controversial cases whose permission takes time, etc. Thus the claims, which determine the outstanding reserves could be divided in the following types: claims, which are reported, but not settled (RBNS); claims, which are incurred but not reported (IBNR); claims, whose case is finished, but it is possible to be reopened. When calculating the reserves for IBNR claims, most widely used is the Chain-ladder method and its modification presented by the Bornhuetter - Ferguson method. For modeling the outstanding claims, the available data should be presented in so called run-off triangle, which underlies in the basis of such methods. The present work provides a review of the algorithm for calculating insurance outstanding claim reserves according to the Chain-ladder method. Using available data for claims related to liability of drivers, registered in Bulgaria an example is constructed to illustrate the methodology of the Chain-Ladder method. Back-testing approach is used for validating the results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mônica Gisele Brancher Pedó
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Na medida em que a economia global se expande e os mercados se tornam mais abertos para os investimentos, as empresas dividem atividades entre as suas unidades estabelecidas em diferentes países. A determinação dos preços praticados em operações de transferência entre companhias associadas situadas em diferentes jurisdições fiscais é chamada de Preços de Transferência. Para fins tributários, os preços de transferência determinam o valor de receita que cada empresa recebe e o referente valor de tributos incidentes sobre receitas e/ou resultados no país exportador e no país importador, sendo um assunto relevante para as administrações tributárias dos países onde essas operações ocorrem e para as empresas com unidades em mais de um país. O presente estudo apresenta uma análise relacionada aos Preços de Transferência praticados por uma empresa brasileira que importa matéria-prima de suas empresas vinculadas estabelecidas em outras jurisdições tributárias. É apresentado um estudo de caso descritivo que ilustra essa situação e as regras brasileiras de Preço de Transferência. Ao final, conclui-se que o contribuinte deve aplicar mais de uma metodologia de cálculo dentre as disponibilizadas pela legislação brasileira, a fim de identificar a que resulte em menor ajuste tributário. Conclui-se, adicionalmente, que a temática dos preços de transferência depende de muitas variáveis individuais, as quais devem ser estudadas e analisadas caso a caso, de acordo com as particularidades envolvidas em cada situação.As the global economy continues to expand and markets become more open to investment, enterprises share activities among their units established in different countries. The prices determination for the transfer of goods between affiliated companies situated in different tax jurisdictions is called Transfer Pricing. For tax purposes, transfer pricing determines the amount of income that each party earns and
DRY TRANSFER FACILITY SEISMIC ANALYSIS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
EARNEST, S.; KO, H.; DOCKERY, W.; PERNISI, R.
2004-01-01
The purpose of this calculation is to perform a dynamic and static analysis on the Dry Transfer Facility, and to determine the response spectra seismic forces for the design basis ground motions. The resulting seismic forces and accelerations will be used in a subsequent calculation to complete preliminary design of the concrete shear walls, diaphragms, and basemat
Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success.
Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc
2017-03-01
Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Department of Homeland Security — ixed rail transit external system transfers for systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1998-01-01
On the base of technological opportunities and of the environmental target of the various sectors of energy system this paper intend to conjugate the opportunity/objective with economic and social development through technology transfer and information dissemination [it
Reserves Represented by Random Walks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Filipe, J A; Ferreira, M A M; Andrade, M
2012-01-01
The reserves problem is studied through models based on Random Walks. Random walks are a classical particular case in the analysis of stochastic processes. They do not appear only to study reserves evolution models. They are also used to build more complex systems and as analysis instruments, in a theoretical feature, of other kind of systems. In this work by studying the reserves, the main objective is to see and guarantee that pensions funds get sustainable. Being the use of these models considering this goal a classical approach in the study of pensions funds, this work concluded about the problematic of reserves. A concrete example is presented.
75 FR 9120 - Electronic Fund Transfers
2010-03-01
... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 205 [Regulation E; Docket No. R-1343] Electronic Fund Transfers... implements the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, and the official staff commentary to the regulation. The final..., the Board adopted a final rule under Regulation E, which implements the Electronic Fund Transfer Act...
Reservation wages and starting wages
van Ophem, H.; Hartog, J.; Berkhout, P.
2011-01-01
We analyse a unique data set that combines reservation wage and actually paid wage for a large sample of Dutch recent higher education graduates. On average, accepted wages are almost 8% higher than reservation wages, but there is no fixed proportionality. We find that the difference between
Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?
Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico
2016-01-01
Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…
How required reserve ratio affects distribution and velocity of money
Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui
2005-11-01
In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money follows exponential distribution. The expression of monetary wealth distribution and that of the velocity of money in terms of the required reserve ratio are presented in a good agreement with simulation results.
Electrophoretic transfer protein zymography.
Pan, Daniel; Hill, Adam P; Kashou, Anthony; Wilson, Karl A; Tan-Wilson, Anna
2011-04-15
Zymography detects and characterizes proteolytic enzymes by electrophoresis of protease-containing samples into a nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gel containing a copolymerized protein substrate. The usefulness of zymography for molecular weight determination and proteomic analysis is hampered by the fact that some proteases exhibit slower migration through a gel that contains substrate protein. This article introduces electrophoretic transfer protein zymography as one solution to this problem. In this technique, samples containing proteolytic enzymes are first resolved in nonreducing SDS-PAGE on a gel without protein substrate. The proteins in the resolving gel are then electrophoretically transferred to a receiving gel previously prepared with a copolymerized protein substrate. The receiving gel is then developed as a zymogram to visualize clear or lightly stained bands in a dark background. Band intensities are linearly related to the amount of protease, extending the usefulness of the technique so long as conditions for transfer and development of the zymogram are kept constant. Conditions of transfer, such as the pore sizes of resolving and receiving gels and the transfer time relative to the molecular weight of the protease, are explored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Securities issues in reserves reporting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Legg, M.B.
1997-01-01
Securities issues in oil and gas reserves reporting were discussed. Alberta requires specific information regarding important oil and gas properties, plants, facilities and installations. When preparing the reserves report, the following elements are important to consider: (1) the author of the report must be a registered professional engineer or registered professional geologist, (2) the report itself must be an engineering document, (3) the content of the report must be extensive, (4) it should be prepared in accordance with petroleum engineering and evaluation practices, and must include a summary of estimated net reserves
The aims of transfer prices formation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomašević Stevan
2013-01-01
Full Text Available More than two-thirds of today's world trade comprises of transactions between related legal persons. Prices for the above-mentioned transactions within legal person or group of related legal persons are called transfer pricing. The aim of this paper is to present the transfer prices as well as the main objectives of transfer pricing. Also, this paper explains application of transfer pricing in the Republic of Serbia and the normative rules that cover the issue of transfer pricing, their determination and their application in the calculation. Overall, there has been a great deal of attention paid to the transfer pricing in national and international levels.
Smith, Nanette R.
1995-01-01
The objective of this summer's work was to attempt to enhance Technology Application Group (TAG) ability to measure the outcomes of its efforts to transfer NASA technology. By reviewing existing literature, by explaining the economic principles involved in evaluating the economic impact of technology transfer, and by investigating the LaRC processes our William & Mary team has been able to lead this important discussion. In reviewing the existing literature, we identified many of the metrics that are currently being used in the area of technology transfer. Learning about the LaRC technology transfer processes and the metrics currently used to track the transfer process enabled us to compare other R&D facilities to LaRC. We discuss and diagram impacts of technology transfer in the short run and the long run. Significantly, it serves as the basis for analysis and provides guidance in thinking about what the measurement objectives ought to be. By focusing on the SBIR Program, valuable information regarding the strengths and weaknesses of this LaRC program are to be gained. A survey was developed to ask probing questions regarding SBIR contractors' experience with the program. Specifically we are interested in finding out whether the SBIR Program is accomplishing its mission, if the SBIR companies are providing the needed innovations specified by NASA and to what extent those innovations have led to commercial success. We also developed a survey to ask COTR's, who are NASA employees acting as technical advisors to the SBIR contractors, the same type of questions, evaluating the successes and problems with the SBIR Program as they see it. This survey was developed to be implemented interactively on computer. It is our hope that the statistical and econometric studies that can be done on the data collected from all of these sources will provide insight regarding the direction to take in developing systematic evaluations of programs like the SBIR Program so that they can
Smile esthetics: calculated beauty?
Lecocq, Guillaume; Truong Tan Trung, Lisa
2014-06-01
Esthetic demand from patients continues to increase. Consequently, the treatments we offer are moving towards more discreet or invisible techniques using lingual brackets in order to achieve harmonious, balanced results in line with our treatment goals. As orthodontists, we act upon relationships between teeth and bone. And the equilibrium they create impacts the entire face via the smile. A balanced smile is essential to an esthetic outcome and is governed by rules, which guide both the practitioner and patient. A smile can be described in terms of mathematical ratios and proportions but beauty cannot be calculated. For the smile to sit harmoniously within the face, we need to take into account facial proportions and the possibility of their being modified by our orthopedic appliances or by surgery. Copyright © 2014 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Titantah, J.T.; Lamoen, D.; Jorissen, K.
2004-01-01
We perform density functional theory calculations on a series of armchair and zigzag nanotubes of diameters less than 1 nm using the all-electron full-potential(-linearized)-augmented-plane-wave method. Emphasis is laid on the effects of curvature, the electron-beam orientation, and the inclusion of the core hole on the carbon electron-energy-loss K edge. The electron-energy-loss near-edge spectra of all the studied tubes show strong curvature effects compared to that of flat graphene. The curvature-induced π-σ hybridization is shown to have a more drastic effect on the electronic properties of zigzag tubes than on those of armchair tubes. We show that the core-hole effect must be accounted for in order to correctly reproduce electron-energy-loss measurements. We also find that the energy-loss near-edge spectra of these carbon systems are dominantly dipole selected and that they can be expressed simply as a proportionality with the local momentum projected density of states, thus portraying the weak energy dependence of the transition matrix elements. Compared to graphite, we report a reduction in the anisotropy as seen on the energy-loss near-edge spectra of carbon nanotubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jemain, A.
2004-01-01
Some mistakes in the evaluation of the proven reserves of Royal Dutch Shell group, the second world petroleum leader, will oblige the other oil and gas companies to be more transparent and vigilant in the future. The proven reserves ('P90' in petroleum professionals' language) are the most important indicators of the mining patrimony of companies. These strategic data are reported each year in the annual reports of the companies and are examined by the security exchange commission. The evaluation of reserves is perfectly codified by the US energy policy and conservation act and its accountable translation using the FAS 69 standard allows to establish long-term cash-flow forecasts. The revision announced by Shell on January 9 leads to a 20% reduction of its proven reserves. Short paper. (J.S.)
Cognitive Reserve Scale and ageing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irene León
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The construct of cognitive reserve attempts to explain why some individuals with brain impairment, and some people during normal ageing, can solve cognitive tasks better than expected. This study aimed to estimate cognitive reserve in a healthy sample of people aged 65 years and over, with special attention to its influence on cognitive performance. For this purpose, it used the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS and a neuropsychological battery that included tests of attention and memory. The results revealed that women obtained higher total CRS raw scores than men. Moreover, the CRS predicted the learning curve, short-term and long-term memory, but not attentional and working memory performance. Thus, the CRS offers a new proxy of cognitive reserve based on cognitively stimulating activities performed by healthy elderly people. Following an active lifestyle throughout life was associated with better intellectual performance and positive effects on relevant aspects of quality of life.
Professionalizing the Estonian Reserve Component
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Everett, William
1998-01-01
.... In particular, citizen-soldier reserves can allow nations that do not face immediate external threats, such as Estonia, to meet their security requirements for less money than required by standing forces...
Fractional Reserve Banking: Some Quibbles
Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David
2010-01-01
We explore several unaddressed issues in George Selgin’s (1988) claim that the best monetary system to maintain monetary equilibrium is a fractional reserve free banking one. The claim that adverse clearing balances would limit credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking system is more troublesome than previously reckoned. Both lengthened clearing periods and interbank agreements render credit expansion unrestrained. “The theory of free banking” confuses increases in money held with...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boury, C.
1986-01-01
This paper emphasizes in the specific areas of design, engineering and component production. This paper presents what Framatome has to offer in these areas and its export oriented philosophy. Then, a typical example of this technology transfer philosophy is the collaboration with the South Korean firm, Korea Heavy Industries Corporation (KHIC) for the supply of KNU 9 and KNU 10 power stations
Reserves and cash flows under stochastic retirement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gad, Kamille Sofie Tågholt; Nielsen, Jeppe Woetmann
2016-01-01
Uncertain time of retirement and uncertain structure of retirement benefits are risk factors for life insurance companies. Nevertheless, classical life insurance models assume these are deterministic. In this paper, we include the risk from stochastic time of retirement and stochastic benefit...... structure in a classical finite-state Markov model for a life insurance contract. We include discontinuities in the distribution of the retirement time. First, we derive formulas for appropriate scaling of the benefits according to the time of retirement and discuss the link between the scaling...... and the guarantees provided. Stochastic retirement creates a need to rethink the construction of disability products for high ages and ways to handle this are discussed. We show how to calculate market reserves and how to use modified transition probabilities to calculate expected cash flows without significantly...
Demand as frequency controlled reserve
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.
2008-09-15
Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation
Study on the evaluation index of active power reserve
Guo, Xiaorui; Liu, Jiantao; Wang, Ke; Min, Lu
2018-01-01
Based on the role of active reserve at different time scales, divides the evaluation dimension of active reserve. Analysis the calculation principle of traditional reliability index such as probability of system safety, lack of power shortage and electricity shortage expectancy, and studies the applicability of these indicators to evaluate the reserve capacity on different dimensions. Resolves the evaluation index of active reserve capacity from the dimensions of time dimension, spatial dimension, system state, risk degree and economy, then construct evaluation index of active reserve capacity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noor, Fatimah A.; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Sukirno; Khairurrijal
2010-01-01
Analytical expressions of electron transmittance and tunneling current in an anisotropic TiN x /HfO 2 /SiO 2 /p-Si(100) metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor were derived by considering the coupling of transverse and longitudinal energies of an electron. Exponential and Airy wavefunctions were utilized to obtain the electron transmittance and the electron tunneling current. A transfer matrix method, as a numerical approach, was used as a benchmark to assess the analytical approaches. It was found that there is a similarity in the transmittances calculated among exponential- and Airy-wavefunction approaches and the TMM at low electron energies. However, for high energies, only the transmittance calculated by using the Airy-wavefunction approach is the same as that evaluated by the TMM. It was also found that only the tunneling currents calculated by using the Airy-wavefunction approach are the same as those obtained under the TMM for all range of oxide voltages. Therefore, a better analytical description for the tunneling phenomenon in the MOS capacitor is given by the Airy-wavefunction approach. Moreover, the tunneling current density decreases as the titanium concentration of the TiN x metal gate increases because the electron effective mass of TiN x decreases with increasing nitrogen concentration. In addition, the mass anisotropy cannot be neglected because the tunneling currents obtained under the isotropic and anisotropic masses are very different. (semiconductor devices)
Calculation of the thermal regime of a stepped combustion chamber
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baskarev, B.N.; Gilevich, D.D.; Ostras, V.N.; Shvarts, IU.G.
1985-01-01
The effective-length method is used to calculate the heat-transfer characteristics and thermal regime of the walls of a stepped scramjet combustor. Based on this method, a formula is proposed for calculating heat transfer between the transition boundary layer and a nonporous surface. 13 references.
Improved Effectiveness of Reserve Forces During Reserve Duty Training.
Treadaway, Harry H.
The problem areas of motivation, job enrichment, recruiting, and retention are addressed from the viewpoint of the behavioral scientist. Special attention is given to relating job enrichment and motivation techniques, as successfully demonstrated in industry, to the United State Army Reserve. Research method utilized was a literature review…
Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))
1989-06-01
In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.
Transfer matrices for multilayer structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baquero, R.
1988-08-01
We consider four of the transfer matrices defined to deal with multilayer structures. We deduce algorithms to calculate them numerically, in a simple and neat way. We illustrate their application to semi-infinite systems using SGFM formulae. These algorithms are of fast convergence and allow a calculation of bulk-, surface- and inner-layers band structure in good agreement with much more sophisticated calculations. Supermatrices, interfaces and multilayer structures can be calculated in this way with a small computational effort. (author). 10 refs
Nucleon transfer between heavy nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Von Oertzen, W.
1984-02-01
Nucleon transfer reactions between heavy nuclei are characterized by the classical behaviour of the scattering orbits. Thus semiclassical concepts are well suited for the description of these reactions. In the present contribution the characteristics of single and multinucleon transfer reactions at energies below and above the Coulomb barrier are shown for systems like Sn+Sn, Xe+U and Ni+Pb. The role of the pairing interaction in the transfer of nucleon pairs is illustrated. For strong transitions the coupling of channels and the absorption into more complicated channels is taken into account in a coupled channels calculation
Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2005-07-01
IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth
Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2005-01-01
IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth
Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2005-07-01
IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may
Cash transfers and domestic violence.
Hidrobo, Melissa; Fernald, Lia
2013-01-01
Violence against women is a major health and human rights problem yet there is little rigorous evidence as to how to reduce it. We take advantage of the randomized roll-out of Ecuador's cash transfer program to mothers to investigate how an exogenous increase in a woman's income affects domestic violence. We find that the effect of a cash transfer depends on a woman's education and on her education relative to her partner's. Our results show that for women with greater than primary school education a cash transfer significantly decreases psychological violence from her partner. For women with primary school education or less, however, the effect of a cash transfer depends on her education relative to her partner's. Specifically, the cash transfer significantly increases emotional violence in households where the woman's education is equal to or more than her partner's. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael
2011-01-01
Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...... balancing measure, which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the electricity demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR...
12 CFR 204.5 - Maintenance of required reserves.
2010-01-01
... and Other Items by Federal Reserve Banks and Funds Transfers Through Fedwire” (12 CFR part 210). If a... collected funds. (d)(1) A depository institution, a U.S. branch or agency of a foreign bank, or an Edge or... institutions are Federal Home Loan Banks, the National Credit Union Administration Central Liquidity Facility...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1977-01-01
Illustrated by the example of the FRG's nuclear energy exports, it is shown that the nuclear technology transfer leads to new dimensions of intergovernmental relations, which hold within themselves on account of multiple state-to-state, scientific, industrial and - last but not least - personal contacts the chance of far-reaching friendships between countries and people. If the chance is taken, this can also be seen as an important contribution towards maintaining the peace. (orig.) [de
Pan, Daniel; Wilson, Karl A; Tan-Wilson, Anna
2017-01-01
The technique described here, transfer zymography, was developed to overcome two limitations of conventional zymography. When proteolytic enzymes are resolved by nonreducing SDS-PAGE into a polyacrylamide gel with copolymerized protein substrate, the presence of the protein substrate can result in anomalous, often slower, migration of the protease and an estimated mass higher than its actual mass. A further drawback is that the presence of a high background of substrate protein interferes with proteomic analysis of the protease band by excision, tryptic digestion, and LC-MS/MS analysis. In transfer zymography, the proteolytic enzymes are resolved by conventional nonreducing SDS-PAGE, without protein substrate in the gel. The proteins in the resolving gel are then electrophoretically transferred to a receiving gel that contains the protein substrate, by a process similar to western blotting. The receiving gel is then processed in a manner similar to conventional zymography. SDS is removed by Triton X-100 and incubated in conditions suitable for the proteolytic activity. After protein staining, followed by destaining, bands representing regions with active protease are visualized as clear bands in a darkly stained background. For proteomic analysis, electrophoresis is carried out simultaneously on a second resolving gel, and the bands corresponding to the clear regions in the receiving gel after zymogram development are excised for proteomic analysis.
Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xu, Zhao; Togeby, Mikael; Østergaard, Jacob
This report summaries the research outcomes of the project ‘Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)’, which has received the support from Energinet.dk’s PSO program, Grant no. 2005-2-6380. The objective of this project is to investigate the technology of using electricity demands for providing...
Heat transfer coefficient for boiling carbon dioxide
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Jensen, Per Henrik
1998-01-01
Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for boiling carbon dioxide (R744) flowing in a horizontal pipe has been measured. The calculated heat transfer coeeficient has been compared with the Chart correlation of Shah. The Chart Correlation predits too low heat transfer coefficient but the ratio...... between the measured and the calculated heat transfer coefficient is nearly constant and equal 1.9. With this factor the correlation predicts the measured data within 14% (RMS). The pressure drop is of the same order as the measuring uncertainty and the pressure drop has not been compared with correlation's....
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Calculator will calculate the total magnetic field, including components (declination, inclination, horizontal intensity, northerly intensity,...
Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.
2007-05-01
The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.
Gas reserves, discoveries and production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saniere, A.
2006-01-01
Between 2000 and 2004, new discoveries, located mostly in the Asia/Pacific region, permitted a 71% produced reserve replacement rate. The Middle East and the offshore sector represent a growing proportion of world gas production Non-conventional gas resources are substantial but are not exploited to any significant extent, except in the United States, where they account for 30% of U.S. gas production. (author)
Uranium reserves and exploration activity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meehan, R.J.
1975-01-01
The strategy that ERDA plans to employ regarding resource appraisal is outlined. All types of uranium occurrences will be evaluated as sources of domestic ore reserves. Industry's exploration efforts will be compiled. These data will include information on land acquisition and costs, footage drilled and costs, estimates of exploration activities and expenditures, exploration for non-sandstone deposits, exploration in non-established areas, and foreign exploration plans and costs. Typical data in each of these areas are given
Federal reservation of geothermal resources
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silver, R.M.
1978-01-01
Union Oil had developed or was seeking to develop wells on the land in Sonoma County, California in order to produce geothermal steam for generating electricity. The US Attorney General brought a quiet title action pursuant to 21(b) of the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 to determine whether geothermal resources are included in the mineral reservation under the Homestead Act. The US District Court granted Union Oil's motion to dismiss for failure to state a claim upon which relief may be granted. On appeal, the Ninth Circuit reversed and remanded. In summary, the court concluded on the basis of the legislative history of the Stock-Raising Homestead Act that sources of energy are intended to remain in the government's possession, and the purposes of the Act will be best served by including geothermal resources in the reservation of mineral interests. Noting the strictly agricultural purpose of the Act, the subsurface estate reservation was broadly interpreted, even though title passed to all rights that were not expressly reserved. The court left open on remand the question of estoppel of the government from interfering with private lessees by developing subsurface resources compensation.This is a unique and intriguing decision, as it opens wide the definition of ''mineral interest,'' construing it in the timely terms of a valuable natural resource that may be in great demand for future energy needs. The decision is being appealed to the United States Supreme Court, and it will be interesting to observe whether this liberal interpretation of mineral interests will be upheld.
Photoinduced electron-transfer from imidazole derivative to nano-semiconductors.
Karunakaran, C; Jayabharathi, J; Jayamoorthy, K; Devi, K Brindha
2012-04-01
Bioactive imidazole derivative absorbs in the UV region at 305 nm. The interaction of imidazole derivative with nanoparticulate WO3, Fe2O3, Fe3O4, CuO, ZrO2 and Al2O3 has been studied by UV-visible absorption, FT-IR and fluorescence spectroscopies. The imidazole derivative adsorbs strongly on the surfaces of nanosemiconductor, the apparent binding constants for the association between nanomaterials and imidazole derivative have been determined from the fluorescence quenching. In the case of nanocrystalline insulator, fluorescence quenching through electron transfer from the excited state of the imidazole derivative to alumina is not possible. However, a possible mechanism for the quenching of fluorescence by the insulator is energy transfer, that is, energy transferred from the organic molecule to the alumina lattice. Based on Forster's non-radiation energy transfer theory, the distance between the imidazole derivative and nanoparticles (r0∼2.00 nm) as well as the critical energy transfer distance (R0∼1.70 nm) has been calculated. The interaction between the imidazole derivative and nanosurfaces occurs through static quenching mechanism. The free energy change (ΔGet) for electron transfer process has been calculated by applying Rehm-Weller equation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjær, Poul F.
to specific logics of temporalisation and spatial expansion of a diverse set of social processes in relation to, for example, the economy, politics, science and the mass media. On this background, the paper will more concretely develop a conceptual framework for classifying different contextual orders...... that the essential functional and normative purpose of regulatory governance is to facilitate, stabilise and justify the transfer of condensed social components (such as economic capital and products, political decisions, legal judgements, religious beliefs and scientific knowledge) from one social contexts...
Matching with transfer matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perez-Alvarez, R.; Velasco, V.R.; Garcia-Moliner, F.; Rodriguez-Coppola, H.
1987-10-01
An ABC configuration - which corresponds to various systems of physical interest, such as a barrier or a quantum well - is studied by combining a surface Green function matching analysis of the entire system with a description of the intermediate (B) region in terms of a transfer matrix in the sense of Mora et al. (1985). This hybrid approach proves very useful when it is very difficult to construct the corresponding Green function G B . An application is made to the calculation of quantised subband levels in a parabolic quantum well. Further possibilities of extension of this approach are pointed out. (author). 27 refs, 1 tab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerber, G.B.
1993-01-01
The research project described here had the aim to obtain further information on the transfer of nuclides during pregnancy and lactation. The tests were carried out in mini-pigs and rats receiving unchanging doses of radionuclides with the food. The following findings were revealed for the elements examined: Fe, Se, Cs and Zn were characterized by very high transfer levels in the mother, infant and foetus. A substantial uptake by the mother alone was observed for Co, Ag and Mn. The uptake by the foetus and infant here was 1 to 10 times lower. A preferential concentration in certain tissues was seen for Sr and Tc; the thyroid levels of Tc were about equally high in mothers and infants, while Sr showed less accumulation in the maternal bone. The lanthanide group of substances (Ce, Eu and Gd as well as Y and Ru) were only taken up to a very limited extent. The uptake of the examined radionuclides (Fe, Co, Ag, Ce) with the food ingested was found here to be ten times greater in rats as compared to mini-pigs. This showed that great caution must be observed, if the behaviour of radionuclides in man is extrapolated from relevant data obtained in rodents. (orig./MG) [de
Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Md Zahangir Alam
2013-10-01
Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context. Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER. This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant. 62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.
Naval Reserve Annual Operating Costs
1975-10-29
C. c ) CPi i 0 0 00 0 le C C.C~r In 1]1 In 00 It .- I to C-38 ’U2 WIX ’W~ - m u. -C-LC m4 C v , v ul FA ?w % -D 1 o r cl jc j, II t %c oK W)i Ir of... platform programs, while Program 11 contains 26 sub-programs each having a separate Reserve program sponsor. The distribution of Program 11 resources is...a mix of specific skills required to bring an active Navy oper-Iating platform to organizational manning. Each SRU is tailored to a specific ship
Heat transfer coeffcient for boiling carbon dioxide
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Jensen, Per Henrik
1997-01-01
Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for boiling carbon dioxide (R744) flowing in a horizontal pipe has been measured. The pipe is heated by condensing R22 outside the pipe. The heat input is supplied by an electrical heater wich evaporates the R22. With the heat flux assumed constant over...... the whole surface and with measured temperature difference between the inner surface and the evaporation temperature a mean heat transfer coefficient is calculated. The calculated heat transfer coefficient has been compared with the Chart Correlation of Shah. The Chart Correlation predicts too low heat...... transfer coefficient but the ratio between the measured and the calculated heat transfer coefficient is nearly constant and equal 1.9. With this factor the correlation predicts the measured data within 14% (RMS). The pressure drop is of the same order as the measuring uncertainty and the pressure drop has...
Calculation of playback signals from MFM images using transfer functions
Vellekoop, S.J.L.; Abelmann, Leon; Porthun, S.; Lodder, J.C.; Miles, J.J.
1999-01-01
Magnetic force microscopy has proven to be a suitable tool for analysis of high-density magnetic recording materials. Comparison of the MFM image of a written signal with the actual read-back signal of the recording system can give valuable insight in the recording properties of both heads and
Radiative transfer code: Application to the calculation of PAR
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The production of carbon in the ocean, the so-called primary production, depends on various physico- biological ... We developed a model (Chami et al. 1997) to simulate .... and the gaseous transmittance for ozone, oxygen and water vapor ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carossi, Jean-Claude
1969-02-01
A CO 2 flowrate calculator has been designed for measuring and recording the gas flow in the loops of Pegase reactor. The analog calculator applies, at every moment, Bernoulli's formula to the values that characterize the carbon dioxide flow through a nozzle. The calculator electronics is described (it includes a sampling calculator and a two-variable function generator), with its amplifiers, triggers, interpolator, multiplier, etc. Calculator operation and setting are presented
Stability calculations for MHD magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, L.R.; Wang, S.T.; Harrang, J.
1978-01-01
When a cryostable composite conductor carrying current experiences a heat input from a mechanical perturbation, a normal region develops which initially propagates and then either collapses or continues to propagate. A computer model has been devised to study this phenomenon. The model incorporates initial or continuing heat input from mechanical perturbations, heat conducted to the neighboring elements of the conductor and, if appropriate, heat conducted through insulation to neighboring turns. Heat is transferred to the helium coolant according to a specified heat transfer coefficient. If the element of conductor is in a normal or current-sharing state, resistive heating also occurs. The (unstable) equilibrium state of heat generation and conduction has been studied; results agree with those of a static calculation. The model has been validated against experimental measurements of response to heat pulses. The model suffers from uncertainties in transient heat transfer to the helium, but even more from uncertainties in the perturbing heat pulse which the magnet might be expected to suffer
Chen, Wei; Chen, Jie-Jie; Lu, Rui; Qian, Chen; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing
2014-08-01
Riboflavin (RF), the primary redox active component of flavin, is involved in many redox processes in biogeochemical systems. Despite of its wide distribution and important roles in environmental remediation, its redox behaviors and reaction mechanisms in hydrophobic sites remain unclear yet. In this study, spectroelectrochemical analysis and density functional theory (DFT) calculation were integrated to explore the redox behaviors of RF in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which was used to create a hydrophobic environment. Specifically, cyclic voltafluorometry (CVF) and derivative cyclic voltafluorometry (DCVF) were employed to track the RF concentration changing profiles. It was found that the reduction contained a series of proton-coupled electron transfers dependent of potential driving force. In addition to the electron transfer-chemical reaction-electron transfer process, a disproportionation (DISP1) process was also identified to be involved in the reduction. The redox potential and free energy of each step obtained from the DFT calculations further confirmed the mechanisms proposed based on the experimental results. The combination of experimental and theoretical approaches yields a deep insight into the characteristics of RF in environmental remediation and better understanding about the proton-coupled electron transfer mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjær, Poul F.
2018-01-01
Departing from the paradox that globalisation has implied an increase, rather than a decrease, in contextual diversity, this paper re-assesses the function, normative purpose and location of Regulatory Governance Frameworks in world society. Drawing on insights from sociology of law and world...... society studies, the argument advanced is that Regulatory Governance Frameworks are oriented towards facilitating transfers of condensed social components, such as economic capital and products, legal acts, political decisions and scientific knowledge, from one legally-constituted normative order, i.......e. contextual setting, to another. Against this background, it is suggested that Regulatory Governance Frameworks can be understood as schemes which act as ‘rites of passage’ aimed at providing legal stabilisation to social processes characterised by liminality, i.e ambiguity, hybridity and in-betweenness....
Benchmarking using industry cost and reserves data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haessel, W.
1997-01-01
The financial success of an oil and gas exploration and production company depends directly on its ability to keep exploration and development costs low. A study was conducted to help companies develop strategies to reduce their exploration and development costs for crude oil equivalent, crude oil and raw natural gas. The study includes exploration and developments costs for 12 regions and seven geological zones for Alberta and Northern British Columbia. Topics addressed included: (1) issues in exploration and development cost calculations, (2) reserves, (3) costs, (4) exploration and development costs, (5) netbacks, and (6) ways to improve the average. It was concluded that exploration and development costs must be well below the current Alberta average to earn a decent return in oil and gas exploration. tabs., figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weisser, D.C.
1977-06-01
To complement discussions on the role of γ rays in heavy ion induced reactions, the author discusses the role played by particle detection. Transfer reactions are part of this subject and are among those in which one infers the properties of the residual nucleus in a reaction by observing the emerging light nucleus. Inelastic scattering ought not be excluded from this subject, although no particles are transferred, because of the role it plays in multistep reactions and in fixing O.M. parameters describing the entrance channel of the reaction. Heavy ion transfer reaction studies have been under study for some years and yet this research is still in its infancy. The experimental techniques are difficult and the demands on theory rigorous. One of the main products of heavy ion research has been the thrust to re-examine the assumptions of reaction theory and now include many effects neglected for light ion analysis. This research has spurred the addition of multistep processes to simple direct processes and coupled channel calculations. (J.R.)
Ecological transfer mechanisms - Terrestrial
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, W.E.; Raines, Gilbert E.; Bloom, S.G.; Levin, A.A.
1969-01-01
Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)
Ecological transfer mechanisms - Terrestrial
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martin, W E; Raines, Gilbert E; Bloom, S G; Levin, A A [Battelle Memorial Institute, CoIumbus, OH (United States)
1969-07-01
Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)
A Century in Reserve and Beyond
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Monagle, James P
2008-01-01
... Reserve, this Strategy Research Project (SRP) describes the role of the Army Reserve from its beginning as a reserve corps of medical doctors to that of a strategic reserve force, and then to its current operational role...
Mass Transfer Operations for the Practicing Engineer
Theodore, Louis
2011-01-01
Part of the Essential Engineering Calculations Series, this book presents step-by-step solutions of the basic principles of mass transfer operations, including sample problems and solutions and their applications, such as distillation, absorption, and stripping. Presenting the subject from a strictly pragmatic point of view, providing both the principles of mass transfer operations and their applications, with clear instructions on how to carry out the basic calculations needed, the book also covers topics useful for readers taking their professional exams.
Definitions and guidelines for classification of oil and gas reserves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DeSorcy, G.J.; Warne, G.A.; Ashton, B.R.; Campbell, G.R.; Collyer, D.R.; Drury, J.; Lang, R.V.; Robertson, W.D.; Robinson, J.G.; Tutt, D.W
1993-05-01
The unpredictability of estimating reserves of oil and gas has made it imperative to develop a universal set of definitions and guidelines for calculating and classifying reserves. A committee of representatives from the oil and gas industry, consulting firms, industry associations, regulatory agencies, government, and financial organizations in Canada has prepared definitions of oil and gas resources and reserves, as well as a recommended classification system for those reserves. The committee believes these definitions and guidelines are suitable for use with respect to all types of oil and gas and related substances, including offshore situations and oil sands. Both deterministic and probabilistic methods are presented, as well as guidelines for specific methods including the volumetric, material balance, decline curve analysis, and reservoir simulation methods. The guidelines also consider reserves from improved recovery projects and reserves of natural gas liquids and sulfur. A glossary of terms is appended. 14 figs.
Heterogeneous Calculation of {epsilon}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jonsson, Alf
1961-02-15
A heterogeneous method of calculating the fast fission factor given by Naudet has been applied to the Carlvik - Pershagen definition of {epsilon}. An exact calculation of the collision probabilities is included in the programme developed for the Ferranti - Mercury computer.
Heterogeneous Calculation of ε
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jonsson, Alf
1961-02-01
A heterogeneous method of calculating the fast fission factor given by Naudet has been applied to the Carlvik - Pershagen definition of ε. An exact calculation of the collision probabilities is included in the programme developed for the Ferranti - Mercury computer
Efficiency transfer using the GEANT4 code of CERN for HPGe gamma spectrometry.
Chagren, S; Tekaya, M Ben; Reguigui, N; Gharbi, F
2016-01-01
In this work we apply the GEANT4 code of CERN to calculate the peak efficiency in High Pure Germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometry using three different procedures. The first is a direct calculation. The second corresponds to the usual case of efficiency transfer between two different configurations at constant emission energy assuming a reference point detection configuration and the third, a new procedure, consists on the transfer of the peak efficiency between two detection configurations emitting the gamma ray in different energies assuming a "virtual" reference point detection configuration. No pre-optimization of the detector geometrical characteristics was performed before the transfer to test the ability of the efficiency transfer to reduce the effect of the ignorance on their real magnitude on the quality of the transferred efficiency. The obtained and measured efficiencies were found in good agreement for the two investigated methods of efficiency transfer. The obtained agreement proves that Monte Carlo method and especially the GEANT4 code constitute an efficient tool to obtain accurate detection efficiency values. The second investigated efficiency transfer procedure is useful to calibrate the HPGe gamma detector for any emission energy value for a voluminous source using one point source detection efficiency emitting in a different energy as a reference efficiency. The calculations preformed in this work were applied to the measurement exercise of the EUROMET428 project. A measurement exercise where an evaluation of the full energy peak efficiencies in the energy range 60-2000 keV for a typical coaxial p-type HpGe detector and several types of source configuration: point sources located at various distances from the detector and a cylindrical box containing three matrices was performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rim, Chol Ho; Fu, Zhixin; Bao, Lei; Chen, Haide; Zhang, Dan; Luo, Qiong; Ri, Hak Chol; Huang, Hefeng; Luan, Zhidong; Zhang, Yan; Cui, Chun; Xiao, Lei; Jong, Ui Myong
2013-12-01
To improve the efficiency of producing cloned pigs, we investigated the influence of the number of transferred embryos, the culturing interval between nuclear transfer (NT) and embryo transfer, and the transfer pattern (single oviduct or double oviduct) on cloning efficiency. The results demonstrated that transfer of either 150-200 or more than 200NT embryos compared to transfer of 100-150 embryos resulted in a significantly higher pregnancy rate (48 ± 16, 50 ± 16 vs. 29 ± 5%, pcloning efficiency is achieved by adjusting the number and in vitro culture time of reconstructed embryos as well as the embryo transfer pattern. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Heat transfer: Pittsburgh 1987
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyczkowski, R.W.
1987-01-01
This book contains papers divided among the following sections: Process Heat Transfer; Thermal Hydraulics and Phase Change Phenomena; Analysis of Multicomponent Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer; Heat Transfer in Advanced Reactors; General Heat Transfer in Solar Energy; Numerical Simulation of Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer; High Temperature Heat Transfer; Heat Transfer Aspects of Severe Reactor Accidents; Hazardous Waste On-Site Disposal; and General Papers
Excited state Intramolecular Proton Transfer in Anthralin
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Søren; Andersen, Kristine B.; Spanget-Larsen, Jens
1998-01-01
Quantum chemical calculations performed on anthralin (1,8-dihydroxy-9(10H)-anthracenone) predict the possibility of an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of the compound dissolved in n-hexane at ambient temperature results in an unus......Quantum chemical calculations performed on anthralin (1,8-dihydroxy-9(10H)-anthracenone) predict the possibility of an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of the compound dissolved in n-hexane at ambient temperature results......, associated with an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process....
RHEIN, Modular System for Reactor Design Calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reiche, Christian; Barz, Hansulrich; Kunzmann, Bernd; Seifert, Eberhard; Wand, Hartmut
1990-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: RHEIN is a modular reactor code system for neutron physics calculations. It consists of a small number of system codes for execution control, data management, and handling support, as well as of the physical calculation routines. The execution is controlled by input data containing mathematical and physical parameters and simple commands for routine calls and data manipulations. The calculation routines are in tune with one another and the system takes care of the data transfer between them. Cross-section libraries with self shielding parameters are added to the system. 2 - Method of solution: The calculation routines can be used for solving the following physics problems: - Calculation of cross-section sets for infinite mediums, taking into account chord length. - Zero-dimensional spectrum calculation in diffusion, P1, or B1 approximation. - One-dimensional calculation in diffusion, P1, or collision probability approximation. - Two-dimensional diffusion calculation. - Cell calculation by THERMOS. - Zone-wise homogenized group collapsing within zero, one, or two-dimensional models. - Normalization, summarizing, etc. - Output of cross-section sets to off systems Sn and Monte-Carlo calculations
Dose calculation system for remotely supporting radiotherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saito, K.; Kunieda, E.; Narita, Y.; Kimura, H.; Hirai, M.; Deloar, H. M.; Kaneko, K.; Ozaki, M.; Fujisaki, T.; Myojoyama, A.; Saitoh, H.
2005-01-01
The dose calculation system IMAGINE is being developed keeping in mind remotely supporting external radiation therapy using photon beams. The system is expected to provide an accurate picture of the dose distribution in a patient body, using a Monte Carlo calculation that employs precise models of the patient body and irradiation head. The dose calculation will be performed utilising super-parallel computing at the dose calculation centre, which is equipped with the ITBL computer, and the calculated results will be transferred through a network. The system is intended to support the quality assurance of current, widely carried out radiotherapy and, further, to promote the prevalence of advanced radiotherapy. Prototypes of the modules constituting the system have already been constructed and used to obtain basic data that are necessary in order to decide on the concrete design of the system. The final system will be completed in 2007. (authors)
Mori, Chisato; Nakamura, Noriko; Todaka, Emiko; Fujisaki, Takeyoshi; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Nakaoka, Hiroko; Hanazato, Masamichi
2014-11-01
Establishing methods for the assessment of fetal exposure to chemicals is important for the prevention or prediction of the child's future disease risk. In the present study, we aimed to determine the influence of molecular weight on the likelihood of chemical transfer from mother to fetus via the placenta. The correlation between molecular weight and placental transfer rates of congeners/isomers of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins was examined. Twenty-nine sample sets of maternal blood, umbilical cord, and umbilical cord blood were used to measure PCB concentration, and 41 sample sets were used to analyze dioxins. Placental transfer rates were calculated using the concentrations of PCBs, dioxins, and their congeners/isomers within these sample sets. Transfer rate correlated negatively with molecular weight for PCB congeners, normalized using wet and lipid weights. The transfer rates of PCB or dioxin congeners differed from those of total PCBs or dioxins. The transfer rate for dioxin congeners did not always correlate significantly with molecular weight, perhaps because of the small sample size or other factors. Further improvement of the analytical methods for dioxin congeners is required. The findings of the present study suggested that PCBs, dioxins, or their congeners with lower molecular weights are more likely to be transferred from mother to fetus via the placenta. Consideration of chemical molecular weight and transfer rate could therefore contribute to the assessment of fetal exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Irrek, W.
1996-01-01
The reserves laid back by German operators of nuclear power plants for decommissioning, dismantling and waste management amounted to more than DM 44 billion in 1994, and the sum is still increasing. With this money, the public utilities intend to strengthen their competitive position in other industrial sectrors. The author proposes to transfer this money into public funds instead in order to ensure that it is used in an economically more efficient manner. (orig./RHM) [de
Supercritical heat transfer phenomena in nuclear system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seo, Kyoung Woo; Kim, Moo Hwan; Anderson, Mark H.; Corradini, Michael L.
2005-01-01
A supercritical water (SCW) power cycle has been considered as one of the viable candidates for advanced fission reactor designs. However, the dramatic variation of thermo-physical properties with a modest change of temperature near the pseudo-critical point make existing heat transfer correlations such as the Dittus-Boelter correlation not suitably accurate to calculate the heat transfer in supercritical fluid. Several other correlations have also been suggested but none of them are able to predict the heat transfer over a parameter range, needed for reactor thermal-hydraulics simulation and design. This has prompted additional research to understand the characteristic of supercritical fluid heat transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagao, Yoshiharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment
1998-03-01
In material testing reactors like the JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor) of 50 MW in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of irradiated samples show complex distributions. It is necessary to assess the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of an irradiation field by carrying out the nuclear calculation of the core for every operation cycle. In order to advance core calculation, in the JMTR, the application of MCNP to the assessment of core reactivity and neutron flux and spectra has been investigated. In this study, in order to reduce the time for calculation and variance, the comparison of the results of the calculations by the use of K code and fixed source and the use of Weight Window were investigated. As to the calculation method, the modeling of the total JMTR core, the conditions for calculation and the adopted variance reduction technique are explained. The results of calculation are shown. Significant difference was not observed in the results of neutron flux calculations according to the difference of the modeling of fuel region in the calculations by K code and fixed source. The method of assessing the results of neutron flux calculation is described. (K.I.)
Discounting medical malpractice claim reserves for self-insured hospitals.
Frese, Richard; Kitchen, Patrick
2011-01-01
The hospital CFO often works with the hospital's actuary and external auditor to calculate the reserves recorded in financial statements. Hospital management, usually the CFO, needs to decide the discount rate that is most appropriate. A formal policy addressing the rationale for discounting and the rationale for selecting the discount rate can be helpful to the CFO, actuary, and external auditor.
Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...
Electrical installation calculations basic
Kitcher, Christopher
2013-01-01
All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo
Electrical installation calculations advanced
Kitcher, Christopher
2013-01-01
All the essential calculations required for advanced electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practiceA step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3For apprentices and electrical installatio
Radar Signature Calculation Facility
Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The calculation, analysis, and visualization of the spatially extended radar signatures of complex objects such as ships in a sea multipath environment and...
Waste Package Lifting Calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
H. Marr
2000-01-01
The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation
Billett, Stephen
1998-01-01
Transfer involves disembodying knowledge and transferring it for use in different contexts. Vocational knowledge arises in communities of practice, and difficulties arise in transferring it from one distinct community, such as a workplace, to another, such as a classroom. (SK)
Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles
Clark, William M.; Shevlin, Ryan C.; Soffen, Tanya S.
2010-01-01
This paper addresses a controversy regarding the effect of bottle material on the thermal performance of beverage bottles. Experiments and calculations that verify or refute advertising claims and represent an interesting way to teach heat transfer fundamentals are described. Heat transfer coefficients and the resistance to heat transfer offered…
International technology transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwon, Won Gi
1991-11-01
This book introduces technology progress and economic growth, theoretical consideration of technology transfer, policy and mechanism on technology transfer of a developed country and a developing country, reality of international technology transfer technology transfer and industrial structure in Asia and the pacific region, technology transfer in Russia, China and Eastern Europe, cooperation of science and technology for development of Northeast Asia and strategy of technology transfer of Korea.
Technology transfer by multinationals
Kostyantyn Zuzik
2003-01-01
The paper analyses the issue of technology transfer by multinational corporations. The following questions are explored: (a) world market of technologies, the role of MNCs (b) Choice of the technology transfer mode, Dunning's OLI-theory as a factor of the choice of the mode of transfer (c) measurement and profitability of technology transfer (d) transfer of technology through partnerships, JVs, alliances and through M&As (e) aspects of technology transfer by services multinationals. Paper uti...
Heat transfer correlations in mantle tanks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Furbo, Simon; Knudsen, Søren
2005-01-01
on calculations with a CFD-model, which has earlier been validated by means of experiments. The CFD-model is used to determine the heat transfer between the solar collector fluid in the mantle and the walls surrounding the mantle in all levels of the mantle as well as the heat transfer between the wall...... transfer correlations are suitable as input for a detailed simulation model for mantle tanks. The heat transfer correlations determined in this study are somewhat different from previous reported heat transfer correlations. The reason is that this study includes more mantle tank designs and operation......Small solar domestic hot water systems are best designed as low flow systems based on vertical mantle tanks. Theoretical investigations of the heat transfer in differently designed vertical mantle tanks during different operation conditions have been carried out. The investigations are based...
Vacuum Large Current Parallel Transfer Numerical Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Enyuan Dong
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The stable operation and reliable breaking of large generator current are a difficult problem in power system. It can be solved successfully by the parallel interrupters and proper timing sequence with phase-control technology, in which the strategy of breaker’s control is decided by the time of both the first-opening phase and second-opening phase. The precise transfer current’s model can provide the proper timing sequence to break the generator circuit breaker. By analysis of the transfer current’s experiments and data, the real vacuum arc resistance and precise correctional model in the large transfer current’s process are obtained in this paper. The transfer time calculated by the correctional model of transfer current is very close to the actual transfer time. It can provide guidance for planning proper timing sequence and breaking the vacuum generator circuit breaker with the parallel interrupters.
Improved Wave-vessel Transfer Functions by Uncertainty Modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Fønss Bach, Kasper; Iseki, Toshio
2016-01-01
This paper deals with uncertainty modelling of wave-vessel transfer functions used to calculate or predict wave-induced responses of a ship in a seaway. Although transfer functions, in theory, can be calculated to exactly reflect the behaviour of the ship when exposed to waves, uncertainty in inp...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trkov, A.; Ravnik, M.; Zeleznik, N.
1992-01-01
Functional description of the programme package Cord-2 for PWR core design calculations is presented. Programme package is briefly described. Use of the package and calculational procedures for typical core design problems are treated. Comparison of main results with experimental values is presented as part of the verification process. (author) [sl
Uneconomical top calculation method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Noord, M.; Vanm Sambeek, E.J.W.
2003-08-01
The methodology used to calculate the financial gap of renewable electricity sources and technologies is described. This methodology is used for calculating the production subsidy levels (MEP subsidies) for new renewable electricity projects in 2004 and 2005 in the Netherlands [nl
Experimental study on external condensation heat transfer characteristics of bellows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng Dianyi; Hu Jiansheng
2008-01-01
Flow model and heat transfer of condensation flow outside of bellows have been theoretically and experimentally studied. The formula for calculation of condensation heat transfer coefficient was deduced, and corrected through experiment. The calculation results are accordant with the experimental ones, and the errors is less than 10%. The effect of bellows structure parameters and pipe diameter on the enhancement heat transfer has been investigated. It is found that in the steady flow region, the average condensation heat transfer coefficient in a bellows is 3 ∼ 5 times than that in a straight tube under the same conditions, and when considering the increasing in heat transfer area, the effectiveness of enhancement heat transfer is 5 ∼ 7 times than that in a straight tube. To facilitate the engineering design and application of bellows, the formula for the calculation of the average heat transfer coefficient of a fluid in a bellows was also given. (authors)
Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia
Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.
2006-01-01
contains oil in Jurassic river-valley sandstones. Principal source rocks are organic-rich marine shales of the Volgian (uppermost Jurassic) Bazhenov Formation, which is 30-50 m (98- 164 feet) thick. Bazhenov-derived oils are mostly of medium gravity, and contain 0.8-1.3 percent sulfur and 2-5 percent paraffin. Oils in the Lower to Middle Jurassic clastics were sourced from lacustrine and estuarine shales of the Toarcian Togur Bed. These oils are medium to low gravity, with low sulfur (less than 0.25 percent) and high paraffin (commonly to 10 percent) contents. Among the 42 fields analyzed for reserve growth, 30 fields are located in the Middle Ob region, which includes the Samotlor field with reserves of more than 25 BBO and the Fedorov field with reserves of about 5 BBO. Data used in the study include year of discovery, year of first production, annual and cumulative production, and remaining reserves reported by Russian reserve categories (A+B+C1 and C2) in January of each year. Correlation of these Russian resource categories to U.S. categories of the Society of Petroleum Engineers classification is complex and somewhat uncertain. Reserve growth in oil fields of West Siberia was calculated using a newly developed Group Growth method, which requires that the total reserve (proven reserve plus cumulative production) of individual fields with an equal length of reserve record be added together starting with discovery year or the first production year. Then the annual growth factor (AGF), which is the ratio of total reserves of two consecutive years, is calculated for all years. Once AGFs have been calculated, the cumulative growth factor (CGF) is calculated by multiplying the AGFs of all the previous years. The CGF data are used to develop reserve growth models. The West Siberian oil fields show a 13-fold reserve growth 20 years after the discovery year and only about a 2-fold growth after the first production year. This difference is attributed to extensive exploration
Mills, A F
1999-01-01
The Second Edition offers complete coverage of heat transfer with broad up-to-date coverage that includes an emphasis on engineering relevance and on problem solving. Integrates software to assist the reader in efficiently calculations. Carefully orders material to make book more reader-friendly and accessible. Offers an extensive introduction to heat exchange design to enhance the engineering and design content of course to satisfy ABET requirements. For professionals in engineering fields.
24 CFR 891.605 - Replacement reserve.
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.605... 8 Assistance § 891.605 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Borrower shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance, and repair and...
24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.405....405 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Owner shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items...
Veterinary Science Students, Center Changing a Reservation
Blackwater, Jasmine
2011-01-01
Kayenta is a rural community located in northeastern Arizona on a Navajo reservation. On the reservation, many families rely on their livestock for income, and as a result, many reservation high school students show a great interest in agricultural education. Having livestock on the reservation is not just a source of income, but also part of a…
Ptushenko, Vasily V; Cherepanov, Dmitry A; Krishtalik, Lev I
2015-12-01
Continuum electrostatic calculation of the transfer energies of anions from water into aprotic solvents gives the figures erroneous by order of magnitude. This is due to the hydrogen bond disruption that suggests the necessity to reconsider the traditional approach of the purely electrostatic calculation of the transfer energy from water into protein. In this paper, the method combining the experimental estimates of the transfer energies from water into aprotic solvent and the electrostatic calculation of the transfer energies from aprotic solvent into protein is proposed. Hydrogen bonds between aprotic solvent and solute are taken into account by introducing an imaginary aprotic medium incapable to form hydrogen bonds with the solute. Besides, a new treatment of the heterogeneous intraprotein dielectric permittivity based on the microscopic protein structure and electrometric measurements is elaborated. The method accounts semi-quantitatively for the electrostatic effect of diverse charged amino acid substitutions in the donor and acceptor parts of the photosynthetic bacterial reaction center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Analysis of the volatile secondary acceptor site QB revealed that in the conformation with a minimal distance between quinone QB and Glu L 212 the proton uptake upon the reduction of QB is prompted by Glu L 212 in alkaline and by Asp L 213 in slightly acidic regions. This agrees with the pH dependences of protonation degrees and the proton uptake. The method of pK calculation was applied successfully also for dissociation of Asp 26 in bacterial thioredoxin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dose calculation for electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirayama, Hideo
1995-01-01
The joint working group of ICRP/ICRU is advancing the works of reviewing the ICRP publication 51 by investigating the data related to radiation protection. In order to introduce the 1990 recommendation, it has been demanded to carry out calculation for neutrons, photons and electrons. As for electrons, EURADOS WG4 (Numerical Dosimetry) rearranged the data to be calculated at the meeting held in PTB Braunschweig in June, 1992, and the question and request were presented by Dr. J.L. Chartier, the responsible person, to the researchers who are likely to undertake electron transport Monte Carlo calculation. The author also has carried out the requested calculation as it was the good chance to do the mutual comparison among various computation codes regarding electron transport calculation. The content that the WG requested to calculate was the absorbed dose at depth d mm when parallel electron beam enters at angle α into flat plate phantoms of PMMA, water and ICRU4-element tissue, which were placed in vacuum. The calculation was carried out by the versatile electron-photon shower computation Monte Carlo code, EGS4. As the results, depth dose curves and the dependence of absorbed dose on electron energy, incident angle and material are reported. The subjects to be investigated are pointed out. (K.I.)
Wang, Fengyu
Traditional deterministic reserve requirements rely on ad-hoc, rule of thumb methods to determine adequate reserve in order to ensure a reliable unit commitment. Since congestion and uncertainties exist in the system, both the quantity and the location of reserves are essential to ensure system reliability and market efficiency. The modeling of operating reserves in the existing deterministic reserve requirements acquire the operating reserves on a zonal basis and do not fully capture the impact of congestion. The purpose of a reserve zone is to ensure that operating reserves are spread across the network. Operating reserves are shared inside each reserve zone, but intra-zonal congestion may block the deliverability of operating reserves within a zone. Thus, improving reserve policies such as reserve zones may improve the location and deliverability of reserve. As more non-dispatchable renewable resources are integrated into the grid, it will become increasingly difficult to predict the transfer capabilities and the network congestion. At the same time, renewable resources require operators to acquire more operating reserves. With existing deterministic reserve requirements unable to ensure optimal reserve locations, the importance of reserve location and reserve deliverability will increase. While stochastic programming can be used to determine reserve by explicitly modelling uncertainties, there are still scalability as well as pricing issues. Therefore, new methods to improve existing deterministic reserve requirements are desired. One key barrier of improving existing deterministic reserve requirements is its potential market impacts. A metric, quality of service, is proposed in this thesis to evaluate the price signal and market impacts of proposed hourly reserve zones. Three main goals of this thesis are: 1) to develop a theoretical and mathematical model to better locate reserve while maintaining the deterministic unit commitment and economic dispatch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Govoni, Marco; Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL; Galli, Giulia; Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL
2015-01-01
We present GW calculations of molecules, ordered and disordered solids and interfaces, which employ an efficient contour deformation technique for frequency integration and do not require the explicit evaluation of virtual electronic states nor the inversion of dielectric matrices. We also present a parallel implementation of the algorithm, which takes advantage of separable expressions of both the single particle Green's function and the screened Coulomb interaction. The method can be used starting from density functional theory calculations performed with semilocal or hybrid functionals. The newly developed technique was applied to GW calculations of systems of unprecedented size, including water/semiconductor interfaces with thousands of electrons
Radioactive cloud dose calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Healy, J.W.
1984-01-01
Radiological dosage principles, as well as methods for calculating external and internal dose rates, following dispersion and deposition of radioactive materials in the atmosphere are described. Emphasis has been placed on analytical solutions that are appropriate for hand calculations. In addition, the methods for calculating dose rates from ingestion are discussed. A brief description of several computer programs are included for information on radionuclides. There has been no attempt to be comprehensive, and only a sampling of programs has been selected to illustrate the variety available
Evaluation bases for calculation methods in radioecology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bleck-Neuhaus, J.; Boikat, U.; Franke, B.; Hinrichsen, K.; Hoepfner, U.; Ratka, R.; Steinhilber-Schwab, B.; Teufel, D.; Urbach, M.
1982-03-01
The seven contributions in this book deal with the state and problems of radioecology. In particular it analyses: The propagation of radioactive materials in the atmosphere, the transfer of radioactive substances from the soil into plants, respectively from animal feed into meat, the exposure pathways for, and high-risk groups of the population, the uncertainties and the band width of the ingestion factor, as well as the treatment of questions of radioecology in practice. The calculation model is assessed and the difficulty evaluated of laying down data in the general calculation basis. (DG) [de
Effect of air bubble localization after transfer on embryo transfer outcomes.
Tiras, Bulent; Korucuoglu, Umit; Polat, Mehtap; Saltik, Ayse; Zeyneloglu, Hulusi Bulent; Yarali, Hakan
2012-09-01
Our study aimed to provide information about the effects of air bubble localization after transfer on embryo transfer outcomes. Retrospective analysis of 7489 ultrasound-guided embryo transfers. Group 1 included 6631 embryo transfers in which no movement of the air bubbles was observed after transfer. Group 2 consisted of 407 embryo transfers in which the air bubbles moved towards the uterine fundus spontaneously, a little time after transfer. Group 3 included 370 embryo transfers in which the air bubbles moved towards the uterine fundus with ejection, immediately after transfer. Group 4 consisted of 81 embryo transfers in which the air bubbles moved towards the cervical canal. The four patient groups were different from one another with respect to positive pregnancy tests. Post hoc test revealed that this difference was between group 4 and other groups. An initial finding of our study was significantly decreased positive pregnancy test rates and clinical pregnancy rates with air bubbles moving towards the cervical canal after transfer. Although air bubbles moving towards the uterine fundus with ejection were associated with higher pregnancy rates, higher miscarriage rates and similar live birth rates were observed compared to air bubbles remaining stable after transfer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
42 CFR 403.253 - Calculation of benefits.
2010-10-01
... the gross premiums are computed to provide coverage. (iv) Reserve for future contingent benefits means... the loss ratio calculation period. (iii) Net premium means the level portion of the gross premium used... period, to— (B) The total policy reserve at the last day of the loss ratio calculation period: and (ii...
Handout on shielding calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heilbron Filho, P.F.L.
1991-01-01
In order to avoid the difficulties of the radioprotection supervisors in the tasks related to shielding calculations, is presented in this paper the basic concepts of shielding theory. It also includes exercises and examples. (author)
Unit Cost Compendium Calculations
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...
PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTY CALCULATIONS
Computer models have been developed to estimate a wide range of physical-chemical properties from molecular structure. The SPARC modeling system approaches calculations as site specific reactions (pKa, hydrolysis, hydration) and `whole molecule' properties (vapor pressure, boilin...
Magnetic Field Grid Calculator
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Properties Calculator will computes the estimated values of Earth's magnetic field(declination, inclination, vertical component, northerly...
Intercavitary implants dosage calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rehder, B.P.
The use of spacial geometry peculiar to each treatment for the attainment of intercavitary and intersticial implants dosage calculation is presented. The study is made in patients with intercavitary implants by applying a modified Manchester technique [pt
Casio Graphical Calculator Project.
Stott, Nick
2001-01-01
Shares experiences of a project aimed at developing and refining programs written on a Casio FX9750G graphing calculator. Describes in detail some programs used to develop mental strategies and problem solving skills. (MM)
Small portable speed calculator
Burch, J. L.; Billions, J. C.
1973-01-01
Calculator is adapted stopwatch calibrated for fast accurate measurement of speeds. Single assembled unit is rugged, self-contained, and relatively inexpensive to manufacture. Potential market includes automobile-speed enforcement, railroads, and field-test facilities.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frederiksen, Morten
2014-01-01
Williamson’s characterisation of calculativeness as inimical to trust contradicts most sociological trust research. However, a similar argument is found within trust phenomenology. This paper re-investigates Williamson’s argument from the perspective of Løgstrup’s phenomenological theory of trust....... Contrary to Williamson, however, Løgstrup’s contention is that trust, not calculativeness, is the default attitude and only when suspicion is awoken does trust falter. The paper argues that while Williamson’s distinction between calculativeness and trust is supported by phenomenology, the analysis needs...... to take actual subjective experience into consideration. It points out that, first, Løgstrup places trust alongside calculativeness as a different mode of engaging in social interaction, rather conceiving of trust as a state or the outcome of a decision-making process. Secondly, the analysis must take...
Hiatt, Arthur A.
1987-01-01
Ten activities that give learners in grades 5-8 a chance to explore mathematics with calculators are provided. The activity cards involve such topics as odd addends, magic squares, strange projects, and conjecturing rules. (MNS)
IRIS core criticality calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jecmenica, R.; Trontl, K.; Pevec, D.; Grgic, D.
2003-01-01
Three-dimensional Monte Carlo computer code KENO-VI of CSAS26 sequence of SCALE-4.4 code system was applied for pin-by-pin calculations of the effective multiplication factor for the first cycle IRIS reactor core. The effective multiplication factors obtained by the above mentioned Monte Carlo calculations using 27-group ENDF/B-IV library and 238-group ENDF/B-V library have been compared with the effective multiplication factors achieved by HELIOS/NESTLE, CASMO/SIMULATE, and modified CORD-2 nodal calculations. The results of Monte Carlo calculations are found to be in good agreement with the results obtained by the nodal codes. The discrepancies in effective multiplication factor are typically within 1%. (author)
Burnup calculation code system COMRAD96
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suyama, Kenya; Masukawa, Fumihiro; Ido, Masaru; Enomoto, Masaki; Takyu, Shuiti; Hara, Toshiharu.
1997-06-01
COMRAD was one of the burnup code system developed by JAERI. COMRAD96 is a transfered version of COMRAD to Engineering Work Station. It is divided to several functional modules, 'Cross Section Treatment', 'Generation and Depletion Calculation', and 'Post Process'. It enables us to analyze a burnup problem considering a change of neutron spectrum using UNITBURN. Also it can display the γ Spectrum on a terminal. This report is the general description and user's manual of COMRAD96. (author)
Burnup calculation code system COMRAD96
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suyama, Kenya [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Masukawa, Fumihiro; Ido, Masaru; Enomoto, Masaki; Takyu, Shuiti; Hara, Toshiharu
1997-06-01
COMRAD was one of the burnup code system developed by JAERI. COMRAD96 is a transfered version of COMRAD to Engineering Work Station. It is divided to several functional modules, `Cross Section Treatment`, `Generation and Depletion Calculation`, and `Post Process`. It enables us to analyze a burnup problem considering a change of neutron spectrum using UNITBURN. Also it can display the {gamma} Spectrum on a terminal. This report is the general description and user`s manual of COMRAD96. (author)
Experimental measurement of zero power reactor transfer function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang Shuhong
2011-01-01
In order to study the zero power reactor (ZPR) transfer function, the ZPR transfer function expression was deduced with the point reactor kinetics equation, which was disturbed by reactivity input response. Based on the Fourier analysis for the input of triangular wave, the relation between the transfer function and reactivity was got. Validating research experiment was made on the DF-VI fast ZPR. After the disturbed reactivity was measured, the experimental value of the transfer function was got. According to the experimental value and the calculated value, the expression of the ZPR transfer function is proved, whereas the disturbed reactivity is got from the transfer function. (authors)
Current interruption transients calculation
Peelo, David F
2014-01-01
Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,
Source and replica calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whalen, P.P.
1994-01-01
The starting point of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki Dose Reevaluation Program is the energy and directional distributions of the prompt neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from the exploding bombs. A brief introduction to the neutron source calculations is presented. The development of our current understanding of the source problem is outlined. It is recommended that adjoint calculations be used to modify source spectra to resolve the neutron discrepancy problem
Shielding calculations using FLUKA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamaguchi, Chiri; Tesch, K.; Dinter, H.
1988-06-01
The dose equivalent on the surface of concrete shielding has been calculated using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA86 for incident proton energies from 10 to 800 GeV. The results have been compared with some simple equations. The value of the angular dependent parameter in Moyer's equation has been calculated from the locations where the values of the maximum dose equivalent occur. (author)
Barron, Randall F
2016-01-01
Cryogenic Heat Transfer, Second Edition continues to address specific heat transfer problems that occur in the cryogenic temperature range where there are distinct differences from conventional heat transfer problems. This updated version examines the use of computer-aided design in cryogenic engineering and emphasizes commonly used computer programs to address modern cryogenic heat transfer problems. It introduces additional topics in cryogenic heat transfer that include latent heat expressions; lumped-capacity transient heat transfer; thermal stresses; Laplace transform solutions; oscillating flow heat transfer, and computer-aided heat exchanger design. It also includes new examples and homework problems throughout the book, and provides ample references for further study.
Updates to In-Line Calculation of Photolysis Rates
How photolysis rates are calculated affects ozone and aerosol concentrations predicted by the CMAQ model and the model?s run-time. The standard configuration of CMAQ uses the inline option that calculates photolysis rates by solving the radiative transfer equation for the needed ...
Introducing optional reserve ratios in Hungary
Lóránt Varga
2010-01-01
As of the reserve maintenance period commencing in November 2010, Hungarian credit institutions will be free to decide whether to apply the previously valid 2% reserve ratio, or to apply a higher mandatory reserve ratio. Credit institutions required to hold reserves may select from reserve ratios of 2, 3, 4 and 5%, and may change their decision on a semi-annual basis. In line with the international best practice, the purpose of the MNB’s reserve requirement system is to support credit institu...
Chronobiological methods of human body self-regulation reserve evaluation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergey N. Zaguskin
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Aims Chronodiagnostical methods for evaluating reserve and unfavourable responses of human cardiac function and under prolonged stress load. Materials and methods 24-h ECG R–R interval recording of Holter-monitoring ECG recording and 1-h IPI and RespI recordings of healthy young and elderly subjects, post- MI patients, subjects suffered from chronic cerebral ischemia leading to a cognitive decline, healthy subjects following post-stress load, as well as R– R intervals recordings of the AHA ECG database of heart failure and AF. Chronodiagnostics, using non-linear symbolic dynamics method and redundancy quotient of ECG PI, RespI and R– R intervals; differential temperature survey to evaluate cellular immunity; biocontrolled laser therapy. Results Self-regulation reserve reduction of oxygen transfer body systems and increase in unfavourable response probability under stress load are accompanied by the amplitude and fluctuation increase of redundancy quotient in the ECG IPI, RespI and R–R intervals, as well as increase of hierarchical desynchronosis with dominating sympathicotonia and vagotonia, decrease in cellular immunity, reduction in rate spectrum of the ECG IPI and R–R intervals. Conclusion Symbolic dynamics method provides distinction between age-related and abnormal changes in hierarchy of cardiac rhythms. The amplitude and fluctuation increase of redundancy quotient indicates the increase of control intensity with oxygen transfer body systems and predicts the reduction of self-regulation reserve in cardiac rhythms and unfavourable response probability.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2003-08-01
This book deals with analysis of heat transfer which includes nonlinear analysis examples, radiation heat transfer, analysis of heat transfer in ANSYS, verification of analysis result, analysis of heat transfer of transition with automatic time stepping and open control, analysis of heat transfer using arrangement of ANSYS, resistance of thermal contact, coupled field analysis such as of thermal-structural interaction, cases of coupled field analysis, and phase change.
Heat transfer studies in pool fire environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nitsche, F.
1993-01-01
A Type B package has to withstand severe thermal accident conditions. To calculate the temperature behaviour of such a package in a real fire environment, heat transfer parameters simulating the effect of the fire are needed. For studying such heat transfer parameters, a systematic programme of experimental and theoretical investigations was performed which was part of the IAEA Coordinated Research Programme (Nitsche and Weib 1990). The studies were done by means of small, unfinned and finned, steel model containers of simplified design in hydrocarbon fuel open fire tests. By using various methods, flame and container temperatures were measured and also container surface absorptivity before and after the test to study the effect of sooting and surface painting on heat transfer. Based on all these experimental data and comparative calculations, simplified, effective heat transfer parameters could be derived, simulating the effect of the real fire on the model containers. (J.P.N.)
Determination of oil and gas reserves. 2. ed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aguilera, R.; MacKay, V.
2004-01-01
This book was prepared by more than 40 contributing authors with expertise in a wide range of topics related to oil and gas reserves. It represents a collaborative effort to find definitions and guidelines for the classification of reserves that is acceptable to the oil industry, evaluators, oil and gas companies, financial agencies, securities commissions and government departments. This second edition is an update of the original work that was published in 1994 which compares estimates of reserves and their classification. The new edition includes changes that have occurred in the past 10 years and expands on the processes that are used to estimate reserves. New techniques for assessing risk were also included. The book is divided into four parts entitled: (1) definitions and guidelines for estimating and classifying oil and gas resources and reserves, (2) determination of in-place resources, (3) estimation of recovery factors and forecasting of recoverable hydrocarbons, and (4) prices, economics and markets. The second edition includes new sections dealing with geostatistics, natural gas balance calculations, reserves estimates in naturally fractured reservoirs, and new developments in estimating recovery factors through enhanced recovery methods such as horizontal drilling. The objective was to develop a reference that is of great value to geologists, engineers and technical persons involved in estimating reserves. refs., tabs., figs
Uncertainty calculations made easier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hogenbirk, A.
1994-07-01
The results are presented of a neutron cross section sensitivity/uncertainty analysis performed in a complicated 2D model of the NET shielding blanket design inside the ITER torus design, surrounded by the cryostat/biological shield as planned for ITER. The calculations were performed with a code system developed at ECN Petten, with which sensitivity/uncertainty calculations become relatively simple. In order to check the deterministic neutron transport calculations (performed with DORT), calculations were also performed with the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Care was taken to model the 2.0 cm wide gaps between two blanket segments, as the neutron flux behind the vacuum vessel is largely determined by neutrons streaming through these gaps. The resulting neutron flux spectra are in excellent agreement up to the end of the cryostat. It is noted, that at this position the attenuation of the neutron flux is about 1 l orders of magnitude. The uncertainty in the energy integrated flux at the beginning of the vacuum vessel and at the beginning of the cryostat was determined in the calculations. The uncertainty appears to be strongly dependent on the exact geometry: if the gaps are filled with stainless steel, the neutron spectrum changes strongly, which results in an uncertainty of 70% in the energy integrated flux at the beginning of the cryostat in the no-gap-geometry, compared to an uncertainty of only 5% in the gap-geometry. Therefore, it is essential to take into account the exact geometry in sensitivity/uncertainty calculations. Furthermore, this study shows that an improvement of the covariance data is urgently needed in order to obtain reliable estimates of the uncertainties in response parameters in neutron transport calculations. (orig./GL)
Reservation wages, expected wages and unemployment
Brown, S; Taylor, K
2013-01-01
We model unemployment duration, reservation and expected wages simultaneously for individuals not in work, where wage expectations are identified via an exogenous policy shock. The policy shock increased expected wages, which were found to be positively associated with reservation wages.
Transforming the Reserve Component: Four Essays
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Binnendijk, Hans; Baranick, Michael J; Bell, Raymond E., Jr; Cordero, Gina; Duncan, Stephen M; Holshek, Christopher; Wentz, Larry
2005-01-01
This volume contains four essays on various aspects of the Reserve Component. We publish it at a time when Reserves are serving overseas at historically high rates and when new missions like homeland security demand their attention...
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 25.219 Section 25.219 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.219 [Reserved] ...
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 25.402 Section 25.402 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Competitive Bidding Procedures for DARS § 25.402 [Reserved] ...
Reservation system with graphical user interface
Mohamed, Mahmoud A. Abdelhamid; Jamjoom, Hani T.; Podlaseck, Mark E.; Qu, Huiming; Shae, Zon-Yin; Sheopuri, Anshul
2012-01-01
Techniques for providing a reservation system are provided. The techniques include displaying a scalable visualization object, wherein the scalable visualization object comprises an expanded view element of the reservation system depicting
2010-10-01
... MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Shipboard General Purpose Watches § 80.146 [Reserved] ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 80.146 Section 80.146...
2010-10-01
... MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Special Procedures-Ship Stations § 80.145 [Reserved] Shipboard General Purpose Watches ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 80.145 Section 80.145...
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 330.610 Section 330.610 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND... Employees § 330.610 [Reserved] ...
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 330.603 Section 330.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND... Employees § 330.603 [Reserved] ...
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 405.73 Section 405.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY... § 405.73 [Reserved] ...
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 408.73 Section 408.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS... Processing Subcategory § 408.73 [Reserved] ...
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 407.73 Section 407.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS... Vegetables Subcategory § 407.73 [Reserved] ...
Dollar as the world's reserve currency: Challenges and prospects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kovačević Radovan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The US dollar gained the status of the world's reserve currency in the Bretton Woods system and has preserved it until the present day. Such position in international finance entails both advantages and disadvantages to the USA as the issuer of this currency, and to the rest of the world using it in trading, as store of value, and for the purpose of various financial operations and transactions. After the collapse of the Bretton Woods system, the regime of fixed FX rates was replaced by floating FX rates. Yet, regardless of this change, the dollar kept its role of the world's reserve currency. Numerous banking and currency crises following the transfer to the floating FX rates regime, along with the shifts in international capital flows, forced the developing countries and countries in transition to increase their FX reserves. In the tendency to store their value, central banks usually invest them into US Treasury securities, as liquid and reliable assets. However, due to the risk incurred by the reliance on a single national currency in the role of the world's reserve currency, there have been many proposals to reform the international monetary system. According to the current global tendencies, the most serious candidates for acquiring the status of the world's reserve currency in the future are the dollar, the euro, and the Chinese yuan.
Reserving by detailed conditioning on individual claim
Kartikasari, Mujiati Dwi; Effendie, Adhitya Ronnie; Wilandari, Yuciana
2017-03-01
The estimation of claim reserves is an important activity in insurance companies to fulfill their liabilities. Recently, reserving method of individual claim have attracted a lot of interest in the actuarial science, which overcome some deficiency of aggregated claim method. This paper explores the Reserving by Detailed Conditioning (RDC) method using all of claim information for reserving with individual claim of liability insurance from an Indonesian general insurance company. Furthermore, we compare it to Chain Ladder and Bornhuetter-Ferguson method.
Wisniewski, H.; Gourdain, P.-A.
2017-10-01
APOLLO is an online, Linux based plasma calculator. Users can input variables that correspond to their specific plasma, such as ion and electron densities, temperatures, and external magnetic fields. The system is based on a webserver where a FastCGI protocol computes key plasma parameters including frequencies, lengths, velocities, and dimensionless numbers. FastCGI was chosen to overcome security problems caused by JAVA-based plugins. The FastCGI also speeds up calculations over PHP based systems. APOLLO is built upon the WT library, which turns any web browser into a versatile, fast graphic user interface. All values with units are expressed in SI units except temperature, which is in electron-volts. SI units were chosen over cgs units because of the gradual shift to using SI units within the plasma community. APOLLO is intended to be a fast calculator that also provides the user with the proper equations used to calculate the plasma parameters. This system is intended to be used by undergraduates taking plasma courses as well as graduate students and researchers who need a quick reference calculation.
The Sudan Demand for International Reserve: A Case of a Labour-Exporting Country.
Elbadawi, Ibrahim A
1990-01-01
An empirical analysis of the demand for international reserves in the Sudan is presented, based on the error-correction model. This model is parametrically rich enough to allow the division of the effects into long-run influences, short-term adjustments, and proportional equilibrium impacts. Beside addressing conventional issues in reserve demand literature, the model explicitly incorporates the impact on reserve demand of remittances transferred by Sudanese nationals working abroad and the i...
Reserve evaluation of minerals at NUCLEBRAS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marques, J.P.M.; Guerra, P.A.G.; Vinha, C.A.G. da
1980-10-01
The method used for the reserve evaluation of minerals, particularly of uranium, as used worldwide, and specially at NUCLEBRAS is described. This is done through a series of procedures envolving basic definitions, reserve evaluation methods (conventional, statistical and geoestatistical), data management, use of computer systems, classification and evaluation of reserves. (Author) [pt
24 CFR 880.602 - Replacement reserve.
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 880.602... Replacement reserve. (a) A replacement reserve must be established and maintained in an interest-bearing account to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items. (1) Part...
24 CFR 891.745 - Replacement reserve.
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.745... and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.745 Replacement reserve. The general requirements for the replacement reserve are provided in § 891.605. For projects funded under §§ 891.655 through 891.790, the...
Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves.
Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane
2007-07-01
We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves.
Assessment of secondary aluminum reserves of nations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maung, Kyaw Nyunt; Yoshida, Tomoharu; Liu, Gang
2017-01-01
aluminum resources are accumulated in landfill sites. Understanding the sizes of primary and secondary aluminum reserves enables us to extend knowledge of efficient raw material sourcing from a narrow perspective of primary reserves alone to a broader perspective of both primary and secondary reserves...
24 CFR 572.125 - Replacement reserves.
2010-04-01
...) Homeownership Program Requirements-Implementation Grants § 572.125 Replacement reserves. (a) Purpose. A single replacement reserve may be established for the homeownership program only if HUD determines it is necessary to... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserves. 572.125...
Micro-level stochastic loss reserving
Antonio, K.; Plat, R.
2010-01-01
To meet future liabilities general insurance companies will set-up reserves. Predicting future cash-flows is essential in this process. Actuarial loss reserving methods will help them to do this in a sound way. The last decennium a vast literature about stochastic loss reserving for the general
Evaluation system of minerals reserve at Nuclebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marques, J.P.M.; Guerra, P.A.G.; Vinha, C.A.G. da.
1980-01-01
The paper describes the methodology used for the reserve evaluation of minerals, particularly of uranium, as used world wide, and specially at Nuclebras. The paper discusses a series of procedures envolving basic definitions, reserve evaluation methods (Conventional, Statistical and Geoestatistical), data management, use of computer systems, classification of reserves as well as the results achieved [pt
Reserve Requirements and Monetary Management; An Introduction
International Monetary Fund
1993-01-01
Reserve requirements are widely used by central banks as a means to improve monetary control, an instrument for policy implementation, a source of revenue, and a safeguard of bank liquidity. The effectiveness of reserve requirements in fulfilling these functions is reviewed, and the detailed modalities of their use are examined. Reserve requirements in a sample of developing countries are described.
42 CFR 417.934 - Reserve requirement.
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reserve requirement. 417.934 Section 417.934 Public... PLANS Administration of Outstanding Loans and Loan Guarantees § 417.934 Reserve requirement. (a) Timing... section 1305 of the PHS Act was required to establish a restricted reserve account on the earlier of the...
Daylight calculations in practice
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iversen, Anne; Roy, Nicolas; Hvass, Mette
The aim of the project was to obtain a better understanding of what daylight calculations show and also to gain knowledge of how the different daylight simulation programs perform compared with each other. Experience has shown that results for the same room, obtained from two daylight simulation...... programs can give different results. This can be due to restrictions in the program itself and/or be due to the skills of the persons setting up the models. This is crucial as daylight calculations are used to document that the demands and recommendations to daylight levels outlined by building authorities....... The aim of the project was to obtain a better understanding of what daylight calculations show and also to gain knowledge of how the different daylight simulation programs perform compared with each other. Furthermore the aim was to provide knowledge of how to build up the 3D models that were...
Salgado, C A; Salgado, Carlos A.; Wiedemann, Urs Achim
2003-01-01
We calculate the probability (``quenching weight'') that a hard parton radiates an additional energy fraction due to scattering in spatially extended QCD matter. This study is based on an exact treatment of finite in-medium path length, it includes the case of a dynamically expanding medium, and it extends to the angular dependence of the medium-induced gluon radiation pattern. All calculations are done in the multiple soft scattering approximation (Baier-Dokshitzer-Mueller-Peign\\'e-Schiff--Zakharov ``BDMPS-Z''-formalism) and in the single hard scattering approximation (N=1 opacity approximation). By comparison, we establish a simple relation between transport coefficient, Debye screening mass and opacity, for which both approximations lead to comparable results. Together with this paper, a CPU-inexpensive numerical subroutine for calculating quenching weights is provided electronically. To illustrate its applications, we discuss the suppression of hadronic transverse momentum spectra in nucleus-nucleus colli...
The Relationship between Cognitive Reserve and Math Abilities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giorgio Arcara
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Cognitive Reserve is the capital of knowledge and experiences that an individual acquires over their life-span. Cognitive Reserve is strictly related to Brain Reserve, which is the ability of the brain to cope with damage. These two concepts could explain many phenomena such as the modality of onset in dementia or the different degree of impairment in cognitive abilities in aging. The aim of this study is to verify the effect of Cognitive Reserve, as measured by a questionnaire, on a variety of numerical abilities (number comprehension, reading and writing numbers, rules and principles, mental calculations and written calculations, in a group of healthy older people (aged 65–98 years. Sixty older individuals were interviewed with the Cognitive Reserve Index questionnaire (CRIq, and assessed with the Numerical Activities of Daily Living battery (NADL, which included formal tasks on math abilities, an informal test on math, one interview with the participant, and one interview with a relative on the perceived math abilities. We also took into account the years of education, as another proxy for Cognitive Reserve. In the multiple regression analyses on all formal tests, CRIq scores did not significantly predict math performance. Other variables, i.e., years of education and Mini-Mental State Examination score, accounted better for math performance on NADL. Only a subsection of CRIq, CRIq-Working-activity, was found to predict performance on a NADL subtest assessing informal use of math in daily life. These results show that education might better explain abstract math functions in late life than other aspects related to Cognitive Reserve, such as lifestyle or occupational attainment.
The Relationship between Cognitive Reserve and Math Abilities.
Arcara, Giorgio; Mondini, Sara; Bisso, Alice; Palmer, Katie; Meneghello, Francesca; Semenza, Carlo
2017-01-01
Cognitive Reserve is the capital of knowledge and experiences that an individual acquires over their life-span. Cognitive Reserve is strictly related to Brain Reserve, which is the ability of the brain to cope with damage. These two concepts could explain many phenomena such as the modality of onset in dementia or the different degree of impairment in cognitive abilities in aging. The aim of this study is to verify the effect of Cognitive Reserve, as measured by a questionnaire, on a variety of numerical abilities (number comprehension, reading and writing numbers, rules and principles, mental calculations and written calculations), in a group of healthy older people (aged 65-98 years). Sixty older individuals were interviewed with the Cognitive Reserve Index questionnaire (CRIq), and assessed with the Numerical Activities of Daily Living battery (NADL), which included formal tasks on math abilities, an informal test on math, one interview with the participant, and one interview with a relative on the perceived math abilities. We also took into account the years of education, as another proxy for Cognitive Reserve. In the multiple regression analyses on all formal tests, CRIq scores did not significantly predict math performance. Other variables, i.e., years of education and Mini-Mental State Examination score, accounted better for math performance on NADL. Only a subsection of CRIq, CRIq-Working-activity, was found to predict performance on a NADL subtest assessing informal use of math in daily life. These results show that education might better explain abstract math functions in late life than other aspects related to Cognitive Reserve, such as lifestyle or occupational attainment.
Reserve growth in German oilfields; Reservenwachstum in deutschen Erdoelfeldern
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schwietzer, Curt-Albert [RWE Dea AG, Hamburg (Germany)
2013-07-15
In the English language use, the term ''Reserve Growth'' describes the fact that in most cases at the start of a field development the estimated ultimate recovery of reserves (EUR) is smaller than it will turn out later by production history. Although this phenomenon of reserve growth gives hints for new reserves in mature hydrocarbon provinces, it has hardly been investigated. In the few existing studies about this issue it is shown that reserve growth is, in the majority of cases, based on factors like the application of improved methods to increase the recovery factor as well as on optimization of the reservoir development by precise modeling and simulation as well as on changing of the reserve classification. Different combinations of these factors affect the changes of reserves during the life of the reservoir. This study investigates the reserve trend of 35 German oilfields over the last 40 to 50 years. Most of them register reserve growth; in some cases even a factor > 10 was achieved. On average, this reserve growth factor can be calculated as 3. A similar study about US American onshore oilfields was carried out for the first time by Arrington; this was, at a later time, revised by the USGS. In the article, Mahendra K. Verma developed the ''Growth Function'' by regression. The ''Growth Function'' describes the changes of proved reserves during the life of an oil reservoir. It indicates that ten years after production start, the reserves increased by three times, whereas the largest proportion of this increase occurred in the first three years. During the next 30 years, the reserves growth factor increased by up to 5.3; at the point of 95 years of production it accumulated to 6.9. In the case of the analysed German oilfields, the reserve growth behaviour was similar. Corresponding to the ''Growth Function'' after 40 years of production, it achieved a factor of 5 and reached a
Three recent TDHF calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiss, M.S.
1981-05-01
Three applications of TDHF are discussed. First, vibrational spectra of a post grazing collision 40 Ca nucleus is examined and found to contain many high energy components, qualitatively consistent with recent Orsay experiments. Second, the fusion cross section in energy and angular momentum are calculated for 16 O + 24 Mg to exhibit the parameters of the low l window for this system. A sensitivity of the fusion cross section to the effective two body potential is discussed. Last, a preliminary analysis of 86 Kr + 139 La at E/sub lab/ = 505 MeV calculated in the frozen approximation is displayed, compared to experiment and discussed
Fission neutron multiplicity calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maerten, H.; Ruben, A.; Seeliger, D.
1991-01-01
A model for calculating neutron multiplicities in nuclear fission is presented. It is based on the solution of the energy partition problem as function of mass asymmetry within a phenomenological approach including temperature-dependent microscopic energies. Nuclear structure effects on fragment de-excitation, which influence neutron multiplicities, are discussed. Temperature effects on microscopic energy play an important role in induced fission reactions. Calculated results are presented for various fission reactions induced by neutrons. Data cover the incident energy range 0-20 MeV, i.e. multiple chance fission is considered. (author). 28 refs, 13 figs
Lattice cell burnup calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pop-Jordanov, J.
1977-01-01
Accurate burnup prediction is a key item for design and operation of a power reactor. It should supply information on isotopic changes at each point in the reactor core and the consequences of these changes on the reactivity, power distribution, kinetic characters, control rod patterns, fuel cycles and operating strategy. A basic stage in the burnup prediction is the lattice cell burnup calculation. This series of lectures attempts to give a review of the general principles and calculational methods developed and applied in this area of burnup physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trkov, A; Ravnik, M; Zeleznik, N [Inst. Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Slovenia)
1992-07-01
Functional description of the programme package Cord-2 for PWR core design calculations is presented. Programme package is briefly described. Use of the package and calculational procedures for typical core design problems are treated. Comparison of main results with experimental values is presented as part of the verification process. (author) [Slovenian] Opisali smo programski paket CORD-2, ki se uporablja pri projektnih izracunih sredice pri upravljanju tlacnovodnega reaktorja. Prikazana je uporaba paketa in racunskih postopkov za tipicne probleme, ki nastopajo pri projektiranju sredice. Primerjava glavnih rezultatov z eksperimentalnimi vrednostmi je predstavljena kot del preveritvenega procesa. (author)
Heat transfer coefficient of cryotop during freezing.
Li, W J; Zhou, X L; Wang, H S; Liu, B L; Dai, J J
2013-01-01
Cryotop is an efficient vitrification method for cryopreservation of oocytes. It has been widely used owing to its simple operation and high freezing rate. Recently, the heat transfer performance of cryotop was studied by numerical simulation in several studies. However, the range of heat transfer coefficient in the simulation is uncertain. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient for cryotop during freezing process was analyzed. The cooling rates of 40 percent ethylene glycol (EG) droplet in cryotop during freezing were measured by ultra-fast measurement system and calculated by numerical simulation at different value of heat transfer coefficient. Compared with the results obtained by two methods, the range of the heat transfer coefficient necessary for the numerical simulation of cryotop was determined, which is between 9000 W/(m(2)·K) and 10000 W/(m (2)·K).
Application of nuclear-geophysical methods to reserves estimation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bessonova, T.B.; Karpenko, I.A.
1980-01-01
On the basis of the analysis of reports dealing with calculations of mineral reserves considered are shortcomings in using nuclear-geophysical methods and in assessment of the reliability of geophysical sampling. For increasing efficiency of nuclear-geophysical investigations while prospecting ore deposits, it is advisable to introduce them widely instead of traditional geological sampling methods. For this purpose it is necessary to increase sensitivity and accuracy of radioactivity logging methods, to provide determination of certain elements in ores by these methods
Geostatistics applied to estimation of uranium bearing ore reserves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Urbina Galan, L.I.
1982-01-01
A computer assisted method for assessing uranium-bearing ore deposit reserves is analyzed. Determinations of quality-thickness, namely quality by thickness calculations of mineralization, were obtained by means of a mathematical method known as the theory of rational variables for each drill-hole layer. Geostatistical results were derived based on a Fortrand computer program on a DEC 20/40 system. (author)
Expert Performance Transfer: Making Knowledge Transfer Count
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, C.L.; Braudt, T.E.
2011-01-01
'Knowledge Transfer' is a high-priority imperative as the nuclear industry faces the combined effects of an aging workforce and economic pressures to do more with less. Knowledge Transfer is only a part of the solution to these challenges, however. The more compelling and immediate need faced by industry is Accomplishment Transfer, or the transference of the applied knowledge necessary to assure optimal performance transfer from experienced, high-performing staff to inexperienced staff. A great deal of industry knowledge and required performance information has been documented in the form of procedures. Often under-appreciated either as knowledge stores or as drivers of human performance, procedures, coupled with tightly-focused and effective training, are arguably the most effective influences on human and plant performance. (author)
Reserve selection with land market feedbacks.
Butsic, Van; Lewis, David J; Radeloff, Volker C
2013-01-15
How to best site reserves is a leading question for conservation biologists. Recently, reserve selection has emphasized efficient conservation: maximizing conservation goals given the reality of limited conservation budgets, and this work indicates that land market can potentially undermine the conservation benefits of reserves by increasing property values and development probabilities near reserves. Here we propose a reserve selection methodology which optimizes conservation given both a budget constraint and land market feedbacks by using a combination of econometric models along with stochastic dynamic programming. We show that amenity based feedbacks can be accounted for in optimal reserve selection by choosing property price and land development models which exogenously estimate the effects of reserve establishment. In our empirical example, we use previously estimated models of land development and property prices to select parcels to maximize coarse woody debris along 16 lakes in Vilas County, WI, USA. Using each lake as an independent experiment, we find that including land market feedbacks in the reserve selection algorithm has only small effects on conservation efficacy. Likewise, we find that in our setting heuristic (minloss and maxgain) algorithms perform nearly as well as the optimal selection strategy. We emphasize that land market feedbacks can be included in optimal reserve selection; the extent to which this improves reserve placement will likely vary across landscapes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Thomas Højlund
2011-01-01
tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....
Allswang, John M.
1986-01-01
This article provides two short microcomputer gradebook programs. The programs, written in BASIC for the IBM-PC and Apple II, provide statistical information about class performance and calculate grades either on a normal distribution or based on teacher-defined break points. (JDH)
Cardiovascular risk calculation
African Journals Online (AJOL)
James A. Ker
2014-08-20
Aug 20, 2014 ... smoking and elevated blood sugar levels (diabetes mellitus). These risk ... These are risk charts, e.g. FRS, a non-laboratory-based risk calculation, and ... for hard cardiovascular end-points, such as coronary death, myocardial ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simonkova, J.
1988-01-01
The problems are summed up of the dynamic calculation of cooling towers with forced and natural air draft. The quantities and relations are given characterizing the simultaneous exchange of momentum, heat and mass in evaporative water cooling by atmospheric air in the packings of cooling towers. The method of solution is clarified in the calculation of evaporation criteria and thermal characteristics of countercurrent and cross current cooling systems. The procedure is demonstrated of the calculation of cooling towers, and correction curves and the effect assessed of the operating mode at constant air number or constant outlet air volume flow on their course in ventilator cooling towers. In cooling towers with the natural air draft the flow unevenness is assessed of water and air relative to its effect on the resulting cooling efficiency of the towers. The calculation is demonstrated of thermal and resistance response curves and cooling curves of hydraulically unevenly loaded towers owing to the water flow rate parameter graded radially by 20% along the cross-section of the packing. Flow rate unevenness of air due to wind impact on the outlet air flow from the tower significantly affects the temperatures of cooled water in natural air draft cooling towers of a design with lower demands on aerodynamics, as early as at wind velocity of 2 m.s -1 as was demonstrated on a concrete example. (author). 11 figs., 10 refs
Hypervelocity impact cratering calculations
Maxwell, D. E.; Moises, H.
1971-01-01
A summary is presented of prediction calculations on the mechanisms involved in hypervelocity impact cratering and response of earth media. Considered are: (1) a one-gram lithium-magnesium alloys impacting basalt normally at 6.4 km/sec, and (2) a large terrestrial impact corresponding to that of Sierra Madera.
Languages for structural calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, J.B.; Chambon, M.R.
1988-01-01
The differences between human and computing languages are recalled. It is argued that they are to some extent structured in antagonistic ways. Languages in structural calculation, in the past, present, and future, are considered. The contribution of artificial intelligence is stressed [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brockway, D.; Soran, P.; Whalen, P.
1985-01-01
A Monte Carlo algorithm to efficiently calculate static alpha eigenvalues, N = ne/sup ..cap alpha..t/, for supercritical systems has been developed and tested. A direct Monte Carlo approach to calculating a static alpha is to simply follow the buildup in time of neutrons in a supercritical system and evaluate the logarithmic derivative of the neutron population with respect to time. This procedure is expensive, and the solution is very noisy and almost useless for a system near critical. The modified approach is to convert the time-dependent problem to a static ..cap alpha../sup -/eigenvalue problem and regress ..cap alpha.. on solutions of a/sup -/ k/sup -/eigenvalue problem. In practice, this procedure is much more efficient than the direct calculation, and produces much more accurate results. Because the Monte Carlo codes are intrinsically three-dimensional and use elaborate continuous-energy cross sections, this technique is now used as a standard for evaluating other calculational techniques in odd geometries or with group cross sections.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devooght, J.; Lefvert, T.; Stankiewiez, J.
1981-01-01
This chapter deals with the work done in reactor dynamics within the Coordinated Research Program on Transport Theory and Advanced Reactor Calculations by three groups in Belgium, Poland, Sweden and Italy. Discretization methods in diffusion theory, collision probability methods in time-dependent neutron transport and singular perturbation method are represented in this paper
Equilibrium fission model calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beckerman, M.; Blann, M.
1976-01-01
In order to aid in understanding the systematics of heavy ion fission and fission-like reactions in terms of the target-projectile system, bombarding energy and angular momentum, fission widths are calculated using an angular momentum dependent extension of the Bohr-Wheeler theory and particle emission widths using angular momentum coupling
Improving the bulk data transfer experience
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guok, Chin; Guok, Chin; Lee, Jason R.; Berket, Karlo
2008-05-07
Scientific computations and collaborations increasingly rely on the network to provide high-speed data transfer, dissemination of results, access to instruments, support for computational steering, etc. The Energy Sciences Network is establishing a science data network to provide user driven bandwidth allocation. In a shared network environment, some reservations may not be granted due to the lack of available bandwidth on any single path. In many cases, the available bandwidth across multiple paths would be sufficient to grant the reservation. In this paper we investigate how to utilize the available bandwidth across multiple paths in the case of bulk data transfer.
Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1992-01-01
During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming
Kakac, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa
2014-01-01
Intended for readers who have taken a basic heat transfer course and have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and differential equations, Convective Heat Transfer, Third Edition provides an overview of phenomenological convective heat transfer. This book combines applications of engineering with the basic concepts of convection. It offers a clear and balanced presentation of essential topics using both traditional and numerical methods. The text addresses emerging science and technology matters, and highlights biomedical applications and energy technologies. What’s New in the Third Edition: Includes updated chapters and two new chapters on heat transfer in microchannels and heat transfer with nanofluids Expands problem sets and introduces new correlations and solved examples Provides more coverage of numerical/computer methods The third edition details the new research areas of heat transfer in microchannels and the enhancement of convective heat transfer with nanofluids....
Oksana Desyatniuk; Olga Cherevko
2015-01-01
The theoretical and methodological bases of transfer pricing formation at microlevel are studied. The factors acting upon transfer pricing are analysed and the algorithm to form transfer price at an enterprise is suggested. The model example to choose the method of transfer pricing and calculate the profitability interval meeting modern legal requirements is considered.
A General Business Model for Marine Reserves
Sala, Enric; Costello, Christopher; Dougherty, Dawn; Heal, Geoffrey; Kelleher, Kieran; Murray, Jason H.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Sumaila, Rashid
2013-01-01
Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models. PMID:23573192
Substantiating the Incurred but not Reported Reserve
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Georgeta Vintilã
2009-12-01
Full Text Available In order to handle past and future liability taken by insurance contracts concluded, any insurance company must constitute and maintain technical reserves. Substantiating technical reserves is done through actuarial methods and its over-evaluation or under-evaluation influence solvency and financial performance of the insurance companies, in the sense of reducing solvency through over-evaluating reserves and, respectively, influencing profit (hence of outstanding tax through under-evaluating reserves. An important reserve for insurance companies is represented by the incurred but not reported reserve, as it allows the estimation of the liability the company may confront in the future, generated by events occurred in the past, which are not currently known in the present but will be reported in the future.
Reserve valuation in electric power systems
Ruiz, Pablo Ariel
Operational reliability is provided in part by scheduling capacity in excess of the load forecast. This reserve capacity balances the uncertain power demand with the supply in real time and provides for equipment outages. Traditionally, reserve scheduling has been ensured by enforcing reserve requirements in the operations planning. An alternate approach is to employ a stochastic formulation, which allows the explicit modeling of the sources of uncertainty. This thesis compares stochastic and reserve methods and evaluates the benefits of a combined approach for the efficient management of uncertainty in the unit commitment problem. Numerical studies show that the unit commitment solutions obtained for the combined approach are robust and superior with respect to the traditional approach. These robust solutions are especially valuable in areas with a high proportion of wind power, as their built-in flexibility allows the dispatch of practically all the available wind power while minimizing the costs of operation. The scheduled reserve has an economic value since it reduces the outage costs. In several electricity markets, reserve demand functions have been implemented to take into account the value of reserve in the market clearing process. These often take the form of a step-down function at the reserve requirement level, and as such they may not appropriately represent the reserve value. The value of reserve is impacted by the reliability, dynamic and stochastic characteristics of system components, the system operation policies, and the economic aspects such as the risk preferences of the demand. In this thesis, these aspects are taken into account to approximate the reserve value and construct reserve demand functions. Illustrative examples show that the demand functions constructed have similarities with those implemented in some markets.
The energy reserves of our planet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bischoff, G.
1977-01-01
Starting from a prognosis for the development of the world energy consumption, the situation of special primary energy sources (reserves, potential) is briefly described. According to the amount and location of the reserves - 90% of the fossil energy reserves are in industrialized countries -, coal will play a leading role in meeting the energy demands of the future. Without breeder reactors, the role of nuclear energy will be limited in time. (UA) [de
Reserve reporting from a banker's perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larson, B.O.
1996-01-01
A banker's perspective of oil and gas reserve reporting was presented. Topics chosen for discussion emphasized oil and gas lending, and the type of capital which is most relevant to the oil and gas industry. The concept of capital differentiation, potential worst case, and least specialization, were explained. An explanation of the reasons for the lender's different perspective on reserves was given. Methods that banks use to limit risk, and the role that reserve reports play in loan approvals were also reviewed
Reserve requirement systems in OECD countries
Yueh-Yun C. O’Brien
2007-01-01
This paper compares the reserve requirements of OECD countries. Reserve requirements are the minimum percentages or amounts of liabilities that depository institutions are required to keep in cash or as deposits with their central banks. To facilitate monetary policy implementation, twenty-four of the thirty OECD countries impose reserve requirements to influence their banking systems’ demand for liquidity. These include twelve OECD countries that are also members of the European Economic and...
Beyond the crude oil and gas reserves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sote, K.
1993-01-01
Petroleum remains the greatest jewel of inestimable value in both the local and international treasure hunts for cheap energy source and viable investment options the world over. The diverse business potentials and favourable government policies in Nigeria aimed specifically at stimulating investments in the up streams, midstream and downstream industries need to be tapped by both indigenous and foreign investors alike. Beyond the crude oil and gas reserves' is therefore our modest effort to support such policies, sensitise the Nigerian petroleum industry and promote more dynamic awareness for the varied business opportunities abound in this sector of the economy. The main objective or this publication is to bring to a wider audience within and outside the oil industry a spectrum of such salient opportunities therein. The publication further presents in a lucid and consize form the hidden potentials yet to be harnessed, captures the essence of such investments, identifies the inherent problems in Nigeria peculiar circumstance and thus provides a detailed guide to address such short-coming, viz. Inadequate and poor knowledge of petroleum industry, its operation, by products and their correct applications. - Lack of understanding of the intricacies, realities and technicalities of petroleum business in general. - Poor financial resources, management style, operational and marketing strategies man power and human resources development.- Dirge of information, lack of professional advice and technical service support on the varied business opportunities for diversification. Apathy on the part of the investors themselves to seek for professional support from competent oil consultants, technocrats, institutionalised authorities on petroleum and related matters, amongst others. In summary, the book is divided into ten chapters with illustrations, graphics, drawings, sketches and incorporating figures, statistics, business reports, marketing results, feasibility studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weill, J.; Tellier; Bonnemay; Craigne; Chareton; Di Falco
1969-02-01
After a definition of hybrid calculation (combination of analogue and digital calculation) with a distinction between series and parallel hybrid computing, and a description of a hybrid computer structure and of task sharing between computers, this course proposes a description of hybrid hardware used in Saclay and Cadarache computing centres, and of operations performed by these systems. The next part addresses issues related to programming languages and software. The fourth part describes how a problem is organised for its processing on these computers. Methods of hybrid analysis are then addressed: resolution of optimisation problems, of partial differential equations, and of integral equations by means of different methods (gradient, maximum principle, characteristics, functional approximation, time slicing, Monte Carlo, Neumann iteration, Fischer iteration)
Calculation of projected ranges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biersack, J.P.
1980-09-01
The concept of multiple scattering is reconsidered for obtaining the directional spreading of ion motion as a function of energy loss. From this the mean projection of each pathlength element of the ion trajectory is derived which - upon summation or integration - leads to the desired mean projected range. In special cases, the calculation can be carried out analytically, otherwise a simple general algorithm is derived which is suitable even for the smallest programmable calculators. Necessary input for the present treatment consists only of generally accessable stopping power and straggling formulas. The procedure does not rely on scattering cross sections, e.g. power potential or f(t 1 sup(/) 2 ) approximations. The present approach lends itself easily to include electronic straggling or to treat composed target materials, or even to account for the so-called time integral. (orig.)
Reservation system with graphical user interface
Mohamed, Mahmoud A. Abdelhamid
2012-01-05
Techniques for providing a reservation system are provided. The techniques include displaying a scalable visualization object, wherein the scalable visualization object comprises an expanded view element of the reservation system depicting information in connection with a selected interval of time and a compressed view element of the reservation system depicting information in connection with one or more additional intervals of time, maintaining a visual context between the expanded view and the compressed view within the visualization object, and enabling a user to switch between the expanded view and the compressed view to facilitate use of the reservation system.
Spallation reactions: calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertini, H.W.
1975-01-01
Current methods for calculating spallation reactions over various energy ranges are described and evaluated. Recent semiempirical fits to existing data will probably yield the most accurate predictions for these reactions in general. However, if the products in question have binding energies appreciably different from their isotropic neighbors and if the cross section is approximately 30 mb or larger, then the intranuclear-cascade-evaporation approach is probably better suited. (6 tables, 12 figures, 34 references) (U.S.)
Performance assessment calculational exercises
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnard, R.W.; Dockery, H.A.
1990-01-01
The Performance Assessment Calculational Exercises (PACE) are an ongoing effort coordinated by Yucca Mountain Project Office. The objectives of fiscal year 1990 work, termed PACE-90, as outlined in the Department of Energy Performance Assessment (PA) Implementation Plan were to develop PA capabilities among Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) participants by calculating performance of a Yucca Mountain (YM) repository under ''expected'' and also ''disturbed'' conditions, to identify critical elements and processes necessary to assess the performance of YM, and to perform sensitivity studies on key parameters. It was expected that the PACE problems would aid in development of conceptual models and eventual evaluation of site data. The PACE-90 participants calculated transport of a selected set of radionuclides through a portion of Yucca Mountain for a period of 100,000 years. Results include analyses of fluid-flow profiles, development of a source term for radionuclide release, and simulations of contaminant transport in the fluid-flow field. Later work included development of a problem definition for perturbations to the originally modeled conditions and for some parametric sensitivity studies. 3 refs
77 FR 66980 - Federal Reserve Bank Services
2012-11-08
... have included streamlining management structures, reducing staffing levels, increasing productivity... changed its methodology for calculating the PSAF from a correspondent bank model to a publicly traded firm... Adjustment Factor--The method for calculating the financing and equity costs in the PSAF requires determining...
Intramolecular Energy Transfer, Charge Transfer & Hydrogen Bond
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ultrafast Dynamics of Chemical Reactions in Condensed Phase: Intramolecular Energy Transfer, Charge Transfer & Hydrogen Bond · PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19.
Not Available
1980-03-07
A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernstein, I.
1978-01-01
A nuclear fuel transfer machine for transferring fuel assemblies through the fuel transfer tube of a nuclear power generating plant containment structure is described. A conventional reversible drive cable is attached to the fuel transfer carriage to drive it horizontally through the tube. A shuttle carrying a sheave at each end is arranged in parallel with the carriage to also travel into the tube. The cable cooperating with the sheaves permit driving a relatively short fuel transfer carriage a large distance without manually installing sheaves or drive apparatus in the tunnel. 8 claims, 3 figures
Cannon, R D
2013-01-01
Electron Transfer Reactions deals with the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions between metal ions in solution, as well as the electron exchange between atoms or molecules in either the gaseous or solid state. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the electron transfer between atoms and molecules in the gas state. Part 2 tackles the reaction paths of oxidation states and binuclear intermediates, as well as the mechanisms of electron transfer. Part 3 discusses the theories and models of the electron transfer process; theories and experiments involving bridged electron transfe
Particle transfer in braneworld collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saffin, Paul M.; Tranberg, Anders
2007-01-01
We study the behaviour of fermions localized on moving kinks as these collide with either antikinks or spacetime boundaries. We numerically solve for the evolution of the scalar kinks and the bound (i.e. localized) fermion modes, and calculate the number of fermions transfered to the antikink and boundary in terms of Bogoliubov coefficients. Interpreting the boundaries as the brane on which we live, this models the ability of fermions on branes incoming from the bulk to ''stick'' on the world brane, even when the incoming branes bounce back into the bulk
7 CFR 1221.114 - Operating reserve.
2010-01-01
... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Board § 1221.114 Operating reserve. The Board may establish an operating monetary reserve and may...
24 CFR 891.855 - Replacement reserves.
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserves. 891.855... § 891.855 Replacement reserves. (a) The mixed-finance owner shall establish and maintain a replacement... the funds will be used to pay for capital replacement costs for the Section 202 or 811 supportive...
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 406.43 Section 406.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bulgur Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.43 [Reserved] ...
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 406.23 Section 406.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.23 [Reserved] ...
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 406.13 Section 406.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory § 406.13 [Reserved] ...
2010-07-01
... FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.2-GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Services § 101-39.205 [Reserved] ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 101-39.205...
2010-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 99.3 Section 99.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES REPORTING ON CONVENTION AND NON-CONVENTION ADOPTIONS OF EMIGRATING CHILDREN § 99.3 [Reserved] ...
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 99.12 Section 99.12 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC General § 99.12 [Reserved] ...
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true [Reserved] 1.46-10 Section 1.46-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.46-10 [Reserved] ...
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true [Reserved] 48.4161(b) Section 48.4161(b) Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(b) [Reserved] ...
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true [Reserved] 48.4161(a) Section 48.4161(a) Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(a) [Reserved] ...
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 410.394 Section 410.394 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and Dependency § 410.394 [Reserved] ...
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1900.57 Section 1900.57 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... GENERAL Adverse Decisions and Administrative Appeals § 1900.57 [Reserved] ...
2010-07-01
... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 111.5 Section 111.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] GENERAL INFORMATION ON POSTAL SERVICE § 111.5 [Reserved] ...
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 579.4 Section 579.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR VIOLATIONS-CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES § 579.4 [Reserved] ...
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 210.22 Section 210.22 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Motions § 210.22 [Reserved] ...
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 614.4710 Section 614.4710 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Banks for Cooperatives and Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4710 [Reserved] ...