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Sample records for reserve baruch marine

  1. North Inlet • Winyah Bay (NIW) National Estuarine Research Reserve Meteorological Data, North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 2000 • 2004.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — National Estuarine Research Reserve System The National Estuarine Research Reserve System was established by the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (as amended) and...

  2. North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve’s (NERR) Estuarine Surface Water Nutrient, Suspended Sediment, and Chlorophyll a Data for the North Inlet and Winyah Bay Estuaries, Georgetown, South Carolina: 2002-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — National Estuarine Research Reserve System The National Estuarine Research Reserve System was established by the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (as amended) and...

  3. North Inlet • Winyah Bay (NIW) National Estuarine Research Reserve Meteorological Data, North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1997 • 1999.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The North Inlet Estuary and the adjacent lower northeastern section of Winyah Bay Estuary were designated as part of the National Estuarine Research Reserve System...

  4. North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve's (NERR) Estuarine Water Quality Data for the North Inlet and Winyah Bay Estuaries, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1993-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The North Inlet Estuary and the adjacent lower northeastern section of the Winyah Bay Estuary were designated as part of the National Estuarine Research Reserve...

  5. Communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Lester, Sarah E.; Airamé, Satie; Neeley, Elizabeth; Gaines, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    As human impacts cause ecosystem-wide changes in the oceans, the need to protect and restore marine resources has led to increasing calls for and establishment of marine reserves. Scientific information about marine reserves has multiplied over the last decade, providing useful knowledge about this tool for resource users, managers, policy makers, and the general public. This information must be conveyed to nonscientists in a nontechnical, credible, and neutral format, but most scientists are not trained to communicate in this style or to develop effective strategies for sharing their scientific knowledge. Here, we present a case study from California, in which communicating scientific information during the process to establish marine reserves in the Channel Islands and along the California mainland coast expanded into an international communication effort. We discuss how to develop a strategy for communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences and highlight the influence that effective science communication can have in discussions about marine management. PMID:20427745

  6. A General Business Model for Marine Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Enric; Costello, Christopher; Dougherty, Dawn; Heal, Geoffrey; Kelleher, Kieran; Murray, Jason H.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Sumaila, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models. PMID:23573192

  7. Accounting for uncertainty in marine reserve design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Benjamin S; Regan, Helen M; Possingham, Hugh P; McCarthy, Michael A

    2006-01-01

    Ecosystems and the species and communities within them are highly complex systems that defy predictions with any degree of certainty. Managing and conserving these systems in the face of uncertainty remains a daunting challenge, particularly with respect to developing networks of marine reserves. Here we review several modelling frameworks that explicitly acknowledge and incorporate uncertainty, and then use these methods to evaluate reserve spacing rules given increasing levels of uncertainty about larval dispersal distances. Our approach finds similar spacing rules as have been proposed elsewhere - roughly 20-200 km - but highlights several advantages provided by uncertainty modelling over more traditional approaches to developing these estimates. In particular, we argue that uncertainty modelling can allow for (1) an evaluation of the risk associated with any decision based on the assumed uncertainty; (2) a method for quantifying the costs and benefits of reducing uncertainty; and (3) a useful tool for communicating to stakeholders the challenges in managing highly uncertain systems. We also argue that incorporating rather than avoiding uncertainty will increase the chances of successfully achieving conservation and management goals.

  8. Habitat damage, marine reserves, and the value of spatial management

    KAUST Repository

    Moeller, Holly V.; Neubert, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    The biological benefits of marine reserves have garnered favor in the conservation community, but "no-take" reserve implementation is complicated by the economic interests of fishery stakeholders. There are now a number of studies examining

  9. Effects of marine reserves on the reproductive biology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of marine reserves on the reproductive biology and recruitment rates of commonly and rarely exploited limpets. ... For recruitment, we hypothesised that if recruits are attracted to adults or survive better ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. Evidence That Marine Reserves Enhance Resilience to Climatic Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Fiorenza; Saenz-Arroyo, Andrea; Greenley, Ashley; Vazquez, Leonardo; Espinoza Montes, Jose Antonio; Rossetto, Marisa; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2012-01-01

    Establishment of marine protected areas, including fully protected marine reserves, is one of the few management tools available for local communities to combat the deleterious effect of large scale environmental impacts, including global climate change, on ocean ecosystems. Despite the common hope that reserves play this role, empirical evidence of the effectiveness of local protection against global problems is lacking. Here we show that marine reserves increase the resilience of marine populations to a mass mortality event possibly caused by climate-driven hypoxia. Despite high and widespread adult mortality of benthic invertebrates in Baja California, Mexico, that affected populations both within and outside marine reserves, juvenile replenishment of the species that supports local economies, the pink abalone Haliotis corrugata, remained stable within reserves because of large body size and high egg production of the protected adults. Thus, local protection provided resilience through greater resistance and faster recovery of protected populations. Moreover, this benefit extended to adjacent unprotected areas through larval spillover across the edges of the reserves. While climate change mitigation is being debated, coastal communities have few tools to slow down negative impacts of global environmental shifts. These results show that marine protected areas can provide such protection. PMID:22855690

  11. Evidence that marine reserves enhance resilience to climatic impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenza Micheli

    Full Text Available Establishment of marine protected areas, including fully protected marine reserves, is one of the few management tools available for local communities to combat the deleterious effect of large scale environmental impacts, including global climate change, on ocean ecosystems. Despite the common hope that reserves play this role, empirical evidence of the effectiveness of local protection against global problems is lacking. Here we show that marine reserves increase the resilience of marine populations to a mass mortality event possibly caused by climate-driven hypoxia. Despite high and widespread adult mortality of benthic invertebrates in Baja California, Mexico, that affected populations both within and outside marine reserves, juvenile replenishment of the species that supports local economies, the pink abalone Haliotis corrugata, remained stable within reserves because of large body size and high egg production of the protected adults. Thus, local protection provided resilience through greater resistance and faster recovery of protected populations. Moreover, this benefit extended to adjacent unprotected areas through larval spillover across the edges of the reserves. While climate change mitigation is being debated, coastal communities have few tools to slow down negative impacts of global environmental shifts. These results show that marine protected areas can provide such protection.

  12. Designing connected marine reserves in the face of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Munguía-Vega, Adrián; Beger, Maria; Del Mar Mancha-Cisneros, Maria; Suárez-Castillo, Alvin N; Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Gerber, Leah R; Morzaria-Luna, Hem Nalini; Reyes-Bonilla, Héctor; Adams, Vanessa M; Kolb, Melanie; Graham, Erin M; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Castillo-López, Alejandro; Hinojosa-Arango, Gustavo; Petatán-Ramírez, David; Moreno-Baez, Marcia; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R; Torre, Jorge

    2018-02-01

    Marine reserves are widely used to protect species important for conservation and fisheries and to help maintain ecological processes that sustain their populations, including recruitment and dispersal. Achieving these goals requires well-connected networks of marine reserves that maximize larval connectivity, thus allowing exchanges between populations and recolonization after local disturbances. However, global warming can disrupt connectivity by shortening potential dispersal pathways through changes in larval physiology. These changes can compromise the performance of marine reserve networks, thus requiring adjusting their design to account for ocean warming. To date, empirical approaches to marine prioritization have not considered larval connectivity as affected by global warming. Here, we develop a framework for designing marine reserve networks that integrates graph theory and changes in larval connectivity due to potential reductions in planktonic larval duration (PLD) associated with ocean warming, given current socioeconomic constraints. Using the Gulf of California as case study, we assess the benefits and costs of adjusting networks to account for connectivity, with and without ocean warming. We compare reserve networks designed to achieve representation of species and ecosystems with networks designed to also maximize connectivity under current and future ocean-warming scenarios. Our results indicate that current larval connectivity could be reduced significantly under ocean warming because of shortened PLDs. Given the potential changes in connectivity, we show that our graph-theoretical approach based on centrality (eigenvector and distance-weighted fragmentation) of habitat patches can help design better-connected marine reserve networks for the future with equivalent costs. We found that maintaining dispersal connectivity incidentally through representation-only reserve design is unlikely, particularly in regions with strong asymmetric patterns of

  13. Accounting for tourism benefits in marine reserve design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Marine reserve design often considers potential benefits to conservation and/or fisheries but typically ignores potential revenues generated through tourism. Since tourism can be the main source of economic benefits for many marine reserves worldwide, ignoring tourism objectives in the design process might lead to sub-optimal outcomes. To incorporate tourism benefits into marine reserve design, we develop a bioeconomic model that tracks tourism and fisheries revenues through time for different management options and location characteristics. Results from the model show that accounting for tourism benefits will ultimately motivate greater ocean protection. Our findings demonstrate that marine reserves are part of the optimal economic solution even in situations with optimal fisheries management and low tourism value relative to fisheries. The extent of optimal protection depends on specific location characteristics, such as tourism potential and other local amenities, and the species recreational divers care about. Additionally, as tourism value increases, optimal reserve area also increases. Finally, we demonstrate how tradeoffs between the two services depend on location attributes and management of the fishery outside marine reserve borders. Understanding when unavoidable tradeoffs will arise helps identify those situations where communities must choose between competing interests. PMID:29267364

  14. Enhanced biodiversity beyond marine reserve boundaries: the cup spillith over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Garry R; Alcala, Angel C

    2011-01-01

    Overfishing can have detrimental effects on marine biodiversity and the structure of marine ecosystems. No-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are much advocated as a means of protecting biodiversity and ecosystem structure from overharvest. In contrast to terrestrial protected areas, NTMRs are not only expected to conserve or recover biodiversity and ecosystems within their boundaries, but also to enhance biodiversity beyond their boundaries by exporting species richness and more complex biological communities. Here we show that species richness of large predatory reef fish increased fourfold and 11-fold inside two Philippine no-take marine reserves over 14 and 25 years, respectively. Outside one reserve (Apo) the species richness also increased. This increase beyond the Apo reserve boundary was 78% higher closer to the boundary (200-250 m) than farther from it (250-500 m). The increase in richness beyond the boundary could not be explained by improvements over time in habitat or prey availability. Furthermore, community composition of predatory fish outside but close to (200-250 m) the Apo reserve became very similar to that inside the reserve over time, almost converging with it in multivariate space after 26 years of reserve protection. This is consistent with the suggestion that, as community composition inside Apo reserve increased in complexity, this complexity spilled over the boundary into nearby fished areas. Clearly, the spillover of species richness and community complexity is a direct consequence of the spillover of abundance of multiple species. However, this spillover of species richness and community complexity demonstrates an important benefit of biodiversity and ecosystem export from reserves, and it provides hope that reserves can help to reverse the decline of marine ecosystems and biodiversity.

  15. Rapid effects of marine reserves via larval dispersal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Cudney-Bueno

    Full Text Available Marine reserves have been advocated worldwide as conservation and fishery management tools. It is argued that they can protect ecosystems and also benefit fisheries via density-dependent spillover of adults and enhanced larval dispersal into fishing areas. However, while evidence has shown that marine reserves can meet conservation targets, their effects on fisheries are less understood. In particular, the basic question of if and over what temporal and spatial scales reserves can benefit fished populations via larval dispersal remains unanswered. We tested predictions of a larval transport model for a marine reserve network in the Gulf of California, Mexico, via field oceanography and repeated density counts of recently settled juvenile commercial mollusks before and after reserve establishment. We show that local retention of larvae within a reserve network can take place with enhanced, but spatially-explicit, recruitment to local fisheries. Enhancement occurred rapidly (2 yrs, with up to a three-fold increase in density of juveniles found in fished areas at the downstream edge of the reserve network, but other fishing areas within the network were unaffected. These findings were consistent with our model predictions. Our findings underscore the potential benefits of protecting larval sources and show that enhancement in recruitment can be manifested rapidly. However, benefits can be markedly variable within a local seascape. Hence, effects of marine reserve networks, positive or negative, may be overlooked when only focusing on overall responses and not considering finer spatially-explicit responses within a reserve network and its adjacent fishing grounds. Our results therefore call for future research on marine reserves that addresses this variability in order to help frame appropriate scenarios for the spatial management scales of interest.

  16. Life and Death Decision Making, by Baruch A. Brody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, Robert M

    1989-04-01

    Veatch considers the pluralistic casuistry theory advocated by Baruch Brody in his 1988 book, Life and Death Decision Making, to be an important contribution to the secular medical ethics literature. The casuistic and pluralistic elements of Brody's new model are described as intriguing but controversial because Brody both excludes several ethical appeals (i.e., classical Hippocratic ethics, virtue theory) and/or limits other questionable appeals (i.e., consequences for families and others in society, the virtue of integrity) without accounting for these decisions. Veatch also questions Brody's use of intuitional judgment to determine what ought to be done after examination of various appeals and their significance because Brody's approach raises serious problems about how various appeals are counted. Veatch does affirm the rich assessment of medical ethical problems made possible by Brody's pluralistic approach but notes the difficulties it raises.

  17. High-seas fish wars generate marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Guillermo E; Moeller, Holly V; Neubert, Michael G

    2016-04-05

    The effective management of marine fisheries is an ongoing challenge at the intersection of biology, economics, and policy. One way in which fish stocks-and their habitats-can be protected is through the establishment of marine reserves, areas that are closed to fishing. Although the potential economic benefits of such reserves have been shown for single-owner fisheries, their implementation quickly becomes complicated when more than one noncooperating harvester is involved in fishery management, which is the case on the high seas. How do multiple self-interested actors distribute their fishing effort to maximize their individual economic gains in the presence of others? Here, we use a game theoretic model to compare the effort distributions of multiple noncooperating harvesters with the effort distributions in the benchmark sole owner and open access cases. In addition to comparing aggregate rent, stock size, and fishing effort, we focus on the occurrence, size, and location of marine reserves. We show that marine reserves are a component of many noncooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria. Furthermore, as the number of harvesters increases, (i) both total unfished area and the size of binding reserves (those that actually constrain behavior) may increase, although the latter eventually asymptotically decreases; (ii) total rents and stock size both decline; and (iii) aggregate effort used (i.e., employment) can either increase or decrease, perhaps nonmonotonically.

  18. Habitat damage, marine reserves, and the value of spatial management

    KAUST Repository

    Moeller, Holly V.

    2013-07-01

    The biological benefits of marine reserves have garnered favor in the conservation community, but "no-take" reserve implementation is complicated by the economic interests of fishery stakeholders. There are now a number of studies examining the conditions under which marine reserves can provide both economic and ecological benefits. A potentially important reality of fishing that these studies overlook is that fishing can damage the habitat of the target stock. Here, we construct an equilibrium bioeconomic model that incorporates this habitat damage and show that the designation of marine reserves, coupled with the implementation of a tax on fishing effort, becomes both biologically and economically favorable as habitat sensitivity increases. We also study the effects of varied degrees of spatial control on fisheries management. Together, our results provide further evidence for the potential monetary and biological value of spatial management, and the possibility of a mutually beneficial resolution to the fisherman-conservationist marine reserve designation dilemma. © 2013 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Marine biosphere reserves - Need of the 21st century

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    been declared in India and a few more are under consideration. The present article gives in brief the status of Marine Biosphere Reserves in India and a few other potential areas for the same reason, along the Indian coast. An action plan has been...

  20. Marine reserves: fish life history and ecological traits matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudet, J; Osenberg, C W; Domenici, P; Badalamenti, F; Milazzo, M; Falcón, J M; Bertocci, I; Benedetti-Cecchi, L; García-Charton, J A; Goñi, R; Borg, J A; Forcada, A; De Lucia, G A; Perez-Ruzafa, A; Afonso, P; Brito, A; Guala, I; Le Diréach, L; Sanchez-Jerez, P; Somerfield, P J; Planes, S

    2010-04-01

    Marine reserves are assumed to protect a wide range of species from deleterious effects stemming from exploitation. However, some species, due to their ecological characteristics, may not respond positively to protection. Very little is known about the effects of life history and ecological traits (e.g., mobility, growth, and habitat) on responses of fish species to marine reserves. Using 40 data sets from 12 European marine reserves, we show that there is significant variation in the response of different species of fish to protection and that this heterogeneity can be explained, in part, by differences in their traits. Densities of targeted size-classes of commercial species were greater in protected than unprotected areas. This effect of protection increased as the maximum body size of the targeted species increased, and it was greater for species that were not obligate schoolers. However, contrary to previous theoretical findings, even mobile species with wide home ranges benefited from protection: the effect of protection was at least as strong for mobile species as it was for sedentary ones. Noncommercial bycatch and unexploited species rarely responded to protection, and when they did (in the case of unexploited bentho-pelagic species), they exhibited the opposite response: their densities were lower inside reserves. The use of marine reserves for marine conservation and fisheries management implies that they should ensure protection for a wide range of species with different life-history and ecological traits. Our results suggest this is not the case, and instead that effects vary with economic value, body size, habitat, depth range, and schooling behavior.

  1. Microplastic ingestion decreases energy reserves in marine worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephanie L; Rowe, Darren; Thompson, Richard C; Galloway, Tamara S

    2013-12-02

    The indiscriminate disposal of plastic to the environment is of concern. Microscopic plastic litter (environment, originating from the fragmentation of plastic items and from industry and personal-care products [1]. On highly impacted beaches, microplastic concentrations (impacts remain understudied [1]. Here, we show that deposit-feeding marine worms maintained in sediments spiked with microscopic unplasticised polyvinylchloride (UPVC) at concentrations overlapping those in the environment had significantly depleted energy reserves by up to 50% (Figure 1). Our results suggest that depleted energy reserves arise from a combination of reduced feeding activity, longer gut residence times of ingested material and inflammation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Economic perspective of marine reserves in fisheries: a bioeconomic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kunal; Kar, T K

    2012-12-01

    The present paper describes a prey-predator type fishery model with prey dispersal in a two-patch environment, one of which is a free fishing zone and other is protected zone. The objective of the paper is to maximize the net economic revenue earn from the fishery through implementing the sustainable properties of the fishery to keep the ecological balance. Biological measures are introduced to increase the understanding of the mechanisms in the bioeconomic system. The importance of marine reserve is analyzed through the obtained results of the numerical simulations of proposed model system. The results depict that reserves will be most effective when coupled with harvesting controls in adjacent fisheries. The paper also incorporates the induced cost and premium from establishing a marine protected area in a fishery. It is found that premium of marine protected area (MPA) increases with the increasing size of the reserve. Results are analyzed with the help of graphical illustrations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Marine Reserve Targets to Sustain and Rebuild Unregulated Fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils C Krueck

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Overfishing threatens the sustainability of coastal marine biodiversity, especially in tropical developing countries. To counter this problem, about 200 governments worldwide have committed to protecting 10%-20% of national coastal marine areas. However, associated impacts on fisheries productivity are unclear and could weaken the food security of hundreds of millions of people who depend on diverse and largely unregulated fishing activities. Here, we present a systematic theoretic analysis of the ability of reserves to rebuild fisheries under such complex conditions, and we identify maximum reserve coverages for biodiversity conservation that do not impair long-term fisheries productivity. Our analysis assumes that fishers have no viable alternative to fishing, such that total fishing effort remains constant (at best. We find that realistic reserve networks, which protect 10%-30% of fished habitats in 1-20 km wide reserves, should benefit the long-term productivity of almost any complex fishery. We discover a "rule of thumb" to safeguard against the long-term catch depletion of particular species: individual reserves should export 30% or more of locally produced larvae to adjacent fishing grounds. Specifically on coral reefs, where fishers tend to overexploit species whose dispersal distances as larvae exceed the home ranges of adults, decisions on the size of reserves needed to meet the 30% larval export rule are unlikely to compromise the protection of resident adults. Even achieving the modest Aichi Target 11 of 10% "effective protection" can then help rebuild depleted catch. However, strictly protecting 20%-30% of fished habitats is unlikely to diminish catch even if overfishing is not yet a problem while providing greater potential for biodiversity conservation and fishery rebuilding if overfishing is substantial. These findings are important because they suggest that doubling or tripling the only globally enforced marine reserve target

  4. Designing marine fishery reserves using passive acoustic telemetry

    OpenAIRE

    Glazer, Robert A.; Delgado, Gabriel A.

    2006-01-01

    Marine Fishery Reserves (MFRs) are being adopted, in part, as a strategy to replenish depleted fish stocks and serve as a source for recruits to adjacent fisheries. By necessity, their design must consider the biological parameters of the species under consideration to ensure that the spawning stock is conserved while simultaneously providing propagules for dispersal. We describe how acoustic telemetry can be employed to design effective MFRs by elucidating important life-history parameters o...

  5. Comparing marine and terrestrial ecosystems: Implications for the design of coastal marine reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M.H.; Neigel, J.E.; Estes, J.A.; Andelman, S.; Warner, R.R.; Largier, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Concepts and theory for the design and application of terrestrial reserves is based on our understanding of environmental, ecological, and evolutionary processes responsible for biological diversity and sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems and how humans have influenced these processes. How well this terrestrial-based theory can be applied toward the design and application of reserves in the coastal marine environment depends, in part, on the degree of similarity between these systems. Several marked differences in ecological and evolutionary processes exist between marine and terrestrial ecosystems as ramifications of fundamental differences in their physical environments (i.e., the relative prevalence of air and water) and contemporary patterns of human impacts. Most notably, the great extent and rate of dispersal of nutrients, materials, holoplanktonic organisms, and reproductive propagules of benthic organisms expand scales of connectivity among near-shore communities and ecosystems. Consequently, the "openness" of marine populations, communities, and ecosystems probably has marked influences on their spatial, genetic, and trophic structures and dynamics in ways experienced by only some terrestrial species. Such differences appear to be particularly significant for the kinds of organisms most exploited and targeted for protection in coastal marine ecosystems (fishes and macroinvertebrates). These and other differences imply some unique design criteria and application of reserves in the marine environment. In explaining the implications of these differences for marine reserve design and application, we identify many of the environmental and ecological processes and design criteria necessary for consideration in the development of the analytical approaches developed elsewhere in this Special Issue.

  6. Marine reserves can mitigate and promote adaptation to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Callum M.; O’Leary, Bethan C.; McCauley, Douglas J.; Cury, Philippe Maurice; Duarte, Carlos M.; Lubchenco, Jane; Pauly, Daniel; Sáenz-Arroyo, Andrea; Sumaila, Ussif Rashid; Wilson, Rod W.; Worm, Boris; Castilla, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Strong decreases in greenhouse gas emissions are required to meet the reduction trajectory resolved within the 2015 Paris Agreement. However, even these decreases will not avert serious stress and damage to life on Earth, and additional steps are needed to boost the resilience of ecosystems, safeguard their wildlife, and protect their capacity to supply vital goods and services. We discuss how well-managed marine reserves may help marine ecosystems and people adapt to five prominent impacts of climate change: acidification, sea-level rise, intensification of storms, shifts in species distribution, and decreased productivity and oxygen availability, as well as their cumulative effects. We explore the role of managed ecosystems in mitigating climate change by promoting carbon sequestration and storage and by buffering against uncertainty in management, environmental fluctuations, directional change, and extreme events. We highlight both strengths and limitations and conclude that marine reserves are a viable low-tech, cost-effective adaptation strategy that would yield multiple cobenefits from local to global scales, improving the outlook for the environment and people into the future. PMID:28584096

  7. Marine reserves can mitigate and promote adaptation to climate change

    KAUST Repository

    Roberts, Callum M.

    2017-06-06

    Strong decreases in greenhouse gas emissions are required to meet the reduction trajectory resolved within the 2015 Paris Agreement. However, even these decreases will not avert serious stress and damage to life on Earth, and additional steps are needed to boost the resilience of ecosystems, safeguard their wildlife, and protect their capacity to supply vital goods and services. We discuss how well-managed marine reserves may help marine ecosystems and people adapt to five prominent impacts of climate change: acidification, sea-level rise, intensification of storms, shifts in species distribution, and decreased productivity and oxygen availability, as well as their cumulative effects. We explore the role of managed ecosystems in mitigating climate change by promoting carbon sequestration and storage and by buffering against uncertainty in management, environmental fluctuations, directional change, and extreme events. We highlight both strengths and limitations and conclude that marine reserves are a viable low-tech, cost-effective adaptation strategy that would yield multiple cobenefits from local to global scales, improving the outlook for the environment and people into the future.

  8. Biodiversity conservation should focus on no-take Marine Reserves: 94% of Marine Protected Areas allow fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Mark J; Ballantine, Bill

    2015-09-01

    Conservation needs places where nature is left wild; but only a quarter of coastal countries have no-take Marine Reserves. 'Marine Protected Areas' (MPAs) have been used to indicate conservation progress but we found that 94% allow fishing and thus cannot protect all aspects of biodiversity. Biodiversity conservation should focus on Marine Reserves, not MPAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of ecological criteria in selecting marine reserves and developing reserve networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Callum M.; Branch, George; Bustamante, Rodrigo H.; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Dugan, Jenifer; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Leslie, Heather; McArdle, Deborah; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Warner, Robert R.

    2003-01-01

    Marine reserves are being established worldwide in response to a growing recognition of the conservation crisis that is building in the oceans. However, designation of reserves has been largely opportunistic, or protective measures have been implemented (often overlapping and sometimes in conflict) by different entities seeking to achieve different ends. This has created confusion among both users and enforcers, and the proliferation of different measures provides a false sense of protection where little is offered. This paper sets out a procedure grounded in current understanding of ecological processes, that allows the evaluation and selection of reserve sites in order to develop functional, interconnected networks of fully protected reserves that will fulfill multiple objectives. By fully protected we mean permanently closed to fishing and other resource extraction. We provide a framework that unifies the central aims of conservation and fishery management, while also meeting other human needs such as the provision of ecosystem services (e.g., maintenance of coastal water quality, shoreline protection, and recreational opportunities). In our scheme, candidate sites for reserves are evaluated against 12 criteria focused toward sustaining the biological integrity and productivity of marine systems at both local and regional scales. While a limited number of sites will be indispensable in a network, many will be of similar value as reserves, allowing the design of numerous alternative, biologically adequate networks. Devising multiple network designs will help ensure that ecological functionality is preserved throughout the socioeconomic evaluation process. Too often, socioeconomic criteria have dominated the process of reserve selection, potentially undermining their efficacy. We argue that application of biological criteria must precede and inform socioeconomic evaluation, since maintenance of ecosystem functioning is essential for meeting all of the goals for

  10. Ecological criteria for evaluating candidate sites for marine reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Callum M.; Andelman, Sandy; Branch, George; Bustamante, Rodrigo H.; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Dugan, Jenifer; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Leslie, Heather; Lubchenco, Jane; McArdle, Deborah; Possingham, Hugh P.; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Warner, Robert R.

    2003-01-01

    Several schemes have been developed to help select the locations of marine reserves. All of them combine social, economic, and biological criteria, and few offer any guidance as to how to prioritize among the criteria identified. This can imply that the relative weights given to different criteria are unimportant. Where two sites are of equal value ecologically, then socioeconomic criteria should dominate the choice of which should be protected. However, in many cases, socioeconomic criteria are given equal or greater weight than ecological considerations in the choice of sites. This can lead to selection of reserves with little biological value that fail to meet many of the desired objectives. To avoid such a possibility, we develop a series of criteria that allow preliminary evaluation of candidate sites according to their relative biological values in advance of the application of socioeconomic criteria. We include criteria that, while not strictly biological, have a strong influence on the species present or ecological processes. Our scheme enables sites to be assessed according to their biodiversity, the processes which underpin that diversity, and the processes that support fisheries and provide a spectrum of other services important to people. Criteria that capture biodiversity values include biogeographic representation, habitat representation and heterogeneity, and presence of species or populations of special interest (e.g., threatened species). Criteria that capture sustainability of biodiversity and fishery values include the size of reserves necessary to protect viable habitats, presence of exploitable species, vulnerable life stages, connectivity among reserves, links among ecosystems, and provision of ecosystem services to people. Criteria measuring human and natural threats enable candidate sites to be eliminated from consideration if risks are too great, but also help prioritize among sites where threats can be mitigated by protection. While our

  11. Ichthyoplankton of arvoredo biological marine reserve, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Rutkowski

    Full Text Available Arvoredo Island, located in Santa Catarina state - south Brazil, and its surrounding area were defined as a Conservation Unit (CU in the category of Biological Reserve since 1990. This research aimed to analyze the inter-annual and seasonal (winter and summer variations of ichthyoplankton densities at Arvoredo Biology Marine Reserve (ABMR, and their relationship with environmental variables in 1997/1998 (Campaign 1, 2007/2008 (Campaign 2 and 2008/2009 (Campaign 3. Fish eggs and larvae were sampled using a WP-2 net with 200 µm mesh size. The study area was influenced by three water masses, (i Coastal Water throughout the whole year, (ii Subtropical Shelf Water during the winter, and (iii South Atlantic Central Water mainly in summer. A total of 4,891 eggs were collected and classified as Engraulidae and Sardinella brasiliensis (Clupeidae. The total number of larvae was 467 belonging to 5 orders, 19 families, and 21 species. Taxonomic composition demonstrated a seasonal pattern among periods, with the highest densities of Engraulidae occurring in winter and the families Carangidae, Clupeidae and Gerreidae in summer. The high number of families and abundance of ichthyoplankton observed in ABMR may be important in supplying the adjacent coastal areas impacted by fishing.

  12. Increased disease calls for a cost-benefits review of marine reserves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C Wootton

    Full Text Available Marine reserves (or No-Take Zones are implemented to protect species and habitats, with the aim of restoring a balanced ecosystem. Although the benefits of marine reserves are commonly monitored, there is a lack of insight into the potential detriments of such highly protected waters. High population densities attained within reserves may induce negative impacts such as unfavourable trophic cascades and disease outbreaks. Hence, we investigated the health of lobster populations in the UK's Marine Conservation Zone (MCZ at Lundy Island. Comparisons were made between the fished, Refuge Zone (RZ and the un-fished, No-Take Zone (NTZ; marine reserve. We show ostensibly positive effects such as increased lobster abundance and size within the NTZ; however, we also demonstrate apparent negative effects such as increased injury and shell disease. Our findings suggest that robust cost-benefit analyses of marine reserves could improve marine reserve efficacy and subsequent management strategies.

  13. Improving the Marine Corps Reserve Infantry Battalion: Manning, Training, Integration, and Retention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parrish, Ross A

    2008-01-01

    .... Recognizing that all Marine Corps reserve infantry battalions have deployed at least once in support of the GWOT, further improvements in the manning, training, integration, and retention within...

  14. 40 CFR 1700.14 - Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD... UNIFORM NATIONAL DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards § 1700.14 Marine Pollution Control Device (MPCD) Performance Standards. [Reserved] ...

  15. Political economy of marine reserves: Understanding the role of opportunity costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin D.; Lynham, John; Sanchirico, James N.; Wilson, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The creation of marine reserves is often controversial. For decisionmakers, trying to find compromises, an understanding of the timing, magnitude, and incidence of the costs of a reserve is critical. Understanding the costs, in turn, requires consideration of not just the direct financial costs but also the opportunity costs associated with reserves. We use a discrete choice model of commercial fishermen’s behavior to examine both the short-run and long-run opportunity costs of marine reserves. Our results can help policymakers recognize the factors influencing commercial fishermen’s responses to reserve proposals. More generally, we highlight the potential drivers behind the political economy of marine reserves. PMID:20133732

  16. 15 CFR Appendix B to Subpart G of... - Marine Reserve Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....] B.1. Richardson Rock (San Miguel Island) Marine Reserve The Richardson Rock Marine Reserve (Richardson Rock) boundary is defined by the 3 nmi State boundary, the coordinates provided in Table B-1, and the following textual description. The Richardson Rock boundary extends from Point 1 to Point 2 along...

  17. Global mismatch between fishing dependency and larval supply from marine reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrello, Marco; Guilhaumon, François; Albouy, Camille; Parravicini, Valeriano; Scholtens, Joeri; Verley, Philippe; Barange, Manuel; Sumaila, U. Rashid; Manel, Stéphanie; Mouillot, David

    2017-07-01

    Marine reserves are viewed as flagship tools to protect exploited species and to contribute to the effective management of coastal fisheries. Yet, the extent to which marine reserves are globally interconnected and able to effectively seed areas, where fisheries are most critical for food and livelihood security is largely unknown. Using a hydrodynamic model of larval dispersal, we predict that most marine reserves are not interconnected by currents and that their potential benefits to fishing areas are presently limited, since countries with high dependency on coastal fisheries receive very little larval supply from marine reserves. This global mismatch could be reversed, however, by placing new marine reserves in areas sufficiently remote to minimize social and economic costs but sufficiently connected through sea currents to seed the most exploited fisheries and endangered ecosystems.

  18. United States Marine Corps Reserve Prior Service Recruiting: A Future Command for Partially Manning the Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    civilian to become a Marine . . . to say they are the same is like saying Toyota Carolla and Ford Focus are the same. They are both sedans, but different...recruiting with access to all the schools, remediation, advertising , community events, etc. It creates a very professional organization, and I would much

  19. Marine reserves can mitigate and promote adaptation to climate change

    KAUST Repository

    Roberts, Callum M.; O’ Leary, Bethan C.; McCauley, Douglas J.; Cury, Philippe Maurice; Duarte, Carlos M.; Lubchenco, Jane; Pauly, Daniel; Sá enz-Arroyo, Andrea; Sumaila, Ussif Rashid; Wilson, Rod W.; Worm, Boris; Castilla, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    reserves are a viable low-tech, cost-effective adaptation strategy that would yield multiple cobenefits from local to global scales, improving the outlook for the environment and people into the future.

  20. Optimal Career Progression of Ground Combat Arms Officers in the Marine Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Reamy, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine career progression for ground combat arms officers in the Marine Corps Reserve, and to identify gaps between current and optimal career progression. Recent policy changes provide the catalyst for this thesis. On 4 December 2006, the Marine Corps announced the implementation of the Officer Candidate Course-Reserve. At the time, active component manpower practices and historically high retention rates resulted in reduced numbers of officers leaving activ...

  1. Considerations during the Proposal Stages of a Marine Fisheries Reserve in Conil de la Frontera (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    With the fishing sector presently going through a range of problems internationally, the creation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and Marine Fishery Reserves (MFRs) is a choice in which various fisheries, environmental and research groups are showing a stronger belief. Within such systems, conventional measures are replaced by an ‘ecosystem-approach’ and stakeholder participation is considered fundamental. This investigation takes a look at the internal workings as well as external influe...

  2. Sessile and mobile components of a benthic ecosystem display mixed trends within a temperate marine reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Leigh M; Pickup, Sarah E; Evans, Lowri E; Cross, Tim J; Hawkins, Julie P; Roberts, Callum M; Stewart, Bryce D

    2015-06-01

    Despite recent efforts to increase the global coverage of marine protected areas (MPAs), studies investigating the effectiveness of marine protected areas within temperate waters remain scarce. Furthermore, out of the few studies published on MPAs in temperate waters, the majority focus on specific ecological or fishery components rather than investigating the ecosystem as a whole. This study therefore investigated the dynamics of both benthic communities and fish populations within a recently established, fully protected marine reserve in Lamlash Bay, Isle of Arran, United Kingdom, over a four year period. A combination of photo and diver surveys revealed live maerl (Phymatolithon calcareum), macroalgae, sponges, hydroids, feather stars and eyelash worms (Myxicola infundibulum) to be significantly more abundant within the marine reserve than on surrounding fishing grounds. Likewise, the overall composition of epifaunal communities in and outside the reserve was significantly different. Both results are consistent with the hypothesis that protecting areas from fishing can encourage seafloor habitats to recover. In addition, the greater abundance of complex habitats within the reserve appeared to providing nursery habitat for juvenile cod (Gadus morhua) and scallops (Pecten maximus and Aequipecten opercularis). In contrast, there was little difference in the abundance of mobile benthic fauna, such as crabs and starfish, between the reserve and outside. Similarly, the use of baited underwater video cameras revealed no difference in the abundance and size of fish between the reserve and outside. Limited recovery of these ecosystem components may be due to the relatively small size (2.67 km(2)) and young age of the reserve (<5 years), both of which might have limited the extent of any benefits afforded to mobile fauna and fish communities. Overall, this study provides evidence that fully protected marine reserves can encourage seafloor habitats to recover, which in

  3. The assessment of marine reserve networks: guidelines for ecological evaluation: Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Claudet, Joachim; Carr, Mark; Caselle, Jennifer; Day, Jon; Friedlander, Alan M.; Lester, Sarah E.; Lison de Loma, Thierry; Tissot, Brian; Malone, Dan; Claudet, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    As marine ecosystems are plagued by an ever-increasing suite of threats including climate change, pollution, habitat degradation, and fisheries impacts (Roessig et al., 2004; Lotze et al., 2006; Jackson, 2008), there are now no ocean areas that are exempt from anthropogenic impacts (Halpern et al., 2008). In order to preserve marine biodiversity, ecosystem function, and the goods and services provided by resistant and/or resilient systems, marine reserves have been increasingly recommended as part of an ecosystem-based approach to management (Browman and Stergiou, 2004; Levin et al., 2009). Marine reserves are defined as “areas of the ocean completely protected from all extractive and destructive activities” (Lubchenco et al., 2003) and can be experimental controls for evaluating the impact of these activities on marine ecosystems. Growing scientific information has shown consistent increases in species density, biomass, size, and diversity in response to full protection inside reserves of varying sizes and ages located in diverse regions (Claudet et al., 2008; Lester et al., 2009; Molloy et al., 2009). However, most of these data are from individual marine reserves and therefore have inherently limited transferability to networks of marine reserves, which when properly designed can outperform single marine reserves for a variety of ecological, economic, and social management goals (Roberts et al., 2003; Almany et al., 2009; Gaines et al., 2010).The concept of marine reserve networks grew out of a desire to achieve both conservation and fishery management goals by minimizing the potential negative economic, social, and cultural impacts of a single large reserve while still producing similar or even greater ecological and economic returns (Murray et al., 1999; Gaines et al., 2010). In addition, reserves networks can provide insurance by protecting areas across a region and spreading the risk that these sites may be impacted by localized catastrophes such as

  4. Assessing the effect of marine reserves on household food security in Kenyan coral reef fishing communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S Darling

    Full Text Available Measuring the success or failure of natural resource management is a key challenge to evaluate the impact of conservation for ecological, economic and social outcomes. Marine reserves are a popular tool for managing coastal ecosystems and resources yet surprisingly few studies have quantified the social-economic impacts of marine reserves on food security despite the critical importance of this outcome for fisheries management in developing countries. Here, I conducted semi-structured household surveys with 113 women heads-of-households to investigate the influence of two old, well-enforced, no-take marine reserves on food security in four coastal fishing communities in Kenya, East Africa. Multi-model information-theoretic inference and matching methods found that marine reserves did not influence household food security, as measured by protein consumption, diet diversity and food coping strategies. Instead, food security was strongly influenced by fishing livelihoods and household wealth: fishing families and wealthier households were more food secure than non-fishing and poorer households. These findings highlight the importance of complex social and economic landscapes of livelihoods, urbanization, power and gender dynamics that can drive the outcomes of marine conservation and management.

  5. Large recovery of fish biomass in a no-take marine reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Aburto-Oropeza

    Full Text Available No-take marine reserves are effective management tools used to restore fish biomass and community structure in areas depleted by overfishing. Cabo Pulmo National Park (CPNP was created in 1995 and is the only well enforced no-take area in the Gulf of California, Mexico, mostly because of widespread support from the local community. In 1999, four years after the establishment of the reserve, there were no significant differences in fish biomass between CPNP (0.75 t ha(-1 on average and other marine protected areas or open access areas in the Gulf of California. By 2009, total fish biomass at CPNP had increased to 4.24 t ha(-1 (absolute biomass increase of 3.49 t ha(-1, or 463%, and the biomass of top predators and carnivores increased by 11 and 4 times, respectively. However, fish biomass did not change significantly in other marine protected areas or open access areas over the same time period. The absolute increase in fish biomass at CPNP within a decade is the largest measured in a marine reserve worldwide, and it is likely due to a combination of social (strong community leadership, social cohesion, effective enforcement and ecological factors. The recovery of fish biomass inside CPNP has resulted in significant economic benefits, indicating that community-managed marine reserves are a viable solution to unsustainable coastal development and fisheries collapse in the Gulf of California and elsewhere.

  6. Evidence for protection of targeted reef fish on the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina-Amargós, Fabián; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Martín-Blanco, Félix; Valdivia, Abel

    2014-01-01

    Marine reserves can restore fish abundance and diversity in areas impacted by overfishing, but the effectiveness of reserves in developing countries where resources for enforcement are limited, have seldom been evaluated. Here we assess whether the establishment in 1996 of the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean, Gardens of the Queen in Cuba, has had a positive effect on the abundance of commercially valuable reef fish species in relation to neighboring unprotected areas. We surveyed 25 sites, including two reef habitats (reef crest and reef slope), inside and outside the marine reserve, on five different months, and over a one-and-a-half year period. Densities of the ten most frequent, highly targeted, and relatively large fish species showed a significant variability across the archipelago for both reef habitats that depended on the month of survey. These ten species showed a tendency towards higher abundance inside the reserve in both reef habitats for most months during the study. Average fish densities pooled by protection level, however, showed that five out of these ten species were at least two-fold significantly higher inside than outside the reserve at one or both reef habitats. Supporting evidence from previously published studies in the area indicates that habitat complexity and major benthic communities were similar inside and outside the reserve, while fishing pressure appeared to be homogeneous across the archipelago before reserve establishment. Although poaching may occur within the reserve, especially at the boundaries, effective protection from fishing was the most plausible explanation for the patterns observed.

  7. Impact of marine reserve on maximum sustainable yield in a traditional prey-predator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Prosenjit; Kar, T. K.; Ghorai, Abhijit

    2018-01-01

    Multispecies fisheries management requires managers to consider the impact of fishing activities on several species as fishing impacts both targeted and non-targeted species directly or indirectly in several ways. The intended goal of traditional fisheries management is to achieve maximum sustainable yield (MSY) from the targeted species, which on many occasions affect the targeted species as well as the entire ecosystem. Marine reserves are often acclaimed as the marine ecosystem management tool. Few attempts have been made to generalize the ecological effects of marine reserve on MSY policy. We examine here how MSY and population level in a prey-predator system are affected by the low, medium and high reserve size under different possible scenarios. Our simulation works shows that low reserve area, the value of MSY for prey exploitation is maximum when both prey and predator species have fast movement rate. For medium reserve size, our analysis revealed that the maximum value of MSY for prey exploitation is obtained when prey population has fast movement rate and predator population has slow movement rate. For high reserve area, the maximum value of MSY for prey's exploitation is very low compared to the maximum value of MSY for prey's exploitation in case of low and medium reserve. On the other hand, for low and medium reserve area, MSY for predator exploitation is maximum when both the species have fast movement rate.

  8. Larval export from marine reserves and the recruitment benefit for fish and fisheries

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, Hugo B.; Williamson, David H.; Evans, Richard D.; Almany, Glenn R.; Thorrold, Simon R.; Russ, Garry Ronald; Feldheim, Kevin Andrew; Van Herwerden, Lynne Van; Planes, Serge; Srinivasan, Maya; Berumen, Michael L.; Jones, Geoffrey P.

    2012-01-01

    Marine reserves, areas closed to all forms of fishing, continue to be advocated and implemented to supplement fisheries and conserve populations [1-4]. However, although the reproductive potential of important fishery species can dramatically increase inside reserves [5-8], the extent to which larval offspring are exported and the relative contribution of reserves to recruitment in fished and protected populations are unknown [4, 9-11]. Using genetic parentage analyses, we resolve patterns of larval dispersal for two species of exploited coral reef fish within a network of marine reserves on the Great Barrier Reef. In a 1,000 km 2 study area, populations resident in three reserves exported 83% (coral trout, Plectropomus maculatus) and 55% (stripey snapper, Lutjanus carponotatus) of assigned offspring to fished reefs, with the remainder having recruited to natal reserves or other reserves in the region. We estimate that reserves, which account for just 28% of the local reef area, produced approximately half of all juvenile recruitment to both reserve and fished reefs within 30 km. Our results provide compelling evidence that adequately protected reserve networks can make a significant contribution to the replenishment of populations on both reserve and fished reefs at a scale that benefits local stakeholders. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Larval export from marine reserves and the recruitment benefit for fish and fisheries

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, Hugo B.

    2012-06-01

    Marine reserves, areas closed to all forms of fishing, continue to be advocated and implemented to supplement fisheries and conserve populations [1-4]. However, although the reproductive potential of important fishery species can dramatically increase inside reserves [5-8], the extent to which larval offspring are exported and the relative contribution of reserves to recruitment in fished and protected populations are unknown [4, 9-11]. Using genetic parentage analyses, we resolve patterns of larval dispersal for two species of exploited coral reef fish within a network of marine reserves on the Great Barrier Reef. In a 1,000 km 2 study area, populations resident in three reserves exported 83% (coral trout, Plectropomus maculatus) and 55% (stripey snapper, Lutjanus carponotatus) of assigned offspring to fished reefs, with the remainder having recruited to natal reserves or other reserves in the region. We estimate that reserves, which account for just 28% of the local reef area, produced approximately half of all juvenile recruitment to both reserve and fished reefs within 30 km. Our results provide compelling evidence that adequately protected reserve networks can make a significant contribution to the replenishment of populations on both reserve and fished reefs at a scale that benefits local stakeholders. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. A user-friendly tool to evaluate the effectiveness of no-take marine reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Sean; Fulton, Stuart; Mancha-Cisneros, Maria del Mar; McDonald, Gavin; Micheli, Fiorenza; Suárez, Alvin; Torre, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Marine reserves are implemented to achieve a variety of objectives, but are seldom rigorously evaluated to determine whether those objectives are met. In the rare cases when evaluations do take place, they typically focus on ecological indicators and ignore other relevant objectives such as socioeconomics and governance. And regardless of the objectives, the diversity of locations, monitoring protocols, and analysis approaches hinder the ability to compare results across case studies. Moreover, analysis and evaluation of reserves is generally conducted by outside researchers, not the reserve managers or users, plausibly thereby hindering effective local management and rapid response to change. We present a framework and tool, called “MAREA”, to overcome these challenges. Its purpose is to evaluate the extent to which any given reserve has achieved its stated objectives. MAREA provides specific guidance on data collection and formatting, and then conducts rigorous causal inference analysis based on data input by the user, providing real-time outputs about the effectiveness of the reserve. MAREA’s ease of use, standardization of state-of-the-art inference methods, and ability to analyze marine reserve effectiveness across ecological, socioeconomic, and governance objectives could dramatically further our understanding and support of effective marine reserve management. PMID:29381762

  11. Untangling natural seascape variation from marine reserve effects using a landscape approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany E Huntington

    Full Text Available Distinguishing management effects from the inherent variability in a system is a key consideration in assessing reserve efficacy. Here, we demonstrate how seascape heterogeneity, defined as the spatial configuration and composition of coral reef habitats, can mask our ability to discern reserve effects. We then test the application of a landscape approach, utilizing advances in benthic habitat mapping and GIS techniques, to quantify this heterogeneity and alleviate the confounding influence during reserve assessment. Seascape metrics were quantified at multiple spatial scales using a combination of spatial image analysis and in situ surveys at 87 patch reef sites in Glover's Reef Lagoon, Belize, within and outside a marine reserve enforced since 1998. Patch reef sites were then clustered into classes sharing similar seascape attributes using metrics that correlated significantly to observed variations in both fish and coral communities. When the efficacy of the marine reserve was assessed without including landscape attributes, no reserve effects were detected in the diversity and abundance of fish and coral communities, despite 10 years of management protection. However, grouping sites based on landscape attributes revealed significant reserve effects between site classes. Fish had higher total biomass (1.5x and commercially important biomass (1.75x inside the reserve and coral cover was 1.8 times greater inside the reserve, though direction and degree of response varied by seascape class. Our findings show that the application of a landscape classification approach vastly improves our ability to evaluate the efficacy of marine reserves by controlling for confounding effects of seascape heterogeneity and suggests that landscape heterogeneity should be considered in future reserve design.

  12. Evidence for protection of targeted reef fish on the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Pina-Amargós

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine reserves can restore fish abundance and diversity in areas impacted by overfishing, but the effectiveness of reserves in developing countries where resources for enforcement are limited, have seldom been evaluated. Here we assess whether the establishment in 1996 of the largest marine reserve in the Caribbean, Gardens of the Queen in Cuba, has had a positive effect on the abundance of commercially valuable reef fish species in relation to neighboring unprotected areas. We surveyed 25 sites, including two reef habitats (reef crest and reef slope, inside and outside the marine reserve, on five different months, and over a one-and-a-half year period. Densities of the ten most frequent, highly targeted, and relatively large fish species showed a significant variability across the archipelago for both reef habitats that depended on the month of survey. These ten species showed a tendency towards higher abundance inside the reserve in both reef habitats for most months during the study. Average fish densities pooled by protection level, however, showed that five out of these ten species were at least two-fold significantly higher inside than outside the reserve at one or both reef habitats. Supporting evidence from previously published studies in the area indicates that habitat complexity and major benthic communities were similar inside and outside the reserve, while fishing pressure appeared to be homogeneous across the archipelago before reserve establishment. Although poaching may occur within the reserve, especially at the boundaries, effective protection from fishing was the most plausible explanation for the patterns observed.

  13. Effects of sex change on the implications of marine reserves for fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Neil C S; Connolly, Sean R; Mapstone, Bruce D

    2012-04-01

    Marine reserves have become widely used in biodiversity conservation and are increasingly proposed as fisheries management tools. Previous modeling studies have found that reserves may increase or decrease yields, depending on local environmental conditions and on the specific life-history traits of the fishery species. Sex-changing (female-to-male) fish are targets of some of the most important commercial and recreational fisheries in the world. The potential for disproportionate removal of the larger, older sex of such species requires new theory to facilitate our understanding of how reserves will affect the yields of surrounding fisheries, relative to fishes with separate sexes. We investigated this question by modeling the effects of marine reserves on a non-sex-changing and a sex-changing population. We used demographic parameter estimates for the common coral trout as a baseline, and we conducted extensive sensitivity analyses to determine how sustainable yields of sex-changing species are likely to be affected by reserves across a broad range of life-history parameters. Our findings indicate that fisheries for sex-changing species are unlikely to receive the same yield-enhancing benefit that non-sex-changing fisheries enjoy from marine reserves, and that often reserves tend to reduce sustainable yields for a given overall population size. Specifically, the increased egg production and high fertilization success within reserves is more than offset by the reduced egg production and fertilization success in the fished areas, relative to a system in which fishing mortality is distributed more evenly over the entire system. A key reason for this appears to be that fertilization success is reduced, on average, when males are unevenly distributed among subpopulations, as is the case when reserves are present. These findings suggests that, for sex-changing populations, reserves are more suited to rebuilding overfished populations and sustaining fishery viability

  14. Evolution of movement rate increases the effectiveness of marine reserves for the conservation of pelagic fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Jonathan A; Otto, Sarah P; Pauly, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Current debates about the efficacy of no-take marine reserves (MR) in protecting large pelagic fish such as tuna and sharks have usually not considered the evolutionary dimension of this issue, which emerges because the propensity to swim away from a given place, like any other biological trait, will probably vary in a heritable fashion among individuals. Here, based on spatially explicit simulations, we investigated whether selection to remain in MRs to avoid higher fishing mortality can lead to the evolution of more philopatric fish. Our simulations, which covered a range of life histories among tuna species (skipjack tuna vs. Atlantic bluefin tuna) and shark species (great white sharks vs. spiny dogfish), suggested that MRs were most effective at maintaining viable population sizes when movement distances were lowest. Decreased movement rate evolved following the establishment of marine reserves, and this evolution occurred more rapidly with higher fishing pressure. Evolutionary reductions in movement rate led to increases in within-reserve population sizes over the course of the 50 years following MR establishment, although this varied among life histories, with skipjack responding fastest and great white sharks slowest. Our results suggest the evolution of decreased movement can augment the efficacy of marine reserves, especially for species, such as skipjack tuna, with relatively short generation times. Even when movement rates did not evolve substantially over 50 years (e.g., given long generation times or little heritable variation), marine reserves were an effective tool for the conservation of fish populations when mean movement rates were low or MRs were large.

  15. Multi-scale sampling to evaluate assemblage dynamics in an oceanic marine reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew R; Watson, William; McClatchie, Sam; Weber, Edward D

    2012-01-01

    To resolve the capacity of Marine Protected Areas (MPA) to enhance fish productivity it is first necessary to understand how environmental conditions affect the distribution and abundance of fishes independent of potential reserve effects. Baseline fish production was examined from 2002-2004 through ichthyoplankton sampling in a large (10,878 km(2)) Southern Californian oceanic marine reserve, the Cowcod Conservation Area (CCA) that was established in 2001, and the Southern California Bight as a whole (238,000 km(2) CalCOFI sampling domain). The CCA assemblage changed through time as the importance of oceanic-pelagic species decreased between 2002 (La Niña) and 2003 (El Niño) and then increased in 2004 (El Niño), while oceanic species and rockfishes displayed the opposite pattern. By contrast, the CalCOFI assemblage was relatively stable through time. Depth, temperature, and zooplankton explained more of the variability in assemblage structure at the CalCOFI scale than they did at the CCA scale. CalCOFI sampling revealed that oceanic species impinged upon the CCA between 2002 and 2003 in association with warmer offshore waters, thus explaining the increased influence of these species in the CCA during the El Nino years. Multi-scale, spatially explicit sampling and analysis was necessary to interpret assemblage dynamics in the CCA and likely will be needed to evaluate other focal oceanic marine reserves throughout the world.

  16. Multi-scale sampling to evaluate assemblage dynamics in an oceanic marine reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Thompson

    Full Text Available To resolve the capacity of Marine Protected Areas (MPA to enhance fish productivity it is first necessary to understand how environmental conditions affect the distribution and abundance of fishes independent of potential reserve effects. Baseline fish production was examined from 2002-2004 through ichthyoplankton sampling in a large (10,878 km(2 Southern Californian oceanic marine reserve, the Cowcod Conservation Area (CCA that was established in 2001, and the Southern California Bight as a whole (238,000 km(2 CalCOFI sampling domain. The CCA assemblage changed through time as the importance of oceanic-pelagic species decreased between 2002 (La Niña and 2003 (El Niño and then increased in 2004 (El Niño, while oceanic species and rockfishes displayed the opposite pattern. By contrast, the CalCOFI assemblage was relatively stable through time. Depth, temperature, and zooplankton explained more of the variability in assemblage structure at the CalCOFI scale than they did at the CCA scale. CalCOFI sampling revealed that oceanic species impinged upon the CCA between 2002 and 2003 in association with warmer offshore waters, thus explaining the increased influence of these species in the CCA during the El Nino years. Multi-scale, spatially explicit sampling and analysis was necessary to interpret assemblage dynamics in the CCA and likely will be needed to evaluate other focal oceanic marine reserves throughout the world.

  17. Implications of Sponge Biodiversity Patterns for the Management of a Marine Reserve in Northern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Przeslawski

    Full Text Available Marine reserves are becoming progressively more important as anthropogenic impacts continue to increase, but we have little baseline information for most marine environments. In this study, we focus on the Oceanic Shoals Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR in northern Australia, particularly the carbonate banks and terraces of the Sahul Shelf and Van Diemen Rise which have been designated a Key Ecological Feature (KEF. We use a species-level inventory compiled from three marine surveys to the CMR to address several questions relevant to marine management: 1 Are carbonate banks and other raised geomorphic features associated with biodiversity hotspots? 2 Can environmental (depth, substrate hardness, slope or biogeographic (east vs west variables help explain local and regional differences in community structure? 3 Do sponge communities differ among individual raised geomorphic features? Approximately 750 sponge specimens were collected in the Oceanic Shoals CMR and assigned to 348 species, of which only 18% included taxonomically described species. Between eastern and western areas of the CMR, there was no difference between sponge species richness or assemblages on raised geomorphic features. Among individual raised geomorphic features, sponge assemblages were significantly different, but species richness was not. Species richness showed no linear relationships with measured environmental factors, but sponge assemblages were weakly associated with several environmental variables including mean depth and mean backscatter (east and west and mean slope (east only. These patterns of sponge diversity are applied to support the future management and monitoring of this region, particularly noting the importance of spatial scale in biodiversity assessments and associated management strategies.

  18. Implications of Sponge Biodiversity Patterns for the Management of a Marine Reserve in Northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeslawski, Rachel; Alvarez, Belinda; Kool, Johnathan; Bridge, Tom; Caley, M. Julian; Nichol, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Marine reserves are becoming progressively more important as anthropogenic impacts continue to increase, but we have little baseline information for most marine environments. In this study, we focus on the Oceanic Shoals Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) in northern Australia, particularly the carbonate banks and terraces of the Sahul Shelf and Van Diemen Rise which have been designated a Key Ecological Feature (KEF). We use a species-level inventory compiled from three marine surveys to the CMR to address several questions relevant to marine management: 1) Are carbonate banks and other raised geomorphic features associated with biodiversity hotspots? 2) Can environmental (depth, substrate hardness, slope) or biogeographic (east vs west) variables help explain local and regional differences in community structure? 3) Do sponge communities differ among individual raised geomorphic features? Approximately 750 sponge specimens were collected in the Oceanic Shoals CMR and assigned to 348 species, of which only 18% included taxonomically described species. Between eastern and western areas of the CMR, there was no difference between sponge species richness or assemblages on raised geomorphic features. Among individual raised geomorphic features, sponge assemblages were significantly different, but species richness was not. Species richness showed no linear relationships with measured environmental factors, but sponge assemblages were weakly associated with several environmental variables including mean depth and mean backscatter (east and west) and mean slope (east only). These patterns of sponge diversity are applied to support the future management and monitoring of this region, particularly noting the importance of spatial scale in biodiversity assessments and associated management strategies. PMID:26606745

  19. Analysis of the Effect of a Marine Energy Farm to Protect a Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Eugen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sacalin Peninsula in the Black Sea is a new land located south of the Saint George branch of the Danube. Since 1938 this area became a biosphere reserve since many rare species of animals and plants are to be found there. The generation of this new peninsula is due to the sedimentary process induced by the Danube River outflow and it was started more than 150 years ago. In the winter of 2013 this environment was seriously affected by some very strong storms putting in real danger this ecosystem. From this perspective, the objective of the present work is to evaluate the protection that might be offered to this area by a marine energy farm that would be deployed in front of the peninsula. In order to assess the coastal protection offered by the proposed solution, simulations with the SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore wave model have been performed for the most relevant storm patterns. The results show that a marine energy farm can provide a real sheltering effect to the ecological reserve. Such approach seems to be also economically viable since this coastal environment represents a real hot spot in the Black Sea from the point of view of marine energy resources.

  20. Effects of marine reserves versus nursery habitat availability on structure of reef fish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Grol, Monique G G; Mumby, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    No-take marine fishery reserves sustain commercial stocks by acting as buffers against overexploitation and enhancing fishery catches in adjacent areas through spillover. Likewise, nursery habitats such as mangroves enhance populations of some species in adjacent habitats. However, there is lack of understanding of the magnitude of stock enhancement and the effects on community structure when both protection from fishing and access to nurseries concurrently act as drivers of fish population dynamics. In this study we test the separate as well as interactive effects of marine reserves and nursery habitat proximity on structure and abundance of coral reef fish communities. Reserves had no effect on fish community composition, while proximity to nursery habitat only had a significant effect on community structure of species that use mangroves or seagrass beds as nurseries. In terms of reef fish biomass, proximity to nursery habitat by far outweighed (biomass 249% higher than that in areas with no nursery access) the effects of protection from fishing in reserves (biomass 21% lower than non-reserve areas) for small nursery fish (≤ 25 cm total length). For large-bodied individuals of nursery species (>25 cm total length), an additive effect was present for these two factors, although fish benefited more from fishing protection (203% higher biomass) than from proximity to nurseries (139% higher). The magnitude of elevated biomass for small fish on coral reefs due to proximity to nurseries was such that nursery habitats seem able to overrule the usually positive effects on fish biomass by reef reserves. As a result, conservation of nursery habitats gains importance and more consideration should be given to the ecological processes that occur along nursery-reef boundaries that connect neighboring ecosystems.

  1. Effects of marine reserves versus nursery habitat availability on structure of reef fish communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Nagelkerken

    Full Text Available No-take marine fishery reserves sustain commercial stocks by acting as buffers against overexploitation and enhancing fishery catches in adjacent areas through spillover. Likewise, nursery habitats such as mangroves enhance populations of some species in adjacent habitats. However, there is lack of understanding of the magnitude of stock enhancement and the effects on community structure when both protection from fishing and access to nurseries concurrently act as drivers of fish population dynamics. In this study we test the separate as well as interactive effects of marine reserves and nursery habitat proximity on structure and abundance of coral reef fish communities. Reserves had no effect on fish community composition, while proximity to nursery habitat only had a significant effect on community structure of species that use mangroves or seagrass beds as nurseries. In terms of reef fish biomass, proximity to nursery habitat by far outweighed (biomass 249% higher than that in areas with no nursery access the effects of protection from fishing in reserves (biomass 21% lower than non-reserve areas for small nursery fish (≤ 25 cm total length. For large-bodied individuals of nursery species (>25 cm total length, an additive effect was present for these two factors, although fish benefited more from fishing protection (203% higher biomass than from proximity to nurseries (139% higher. The magnitude of elevated biomass for small fish on coral reefs due to proximity to nurseries was such that nursery habitats seem able to overrule the usually positive effects on fish biomass by reef reserves. As a result, conservation of nursery habitats gains importance and more consideration should be given to the ecological processes that occur along nursery-reef boundaries that connect neighboring ecosystems.

  2. Marine reserves and reproductive biomass: a case study of a heavily targeted reef fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett M Taylor

    Full Text Available Recruitment overfishing (the reduction of a spawning stock past a point at which the stock can no longer replenish itself is a common problem which can lead to a rapid and irreversible fishery collapse. Averting this disaster requires maintaining a sufficient spawning population to buffer stochastic fluctuations in recruitment of heavily harvested stocks. Optimal strategies for managing spawner biomass are well developed for temperate systems, yet remain uncertain for tropical fisheries, where the danger of collapse from recruitment overfishing looms largest. In this study, we explored empirically and through modeling, the role of marine reserves in maximizing spawner biomass of a heavily exploited reef fish, Lethrinus harak around Guam, Micronesia. On average, spawner biomass was 16 times higher inside the reserves compared with adjacent fished sites. Adult density and habitat-specific mean fish size were also significantly greater. We used these data in an age-structured population model to explore the effect of several management scenarios on L. harak demography. Under minimum-size limits, unlimited extraction and all rotational-closure scenarios, the model predicts that preferential mortality of larger and older fish prompt dramatic declines in spawner biomass and the proportion of male fish, as well as considerable declines in total abundance. For rotational closures this occurred because of the mismatch between the scales of recovery and extraction. Our results highlight how alternative management scenarios fall short in comparison to marine reserves in preserving reproductively viable fish populations on coral reefs.

  3. Institutional Arrangements and Processes in Marine Fishery Reserves-Sanctuaries Establishment in Lagonoy Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Raul G Bradecina; Plutomeo Nieves

    2006-01-01

    This paper described the process and institutional arrangement of MFR-S in Lagonoy Gulf from period 1993 to 2004. The analysis made use of primary and secondary data mainly derived from key informant interviews and participatory resource assessment (PRA). Results showed that the establishment of Marine Fisheries Reserve-Sanctuary in Lagonoy Gulf started in 1993. During the ten-year period between 1993 and 2004, a total of 8 MFR-S were established with majority in Albay and the least in Camari...

  4. Extraordinary aggressive behavior from the giant coral reef fish, Bolbometopon muricatum, in a remote marine reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Roldan C; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Laughlin, Joseph L; Teer, Bradford Z

    2012-01-01

    Human impacts to terrestrial and marine communities are widespread and typically begin with the local extirpation of large-bodied animals. In the marine environment, few pristine areas relatively free of human impact remain to provide baselines of ecosystem function and goals for restoration efforts. Recent comparisons of remote and/or protected coral reefs versus impacted sites suggest remote systems are dominated by apex predators, yet in these systems the ecological role of non-predatory, large-bodied, highly vulnerable species such as the giant bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) has received less attention. Overfishing of Bolbometopon has lead to precipitous declines in population density and avoidance of humans throughout its range, contributing to its status as a candidate species under the U. S. Endangered Species Act and limiting opportunities to study unexploited populations. Here we show that extraordinary ecological processes, such as violent headbutting contests by the world's largest parrotfish, can be revealed by studying unexploited ecosystems, such as the coral reefs of Wake Atoll where we studied an abundant population of Bolbometopon. Bolbometopon is among the largest of coral reef fishes and is a well known, charismatic species, yet to our knowledge, no scientific documentation of ritualized headbutting exists for marine fishes. Our observations of aggressive headbutting by Bolbometopon underscore that remote locations and marine reserves, by inhibiting negative responses to human observers and by allowing the persistence of historical conditions, can provide valuable opportunities to study ecosystems in their natural state, thereby facilitating the discovery, conservation, and interpretation of a range of sometimes remarkable behavioral and ecological processes.

  5. Extraordinary aggressive behavior from the giant coral reef fish, Bolbometopon muricatum, in a remote marine reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roldan C Muñoz

    Full Text Available Human impacts to terrestrial and marine communities are widespread and typically begin with the local extirpation of large-bodied animals. In the marine environment, few pristine areas relatively free of human impact remain to provide baselines of ecosystem function and goals for restoration efforts. Recent comparisons of remote and/or protected coral reefs versus impacted sites suggest remote systems are dominated by apex predators, yet in these systems the ecological role of non-predatory, large-bodied, highly vulnerable species such as the giant bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum has received less attention. Overfishing of Bolbometopon has lead to precipitous declines in population density and avoidance of humans throughout its range, contributing to its status as a candidate species under the U. S. Endangered Species Act and limiting opportunities to study unexploited populations. Here we show that extraordinary ecological processes, such as violent headbutting contests by the world's largest parrotfish, can be revealed by studying unexploited ecosystems, such as the coral reefs of Wake Atoll where we studied an abundant population of Bolbometopon. Bolbometopon is among the largest of coral reef fishes and is a well known, charismatic species, yet to our knowledge, no scientific documentation of ritualized headbutting exists for marine fishes. Our observations of aggressive headbutting by Bolbometopon underscore that remote locations and marine reserves, by inhibiting negative responses to human observers and by allowing the persistence of historical conditions, can provide valuable opportunities to study ecosystems in their natural state, thereby facilitating the discovery, conservation, and interpretation of a range of sometimes remarkable behavioral and ecological processes.

  6. Diel and seasonal movement pattern of the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus inside a marine reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeck, Barbara; Pastor, Jérémy; Saragoni, Gilles; Dalias, Nicolas; Payrot, Jérôme; Lenfant, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Temporal movement patterns and spawning behaviour of the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus were investigated using depth and temperature sensors combined to acoustic telemetry. Results showed that these fish are year-round resident, remaining inside the fully protected area of the marine reserve of Cerbère-Banyuls (65 ha) and display a diurnal activity pattern. Records from depth sensors revealed that groupers range inside small, distinct, and individual territories. Individual variations in habitat depth are only visible on a seasonal scale, i.e., between the spawning season and the rest of the year. In fact, during summer months when the seawater temperature exceeded 20 °C, tagged groupers made vertical spawning migrations of 4-8 m in amplitude. These vertical migrations are characteristic of the reproductive behaviour of dusky groupers, during which they release their gametes. The results are notable for the implementation of management rules in marine protected areas, such as reduced navigation speed, boating or attendance during spawning season. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reef-fish larval dispersal patterns validate no-take marine reserve network connectivity that links human communities

    KAUST Repository

    Abesamis, Rene A.; Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Berumen, Michael L.; Bode, Michael; Jadloc, Claro Renato L.; Solera, Leilani A.; Villanoy, Cesar L.; Bernardo, Lawrence Patrick C.; Alcala, Angel C.; Russ, Garry R.

    2017-01-01

    Networks of no-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are a widely advocated strategy for managing coral reefs. However, uncertainty about the strength of population connectivity between individual reefs and NTMRs through larval dispersal remains a major

  8. A global survey of “TURF-reserves”, Territorial Use Rights for Fisheries coupled with marine reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie C. Afflerbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Overfishing and degradation of the marine environment continue to plague coastal communities worldwide, with multiple diverse solutions being proposed. Territorial Use Rights for Fisheries (TURFs is a fishery management approach that aligns fishers’ incentives with sustainability, while marine reserves have proven effective for ecosystem protection, and in some cases for fishery enhancement. These two management approaches are often used in isolation, leaving the potential utility of integrating them poorly understood. We examine cases where TURFs and marine reserves have been implemented together to create “TURF-reserves”. We compiled a database of 27 TURF-reserves and collected information on the governance, management, enforcement, fishing practices, fishing rights, regulations, and design attributes for each site. We address several research questions including: what species are managed with TURF-reserves, how are TURF-reserves created and who is involved in the process? Our findings show that the majority of surveyed TURF-reserves arose from previously established TURF systems that target a range of fisheries, and multiple entities play a role in TURF-reserve development and management. We also examine the differences between two TURF-reserve archetypes and find that those developed with a strong history of customary tenure share distinct qualities from those created in a more recently established, government-mandated system. Keywords: TURF, Marine reserve, TURF-reserve, Fisheries, Rights-based management

  9. Recovery of Durvillaea antarctica (Durvilleales) inside and outside Las Cruces Marine Reserve, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, J C; Campo, M A; Bustamante, R H

    2007-07-01

    We present the results for over two decades of monitoring on intertidal food-gatherers and the population of the low rocky shore dweller kelp Durvillaea antarctica, a short-distance disperser, inside and outside the no-take marine reserve, Estacion Costera de Investigaciones Marinas (ECIM), at Las Cruces, central Chile. It was hypothesized that protection of an initially extremely depleted population would recover by recolonizing first the no-take area and then adjacent non-protected (exploited) areas. We found that recovery of D. antarctica occurred slowly inside ECIM, with increase in density and biomass, of up to three orders of magnitude as compared to an adjacent non-protected area, which showed approximately 2-yr delay. These results suggest that the kelp population inside ECIM was likely regulated via intraspecific competition, which did not occur outside. Results showed no evidence for juvenile vs. adult density dependence other than a weak relationship for the central area of ECIM. These findings also suggest that the population recovery and cross-boundary seeding subsides affected the population dynamics. Understanding these dynamics may enhance management and conservation policies. Our work highlights the critical value of baseline and long-term comparative studies in marine no-take protected and non-protected areas for understanding how population processes respond to human and conservation practices.

  10. Valuing Recreational Benefits of Coral Reefs: The Case of Mombasa Marine National Park and Reserve, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Kevin P.; Mangi, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    A contingent valuation study was conducted with adult Kenyan citizens and foreign tourists to estimate the value of recreational benefits arising from coral reefs at Mombasa Marine National Park and Reserve (MMNPR), and to assess the implications for local reef management. Citizen and foreign visitors to MMNPR were willing to pay an extra 2.2 (median = 1.6) and 8 (median = 6.7) per visit respectively, in addition to current park entrance fees, to support reef quality improvements. By aggregating visitors’ willingness to pay bids over the number of visitors to MMNPR in 2006-2007 the value of benefits was estimated at 346,733, which was more than twice the total annual operational expenditure of 152,383 for MMNPR. The findings indicate that annual revenues from citizen and foreign visitors may be increased by 60% to 261,932 through the implementation of proposed higher park fees of 3.10 for citizens and 15 for foreign visitors. However, any fee increase would serve to intensify concerns among citizens that only relatively affluent Kenyans can afford to visit MMNPR. Park managers need to demonstrate that the extra revenue would be used to fund the proposed conservation activities. This valuation study demonstrates that visitors are prepared to pay higher user fees for access to the marine protected area revealing considerable untapped resource to finance reef quality improvements.

  11. The role of pre-existing disturbances in the effect of marine reserves on coastal ecosystems: a modelling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Savina

    Full Text Available We have used an end-to-end ecosystem model to explore responses over 30 years to coastal no-take reserves covering up to 6% of the fifty thousand square kilometres of continental shelf and slope off the coast of New South Wales (Australia. The model is based on the Atlantis framework, which includes a deterministic, spatially resolved three-dimensional biophysical model that tracks nutrient flows through key biological groups, as well as extraction by a range of fisheries. The model results support previous empirical studies in finding clear benefits of reserves to top predators such as sharks and rays throughout the region, while also showing how many of their major prey groups (including commercial species experienced significant declines. It was found that the net impact of marine reserves was dependent on the pre-existing levels of disturbance (i.e. fishing pressure, and to a lesser extent on the size of the marine reserves. The high fishing scenario resulted in a strongly perturbed system, where the introduction of marine reserves had clear and mostly direct effects on biomass and functional biodiversity. However, under the lower fishing pressure scenario, the introduction of marine reserves caused both direct positive effects, mainly on shark groups, and indirect negative effects through trophic cascades. Our study illustrates the need to carefully align the design and implementation of marine reserves with policy and management objectives. Trade-offs may exist not only between fisheries and conservation objectives, but also among conservation objectives.

  12. Assessing the effects of marine protected area (MPA) on a reef fish assemblage in a northwestern Mediterranean marine reserve: Identifying community-based indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Claudet, Joachim; Pelletier, Dominique; Jouvenel, J.y; Bachet, F; Galzin, R

    2006-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly envisaged as a tool to manage coastal ecosystems and fisheries. Assessment of their performance with respect to management objectives is therefore important. A number of WAS provided conservation benefits for fished species. Observed benefits do not apply to all species at all times, and responses to protection are also highly variable among fish taxa. Among the many empirical studies on marine reserves, only a few designs considered 'before and ...

  13. Feeding behavior and trophic interaction of three shark species in the Galapagos Marine Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Páez-Rosas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available There is great concern about the future of sharks in Ecuador because of the lack of biological knowledge of most species that inhabit the region. This paper analyzes the feeding behavior of the pelagic thresher shark (Alopias pelagicus, the blue shark (Prionace glauca and the silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis through the use of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen (δ13C and δ15N, with the aim of determining the degree of interaction between these species in the Galapagos Marine Reserve. No interspecific differences were found in use of oceanic vs. inshore feeding areas (δ13C: Kruskal–Wallis test, p = 0.09. The position in the hierarchy of the food web where A. pelagicus feeds differed from that of the other species (δ15N: Kruskal–Wallis test, p = 0.01. There were no significant differences in δ13C and δ15N values between males and females of the three species (Student’s t-test, p > 0.05, which suggests that both sexes have a similar feeding behavior. A specialist strategy was observed in P. glauca (trophic niche breadth TNB = 0.69, while the other species were found to be generalist (A. pelagicus TNB = 1.50 and C. falciformis TNB = 1.09. The estimated trophic level (TL varied between the three species. C. falciformis occupied the highest trophic level (TL = 4.4, making it a quaternary predator in the region. The results of this study coincide with the identified behavior in these predators in other areas of the tropical Pacific (Colombia and Mexico, and suggest a pelagic foraging strategy with differential consumption of prey between the three species. These ecological aspects can provide timely information when implementing in conservation measures for these shark species in the Tropical Pacific and Galapagos Marine Reserve.

  14. Feeding behavior and trophic interaction of three shark species in the Galapagos Marine Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez-Rosas, Diego; Insuasti-Zarate, Paul; Riofrío-Lazo, Marjorie; Galván-Magaña, Felipe

    2018-01-01

    There is great concern about the future of sharks in Ecuador because of the lack of biological knowledge of most species that inhabit the region. This paper analyzes the feeding behavior of the pelagic thresher shark ( Alopias pelagicus ), the blue shark ( Prionace glauca ) and the silky shark ( Carcharhinus falciformis ) through the use of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen ( δ 13 C and δ 15 N), with the aim of determining the degree of interaction between these species in the Galapagos Marine Reserve. No interspecific differences were found in use of oceanic vs. inshore feeding areas ( δ 13 C: Kruskal-Wallis test, p = 0.09). The position in the hierarchy of the food web where A. pelagicus feeds differed from that of the other species ( δ 15 N: Kruskal-Wallis test, p = 0.01). There were no significant differences in δ 13 C and δ 15 N values between males and females of the three species (Student's t -test, p  > 0.05), which suggests that both sexes have a similar feeding behavior. A specialist strategy was observed in P. glauca (trophic niche breadth TNB = 0.69), while the other species were found to be generalist ( A. pelagicus TNB = 1.50 and C. falciformis TNB = 1.09). The estimated trophic level (TL) varied between the three species. C. falciformis occupied the highest trophic level (TL = 4.4), making it a quaternary predator in the region. The results of this study coincide with the identified behavior in these predators in other areas of the tropical Pacific (Colombia and Mexico), and suggest a pelagic foraging strategy with differential consumption of prey between the three species. These ecological aspects can provide timely information when implementing in conservation measures for these shark species in the Tropical Pacific and Galapagos Marine Reserve.

  15. Residency and movement patterns of an apex predatory shark (Galeocerdo cuvier at the Galapagos Marine Reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Acuña-Marrero

    Full Text Available The potential effectiveness of marine protected areas (MPAs as a conservation tool for large sharks has been questioned due to the limited spatial extent of most MPAs in contrast to the complex life history and high mobility of many sharks. Here we evaluated the movement dynamics of a highly migratory apex predatory shark (tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier at the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR. Using data from satellite tracking passive acoustic telemetry, and stereo baited remote underwater video, we estimated residency, activity spaces, site fidelity, distributional abundances and migration patterns from the GMR and in relation to nesting beaches of green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas, a seasonally abundant and predictable prey source for large tiger sharks. Tiger sharks exhibited a high degree of philopatry, with 93% of the total satellite-tracked time across all individuals occurring within the GMR. Large sharks (> 200 cm TL concentrated their movements in front of the two most important green sea turtle-nesting beaches in the GMR, visiting them on a daily basis during nocturnal hours. In contrast, small sharks (< 200 cm TL rarely visited turtle-nesting areas and displayed diurnal presence at a third location where only immature sharks were found. Small and some large individuals remained in the three study areas even outside of the turtle-nesting season. Only two sharks were satellite-tracked outside of the GMR, and following long-distance migrations, both individuals returned to turtle-nesting beaches at the subsequent turtle-nesting season. The spatial patterns of residency and site fidelity of tiger sharks suggest that the presence of a predictable source of prey and suitable habitats might reduce the spatial extent of this large shark that is highly migratory in other parts of its range. This highly philopatric behaviour enhances the potential effectiveness of the GMR for their protection.

  16. An integrated environmental risk assessment and management framework for enhancing the sustainability of marine protected areas: the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve case study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Elvis G B; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Morton, Brian; Lee, Joseph H W

    2015-02-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs), such as marine parks and reserves, contain natural resources of immense value to the environment and mankind. Since MPAs may be situated in close proximity to urbanized areas and influenced by anthropogenic activities (e.g. continuous discharges of contaminated waters), the marine organisms contained in such waters are probably at risk. This study aimed at developing an integrated environmental risk assessment and management (IERAM) framework for enhancing the sustainability of such MPAs. The IERAM framework integrates conventional environmental risk assessment methods with a multi-layer-DPSIR (Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response) conceptual approach, which can simplify the complex issues embraced by environmental management strategies and provide logical and concise management information. The IERAM process can generate a useful database, offer timely update on the status of MPAs, and assist in the prioritization of management options. We use the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve in Hong Kong as an example to illustrate the IERAM framework. A comprehensive set of indicators were selected, aggregated and analyzed using this framework. Effects of management practices and programs were also assessed by comparing the temporal distributions of these indicators over a certain timeframe. Based on the obtained results, we have identified the most significant components for safeguarding the integrity of the marine reserve, and indicated the existing information gaps concerned with the management of the reserve. Apart from assessing the MPA's present condition, a successful implementation of the IERAM framework as evocated here would also facilitate better-informed decision-making and, hence, indirectly enhance the protection and conservation of the MPA's marine biodiversity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reef Sharks Exhibit Site-Fidelity and Higher Relative Abundance in Marine Reserves on the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Mark E.; Babcock, Elizabeth A.; Pikitch, Ellen K.; Abercrombie, Debra L.; Lamb, Norlan F.; Chapman, Demian D.

    2012-01-01

    Carcharhinid sharks can make up a large fraction of the top predators inhabiting tropical marine ecosystems and have declined in many regions due to intense fishing pressure. There is some support for the hypothesis that carcharhinid species that complete their life-cycle within coral reef ecosystems, hereafter referred to as “reef sharks”, are more abundant inside no-take marine reserves due to a reduction in fishing pressure (i.e., they benefit from marine reserves). Key predictions of this hypothesis are that (a) individual reef sharks exhibit high site-fidelity to these protected areas and (b) their relative abundance will generally be higher in these areas compared to fished reefs. To test this hypothesis for the first time in Caribbean coral reef ecosystems we combined acoustic monitoring and baited remote underwater video (BRUV) surveys to measure reef shark site-fidelity and relative abundance, respectively. We focused on the Caribbean reef shark (Carcharhinus perezi), the most common reef shark in the Western Atlantic, at Glover's Reef Marine Reserve (GRMR), Belize. Acoustically tagged sharks (N = 34) were detected throughout the year at this location and exhibited strong site-fidelity. Shark presence or absence on 200 BRUVs deployed at GRMR and three other sites (another reserve site and two fished reefs) showed that the factor “marine reserve” had a significant positive effect on reef shark presence. We rejected environmental factors or site-environment interactions as predominant drivers of this pattern. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that marine reserves can benefit reef shark populations and we suggest new hypotheses to determine the underlying mechanism(s) involved: reduced fishing mortality or enhanced prey availability. PMID:22412965

  18. The science of European marine reserves: Status, efficacy, and future needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenberg, Phillip B.; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Claudet, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    The ecologically and socio-economically important marine ecosystems of Europe are facing severe threats from a variety of human impacts. To mitigate and potentially reverse some of these impacts, the European Union (EU) has mandated the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (M...

  19. Self-recruitment in a coral reef fish population in a marine reserve

    KAUST Repository

    Herrera Sarrias, Marcela

    2014-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) have proliferated in the past decades to protect biodiversity and sustain fisheries. However, most of the MPA networks have been designed without taking into account a critical factor: the larval dispersal patterns of populations within and outside the reserves. The scale and predictability of larval dispersal, however, remain unknown due to the difficulty of measuring dispersal when larvae are minute (~ cm) compared to the potential scale of dispersal (~ km). Nevertheless, genetic approaches can now be used to make estimates of larval dispersal. The following thesis describes self-recruitment and connectivity patterns of a coral reef fish species (Centropyge bicolor) in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea. To do this, microsatellite markers were developed to evaluate fine-scale genetics and recruit assignment via genetic parentage analysis. In this method, offspring are assigned to potential parents, so that larval dispersal distances can then be inferred for each individual larvae. From a total of 255 adults and 426 juveniles collected only 2 parentoffspring pairs were assigned, representing less than 1% self-recruitment. Previous data from the same study system showed that both Chaetodon vagagundus and Amphiprion percula have consistent high self-recuitment rates (~ 60%), despite having contrasting life history traits. Since C. bicolor and C. vagabundus have similar characteristics (e.g. reproductive mode, pelagic larval duration), comparable results were expected. On the contrary, the results of this study showed that dispersal patterns cannot be generalized across species. Hence the importance of studying different species and seascapes to better understand the patterns of larval dispersal. This, in turn, will be essential to improve the design and implementation of MPAs as conservation and management tools.

  20. Habitat dynamics, marine reserve status, and the decline and recovery of coral reef fish communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, David H; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Evans, Richard D; Jones, Geoffrey P; Russ, Garry R

    2014-01-01

    Severe climatic disturbance events often have major impacts on coral reef communities, generating cycles of decline and recovery, and in some extreme cases, community-level phase shifts from coral-to algal-dominated states. Benthic habitat changes directly affect reef fish communities, with low coral cover usually associated with low fish diversity and abundance. No-take marine reserves (NTRs) are widely advocated for conserving biodiversity and enhancing the sustainability of exploited fish populations. Numerous studies have documented positive ecological and socio-economic benefits of NTRs; however, the ability of NTRs to ameliorate the effects of acute disturbances on coral reefs has seldom been investigated. Here, we test these factors by tracking the dynamics of benthic and fish communities, including the important fishery species, coral trout (Plectropomus spp.), over 8 years in both NTRs and fished areas in the Keppel Island group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Two major disturbances impacted the reefs during the monitoring period, a coral bleaching event in 2006 and a freshwater flood plume in 2011. Both disturbances generated significant declines in coral cover and habitat complexity, with subsequent declines in fish abundance and diversity, and pronounced shifts in fish assemblage structure. Coral trout density also declined in response to the loss of live coral, however, the approximately 2:1 density ratio between NTRs and fished zones was maintained over time. The only post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks were within the NTRs that escaped the worst effects of the disturbances. Although NTRs had little discernible effect on the temporal dynamics of benthic or fish communities, it was evident that the post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks within some NTRs may be critically important to regional-scale population persistence and recovery. PMID:24634720

  1. Connectivity of the Longfin Grouper (Epinephelus Quoyanus) in a marine reserve in the Great Keppel Island Group

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Salamah, Manalle

    2014-12-01

    With a dramatic decrease of biodiversity as a result of the increase in exploitation of marine ecosystems, the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) serves as an important means of protecting those resources. Although there is support for the effectiveness of these MPAs and MPA networks, there is room for improvement in terms of MPA management and design. For example, a better understanding of the dispersal dynamics of targeted species across these MPAs will serve as a more accurate means of reserve as well as fisheries management. While there have been many methods used to determine the larval dispersal of a certain species, parentage analysis is becoming the most robust. In this thesis, I attempt to determine the patterns of self-recruitment and larval dispersal of the Longfin Grouper (Epinephelus quoyanus) in one focal marine reserve within the Great Keppel Island group through the method of parentage. For this, I developed 14 microsatellite markers and with those, genotyped 610 adults as well as 478 juveniles from the study site. These genotypes allowed me to assign offspring to their potential parents, which then allowed me to measure the self-recruitment, local retention as well as larval dispersal percentages of this species from and within the reserve. My results indicate that there is 32% local retention to the reserve while 68% of the assigned juveniles were dispersed to other areas (4% of which dispersed to another reserve). Previous studies conducted in the same area showed higher reserve self-recruitment rates for both Plectropomus maculatus (~30%) and Lutjanus carponotatus (64%) despite their similar life history traits. The results from this study add to the growing evidence that dispersal patterns cannot be generalized across marine systems or even between species within a single system.

  2. [Studies on metabolites from marine microorganism Aspergillus terreus collected from nature reserve region of mangrove].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yi; Zou, Jianhua; Dai, Jungui

    2011-09-01

    To search for new antitumor active lead compounds from marine microorganism. A marine strain, Aspergillus terreus, was cultured and up-scaled in artificial seawater media, from which the metabolites were isolated and elucidated by using modern spectroscopy techniques. Twelve compounds were isolated from mycelia and fermentation broth of A. terreus. Compounds 1-4 were steroids, compounds 5-8 were organic acids and esters, compound 9 was an alkaloid, compound 10 was an isocoumarin, compound 11 was ceramide, compound 12 was propenyl cyclic pentanediol.

  3. Marine reserves help preserve genetic diversity after impacts derived from climate variability: Lessons from the pink abalone in Baja California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Munguía-Vega

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity is crucial for the adaptation of exploited species like the pink abalone (Haliotis corrugata, faced with threats from climate change, overfishing and impacts associated with aquaculture production. While marine reserves are commonly used to mitigate risks to marine populations, the duration, size, location and larval connectivity needed for a reserve to help conserve genetic resources is still poorly understood. Here, we examine the effects of fishing, reserves, and restocking on the genetic diversity of 10 populations from central Baja California, Mexico, and Southern California, USA. We demonstrate that each population shows characteristic genetic signatures according to recent management decisions. We found high allelic diversity, particularly rare alleles, a larger effective population size and a lack of a recent genetic bottleneck in pink abalones within a small (0.8 km2, recently established (5 years reserve in Baja California, compared to other fished sites after a climatic bottleneck. Higher diversity may result from the presence of older animals in the reserve. Due to its location, the reserve may also act as an important hub connecting distant populations via larval dispersal. In contrast, a population from California showed genetic isolation, loss of allelic diversity and high relatedness, consistent with the collapse of fisheries in the 1990s and their lack of recovery thereafter. In addition, a fished area in Baja California with a history of restocking for over a decade showed an increase in frequency of related individuals and high genetic differentiation from nearby sites that were consistent with the production of larvae from a few adults in the laboratory. A network of strategically placed small marine reserves that considers ocean circulation patterns could help to maintain genetic diversity and connectivity of exploited populations.

  4. An Analysis of the Marine Corps Individual Ready Reserve Screening Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    reduces the number of contacts possible in a fiscal year.45 D. STRENGTHS The current screening process has many aspects that work well or may be...average, 80 percent in a fiscal year. Currently, the RSP Marine works randomly down a contact list in their assigned region; the staff’s main focus is...remaining of obligated service, a request for sanctuary, extreme hardship, an Active Status Listing, enrollment in theology or divinity school, and being

  5. North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve's (NERR) Estuarine Surface Water Nutrient, Suspended Sediment, and Chlorophyll a Data for the North Inlet and Winyah Bay Estuaries, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1993-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A one 1000 ml (one Liter) water sample was collected every 20 days at 2 hour and 4 minute intervals for 2 complete tidal cycles (26 hours) with an ISCO automated...

  6. Changes in fish assemblages following the establishment of a network of no-take marine reserves and partially-protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan P Kelaher

    Full Text Available Networks of no-take marine reserves and partially-protected areas (with limited fishing are being increasingly promoted as a means of conserving biodiversity. We examined changes in fish assemblages across a network of marine reserves and two different types of partially-protected areas within a marine park over the first 5 years of its establishment. We used Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV to quantify fish communities on rocky reefs at 20-40 m depth between 2008-2011. Each year, we sampled 12 sites in 6 no-take marine reserves and 12 sites in two types of partially-protected areas with contrasting levels of protection (n = 4 BRUV stations per site. Fish abundances were 38% greater across the network of marine reserves compared to the partially-protected areas, although not all individual reserves performed equally. Compliance actions were positively associated with marine reserve responses, while reserve size had no apparent relationship with reserve performance after 5 years. The richness and abundance of fishes did not consistently differ between the two types of partially-protected areas. There was, therefore, no evidence that the more regulated partially-protected areas had additional conservation benefits for reef fish assemblages. Overall, our results demonstrate conservation benefits to fish assemblages from a newly established network of temperate marine reserves. They also show that ecological monitoring can contribute to adaptive management of newly established marine reserve networks, but the extent of this contribution is limited by the rate of change in marine communities in response to protection.

  7. Small-scale habitat structure modulates the effects of no-take marine reserves for coral reef macroinvertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Dumas

    Full Text Available No-take marine reserves are one of the oldest and most versatile tools used across the Pacific for the conservation of reef resources, in particular for invertebrates traditionally targeted by local fishers. Assessing their actual efficiency is still a challenge in complex ecosystems such as coral reefs, where reserve effects are likely to be obscured by high levels of environmental variability. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential interference of small-scale habitat structure on the efficiency of reserves. The spatial distribution of widely harvested macroinvertebrates was surveyed in a large set of protected vs. unprotected stations from eleven reefs located in New Caledonia. Abundance, density and individual size data were collected along random, small-scale (20×1 m transects. Fine habitat typology was derived with a quantitative photographic method using 17 local habitat variables. Marine reserves substantially augmented the local density, size structure and biomass of the target species. Density of Trochus niloticus and Tridacna maxima doubled globally inside the reserve network; average size was greater by 10 to 20% for T. niloticus. We demonstrated that the apparent success of protection could be obscured by marked variations in population structure occurring over short distances, resulting from small-scale heterogeneity in the reef habitat. The efficiency of reserves appeared to be modulated by the availability of suitable habitats at the decimetric scale ("microhabitats" for the considered sessile/low-mobile macroinvertebrate species. Incorporating microhabitat distribution could significantly enhance the efficiency of habitat surrogacy, a valuable approach in the case of conservation targets focusing on endangered or emblematic macroinvertebrate or relatively sedentary fish species.

  8. Spatial assessment of fishing effort around European marine reserves: implications for successful fisheries management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzenmüller, Vanessa; Maynou, Francesc; Bernard, Guillaume; Cadiou, Gwenaël; Camilleri, Matthew; Crec'hriou, Romain; Criquet, Géraldine; Dimech, Mark; Esparza, Oscar; Higgins, Ruth; Lenfant, Philippe; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel

    2008-12-01

    We examined the spatial dynamic of artisanal fishing fleets around five European marine protected areas (MPAs) to derive general implications for the evaluation of MPAs as fisheries management tools. The coastal MPAs studied were located off France, Malta and Spain and presented a variety of spatial designs and processes of establishment. We developed a standardized methodology to define factors influencing effort allocation and to produce fishing effort maps by merging GIS with geostatistical modelling techniques. Results revealed that in most cases the factors "distance to the no-take", "water depth", and "distance to the port" had a significant influence on effort allocation by the fishing fleets. Overall, we found local concentration of fishing effort around the MPA borders. Thus, neglecting the pattern of fishing effort distribution in evaluating MPA benefits, such as spillover of biomass, could hamper sound interpretation of MPAs as fisheries management tools.

  9. Interesting new record and further notes on the occurrence of marine fish in Nyamithi Pan, Ndumo Game Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kyle

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Nyamithi Pan, situated in Ndumo Game Reserve, South Africa, is a floodplain pan near the confluence of the Usuthu and Pongolo rivers. It lies approximately 75 km from the Indian Ocean. The floodplain and its fish have been extensively surveyed (Coke & Pott 1970; Kok 1980; Merron et al 1993, 1994, 1994a, 1994b, 1994c, 1994d; Pooley 1975 and there are many records of the occurrence of marine fish in this and other pans of the Pongolo and Usuthu rivers. These are, however, usually isolated instances of individual fish being caught and attracting attention.

  10. Institutional analysis of marine reserves and fisheries governance policy experiments : a case study of Nassau grouper conservation in the Turks and Caicos Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudd, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Ecosystem-based fisheries management; marine reserves; marine protected areas; social capital; institutional analysis; Turks and Caicos Islands; Nassau grouper Many tropical fisheries around the world are in crisis because of the depletion of valuable reef species and the destruction of

  11. Effects of reduced water quality on coral reefs in and out of no-take marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Amelia S; Williamson, David H; da Silva, Eduardo T; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Browne, Nicola K; Petus, Caroline; Devlin, Michelle J

    2016-02-01

    Near-shore marine environments are increasingly subjected to reduced water quality, and their ability to withstand it is critical to their persistence. The potential role marine reserves may play in mitigating the effects of reduced water quality has received little attention. We investigated the spatial and temporal variability in live coral and macro-algal cover and water quality during moderate and major flooding events of the Fitzroy River within the Keppel Bay region of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park from 2007 to 2013. We used 7 years of remote sensing data on water quality and data from long-term monitoring of coral reefs to quantify exposure of coral reefs to flood plumes. We used a distance linear model to partition the contribution of abiotic and biotic factors, including zoning, as drivers of the observed changes in coral and macro-algae cover. Moderate flood plumes from 2007 to 2009 did not affect coral cover on reefs in the Keppel Islands, suggesting the reef has intrinsic resistance against short-term exposure to reduced water quality. However, from 2009 to 2013, live coral cover declined by ∼ 50% following several weeks of exposure to turbid, low salinity water from major flood plume events in 2011 and subsequent moderate events in 2012 and 2013. Although the flooding events in 2012 and 2013 were smaller than the flooding events between 2007 to 2009, the ability of the reefs to withstand these moderate floods was lost, as evidenced by a ∼ 20% decline in coral cover between 2011 to 2013. Although zoning (no-take reserve or fished) was identified a significant driver of coral cover, we recorded consistently lower coral cover on reserve reefs than on fished reefs throughout the study period and significantly lower cover in 2011. Our findings suggest that even reefs with an inherent resistance to reduced water quality are not able to withstand repeated disturbance events. The limitations of reserves in mitigating the effects of reduced water

  12. An Analysis of Factors Affecting Affiliation in the Marine Corps Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    AR Active Reserve ASL Active Status List CC Continuance Commitment DODI Department of Defense Instruction DON Department of the Navy FFM ...turnover (Mobley, Griffeth, Hand, & Meglino, 1979). Other research on personality constructs use the five factor model ( FFM ) as a basis...Conscientiousness and emotional stability are two personality dimensions of the FFM , which are negatively correlated and useful predictors of voluntary turnover

  13. Analysis, Design, and Implementation of a Logical Proof-of-Concept Prototype for Streamlining the Advertisement of Billets for the U.S. Marine Corps Reserve

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohler, Jon D; Thorpe, John M

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to provide the Marine Corps with a thorough bottom up System Analysis of the next generation billet advertisement system that will replace Reserve Duty Online (RDOL...

  14. Reduced density of the herbivorous urchin Diadema antillarum inside a Caribbean marine reserve linked to increased predation pressure by fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harborne, A. R.; Renaud, P. G.; Tyler, E. H. M.; Mumby, P. J.

    2009-09-01

    Disease has dramatically reduced populations of the herbivorous urchin Diadema antillarum Philippi on Caribbean reefs, contributing to an increased abundance of macroalgae and reduction of coral cover. Therefore, recovery of D. antillarum populations is critically important, but densities are still low on many reefs. Among the many potential factors limiting these densities, the focus of this study is on predation pressure by fishes. Marine reserves provide opportunities to examine large-scale manipulations of predator-prey interactions and, therefore, D. antillarum densities were compared inside and outside a reserve in The Bahamas (Exuma Cays Land and Sea Park; ECLSP). Urchins and their fish predators were surveyed at nine sites inside and outside the ECLSP. Because of lower fishing effort, the total biomass of urchin predators, weighted by their dietary preferences for urchins, was significantly higher inside the ECLSP. Furthermore, fish community structure was significantly different inside the Park because of the increased biomass of the majority of species. No urchins were seen inside the ECLSP and this was significantly lower than the density of 0.04 urchin m-2 outside the Park. Regression analysis indicated that the relationship between the biomass of urchin predators and the proportion of transects containing urchins was non-linear, suggesting that small increases in fish biomass dramatically reduce urchin abundances. The link between lower density of urchins and higher density of their predators inside the ECLSP is strengthened by discounting five alternative primary mechanisms (variations in macroalgal cover, larval supply, environmental setting, density of other urchin species and abundance of predators not surveyed). Caribbean marine reserves have an important conservation role, but increased fish predation appears to reduce densities of D. antillarum. Urchins currently have limited functional significance on Bahamian reefs, but any future recovery of

  15. Effects of Commuting Distance on Participation Rates for Obligated Selected Marine Corps Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    AFQT Armed Forces Qualification Test AR Active Reserve ASAVB Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery BIC billet identification code...doorsteps of a recruiter’s office. The interested individual works with a recruiter and is verbally screened for any medical, moral, physical, educational...Station (MEPS) for a more thorough medical, physical, and educational screening (to include taking the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery [ASVAB

  16. The United States Marine Corps Reserve: Reorganization for an Integrated Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-28

    be unfairness in treatment based on their status.35 Impartiality in the treatment of individuals does influence behavior and overall command climate...theater. Conclusion: The nation has evolved toward using the Reserve Component with much greater frequency than ever before, but with no major reform...during many of the nation’s contingencies. This component draws upon the skills of the men and women who serve in a multitude of capacities in their

  17. Modeling the impacts of two age-related portfolio effects on recruitment variability with and without a marine reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilliard, Carey R; Punt, André E; Hilborn, Ray; Essington, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Many rockfish species are long-lived and thought to be susceptible to being overfished. Hypotheses about the importance of older female rockfish to population persistence have led to arguments that marine reserves are needed to ensure the sustainability of rockfish populations. However, the implications of these hypotheses for rockfish population dynamics are still unclear. We modeled two mechanisms by which reducing the proportion of older fish in a population has been hypothesized to influence sustainability, and explored whether these mechanisms influenced mean population dynamics and recruitment variability. We explored whether populations with these mechanisms could be managed more sustainably with a marine reserve in addition to a constant fishing mortality rate (F) than with a constant F alone. Both hypotheses can be seen as portfolio effects whereby risk of recruitment failure is spread over a "portfolio" of maternal ages. First, we modeled a spawning window effect whereby mothers of different ages spawned in different times or locations (windows) with local environmental conditions. Second, we modeled an offspring size effect whereby older mothers produced larger offspring than younger mothers, where length of a starvation period over which offspring could survive increased with maternal age. Recruitment variability resulting from both models was 55-65% lower than for models without maternal age-related portfolio effects in the absence of fishing and increased with increases in Fs for both models. An offspring size effect caused lower output reproductive rates such that the specified reproductive rate input as a model parameter was no longer the realized rate measured as the reproductive rate observed in model results; this quirk is not addressed in previous analyses of offspring size effects. We conducted a standardization such that offspring size effect and control models had the same observed reproductive rates. A comparison of long-term catch, the

  18. Mapping Habitats and Developing Baselines in Offshore Marine Reserves with Little Prior Knowledge: A Critical Evaluation of a New Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Lawrence

    Full Text Available The recently declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR Network covers a total of 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat. Managing and conserving the biodiversity values within this network requires knowledge of the physical and biological assets that lie within its boundaries. Unfortunately very little is known about the habitats and biological assemblages of the continental shelf within the network, where diversity is richest and anthropogenic pressures are greatest. Effective management of the CMR estate into the future requires this knowledge gap to be filled efficiently and quantitatively. The challenge is particularly great for the shelf as multibeam echosounder (MBES mapping, a key tool for identifying and quantifying habitat distribution, is time consuming in shallow depths, so full coverage mapping of the CMR shelf assets is unrealistic in the medium-term. Here we report on the results of a study undertaken in the Flinders Commonwealth Marine Reserve (southeast Australia designed to test the benefits of two approaches to characterising shelf habitats: (i MBES mapping of a continuous (~30 km2 area selected on the basis of its potential to include a range of seabed habitats that are potentially representative of the wider area, versus; (ii a novel approach that uses targeted mapping of a greater number of smaller, but spatially balanced, locations using a Generalized Random Tessellation Stratified sample design. We present the first quantitative estimates of habitat type and sessile biological communities on the shelf of the Flinders reserve, the former based on three MBES analysis techniques. We contrast the quality of information that both survey approaches offer in combination with the three MBES analysis methods. The GRTS approach enables design based estimates of habitat types and sessile communities and also identifies potential biodiversity hotspots in the northwest corner of the reserve's IUCN

  19. Mapping Habitats and Developing Baselines in Offshore Marine Reserves with Little Prior Knowledge: A Critical Evaluation of a New Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Emma; Hayes, Keith R; Lucieer, Vanessa L; Nichol, Scott L; Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Hill, Nicole A; Barrett, Neville; Kool, Johnathan; Siwabessy, Justy

    2015-01-01

    The recently declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) Network covers a total of 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat. Managing and conserving the biodiversity values within this network requires knowledge of the physical and biological assets that lie within its boundaries. Unfortunately very little is known about the habitats and biological assemblages of the continental shelf within the network, where diversity is richest and anthropogenic pressures are greatest. Effective management of the CMR estate into the future requires this knowledge gap to be filled efficiently and quantitatively. The challenge is particularly great for the shelf as multibeam echosounder (MBES) mapping, a key tool for identifying and quantifying habitat distribution, is time consuming in shallow depths, so full coverage mapping of the CMR shelf assets is unrealistic in the medium-term. Here we report on the results of a study undertaken in the Flinders Commonwealth Marine Reserve (southeast Australia) designed to test the benefits of two approaches to characterising shelf habitats: (i) MBES mapping of a continuous (~30 km2) area selected on the basis of its potential to include a range of seabed habitats that are potentially representative of the wider area, versus; (ii) a novel approach that uses targeted mapping of a greater number of smaller, but spatially balanced, locations using a Generalized Random Tessellation Stratified sample design. We present the first quantitative estimates of habitat type and sessile biological communities on the shelf of the Flinders reserve, the former based on three MBES analysis techniques. We contrast the quality of information that both survey approaches offer in combination with the three MBES analysis methods. The GRTS approach enables design based estimates of habitat types and sessile communities and also identifies potential biodiversity hotspots in the northwest corner of the reserve's IUCN zone IV, and in

  20. The Bolivar Channel Ecosystem of the Galapagos Marine Reserve: Energy flow structure and role of keystone groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Diego J.; Wolff, Matthias

    2011-08-01

    The Bolivar Channel Ecosystem (BCE) is among the most productive zones in the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR). It is exposed to relatively cool, nutrient-rich waters of the Cromwell current, which are brought to the photic zone through topographic upwelling. The BCE is characterized by a heterogeneous rocky reef habitat covered by dense algae beds and inhabited by numerous invertebrate and fish species, which represent the food for higher predators including seals and sharks and exploited fish species. In addition, plankton and detritus based food chains channel large amounts of energy through the complex food web. Important emblematic species of the Galapagos archipelagos reside in this area such as the flightless cormorant, the Galapagos penguin and the marine iguanas. A trophic model of BCE was constructed for the habitats < 30 m depth that fringe the west coast of Isabela and east coast of Fernandina islands covering 14% of the total BCE area (44 km 2). The model integrates data sets from sub tidal ecological monitoring and marine vertebrate population monitoring (2004 to 2008) programs of the Charles Darwin Foundation and consists of 30 compartments, which are trophically linked through a diet matrix. Results reveal that the BCE is a large system in terms of flows (38 695 t km - 2 yr - 1 ) comparable to Peruvian Bay Systems of the Humboldt upwelling system. A very large proportion of energy flows from the primary producers (phytoplankton and macro-algae) to the second level and to the detritus pool. Catches are high (54.3 t km - 2 yr - 1 ) and are mainly derived from the second and third trophic levels (mean TL of catch = 2.45) making the fisheries gross efficiency high (0.3%). The system's degree of development seems rather low as indicated by a P/R ratio of 4.19, a low ascendency (37.4%) and a very low Finn's cycling index (1.29%). This is explained by the system's exposure to irregular changes in oceanographic conditions as related to the EL Niño Southern

  1. Population Connectivity Measures of Fishery-Targeted Coral Reef Species to Inform Marine Reserve Network Design in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Erin K; López, Elora H; Drew, Joshua A

    2016-01-25

    Coral reef fish serve as food sources to coastal communities worldwide, yet are vulnerable to mounting anthropogenic pressures like overfishing and climate change. Marine reserve networks have become important tools for mitigating these pressures, and one of the most critical factors in determining their spatial design is the degree of connectivity among different populations of species prioritized for protection. To help inform the spatial design of an expanded reserve network in Fiji, we used rapidly evolving mitochondrial genes to investigate connectivity patterns of three coral reef species targeted by fisheries in Fiji: Epinephelus merra (Serranidae), Halichoeres trimaculatus (Labridae), and Holothuria atra (Holothuriidae). The two fish species, E. merra and Ha. trimaculatus, exhibited low genetic structuring and high amounts of gene flow, whereas the sea cucumber Ho. atra displayed high genetic partitioning and predominantly westward gene flow. The idiosyncratic patterns observed among these species indicate that patterns of connectivity in Fiji are likely determined by a combination of oceanographic and ecological characteristics. Our data indicate that in the cases of species with high connectivity, other factors such as representation or political availability may dictate where reserves are placed. In low connectivity species, ensuring upstream and downstream connections is critical.

  2. Derelict fishing line provides a useful proxy for estimating levels of non-compliance with no-take marine reserves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H Williamson

    Full Text Available No-take marine reserves (NTMRs are increasingly being established to conserve or restore biodiversity and to enhance the sustainability of fisheries. Although effectively designed and protected NTMR networks can yield conservation and fishery benefits, reserve effects often fail to manifest in systems where there are high levels of non-compliance by fishers (poaching. Obtaining reliable estimates of NTMR non-compliance can be expensive and logistically challenging, particularly in areas with limited or non-existent resources for conducting surveillance and enforcement. Here we assess the utility of density estimates and re-accumulation rates of derelict (lost and abandoned fishing line as a proxy for fishing effort and NTMR non-compliance on fringing coral reefs in three island groups of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP, Australia. Densities of derelict fishing line were consistently lower on reefs within old (>20 year NTMRs than on non-NTMR reefs (significantly in the Palm and Whitsunday Islands, whereas line densities did not differ significantly between reefs in new NTMRs (5 years of protection and non-NTMR reefs. A manipulative experiment in which derelict fishing lines were removed from a subset of the monitoring sites demonstrated that lines re-accumulated on NTMR reefs at approximately one third (32.4% of the rate observed on non-NTMR reefs over a thirty-two month period. Although these inshore NTMRs have long been considered some of the best protected within the GBRMP, evidence presented here suggests that the level of non-compliance with NTMR regulations is higher than previously assumed.

  3. Deepwater Habitat and Fish Resources Associated With A Marine Ecological Reserve: Implications For Fisheries Management, 1996 - 2001 (NODC Accession 0000765)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The California Marine Resources Protection Act (MRPA) authorized approximately $1 million for research on marine resource enhancement and management to be conducted...

  4. Species-specific impacts of a small marine reserve on reef fish production and fishing productivity in the Turks and Caicos Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tupper, M.H.; Rudd, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Marine reserves are widely considered to potentially benefit reef fisheries through emigration, yet the empirical basis for predicting the extent of this for small reserves is weak. The effects of fishing pressure and habitat on biomass and catch per unit effort (CPUE) of three species of exploited

  5. Contrasts in the marine ecosystem of two Macaronesian islands: A comparison between the remote Selvagens Reserve and Madeira Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Alan M; Ballesteros, Enric; Clemente, Sabrina; Gonçalves, Emanuel J; Estep, Andrew; Rose, Paul; Sala, Enric

    2017-01-01

    The islands of Madeira and Selvagens are less than 300 km apart but offer a clear contrast between a densely populated and highly developed island (Madeira), and a largely uninhabited and remote archipelago (Selvagens) within Macaronesia in the eastern Atlantic. The Madeira Archipelago has ~260,000 inhabitants and receives over six million visitor days annually. The Selvagens Islands Reserve is one of the oldest nature reserves in Portugal and comprises two islands and several islets, including the surrounding shelf to a depth of 200 m. Only reserve rangers and a small unit of the maritime police inhabit these islands. The benthic community around Selvagens was dominated by erect and turf algae, while the community at Madeira was comprised of crustose coralline and turf algae, sessile invertebrates, and sea urchin barrens. The sea urchin Diadema africanum was 65% more abundant at Madeira than at Selvagens. Total fish biomass was 3.2 times larger at Selvagens than at Madeira, and biomass of top predators was more than 10 times larger at Selvagens. Several commercially important species (e.g., groupers, jacks), which have been overfished throughout the region, were more common and of larger size at Selvagens than at Madeira. Important sea urchin predators (e.g., hogfishes, triggerfishes) were also in higher abundance at Selvagens compared to Madeira. The effects of fishing and other anthropogenic influences are evident around Madeira. This is in stark contrast to Selvagens, which harbors healthy benthic communities with diverse algal assemblages and high fish biomass, including an abundance of large commercially important species. The clear differences between these two island groups highlights the importance of expanding and strengthening the protection around Selvagens, which harbors one of the last intact marine ecosystems in the North Atlantic, and the need to increase management and protection around Madeira.

  6. Contrasts in the marine ecosystem of two Macaronesian islands: A comparison between the remote Selvagens Reserve and Madeira Island.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M Friedlander

    Full Text Available The islands of Madeira and Selvagens are less than 300 km apart but offer a clear contrast between a densely populated and highly developed island (Madeira, and a largely uninhabited and remote archipelago (Selvagens within Macaronesia in the eastern Atlantic. The Madeira Archipelago has ~260,000 inhabitants and receives over six million visitor days annually. The Selvagens Islands Reserve is one of the oldest nature reserves in Portugal and comprises two islands and several islets, including the surrounding shelf to a depth of 200 m. Only reserve rangers and a small unit of the maritime police inhabit these islands. The benthic community around Selvagens was dominated by erect and turf algae, while the community at Madeira was comprised of crustose coralline and turf algae, sessile invertebrates, and sea urchin barrens. The sea urchin Diadema africanum was 65% more abundant at Madeira than at Selvagens. Total fish biomass was 3.2 times larger at Selvagens than at Madeira, and biomass of top predators was more than 10 times larger at Selvagens. Several commercially important species (e.g., groupers, jacks, which have been overfished throughout the region, were more common and of larger size at Selvagens than at Madeira. Important sea urchin predators (e.g., hogfishes, triggerfishes were also in higher abundance at Selvagens compared to Madeira. The effects of fishing and other anthropogenic influences are evident around Madeira. This is in stark contrast to Selvagens, which harbors healthy benthic communities with diverse algal assemblages and high fish biomass, including an abundance of large commercially important species. The clear differences between these two island groups highlights the importance of expanding and strengthening the protection around Selvagens, which harbors one of the last intact marine ecosystems in the North Atlantic, and the need to increase management and protection around Madeira.

  7. Biodiversity of shallow subtidal, under-rock invertebrates in Europe's first marine reserve: Effects of physical factors and scientific sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Cynthia D.; Kachmarik, Katy; Plowman, Caitlin Q.; Little, Colin; Stirling, Penny; McAllen, Rob

    2017-03-01

    At Lough Hyne Marine Reserve in SW Ireland, shallow subtidal, under-rock biodiversity was investigated to assess (i) any deleterious effects of scientific sampling and (ii) quantitative baseline community patterns. Comparisons were made between 10 sites with annual rock-turning disturbance and 10 with multi-decadal (historical) disturbance. At each site, shallow subtidal rocks (N = 1289 total) were lifted, organisms recorded, and rocks replaced in their original position. Biodiversity indices were calculated to evaluate how diversity varied with location within the lough, frequency of sampling disturbance, degree of hypoxia/anoxia, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, and number of rocks turned. The richness of solitary invertebrates surveyed in situ averaged 21 taxa per site with significantly more in the South Basin (near the lough's connection to the ocean) than in the North Basin. The Shannon-Wiener Index did not differ significantly with variables investigated. However, evenness was higher at annually disturbed sites than at historical ones where anemones with algal symbionts often dominated. Several sites were hypoxic to anoxic under the shallow subtidal rocks. Cup corals were most abundant in the South Basin; DO was a crucial explanatory variable of these sensitive species. Solitary ascidians were most abundant at South-Basin annual sites with DO levels being a highly significant explanatory variable.

  8. Reproductive cycle of Mytella guyanensis (Lamarck, 1819 in a Marine Reserve (RESEX Bay of Iguape, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. A. Camilo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mytella guyanensis, consumed and commercialized in coastal regions of Brazil, is one of several bivalve species of socioeconomic interest for coastal communities. Besides serving as a source of income and subsistence for these communities, it also contributes to their food security as it is a source of proteins and micronutrients. Thus, the reproductive cycle of this species was studied aiming to contribute to food security and its preservation. Samples were collected monthly, between March 2014 and March 2015, in a natural stock (12°38'50”S; 38°51'43”W in a Marine Reserve (RESEX Bay of Iguape (community Engenho da Ponte, Bahia, Brazil. Mytella guyanensis is collected by women on site, where the artisanal fishing of this resource is performed without following any specific handling procedure. Also, empirical evidence indicates overexploitation. The specimens collected were measured along the anterior-posterior axis (length, and after macroscopic analysis they were fixed in Davidson solution, processed by routine histology techniques and stained with Harris haematoxylin and eosin (H&E. The macroscopic analysis showed sexual dimorphism, with the male and female gonads presenting a milky-white and orange colour, respectively. A 1:1 sex ratio (M: F was observed and reproduction of the species was continuous all year round. March, April, July and August were the months with highest values of gamete elimination. We suggest that a M. guyanensis management plan should restrict capture during these months, in order to sustainably regulate exploitation of this food resource in this reserve.

  9. J.M.G. Le Clézio and Baruch Spinoza: Understanding and Accepting the ‘God’ of Material Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Moser

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza and the contemporary Franco-Mauritian author J.M.G. Le Clézio place great emphasis on the materiality of the human condition. For both of these extremely divergent thinkers, the path to existential redemption and spiritual edification is inseparable from the biotic network of life to which we are inextricably linked. Given that nothing exists in a cosmic vacuum in complete isolation from other material organisms, Spinoza and Le Clézio urge the modern subject to deconstruct seductive, anthropocentric ideology and to embrace reality. Indeed, understanding and accepting our own corporality in addition to exploring the complex relationship between ourselves and the cosmic forces that sustain us is perhaps the only true path to self-actualization that allows us to project meaning upon the absurdity of the universe.

  10. Using marine reserves to manage impact of bottom trawl fisheries requires consideration of benthic food-web interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Denderen, Pieter Daniël; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; van Kooten, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are widely used to protect exploited fish species as well as to conserve marine habitats and their biodiversity. They have become a popular management tool also for bottom trawl fisheries, a common fishing technique on continental shelves worldwide. The effects of bo...

  11. Reef-fish larval dispersal patterns validate no-take marine reserve network connectivity that links human communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abesamis, Rene A.; Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Berumen, Michael L.; Bode, Michael; Jadloc, Claro Renato L.; Solera, Leilani A.; Villanoy, Cesar L.; Bernardo, Lawrence Patrick C.; Alcala, Angel C.; Russ, Garry R.

    2017-09-01

    Networks of no-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are a widely advocated strategy for managing coral reefs. However, uncertainty about the strength of population connectivity between individual reefs and NTMRs through larval dispersal remains a major obstacle to effective network design. In this study, larval dispersal among NTMRs and fishing grounds in the Philippines was inferred by conducting genetic parentage analysis on a coral-reef fish ( Chaetodon vagabundus). Adult and juvenile fish were sampled intensively in an area encompassing approximately 90 km of coastline. Thirty-seven true parent-offspring pairs were accepted after screening 1978 juveniles against 1387 adults. The data showed all types of dispersal connections that may occur in NTMR networks, with assignments suggesting connectivity among NTMRs and fishing grounds ( n = 35) far outnumbering those indicating self-recruitment ( n = 2). Critically, half (51%) of the inferred occurrences of larval dispersal linked reefs managed by separate, independent municipalities and constituent villages, emphasising the need for nested collaborative management arrangements across management units to sustain NTMR networks. Larval dispersal appeared to be influenced by wind-driven seasonal reversals in the direction of surface currents. The best-fit larval dispersal kernel estimated from the parentage data predicted that 50% of larvae originating from a population would attempt to settle within 33 km, and 95% within 83 km. Mean larval dispersal distance was estimated to be 36.5 km. These results suggest that creating a network of closely spaced (less than a few tens of km apart) NTMRs can enhance recruitment for protected and fished populations throughout the NTMR network. The findings underscore major challenges for regional coral-reef management initiatives that must be addressed with priority: (1) strengthening management of NTMR networks across political or customary boundaries; and (2) achieving adequate population

  12. Reef-fish larval dispersal patterns validate no-take marine reserve network connectivity that links human communities

    KAUST Repository

    Abesamis, Rene A.

    2017-03-24

    Networks of no-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are a widely advocated strategy for managing coral reefs. However, uncertainty about the strength of population connectivity between individual reefs and NTMRs through larval dispersal remains a major obstacle to effective network design. In this study, larval dispersal among NTMRs and fishing grounds in the Philippines was inferred by conducting genetic parentage analysis on a coral-reef fish (Chaetodon vagabundus). Adult and juvenile fish were sampled intensively in an area encompassing approximately 90 km of coastline. Thirty-seven true parent-offspring pairs were accepted after screening 1978 juveniles against 1387 adults. The data showed all types of dispersal connections that may occur in NTMR networks, with assignments suggesting connectivity among NTMRs and fishing grounds (n = 35) far outnumbering those indicating self-recruitment (n = 2). Critically, half (51%) of the inferred occurrences of larval dispersal linked reefs managed by separate, independent municipalities and constituent villages, emphasising the need for nested collaborative management arrangements across management units to sustain NTMR networks. Larval dispersal appeared to be influenced by wind-driven seasonal reversals in the direction of surface currents. The best-fit larval dispersal kernel estimated from the parentage data predicted that 50% of larvae originating from a population would attempt to settle within 33 km, and 95% within 83 km. Mean larval dispersal distance was estimated to be 36.5 km. These results suggest that creating a network of closely spaced (less than a few tens of km apart) NTMRs can enhance recruitment for protected and fished populations throughout the NTMR network. The findings underscore major challenges for regional coral-reef management initiatives that must be addressed with priority: (1) strengthening management of NTMR networks across political or customary boundaries; and (2) achieving adequate population

  13. Marine Corps Reserve Officer Manpower Modifications During the Long War: A Case to Achieve Parity with the Active Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Marine Corps University, Quantico, VA, 2007. Kiszely, Lt-Gen Sir John, "Learning about Counterinsurgency" Military Review Mar-Apr 2007, 10-11. Miles ...Matthew B., A. Michael Huberman . Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook. 2nd ed. SAGE Publications, Inc, Thousands Oaks, CA, 1994. 31

  14. Quantifying the effects of European beach grass on aeolian sand transport over the last century: Bodega Marine Reserve, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesmat, R.; Werner, S.; Smith, M. E.; Riedel, T.; Best, R.; Olyarnik, S.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction of European beach grass (Ammophila arenaria) to coastal dune systems of western North America induced significant changes to the transport and storage of sediment, and consequently the nesting habitat of the western snowy plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus). At the Bodega Marine Reserve and Sonoma Coast State Park, Ammophila was introduced within the ~0.5 km2 dune area in the 1920's to limit the flux of sand through Bodega Harbor and agricultural land. To assess the potential impact of restoration efforts (Ammophila removal) on aeolian sediment flux, we measured sediment flux as a function of wind speeds and ground cover, and used these measurements to parameterize a spatial model for historical sand deposition Fine- to coarse-grained lithic to sub-lithic sand is delivered to the Bodega dune system from Salmon Creek beach, the down-shore terminus of a littoral system fed by the 3846 km2 Russian River catchment, several small (Gaffney ridge) at the edge of the planted region. An average accumulation rate of ~4,000 m3/yr is indicated within the study swath by the preserved sediment volumes. Within the modern dune system, unvegetated areas exhibit 2-3 meter wavelength, ~1/2 meter amplitude mega-ripples, and the uppermost 2-10 cm consists of coarse-sand to granule-sized armor layer. In contrast, grain-sizes in vegetated areas are largely vertically homogenous. Open areas are typically 2-8 meters lower than adjacent vegetated areas, and show evidence for net lowering of the land surface (i.e., exposed fence posts, roots). Conversely, vegetated areas appear prone to sediment accumulation, particularly downwind of unvegetated areas. We measured sand transport using 0.5 m high traps deployed at 18 sites throughout the dune field, and used a linear mixed effects model to predict transport rate as a function of wind and ground cover class, taking into account random effects of sampling date and repeated measurements at each site. The analysis indicates up

  15. Prática educativa bem-sucedida na escola: reflexões com base em L. S. Vigotski e Baruch de Espinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIANA DE SOUSA ALENCAR MARQUES

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El texto reúne parte de los resultados de las investigaciones llevadas a cabo con el fin de investigar las mediaciones constitutivas de los profesores y estudiantes que desarrollan con éxito las prácticas educativas. El signifi - cado de la práctica educativa exitosa en la que nos basamos está anclado en las ideas de L. S. Vygotsky y Baruch Spinoza. Con base en los teóricos, entendemos prácticas educativas exitosas las que generan aprendizaje y desarrollo y permiten la expansión de afectos alegres que mejoran mentes y cuerpos humanos. La investigación tuvo lugar entre los años 2011 y 2014. Esto artículo presenta parte de los resultados alcanzados con los alumnos. Los resultados mostraron que, cuando alegres, las experiencias educativas convergen a la mayor potencia de ser un estudiante. El aumento de potencia reorienta la producción de nuevos sentidos que alteran significativamente la relación de estos con los estudios, con la escuela y con la vida.

  16. Oceans of Discourses:Utilizing Q methodology or analyzing perceptions on marine biodiversity conservation in the Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve,South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Hagan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to empirically investigate perceptions regarding marine biodiversity conservation among different stakeholders of the Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve, South Africa. The study’s data was collected by following Q methodology in combination with semi-structured interviews and participant observation. Q methodology combines elements from quantitative and qualitative research traditions, providing researchers with a systematic and rigorous means to study human subjectivities. Primary data were gathered from stakeholders who either live, work, or have performed research in the Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve. A combination of interpretative discourse analysis and Q factor analysis was employed to identify perceptions. The results reveal that there are two operating discourses with clear stakeholder divisions. The science discourse is characterized by its scientific management-based ecological approach. On the other hand, the livelihoods discourse is primarily concerned about the social implications brought about by Kogelberg as a biosphere reserve. The paper goes on to argue that the meaning people attach to the concept of ‘marine biodiversity conservation’ is relational as it is based on their lived experience. It further highlights the importance of performing context-specific social research of protected areas, as it is difficult for conservation projects to meet both ecological and social needs without understanding the viewpoints of engaged stakeholders and local communities.

  17. Marine Corps Reserve Officer Manpower Modifications During the Long War: A Case to Achieve Parity with the Active Component

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schaffer, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    .... To be more effective as commanders and leaders, reserve officers need to achieve parity with active duty officers in rank and command selection through education, leadership experiences, and training opportunities...

  18. Quality assessment of pollution indicators in marine water at critical locations of the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, Tuticorin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Viji; Nirmaladevi D, Shrinithivihahshini; Srinivasan, Balakrishnan; Rengaraj, Chithradevi; Mariyaselvam, Sheelamary

    2018-01-01

    The present study focused on the shoreline environment of urban and industrial areas, and the aim of this study was to assess the coastal water quality in the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve. Water samples were collected from five different coastal sites during the premonsoon and monsoon seasons. The samples were analyzed following the standard methods. The results showed that the levels of microbiological indicators in the samples highly exceeded the regional and national standard seawater permissible limits, and environmental parameters such as the total suspended solid and dissolved oxygen were affected significantly (p<0.05). To identify frequent pollution indicators, their levels should be estimated to determine possible pollution in coastal ecosystems due to human interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta, a new species of marine red algae from the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Gavio

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Colombian Caribbean, the marine macroalgal flora of the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve has been little studied, despite its ecological importance. Historical records have reported only 201 macroalgae species within its area of almost 350 000km². However, recent surveys have shown a diversity of small algae previously overlooked. With the aim to determine the macroalgal diversity in the Reserve, we undertook field surveys in different ecosystems: coral reefs, seagrass beds, and rocky and sandy substrates, at different depths, from intertidal to 37m. During these field surveys, we collected a small described species belonging to the genus Crouania (Callithamniaceae, Rhodophyta, Crouania pumila sp. nov. that is decribed in this paper. This new species was distinguished from other species of the genus by a distinctive suite of traits including its diminutive size (to only 3.5mm in length, its decumbent, slightly calcified habit (epiphytic on other algae, its ramisympodial branching, the ecorticate main axes, and the elongate shape of the terminal cells of the cortical filaments. The observations were provided for both female (cystocarpic and tetrasporangiate thalli; however, male thalli were not seen. Further studies have to be undertaken in this Reserve in order to carry out other macroalgal analysis and descriptions.

  20. Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), a new species of marine red algae from the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavio, Brigitte; Reyes-Gómez, Viviana P; Wynne, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    In the Colombian Caribbean, the marine macroalgal flora of the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve has been little studied, despite its ecological importance. Historical records have reported only 201 macroalgae species within its area of almost 350,000 km2. However, recent surveys have shown a diversity of small algae previously overlooked. With the aim to determine the macroalgal diversity in the Reserve, we undertook field surveys in different ecosystems: coral reefs, seagrass beds, and rocky and sandy substrates, at different depths, from intertidal to 37 m. During these field surveys, we collected a small described species belonging to the genus Crouania (Callithamniaceae, Rhodophyta), Crouania pumila sp. nov. that is decribed in this paper. This new species was distinguished from other species of the genus by a distinctive suite of traits including its diminutive size (to only 3.5 mm in length), its decumbent, slightly calcified habit (epiphytic on other algae), its ramisympodial branching, the ecorticate main axes, and the elongate shape of the terminal cells of the cortical filaments. The observations were provided for both female (cystocarpic) and tetrasporangiate thalli; however, male thalli were not seen. Further studies have to be undertaken in this Reserve in order to carry out other macroalgal analysis and descriptions.

  1. The Impacts of Human Visitation on Mussel Bed Communities Along the California Coast: Are Regulatory Marine Reserves Effective in Protecting These Communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jayson R.; Fong, Peggy; Ambrose, Richard F.

    2008-04-01

    Rocky intertidal habitats frequently are used by humans for recreational, educational, and subsistence-harvesting purposes, with intertidal populations damaged by visitation activities such as extraction, trampling, and handling. California Marine Managed Areas, particularly regulatory marine reserves (MRs), were established to provide legal protection and enhancement of coastal resources and include prohibitions on harvesting intertidal populations. However, the effectiveness of MRs is unclear as enforcement of no-take laws is weak and no regulations protect intertidal species from other detrimental visitor impacts such as trampling. The goal of this study was two-fold: (1) to determine impacts from human visitation on California mussel populations ( Mytilus californianus) and mussel bed community diversity; and (2) to investigate the effectiveness of regulatory MRs in reducing visitor impacts on these populations. Surveys of mussel populations and bed-associated diversity were compared: (1) at sites subjected to either high or low levels of human use, and (2) at sites either unprotected or with regulatory protection banning collecting. At sites subjected to higher levels of human visitation, mussel populations were significantly lower than low-use sites. Comparisons of mussel populations inside and outside of regulatory MRs revealed no consistent pattern suggesting that California no-take regulatory reserves may have limited effectiveness in protecting mussel communities. In areas where many people visit intertidal habitats for purposes other than collecting, many organisms will be affected by trampling, turning of rocks, and handling. In these cases, effective protection of rocky intertidal communities requires an approach that goes beyond the singular focus on collecting to reduce the full suite of impacts.

  2. The role of marine reserves in the replenishment of a locally-impacted population of anemonefish on the Great Barrier Reef

    KAUST Repository

    Bonin, Mary C.; Harrison, Hugo B.; Williamson, David H.; Frisch, Ashley J.; Saenz Agudelo, Pablo; Berumen, Michael L.; Jones, Geoffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    The development of parentage analysis to track the dispersal of juvenile offspring has given us unprecedented insight into the population dynamics of coral reef fishes. These tools now have the potential to inform fisheries management and species conservation, particularly for small fragmented populations under threat from exploitation and disturbance. In this study we resolve patterns of larval dispersal for a population of the anemonefish Amphiprion melanopus in the Keppel Islands (southern Great Barrier Reef). Habitat loss and fishing appear to have impacted this population and a network of no-take marine reserves currently protects 75% of the potential breeders. Using parentage analysis, we estimate that 21% of recruitment in the island group was generated locally, and that breeding adults living in reserves were responsible for 79% (31 out of 39) of these of locally-produced juveniles. Overall, the network of reserves was fully connected via larval dispersal; however one reserve was identified as a critical source of larvae for the island group. The population in the Keppel Islands also appears to be well-connected to other source populations at least 60 km away, given that 79% (145 out of 184) of the juveniles sampled remained unassigned in the parentage analysis. We estimated the effective size of the A. melanopus metapopulation to be 745 (582-993 95% CI) and recommend continued monitoring of its genetic status. Maintaining connectivity with populations beyond the Keppel Islands and recovery of local recruitment habitat, potentially through active restoration of host anemone populations, will be important for its long-term persistence.

  3. The role of marine reserves in the replenishment of a locally-impacted population of anemonefish on the Great Barrier Reef

    KAUST Repository

    Bonin, Mary C.

    2015-11-21

    The development of parentage analysis to track the dispersal of juvenile offspring has given us unprecedented insight into the population dynamics of coral reef fishes. These tools now have the potential to inform fisheries management and species conservation, particularly for small fragmented populations under threat from exploitation and disturbance. In this study we resolve patterns of larval dispersal for a population of the anemonefish Amphiprion melanopus in the Keppel Islands (southern Great Barrier Reef). Habitat loss and fishing appear to have impacted this population and a network of no-take marine reserves currently protects 75% of the potential breeders. Using parentage analysis, we estimate that 21% of recruitment in the island group was generated locally, and that breeding adults living in reserves were responsible for 79% (31 out of 39) of these of locally-produced juveniles. Overall, the network of reserves was fully connected via larval dispersal; however one reserve was identified as a critical source of larvae for the island group. The population in the Keppel Islands also appears to be well-connected to other source populations at least 60 km away, given that 79% (145 out of 184) of the juveniles sampled remained unassigned in the parentage analysis. We estimated the effective size of the A. melanopus metapopulation to be 745 (582-993 95% CI) and recommend continued monitoring of its genetic status. Maintaining connectivity with populations beyond the Keppel Islands and recovery of local recruitment habitat, potentially through active restoration of host anemone populations, will be important for its long-term persistence.

  4. Spatiotemporal variations in metal accumulation, RNA/DNA ratio and energy reserve in Perna viridis transplanted along a marine pollution gradient in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Jamius W Y; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2017-11-30

    We examined spatiotemporal variations of metal levels and three growth related biomarkers, i.e., RNA/DNA ratio (RD), total energy reserve (Et) and condition index (CI), in green-lipped mussels Perna viridis transplanted into five locations along a pollution gradient in the marine environment of Hong Kong over 120days of deployment. There were significant differences in metal levels and biomarker responses among the five sites and six time points. Mussels in two clean sites displayed better CI and significantly lower levels of Ag, Cu, Pb and Zn in their tissues than the other sites. Temporal patterns of RD in P. viridis were found to be site-specific. Across all sites, Et decreased in P. viridis over the deployment period, though the rate of decrease varied significantly among the sites. Therefore, temporal variation of biomarkers should be taken to consideration in mussel-watch programs because such information can help discriminate pollution-induced change from natural variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neuroprotective effect of seaweeds inhabiting South Indian coastal area (Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve): Cholinesterase inhibitory effect of Hypnea valentiae and Ulva reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganthy, N; Karutha Pandian, S; Pandima Devi, K

    2010-01-14

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, which is one of the four leading causes of death in developed nations. Until date the only symptomatic treatment for this disease is based on the "cholinergic hypothesis" where the drugs enhance acetylcholine levels in the brain by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In the course for screening cholinesterase inhibitors about eight seaweeds, with wide pharmaceutical applications, were collected from Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar, Marine Biosphere Reserve, Tamil Nadu, India. Inhibitory effect of methanol extract of the seaweeds was studied in vitro by incubating various concentration of the extract with AChE or butyryl cholinesterase (BuChE) and assessing their activities by Ellman's colorimetric method. Kinetic parameters like IC(50), K(i) and V(max) were also analyzed. The results showed that of the eight seaweeds screened Hypnea valentiae, Padina gymnospora, Ulva reticulata and Gracilaria edulis exhibited inhibitory activity to AChE with IC(50) value of 2.6, 3.5, 10 and 3mg/ml respectively, while H. valentiae, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Dictyota dichotoma and U. reticulata showed 50% inhibition to BuChE at concentration 3.9, 7, 6.5 and 10mg/ml respectively. The inhibitory activities of the seaweed extracts were comparable to the standard drug donepezil. Enzyme kinetic analysis showed that algal extracts exhibited mixed type inhibition (partial noncompetitive inhibition). Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hawaii Institute for Marine Biology and NOAA National Ocean Service, Marine Sanctuary Program Partnership, in affiliation with the Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program, 2007 Survey of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve: Digital Still Images (NODC Accession 0052882)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rapid Assessment Transects were conducted in 2007 in the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument of the Northwest Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve....

  7. Hawaii Institute for Marine Biology and NOAA National Ocean Service, Marine Sanctuary Program Partnership, in affiliation with the Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program, 2007 Survey of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve: Benthic Data from Digital Still Images (NODC Accession 0000881)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rapid Assessment Transects were conducted in 2007 in the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument of the Northwest Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve....

  8. A framework of lessons learned from community-based marine reserves and its effectiveness in guiding a new coastal management initiative in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beger, Maria; Harborne, Alastair R; Dacles, Terence P; Solandt, Jean-Luc; Ledesma, Gerardo L

    2004-12-01

    Community-based coastal resource management has been widely applied within the Philippines. However, small-scale community-based reserves are often inefficient owing to management inadequacies arising because of a lack of local support or enforcement or poor design. Because there are many potential pitfalls during the establishment of even small community-based reserves, it is important for coastal managers, communities, and facilitating institutions to have access to a summary of the key factors for success. Reviewing relevant literature, we present a framework of "lessons learned" during the establishment of protected areas, mainly in the Philippines. The framework contains summary guidance on the importance of (1) an island location, (2) small community population size, (3) minimal effect of land-based development, (4) application of a bottom-up approach, (5) an external facilitating institution, (6) acquisition of title, (7) use of a scientific information database, (8) stakeholder involvement, (9) the establishment of legislation, (10) community empowerment, (11) alternative livelihood schemes, (12) surveillance, (13) tangible management results, (14) continued involvement of external groups after reserve establishment, and (15) small-scale project expansion.These framework components guided the establishment of a community-based protected area at Danjugan Island, Negros Occidental, Philippines. This case study showed that the framework was a useful guide that led to establishing and implementing a community-based marine reserve. Evaluation of the reserve using standard criteria developed for the Philippines shows that the Danjugan Island protected area can be considered successful and sustainable. At Danjugan Island, all of the lessons synthesized in the framework were important and should be considered elsewhere, even for relatively small projects. As shown in previous projects in the Philippines, local involvement and stewardship of the protected area

  9. ELIXIR pilot action: Marine metagenomics – towards a domain specific set of sustainable services [version 1; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen Mikal Robertsen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metagenomics, the study of genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples, has the potential to provide insight into the structure and function of heterogeneous microbial communities.  There has been an increased use of metagenomics to discover and understand the diverse biosynthetic capacities of marine microbes, thereby allowing them to be exploited for industrial, food, and health care products. This ELIXIR pilot action was motivated by the need to establish dedicated data resources and harmonized metagenomics pipelines for the marine domain, in order to enhance the exploration and exploitation of marine genetic resources. In this paper, we summarize some of the results from the ELIXIR pilot action “Marine metagenomics – towards user centric services”.

  10. Etnobotânica na Reserva Extrativista Marinha de Arraial do Cabo, RJ, Brasil Ethnobotany of Arraial do Cabo Marine Extractive Reserve, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Stern da Fonseca-Kruel

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A Reserva Extrativista Marinha de Arraial do Cabo (RESEX localiza-se no município de Arraial do Cabo, região de Cabo Frio. É uma unidade de conservação de interesse ecológico-social e visa proteger o sustento dos pescadores artesanais, a flora e a fauna locais. O clima da região é tropical seco e a vegetação é de restinga. Este estudo objetivou inventariar as espécies vegetais usadas na faixa terrestre da RESEX, associando este conhecimento às tradições locais. As informações etnobotânicas foram obtidas através de observação participante e entrevistas estruturadas com pescadores artesanais. Das 444 citações de uso, catalogou-se 68 espécies, 61 gêneros e 42 famílias. As categorias de uso foram: alimentar (45,6%, medicinal (39,7%, tecnológica (29,4%, lenha (10,2%, construção (8,8% e ornamental (2,9%. Utilizou-se o Índice de Shannon para análise da diversidade de espécies resultando: 1,78 (base 10 e 4,10 (base e, denotando que os pescadores possuem bom conhecimento da biodiversidade local, quando comparado a outros estudos da costa brasileira. Os dados obtidos nesta pesquisa possibilitarão a formulação de estratégias de uso sustentável dos recursos naturais, considerando a percepção ambiental da população, baseado nos sistemas cognitivos desenvolvidos ao longo do convívio do homem com a natureza.The Arraial do Cabo Marine Extractive Reserve (RESEX, is located on Arraial do Cabo Municipality, Cabo Frio region. It is a conservation unit with social and ecological interest, that intends to protect the livelihood of traditional fishermen, local flora and fauna. The climate is tropical dry and the vegetation classified as sandy-coastal-plain vegetation. This study goal was to survey useful species on the land part of RESEX, and associate this knowledge to local traditions. The ethnobotanical data was obtained by observer participation and structured interviews with traditional fishermen. From the 444 use

  11. Do no-take reserves benefit Florida's corals? 14 years of change and stasis in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, L. T.; van Woesik, R.; Murdoch, T. J. T.; Smith, S. R.; Ogden, J. C.; Precht, W. F.; Aronson, R. B.

    2014-09-01

    With coral populations in decline globally, it is critical that we tease apart the relative impacts of ecological and physical perturbations on reef ecosystems to determine the most appropriate management actions. This study compared the trajectories of benthic assemblages from 1998 to 2011 in three no-take reserves and three sites open to fishing, at 7-9 and 15-18 m depth in the Florida Keys. We evaluated temporal changes in the benthic assemblage to infer whether fisheries bans in no-take reserves could have cascading effects on the benthos in this region. Coral cover declined significantly over time at our sites and that trend was driven almost exclusively by decline of the Orbicella (formerly Montastraea) annularis species complex. Other coral taxa showed remarkable stasis and resistance to a variety of environmental perturbations. Protection status did not influence coral or macroalgal cover. The dynamics of corals and macroalgae in the 15 years since the reserves were established in 1997 suggest that although the reserves protected fish, they were of no perceptible benefit to Florida's corals.

  12. Notes on the marine algae of the International Biosphere Reserve Seaflower, Caribbean Colombia VI: New records of Phaeophyceae from Old Providence and Santa Catalina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Patricia Reyes-Gómez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Two species of brown algae (Phaeophyceae, Bachelotia antilarum (Grunow Gerloff and Dictyota humifusa Hörnig, Schnetter & Coppejans, are reported for the first time for the Archipelago of San Andrés, Old Providence and Sainte Cataline, part of the International Biosphere Reserve Seaflower.

  13. 50 CFR 216.42 - Photography. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Photography. [Reserved] 216.42 Section 216.42 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.42...

  14. Parámetros reproductivos y poblacionales de Thais chocolata (Duelos, 1832 (Gastropoda, Thaididae, en la reserva marina La Rinconada, Antofagasta, Chile Reproductive and population parameters of Thais chocolata (Duclos, 1832 (Gastropoda, Thaididae in La Rinconada marine reserve, Antofagasta, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cantillánez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Para obtener antecedentes reproductivos y poblacionales de Thais chocolata que contribuyan a validar su actual normativa pesquera, se realizó un estudio en el área protegida de la reserva marina La Rinconada, Antofagasta, Chile, entre diciembre 2008 y enero 2010. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron a nivel reproductivo, que el desarrollo gonadal de la población es asincrónico, encontrándose ejemplares en diferentes etapas de maduración durante el año. Los individuos maduros se estratificaron entre 5 y 13 m de profundidad, y gran parte del año formaron agregaciones a 5 m de profundidad. Se determinaron períodos de mayor madurez en julio-agosto, y en noviembre-enero, manifestándose las agregaciones más importantes al final de ellos. Una relación se observó entre meses de mayor madurez y registro de agregaciones, con aquellos de mayor variación intradiaria de temperatura. A nivel poblacional los resultados permitieron estimar una población de 2,3*10(6 ejemplares, donde el 39% se encontró sobre la talla mínima legal (TML = 55 mm. Los parámetros de crecimiento mostraron crecimiento relativamente lento, que podría estar influenciado por la alta variabilidad que presenta la temperatura de fondo en este sector. Mientras que su talla crítica, y la talla de primera madurez sexual poblacional, resultaron ser mayores a la TML. Se determinó la necesidad de revisar la normativa pesquera actual de esta especie, y se demostró la efectividad de las reservas marinas propiciadas por el Estado en la conservación de los recursos marinos.Reproductive and population parameters of Thais chocolata that would contribute to the validation of the current extraction standards were obtained by performing a study in the protected area of La Rinconada Marine Reserve, Antofagasta, Chile, from December 2008 to January 2010. In terms of reproduction, the results revealed asynchronic gonad development in the population, with specimens in different stages of

  15. 40 CFR 80.562-80.569 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Other Hardship Provisions §§ 80.562-80.569 [Reserved] Labeling...

  16. 40 CFR 80.537-80.539 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Temporary Compliance Option §§ 80.537-80.539 [Reserved] Geographic Phase...

  17. 40 CFR 80.575-80.579 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Labeling Requirements §§ 80.575-80.579 [Reserved] Sampling and Testing ...

  18. 40 CFR 80.556-80.559 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Small Refiner Hardship Provisions §§ 80.556-80.559 [Reserved] Other...

  19. 40 CFR 80.541-80.549 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Geographic Phase-in Provisions §§ 80.541-80.549 [Reserved] Small Refiner...

  20. 40 CFR 80.514-80.519 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General Information §§ 80.514-80.519 [Reserved] Motor Vehicle Diesel...

  1. 40 CFR 80.587-80.589 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Sampling and Testing §§ 80.587-80.589 [Reserved] Recordkeeping and...

  2. 40 CFR 80.503-80.509 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General Information §§ 80.503-80.509 [Reserved] ...

  3. Emerging biopharmaceuticals from marine actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Syed Shams Ul; Anjum, Komal; Abbas, Syed Qamar; Akhter, Najeeb; Shagufta, Bibi Ibtesam; Shah, Sayed Asmat Ali; Tasneem, Umber

    2017-01-01

    Actinobacteria are quotidian microorganisms in the marine world, playing a crucial ecological role in the recycling of refractory biomaterials and producing novel secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical applications. Actinobacteria have been isolated from the huge area of marine organisms including sponges, tunicates, corals, mollusks, crabs, mangroves and seaweeds. Natural products investigation of the marine actinobacteria revealed that they can synthesize numerous natural products including alkaloids, polyketides, peptides, isoprenoids, phenazines, sterols, and others. These natural products have a potential to provide future drugs against crucial diseases like cancer, HIV, microbial and protozoal infections and severe inflammations. Therefore, marine actinobacteria portray as a pivotal resource for marine drugs. It is an upcoming field of research to probe a novel and pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites from marine actinobacteria. In this review, we attempt to summarize the present knowledge on the diversity, chemistry and mechanism of action of marine actinobacteria-derived secondary metabolites from 2007 to 2016. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Marine ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on marine ecology included marine pollution; distribution patterns of Pu and Am in the marine waters, sediments, and organisms of Bikini Atoll and the influence of physical, chemical, and biological factors on their movements through marine biogeochemical systems; transfer and dispersion of organic pollutants from an oil refinery through coastal waters; transfer of particulate pollutants, including sediments dispersed during construction of offshore power plants; and raft culture of the mangrove oysters

  5. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albaiges, J.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants

  6. Marine genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Ribeiro, Ângela Maria; Foote, Andrew David; Kupczok, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag......-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from...

  7. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  8. Biomedical Applications of Enzymes From Marine Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamala, K; Sivaperumal, P

    Marine microbial enzyme technologies have progressed significantly in the last few decades for different applications. Among the various microorganisms, marine actinobacterial enzymes have significant active properties, which could allow them to be biocatalysts with tremendous bioactive metabolites. Moreover, marine actinobacteria have been considered as biofactories, since their enzymes fulfill biomedical and industrial needs. In this chapter, the marine actinobacteria and their enzymes' uses in biological activities and biomedical applications are described. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high ... or by any means without permission in writing from the copyright holder. ..... Journal of Chemical Engineering Research and Design 82 ... Indian Ocean Marine Science Association Technical.

  10. Marine Biomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  11. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  12. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between humans and the coastal and marine environment. ... The journal has a new and more modern layout, published online only, and the editorial .... the population structure of Platorchestia fayetta sp. nov. and their interaction with the.

  13. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the ... tidal height and amplitude can influence light penetra- ...... to environmental parameters in cage culture area of Sepanggar Bay, Malaysia.

  14. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ... consist of special issues on major events or important thematic issues. ... of sources, including plant and animal by- products.

  15. Marine biotoxins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ... (ciguatera fish poisoning). It discusses in detail the causative toxins produced by marine organisms, chemical structures and analytical methods, habitat and occurrence of the toxin-producing organisms, case studies and existing regulations...

  16. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pod diversity and distribution are important especially since studies on marine biodiversity are scarce .... Method II –. Zamoum &. Furla (2012) protocol. Method III. – Geist et al (2008) protocol ..... Public Library Of Science One 8: 51273.

  17. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of petroleum, waste materials, halogenated hydrocarbons, radioactivity and heat on the marine ecosystem, the fishing industry and human health are discussed using the example of the North Sea. (orig.) [de

  18. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form ... to optimize nucleic acid extraction protocols from marine gastropods, present an ...... Greenfield., Gomez E, Harvell CD, Sale PF, Edwards.

  19. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high ..... circulation patterns include the nutrient-rich Somali ...... matical Structures in Computer Science 24: e240311.

  20. Marine insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Lanna

    1976-01-01

    .... Not only are true insects, such as the Collembola and insect parasites of marine birds and mammals, considered, but also other kinds of intertidal air-breathing arthropods, notably spiders, scorpions...

  1. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue .... shell growth is adversely affected. ... local stressors in action, such as ocean acidification ..... that the distribution of many intertidal sessile animals.

  2. 40 CFR 80.605 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 80.605 Section 80.605 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA...

  3. 40 CFR 80.609 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 80.609 Section 80.609 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA...

  4. 40 CFR 80.534 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 80.534 Section 80.534 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA...

  5. 40 CFR 80.618-80.619 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Violation Provisions §§ 80.618-80.619 [Reserved] Provisions for Foreign Refiners and Importers for Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Subject to a Temporary Compliance Option or Hardship...

  6. 76 FR 6119 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Area. California Point Arena State Marine Reserve, Point Arena State Marine Conservation Area, Sea Lion..., Point Reyes Special Closure, Point Resistance Special Closure, Double Point/Stormy Stack Special Closure...

  7. Replacing reserve requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Edward J. Stevens

    1993-01-01

    An examination of the fading significance of the Federal Reserve System's reserve requirements and the recent flowering of required clearing balances, a rapidly growing feature of Reserve Bank operations.

  8. Otters, Marine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, James A.; Bodkin, James L.; Ben-David, M.; Perrin, William F.; Würsing, Bernd; Thewissen, J.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The otters (Mustelidae; Lutrinae) provide an exceptional perspective into the evolution of marine living by mammals. Most extant marine mammals (e.g. the cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians) have been so highly modified by long periods of selection for life in the sea that they bear little resemblance to their terrestrial ancestors. Marine otters, in contrast, are more recent expatriates from freshwater habitats and some species still live in both environments. Contrasts among species within the otters, and among the otters, terrestrial mammals, and the more highly adapted pinnipeds and cetaceans provide powerful insights into mammalian adaptations to life in the sea (Estes, 1989). Among the marine mammals, sea otters (Enhydra lutris, Fig. 1) provide the clearest understanding of consumer-induced effects on ecosystem function. This is due in part to opportunities provided by history and in part to the relative ease with which shallow coastal systems where sea otters live can be observed and studied. Although more difficult to study than sea otters, other otter species reveal the connectivity among the marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems. These three qualities of the otters – their comparative biology, their role as predators, and their role as agents of ecosystem connectivity – are what make them interesting to marine mammalogy.The following account provides a broad overview of the comparative biology and ecology of the otters, with particular emphasis on those species or populations that live in the sea. Sea otters are features prominently, in part because they live exclusively in the sea whereas other otters have obligate associations with freshwater and terrestrial environments (Kenyon, 1969; Riedman and Estes, 1990).

  9. Marine Battlefields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harðardóttir, Sara

    as they are an important food source for various marine animals. For both phytoand zooplankton predation is a major cause of mortality, and strategies for protection or avoidance are important for survival. Diatoms of the genera Nitzschia and Pseudo-nitzschia are known to produce a neuro-toxin, domoic acid (DA). Despite......Phytoplankton species are photosynthetic organisms found in most aquatic habitats. In the ocean, phytoplankton are tremendously important because they produce the energy that forms the base of the marine food web. Zooplankton feed on phytoplankton and mediate the energy to higher trophic levels...

  10. 40 CFR 112.13-112.15 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and for Vegetable Oils, including Oils from Seeds, Nuts, Fruits, and Kernels. §§ 112.13-112.15 [Reserved] ...

  11. The response of Baruch Spinoza to the fundamental question of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to the fundamental question of philosophy and his indebtedness to the common patrimony of philosophy. For Spinoza, something exists and it is substance, God, nature (three names for the same reality). For Spinoza, we can know it through intuition. Keywords: Spinoza; Fundamental Questions; Philosophy; Patrimony ...

  12. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science. The journal has a new and more modern layout, published online only, and the editorial. Board was increased to include more disciplines pertaining to marine sciences. While important chal- lenges still lie ahead, we are steadily advancing our standard to increase visibility and dissemination throughout the global ...

  13. Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  14. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mauritius Marine Conservation Society through their. Abstract. While no populations of seals are resident in the tropical Indian Ocean, vagrant animals are occasionally sighted in the region. Here we detail two new sightings of pinnipeds in the Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, Reunion and Rodri- gues) since 1996 and review ...

  15. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J O U R N A L O F. Marine Science. Coral reefs of Mauritius in a changing global climate ..... in confined aquifers, and a lesser influence in uncon- fined systems. On the ... massive cloud cover during the critical months, some. 70% bleaching ...

  16. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copy Editor Timothy Andrew. Published ... 2007; Zhou et al., 2009) and they play an important role in the ... At both sites, zonal variation in TMPB was evident with significantly higher C-biomass closer to ... ton is considered to be an essential parameter in eco- systems ...... logical significance of toxic marine dinoflagellates.

  17. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the ... between humans and the coastal and marine environment. ... exploitation for timber, fuel wood, aquaculture, urban. Abstract. Given the high dependence of coastal communities on natural resources, mangrove conservation is a challenge in.

  18. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means ... USA/Norway ... The last couple of years have been a time of change for the Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine.

  19. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chief Editor José Paula | Faculty of Sciences of University of Lisbon, Portugal. Copy Editor Timothy Andrew. Published biannually. Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high quality research generated in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) ...

  20. Improved Distance Learning Environment For Marine Forces Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    outsourcing LRCs to MFR locations throughout the United States. D. RESEARCH QUESTION The primary research question is as follows:  What is a...manage large amounts of processes and distributed applications; with a scalable approach that can adjust to changes dynamically (Mahmood, 2016...Benefits of cloud computing for the DOD include decreased capital investments, lessening management requirements, improve scalability and availability

  1. Establishment of a community managed marine reserve in the Bay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Bay of Ranobe, in southwest Madagascar, once noted for its high biodiversity and fish abundance, is under increasing pressure from overfishing, pollution, sedimentation and tourism. The declining health of the coral reef is reflected in fishery productivity and survey data on biological diversity. Sustainable conservation ...

  2. Marine Forces Reserve: Accelerating Knowledge Flow through Asynchronous Learning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-19

    pedagogic techniques that are infeasible in the classroom, and they suggest that in some respects technologically intermediated learning can be even better...appropriate for this research (Yin, 1994). We employ multiple techniques for data collection in the field. Foremost, through a unique relationship between...initial interpretations are both grounded firmly in the data and meaningful to organization participants. The Researchers’ relationship with the focal

  3. 456 Hours to Train the Reserve Component: Analysis of the Impact of Increased Annual Training Requirements on 4th Assault Amphibian Battalion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    blended learning format” (p. 92). Online training can be used in the following ways: a sole source of learning , supplemental traditional, follow-up to... Learned MCI Marine Corps Institute MCO Marine Corps Order MCR Marine Corps Reserve MCTIMS Marine Corps Training Information Management System MCTL...Reserve SMCR Selected Marine Corps Reserve SNCO Staff Noncommissioned Officer SUL Small Unit Leader TAM Technology Acceptance Model TEEP Training

  4. Extremozymes from Marine Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriya, J; Bharathiraja, S; Krishnan, M; Manivasagan, P; Kim, S-K

    Marine microorganisms that have the possibility to survive in diverse conditions such as extreme temperature, pH, pressure, and salinity are known as extremophiles. They produce biocatalysts so named as extremozymes that are active and stable at extreme conditions. These enzymes have numerous industrial applications due to its distinct properties. Till now, only a fraction of microorganisms on Earth have been exploited for screening of extremozymes. Novel techniques used for the cultivation and production of extremophiles, as well as cloning and overexpression of their genes in various expression systems, will pave the way to use these enzymes for chemical, food, pharmaceutical, and other industrial applications. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Viruses infecting marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan

    2017-07-01

    Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  7. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  8. Marine Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    PNL research in the marine sciences is focused on establishing a basic understanding of the mechanisms of stress and tolerance in marine organisms exposed to contaminants. Several environmental stressors had been investigated in earlier energy-related research. In a landmark study, for example, PNL had established that the severity of fish disease caused by the common infectious agent, Flexobacter columnaris, was seriously aggravated by thermal enhancement and certain ecological factors. Subsequent studies demonstrated that the primary immune response in fish, challenged by columnaris, could be permanently suppressed by comparatively low tritium exposures. The research has suggested that a potential exists for a significant biological impact when an aquatic stressor is added to an ambient background of other stressors, which may include heat, heavy metal ions, radiation or infectious microorganisms. More recently, PNL investigators have shown that in response to heavy metal contaminants, animals synthesize specific proteins (metallothioneins), which bind and sequester metals in the animals, thus decreasing metal mobility and effects. Companion studies with host-specific intracellular pathogens are being used to investigate the effects of heavy metals on the synthesis of immune proteins, which mitigate disease processes. The results of these studies aid in predicting the ecological effects of energy-related contaminants on valued fin and shellfish species

  9. Skyline Reservation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Flight reservation application used for in-country flights by USAID and DoS staff in Afghanistan. The application is managed and maintained by the vendor and USAID...

  10. 76 FR 77779 - Availability of Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument World Heritage site established by UNESCO in July, 2010. The Reserve... approximately 1200 nautical miles long and 100 nautical miles wide. The Reserve is managed by the Secretary of... National Marine Fisheries Service, National Science Foundation, U.S. Coast Guard, Western Pacific Regional...

  11. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-04-07

    Apr 7, 2009 ... It continues by discussing maritime security govern- ance in the EAC and .... of production, transportation, exporting and import- ing. Therefore .... For example, two audits of the ..... area potentially contains oil and gas reserves.

  12. US uranium reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, M.V.

    1981-01-01

    The current low level of demand, compounded by rapidly rising costs and low prices, has caused a significant reduction in drilling for uranium in the United States, and the trend is likely to continue for a few more years. The effect on uranium reserves will be fewer additions to reserves because less exploration is being done. Further reductions will occur, especially in low-cost reserves, because of increasing costs, continuing depletion through production, and erosion through the high grading of deposits to fulfill previous contractual commitments. During the past several years, it has been necessary to increase the upper reserve cost level twice to compensate for rising costs. Rising costs are reducing the $15 reserves, the cost category corresponding most closely to the present market price, to an insignificant level. An encouraging factor related to US uranium reserves is that the US position internationally, as far as quantity is concerned, is not bad for the longer term. Also, there is a general opinion that US consumers would rather contract for domestic uranium than for foreign because of greater assurance of supply. Still another factor, nearly impossible to assess, is what effect rising costs in other countries will have on their uranium reserves. The annual conferences between the Grand Junction Area Office staff and major uranium companies provide a broad overview of the industry's perception of the future. It is not optimistic for the short term. Many companies are reducing their exploration and mining programs; some are switching to other more marketable mineral commodities, and a few are investing more heavily in foreign ventures. However, there is general optimism for the long term, and many predict a growth in demand in the mid-1980s. If the industry can survive the few lean years ahead, rising prices may restore its viability to former levels

  13. Global patterns of extinction risk in marine and non-marine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas J; Mindel, Beth L

    2015-02-16

    Despite increasing concern over the effects of human activities on marine ecosystems, extinction in the sea remains scarce: 19-24 out of a total of >850 recorded extinctions implies a 9-fold lower marine extinction rate compared to non-marine systems. The extent of threats faced by marine systems, and their resilience to them, receive considerable attention, but the detectability of marine extinctions is less well understood. Before its extinction or threat status is recorded, a species must be both taxonomically described and then formally assessed; lower rates of either process for marine species could thus impact patterns of extinction risk, especially as species missing from taxonomic inventories may often be more vulnerable than described species. We combine data on taxonomic description with conservation assessments from the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) to test these possibilities across almost all marine and non-marine eukaryotes. We find that the 9-fold lower rate of recorded extinctions and 4-fold lower rate of ongoing extinction risk across marine species can be explained in part by differences in the proportion of species assessed by the IUCN (3% cf. 4% of non-marine species). Furthermore, once taxonomic knowledge and conservation assessments pass a threshold level, differences in extinction risk between marine and non-marine groups largely disappear. Indeed, across the best-studied taxonomic groups, there is no difference between marine and non-marine systems, with on average between 20% and 25% of species being threatened with extinction, regardless of realm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  15. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  16. Brazilian uranium reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.

    1981-01-01

    Due to a growing demand of electric power to support Brasil's development, the use of nuclear energy will be indispensable. The nuclear fuel cycle for the production of energy, starts with the uranium exploration. The work performed in this field led to the discovery of several deposits in the country, which to-date totalize a reserve of 236,300t of U 308 , ranking Brazil in the 6th place among the nations of the western world holding uranium reserves. (Author) [pt

  17. Production of Enzymes from Marine Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X Q; Xu, X N; Chen, L Y

    Marine actinobacteria are well recognized for their capabilities to produce valuable natural products, which have great potential for applications in medical, agricultural, and fine chemical industries. In addition to producing unique enzymes responsible for biosynthesis of natural products, many marine actinobacteria also produce hydrolytic enzymes which are able to degrade various biopolymers, such as cellulose, xylan, and chitin. These enzymes are important to produce biofuels and biochemicals of interest from renewable biomass. In this chapter, the recent reports of novel enzymes produced by marine actinobacteria are reviewed, and advanced technologies that can be applied to search for novel marine enzymes as well as for improved enzyme production by marine actinobacteria are summarized, which include ribosome engineering, genome mining, as well as synthetic biology studies. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Session 7: Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.; Crockford, G.

    2001-01-01

    The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)

  19. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reserve, the total length being 66 km with six overnight huts. There are also the BokmakiePie. Nature Troil. and the Cheetah Interpretive Troil. which can be used by day visitors. The former has two loops, one of 10 km and another of 17 km. The. Cheetah Troil. is much shorter and various points of interest are interpreted en ...

  20. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  1. Uranium reserves fall: AAEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Figures released by the AAEC show that Australia's reasonably assured resources of uranium recoverable at US$80 a kg fell by 5,000 tonnes during 1980-81. Reserves at 30 June 1981 totalled 294,000 tonnes. This represented 17 per cent of the Western World's low cost reasonably assured resources

  2. Thallium in the marine environment: first ecotoxicological assessments in the Guadalquivir estuary and its potential adverse effect on the donana european natural reserve after the Aznalcollar mining spill (SW Spain); Talio en el medio marino: primera valoracion ecotoxicologica en el estuario del Guadalquivir y su efecto potencial adverso en la reserva natural de donana despues del vertido minero de Aznalcollar (SW de Espana).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DelValls, T.A [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad de Cadiz, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Saenz, V; Arias, A.M; Blasco, J [Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia, CSIC, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    1999-06-01

    Thallium (Tl) is an extremely toxic but little-studied element in the marine environment and practically no information has been reported on the levels of Tl in marine organisms. After the Aznalcollar mining Spill (April 1998), high levels of metals were put into the environment. This acud-contaminated medium was responsible for the initial pollution effects measured in the Guadiamar River, which is an affluent of the Guadalquivir River and very close to the biggest natural reserve in Europe (Donana). Four different species were used in the monitoring from April to September 1998 and a sediment field bioassay to check bioacumulation was performed. We present the first ecotoxicological evaluation of the mining spill in the Guadalquivir River, with reference to Tl, a little-known metal. Also, Pb and Cd data were compared to Tl during field sediment testing. Results show low levels of this metal in all of the organisms studied and they do not show any increase in the level of this metal, ranging from 40 to 90 ng g{sup -}1, 80 to 210 ng g{sup -}1, 15 to 98 ng g{sup -}1 and 75 to 125 whole body dry weight for Scrobicularia plana, Liza ramada (muscle), Crassostrea angulata and Uca Tangeri, respectively. These are the first field data of Tl concentration measured using estuarine organisms. Field sediment toxicity test results confirm those obtained during the monitoring: Tl is not bioaccumulated by the organisms (C. angulata) used in the test. The sequence in bioaccumulation of metals was Cd > Pb > Tl. Both studies, bioaccumulation and sediment toxicity, should be maintained during the next few years to really evaluate the potential effect of the mining spill on the ecosystem and society. [Spanish] El talio (Tl) es un elemento extremadamente toxico aunque poco estudiado en el medio marino y la informacion sobre niveles de Tl en organismos marinos con anterioridad al presente trabajo es practicamente nula. Despues del vertido minero de Aznalcollar (abril de 1998) se

  3. [Analysis on sustainable development of marine economy in Jiangsu Province based on marine ecological footprint correction model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shan; Wang, Yu-ting

    2011-03-01

    Based on the theories and methods of ecological footprint, the concept of marine ecological footprint was proposed. According to the characteristics of marine environment in Jiangsu Province, five sub-models of marine ecological footprints, including fishery, transporation, marine engineering construction, marine energy, and tidal flat, were constructed. The equilibrium factors of the five marine types were determined by using improved entropy method, and the marine footprints and capacities in Jiangsu Province from 2000 to 2008 were calculated and analyzed. In 2000-2008, the marine ecology footprint per capita in Jiangsu Province increased nearly seven times, from 36.90 hm2 to 252.94 hm2, and the ecological capacity per capita grew steadily, from 105.01 hm2 to 185.49 hm2. In 2000, the marine environment in the Province was in a state of ecological surplus, and the marine economy was in a weak sustainable development state. Since 2004, the marine ecological environment deteriorated sharply, with ecological deficit up to 109660.5 hm2, and the sustainability of marine economy declined. The high ecological footprint of fishery was the main reason for the ecological deficit. Tidal flat was the important reserve resource for the sustainable development of marine economy in Jiangsu Province.

  4. Marine Renewable Energy Seascape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair G.L. Borthwick

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy production based on fossil fuel reserves is largely responsible for carbon emissions, and hence global warming. The planet needs concerted action to reduce fossil fuel usage and to implement carbon mitigation measures. Ocean energy has huge potential, but there are major interdisciplinary problems to be overcome regarding technology, cost reduction, investment, environmental impact, governance, and so forth. This article briefly reviews ocean energy production from offshore wind, tidal stream, ocean current, tidal range, wave, thermal, salinity gradients, and biomass sources. Future areas of research and development are outlined that could make exploitation of the marine renewable energy (MRE seascape a viable proposition; these areas include energy storage, advanced materials, robotics, and informatics. The article concludes with a sustainability perspective on the MRE seascape encompassing ethics, legislation, the regulatory environment, governance and consenting, economic, social, and environmental constraints. A new generation of engineers is needed with the ingenuity and spirit of adventure to meet the global challenge posed by MRE.

  5. Selling the SPR [Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurney, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) in the USA was created in 1975, in conjunction with the wider reserve programme of the International Energy Agency, following the 1973/74 Arab oil embargo. The only source of funding for the SPR has been annual appropriations bills from Congress. In 1994, however, Congress, seeking ways to balance the nation's budget and given the perception by many free market economists that the danger of serious oils supply disruption has passed, refused to allocate funds for SPR oil purchases. No crude oil stocks have been added to the reserve since then. In 1996, congress took the further step of requiring sales of oil from the reserve in order to pay for the programme's running costs and to meet the costs of maintaining the reserve's storage facilities. The reserve oil is stored in caverns under salt domes in the coastal regions of the Gulf of Mexico and some of these are beginning to fracture to the extent that they are having to be decommissioned. The SPR has been investigating ways of raising money in order to lessen its dependence on Congress. These include leasing pipelines and a marine terminal, and allowing the storage of foreign owned oil in underused caverns. (author)

  6. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  7. Marine animal stings or bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stings - marine animals; Bites - marine animals ... Things you can do to prevent a marine animal sting or bite include: Swim near a lifeguard. Observe posted signs that may warn of danger from jellyfish or other hazardous marine life. ...

  8. Mariners Weather Log

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Mariners Weather Log (MWL) is a publication containing articles, news and information about marine weather events and phenomena, worldwide environmental impact...

  9. MarineCadastre.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MarineCadastre.gov is a marine information system that provides authoritative ocean data, offshore planning tools, and technical support to the offshore renewable...

  10. Marine Jurisdiction Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NOAA Coastal Services Center's Marine Jurisdiction dataset was created to assist in marine spatial planning and offshore alternative energy sitting. This is a...

  11. Tsunamis and marine life

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.V.S.; Ingole, B.S.; Tang, D.; Satyanarayan, B.; Zhao, H.

    The 26 December 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean exerted far reaching temporal and spatial impacts on marine biota. Our synthesis was based on satellite data acquired by the Laboratory for Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics (LED) of the South...

  12. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  13. Seashore marine table quiz

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Develop an increasing awareness of plants and animals that live in local marine environments including the seashore, seas and oceans of Ireland. After learning all about the seashore and other marine related lessons, this quiz can be used to evaluate the student’s knowledge of the marine related living things and natural environments. The table quiz can be used as a guide, highlighting facts about the marine environment and some of the animals that live there.

  14. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  15. 9 CFR 3.134-3.135 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Warmblooded Animals Other Than Dogs, Cats, Rabbits, Hamsters, Guinea Pigs, Nonhuman Primates, and Marine... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 3.134-3.135 Section 3.134-3.135 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  16. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  17. Marine polar steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonik, Valentin A

    2001-01-01

    Structures, taxonomic distribution and biological activities of polar steroids isolated from various marine organisms over the last 8-10 years are considered. The peculiarities of steroid biogenesis in the marine biota and their possible biological functions are discussed. Syntheses of some highly active marine polar steroids are described. The bibliography includes 254 references.

  18. DNA barcodes for marine fungal identification and discovery

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Velmurugan, S.; Prasannakumar, C.; Manokaran, S.; AjithKumar, T.; Samkamaleson, A.; Palavesam, A.

    , Parangipettai 608502, India bDivision of Biological Oceanography, National Institute of Oceanography, Panaji 403001, India cCentre for Marine Science and Technology, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Rajakamangalam 629502, India a r t i c l e i n f o Article... Mycological Society. All rights reserved. Introduction Fungi are an indispensable part of life in the biosphere as they have many functional roles in different ecosystems. Obligate marine fungi are those that grow and sporulate exclusively in a marine...

  19. Are uranium reserves adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Against a backdrop of growing concerns about global warming and geopolitical pressures on fossil energies, especially natural gas and oil, interest in nuclear power has revived considerably. Conscious of its addiction to oil and reeling from a series of gigantic blackouts, the United States, in the words of its president, must 'aggressively move forward with the construction of nuclear power plants'. Some European countries have approved new power plant construction (Finland and France), while the more reserved ones (Belgium, Germany and Sweden) have begun to show a change in attitude. Asia, meanwhile, is host to the planet's largest number of potential nuclear construction projects in this first half of the 21. century. All these signs point to a sharp rise in uranium consumption, the basic fuel for these plants. But are there enough resources to support a nuclear revival on a planetary scale? The publication of the Red Book on uranium in late May 2006 was an opportunity for Thierry Dujardin, Deputy Director of Science and Development at the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency, to take stock of resources. He gives his opinion in this paper

  20. Marine nitrogen cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    ) such as the Marine nitrogen cycle The marine nitrogen cycle. ‘X’ and ‘Y’ are intra-cellular intermediates that do not accumulate in water column. (Source: Codispoti et al., 2001) Page 1 of 3Marine nitrogen cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth 11/20/2006http://www... and nitrous oxide budgets: Moving targets as we enter the anthropocene?, Sci. Mar., 65, 85-105, 2001. Page 2 of 3Marine nitrogen cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth 11/20/2006http://www.eoearth.org/article/Marine_nitrogen_cycle square6 Gruber, N.: The dynamics...

  1. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  2. Microplastics in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrady, Anthony L

    2011-08-01

    This review discusses the mechanisms of generation and potential impacts of microplastics in the ocean environment. Weathering degradation of plastics on the beaches results in their surface embrittlement and microcracking, yielding microparticles that are carried into water by wind or wave action. Unlike inorganic fines present in sea water, microplastics concentrate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by partition. The relevant distribution coefficients for common POPs are several orders of magnitude in favour of the plastic medium. Consequently, the microparticles laden with high levels of POPs can be ingested by marine biota. Bioavailability and the efficiency of transfer of the ingested POPs across trophic levels are not known and the potential damage posed by these to the marine ecosystem has yet to be quantified and modelled. Given the increasing levels of plastic pollution of the oceans it is important to better understand the impact of microplastics in the ocean food web. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Marine Robot Autonomy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Autonomy for Marine Robots provides a timely and insightful overview of intelligent autonomy in marine robots. A brief history of this emerging field is provided, along with a discussion of the challenges unique to the underwater environment and their impact on the level of intelligent autonomy required.  Topics covered at length examine advanced frameworks, path-planning, fault tolerance, machine learning, and cooperation as relevant to marine robots that need intelligent autonomy.  This book also: Discusses and offers solutions for the unique challenges presented by more complex missions and the dynamic underwater environment when operating autonomous marine robots Includes case studies that demonstrate intelligent autonomy in marine robots to perform underwater simultaneous localization and mapping  Autonomy for Marine Robots is an ideal book for researchers and engineers interested in the field of marine robots.      

  4. 77 FR 21846 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Board is amending Regulation D, Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions, to simplify the administration of reserve requirements. The final rule creates a...

  5. 75 FR 81233 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... criteria. The inventory is online at http://www.mpa.gov/helpful_resources/inventory.html , and potentially eligible sites are posted online at http://www.mpa.gov/pdf/national-system/nominationsummary810.pdf . As... Conservation Area. Saunders Reef State Marine Conservation Area. Del Mar Landing State Marine Reserve. Stewarts...

  6. Bioremediation of Industrial Waste Through Enzyme Producing Marine Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaperumal, P; Kamala, K; Rajaram, R

    Bioremediation process using microorganisms is a kind of nature-friendly and cost-effective clean green technology. Recently, biodegradation of industrial wastes using enzymes from marine microorganisms has been reported worldwide. The prospectus research activity in remediation area would contribute toward the development of advanced bioprocess technology. To minimize industrial wastes, marine enzymes could constitute a novel alternative in terms of waste treatment. Nowadays, the evidence on the mechanisms of bioremediation-related enzymes from marine microorganisms has been extensively studied. This review also will provide information about enzymes from various marine microorganisms and their complexity in the biodegradation of comprehensive range of industrial wastes. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Aspects regarding environmental impact of oil marine platforms from Black sea coast - Romanian area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : As a result of investigations conducted by R.A.PETROM - PETROMAR Constanta subsidiary, reserves of oil and gas in geological structures LEBADA, EOCEN - LEBADA and SINOE from romanian sector of Black Sea Continental Platform, have been discovered. These reserves are exploited by marine platforms and ways of oil transportation to the shore are submarine pipe-lines and ships. To assess environmental impact of oil transportation, studies covered following steps; Characterization of the present status of environmental factors, in the range of pipe-lines and ships; Marine water characterization: salinity, ionic composition, dissolved gases, organic depositions on metallic bodies; Marine bicenosys: phytoplankton and zooplankton characteristics, phytobenthos and zoobenthos communities, marine ichtyofauna, marine mammals. Marine resources available for exploitation; Total radioactivity analysis results; Marine water hydrocarbons analysis results; Present pollution sources in the area; Air quality in oil marine platforms area and shore area; Potential pollution sources and pollutants resulted from oil products transport between marine platforms and shore; Sources and emissions in air; Sources and emissions in marine environment; Aspects regarding waste management; Environmental impact of oil products transport between marine platforms and shore; Impact on the air quality and marine environment of oil marine platforms activities; Assessment of environmental impact on atmosphere generated by the oil products transport between marine platforms and shore; Impact on the marine environment of oil transport ships; Effects of oil fractions on marine organisms; Acute effects of oil pollution on marine communities; Risks of causing major environmental impact accidents/failures on marine platforms PETROMAR; Chronic effects of low oil concentrations;Marine environment recovery potential after discharges accidents

  8. Marine Environmental History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main focus on trying to reconstruct the presence, development and environmental impact of past fisheries......This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between...... and whaling operations. This ambition often entails a reconstruction also of how marine life has changed over time. The time frame rages from Paleolithicum to the present era. The field of marine environmental history also includes a more culturally oriented environmental history, which mainly has come...

  9. Sustained UK marine observations. Where have we been? Where are we now? Where are we going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Nicholas J P

    2014-09-28

    This introduction traces the earliest interaction of ancient humans with their marine environment, through marine explorations in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, to the development of early marine science in the Enlightenment. This sets the scene for how marine observations developed in the modern era and explains the status of today's marine observation networks. The paper concludes with an assessment of the future needs and constraints of sustained marine observation networks and suggests the lessons from a long history might be the key to the future. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. [Synthesis of reserve polyhydroxyalkanoates by luminescent bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiandin, A N; Kalacheva, G S; Rodicheva, E K; Volova, T G

    2008-01-01

    The ability of marine luminescent bacteria to synthesize polyesters of hydroxycarboxylic acids (polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHA) as reserve macromolecules was studied. Twenty strains from the collection of the luminescent bacteria CCIBSO (WDSM839) of the Institute of Biophysics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, assigned to different taxa (Photobacterium leiognathi, Ph. phosphoreum, Vibrio harveyi, and V. fischeri) were analyzed. The most productive strains were identified, and the conditions ensuring high polymer yields in batch culture (40-70% of the cell dry mass weight) were determined. The capacity of synthesizing two- and three-component polymers containing hydroxybutyric acid as the main monomer and hydroxyvaleric and hydroxyhexanoic acids was revealed in Ph. leiognathi and V. harveyi strains. The results allow luminescent microorganisms to be regarded as new producers of multicomponent polyhydroxyalkanoates.

  11. Marine electrical practice

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, G O

    1991-01-01

    Marine Engineering Series: Marine Electrical Practice, Sixth Edition focuses on changes in the marine industry, including the application of programmable electronic systems, generators, and motors. The publication first ponders on insulation and temperature ratings of equipment, protection and discrimination, and AC generators. Discussions focus on construction, shaft-drive generators, effect of unbalanced loading, subtransient and transient reactance, protection discrimination, fault current, measurement of ambient air temperature, and basis of machine ratings. The text then examines AC switc

  12. Biosurfactants from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suppasil Maneerat

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms. With the advantage of environmental compatibility, the demand for biosurfactants has been steadily increasing and may eventually replace their chemically synthesized counterparts. Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention, particularly for the bioremediation of the sea polluted by crude oil. This review describes screening of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, the determination of biosurfactant activity as well as the recovery of marine surfactant. The uses of marine biosurfactants for bioremediation are also discussed.

  13. Characterizing Marine Soundscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; McCauley, Robert; Gavrilov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The study of marine soundscapes is becoming widespread and the amount of data collected is increasing rapidly. Data owners (typically academia, industry, government, and defense) are negotiating data sharing and generating potential for data syntheses, comparative studies, analyses of trends, and large-scale and long-term acoustic ecology research. A problem is the lack of standards and commonly agreed protocols for the recording of marine soundscapes, data analysis, and reporting that make a synthesis and comparison of results difficult. We provide a brief overview of the components in a marine soundscape, the hard- and software tools for recording and analyzing marine soundscapes, and common reporting formats.

  14. Status of fossil fuel reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laherrere, J.

    2005-01-01

    Reserves represent the sum of past and future productions up to the end of production. In most countries the reserve data of fields are confidential. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are badly known because the published data are more political than technical and many countries make a confusion between resources and reserves. The cumulated production of fossil fuels represents only between a third and a fifth of the ultimate reserves. The production peak will take place between 2020 and 2050. In the ultimate reserves, which extrapolate the past, the fossil fuels represent three thirds of the overall energy. This document analyses the uncertainties linked with fossil fuel reserves: reliability of published data, modeling of future production, comparison with other energy sources, energy consumption forecasts, reserves/production ratio, exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons (tar sands, extra-heavy oils, bituminous shales, coal gas, gas shales, methane in overpressure aquifers, methane hydrates), technology impacts, prices impact, and reserves growth. (J.S.)

  15. 77 FR 66361 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal... (Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions) published in the Federal Register on April 12, 2012. The... simplifications related to the administration of reserve requirements: 1. Create a common two-week maintenance...

  16. Marine debris removal: one year of effort by the Georgia Sea Turtle-Center-Marine Debris Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeannie Miller

    2013-09-15

    Once in the marine environment, debris poses a significant threat to marine life that can be prevented through the help of citizen science. Marine debris is any manufactured item that enters the ocean regardless of source, commonly plastics, metal, wood, glass, foam, cloth, or rubber. Citizen science is an effective way to engage volunteers in conservation initiatives and provide education and skill development. The Georgia Sea Turtle Center Marine Debris Initiative (GSTC-MDI) is a grant funded program developed to engage citizens in the removal of marine debris from the beaches of Jekyll Island, GA, USA and the surrounding areas. During the first year of effort, more than 200 volunteers donated over 460 h of service to the removal of marine debris. Of the debris removed, approximately 89% were plastics, with a significant portion being cigarette materials. Given the successful first year, the GSTC-MDI was funded again for a second year. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of nanomaterials on marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesi, Laura; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-09-15

    The development of nanotechnology will inevitably lead to the release of consistent amounts of nanomaterials (NMs) and nanoparticles (NPs) into marine ecosystems. Ecotoxicological studies have been carried out to identify potential biological targets of NPs, and suitable models for predicting their impact on the health of the marine environment. Recent studies in invertebrates mainly focused on NP accumulation and sub-lethal effects, rather than acute toxicity. Among marine invertebrates, bivalves represent by large the most studied group, with polychaetes and echinoderms also emerging as significant targets of NPs. However, major scientific gaps still need to be filled. In this work, factors affecting the fate of NPs in the marine environment, and their consequent uptake/accumulation/toxicity in marine invertebrates will be summarized. The results show that in different model species, NP accumulation mainly occurs in digestive tract and gills. Data on sub-lethal effects and modes of action of different types of NPs (mainly metal oxides and metal based NPs) in marine invertebrates will be reviewed, in particular on immune function, oxidative stress and embryo development. Moreover, the possibility that such effects may be influenced by NP interactions with biomolecules in both external and internal environment will be introduced. In natural environmental media, NP interactions with polysaccharides, proteins and colloids may affect their agglomeration/aggregation and consequent bioavailability. Moreover, once within the organism, NPs are known to interact with plasma proteins, forming a protein corona that can affect particle uptake and toxicity in target cells in a physiological environment. These interactions, leading to the formation of eco-bio-coronas, may be crucial in determining particle behavior and effects also in marine biota. In order to classify NPs into groups and predict the implications of their release into the marine environment, information on

  18. Prevalence of marine debris in marine birds from the North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Jennifer F; Bond, Alexander L; Hedd, April; Montevecchi, William A; Muzaffar, Sabir Bin; Courchesne, Sarah J; Gilchrist, H Grant; Jamieson, Sarah E; Merkel, Flemming R; Falk, Knud; Durinck, Jan; Mallory, Mark L

    2014-07-15

    Marine birds have been found to ingest plastic debris in many of the world's oceans. Plastic accumulation data from necropsies findings and regurgitation studies are presented on 13 species of marine birds in the North Atlantic, from Georgia, USA to Nunavut, Canada and east to southwest Greenland and the Norwegian Sea. Of the species examined, the two surface plungers (great shearwaters Puffinus gravis; northern fulmars Fulmarus glacialis) had the highest prevalence of ingested plastic (71% and 51%, respectively). Great shearwaters also had the most pieces of plastics in their stomachs, with some individuals containing as many of 36 items. Seven species contained no evidence of plastic debris. Reporting of baseline data as done here is needed to ensure that data are available for marine birds over time and space scales in which we see changes in historical debris patterns in marine environments (i.e. decades) and among oceanographic regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  20. Crab Haul Creek Tide Gauge Data, North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 2001 • Feb2008.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services The Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) collects, analyzes and...

  1. CREEK Project's Internal Creek Habitat Survey for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: January 1998.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  2. CREEK Project's Oyster Growth and Survival Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1999.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  3. CREEK Project's Nekton Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1998.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  4. CREEK Project's Water Chemistry, Chlorophyll a, and Suspended Sediment Weekly Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-2000.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight tidal creeks dominated by oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated BACI (Before -...

  5. Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Macrobenthos Data for the North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1981-1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — Samples were taken from two estuarine tidal creek stations (designated BB and DD) in the North Inlet Estuary, SC. Two large cores, with a sediment surface area of...

  6. Analyses of otoliths from juvenile black sea bass collected from estuaries in SC, FL, NJ, and NY: 2008-2009.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — Snappers/Groupers have traditionally been some of the most desired demersal fishes in the South Atlantic Bight and are the most abundant and diverse group of large...

  7. Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) National Weather Service Station Data for the North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1986 - 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — Meteorological data were collected on a daily basis from December 1, 1986 through March 3, 1996 at the Oyster Landing Research site in the North Inlet Estuary,...

  8. The Dynamics of the Microbial Population as Measured by the Quantification of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) at Three Sampling Locations Within the North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, SC: 1981-1985.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — Water samples were collected daily at approximately 10:00 AM, from a depth of 50 cm at three stations, and transported immediately to the laboratory. The three...

  9. Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Climate Data with Water Parameters from North Inlet Meteorological Station, North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1982-1996.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — Meteorological data with water parameters were collected on an hourly basis from June 3, 1982 through April 29, 1996 in the North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown County,...

  10. CREEK Project's Microzooplankton Seasonal Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  11. Long-Term Spartina alterniflora biomass, productivity, porewater chemistry and marsh elevation in North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, SC: 1984-2011.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The salt marsh in the North Inlet estuary was sampled approximately monthly for estimates of biomass, productivity, porewater chemistry, and salt marsh elevation....

  12. CREEK Project's Phytoplankton Pigment Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The CREEK Project began in January of 1996 and was designed to help determine the role of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in tidal creeks of the North Inlet Estuary,...

  13. CREEK Project's Oyster Biomass Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight tidal creeks dominated by oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated BACI (Before -...

  14. CISNet Project’s Water Quality Monitoring Database for North Inlet and ACE Basin Estuaries, South Carolina: 1999-2001.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — EPA/NOAA/NASA CISNet Partnership The Coastal Intensive Site Network (CISNet) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Oceanic and...

  15. CREEK Project: RUI: the Role of Oyster Reefs in the Structure and Function of Tidal Creeks. A Project Overview: 1996-2000.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight tidal creeks dominated by oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated BACI (Before - After...

  16. CISNet Project's Phytoplankton Pigment Monitoring Database for the North Inlet and Ace Basin Estuaries, South Carolina: 1999-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — EPA/NOAA/NASA CISNet Partnership The Coastal Intensive Site Network (CISNet) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Oceanic and...

  17. Groundwater Dynamics along Forest-Marsh-Tidal Creek Transects in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1994-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — Ground water level elevations were collected every 10 to 15 days from piezometers stationed along three forest-marsh-tidal creek transects (B, C, and D) across the...

  18. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  19. Marine gamma spectrometric survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostoglodov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are theoretical problems physical and geochemical prerequisites and possibilities of practical application of the method of continuous submarine gamma-spectrometric survey and radiometric survey destined for rapid study of the surface layer of marine sediments. Shown is high efficiency and advantages of this method in comparison with traditional and widely spread in marine geology methods of bottom sediments investigation

  20. Marine palynology in progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manten, A.A.

    1966-01-01

    One of the things which the Second International Conference on Palynology (held in Utrecht, August 29-September 3, 1966) revealed, was the rapid expansion which marine palynological research has undergone in recent years. This was the main stimulus to organize this special issue of Marine

  1. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  2. Marine Viruses: Key Players in Marine Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Middelboe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Viruses were recognized as the causative agents of fish diseases, such as infectious pancreatic necrosis and Oregon sockeye disease, in the early 1960s [1], and have since been shown to be responsible for diseases in all marine life from bacteria to protists, mollusks, crustaceans, fish and mammals [2].[...

  3. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The origins of tropical marine biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brian W; Rocha, Luiz A; Toonen, Robert J; Karl, Stephen A

    2013-06-01

    Recent phylogeographic studies have overturned three paradigms for the origins of marine biodiversity. (i) Physical (allopatric) isolation is not the sole avenue for marine speciation: many species diverge along ecological boundaries. (ii) Peripheral habitats such as oceanic archipelagos are not evolutionary graveyards: these regions can export biodiversity. (iii) Speciation in marine and terrestrial ecosystems follow similar processes but are not the same: opportunities for allopatric isolation are fewer in the oceans, leaving greater opportunity for speciation along ecological boundaries. Biodiversity hotspots such as the Caribbean Sea and the Indo-Pacific Coral Triangle produce and export species, but can also accumulate biodiversity produced in peripheral habitats. Both hotspots and peripheral ecosystems benefit from this exchange in a process dubbed biodiversity feedback. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mercury in dated Greenland marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmund, G.; Nielsen, S.P.

    2000-01-01

    Twenty marine sediment cores from Greenland were analysed for mercury, and dated by the lead-210 method. In general the cores exhibit a mercury profile with higher mercury concentrations in the upper centimetres of the core. The cores were studied by linear regression of In Hg vs, age of the sedi......Twenty marine sediment cores from Greenland were analysed for mercury, and dated by the lead-210 method. In general the cores exhibit a mercury profile with higher mercury concentrations in the upper centimetres of the core. The cores were studied by linear regression of In Hg vs, age...... indicating that the mercury mainly originates from atmospheric washout. But the large variability indicates that other processes also influence the mercury flux to Arctic marine sediments. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  6. Pharmaceutical, cosmeceutical, and traditional applications of marine carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdul Bakrudeen Ali; Adel, Mohaddeseh; Karimi, Pegah; Peidayesh, Mahvash

    2014-01-01

    Marine carbohydrates are most important organic molecules made by photosynthetic organisms. It is very essential for humankind: the role in being an energy source for the organism and they are considered as an important dissolve organic compound (DOC) in marine environment's sediments. Carbohydrates found in different marine environments in different concentrations. Polysaccharides of carbohydrates play an important role in various fields such as pharmaceutical, food production, cosmeceutical, and so on. Marine organisms are good resources of nutrients, and they are rich carbohydrate in sulfated polysaccharide. Seaweeds (marine microalgae) are used in different pharmaceutical industries, especially in pharmaceutical compound production. Seaweeds have a significant amount of sulfated polysaccharides, which are used in cosmeceutical industry, besides based on the biological applications. Since then, traditional people, cosmetics products, and pharmaceutical applications consider many types of seaweed as an important organism used in food process. Sulfated polysaccharides containing seaweed have potential uses in the blood coagulation system, antiviral activity, antioxidant activity, anticancer activity, immunomodulating activity, antilipidepic activity, etc. Some species of marine organisms are rich in polysaccharides such as sulfated galactans. Various polysaccharides such as agar and alginates, which are extracted from marine organisms, have several applications in food production and cosmeceutical industries. Due to their high health benefits, compound-derived extracts of marine polysaccharides have various applications and traditional people were using them since long time ago. In the future, much attention is supposed to be paid to unraveling the structural, compositional, and sequential properties of marine carbohydrate as well. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Seawater and marine sidements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicke, H.F.

    1985-01-01

    The Deutsches Hydrographisches Institut (DHI) is responsible for monitoring the radioactive substances (such as Cs-137, Cs-134, Sr-90, H-3, Pu-239, Pu-240) in the seawater and marine sediments along the Federal German seacoasts, of the fishing grounds of the Federal German offshore fishery industry, and of marine currents moving towards these fishing grounds. The DHI has been carrying out this task since 1965, activities being placed under the responsibility of the DHI Department for Marine Radioactivity, which since 1960 is a directing centre within the Government's system for environmental radioactivity monitoring. (orig./DG) [de

  8. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration....... Such exploration requires knowledge of mineral deposits and models of their formation, of geophysical and geochemical exploration methods, and of data evaluation and interpretation methods. These topics are described in detail by an international group of authors. A short description is also given of marine...

  9. Will marine productivity wane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufkötter, Charlotte; Gruber, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    If marine algae are impaired severely by global climate change, the resulting reduction in marine primary production would strongly affect marine life and the ocean's biological pump that sequesters substantial amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the ocean's interior. Most studies, including the latest generation of Earth system models, project only moderate global decreases in biological production until 2100 (1, 2), suggesting that these concerns are unwarranted. But on page 1139 of this issue, Moore et al. (3) show that this conclusion might be shortsighted and that there may be much larger long-term changes in ocean productivity than previously appreciated.

  10. Reserves Represented by Random Walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipe, J A; Ferreira, M A M; Andrade, M

    2012-01-01

    The reserves problem is studied through models based on Random Walks. Random walks are a classical particular case in the analysis of stochastic processes. They do not appear only to study reserves evolution models. They are also used to build more complex systems and as analysis instruments, in a theoretical feature, of other kind of systems. In this work by studying the reserves, the main objective is to see and guarantee that pensions funds get sustainable. Being the use of these models considering this goal a classical approach in the study of pensions funds, this work concluded about the problematic of reserves. A concrete example is presented.

  11. Marine bioactives and potential application in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Gemello, Eugenio; Riccioni, Graziano; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2014-04-30

    An enriched diet with antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene and phenolic compounds, has always been suggested to improve oxidative stress, preventing related diseases. In this respect, marine natural product (MNP), such as COX inhibitors, marine steroids, molecules interfering with factors involved in the modulation of gene expression (such as NF-κB), macrolides, many antioxidant agents, thermogenic substances and even substances that could help the immune system and that result in the protection of cartilage, have been recently gaining attention. The marine world represents a reserve of bioactive ingredients, with considerable potential as functional food. Substances, such as chitin, chitosan, n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive peptides, can provide several health benefits, such as the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. In addition, new marine bioactive substances with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and thermogenic capacity may provide health benefits and performance improvement, especially in those who practice physical activity, because of their increased free radical and Reacting Oxygen Species (ROS) production during exercise, and, particularly, in athletes. The aim of this review is to examine the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactive substances in sports.

  12. Pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites of marine actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Sivakumar, Kannan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-04-01

    Marine actinobacteria are one of the most efficient groups of secondary metabolite producers and are very important from an industrial point of view. Many representatives of the order Actinomycetales are prolific producers of thousands of biologically active secondary metabolites. Actinobacteria from terrestrial sources have been studied and screened since the 1950s, for many important antibiotics, anticancer, antitumor and immunosuppressive agents. However, frequent rediscovery of the same compounds from the terrestrial actinobacteria has made them less attractive for screening programs in the recent years. At the same time, actinobacteria isolated from the marine environment have currently received considerable attention due to the structural diversity and unique biological activities of their secondary metabolites. They are efficient producers of new secondary metabolites that show a range of biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antitumor, cytotoxic, cytostatic, anti-inflammatory, anti-parasitic, anti-malaria, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-angiogenesis, etc. In this review, an evaluation is made on the current status of research on marine actinobacteria yielding pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites. Bioactive compounds from marine actinobacteria possess distinct chemical structures that may form the basis for synthesis of new drugs that could be used to combat resistant pathogens. With the increasing advancement in science and technology, there would be a greater demand for new bioactive compounds synthesized by actinobacteria from various marine sources in future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. 76 FR 76949 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ...-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric.... 14534 is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216...

  14. 75 FR 68605 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ...-XX23 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... permit to conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available... applicant. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of...

  15. 77 FR 2512 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ...-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal Foundation, 2240 Shelter Island Drive, 200, San Diego, CA... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended...

  16. 77 FR 14352 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...-XB065 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  17. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    .... 14334] Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  18. Reservation wages and starting wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ophem, H.; Hartog, J.; Berkhout, P.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse a unique data set that combines reservation wage and actually paid wage for a large sample of Dutch recent higher education graduates. On average, accepted wages are almost 8% higher than reservation wages, but there is no fixed proportionality. We find that the difference between

  19. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  20. IAEA Monitors Marine Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha; Kaiser, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA assists Member States in using scientific tools to precisely identify and track nuclear and nonnuclear contaminants, as well as to investigate their biological effects on the marine ecosystem

  1. Permitted Marine Hydrokinetic Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents pending or issued preliminary permits or issued licenses for marine hydrokinetic projects that produce energy from waves or directly from the...

  2. The marine cyanobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pade, N.; Compaoré, J.; Klähn, S.; Stal, L.J.; Hagemann, M.

    2012-01-01

    Compatible solutes are small organic molecules that are involved in the acclimation to various stresses such as temperature and salinity. Marine or moderate halotolerant cyanobacteria accumulate glucosylglycerol, while cyanobacteria with low salt tolerance (freshwater strains) usually accumulate

  3. Foodborne Marine Biotoxins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poli, Mark

    2003-01-01

    ...). In addition to human intoxications, they cause massive fish kills, negatively impact coastal tourism and fishery industries, and have been implicated in mass mortalities of birds and marine mammals...

  4. LEGACY - EOP Marine Debris

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data contains towed diver surveys of and weights of marine debris removed from the near shore environments of the NWHI.

  5. Biotechnology of marine fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damare, S.R.; Singh, P.; Raghukumar, S.

    Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotes in industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Their biotechnological uses include the production of enzymes, vitamins, polysaccharides, pigments, lipids and others. Marine fungi are a still...

  6. WMO Marine Final Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Final reports of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Commission for Marine Meteorology, Commission for Synoptic Meteorology, and Commission for Basic...

  7. PIR Marine Turtle Nesting

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Effective management of marine turtle data is essential to maximize their research value and enable timely population assessments and recovery monitoring. To provide...

  8. PIR Marine Turtle Strandings

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Effective management of marine turtle data is essential to maximize their research value and enable timely population assessments and recovery monitoring. To provide...

  9. Marine Mammals :: NOAA Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources Habitat Conservation Science and Technology International Affairs Law Enforcement Aquaculture Application Types Apply Online (APPS) Endangered Species Permits Marine Mammal Permits Public Display of : NMFS Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center North Atlantic right whales North Atlantic Right whales

  10. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  11. Mariner Outreach Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This dataset provides MARAD with the ability to determine available personnel and resources in a time of emergency. It also provides a portal for mariners to update...

  12. Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine sanitation devices treat or retain sewage from vessels, and have performance standards set by the EPA. This page provides information on MSDs, including who must use an MSD, states' roles, types of MSDs and standards.

  13. Marine Trackline Geophysical Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains bathymetry, magnetic, gravity and seismic shot point navigation data collected during marine cruises from 1939 to the present. Coverage is...

  14. Marine medicinal glycomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Hugo Pomin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycomics is an international initiative aimed to understand the structure and function of the glycans from a given type of cell, tissue, organism, kingdom or even environment, as found under certain conditions. Glycomics is one of the latest areas of intense biological research. Glycans of marine sources are unique in terms of structure and function. They differ considerably from those of terrestrial origin. This review discusses the most known marine glycans of potential therapeutic properties. They are chitin, chitosan, and sulfated polysaccharides named glycosaminoglycans, sulfated fucans and sulfated galactans. Their medical actions are very broad. When certain structural requirements are found, these glycans can exhibit beneficial effects in inflammation, coagulation, thrombosis, cancer growth/metastasis and vascular biology. Both structure and therapeutic mechanisms of action of these marine glycans are discussed here in straight context with the current glycomic age through a project suggestively named Marine Medicinal Glycomics.

  15. Marine prostanoids - a review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; De

    The occurrence and structure of prostaglandins including clavulones, punaglandins and claviridenones in marine organisms is reviewEd. by comparison of the spectral data reported the identity of 20-acetoxy claviridenones b and c with 20 acetoxy...

  16. Corporate social responsibility in marine plastic debris governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon-Lane, Micah

    2018-02-01

    This paper explores the governance characteristics of marine plastic debris, some of the factors underpinning its severity, and examines the possibility of harnessing corporate social responsibility (CSR) to manage plastic use within the contextual attitudes of a contemporary global society. It argues that international and domestic law alone are insufficient to resolve the "wicked problem" of marine plastic debris, and investigates the potential of the private sector, through the philosophy of CSR, to assist in reducing the amount and impacts of marine plastic debris. To illustrate how CSR could minimise marine plastic pollution, an industry-targeted code of conduct was developed. Applying CSR would be most effective if implemented in conjunction with facilitating governance frameworks, such as supportive governmental regulation and non-governmental partnerships. This study maintains that management policies must be inclusive of all stakeholders if they are to match the scale and severity of the marine plastic debris issue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bioactive secondary metabolites from marine microbes for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikapitiya, Chamilani

    2012-01-01

    The isolation and extraction of novel bioactive secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms have a biomedical potential for future drug discovery as the oceans cover 70% of the planet's surface and life on earth originates from sea. Wide range of novel bioactive secondary metabolites exhibiting pharmacodynamic properties has been isolated from marine microorganisms and many to be discovered. The compounds isolated from marine organisms (macro and micro) are important in their natural form and also as templates for synthetic modifications for the treatments for variety of deadly to minor diseases. Many technical issues are yet to overcome before wide-scale bioprospecting of marine microorganisms becomes a reality. This chapter focuses on some novel secondary metabolites having antitumor, antivirus, enzyme inhibitor, and other bioactive properties identified and isolated from marine microorganisms including bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, and cyanobacteria, which could serve as potentials for drug discovery after their clinical trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Marine cloud brightening

    OpenAIRE

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identi...

  19. Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    . Heavy metals Editorial Guest The special issue of Environment International has come up with selected papers presented in the International workshop on Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology held at the National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa... presented in this special issue are classified into five sections namely, Coastal water quality, Heavy metals, Trace metals, Persistent organic pollutants and Ecotoxicology. 1. Coastal water quality assessment The pollution of the marine environment has...

  20. Marine Anthropogenic Litter

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, Melanie; Gutow, Lars; Klages, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book describes how manmade litter, primarily plastic, has spread into the remotest parts of the oceans and covers all aspects of this pollution problem from the impacts on wildlife and human health to socio-economic and political issues. Marine litter is a prime threat to marine wildlife, habitats and food webs worldwide. The book illustrates how advanced technologies from deep-sea research, microbiology and mathematic modelling as well as classic beach litter counts by volunteers co...

  1. Marine Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Ahtiainen, Heini; Hasselström, Linus

    MARECOS (Marine Ecosystem Services) er et tværfagligt studie, der har haft til formål at tilvejebringe information vedrørende kortlægning og værdisætning af økosystemtjenester, som kan anvendes i forbindelse med udformning af regulering på det marine område såvel nationalt, som regionalt og inter...

  2. Marine Corps Pay Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marines from 2000 to 2017. The thesis includes a literature review on economic theory related to pay incentives in the Department of Defense, a...The purpose of this thesis to provide the Marine Corps with a comprehensive report on pay incentive programs and special pay that were available to...summarization of pay incentive categories, a data analysis on take-up rates and average annual amounts at the end of each fiscal year, and a program review

  3. Improved Marine Waters Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Yakushev, Evgeniy; Milkova, Tanya; Slabakova, Violeta; Hristova, Ognyana

    2017-04-01

    IMAMO - Improved Marine Waters Monitoring is a project under the Programme BG02: Improved monitoring of marine waters, managed by Bulgarian Ministry of environment and waters and co-financed by the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area (EEA FM) 2009 - 2014. Project Beneficiary is the Institute of oceanology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two partners: Norwegian Institute for Water Research and Bulgarian Black Sea Basin Directorate. The Project aims to improve the monitoring capacity and expertise of the organizations responsible for marine waters monitoring in Bulgaria to meet the requirements of EU and national legislation. The main outcomes are to fill the gaps in information from the Initial assessment of the marine environment and to collect data to assess the current ecological status of marine waters including information as a base for revision of ecological targets established by the monitoring programme prepared in 2014 under Art. 11 of MSFD. Project activities are targeted to ensure data for Descriptors 5, 8 and 9. IMAMO aims to increase the institutional capacity of the Bulgarian partners related to the monitoring and assessment of the Black Sea environment. The main outputs are: establishment of real time monitoring and set up of accredited laboratory facilities for marine waters and sediments chemical analysis to ensure the ability of Bulgarian partners to monitor progress of subsequent measures undertaken.

  4. Securities issues in reserves reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legg, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Securities issues in oil and gas reserves reporting were discussed. Alberta requires specific information regarding important oil and gas properties, plants, facilities and installations. When preparing the reserves report, the following elements are important to consider: (1) the author of the report must be a registered professional engineer or registered professional geologist, (2) the report itself must be an engineering document, (3) the content of the report must be extensive, (4) it should be prepared in accordance with petroleum engineering and evaluation practices, and must include a summary of estimated net reserves

  5. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  6. Shell trips over its reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2004-01-01

    Some mistakes in the evaluation of the proven reserves of Royal Dutch Shell group, the second world petroleum leader, will oblige the other oil and gas companies to be more transparent and vigilant in the future. The proven reserves ('P90' in petroleum professionals' language) are the most important indicators of the mining patrimony of companies. These strategic data are reported each year in the annual reports of the companies and are examined by the security exchange commission. The evaluation of reserves is perfectly codified by the US energy policy and conservation act and its accountable translation using the FAS 69 standard allows to establish long-term cash-flow forecasts. The revision announced by Shell on January 9 leads to a 20% reduction of its proven reserves. Short paper. (J.S.)

  7. Cognitive Reserve Scale and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene León

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construct of cognitive reserve attempts to explain why some individuals with brain impairment, and some people during normal ageing, can solve cognitive tasks better than expected. This study aimed to estimate cognitive reserve in a healthy sample of people aged 65 years and over, with special attention to its influence on cognitive performance. For this purpose, it used the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS and a neuropsychological battery that included tests of attention and memory. The results revealed that women obtained higher total CRS raw scores than men. Moreover, the CRS predicted the learning curve, short-term and long-term memory, but not attentional and working memory performance. Thus, the CRS offers a new proxy of cognitive reserve based on cognitively stimulating activities performed by healthy elderly people. Following an active lifestyle throughout life was associated with better intellectual performance and positive effects on relevant aspects of quality of life.

  8. Professionalizing the Estonian Reserve Component

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Everett, William

    1998-01-01

    .... In particular, citizen-soldier reserves can allow nations that do not face immediate external threats, such as Estonia, to meet their security requirements for less money than required by standing forces...

  9. Fractional Reserve Banking: Some Quibbles

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David

    2010-01-01

    We explore several unaddressed issues in George Selgin’s (1988) claim that the best monetary system to maintain monetary equilibrium is a fractional reserve free banking one. The claim that adverse clearing balances would limit credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking system is more troublesome than previously reckoned. Both lengthened clearing periods and interbank agreements render credit expansion unrestrained. “The theory of free banking” confuses increases in money held with...

  10. DIRECTION OF MODERNIZATION OF THE ARCTIC MARINE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Komkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the modern processes of formation and development of the marine transportation system in the Russian Arctic, analyzes its problem areas and reserves growth. Shows the status and prospects of development of cargo specialized fl eet of ice-class and icebreakers. Particular attention is paid to infrastructure, port management, port The possibility of creating special economic zones. Systematized direction of modernization of the Arctic marine transportation system.

  11. Constraints placed on Marine Corps ammunition requirements by the PPBS

    OpenAIRE

    Burlingham, Donald Michael.

    1988-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The purpose of this report is to determine whether the products of the Planning, Programming and Budgeting System (PPBS) are worthwhile, they must be measured against some form of output. The prepositioned War Reserve (PWR) of the Marine Corps is a measure of sustainability: a desired output of the PPBS. This thesis investigated the PPBS, the Marine Corps programming methodology and ammunition requirement generation to determine whethe...

  12. Algas marinhas bentônicas da Reserva Biológica Estadual da Praia do Sul, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Benthic marine algae of the State Biological Reserve of Praia do Sul, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lísia Mônica de Souza Gestinari

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Na Reserva foram encontradas 121 espécies, sendo 27 de Chlorophyceae, 21 de Phaeophyceae e 73 de Rhodophyceae. Dentre estas espécies, 38 são novas referências para a ilha, sendo que Cladophora catenata (L. Kütz. é pela primeira vez citada para o litoral do Rio de Janeiro. Não foram encontradas espécies endêmicas e nem flora específica de região insular. A comparação da flora da Reserva com a de regiões vizinhas indica alta percentagem de espécies em comum entre elas.A survey in the Reserve showed 27 species of Chlorophyceae, 21 of Phaeophyceae and 73 of Rhodophyceae. Among the recorded species, 38 are new references to the Island and Cladophora catenata (L. Kütz. is for the first time quoted to the Rio de Janeiro coast. Neither endemic species nor specific flora from insular area were found in the Reserve. A comparison between the flora of the Reserve and those of neighboring areas, showed a high percentage of similarity.

  13. Sediment impacts on marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James J; McGrath, Emily; Biggerstaff, Andrew; Bates, Tracey; Bennett, Holly; Marlow, Joseph; Shaffer, Megan

    2015-05-15

    Changes in sediment input to marine systems can influence benthic environments in many ways. Sponges are important components of benthic ecosystems world-wide and as sessile suspension feeders are likely to be impacted by changes in sediment levels. Despite this, little is known about how sponges respond to changes in settled and suspended sediment. Here we review the known impacts of sedimentation on sponges and their adaptive capabilities, whilst highlighting gaps in our understanding of sediment impacts on sponges. Although the literature clearly shows that sponges are influenced by sediment in a variety of ways, most studies confer that sponges are able to tolerate, and in some cases thrive, in sedimented environments. Critical gaps exist in our understanding of the physiological responses of sponges to sediment, adaptive mechanisms, tolerance limits, and the particularly the effect of sediment on early life history stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.

    2008-09-15

    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  15. Improved Effectiveness of Reserve Forces During Reserve Duty Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadaway, Harry H.

    The problem areas of motivation, job enrichment, recruiting, and retention are addressed from the viewpoint of the behavioral scientist. Special attention is given to relating job enrichment and motivation techniques, as successfully demonstrated in industry, to the United State Army Reserve. Research method utilized was a literature review…

  16. Bioprospecting Marine Plankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bowler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics.

  17. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  18. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  19. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  20. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  1. Green Marine: An environmental program to establish sustainability in marine transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tony R

    2016-04-15

    European maritime companies have adopted programs to limit operational impacts on the environment. For maritime companies in North America, the Green Marine Environmental Program (GMEP) offers a framework to establish and reduce environmental footprints. Green Marine (GM) participants demonstrate annual improvements of specific environmental performance indicators (e.g., reductions in air pollution emissions) to maintain certification. Participants complete annual self-evaluations with results determining rankings for performance indicators on a 1-to-5 scale. Self-evaluations are independently verified every two years to ensure rigor and individual results are made publicly available annually to achieve transparency. GM benefits the marine industry across North America by encouraging sustainable development initiatives. GM's credibility is reflected through a diverse network of environmental groups and government agencies that endorse and help shape the program. Merits of this relatively new maritime certification (not previously described in the academic literature), are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...... balancing measure, which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the electricity demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR...

  3. The marine diversity spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuman, Daniel C.; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts...... the form of the diversity spectrum', which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum...... is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope -0 center dot 5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between -0 center...

  4. Marine biodiversity in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Juan Manuel

    2002-01-01

    One decade ago, the seas and oceans were considered biologically less diverse that the terrestrial environment. Now it is known that it is on the contrary; 33 of the 34 categories of animals (phylum), they are represented in the sea, compared with those solely 15 that exist in earth. The investigation about the diversity of life in the sea has been relatively scorned, but there are big benefits that we can wait if this is protected. The captures of fish depend on it; the species captured by the fisheries are sustained of the biodiversity of their trophic chains and habitats. The marine species are probably the biggest reservoir of chemical substances that can be used in pharmaceutical products. The genetic material of some species can be useful in biotechnical applications. The paper treats topics like the current state of the knowledge in marine biodiversity and it is done a diagnostic of the marine biodiversity in Colombia

  5. Marine biosurfaces research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Naval Research (ONR) of the U.S. Navy is starting a basic research program to address the initial events that control colonization of surfaces by organisms in marine environments. The program “arises from the Navy's need to understand and ultimately control biofouling and biocorrosion in marine environments,” according to a Navy announcement.The program, “Biological Processes Controlling Surface Modification in the Marine Environment,” will emphasize the application of in situ techniques and modern molecular biological, biochemical, and biophysical approaches; it will also encourage the development of interdisciplinary projects. Specific areas of interest include sensing and response to environmental surface (physiology/physical chemistry), factors controlling movement to and retention at surfaces (behavior/hydrodynamics), genetic regulation of attachment (molecular genetics), and mechanisms of attachment (biochemistry/surface chemistry).

  6. Marine-Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Birmingham, R.; Sortland, B.

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses Marine-Design Education in view of present and forecasted demands of the maritime industry, determined by a drastically transforming economic and technological maritime environment. In this framework, this report discusses in depth IT-based Marine Design education (par. 4......) and reveals innovative educational concepts and initiatives, such as the EiT (Experts in a Team) concept (par. 3), the SFS (Student Friendly Software) initiative (par. 5), Education Driven Research (EDR, par. 6) and Research Based Education (RBE, par. 6). Nevertheless, the paper stresses the need...... for continuity between traditional and modern ways of teaching (par. 4) and points out that Marine Design education is not only about Design, but should also address project/business administration and decision making issues (par. 7)....

  7. Events Calendar: Smithsonian Marine Ecosystems Exhibit: Smithsonian Marine

    Science.gov (United States)

    current Smithsonian research on the plants and animals of the Indian River Lagoon and marine environments Station (SMS) at Fort Pierce Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce Website Search Box History Modeling Ecosystems Virtual Tour Facebook Instagram Twitter SMS Home › Smithsonian Marine

  8. New Waves in Marine Science Symposium: Marine Animal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Betty, Comp.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are the abstracts from three research projects on marine social systems which were a part of a marine science symposium. Five sets of activities on marine animal communication are included, one each for grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8 and 9-12, and informal education. (CW)

  9. 75 FR 19670 - Marine Highway Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Marine Highway Projects ACTION: Solicitation of applications for Marine highway projects. SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation is soliciting applications for Marine Highway Projects as specified in the America's Marine Highway Program Final Rule, MARAD...

  10. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Togeby, Mikael; Østergaard, Jacob

    This report summaries the research outcomes of the project ‘Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)’, which has received the support from Energinet.dk’s PSO program, Grant no. 2005-2-6380. The objective of this project is to investigate the technology of using electricity demands for providing...

  11. The biology of marine plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dring, M.J

    1982-01-01

    Since over 90% of the species of marine plants are algae, most of the book is devoted to the marine representatives of this group, with examples from all oceans and coasts of the world where detailed work has been done...

  12. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Ma, Xuan

    2017-08-28

    In this review, a comprehensive overview about the antifouling compounds from marine invertebrates is described. In total, more than 198 antifouling compounds have been obtained from marine invertebrates, specifically, sponges, gorgonian and soft corals.

  13. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Ma, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    In this review, a comprehensive overview about the antifouling compounds from marine invertebrates is described. In total, more than 198 antifouling compounds have been obtained from marine invertebrates, specifically, sponges, gorgonian and soft corals.

  14. The Danish Marine Monitoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ærtebjerg, G.

    1997-01-01

    Indeholder abstracts fra Workshop on Marine Monitoring Systems and Technology, Risø, 17-18 April 1996.......Indeholder abstracts fra Workshop on Marine Monitoring Systems and Technology, Risø, 17-18 April 1996....

  15. 76 FR 25308 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ...-XA165 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Jennifer Burns, Ph.D., University of Alaska Anchorage, Biology Department, 3101 Science Circle, Anchorage, AK, has been issued a permit to conduct [[Page 25309

  16. Marine Enzymes and Microorganisms for Bioethanol Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, M R; Natarajan, V; Krishnan, C

    Bioethanol is a potential alternative fuel to fossil fuels. Bioethanol as a fuel has several economic and environmental benefits. Though bioethanol is produced using starch and sugarcane juice, these materials are in conflict with food availability. To avoid food-fuel conflict, the second-generation bioethanol production by utilizing nonfood lignocellulosic materials has been extensively investigated. However, due to the complexity of lignocellulose architecture, the process is complicated and not economically competitive. The cultivation of lignocellulosic energy crops indirectly affects the food supplies by extensive land use. Marine algae have attracted attention to replace the lignocellulosic feedstock for bioethanol production, since the algae grow fast, do not use land, avoid food-fuel conflict and have several varieties to suit the cultivation environment. The composition of algae is not as complex as lignocellulose due to the absence of lignin, which renders easy hydrolysis of polysaccharides to fermentable sugars. Marine organisms also produce cold-active enzymes for hydrolysis of starch, cellulose, and algal polysaccharides, which can be employed in bioethanol process. Marine microoorganisms are also capable of fermenting sugars under high salt environment. Therefore, marine biocatalysts are promising for development of efficient processes for bioethanol production. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Identifying Sources of Marine Litter

    OpenAIRE

    VEIGA Joana Mira; FLEET David; KINSEY Sue; NILSSON Per; VLACHOGIANNI Thomais; WERNER Stefanie; GALGANI Francois; THOMPSON Richard; DAGEVOS Jeroen; GAGO Jesus; SOBRAL Paula; CRONIN Richard

    2016-01-01

    Marine litter is a global problem causing harm to marine wildlife, coastal communities and maritime activities. It also embodies an emerging concern for human health and safety. The reduction of marine litter pollution poses a complex challenge for humankind, requiring adjustments in human behaviour as well as in the different phases of the life-cycle of products and across multiple economic sectors. The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires European Member States to monitor...

  18. Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    Although reserve (or field) growth has proven to be an important factor contributing to new reserves in mature petroleum basins, it is still a poorly understood phenomenon. Limited studies show that the magnitude of reserve growth is controlled by several major factors, including (1) the reserve booking and reporting requirements in each country, (2) improvements in reservoir characterization and simulation, (3) application of enhanced oil recovery techniques, and (4) the discovery of new and extensions of known pools in discovered fields. Various combinations of these factors can affect the estimates of proven reserves in particular fields and may dictate repeated estimations of reserves during a field's life. This study explores the reserve growth in the 42 largest oil fields in the West Siberian Basin, which contain about 55 percent of the basin's total oil reserves. The West Siberian Basin occupies a vast swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River, and extends offshore into the Kara Sea; it is the richest petroleum province in Russia. About 600 oil and gas fields with original reserves of 144 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 1,200 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) have been discovered. The principal oil reserves and most of the oil fields are in the southern half of the basin, whereas the northern half contains mainly gas reserves. Sedimentary strata in the basin consist of Upper Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. Most oil is produced from Neocomian (Lower Cretaceous) marine to deltaic sandstone reservoirs, although substantial oil reserves are also in the marine Upper Jurassic and continental to paralic Lower to Middle Jurassic sequences. The majority of oil fields are in structural traps, which are gentle, platform-type anticlines with closures ranging from several tens of meters to as much as 150 meters (490 feet). Fields producing from stratigraphic traps are generally smaller except for the giant Talin field which

  19. Oceanic processes in marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, D.J.; Duedall, I.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers the following areas: bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons in marine environments; behavior of drilling fluid discharges off the coast of California; effects of drilling fluids on marine organisms; and the effects of radioactive waste disposal on marine amphipods

  20. Marine Renewable Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Conley, Daniel; Vicinanza, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Countries with coastlines may have valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, waves, and offshorewind.The potential to gather energy from the sea has recently gained interest in several nations, so Marine Renewable Energy Installations (hereinafter MREIs) will likely become...

  1. Marine and Estuarine Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reish, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of various pollutants on marine and estuarine organisms, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) effects of pesticides, dredging, dumping, sludge, and petroleum hydrocarbons; and (2) diseases and tissue abnormalities. A list of 441 references is also presented. (HM)

  2. NWS Marine Forecast Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    of Commerce Ocean Prediction Center National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Analysis & Unified Surface Analysis Ocean Ocean Products Ice & Icebergs NIC Ice Products NAIS Iceberg Analysis Social Media Facebook Twitter YouTube Search Search For Go NWS All NOAA NWS Marine Forecast Areas

  3. Marine fog: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koračin, Darko; Dorman, Clive E.; Lewis, John M.; Hudson, James G.; Wilcox, Eric M.; Torregrosa, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss physical processes over a wide range of spatial scales that govern the formation, evolution, and dissipation of marine fog. We consider marine fog as the collective combination of fog over the open sea along with coastal sea fog and coastal land fog. The review includes a history of sea fog research, field programs, forecasting methods, and detection of sea fog via satellite observations where similarity in radiative properties of fog top and the underlying sea induce further complexity. The main thrust of the study is to provide insight into causality of fog including its initiation, maintenance, and destruction. The interplay between the various physical processes behind the several stages of marine fog is among the most challenging aspects of the problem. An effort is made to identify this interplay between processes that include the microphysics of fog formation and maintenance, the influence of large-scale circulation and precipitation/clouds, radiation, turbulence (air-sea interaction), and advection. The environmental impact of marine fog is also addressed. The study concludes with an assessment of our current knowledge of the phenomenon, our principal areas of ignorance, and future lines of research that hold promise for advances in our understanding.

  4. Marine fungi: A critique

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Raghukumar, C.

    in the sea have been ignored to a large extent. However, several instances of terrestrial species of fungi, active in marine environment have been reported. The arguments to support the view that terrestrial species of fungi by virtue of their physiological...

  5. Marine complex adaptive systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigagli, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic and climate-related stressors challenge the health of nearly every part of the global oceans. They affect the capacity of oceans to regulate global weather and climate, as well as ocean productivity and food services, and result in the loss or degradation of marine habitats and

  6. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  7. Gas reserves, discoveries and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniere, A.

    2006-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2004, new discoveries, located mostly in the Asia/Pacific region, permitted a 71% produced reserve replacement rate. The Middle East and the offshore sector represent a growing proportion of world gas production Non-conventional gas resources are substantial but are not exploited to any significant extent, except in the United States, where they account for 30% of U.S. gas production. (author)

  8. Uranium reserves and exploration activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meehan, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    The strategy that ERDA plans to employ regarding resource appraisal is outlined. All types of uranium occurrences will be evaluated as sources of domestic ore reserves. Industry's exploration efforts will be compiled. These data will include information on land acquisition and costs, footage drilled and costs, estimates of exploration activities and expenditures, exploration for non-sandstone deposits, exploration in non-established areas, and foreign exploration plans and costs. Typical data in each of these areas are given

  9. Federal reservation of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Union Oil had developed or was seeking to develop wells on the land in Sonoma County, California in order to produce geothermal steam for generating electricity. The US Attorney General brought a quiet title action pursuant to 21(b) of the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 to determine whether geothermal resources are included in the mineral reservation under the Homestead Act. The US District Court granted Union Oil's motion to dismiss for failure to state a claim upon which relief may be granted. On appeal, the Ninth Circuit reversed and remanded. In summary, the court concluded on the basis of the legislative history of the Stock-Raising Homestead Act that sources of energy are intended to remain in the government's possession, and the purposes of the Act will be best served by including geothermal resources in the reservation of mineral interests. Noting the strictly agricultural purpose of the Act, the subsurface estate reservation was broadly interpreted, even though title passed to all rights that were not expressly reserved. The court left open on remand the question of estoppel of the government from interfering with private lessees by developing subsurface resources compensation.This is a unique and intriguing decision, as it opens wide the definition of ''mineral interest,'' construing it in the timely terms of a valuable natural resource that may be in great demand for future energy needs. The decision is being appealed to the United States Supreme Court, and it will be interesting to observe whether this liberal interpretation of mineral interests will be upheld.

  10. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  11. Ultrasound in evaluating ovarian reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ahmaed Shawky Sabek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound (TVS, as a less invasive technique instead of hormonal assay to evaluate the ovarian reserve. This study included fifty-five females with breast cancer and we compared the ovarian reserve for these patients by hormonal assay through measuring the serum AntiMullerian Hormone (AMH level and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH level before and after chemotherapy, and by transvaginal ultrasound through the ovarian volume (OV calculation and counting the Antral follicles (AFC before and after chemotherapy treatment. There was decline in the AntiMullerian Hormone level after chemotherapy by 27 ± 11.19% and decrease in the Antral follicle counts by 21 ± 13.43%. In conclusion there was strong relation between AMH level and AFC which makes the use of transvaginal ultrasound is a reliable alternative method to the hormonal assay to detect the ovarian reserve.

  12. Status of marine pollution research in South Africa (1960-present).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wepener, V; Degger, N

    2012-07-01

    The published literature on marine pollution monitoring research in South Africa from 1960 to present was evaluated. There has been a general decline in the number of papers from the 1980s and this can be linked to the absence of a marine pollution monitoring programme in South Africa. General trends observed were that contaminant exposure monitoring of metals predominates the research conducted to date. Monitoring results indicate that there has been a general decrease in metal concentrations in South African coastal waters and concentrations of metals and most organics in mussels are lower than in other industrialised nations. This is reflected in the general pristine nature and high biodiversity of the South African coastline. The establishment of a national marine pollution monitoring framework would stimulate marine pollution research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  14. Naval Reserve Annual Operating Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-29

    C. c ) CPi i 0 0 00 0 le C C.C~r In 1]1 In 00 It .- I to C-38 ’U2 WIX ’W~ - m u. -C-LC m4 C v , v ul FA ?w % -D 1 o r cl jc j, II t %c oK W)i Ir of... platform programs, while Program 11 contains 26 sub-programs each having a separate Reserve program sponsor. The distribution of Program 11 resources is...a mix of specific skills required to bring an active Navy oper-Iating platform to organizational manning. Each SRU is tailored to a specific ship

  15. Marine Bacterial Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique

    For decades, terrestrial microorganisms have been used as sources of countless enzymes and chemical compounds that have been produced by pharmaceutical and biotech companies and used by mankind. There is a need for new chemical compounds, including antibiotics,new enzymatic activities and new...... microorganisms to be used as cell factories for production. Therefore exploitation of new microbial niches and use of different strategies is an opportunity to boost discoveries. Even though scientists have started to explore several habitats other than the terrestrial ones, the marine environment stands out...... as a hitherto under-explored niche. This thesis work uses high-throughput sequencing technologies on a collection of marine bacteria established during the Galathea 3 expedition, with the purpose of unraveling new biodiversity and new bioactivities. Several tools were used for genomic analysis in order...

  16. Mariner 9 Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanel, R.; Schlachman, B.; Rodgers, D.; Breihan, E.; Bywaters, R.; Chapman, F.; Rhodes, M.; Vanous, D.

    1972-01-01

    The Michelson interferometer on Mariner 9 measures the thermal emission spectrum of Mars between 200 and 2000 per cm (between 5 and 50 microns) with a spectral resolution of 2.4 per cm in the apodized mode. A noise equivalent radiance of 0.5 x 10 to the minus 7th W/sq cm/ster/cm is deduced from data recorded in orbit around Mars. The Mariner interferometer deviates in design from the Nimbus 3 and 4 interferometers in several areas, notably, by a cesium iodide beam splitter and certain aspects of the digital information processing. Special attention has been given to the problem of external vibration. The instrument performance is demonstrated by calibration data and samples of Mars spectra.

  17. A Century in Reserve and Beyond

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monagle, James P

    2008-01-01

    ... Reserve, this Strategy Research Project (SRP) describes the role of the Army Reserve from its beginning as a reserve corps of medical doctors to that of a strategic reserve force, and then to its current operational role...

  18. Marine cloud brightening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein—have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud–albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action

  19. Marine Cloud Brightening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, H.; Connolly, P.; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Robert

    2012-09-07

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could - subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein - have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seedparticle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  20. Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    the tropical Mandovi 2 Zuari estuarine system are suggesting that the preponderant particle-colonizing bacteria perform better than their counterparts in free-living format. In their natural environments, microorganisms are exposed to a wide range of physical... Shanta Nair suggests, despite the immense clinical significance of antibiotics in health care, little is understood on the ecology of the organisms that produce them. Since marine environment harbors a wide range of microbes capable of exhibiting...

  1. Chemistry of marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, T.F.

    1977-01-01

    Some topics considered are as follows: characterization of sediments in the vicinity of offshore petroleum production; thermal alteration experiments on organic matter in recent marine sediments as a model for petroleum genesis; composition of polluted bottom sediments in Great Lakes harbors; distribution of heavy metals in sediment fractions; recent deposition of lead off the coast of southern California; release of trace constituents from sediments resuspended during dredging operations; and migration of chemical constituents in sediment-seawater interfaces

  2. Radioactive marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontavice, E. du

    1976-01-01

    Certain provision in international law aim to prevent radioactive marine pollution and others concern compensation of damage from nuclear pollution. Prevention requires regulation of the disposal of wastes from nuclear industry from the operation of nuclear powered ships and from transport of fissile materials. As regards damage, if the measures to limit the extent of the damage come under the law of the sea, the priority of nuclear law over maritime law is clear in respect of financial compensation. (Auth) [fr

  3. Marine cloud brightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-09-13

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could-subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein-have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  4. Faunistics (marine animals)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    These PowerPoint files are compiled from various sources: Internet, field guides, scientific monographs, textbooks, my own photos and drawings, etc. I have no copyright or permission to use most of the illustrations. The file is therefore only intended for internal use within the Marine Biology...... for identification have only been included for about a quarter of the species only, because of lack of time).     These files contain information of about 570 species of marine invertebrates found in the waters around Denmark. They should be the most common species. Which species should be selected for files like......) with the programme PowerPoint X for Mac® Service Release 1.     Comments and suggestions are welcome from students and colleagues. HD&P = Køie, Kristiansen & Weitemeyer, Havets dyr og planter. DN = Danmarks Natur, vol. 3, Havet     Tomas Cedhagen, Department of Marine Ecology, University of Aarhus, Finlandsgade 14...

  5. Marine botany. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawes, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    Marine plants are a diverse group that include unicellular algae, seaweeds, seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangrove forests. They carry out a variety of ecological functions and serve as the primary producers in coastal wetlands and oceanic waters. The theme that connects such a wide variety of plants is their ecology, which was also emphasized in the 1981 edition. The goal of this revision is to present taxonomic, physiological, chemical, and ecological aspects of marine plants, their adaptations, and how abiotic and biotic factors interact in their communities. The data are presented in a concise, comparative manner in order to identify similarities and differences between communities such as salt marsh and mangroves or subtidal seaweeds and seagrasses. To accomplish this, the text is organized into five chapters that introduce the marine habitats, consider abiotic and biotic factors, and anthropogenic influences on the communities followed by seven chapters that deal with microalgae, seaweeds, salt marshes, mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs. Two appendixes are included; one presents simple field techniques and the other is a summary of seaweed uses

  6. Marine Corps Joint Officer Management Policy and O-7 Joint Service Officer Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eck, Larry R

    2007-01-01

    .... The research was conducted at the request of Manpower and Reserve Affairs, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps to review current policies and their effectiveness in supporting the requirements in the FY 2005 National Defense Authorization Act...

  7. Il timore della guerra giusta le vie della pace nella filosofia politica di Baruch Spinoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliviero Angeli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies and analyses two distinct views that characterize Spinoza’s position on (just war, namely Machiavellism and a sort of Kantianism ante litteram. While Machiavellism influences Spinoza’s considerations about international relations, kantian-like arguments can be found in all passages that concern foreign policy. Hence, a complete account of Spinoza’s thoughts about war and peace can be given only if each one of these dimensions is given due attention. His arguments about the unconditional rightfulness of war may indeed appear to be anything but pacifistic, but they do not preclude a sincere concern about peace. On the contrary, as I’m arguing in this paper, Spinoza’s ingenious idea of a pacific foreign policy can be understood as a reaction to the historical failure of early modern theories of just war.

  8. El poder natural como derecho y el contrato social de racional utilidad en Baruch Spinoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Roberto Darós

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Se define primeramente la idea de conocimiento y de naturaleza de los que parte Spinoza. Se pasa luego a exponer el sentido de derecho, unido al de poder natural que yace en la filosofía spinoziana. Se analiza luego el origen del pacto social, centrado en la idea de utilidad común descubierta por la razón y vivida en la razón, ante el temor, y contra el interés particular de las pasiones individuales. Se deducen luego las formas de gobierno, sus características y ventajas. Se exponen las características de las personas en el ejercicio del poder político y la condición humana. En consecuencia, se reflexiona sobre el poder del Estado y la debilidad del individuo. Se deriva luego la reflexión sobre la concepción de la educación para un mejor Estado y un mejor ciudadano. En ese contexto, se analizan los derechos individuales y los derechos civiles. Finalmente se hace una crítica a la concepción spinoziana que centra la idea de pacto en la idea de utilidad y no en la justicia y en la persona sede del derecho, sin la cual ninguna sociedad puede respetar las características del ser humano. La utilidad es aceptable solo si sigue a la justicia, no si se antepone a ella.

  9. Baruch Spinoza and the naturalisation of the Bible: An epistemological investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolaas J. Gronum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the naturalisation of the Bible. Three voices are of special importance in the narrative presented in this article; they are Aristotle (384–322 BC, Rene Descartes (1596–1650 and Baruc Spinoza (1632–1677. This article will investigate the scientific method and metaphysics espoused by each of the three scholars, thereby highlighting changes in scientific method and metaphysics that lead to the naturalisation of the Bible. Firstly, Aristotle pioneered a scientific method (his logic that would dominate for centuries, as well as a highly influential metaphysics. Secondly, Descartes, witnessing the horrors of the Thirty Years War and seeing first-hand the new discoveries that brought about the scientific revolution, reacted against Aristotle’s metaphysics. Ironically he then used Aristotle’s scientific method to provide a foundation for the new science resulting in Descartes’s famous dualism. Thirdly, Spinoza, equally horrified by the amount of religious violence of his time, reacts against Descartes’s dualism, providing scholars with a monist metaphysics that would contribute greatly to the naturalisation of the Bible. This article will be relevant to theologians who wish to engage more fully with contemporary Western culture.

  10. Optimizing Marine Corps Personnel Assignments Using an Integer Programming Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Corps. vi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK vii TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION ...throughout our careers. xvi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION The Marine Corps Manpower and Reserve Affairs (M&RA) office has the...2012 BAH Rates-with Dependents. Defense Travel Mangement Office. (2011, December). 2012 BAH Rates-without Dependents. M ileage C ost 1 Per D iem

  11. Viruses manipulate the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Forest; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2009-05-14

    Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web. Most studies have focused on their role as predators and parasites, but many of the interactions between marine viruses and their hosts are much more complicated. A series of recent studies has shown that viruses have the ability to manipulate the life histories and evolution of their hosts in remarkable ways, challenging our understanding of this almost invisible world.

  12. A Policy Alternative Analysis and Simplified Scoring Method to Assess Policy Options for Marine Conservation Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharuga, S. M.; Reams, M.

    2016-12-01

    Traditional approaches to marine conservation and management are increasingly being found as inadequate; and, consequently, more complex ecosystem-based approaches to protecting marine ecosystems are growing in popularity. Ecosystem-based approaches, however, can be particularly challenging at a local level where resources and knowledge of specific marine conservation components may be limited. Marine conservation areas are known by a variety of names globally, but can be divided into four general types: Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), Marine Reserves, Fishery Reserves, and Ecological Reserves (i.e. "no take zones"). Each type of conservation area involves specific objectives, program elements and likely socioeconomic consequences. As an aid to community stakeholders and decision makers considering establishment of a marine conservation area, a simple method to compare and score the objectives and attributes of these four approaches is presented. A range of evaluation criteria are considered, including conservation of biodiversity and habitat, effective fishery management, overall cost-effectiveness, fairness to current users, enhancement of recreational activities, fairness to taxpayers, and conservation of genetic diversity. Environmental and socioeconomic costs and benefits of each type of conservation area are also considered. When exploring options for managing the marine environment, particular resource conservation needs must be evaluated individually on a case-by-case basis and the type of conservation area established must be tailored accordingly. However, MPAs are often more successful than other conservation areas because they offer a compromise between the needs of society and the environment, and therefore represent a viable option for ecosystem-based management.

  13. Evidence of marine debris usage by the ghost crab Ocypode quadrata (Fabricius, 1787).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Leonardo Lopes; Rangel, Danilo Freitas; Zalmon, Ilana Rosental

    2018-03-01

    Sandy beaches are sites of marine debris stranding, but the interaction of beach biota with waste is poorly studied. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the ghost crab Ocypode quadrata selects marine debris by types using a non-destructive method on sandy beaches of Southeastern Brazil. We found marine debris in 7% of 1696 surveyed burrows, and the ghost crabs selectivity was mainly by soft plastic (30%), straw (11%), rope (6%) and foam (4%). Burrows with marine debris showed higher occupation rate (~68%) compared to burrows without debris (~28%), indicating that these materials may increase the capacity of ghost crabs to memorize their burrows placement (homing). The percentage of marine debris was not always related to their amount in the drift line, but ghost crabs used more debris near urbanized areas. Future studies should test whether ghost crabs are using marine debris for feeding, homing or other mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of environmental biotechnology in exploring, exploiting, monitoring, preserving, protecting and decontaminating the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Arff, Johanne; Banat, Ibrahim M; Broch, Ole Jacob; Daffonchio, Daniele; Edvardsen, Torgeir; Eguiraun, Harkaitz; Giuliano, Laura; Handå, Aleksander; López-de-Ipiña, Karmele; Marigomez, Ionan; Martinez, Iciar; Øie, Gunvor; Rojo, Fernando; Skjermo, Jorunn; Zanaroli, Giulio; Fava, Fabio

    2015-01-25

    In light of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and the EU Thematic Strategy on the Sustainable Use of Natural Resources, environmental biotechnology could make significant contributions in the exploitation of marine resources and addressing key marine environmental problems. In this paper 14 propositions are presented focusing on (i) the contamination of the marine environment, and more particularly how to optimize the use of biotechnology-related tools and strategies for predicting and monitoring contamination and developing mitigation measures; (ii) the exploitation of the marine biological and genetic resources to progress with the sustainable, eco-compatible use of the maritime space (issues are very diversified and include, for example, waste treatment and recycling, anti-biofouling agents; bio-plastics); (iii) environmental/marine biotechnology as a driver for a sustainable economic growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Marine oil spill risk mapping for accidental pollution and its application in a coastal city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Dongdong; Liang, Bin; Bao, Chenguang; Ma, Minghui; Xu, Yan; Yu, Chunyan

    2015-07-15

    Accidental marine oil spill pollution can result in severe environmental, ecological, economic and other consequences. This paper discussed the model of Marine Oil Spill Risk Mapping (MOSRM), which was constructed as follows: (1) proposing a marine oil spill risk system based on the typical marine oil spill pollution accidents and prevailing risk theories; (2) identifying suitable indexes that are supported by quantitative sub-indexes; (3) constructing the risk measuring models according to the actual interactions between the factors in the risk system; and (4) assessing marine oil spill risk on coastal city scale with GIS to map the overall risk. The case study of accidental marine oil spill pollution in the coastal area of Dalian, China was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The coastal areas of Dalian were divided into three zones with risk degrees of high, medium, and low. And detailed countermeasures were proposed for specific risk zones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatial Patterns of Inshore Marine Soundscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Passive acoustic monitoring was employed to investigate spatial patterns of soundscapes within a marine reserve. High energy level broadband snaps dominated nearly all habitat soundscapes. Snaps, the principal acoustic feature of soundscapes, were primarily responsible for the observed spatial patterns, and soundscapes appeared to retain a level of compositional and configurational stability. In the presence of high-level broadband snaps, soundscape composition was more influenced by geographic location than habitat type. Future research should focus on investigating the spatial patterns of soundscapes across a wider range of coastal and offshore seascapes containing a variety of distinct ecosystems and habitats.

  17. Global marine radioactivity database (GLOMARD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinec, P.P.; Gayol, J.; Togawa, O.

    1999-01-01

    In response to the request of Member States and under the IAEA's mandate, the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) in Monaco has established and maintains a Global Marine Radioactivity Database (GLOMARD). It is a vast project compiling radionuclide measurements taken in the marine environment. It consists of systematic input of all radionuclide concentration data available for sea water, sediment, biota and suspended matter. The GLOMARD is therefore a powerful tool for the researchers of MEL as it integrates the results of analyses in most of the areas of the marine environment which have been investigated

  18. Marine biodiversity and fishery sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Kwang-Tsao

    2009-01-01

    Marine fish is one of the most important sources of animal protein for human use, especially in developing countries with coastlines. Marine fishery is also an important industry in many countries. Fifty years ago, many people believed that the ocean was so vast and so resilient that there was no way the marine environment could be changed, nor could marine fishery resources be depleted. Half a century later, we all agree that the depletion of fishery resources is happening mainly due to anthropogenic factors such as overfishing, habitat destruction, pollution, invasive species introduction, and climate change. Since overfishing can cause chain reactions that decrease marine biodiversity drastically, there will be no seafood left after 40 years if we take no action. The most effective ways to reverse this downward trend and restore fishery resources are to promote fishery conservation, establish marine-protected areas, adopt ecosystem-based management, and implement a "precautionary principle." Additionally, enhancing public awareness of marine conservation, which includes eco-labeling, fishery ban or enclosure, slow fishing, and MPA (marine protected areas) enforcement is important and effective. In this paper, we use Taiwan as an example to discuss the problems facing marine biodiversity and sustainable fisheries.

  19. Recent Advances in Marine Enzymes for Biotechnological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R N; Porto, A L M

    In the last decade, new trends in the food and pharmaceutical industries have increased concern for the quality and safety of products. The use of biocatalytic processes using marine enzymes has become an important and useful natural product for biotechnological applications. Bioprocesses using biocatalysts like marine enzymes (fungi, bacteria, plants, animals, algae, etc.) offer hyperthermostability, salt tolerance, barophilicity, cold adaptability, chemoselectivity, regioselectivity, and stereoselectivity. Currently, enzymatic methods are used to produce a large variety of products that humans consume, and the specific nature of the enzymes including processing under mild pH and temperature conditions result in fewer unwanted side-effects and by-products. This offers high selectivity in industrial processes. The marine habitat has been become increasingly studied because it represents a huge source potential biocatalysts. Enzymes include oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases, isomerases, ligases, and lyases that can be used in food and pharmaceutical applications. Finally, recent advances in biotechnological processes using enzymes of marine organisms (bacterial, fungi, algal, and sponges) are described and also our work on marine organisms from South America, especially marine-derived fungi and bacteria involved in biotransformations and biodegradation of organic compounds. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  1. The Pelagos Sanctuary for Mediterranean marine mammals: Marine Protected Area (MPA) or marine polluted area? The case study of the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossi, Maria Cristina; Panti, Cristina; Marsili, Letizia; Maltese, Silvia; Spinsanti, Giacomo; Casini, Silvia; Caliani, Ilaria; Gaspari, Stefania; Muñoz-Arnanz, Juan; Jimenez, Begoña; Finoia, Maria Grazia

    2013-05-15

    The concurrence of man-made pressures on cetaceans in the Mediterranean Sea is potentially affecting population stability and marine biodiversity. This needs to be proven for the only pelagic marine protected area in the Mediterranean Sea: the Pelagos Sanctuary for Mediterranean Marine Mammals. Here we applied a multidisciplinary tool, using diagnostic markers elaborated in a statistical model to rank toxicological stress in Mediterranean cetaceans. As a case study we analyzed persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals combined with a wide range of diagnostic markers of exposure to anthropogenic contaminants and genetic variation as marker of genetic erosion in striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) skin biopsies. Finally, a statistical model was applied to obtain a complete toxicological profile of the striped dolphin in the Pelagos Sanctuary and other Mediterranean areas (Ionian Sea and Strait of Gibraltar). Here we provide the first complete evidence of the toxicological stress in cetaceans living in Pelagos Sanctuary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Persistent marine debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the distribution of persistent marine debris, adrift on world oceans and stranded on beaches globally, is reviewed and related to the known inputs and transport by the major surface currents. Since naturally occurring processes eventually degrade petroleum in the environment, international measures to reduce the inputs have been largely successful in alleviating oil pollution on a global, if not on a local, scale. Many plastics, however, are so resistant to natural degradation that merely controlling inputs will be insufficient, and more drastic and costly measures will be needed to cope with the emerging global problem posed by these materials

  3. Performance Analysis of the United States Marine Corps War Reserve Materiel Program Process Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    55 2. Cost /Benefit Analysis of Maintaining Inventory .......................55 B. TRANSPORTATION...REVIEW A. DOD LOGISTICS OVERVIEW Acquiring and supplying materiel to deployed forces is a complicated process. While we conducted our analysis on... Cost /Benefit Analysis of Maintaining Inventory Additionally, should certain item types prove to be more prone to delays or incur proportionally

  4. 75 FR 18095 - America's Marine Highway Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Marine Highway Transportation. Authority: Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, Sections 1121...] RIN 2133-AB70 America's Marine Highway Program AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of... interim final rule that established America's Marine Highway Program, under which the Secretary will...

  5. Marine conservation strategies for Maharashtra Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    , Wildlife Sanctuaries, Marine Parks and Protected Areas. Detailed studies of 37 sites along the Maharashtra Coast, for their marine biota and also the ecological conditions, were taken up. Out of these, seven most luxuriant areas in marine biodiversity have...

  6. A global census of marine microbes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amaral-Zettler, L.; Artigas, L.F.; Baross, J.; LokaBharathi, P.A; Boetius, A; Chandramohan, D.; Herndl, G.; Kogure, K.; Neal, P.; Pedros-Alio, C.; Ramette, A; Schouten, S.; Stal, L.; Thessen, A; De Leeuw, J.; Sogin, M.

    In this chapter we provide a brief history of what is known about marine microbial diversity, summarize our achievements in performing a global census of marine microbes, and reflect on the questions and priorities for the future of the marine...

  7. SANCOR: Summary report on marine research 1987

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SANCOR

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available , Marine Linefish, Marine Pollution, Marine Sedimentology and the newly formed Ocean Engineering programme. This report includes brief statements on the activities of each of these programmes in 1987 and emphasizes important findings and conclusions...

  8. Preamble to marine microbiology: Facets and opportunities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    The book titled 'Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities' is an attempt to bring together some facets of marine microbiology as have been made out by many contemporaries in particular from the tropical marine regions. There are 18 contributed...

  9. Radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki

    2001-01-01

    The concentration and accumulation of radionuclides in marine organisms were explained in this paper. Secular change of the radioactivity concentration of 137 Cs in seaweed in coastal area of Japan showed more than 5Bq/kg-fresh in the first half of 1960, but decreased less than 1 Bq/kg-fresh after then and attained to less than 0.1 Bq/kg-fresh in 1990s. However, the value increased a while in 1986, which indicated the effect of Chernobyl accident. The accident increased 137 Cs of shellfish near Japan. The concentration of 239+240 Pu was the lowest value in muscles of fish, but increased from 1.7 to 42.3 mBq/kg wet wt in seaweed in 1999. 99 Tc concentration of seaweed showed from 100 to 1000 times as much as that of seawater. Radionuclides in the Irish Sea are originated from Sellafield reprocessing plant. The concentration factors of macro-algae and surface water fish (IAEA,1985) were shown. Analytical results of U in 61 kinds of marine organs showed that the concentration was different in the part of organ. The higher concentration of U was observed in hard tissue of fish. The concentration factor was different between chemical substances with the same radionuclides. (S.Y.)

  10. Marine and freshwater toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, James M

    2006-01-01

    In a very busy and exciting year, 2005 included First Action approval of a much needed official method for paralytic shellfish toxins and multiple international toxin symposia highlighted by groundbreaking research. These are the first-year milestones and activities of the Marine and Freshwater Toxins Task Force and Analytical Community. Inaugurated in 2004 and described in detail in last year's General Referee Report (1) this international toxins group has grown to 150 members from many regions and countries. Perhaps most important they are now making important and global contributions to food safety and to providing alternatives to animal-based assays. Official Method 2005.06 was first approved in late 2004 by the Task Force and subsequently Official First Action in 2005 (2) by the Methods Committee on Natural Toxins and Food Allergens and the Official Methods Board. This nonproprietary method (3) is a precolumn oxidation, liquid chromatographic method that makes good use of fluorescence detection to provide high sensitivity detection of the saxitoxins. It has also proven to be rugged enough for regulatory use and the highest level of validation. As pointed out in the report of method principle investigator and Study Director James Lawrence, approval of 2005.06 now provides the first official alternative to the mouse bioassay after many decades of shellfish monitoring. This past year in April 2005 the group also held their first international conference, "Marine and Freshwater Toxins Analysis: Ist Joint Symposium and AOAC Task Force Meeting," in Baiona, Spain. The 4-day conference consisted of research and stakeholder presentations and symposium-integrated subgroup sessions on ciguatoxins, saxitoxin assays and liquid chromatography (LC) methods for saxitoxins and domoic acids, okadaiates and azaspiracids, and yessotoxins. Many of these subgroups were recently formed in 2005 and are working towards their goals of producing officially validated analytical methods

  11. Plastics in the Marine Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kara Lavender

    2017-01-03

    Plastics contamination in the marine environment was first reported nearly 50 years ago, less than two decades after the rise of commercial plastics production, when less than 50 million metric tons were produced per year. In 2014, global plastics production surpassed 300 million metric tons per year. Plastic debris has been detected worldwide in all major marine habitats, in sizes from microns to meters. In response, concerns about risks to marine wildlife upon exposure to the varied forms of plastic debris have increased, stimulating new research into the extent and consequences of plastics contamination in the marine environment. Here, I present a framework to evaluate the current understanding of the sources, distribution, fate, and impacts of marine plastics. Despite remaining knowledge gaps in mass budgeting and challenges in investigating ecological impacts, the increasing evidence of the ubiquity of plastics contamination in the marine environment, the continued rapid growth in plastics production, and the evidence-albeit limited-of demonstrated impacts to marine wildlife support immediate implementation of source-reducing measures to decrease the potential risks of plastics in the marine ecosystem.

  12. Plastics in the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kara Lavender

    2017-01-01

    Plastics contamination in the marine environment was first reported nearly 50 years ago, less than two decades after the rise of commercial plastics production, when less than 50 million metric tons were produced per year. In 2014, global plastics production surpassed 300 million metric tons per year. Plastic debris has been detected worldwide in all major marine habitats, in sizes from microns to meters. In response, concerns about risks to marine wildlife upon exposure to the varied forms of plastic debris have increased, stimulating new research into the extent and consequences of plastics contamination in the marine environment. Here, I present a framework to evaluate the current understanding of the sources, distribution, fate, and impacts of marine plastics. Despite remaining knowledge gaps in mass budgeting and challenges in investigating ecological impacts, the increasing evidence of the ubiquity of plastics contamination in the marine environment, the continued rapid growth in plastics production, and the evidence—albeit limited—of demonstrated impacts to marine wildlife support immediate implementation of source-reducing measures to decrease the potential risks of plastics in the marine ecosystem.

  13. Biodiversity of arctic marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mecklenburg, Catherine W.; Møller, Peter Rask; Steinke, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Taxonomic and distributional information on each fish species found in arctic marine waters is reviewed, and a list of families and species with commentary on distributional records is presented. The list incorporates results from examination of museum collections of arctic marine fishes dating b...

  14. Marine line fish research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SANCOR

    1979-04-01

    Full Text Available This report outlines the framework for a marine line fish programme under the aegis of the South African National Committee for Oceanographic Research (SANCOR). An attempt is made to assess the state of knowledge about South African marine line...

  15. MERCURY IN MARINE LIFE DATABASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the Mercury in Marine Life Project is to organize information on estuarine and marine species so that EPA can better understand both the extent of monitoring for mercury and level of mercury contamination in the biota of coastal environments. This report follows a ...

  16. 75 FR 76399 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [File No. 781-1824] RIN 0648-XZ66 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice; receipt of application for permit amendment; extension of public...

  17. Marine Biology and Human Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, F. S.

    1976-01-01

    Marine biology has become an important area for study throughout the world. The author of this article discusses some of the important discoveries and fields of research in marine biology that are useful for mankind. Topics include food from the sea, fish farming, pesticides, pollution, and conservation. (MA)

  18. Marine Casualty and Pollution Data for Researchers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  19. Biosynthesis of 3-Dimethylsulfoniopropionate in Marine Algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhodes, David

    2000-01-01

    ...) in marine algae, including identification of intermediates and enzymes of the pathway in the macroalgae Enteromorpha Intestinalis, and three diverse marine phytoplankton species; Tetraselmis sp...

  20. A Guideline for Marine Corps Financial Managers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wright, Anthone

    1998-01-01

    ...), and Marine Corps orders, publications and directives to determine those keys areas considered most essential to Marine Corps financial management specialists in the performance of their duties...

  1. Antimycobacterial Metabolites from Marine Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daletos, Georgios; Ancheeva, Elena; Chaidir, Chaidir; Kalscheuer, Rainer; Proksch, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Marine organisms play an important role in natural product-based drug research due to accumulation of structurally unique and bioactive metabolites. The exploration of marine-derived compounds may significantly extend the scientific knowledge of potential scaffolds for antibiotic drug discovery. Development of novel antitubercular agents is especially significant as the emergence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains remains threateningly high. Marine invertebrates (i.e., sponges, corals, gorgonians) as a source of new chemical entities are the center of research for several scientific groups, and the wide spectrum of biological activities of marine-derived compounds encourages scientists to carry out investigations in the field of antibiotic research, including tuberculosis treatment. The present review covers published data on antitubercular natural products from marine invertebrates grouped according to their biogenetic origin. Studies on the structure-activity relationships of these important leads are highlighted as well. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Marine spatial planning in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos; Agapiou, Athos; Mettas, Christodoulos; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Evagorou, Evagoras; Cuca, Branka; Papoutsa, Christiana; Nisantzi, Argyro; Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet; Soulis, George; Xagoraris, Zafiris; Lysandrou, Vasiliki; Aliouris, Kyriacos; Ioannou, Nicolas; Pavlogeorgatos, Gerasimos

    2015-06-01

    Marine Spatial Planning (MSP), which is in concept similar to land-use planning, is a public process by which the relevant Member State's authorities analyse and organise human activities in marine areas to achieve ecological, economic and social objectives. MSP aims to promote sustainable growth of maritime economies, sustainable development of marine areas and sustainable use of marine resources. This paper highlights the importance of MSP and provides basic outcomes of the main European marine development. The already successful MSP plans can provide useful feedback and guidelines for other countries that are in the process of implementation of an integrated MSP, such as Cyprus. This paper presents part of the MSP project, of which 80% funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and 20% from national contribution. An overview of the project is presented, including data acquisition, methodology and preliminary results for the implementation of MSP in Cyprus.

  3. Evaluation of impairment of DNA in marine gastropod, Morula granulata as a biomarker of marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, A; Bhagat, Jacky; Sarker, Subhodeep

    2014-08-01

    The impairment of DNA in marine gastropod Morula granulata was evaluated in terms of the loss of DNA integrity in the species as a measure of the impact of genotoxic contaminants prevalent in the marine environment along the coast of Goa, India. The extent of DNA damage occurred in the marine gastropods collected from different sampling sites such as Arambol, Anjuna, Sinquerim, Dona Paula, Bogmalo, Hollant, Velsao, Betul and Palolem along the coast of Goa was measured following the technique of partial alkaline unwinding as well as comet assays. The highest DNA integrity was observed at Arambol (F, 0.75), identified as the reference site, whereas the lowest DNA integrity at Hollant (F, 0.33) situated between the two most contaminated sites at Bogmalo and Velsao. The impact of genotoxic contaminants on marine gastropods was pronounced by their low DNA integrity at Sinquerim (F, 0.40) followed by Betul (F, 0.47), Velsao (F, 0.51), Anjuna (F, 0.54), Bogmalo (F, 0.55), Dona Paula (F, 0.67) and Palolem (F, 0.70). The extent of DNA damage occurred in M. granulata due to ecotoxicological impact of the prevailing marine pollutants along the coast of Goa was further substantiated by comet assay and expressed in terms of %head-DNA, %tail DNA, tail length and Olive tail moment. The single cell gel electrophoresis of M. granulata clearly showed relatively higher olive tail moment in the marine gastropod from the contaminated sites, Anjuna, Hollant, Velsao and Betul. The variation in the mean %head DNA at different sampling sites clearly indicated that the extent of DNA damage in marine gastropod increases with the increase in the levels of contamination at different sampling sites along the coast. The stepwise multiple regression analysis of the water quality parameters showed significant correlation between the variation in DNA integrity and PAH in combination with NO3, salinity and PO4 (R¯(2), 0.90). The measurement of DNA integrity in M. granulata thus provides an early

  4. 24 CFR 891.605 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.605... 8 Assistance § 891.605 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Borrower shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance, and repair and...

  5. 24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.405....405 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Owner shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items...

  6. Veterinary Science Students, Center Changing a Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwater, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    Kayenta is a rural community located in northeastern Arizona on a Navajo reservation. On the reservation, many families rely on their livestock for income, and as a result, many reservation high school students show a great interest in agricultural education. Having livestock on the reservation is not just a source of income, but also part of a…

  7. Calculation program development for spinning reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This study is about optimal holding of spinning reserve and optimal operation for it. It deals with the purpose and contents of the study, introduction of the spinning reserve electricity, speciality of the spinning reserve power, the result of calculation, analysis for limited method of optimum load, calculation of requirement for spinning reserve, analysis on measurement of system stability with summary, purpose of the analysis, cause of impact of the accident, basics on measurement of spinning reserve and conclusion. It has the reference on explanation for design of spinning reserve power program and using and trend about spinning reserve power in Korea.

  8. Marine radioecology. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palsson, S.E.

    1998-06-01

    Results of the EKO-1 project for the period 1994-1997 are summarised in this report. The aim of the project was to make a joint Nordic study on radionuclides in sediment and water and the interaction between these two phases. Relatively less emphasis has been put on this factor compared to others in previous Nordic studies on marine radioecology. For some of the participating countries this work was the first of its kind undertaken. The project work involved field, laboratory and model studies. Results of the study have appeared in various scientific journal and it has formed the bases for two Ph.D. theses and two M.Sc. theses. (au)

  9. Marine Synechococcus Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuer, S.; Deng, W.; Cruz, B. N.; Monks, L.

    2016-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are considered to play an important role in the oceanic biological carbon pump, especially in oligotrophic regions. But as single cells are too small to sink, their carbon export has to be mediated by aggregate formation and possible consumption by zooplankton producing sinking fecal pellets. Here we report results on the aggregation of the ubiquitous marine pico-cyanobacterium Synechococcus as a model organism. We first investigated the mechanism behind such aggregation by studying the potential role of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) and the effects of nutrient (nitrogen or phosphorus) limitation on the TEP production and aggregate formation of these pico-cyanobacteria. We further studied the aggregation and subsequent settling in roller tanks and investigated the effects of the clays kaolinite and bentonite in a series of concentrations. Our results show that despite of the lowered growth rates, Synechococcus in nutrient limited cultures had larger cell-normalized TEP production, formed a greater volume of aggregates, and resulted in higher settling velocities compared to results from replete cultures. In addition, we found that despite their small size and lack of natural ballasting minerals, Synechococcus cells could still form aggregates and sink at measureable velocities in seawater. Clay minerals increased the number and reduced the size of aggregates, and their ballasting effects increased the sinking velocity and carbon export potential of aggregates. In comparison with the Synechococcus, we will also present results of the aggregation of the pico-cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus in roller tanks. These results contribute to our understanding in the physiology of marine Synechococcus as well as their role in the ecology and biogeochemistry in oligotrophic oceans.

  10. Microbial dehalogenation of organohalides in marine and estuarine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanaroli, Giulio; Negroni, Andrea; Häggblom, Max M; Fava, Fabio

    2015-06-01

    Marine sediments are the ultimate sink and a major entry way into the food chain for many highly halogenated and strongly hydrophobic organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT). Microbial reductive dehalogenation in anaerobic sediments can transform these contaminants into less toxic and more easily biodegradable products. Although little is still known about the diversity of respiratory dehalogenating bacteria and their catabolic genes in marine habitats, the occurrence of dehalogenation under actual site conditions has been reported. This suggests that the activity of dehalogenating microbes may contribute, if properly stimulated, to the in situ bioremediation of marine and estuarine contaminated sediments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Immunotoxicological effects of environmental contaminants on marine bivalves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, T

    2015-09-01

    Coastal areas are complex environments frequently contaminated by numerous pollutants that represent a potential threat to marine organisms, especially bivalves. These pollutants may have major ecological consequences. Although effects of different environmental contaminants on the immune system in marine bivalves have been already reported, a few of reviews summarizes these effects. The main purpose of this chapter relies on summarizing recent body of data on immunotoxicity in bivalves subjected to contaminants. Immune effects of heavy metals, pesticides, HAP, PCB and pharmaceuticals are presented and discussed and a particular section is devoted to nanoparticle effects. A large body of literature is now available on this topic. Finally, the urgent need of a better understanding of complex interactions between contaminants, marine bivalves and infectious diseases is noticed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Improving the implementation of marine monitoring in the northeast Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrell, W R

    2018-03-01

    Marine monitoring in the northeast Atlantic is delivered within identifiable monitoring themes, established through time and defined by the geographical area and policy drivers they serve, the sampling methodologies they use, their assessment methodologies, their funding and governance structures and the people or organisations involved in their implementation. Within a monitoring theme, essential components for effective monitoring are governance, strategy and work plan, sampling protocols, quality assurance, and data and assessment structures. This simple framework is used to analyse two monitoring theme case studies; national ecosystem health monitoring, and regional fish stock monitoring. Such essential component analyses, within marine monitoring themes, can help improve monitoring implementation by identifying gaps and overlaps. Once monitoring themes are recognised, explicitly defined and streamlined, travel towards integrated monitoring may be made easier as the current lack of clarity in thematic marine monitoring implementation is one barrier to integration at both national and regional scales. Copyright © 2018 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Marine Enzymes: Production and Applications for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T Eswara; Imchen, M; Kumavath, R

    Marine microbial enzymes have wide applications in bioindustries. Selection of microorganisms for enzyme production at the industrial level requires good yield and high production rate. A number of enzymes such as amylase, caseinase, lipase, gelatinase, and DNases have been discovered from microbes isolated from extreme marine environments. Such enzymes are thermostable, tolerant to a varied range of pH and other harsh conditions required in industrial applications. Novelty in their structure and characteristics has shown promising scope to the researchers in academia and industry. In this chapter, we present a bird's eye view on recent research works in the field of enzyme production from marine origin as well as their potential biological applications relevant to human health. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pollution exposure on marine protected areas: A global assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partelow, Stefan; von Wehrden, Henrik; Horn, Olga

    2015-11-15

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) face many challenges in their aim to effectively conserve marine ecosystems. In this study we analyze the extent of pollution exposure on the global fleet of MPAs. This includes indicators for current and future pollution and the implications for regionally clustered groups of MPAs with similar biophysical characteristics. To cluster MPAs into characteristic signature groups, their bathymetry, baseline biodiversity, distance from shore, mean sea surface temperature and mean sea surface salinity were used. We assess the extent at which each signature group is facing exposure from multiple pollution types. MPA groups experience similar pollution exposure on a regional level. We highlight how the challenges that MPAs face can be addressed through governance at the appropriate scale and design considerations for integrated terrestrial and marine management approaches within regional level networks. Furthermore, we present diagnostic social-ecological indicators for addressing the challenges facing unsuccessful MPAs with practical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preferences for Management of Near-Shore Marine Ecosystems: A Choice Experiment in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophal Chhun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in New Zealand in establishing “Customary Management Areas” (taiāpure and mātaitai and Marine Reserves to support Māori cultural practices and restore declining biodiversity and fish stocks. Allocation of near-shore marine areas for these management systems potentially benefits the larger public, but it has often been vigorously opposed by recreational and commercial fishers. This paper reports estimates of the relative values held by the public toward four potentially conflicting uses of near-shore marine areas. These estimates come from a web-based choice survey completed by 1055 respondents recruited from throughout New Zealand. The response rate was especially high at 60%. We present results weighted to the characteristics of the population and test the results against a variety of well-known sources of survey bias. Scenario development suggests that some reallocation of near-shore marine areas to any of the management systems under discussion alternative to the status quo is likely to yield a welfare gain. A combination of marine reserves and taiāpure is most preferred. The exercise supports the use of discrete choice experiments to provide crucial information about difficult-to-quantify public values for aspects of management of near-shore marine areas, such as proposed taiāpure, mātaitai, or marine reserves.

  16. A preliminary spatial assessment of risk: Marine birds and chronic oil pollution on Canada's Pacific coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, C H; O'Hara, P D; Bertazzon, S; Morgan, K; Underwood, F E; Paquet, P C

    2016-12-15

    Chronic oil pollution poses substantial risks to marine birds and other marine wildlife worldwide. On Canada's Pacific coast, the negative ecological consequences to marine birds and marine ecosystems in general remain poorly understood. Using information relating to oil spill probability of occurrence, areas of overall importance to marine birds, and the at-sea distribution and density of 12 marine bird species and seven bird groups, including multiple Species at Risk, we undertook a spatial assessment of risk. Our results identify two main areas important to marine birds potentially at higher risk of exposure to oil. For individual bird species or species groups, those predicted to have elevated bird densities near the mainland and the northeast coast of Vancouver Island were identified as being at higher potential risk of exposure. Our results, however, should be considered preliminary. As with other anthropogenic stressors, in order to better understand and subsequently mitigate the consequences of chronic oil pollution on marine birds, improved information relating to marine birds and the occurrence of oil spills on Canada's Pacific coast is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Monaco and marine environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimaldi, Albert II Prince

    2006-01-01

    The importance of the protection of the marine environment for sustainable development and economy of coastal countries, like Monaco, is well known. Sadly, this environment has been under continuous threats from development, tourism, urbanisation and demographic pressure. The semi-enclosed Mediterranean sea is challenged by new pollutant cocktails, problems of fresh water management, over-fishing, and now increasingly climate change impacts. Monaco has a long history in the investigation of the marine environment. Prince Albert I, was one of the pioneers in oceanographic exploration, organizer of European oceanographic research and founder of several international organizations including the Musee Oceanographique. The International Atomic Energy Agency established in 1961 its Marine Environment Laboratory in Monaco, the only marine laboratory in the United Nations system. More than 40 years ago the IAEA joined forces with the Grimaldi family and several interested governments to establish the Marine Environment Laboratory in Monaco. Their first purpose-built facilities, dedicated to marine research, launched a new era in the investigation of the marine environment using radioactive and stable isotopes as tracers for better understanding of processes in the oceans and seas, addressing their pollution and promoting wide international cooperation. The Government of the Principality of Monaco has been actively engaged in these developments and is continuously supporting activities of the Monaco Laboratory

  18. Enzymatic Processes in Marine Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trincone, Antonio

    2017-03-25

    In previous review articles the attention of the biocatalytically oriented scientific community towards the marine environment as a source of biocatalysts focused on the habitat-related properties of marine enzymes. Updates have already appeared in the literature, including marine examples of oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases, isomerases, ligases, and lyases ready for food and pharmaceutical applications. Here a new approach for searching the literature and presenting a more refined analysis is adopted with respect to previous surveys, centering the attention on the enzymatic process rather than on a single novel activity. Fields of applications are easily individuated: (i) the biorefinery value-chain, where the provision of biomass is one of the most important aspects, with aquaculture as the prominent sector; (ii) the food industry, where the interest in the marine domain is similarly developed to deal with the enzymatic procedures adopted in food manipulation; (iii) the selective and easy extraction/modification of structurally complex marine molecules, where enzymatic treatments are a recognized tool to improve efficiency and selectivity; and (iv) marine biomarkers and derived applications (bioremediation) in pollution monitoring are also included in that these studies could be of high significance for the appreciation of marine bioprocesses.

  19. Marine biodiversity in Japanese waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Fujikura

    Full Text Available To understand marine biodiversity in Japanese waters, we have compiled information on the marine biota in Japanese waters, including the number of described species (species richness, the history of marine biology research in Japan, the state of knowledge, the number of endemic species, the number of identified but undescribed species, the number of known introduced species, and the number of taxonomic experts and identification guides, with consideration of the general ocean environmental background, such as the physical and geological settings. A total of 33,629 species have been reported to occur in Japanese waters. The state of knowledge was extremely variable, with taxa containing many inconspicuous, smaller species tending to be less well known. The total number of identified but undescribed species was at least 121,913. The total number of described species combined with the number of identified but undescribed species reached 155,542. This is the best estimate of the total number of species in Japanese waters and indicates that more than 70% of Japan's marine biodiversity remains un-described. The number of species reported as introduced into Japanese waters was 39. This is the first attempt to estimate species richness for all marine species in Japanese waters. Although its marine biota can be considered relatively well known, at least within the Asian-Pacific region, considering the vast number of different marine environments such as coral reefs, ocean trenches, ice-bound waters, methane seeps, and hydrothermal vents, much work remains to be done. We expect global change to have a tremendous impact on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Japan is in a particularly suitable geographic situation and has a lot of facilities for conducting marine science research. Japan has an important responsibility to contribute to our understanding of life in the oceans.

  20. Databases of the marine metagenomics

    KAUST Repository

    Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-10-28

    The metagenomic data obtained from marine environments is significantly useful for understanding marine microbial communities. In comparison with the conventional amplicon-based approach of metagenomics, the recent shotgun sequencing-based approach has become a powerful tool that provides an efficient way of grasping a diversity of the entire microbial community at a sampling point in the sea. However, this approach accelerates accumulation of the metagenome data as well as increase of data complexity. Moreover, when metagenomic approach is used for monitoring a time change of marine environments at multiple locations of the seawater, accumulation of metagenomics data will become tremendous with an enormous speed. Because this kind of situation has started becoming of reality at many marine research institutions and stations all over the world, it looks obvious that the data management and analysis will be confronted by the so-called Big Data issues such as how the database can be constructed in an efficient way and how useful knowledge should be extracted from a vast amount of the data. In this review, we summarize the outline of all the major databases of marine metagenome that are currently publically available, noting that database exclusively on marine metagenome is none but the number of metagenome databases including marine metagenome data are six, unexpectedly still small. We also extend our explanation to the databases, as reference database we call, that will be useful for constructing a marine metagenome database as well as complementing important information with the database. Then, we would point out a number of challenges to be conquered in constructing the marine metagenome database.

  1. Climate change and marine life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Anthony J.; Brown, Christopher J.; Brander, Keith

    2012-01-01

    A Marine Climate Impacts Workshop was held from 29 April to 3 May 2012 at the US National Center of Ecological Analysis and Synthesis in Santa Barbara. This workshop was the culmination of a series of six meetings over the past three years, which had brought together 25 experts in climate change...... ecology, analysis of large datasets, palaeontology, marine ecology and physical oceanography. Aims of these workshops were to produce a global synthesis of climate impacts on marine biota, to identify sensitive habitats and taxa, to inform the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC......) process, and to strengthen research into ecological impacts of climate change...

  2. Marine Radioactivity Mapping in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal U'yun Wan Mahmood; Abdul Kadir Ishak; Norfaizal Mohamad; Wo, Y.M.; Kamarudin Samuding

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on data collection, mapping and also development of marine radioactivity which obtained from a few researchs from year 2003 until 2008. The aims of the database reported in this book is to become a benchmark as well to be a reference material for future researchers. Furthermore, this book contained the radionuclide pollution information and distribution pattern mapping in marine environment. To strengthen the content for this book, the authors also provide a complete technical information which consist methods, prepation and sample analysis either in field work or laboratory. By producing this book, the author hope that it will help future researcher who are involved in oceanography and marine radioactivity.

  3. Communication masking in marine mammals: A review and research strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; Reichmuth, Colleen; Cunningham, Kane; Lucke, Klaus; Dooling, Robert

    2016-02-15

    Underwater noise, whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, has the ability to interfere with the way in which marine mammals receive acoustic signals (i.e., for communication, social interaction, foraging, navigation, etc.). This phenomenon, termed auditory masking, has been well studied in humans and terrestrial vertebrates (in particular birds), but less so in marine mammals. Anthropogenic underwater noise seems to be increasing in parts of the world's oceans and concerns about associated bioacoustic effects, including masking, are growing. In this article, we review our understanding of masking in marine mammals, summarise data on marine mammal hearing as they relate to masking (including audiograms, critical ratios, critical bandwidths, and auditory integration times), discuss masking release processes of receivers (including comodulation masking release and spatial release from masking) and anti-masking strategies of signalers (e.g. Lombard effect), and set a research framework for improved assessment of potential masking in marine mammals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully taken a marine mammal on the high seas and who is authorized to import such marine mammal in accordance...

  5. Introducing optional reserve ratios in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Lóránt Varga

    2010-01-01

    As of the reserve maintenance period commencing in November 2010, Hungarian credit institutions will be free to decide whether to apply the previously valid 2% reserve ratio, or to apply a higher mandatory reserve ratio. Credit institutions required to hold reserves may select from reserve ratios of 2, 3, 4 and 5%, and may change their decision on a semi-annual basis. In line with the international best practice, the purpose of the MNB’s reserve requirement system is to support credit institu...

  6. Conch, Cooperatives, and Conflict: Conservation and Resistance in the Banco Chinchorro Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Hoffman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In theory, biosphere reserves link biodiversity conservation with development, primarily through sustainable resource utilisation, and alternative, conservation-compatible economies in the buffer and transition zones outside the core area. Successful management should reduce pressure on natural resources within its core area as well as enable local communities to participate in the management of buffer zone resources in a sustainable manner. The Banco Chinchorro Biosphere Reserve was declared in 1996 to protect coral reefs and marine biodiversity, while also enabling fishing cooperatives to maintain their livelihoods based upon the sustainable extraction of lobster, conch, and scalefish. In 2004, eight years after the Reserve′s declaration, Mexican authorities struggled to control marine resource use in the reserve, especially the extraction of queen conch (Strombus gigas. This article provides an overview of the long struggle to conserve queen conch populations in the area. Particular attention is paid to describing the various forms of resistance fishermen employed to counter the increasing regulation and vigilance that accompanied the creation of the Banco Chinchorro Biosphere Reserve. This case chronicles the resistance to regulation and interpersonal violence that erupts when entrenched attitudes and practices are confronted with increasing surveillance. Thus, what was observed in the Banco Chinchorro Biosphere Reserve parallels other research that depicts the forms of resistance to conservation that local people enact when confronted with conservation interventions. Finally, the plight of queen conch in the Banco Chinchorro Biosphere Reserve clearly reflects the conflicts and difficulties found across Mexico in the implementation of the biosphere reserve model.

  7. Disease in marine aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindermann, C. J.

    1984-03-01

    It has become almost a truism that success in intensive production of animals must be based in part on development of methods for disease diagnosis and control. Excellent progress has been made in methods of diagnosis for major pathogens of cultivated fish, crustacean and molluscan species. In many instances these have proved to be facultative pathogens, able to exert severe effects in populations of animals under other stresses (marginal physical or chemical conditions; overcrowding). The concept of stress management as a critical prophylactic measure is not new, but its significance is being demonstrated repeatedly. The particular relationship of water quality and facultative pathogens such as Vibrio, Pseudomonas and Aeromonas species has been especially apparent. Virus diseases of marine vertebrates and invertebrates — little known two decades ago — are now recognized to be of significance to aquaculture. Virus infections of oysters, clams, shrimps and crabs have been described, and mortalities have been attributed to them. Several virus diseases of fish have also been recognized as potential or actual problems in culture. In some instances, the pathogens seem to be latent in natural populations, and may be provoked into patency by stresses of artificial environments. One of the most promising approaches to disease prophylaxis is through immunization. Fish respond well to various vaccination procedures, and new non-stressing methods have been developed. Vibriosis — probably the most severe disease of ocean-reared salmon — has been controlled to a great extent through use of a polyvalent bacterin, which can be modified as new pathogenic strains are isolated. Prophylactic immunization for other bacterial diseases of cultivated fish has been attempted, especially in Japan, with some success. There is also some evidence that the larger crustaceans may be immunologically responsive, and that at least short-term protection may be afforded to cultured

  8. 40 CFR 80.528-80.529 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements §§ 80.528-80.529...

  9. Marine Peptides: Bioactivities and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Chi Fai Cheung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peptides are important bioactive natural products which are present in many marine species. These marine peptides have high potential nutraceutical and medicinal values because of their broad spectra of bioactivities. Their antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidative, cardioprotective (antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and anticoagulant, immunomodulatory, analgesic, anxiolytic anti-diabetic, appetite suppressing and neuroprotective activities have attracted the attention of the pharmaceutical industry, which attempts to design them for use in the treatment or prevention of various diseases. Some marine peptides or their derivatives have high commercial values and had reached the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. A large number of them are already in different phases of the clinical and preclinical pipeline. This review highlights the recent research in marine peptides and the trends and prospects for the future, with special emphasis on nutraceutical and pharmaceutical development into marketed products.

  10. African Journal of Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... The African (formerly South African) Journal of Marine Science provides an international forum for the publication of original scientific contributions or critical reviews, ...

  11. 76 FR 72681 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ...), Seattle, WA, has applied for an amendment to Scientific Research Permit No. 15126-01 for studies of marine... Alaska to investigate their foraging ecology, habitat requirements, vital rates, and effects of natural...

  12. Radiochemical tracers in marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrocelli, S.R.; Anderson, J.W.; Neff, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Tracers have been used in a great variety of experimentation. More recently, labeled materials have been applied in marine biological research. Some of the existing tracer techniques have been utilized directly, while others have been modified to suit the specific needs of marine biologists. This chapter describes some of the uses of tracers in marine biological research. It also mentions the problems encountered as well as offering possible solutions and discusses further applications of these techniques. Only pertinent references are cited and additional information may be obtained by consulting these references. Due to their relative ease of maintenance, freshwater species are also utilized in studies which involve radiotracer techniques. Since most of these techniques e directly applicable to marine species, some of these studies will also be included

  13. Coastal marine contamination in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garay T, Jesus A; Marin Z, Bienvenido; Velez G, Ana Maria

    2002-01-01

    The paper tries about the problem of the marine contamination and their marked influence in the health of the coastal ecosystems, of their narrow relationship with the growing increase of the populations that they inhabit the coastal areas and of equal it forms, with the increment of the domestic, agricultural and industrial activities that, for the wrong handling and inadequate control of the solid and liquid waste, they affect the marine environment with significant implications at ecological, socioeconomic level and of health. Another component of the environmental problem of the marine ecosystems in the country, resides in that don't exist in general normative on the chemical quality and sanitary for its marine waters, that which limits the categorization of this agreement ecosystems with its environmental quality, conditioning this the lack of adequate mechanisms to mitigate the causes that originate the deterioration of the quality of the Colombian coasts

  14. Pre-1947 Marine Daily Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board U.S. Navy and merchant marine vessels and submitted to the U.S. Weather Bureau. Merchant ships are of many nationalities, and mainly...

  15. Pre-1947 Marine Monthly Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board U.S. Navy and merchant marine vessels and submitted to the U.S. Weather Bureau. Merchant ships are of many nationalities, and mainly...

  16. Marine archaeological research in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Sundaresh; Vora, K.H.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    of this activity. All the developed countries have made tremendous progress in this field and substantial progress has been made in India in marine archaeology. Over the years the National Institute of Oceanography in collaboration with other Government agencies...

  17. Seagrasses - The forgotton marine habitat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Rodrigues, R.S.

    Seagrasses, a specialized group of flowering plants, submerged in the marine, estuarine, bay and backwater regions of the world. Though seagrass beds are of great ecological and socio economic importance, they are mostly unknown to Indians. Seagrass...

  18. The Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The�Marine Sciences Laboratory sits on 140 acres of tidelands and uplands located on Sequim Bay, Washington. Key capabilities include 6,000 sq ft of analytical and...

  19. Studies on antagonistic marine streptomycetes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, D.; Nair, S.

    three strains inhibited all the test cultures. In addition to the above test cultures marine bacteria (Vibrio sp., Aeromonas spp., Flavobacterium spp., Bacillus sp. and Micrococcus sp.) resistant to few known antibiotics (tetracycline, penicillin...

  20. Marine biotechnology: Opportunities for India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, D.

    manipulation is now reality. High yielding, fast growing and disease resistant strains of fish, shellfish and algae will boost the aquaculture industry. There may be a solution for all the problems of waste disposal in the marine environment. Considering...

  1. Marine archeology: The hidden history

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.

    Chandore, Gopakapattana, and Ela, which were the port capitals at different times of the long history. Four stone anchors from Goa waters indicate an active maritime activity during the pre-Portuguese period. An important aspect of marine archaeology...

  2. NCEI Marine Geology Data Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Geologic data compilations and reports in the NCEI archive are from academic and government sources around the world. Over ten terabytes of analyses,...

  3. Marine Structures with Heavy Overtopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    2000-01-01

    An investigation of wave overtopping of marine structures is described. Focus is put on structures with realtively low crest levels and various slope layouts subjected to non-breaking waves. Influence of slope draught and angle is investigated....

  4. Australia's marine virtual laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Roger; Gillibrand, Philip; Oke, Peter; Rosebrock, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    In all modelling studies of realistic scenarios, a researcher has to go through a number of steps to set up a model in order to produce a model simulation of value. The steps are generally the same, independent of the modelling system chosen. These steps include determining the time and space scales and processes of the required simulation; obtaining data for the initial set up and for input during the simulation time; obtaining observation data for validation or data assimilation; implementing scripts to run the simulation(s); and running utilities or custom-built software to extract results. These steps are time consuming and resource hungry, and have to be done every time irrespective of the simulation - the more complex the processes, the more effort is required to set up the simulation. The Australian Marine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) is a new development in modelling frameworks for researchers in Australia. MARVL uses the TRIKE framework, a java-based control system developed by CSIRO that allows a non-specialist user configure and run a model, to automate many of the modelling preparation steps needed to bring the researcher faster to the stage of simulation and analysis. The tool is seen as enhancing the efficiency of researchers and marine managers, and is being considered as an educational aid in teaching. In MARVL we are developing a web-based open source application which provides a number of model choices and provides search and recovery of relevant observations, allowing researchers to: a) efficiently configure a range of different community ocean and wave models for any region, for any historical time period, with model specifications of their choice, through a user-friendly web application, b) access data sets to force a model and nest a model into, c) discover and assemble ocean observations from the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN, http://portal.aodn.org.au/webportal/) in a format that is suitable for model evaluation or data assimilation, and

  5. Recreational impacts on the fauna of Australian coastal marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Nigel; Burgin, Shelley

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews recent research into the ecological impacts of recreation and tourism on coastal marine fauna in Australia. Despite the high and growing importance of water-based recreation to the Australian economy, and the known fragility of many Australian ecosystems, there has been relatively limited research into the effects of marine tourism and recreation, infrastructure and activities, on aquatic resources. In this paper we have reviewed the ecological impacts on fauna that are caused by outdoor recreation (including tourism) in Australian coastal marine ecosystems. We predict that the single most potentially severe impact of recreation may be the introduction and/or dispersal of non-indigenous species of marine organisms by recreational vessels. Such introductions, together with other impacts due to human activities have the potential to increasingly degrade recreation destinations. In response, governments have introduced a wide range of legislative tools (e.g., impact assessment, protected area reservation) to manage the recreational industry. It would appear, however, that these instruments are not always appropriately applied. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Polonium (210Po) and lead (210Pb) in marine organisms and their transfer in marine food chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando P

    2011-05-01

    The determination of (210)Po and (210)Pb was performed in marine organisms from the seashore to abyssal depths, encompassing a plethora of species from the microscopic plankton to the sperm whale. Concentrations of those radionuclides ranged from low values of about 5 × 10(-1) Bq kg(-1) (wet wt.) in jellyfish, to very high values of about of 3 × 10(4) Bq kg(-1) (wet wt.) in the gut walls of sardines, with a common pattern of (210)Po > (210)Pb.These radionuclides are primarily absorbed from water and concentrated by phyto- and microzooplankton, and then are transferred to the next trophic level along marine food chains. Investigation in epipelagic, mesopelagic, bathypelagic and abyssobenthic organisms revealed that (210)Po is transferred in the marine food webs with transfer factors ranging from 0.1 to 0.7, and numerically similar to those of the energy transfer in the marine food chains. As (210)Po preferentially binds to amino acids and proteins, its transfer in food chains likely traces protein transfer and, thus, (210)Po transfer factors are similar to ecotrophic coefficients. (210)Pb is transferred less efficiently in marine food chains and this contributes to increased (210)Po:(210)Pb activity ratios in some trophic levels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reservation wages, expected wages and unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, S; Taylor, K

    2013-01-01

    We model unemployment duration, reservation and expected wages simultaneously for individuals not in work, where wage expectations are identified via an exogenous policy shock. The policy shock increased expected wages, which were found to be positively associated with reservation wages.

  8. Transforming the Reserve Component: Four Essays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binnendijk, Hans; Baranick, Michael J; Bell, Raymond E., Jr; Cordero, Gina; Duncan, Stephen M; Holshek, Christopher; Wentz, Larry

    2005-01-01

    This volume contains four essays on various aspects of the Reserve Component. We publish it at a time when Reserves are serving overseas at historically high rates and when new missions like homeland security demand their attention...

  9. 47 CFR 25.219 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 25.219 Section 25.219 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.219 [Reserved] ...

  10. 47 CFR 25.402 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 25.402 Section 25.402 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Competitive Bidding Procedures for DARS § 25.402 [Reserved] ...

  11. Reservation system with graphical user interface

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mahmoud A. Abdelhamid; Jamjoom, Hani T.; Podlaseck, Mark E.; Qu, Huiming; Shae, Zon-Yin; Sheopuri, Anshul

    2012-01-01

    Techniques for providing a reservation system are provided. The techniques include displaying a scalable visualization object, wherein the scalable visualization object comprises an expanded view element of the reservation system depicting

  12. 47 CFR 80.146 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Shipboard General Purpose Watches § 80.146 [Reserved] ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 80.146 Section 80.146...

  13. 47 CFR 80.145 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Special Procedures-Ship Stations § 80.145 [Reserved] Shipboard General Purpose Watches ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 80.145 Section 80.145...

  14. 5 CFR 330.610 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 330.610 Section 330.610 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND... Employees § 330.610 [Reserved] ...

  15. 5 CFR 330.603 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 330.603 Section 330.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND... Employees § 330.603 [Reserved] ...

  16. 40 CFR 405.73 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 405.73 Section 405.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY... § 405.73 [Reserved] ...

  17. 40 CFR 408.73 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 408.73 Section 408.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS... Processing Subcategory § 408.73 [Reserved] ...

  18. 40 CFR 407.73 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 407.73 Section 407.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS... Vegetables Subcategory § 407.73 [Reserved] ...

  19. Typology and indicators of ecosystem services for marine spatial planning and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhnke-Henrichs, Anne; Baulcomb, Corinne; Koss, Rebecca; Hussain, S Salman; de Groot, Rudolf S

    2013-11-30

    The ecosystem services concept provides both an analytical and communicative tool to identify and quantify the link between human welfare and the environment, and thus to evaluate the ramifications of management interventions. Marine spatial planning (MSP) and Ecosystem-based Management (EBM) are a form of management intervention that has become increasingly popular and important globally. The ecosystem service concept is rarely applied in marine planning and management to date which we argue is due to the lack of a well-structured, systematic classification and assessment of marine ecosystem services. In this paper we not only develop such a typology but also provide guidance to select appropriate indicators for all relevant ecosystem services. We apply this marine-specific ecosystem service typology to MSP and EBM. We thus provide not only a novel theoretical construct but also show how the ecosystem services concept can be used in marine planning and management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ecological Significance of Marine Microzooplankton

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Godhantaraman, N.

    ). Studies concerning microzooplankton in marine coastal, estuarine and brackish-water systems along tropical Indian waters are limited. Hence, in the following sections, I provide the results obtained by the research conducted in the tropical Vellar... estuarine systems, southeast coast of India. This was one of the first comprehensive studies on microzooplankton in India. There are also comparative accounts of microzooplankton researches from my studies in Japanese coastal marine waters. Microzooplankton...

  1. Marine Corps Budgetary Reprogramming Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    infrastructure (Appropriations Act of Congress, 2008). The environmental restoration is a transfer account controlled by the DOD. Usually in the case of...at an average just over 11 percent and the Marine Corps encircle the backend of the DOD portion of reprogramming with the Marine Corps reprogramming...blue force tracker (BFT), radio systems, high mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV), medium tactical vehicle replacement (MTVR), and

  2. Veteran Unemployment of Transitioning Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    military experience. C2 Marines have high AFQT scores and work with information systems; they may pursue, for example, computer science degrees in college...i.e., they made a rational decision based on lack of information). DOD actuarial officials use the low MGIB benefit use rate to maintain program...such as computer science , to make their military skills transferable, while others may not. Marines in services, repair/maintenance, operator, and

  3. Marine Geophysics: a Navy Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    Harrison The Source of Marine Magnetic Anomalies Christopher GA. Harrison • 52 Principles of Operation and Applications of RF-driven SQUID Magnetometers... ink recorder, and thereby obtained detailed data over the limited range in which Layer 2 appeared as a first arrival. Those researchers who waited to... Extract from MPL [Marine Physical Laboratory of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography] Quarterly Reports, 1 April to 30 June 1949, by R. W. Raitt

  4. Governance in the marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Appleby, T.

    2015-01-01

    The governance of the UK Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies is complex, endlessly fascinating and often politically charged. There is no area where this complexity is more demonstrable than in the marine environment, where the issues of extended maritime boundaries granted under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, fishing and prospecting rights, marine conservation and competing sovereignty mean that the practical application of the law in this area is particularly d...

  5. Bioremediation of marine oil pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutnick, D L

    1991-01-01

    This report presents an assessment of the scientific and technological developments in the area of bioremediation and biodegradation of marine oil pollution, as well as a number of allied technologies. Many of the topics discussed are presented in a summary of a workshop on bioremediation of marine oil pollution. The summary includes an overview of the formal presentations as well as the results of the working groups.

  6. Reserving by detailed conditioning on individual claim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, Mujiati Dwi; Effendie, Adhitya Ronnie; Wilandari, Yuciana

    2017-03-01

    The estimation of claim reserves is an important activity in insurance companies to fulfill their liabilities. Recently, reserving method of individual claim have attracted a lot of interest in the actuarial science, which overcome some deficiency of aggregated claim method. This paper explores the Reserving by Detailed Conditioning (RDC) method using all of claim information for reserving with individual claim of liability insurance from an Indonesian general insurance company. Furthermore, we compare it to Chain Ladder and Bornhuetter-Ferguson method.

  7. Reserve evaluation of minerals at NUCLEBRAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.; Guerra, P.A.G.; Vinha, C.A.G. da

    1980-10-01

    The method used for the reserve evaluation of minerals, particularly of uranium, as used worldwide, and specially at NUCLEBRAS is described. This is done through a series of procedures envolving basic definitions, reserve evaluation methods (conventional, statistical and geoestatistical), data management, use of computer systems, classification and evaluation of reserves. (Author) [pt

  8. 24 CFR 880.602 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 880.602... Replacement reserve. (a) A replacement reserve must be established and maintained in an interest-bearing account to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items. (1) Part...

  9. 24 CFR 891.745 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.745... and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.745 Replacement reserve. The general requirements for the replacement reserve are provided in § 891.605. For projects funded under §§ 891.655 through 891.790, the...

  10. Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane

    2007-07-01

    We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves.

  11. Assessment of secondary aluminum reserves of nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maung, Kyaw Nyunt; Yoshida, Tomoharu; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    aluminum resources are accumulated in landfill sites. Understanding the sizes of primary and secondary aluminum reserves enables us to extend knowledge of efficient raw material sourcing from a narrow perspective of primary reserves alone to a broader perspective of both primary and secondary reserves...

  12. 24 CFR 572.125 - Replacement reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Homeownership Program Requirements-Implementation Grants § 572.125 Replacement reserves. (a) Purpose. A single replacement reserve may be established for the homeownership program only if HUD determines it is necessary to... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserves. 572.125...

  13. Micro-level stochastic loss reserving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonio, K.; Plat, R.

    2010-01-01

    To meet future liabilities general insurance companies will set-up reserves. Predicting future cash-flows is essential in this process. Actuarial loss reserving methods will help them to do this in a sound way. The last decennium a vast literature about stochastic loss reserving for the general

  14. Evaluation system of minerals reserve at Nuclebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.; Guerra, P.A.G.; Vinha, C.A.G. da.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes the methodology used for the reserve evaluation of minerals, particularly of uranium, as used world wide, and specially at Nuclebras. The paper discusses a series of procedures envolving basic definitions, reserve evaluation methods (Conventional, Statistical and Geoestatistical), data management, use of computer systems, classification of reserves as well as the results achieved [pt

  15. Reserve Requirements and Monetary Management; An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1993-01-01

    Reserve requirements are widely used by central banks as a means to improve monetary control, an instrument for policy implementation, a source of revenue, and a safeguard of bank liquidity. The effectiveness of reserve requirements in fulfilling these functions is reviewed, and the detailed modalities of their use are examined. Reserve requirements in a sample of developing countries are described.

  16. 42 CFR 417.934 - Reserve requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reserve requirement. 417.934 Section 417.934 Public... PLANS Administration of Outstanding Loans and Loan Guarantees § 417.934 Reserve requirement. (a) Timing... section 1305 of the PHS Act was required to establish a restricted reserve account on the earlier of the...

  17. Origin of marine planktonic cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Marine planktonic cyanobacteria contributed to the widespread oxygenation of the oceans towards the end of the Pre-Cambrian and their evolutionary origin represents a key transition in the geochemical evolution of the Earth surface. Little is known, however, about the evolutionary events that led to the appearance of marine planktonic cyanobacteria. I present here phylogenomic (135 proteins and two ribosomal RNAs), Bayesian relaxed molecular clock (18 proteins, SSU and LSU) and Bayesian stochastic character mapping analyses from 131 cyanobacteria genomes with the aim to unravel key evolutionary steps involved in the origin of marine planktonic cyanobacteria. While filamentous cell types evolved early on at around 2,600-2,300 Mya and likely dominated microbial mats in benthic environments for most of the Proterozoic (2,500-542 Mya), marine planktonic cyanobacteria evolved towards the end of the Proterozoic and early Phanerozoic. Crown groups of modern terrestrial and/or benthic coastal cyanobacteria appeared during the late Paleoproterozoic to early Mesoproterozoic. Decrease in cell diameter and loss of filamentous forms contributed to the evolution of unicellular planktonic lineages during the middle of the Mesoproterozoic (1,600-1,000 Mya) in freshwater environments. This study shows that marine planktonic cyanobacteria evolved from benthic marine and some diverged from freshwater ancestors during the Neoproterozoic (1,000-542 Mya).

  18. Reserve selection with land market feedbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsic, Van; Lewis, David J; Radeloff, Volker C

    2013-01-15

    How to best site reserves is a leading question for conservation biologists. Recently, reserve selection has emphasized efficient conservation: maximizing conservation goals given the reality of limited conservation budgets, and this work indicates that land market can potentially undermine the conservation benefits of reserves by increasing property values and development probabilities near reserves. Here we propose a reserve selection methodology which optimizes conservation given both a budget constraint and land market feedbacks by using a combination of econometric models along with stochastic dynamic programming. We show that amenity based feedbacks can be accounted for in optimal reserve selection by choosing property price and land development models which exogenously estimate the effects of reserve establishment. In our empirical example, we use previously estimated models of land development and property prices to select parcels to maximize coarse woody debris along 16 lakes in Vilas County, WI, USA. Using each lake as an independent experiment, we find that including land market feedbacks in the reserve selection algorithm has only small effects on conservation efficacy. Likewise, we find that in our setting heuristic (minloss and maxgain) algorithms perform nearly as well as the optimal selection strategy. We emphasize that land market feedbacks can be included in optimal reserve selection; the extent to which this improves reserve placement will likely vary across landscapes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Marine Protists Are Not Just Big Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Patrick J; Campo, Javier Del

    2017-06-05

    The study of marine microbial ecology has been completely transformed by molecular and genomic data: after centuries of relative neglect, genomics has revealed the surprising extent of microbial diversity and how microbial processes transform ocean and global ecosystems. But the revolution is not complete: major gaps in our understanding remain, and one obvious example is that microbial eukaryotes, or protists, are still largely neglected. Here we examine various ways in which protists might be better integrated into models of marine microbial ecology, what challenges this will present, and why understanding the limitations of our tools is a significant concern. In part this is a technical challenge - eukaryotic genomes are more difficult to characterize - but eukaryotic adaptations are also more dependent on morphology and behaviour than they are on the metabolic diversity that typifies bacteria, and these cannot be inferred from genomic data as readily as metabolism can be. We therefore cannot simply follow in the methodological footsteps of bacterial ecology and hope for similar success. Understanding microbial eukaryotes will require different approaches, including greater emphasis on taxonomically and trophically diverse model systems. Molecular sequencing will continue to play a role, and advances in environmental sequence tag studies and single-cell methods for genomic and transcriptomics offer particular promise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Indobis and its relevance to the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere reserve

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Kakodkar, A.; Nath, A.I.V.

    .ovata, H.beccari, H.spipulacea, Halodule uninervis, Cymodocea rotunds, C.serulata. All the 11 sea grasses of India occur here with Enhalus acoroides being endemic. The sea grass beds provide feeding grounds for the highly endangered sea-mammal Dugong... with algal communities, sea grasses, coral reefs, salt marshes and mangroves. It is one of the world's richest regions from a marine biodiversity perspective. 302 The Government of India, has established the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, in 1989...

  1. Tiger Team Assessment of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of the Strategic Petroleum Reserves (SPR) located in Louisiana and Texas, which consists of a project management office in New Orleans, a marine terminal located on the Mississippi River in Louisiana, and five crude oil storage sites in Louisiana and Texas. SPR is operated by Boeing Petroleum Services, Inc. for the US Department of Energy (DOE). DOE's Office of Fossil Energy (FE) is the responsible program organization and the Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve Project Management Office (SPRPMO) in Louisiana provides local oversight. The Tiger Team Assessment was conducted from March 9 to April 10, 1992, under the auspices of DOE's Office of Special Projects (OSP) under the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The assessment was comprehensive, encompassing environmental, safety, and health (ES ampersand H), and quality assurance (QA) disciplines; site remediation; facilities management; and waste management operations. Compliance with applicable Federal, States of Louisiana and Texas, and local regulations; applicable DOE Orders; best management practices; and internal SPR requirements was assessed. In addition, an evaluation of the adequacy and effectiveness of SPRPMO and BPS management of the ES ampersand H/QA and self-assessment programs was conducted. 6 fig., 22 tab

  2. Research on the fundamental principles of China's marine invasive species prevention legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jiayu

    2014-12-15

    China's coastal area is severely damaged by marine invasive species. Traditional tort theory resolves issues relevant to property damage or personal injuries, through which plaintiffs cannot cope with the ecological damage caused by marine invasive species. Several defects exist within the current legal regimes, such as imperfect management systems, insufficient unified technical standards, and unsound legal responsibility systems. It is necessary to pass legislation to prevent the ecological damage caused by marine invasive species. This investigation probes the fundamental principles needed for the administration and legislation of an improved legal framework to combat the problem of invasive species within China's coastal waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Are greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping a type of marine pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yubing

    2016-12-15

    Whether greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping are a type of marine pollution is a controversial issue and is currently open to debate. This article examines the current treaty definitions of marine pollution, and applies them to greenhouse gas emissions from ships. Based on the legal analysis of treaty definitions and relevant international and national regulation on this issue, this article asserts that greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping are a type of 'conditional' marine pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Haenamindole, an unusual diketopiperazine derivative from a marine-derived Penicillium sp. KCB12F005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Won; Ko, Sung-Kyun; Son, Sangkeun; Shin, Kee-Sun; Ryoo, In-Ja; Hong, Young-Soo; Oh, Hyuncheol; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Hirota, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Shunji; Kim, Bo Yeon; Osada, Hiroyuki; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Ahn, Jong Seog

    2015-11-15

    During the chemical investigation of marine-derived fungus, an unusual diketopiperazine (DKP) alkaloid, haenamindole (1), was isolated from a culture of the marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp. KCB12F005. The structure of 1, which possesses benzyl-hydroxypiperazindione and phenyl-pyrimidoindole rings system in the molecule, was elucidated by analysis of NMR and MS data. The stereochemistry of 1 was determined by ROESY and advanced Marfey's method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Economic analysis of Marine Protected Areas: Bioeconomic Modeling and Economic Valuation Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, Bich Xuan

    2017-01-01

    The papers 2 and 3 of this thesis are not available in Munin. Paper 2: Xuan, B. B., Sandorf, E. D., Aanesen, M.: “Informing Management Strategies for a Reserve: Results from a Discrete Choice Experiment Survey”. (Manuscript). Paper 3: Xuan, B. B.: “Extractive and Non-extractive Values of a Marine Protected Area: A Bio-economic Model Application". (Manuscript). Marine protected areas (MPAs) are often established for conservation objectives. Benefits provided by MPAs exceed pure biod...

  6. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    In a general sense, the main attraction of the marine environment as a repository for the wastes generated by human activities lies in the degree of dispersion and dilution which is readily attainable. However, the capacity of the oceans to receive wastes without unacceptable consequences is clearly finite and this is even more true of localized marine environments such as estuaries, coastal waters and semi-enclosed seas. Radionuclides have always been present in the marine environment and marine organisms and humans consuming marine foodstuffs have always been exposed, to some degree, to radiation from this source. The hazard associated with ionizing radiations is dependent upon the adsorption of energy from the radiation field within some biological entity. Thus any disposal of radioactive wastes into the marine environment has consequences, the acceptability of which must be assessed in terms of the possible resultant increase in radiation exposure of human and aquatic populations. In the United Kingdom the primary consideration has been and remains the safe-guarding of public health. The control procedures are therefore designed to minimize as far as practicable the degree of human exposure within the overall limits recommended as acceptable by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. There are several approaches through which control could be exercised and the strenghs and weaknesses of each are considered. In this review the detailed application of the critical path technique to the control of the discharge into the north-east Irish Sea from the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale is given as a practical example. It will be further demonstrated that when human exposure is controlled in this way no significant risk attaches to the increased radiation exposure experienced by populations of marine organisms in the area. (orig.) [de

  7. Marine biogeochemistry of mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Noncontaminating sample collection and handling procedures and accurate and sensitive analysis methods were developed to measure sub-picomolar Hg concentrations in seawater. Reliable and diagnostic oceanographic Hg distributions were obtained, permitting major processes governing the marine biogeochemistry of Hg to be identified. Mercury concentrations in the northwest Atlantic, central Pacific, southeast Pacific, and Tasman Sea ranged from 0.5 to 12 pM. Vertical Hg distributions often exhibited a maximum within or near the main thermocline. At similar depths, Hg concentrations in the northwest Atlantic Ocean were elevated compared to the N. Pacific Ocean. This pattern appears to result from a combination of enhanced supply of Hg to the northwest Atlantic by rainfall and scavenging removal along deep water circulation pathways. These observations are supported by geochemical steady-state box modelling which predicts a relatively short mean residence time for Hg in the oceans; demonstrating the reactive nature of Hg in seawater and precluding significant involvement in nutrient-type recyclic. Evidence for the rapid removal of Hg from seawater was obtained at two locations. Surface seawater Hg measurements along 160 0 W (20 0 N to 20 0 S) showed a depression in the equatorial upwelling area which correlated well with the transect region exhibiting low 234 Th/ 238 U activity ratios. This relationship implies that Hg will be scavenged and removed from surface seawater in biologically productive oceanic zones. Further, a broad minimum in the vertical distribution of Hg was observed to coincide with the intense oxygen minimum zone in the water column in coastal waters off Peru

  8. 75 FR 12734 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation of Offshore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild by causing disruption of behavioral patterns, including... supplies; production operations; drilling operations; pipeline design, inspection, and maintenance; routine...

  9. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

  10. Marine copepod cytochrome P450 genes and their applications for molecular ecotoxicological studies in response to oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Kang, Hye-Min; Lee, Min-Chul; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Hui-Su; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-11-30

    Recently, accidental spills of heavy oil have caused adverse effects in marine organisms. Oil pollution can induce damages on development and reproduction, linking with detrimental effects on diverse molecular levels of genes and proteins in plankton and fish. However, most information was mainly focused on marine vertebrates and consequently, limited information was available in marine invertebrates. Furthermore, there is still a lack of knowledge bridging in vivo endpoints with the functional regulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in response to oil spill pollution in marine invertebrates. In this paper, adverse effects of oil spill pollution in marine invertebrates are summarized with the importance of CYP genes as a potential biomarker, applying for environmental monitoring to detect oil spill using marine copepods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evolving Marine Biomimetics for Regenerative Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David W.; Lai, Wing-Fu; Jung, Han-Sung

    2014-01-01

    New products that help make human tissue and organ regeneration more effective are in high demand and include materials, structures and substrates that drive cell-to-tissue transformations, orchestrate anatomical assembly and tissue integration with biology. Marine organisms are exemplary bioresources that have extensive possibilities in supporting and facilitating development of human tissue substitutes. Such organisms represent a deep and diverse reserve of materials, substrates and structures that can facilitate tissue reconstruction within lab-based cultures. The reason is that they possess sophisticated structures, architectures and biomaterial designs that are still difficult to replicate using synthetic processes, so far. These products offer tantalizing pre-made options that are versatile, adaptable and have many functions for current tissue engineers seeking fresh solutions to the deficiencies in existing dental biomaterials, which lack the intrinsic elements of biofunctioning, structural and mechanical design to regenerate anatomically correct dental tissues both in the culture dish and in vivo. PMID:24828293

  12. Evolving Marine Biomimetics for Regenerative Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Green

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available New products that help make human tissue and organ regeneration more effective are in high demand and include materials, structures and substrates that drive cell-to-tissue transformations, orchestrate anatomical assembly and tissue integration with biology. Marine organisms are exemplary bioresources that have extensive possibilities in supporting and facilitating development of human tissue substitutes. Such organisms represent a deep and diverse reserve of materials, substrates and structures that can facilitate tissue reconstruction within lab-based cultures. The reason is that they possess sophisticated structures, architectures and biomaterial designs that are still difficult to replicate using synthetic processes, so far. These products offer tantalizing pre-made options that are versatile, adaptable and have many functions for current tissue engineers seeking fresh solutions to the deficiencies in existing dental biomaterials, which lack the intrinsic elements of biofunctioning, structural and mechanical design to regenerate anatomically correct dental tissues both in the culture dish and in vivo.

  13. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Graeme C; Ferreira, Luciana C; Sequeira, Ana M M; Meekan, Mark G; Duarte, Carlos M; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W Don; Caley, M Julian; Costa, Daniel P; Eguíluz, Victor M; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L; Heithaus, Michael R; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L; Lowe, Christopher G; Madsen, Peter T; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; Sims, David W; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N; Thums, Michele

    2016-06-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Substantiating the Incurred but not Reported Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Vintilã

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to handle past and future liability taken by insurance contracts concluded, any insurance company must constitute and maintain technical reserves. Substantiating technical reserves is done through actuarial methods and its over-evaluation or under-evaluation influence solvency and financial performance of the insurance companies, in the sense of reducing solvency through over-evaluating reserves and, respectively, influencing profit (hence of outstanding tax through under-evaluating reserves. An important reserve for insurance companies is represented by the incurred but not reported reserve, as it allows the estimation of the liability the company may confront in the future, generated by events occurred in the past, which are not currently known in the present but will be reported in the future.

  15. Decadal-Scale Forecasting of Climate Drivers for Marine Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinger, J; Hobday, A J; Matear, R J; O'Kane, T J; Risbey, J S; Dunstan, P; Eveson, J P; Fulton, E A; Feng, M; Plagányi, É E; Poloczanska, E S; Marshall, A G; Thompson, P A

    Climate influences marine ecosystems on a range of time scales, from weather-scale (days) through to climate-scale (hundreds of years). Understanding of interannual to decadal climate variability and impacts on marine industries has received less attention. Predictability up to 10 years ahead may come from large-scale climate modes in the ocean that can persist over these time scales. In Australia the key drivers of climate variability affecting the marine environment are the Southern Annular Mode, the Indian Ocean Dipole, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, and the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation, each has phases that are associated with different ocean circulation patterns and regional environmental variables. The roles of these drivers are illustrated with three case studies of extreme events-a marine heatwave in Western Australia, a coral bleaching of the Great Barrier Reef, and flooding in Queensland. Statistical and dynamical approaches are described to generate forecasts of climate drivers that can subsequently be translated to useful information for marine end users making decisions at these time scales. Considerable investment is still needed to support decadal forecasting including improvement of ocean-atmosphere models, enhancement of observing systems on all scales to support initiation of forecasting models, collection of important biological data, and integration of forecasts into decision support tools. Collaboration between forecast developers and marine resource sectors-fisheries, aquaculture, tourism, biodiversity management, infrastructure-is needed to support forecast-based tactical and strategic decisions that reduce environmental risk over annual to decadal time scales. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sustainable production of biologically active molecules of marine based origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Patrick M; Moane, Siobhan; Collins, Catherine; Beletskaya, Tanya; Thomas, Olivier P; Duarte, Alysson W F; Nobre, Fernando S; Owoyemi, Ifeloju O; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Sette, L D; McHugh, Edward; Causse, Eric; Pérez-López, Paula; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma T; Rubiolo, Juan; Leirós, Marta; Botana, Luis M; Pinteus, Susete; Alves, Celso; Horta, André; Pedrosa, Rui; Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Allewaert, Celine; Verween, Annick; Vyverman, Wim; Laptev, Ivan; Sineoky, Sergei; Bisio, Angela; Manconi, Renata; Ledda, Fabio; Marchi, Mario; Pronzato, Roberto; Walsh, Daniel J

    2013-09-25

    The marine environment offers both economic and scientific potential which are relatively untapped from a biotechnological point of view. These environments whilst harsh are ironically fragile and dependent on a harmonious life form balance. Exploitation of natural resources by exhaustive wild harvesting has obvious negative environmental consequences. From a European industry perspective marine organisms are a largely underutilised resource. This is not due to lack of interest but due to a lack of choice the industry faces for cost competitive, sustainable and environmentally conscientious product alternatives. Knowledge of the biotechnological potential of marine organisms together with the development of sustainable systems for their cultivation, processing and utilisation are essential. In 2010, the European Commission recognised this need and funded a collaborative RTD/SME project under the Framework 7-Knowledge Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) Theme 2 Programme 'Sustainable culture of marine microorganisms, algae and/or invertebrates for high value added products'. The scope of that project entitled 'Sustainable Production of Biologically Active Molecules of Marine Based Origin' (BAMMBO) is outlined. Although the Union is a global leader in many technologies, it faces increasing competition from traditional rivals and emerging economies alike and must therefore improve its innovation performance. For this reason innovation is placed at the heart of a European Horizon 2020 Strategy wherein the challenge is to connect economic performance to eco performance. This article provides a synopsis of the research activities of the BAMMBO project as they fit within the wider scope of sustainable environmentally conscientious marine resource exploitation for high-value biomolecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reserve valuation in electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Pablo Ariel

    Operational reliability is provided in part by scheduling capacity in excess of the load forecast. This reserve capacity balances the uncertain power demand with the supply in real time and provides for equipment outages. Traditionally, reserve scheduling has been ensured by enforcing reserve requirements in the operations planning. An alternate approach is to employ a stochastic formulation, which allows the explicit modeling of the sources of uncertainty. This thesis compares stochastic and reserve methods and evaluates the benefits of a combined approach for the efficient management of uncertainty in the unit commitment problem. Numerical studies show that the unit commitment solutions obtained for the combined approach are robust and superior with respect to the traditional approach. These robust solutions are especially valuable in areas with a high proportion of wind power, as their built-in flexibility allows the dispatch of practically all the available wind power while minimizing the costs of operation. The scheduled reserve has an economic value since it reduces the outage costs. In several electricity markets, reserve demand functions have been implemented to take into account the value of reserve in the market clearing process. These often take the form of a step-down function at the reserve requirement level, and as such they may not appropriately represent the reserve value. The value of reserve is impacted by the reliability, dynamic and stochastic characteristics of system components, the system operation policies, and the economic aspects such as the risk preferences of the demand. In this thesis, these aspects are taken into account to approximate the reserve value and construct reserve demand functions. Illustrative examples show that the demand functions constructed have similarities with those implemented in some markets.

  18. The energy reserves of our planet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischoff, G.

    1977-01-01

    Starting from a prognosis for the development of the world energy consumption, the situation of special primary energy sources (reserves, potential) is briefly described. According to the amount and location of the reserves - 90% of the fossil energy reserves are in industrialized countries -, coal will play a leading role in meeting the energy demands of the future. Without breeder reactors, the role of nuclear energy will be limited in time. (UA) [de

  19. Reserve reporting from a banker's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.O.

    1996-01-01

    A banker's perspective of oil and gas reserve reporting was presented. Topics chosen for discussion emphasized oil and gas lending, and the type of capital which is most relevant to the oil and gas industry. The concept of capital differentiation, potential worst case, and least specialization, were explained. An explanation of the reasons for the lender's different perspective on reserves was given. Methods that banks use to limit risk, and the role that reserve reports play in loan approvals were also reviewed

  20. IGT calculates world reserves of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has published the IGT World Reserves Survey, giving their latest tabulation of world reserves of fossil fuels and uranium. The report contains 120 Tables and 41 Figures. Estimates are provided for proved reserves, resources, current production, and life indexes of the non-renewable energy sources of the US and of the world as a whole. World regional data are also provided in many cases. The data are summarized here. 2 figures, 5 tables