WorldWideScience

Sample records for reserve air supply

  1. 47 CFR 80.860 - Reserve power supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reserve power supply. 80.860 Section 80.860 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Technical Equipment Requirements for Cargo Vessels Not Subject to Subpart W § 80.860 Reserve power supply. (a) When the...

  2. 47 CFR 80.917 - Reserve power supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reserve power supply. 80.917 Section 80.917 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.917 Reserve power supply. (a) The requirements of...

  3. 47 CFR 80.965 - Reserve power supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reserve power supply. 80.965 Section 80.965 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installation Required for Vessels on the Great Lakes § 80.965 Reserve power supply. (a) Each passenger...

  4. Logistics Supply of the Distributed Air Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Event Graph The Consumption Process first instantiates the variables . The model follows a conveyor belt pattern, whereby after processing an event...to any part of the world. A capstone project, conducted by the system engineering curriculum, proposed to distribute the air assets from the aircraft...SUBJECT TERMS distributed air wing, logistics, supply, unmanned air systems , cargo UAS, unmanned systems , discrete event simulation, vehicle routing

  5. Optimization of the air cargo supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pérez Bernal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims to evaluate and optimize the various operations within the air cargo chain. It pursues to improve the efficiency of the air cargo supply chain and to provide more information to the decision-makers to optimize their fields.Design/methodology/approach: The method used is a process simulation modelling software, WITNESS, which provides information to the decision-makers about the most relevant parameters subject to optimization. The input for the simulation is obtained from a qualitative analysis of the air cargo supply chain with the involved agents and from a study of the external trade by air mode, given that their behaviour depend on the location. The case study is focused on a particular location, the Case of Zaragoza Airport (Spain.Findings: This paper demonstrates that efficiency of the air cargo supply chain can increase by leveraging several parameters such as bottlenecks, resources or warehouses.Originality/value: It explores the use of a simulation modeling software originally intended for manufacturing processes and extended to support decision making processes in the area of air cargo.

  6. Energy reserves. [Summary of reserve estimates and economic supply models for exhaustible resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.; Carhart, S.C.; Marcuse, W.

    1977-03-01

    There is an increasing concern about scarcity of the world's remaining natural energy resources and, in particular, the future supply of oil and natural gas. This paper summarizes recent estimates of energy reserves and economic supply models for exhaustible resources. The basic economic theory of resource exhaustion is reviewed, and recent estimates of both discovered and undiscovered energy resources are presented and compared. Domestic and world-wide reserve estimates are presented for crude oil and natural gas liquids, natural gas, coal, and uranium. Economic models projecting supply of these energy forms, given reserve estimates and other pertinent information, are discussed. Finally, a set of recent models which project world oil prices are summarized and their published results compared. The impact of energy conservation efforts on energy supply is also briefly discussed. 53 references.

  7. Reserves and Trade Jointly Determine Exposure to Food Supply Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Philippe; Carr, Joel A.; Dell'Angelo, Jampel; Fader, Marianela; Gephart, Jessica A.; Kummu, Matti; Magliocca, Nicholas; Porkka, Miina; Puma, Michael J.; Zak, Ratajczak

    2016-01-01

    While a growing proportion of global food consumption is obtained through international trade, there is an ongoing debate on whether this increased reliance on trade benefits or hinders food security, and specifically, the ability of global food systems to absorb shocks due to local or regional losses of production. This paper introduces a model that simulates the short-term response to a food supply shock originating in a single country, which is partly absorbed through decreases in domestic reserves and consumption, and partly transmitted through the adjustment of trade flows. By applying the model to publicly-available data for the cereals commodity group over a 17 year period, we find that differential outcomes of supply shocks simulated through this time period are driven not only by the intensification of trade, but as importantly by changes in the distribution of reserves. Our analysis also identifies countries where trade dependency may accentuate the risk of food shortages from foreign production shocks; such risk could be reduced by increasing domestic reserves or importing food from a diversity of suppliers that possess their own reserves. This simulation-based model provides a framework to study the short-term, nonlinear and out-of-equilibrium response of trade networks to supply shocks, and could be applied to specific scenarios of environmental or economic perturbations.

  8. Air-drop blood supply in the French Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaudin, Olivier; Baillon, A; Varin, N; Martinaud, C; Pouget, T; Civadier, C; Clavier, B; Sailliol, A

    2018-02-12

    Haemorrhagic shock remains the leading cause of preventable death in overseas and austere settings. Transfusion of blood components is critical in the management of this kind of injury. For French naval and ground military units, this supply often takes too long considering the short shelf-life of red blood cell concentrates (RBCs) and the limited duration of transport in cooling containers (five to six days). Air-drop supply could be an alternative to overcome these difficulties on the condition that air-drop does not cause damage to blood units. After a period of study and technical development of packaging, four air-drops at medium and high altitudes were performed with an aircraft of the French Air Force. After this, one air-drop was carried out at medium altitude with 10 RBCs and 10 French lyophilised plasma (FLYP). A second air-drop was performed with a soldier carrying one FLYP unit at 12 000 feet. For these air-drops real blood products were used, and quality control testing and temperature monitoring were performed. The temperatures inside the containers were within the normal ranges. Visual inspection indicated that transfusion packaging and dumped products did not undergo deterioration. The quality control data on RBCs and FLYP, including haemostasis, suggested no difference before and after air-drop. The operational implementation of the air-drop of blood products seems to be one of the solutions for the supply of blood products in military austere settings or far forward on battlefield, allowing safe and early transfusion. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Effect of warm air supplied facially on occupants' comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, J.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sliva,, D.

    2010-01-01

    Human response to air movement supplied locally towards the face was studied in a room with an air temperature of 20 °C and a relative humidity of 30%. Thirty-two human subjects were exposed to three conditions: calm environment and facially supplied airflow at 21 °C and at 26 °C. The air was sup...

  10. Rational use of supply air in residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Svendsen, Svend

    2009-01-01

    The ventilation rate influences the air quality by determining the intensity of pollution sources. This paper compared the intensity of the sensory pollution during occupied hours in an apartment ventilated by a constant air volume system and demand controlled ventilation systems controlled...... by occupancy. The systems supplied the same total volume of air daily. It was found that the supply air could be used more rationally by redistributing it according to occupancy compared to maintaining a constant ventilation rate during all hours....

  11. World uranium reserves and assurance of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    This book deals mainly with those aspects of energy policy which concern uranium supply. A different complexion is put on the quantitative estimates of world uranium supplies available which are being overshadowed by political problems resulting from the special properties of this primary energy source as well as from its geographical distribution. The national policy of non-proliferation and the resource policy are demonstrated, taking the largest uranium supply countries as examples. The consumers' policy is explained, taking Europe and Japan as an example. Furthermore, a few possible political solutions are suggested. (UA) [de

  12. 46 CFR 197.432 - Surface-supplied air diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surface-supplied air diving. 197.432 Section 197.432... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Specific Diving Mode Procedures § 197.432 Surface... space; and (f) The surface-supplied air diver has the equipment required by § 197.346 (b) or (d). ...

  13. Fireplace with preheated secondary air supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheler, P. E.

    1985-09-24

    A fireplace cap is positioned outside the firebox of the fireplace. The cap has a framework comprised of first and second side members, an upper cross member and a lower damper section. A pair of hinged doors are mounted to this framework. Dampers selectively control the passage of primary combustion air directly to the firebox. A mantel overlies the upper cross member and a secondary air deflector baffle extends downwardly from the underside of the mantel. This baffle, together with the upper cross member, defines a transversely extending secondary air preheating chamber. Preheated air from the chamber is directed by the baffle across the doors prior to passing into the firebox. In one embodiment, secondary air enters the chamber through a space between the mantel and upper cross member. A valve controls the flow of secondary air to this space. In another embodiment, the damper section and side members define passageways which direct outside combustion air upwardly along the sides of the cap and into the chamber. Valves in the side passageways control the flow of air to the chamber.

  14. 42 CFR 84.142 - Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air supply source; hand-operated or motor driven air blowers; Type A supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. 84.142 Section 84.142 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF...

  15. Air Force Organizational Transformation: Merging the Active and Reserve Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warren, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    .... These include the active associate, reserve associate, and blended unit concepts. Finally, it provides a recommendation as to which concept will best meet the future warfighting needs of the Air Force.

  16. Can reserve additions in mature crude oil provinces attenuate supply-side peak oil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okullo, Samuel; Reynes, Frederic

    2010-09-15

    More often, oil supply has been modeled on the basis of resource availability and demand. The impact of strategy between oil producers has largely been ignored or overly simplified. In this paper, we formulate a model that embodies a weak and strong OPEC for varied rates of reserve additions. With this economic equilibrium model which has the capability to generate a supply side peak in oil production, we show that although reserves of conventional crude oil may seem abundant. OPEC has the ability to lead to substantial crude oil reserve depletion in non-OPEC countries by 2050 given likely depletion rates.

  17. 42 CFR 84.150 - Air-supply line tests; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air-supply line tests; minimum requirements. 84.150 Section 84.150 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.150 Air-supply line...

  18. Research on Double Price Regulations and Peak Shaving Reserve Mechanism in Coal-Electricity Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The game models were used to study the mechanism of coal-electricity price conflict under conditions of double price regulations of coal and electricity. Based on this, the peak shaving reserve mechanism was designed to probe into the countermeasures against the coal-electricity price conflicts. The study revealed that in the boom seasons of coal demand, the initiatives of the coal enterprises to supply thermal coal and the electricity enterprises to order thermal coal are reduced under conditions of double price regulations. However, under the circumstances of coal price marketization, in the boom seasons of coal demand the thermal coal price may go up obviously, the initiatives of the coal enterprises to supply thermal coal are increased, and meanwhile the initiatives of the power enterprises to order thermal coal are decreased dramatically. The transportation capacity constraint of coal supply leads to the evident decrease of the initiatives of coal enterprises for the thermal coal supply. The mechanism of peak shaving reserve of thermal coal may not only reduce the price of coal market but also increase the enthusiasm of the power enterprises to order more thermal coal and the initiatives of the coal enterprises to supply more thermal coal.

  19. Improved airline-type supplied-air plastic suit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, L. Jr.; Zippler, D.B.; Cofer, C.H.; Harper, J.A.

    1978-06-01

    Two piece supplied-air plastic suits are used extensively at the Savannah River Plant for personnel protection against inhalation of airborne plutonium and tritium. Worker comfort and noise level problems gave impetus to development of an improved suit and aid distribution system. The resulting plastic suit and development work are discussed. The plastic suit unit cost is less than $20, the hearing zone noise level is less than 75 dBA, protection factors exceed 10,000, and user comfort is approved. This suit is expected to meet performance requirements for unrestricted use

  20. Gas supply for independent power projects: Drilling programs and reserve acquisitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.D.; Walker, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Developers of gas-fired independent power projects, although drawn to gas as the fuel of choice for economic and environmental reasons, are finding the problem of cost-effective gas supply to be intractable. By one estimate, there are $6 billion worth of gas-fired projects languishing in the planning stage for want of long-term gas supply that is acceptable to project lenders. Worse still, as the authors are aware, some currently operating gas-fired projects lack such a supply, thus forcing the developer to rely on the spot market for gas as an interim (and unsatisfactory) solution. Although spot market prices in the deregulated natural gas industry have remained relatively low over several years, long-term gas supply has become problematic, particularly for power projects whose economics typically require an assured supply at a determined price over a multiyear period. In short, while there is an increasing demand for gas as a preferred source of fuel supply for power projects, there are discontinuities in the approaches taken to contracting for that supply by producers and developers. These concern primarily allocation of the risk of commodity-driven price increases during the term of the fuel supply contract. Without a means of accommodating price-related risk, the parties will inevitably find themselves at an impasse in contract negotiations. If there is a barrier to the independent power generation industry's vertical integration into gas production, it is the fundamental insularity of the two industries. As they have discovered, it may be indispensable for gas producers and power developers to employ intermediaries familiar with both industries in order to consummate appropriate joint-venture drilling programs and reserve acquisitions. Given the economic consequences of doing so successfully, however, they believe such programs and acquisitions may become an integral part of independent power developers' business strategy in the 1990s and beyond

  1. Demand control on room level of the supply air temperature in an air heating and ventilation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polak, Joanna; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a new strategy for control of supply air temperature in an integrated air heating and ventilation system. The new strategy enables demand control of supply air temperature in individual rooms. The study is based on detailed dynamic simulations of a combined...

  2. Global mismatch between fishing dependency and larval supply from marine reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrello, Marco; Guilhaumon, François; Albouy, Camille; Parravicini, Valeriano; Scholtens, Joeri; Verley, Philippe; Barange, Manuel; Sumaila, U. Rashid; Manel, Stéphanie; Mouillot, David

    2017-07-01

    Marine reserves are viewed as flagship tools to protect exploited species and to contribute to the effective management of coastal fisheries. Yet, the extent to which marine reserves are globally interconnected and able to effectively seed areas, where fisheries are most critical for food and livelihood security is largely unknown. Using a hydrodynamic model of larval dispersal, we predict that most marine reserves are not interconnected by currents and that their potential benefits to fishing areas are presently limited, since countries with high dependency on coastal fisheries receive very little larval supply from marine reserves. This global mismatch could be reversed, however, by placing new marine reserves in areas sufficiently remote to minimize social and economic costs but sufficiently connected through sea currents to seed the most exploited fisheries and endangered ecosystems.

  3. Energy and air emission effects of water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-04-15

    Life-cycle air emission effects of supplying water are explored using a hybrid life-cycle assessment For the typically sized U.S. utility analyzed, recycled water is preferable to desalination and comparable to importation. Seawater desalination has an energy and air emission footprint that is 1.5-2.4 times larger than that of imported water. However, some desalination modes fare better; brackish groundwater is 53-66% as environmentally intensive as seawater desalination. The annual water needs (326 m3) of a typical Californian that is met with imported water requires 5.8 GJ of energy and creates 360 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. With seawater desalination, energy use would increase to 14 GJ and 800 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. Meeting the water demand of California with desalination would consume 52% of the state's electricity. Supply options were reassessed using alternative electricity mixes, including the average mix of the United States and several renewable sources. Desalination using solar thermal energy has lower greenhouse gas emissions than that of imported and recycled water (using California's electricity mix), but using the U.S. mix increases the environmental footprint by 1.5 times. A comparison with a more energy-intensive international scenario shows that CO2 equivalent emissions for desalination in Dubai are 1.6 times larger than in California. The methods, decision support tool (WEST), and results of this study should persuade decision makers to make informed water policy choices by including energy consumption and material use effects in the decision-making process.

  4. Portland Energy Centre: Securing supply and clearing the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    The rationale for, and benefits derivable from the proposed Portland natural gas-fired cogeneration plant, to be located beside the former Hearn power station near the Leslie Street Spit in Toronto, are discussed. The justification for and the single most important benefit promised by the proposed plant is that it could help Ontario achieve its coal phase-out target by displacing 100 per cent of the annual output of the Lakeview coal--fired power plant in Mississauga, as well as six per cent of the annual output of the Nanticoke coal-fired power plant, in total supplying about 10 per cent of Toronto's electricity needs and providing steam to heat several office towers in downtown Toronto. Other benefits discussed include substantially improved air quality, reduced incidence of asthma and heart attacks, a more reliable power supply for Toronto, some 500 new jobs during construction, and 25 to 35 permanent jobs to operate the plant. The Fact Sheet also offers suggestions on how to generate political support for this project in particular and for renewable power sources in general

  5. Reduced heat stress in offices in the tropics using solar powered drying of the supply air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars; Santos, A M B

    2002-01-01

    Many solutions to indoor climate problems known from developed countries may have prohibitive installation and running costs in developing countries. The purpose was to develop a low-cost solution to heat stress in a hot and humid environment based on solar powered drying of supply air. Dry supply...... air may facilitate personal cooling by increased evaporation of sweat. Heat acclimatized people with efficient sweating may in particular benefit from this cooling. A prototype solar powered supply system for dried-only air was made. Air from the system was mixed with room air, heated to six different...... is a low-cost alternative to traditional air conditioning in hot and humid regions....

  6. Air Supply Operations in the China-Burma-India Theater between 1942 and 1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    AIR SUPPLY OPERATIONS IN THE CHINA -BURMA- INDIA THEATER BETWEEN 1942 AND 1945 A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S...Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) FEB 2010 – DEC 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Air Supply Operations in the China -Burma- India Theater...SCIENCE THESIS APPROVAL PAGE Name of Candidate: Maj Adrian R. Byers, USAF Thesis Title: Air Supply Operations in the China -Burma- India Theater

  7. Effect of supply air temperature on air distribution in a room with radiant heating and mechanical ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Zhao, Jianing; Fang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    The present study focused on the effect of supply air temperature on air distribution in a room with floor heating (FH) or ceiling heating (CH) and mixing ventilation (MV) or displacement ventilation (DV). The vertical distribution of air temperature and velocity in the occupied zone and the hori...... are relevant to the design and control of the hybrid systems with radiant heating systems and mechanical ventilation systems.......The present study focused on the effect of supply air temperature on air distribution in a room with floor heating (FH) or ceiling heating (CH) and mixing ventilation (MV) or displacement ventilation (DV). The vertical distribution of air temperature and velocity in the occupied zone...

  8. Preliminary sanitary analysis of supply and exhaust air of ventilation units working at special rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczęśniak, Sylwia; Trusz-Zdybek, Agnieszka; Piekarska, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    This article is an attempt to estimate concentration of bacteria and fungi in characteristic places in two air handling units. The research was conducted with the units equipped with heat recovery exchanger and recirculation of exhaust air. Additionally, microbiological analysis was done for indoor and fresh air. We performed measurements regarding supply and exhaust air volume. This means that the air velocity inside ventilator chamber was known. The mean concentration of bacteria and fungi was specified for air filters on the supply and exhaust side. The efficiency of air filters was verified by the concertation of bacteria and fungi in fan chamber. This article confirms that bacteria content in supply air is always lower than in exhaust air despite air recirculation. In this work we proved that the position of Petrie plate is essential for bacteria and fungi measurement.

  9. Preliminary sanitary analysis of supply and exhaust air of ventilation units working at special rooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczęśniak Sylwia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to estimate concentration of bacteria and fungi in characteristic places in two air handling units. The research was conducted with the units equipped with heat recovery exchanger and recirculation of exhaust air. Additionally, microbiological analysis was done for indoor and fresh air. We performed measurements regarding supply and exhaust air volume. This means that the air velocity inside ventilator chamber was known. The mean concentration of bacteria and fungi was specified for air filters on the supply and exhaust side. The efficiency of air filters was verified by the concertation of bacteria and fungi in fan chamber. This article confirms that bacteria content in supply air is always lower than in exhaust air despite air recirculation. In this work we proved that the position of Petrie plate is essential for bacteria and fungi measurement.

  10. 22 CFR 226.1003 - Air transportation. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air transportation. 226.1003 Section 226.1003 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS USAID-Specific Requirements § 226.1003 Air transportation...

  11. Effect of secondary air supply rate on the combustion of volatile gas in a controlled-air incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jangsawang, W.; Vallikul, P.; Kerdsuwan, S.; Fungtammasan, B.

    2005-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of secondary air supply rate on the combustion of volatile gas in a controlled-air incinerator. The secondary air supply was varied at flow rates of 0.56, 1.026, 1.73 Nm 3 /min. The waste in this study was categorized into three types: namely those containing low, medium and high combustible matter. The significant results of the experimental investigation showed that increasing secondary air supply rate reduces the chamber temperature in both chambers and strong effect on CO reduction for waste with high combustible content. NO formation increases slightly as secondary air supply increases and SO 2 formation depends on the sulfur content in the waste and is insensitive to secondary air for the range of flow rate tested. (Author)

  12. Air/fuel supply system for use in a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Timothy A; Schilp, Reinhard; Gambacorta, Domenico

    2014-06-17

    A fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine combustor assembly. The fuel injector includes a main body and a fuel supply structure. The main body has an inlet end and an outlet end and defines a longitudinal axis extending between the outlet and inlet ends. The main body comprises a plurality of air/fuel passages extending therethrough, each air/fuel passage including an inlet that receives air from a source of air and an outlet. The fuel supply structure communicates with and supplies fuel to the air/fuel passages for providing an air/fuel mixture within each air/fuel passage. The air/fuel mixtures exit the main body through respective air/fuel passage outlets.

  13. Application of ground-to-air heat exchanger for preheating of supply air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokins, Juris; Borodinecs, Anatolijs; Zemitis, Jurgis

    2017-10-01

    This study focuses on assessing the contribution of the passive ground-coupled air heat exchanger system to decreasing the energy consumption of air conditioning and ventilation systems for office buildings in the Latvian climate conditions. The theoretical part of the thesis deals with methods of office building ventilation, supply air preheating and heat recovery as well as particularities of using ground-coupled air heat exchangers, their design parameters and their joint impact on the thermal performance. The engineering project part includes a ventilation system for an office building with an integrated ground-coupled air heat exchanger. By simulating energy consumption of the ventilation system for a duration of one year, the thesis analyzes the contribution of the heat exchanger to the overall energy consumption, which totals 9.53 MWh and 4.02 MWh a year, according to the desired parameters of the indoor climate. The possible alternative heat recovery solutions are investigated to reach by European Regional Development Fund project Nr.1.1.1.1/16/A/048 “NEARLY ZERO ENERGY SOLUTIONS FOR UNCLASSIFIED BUILDINGS”.

  14. Integration of Lithium-Ion Battery Storage Systems in Hydroelectric Plants for Supplying Primary Control Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bignucolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever-growing diffusion of renewables as electrical generation sources is forcing the electrical power system to face new and challenging regulation problems to preserve grid stability. Among these, the primary control reserve is reckoned to be one of the most important issues, since the introduction of generators based on renewable energies and interconnected through static converters, if relieved from the primary reserve contribution, reduces both the system inertia and the available power reserve in case of network events involving frequency perturbations. In this scenario, renewable plants such as hydroelectric run-of-river generators could be required to provide the primary control reserve ancillary service. In this paper, the integration between a multi-unit run-of-river power plant and a lithium-ion based battery storage system is investigated, suitably accounting for the ancillary service characteristics as required by present grid codes. The storage system is studied in terms of maximum economic profitability, taking into account its operating constraints. Dynamic simulations are carried out within the DIgSILENT PowerFactory 2016 software environment in order to analyse the plant response in case of network frequency contingencies, comparing the pure hydroelectric plant with the hybrid one, in which the primary reserve is partially or completely supplied by the storage system. Results confirm that the battery storage system response to frequency perturbations is clearly faster and more accurate during the transient phase compared to a traditional plant, since time delays due to hydraulic and mechanical regulations are overpassed. A case study, based on data from an existing hydropower plant and referring to the Italian context in terms of operational constraints and ancillary service remuneration, is presented.

  15. The performance and subjective responses of call-center operators with new and used supply air filters at two outdoor air supply rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David; Fanger, Povl Ole

    2004-01-01

    A 2X2 replicated field intervention experiment was conducted in a call-center providing a telephone directory service: outdoor air supply rate was adjusted to be 8% of the total airflow of 430 l/s (3.5/h)and the supply air filters were either new or had been in place for 6 months. One of these in......A 2X2 replicated field intervention experiment was conducted in a call-center providing a telephone directory service: outdoor air supply rate was adjusted to be 8% of the total airflow of 430 l/s (3.5/h)and the supply air filters were either new or had been in place for 6 months. One....... Their performance was continuously monitored by recording the average talk-time every 30 min. Replacing a used filter with a clean filter reduced talk-time by about 10% at the high ventilation rate but had no significant effect at the low rate. Increasing the outdoor air supply rate reduced talk-time by 6...

  16. Cired 2015 full paper: DISTRIBUTED AND COORDINATED DEMAND RESPONSE FOR THE SUPPLY OF FREQUENCY CONTAINMENT RESERVE (FCR)

    OpenAIRE

    LEBEL, Gaspard; KUYPERS, Karel; CAIRE, Raphaël; HADJSAID, Nouredine; BEDIOU, Stéphane; GLATIGNY, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The availability of frequency-controlled reserves is essential for any Utility to secure the power system in both interconnected and microgrid contexts. This paper presents a concept of coordinated Distributed Energy Resources (DER), load modulation willing to supply frequency-controlled reserves. These reserves, compliant with both Frequency Containment Reserves (FCR) and Under Frequency Load Shedding (UFLS) requirements, are provided through a structure of Virtual Power Plant (VPP). Physica...

  17. 42 CFR 84.149 - Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type C supplied-air respirator, demand and pressure demand class; minimum requirements. 84.149 Section 84.149 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.149 Type C supplied-air respirator...

  18. 42 CFR 84.143 - Terminal fittings or chambers; Type B supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Terminal fittings or chambers; Type B supplied-air... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.143 Terminal fittings or chambers; Type B... positive pressures shall not be approved for use on Type B supplied-air respirators. (b) Terminal fittings...

  19. Control of an Isolated Table's Fluctuation Caused by Supplied Air Pressure Using a Voice Coil Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Habiburahman; Wakui, Shinji

    Pneumatic type anti-vibration apparatuses are used in the field of semiconductor manufacturing and precision measurement. The variation of the supplied air pressure from the air compressor causes the position fluctuation of the isolated table. A control method using a voice coil motor (VCM) as the actuator is proposed in this study to control the position fluctuation of the isolated table caused by the supplied air pressure. The feedforward compensator control scheme is used to provide a proper controlled signal to the VCM. According to the controlled signal, VCM exerts driving force in the opposite direction of the air spring expansion or compression to suppress the vibration of the isolated table.

  20. Modeling of Shipboard Smoke Propagation with a Forced Counter-Flow Air Supply

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farman, Garrett

    2001-01-01

    The propagation of fire-generated smoke with a counter-flow air supply in, a horizontal arrangement of shipboard compartments and passageways was modeled using a computational fluid dynamics program...

  1. Estimating the Benefits of the Air Force Purchasing and Supply Chain Management Initiative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arkes, Jeremy; Chenoweth, Mary E

    2008-01-01

    .... The goals of the Air Force PSCM initiative are to improve supply material availability -- the right parts at the right time -- reduce material costs, and reduce the time it takes to provide materiel...

  2. The effect of air supply on nitrogen removal using a biological filter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-02

    Oct 2, 2009 ... The biological filter consisted of a PVC column, 150 mm in diameter and 1 ... The pH (Orion Model 410A) of the effluent from the bio- logical filter .... pH and nitrogen species. (steady state concentrations for the different air supply rates). Air supply m3∙h−1 N. pH. Ammonia mg∙ℓ−1 N. Nitrite mg∙ℓ−1 N. Nitrate.

  3. The effects of outdoor air supply rate and supply air filter condition in classrooms on the performance of schoolwork by children (RP-1257)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David Peter

    2007-01-01

    Two independent field intervention experiments were carried out in mechanically ventilated classrooms receiving 100% outdoor air. Outdoor air supply rate and filter condition were manipulated to modify indoor air quality, and the performance of schoolwork was measured The conditions were establis......Two independent field intervention experiments were carried out in mechanically ventilated classrooms receiving 100% outdoor air. Outdoor air supply rate and filter condition were manipulated to modify indoor air quality, and the performance of schoolwork was measured The conditions were...... established for one week at a time in a blind crossover design with repeated measures on 10- to 12-year-old children in two classes. Seven exercises exemplifying different aspects of schoolwork (numerical or language-based) were performed as part of normal lessons by pupils who also marked visual analogue...... filter with a new one because very little dust had been retained by the "used" filter and because of an incompletely balanced design. The unbalanced design also made it impossible to test for an interaction between filter condition and ventilation rate. These results indicate the importance of improving...

  4. Detection of airborne rhinovirus and its relation to outdoor air supply in office environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Theodore A; Johnston, Sebastian L; Zuo, Zhengfa; Wand, Matthew; Kebadze, Tatiana; Rudnick, Stephen; Milton, Donald K

    2004-06-01

    Rhinoviruses are major causes of morbidity in patients with respiratory diseases; however, their modes of transmission are controversial. We investigated detection of airborne rhinovirus in office environments by polymerase chain reaction technology and related detection to outdoor air supply rates. We sampled air from 9 A.M. to 5 P.M. each workday, with each sample run for 1 work week. We directly extracted RNA from the filters for nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of rhinovirus. Nasal lavage samples from building occupants with upper respiratory infections were also collected. Indoor carbon dioxide (CO2 concentrations were recorded every 10 minutes as a surrogate for outdoor air supply. To increase the range of CO2 concentrations, we adjusted the outdoor air supply rates every 3 months. Generalized additive models demonstrated an association between the probability of detecting airborne rhinovirus and a weekly average CO2 concentration greater than approximately 100 ppm, after controlling for covariates. In addition, one rhinovirus from a nasal lavage contained an identical nucleic acid sequence similar to that in the building air collected during the same week. These results suggest that occupants in buildings with low outdoor air supply may have an increased risk of exposure to infectious droplet nuclei emanating from a fellow building occupant.

  5. A novel complex air supply model for indoor air quality control via the occupant micro-environment demand ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jie; Zhou, Bo; Jin, Maozhu; Wang, Jun; Xiong, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Protection of indoor air quality and human health can be achieved via ventilation, which has becomes one of the most important tasks for sustainable buildings. This approach also requires highly efficient and energy saving methods for modern building ventilations consisting of a set of parameters of the complex indoor system. Therefore, the advancement in understanding the characteristics of various ventilation methods is highly necessary. This study presents one novel air supply model for the complex occupant micro-environment demand control ventilations, to analyze the efficiency of various ventilation types. This model is established primarily according to the momentum and mass conservations, and goal of occupant micro-environment demand, which is a complex system with the characteristics of diversity and dynamic variation. As for different occupant densities, characteristics of outdoor air supply for controlling gaseous pollutant and three basic features of outdoor airflow supply reaching occupant micro-environment were obtained. This research shows that for various types of occupant density and storey height, the rising and descending rates of the demand outdoor airflow in mixing ventilation are higher than those under displacement ventilation conditions. In addition, since the structure is better designed and sewage flow is more efficient, the mixing ventilation also requires a much higher peak demand outdoor airflow than its counterpart. The increase of storey height will lead to a decline of pollutants in the breathing zone and the demand outdoor airflow. Fluctuations of air flow diffusion caused by the change of occupant density in architectural space, will lead to variations of outdoor airflow reaching occupant micro-environment. Accordingly, it would lead to the different peak values of demand outdoor airflow, and the difference becomes even significant if the occupant density increases. The variations of the air supply and fraction of air reaching the

  6. Energy supplies and future engines for land, sea, and air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David Gordon

    2012-06-01

    The years 2012 and beyond seem likely to record major changes in energy use and power generation. The Japanese tsunami has resulted in large countries either scaling back or abolishing the future use of nuclear energy. The discovery of what seems like vast amounts of economically deliverable natural gas has many forecasting a rapid switch from coal- to gas-fired generating plants. On the other hand, environmentalists have strong objections to the production of natural gas and of petroleum by hydraulic fracturing from shale, or by extraction of heavy oil. They believe that global warming from the use of fossil fuels is now established beyond question. There has been rapid progress in the development of alternative energy supplies, particularly from on-shore and off-shore wind. Progress toward a viable future energy mix has been slowed by a U.S. energy policy that seems to many to be driven by politics. The author will review the history of power and energy to put all of the above in context and will look at possible future developments. He will propose what he believes to be an idealized energy policy that could result in an optimum system that would be arrived at democratically.

  7. Use of perforated acoustic panels as supply air diffusers in diffuse ceiling ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Kazemi, Seyed Hossein; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi

    Ventilation is needed for diluting and removing the contaminants, odour and excess heat from the building interior. It is important that the inhabitants perceive the ventilated spaces as comfortable. Therefore, the supply air should reach all parts of the occupied zones. Troldtekt has been...... manufacturing perforated acoustic panels for the last 13 years. The panels can be used not only in applications related to acoustics but also as low pressure drop supply air diffusers, particularly in diffuse ceiling ventilation systems. The present study verifies on a theoretically level the performance...

  8. Specifications and test procedures for airline-type supplied-air suits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revoir, W.H.; Pritchard, J.A.; Davis, T.O.; Richards, C.P.; Wheat, L.D.

    1975-05-01

    Procedures and requirements have been established to permit airline-type supplied-air suits needed by contractors of the Energy Research and Development Administration to be tested for performance by the Respirator Research and Development Section, Industrial Hygiene Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, and to have the adequacy of the performance of these devices evaluated by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Respirator Advisory Committee. Test equipment, test methods, and performance criteria for airline-type supplied-air suits are prescribed. (U.S.)

  9. A Methodology for Modeling the Flow of Military Personnel Across Air Force Active and Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    capability to estimate the historic impact of changes in economic conditions on the flows of labor into, between, and out of the Air Force active...C O R P O R A T I O N Research Report A Methodology for Modeling the Flow of Military Personnel Across Air Force Active and Reserve Components...or considered about the effect that those policies might have on personnel flows into and out of other components. The degree to which this is

  10. Calculation methods for air supply design in industrial facilities. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagstroem, K.; Siren, K.; Zhivov, A.M.

    1999-09-01

    The objectives of air distribution systems for warm air heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning are to create the proper thermal environment conditions in the occupied zone (combination of temperature, humidity, and air movement), and to control vapor and air born particle concentration within the target levels set by the process requirements and/or threshold limit values based on health effects, fire and explosion prevention, or other considerations. HVAC systems designs are constrained by existing codes, standards, and guidelines, which specify some minimum requirements for the HVAC system elements, occupant`s and process environmental quality and safety. There is a variety of different methods consulting engineers use to design room air diffusion and to select and size air diffusers, such as assumption of perfect mixing, design methods employing the empirical relations determined through research, such as the air diffusion performance index (ADPI), air jet theory and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. Air supplied into the room through the various types of outlets (grills, ceiling mounted air diffusers, perforated panels etc.), is distributed by turbulent air jets. In mixing type air distribution systems, these air jets are the primary factor affecting room air motion. Numerous theoretical and experimental studies that developed a solid base for turbulent air jets theory were conducted concurrently in different countries (Germany, Sweden, Russia, U.K., USA) from the 1930`s through the 1980`s. Design methods based on air jet theory allows for the prediction of extreme values of air velocities and air temperatures in the occupied zone of empty spaces. Current air jet theory techniques account for the effects of buoyancy, confinement, jets interaction. For many conditions of jet discharge, it is possible to analyze jet performance and determine: the angle of divergence of the jet boundary; the velocity patterns along heated or chilled the jet axis; the

  11. Overcurrent Abuse of Primary Prismatic Zinc–Air Battery Cells Studying Air Supply Effects on Performance and Safety Shut-Down

    OpenAIRE

    Fredrik Larsson; Antti Rytinki; Istaq Ahmed; Ingvar Albinsson; Bengt-Erik Mellander

    2017-01-01

    Overcurrent abuse has been performed on commercial 48 Ah primary prismatic zinc (Zn)–Air battery cells with full air supply as well as with shut-off air supply. Compared to other battery technologies, e.g., lithium-ion batteries, metal–air batteries offer the possibility to physically stop the battery operation by stopping its air supply, thus offering an additional protection against severe battery damage in the case of, e.g., an accidental short circuit. This method may also reduce the elec...

  12. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Impinging Jet Ventilation at Different Cross Sectional Area of Supply Air Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala'a Abbas Mahdi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available  An experimental and computational analysis of temperature and velocity distribution in an office room have been studied. Office room of dimensions (3m x 1.75m x 3m with two cross sectional types of supply air duct in the experimental part and three different cross sectional types of supply air duct in the theoretical part is usual as a tested model. The RNG k-  turbulence model was employed to solve the governing equations numerically and validated by comparing the numerical results with experimental data. The impinging jet concept has been proposed as a new ventilation strategy for use in office and industrial buildings. The present work focuses on evaluating the performance of a new impinging jet ventilation. In a theoretical study three types of supply air duct are adopted which are square supply air duct (Type-I, semi-elliptic supply air duct (Type-II and rectangle supply air duct (Type-III for two cases of air outlet terminal height from room foot level, 0.14h (case-I & 0.1h (case-II. The third type (rectangle duct gives lowest effective and discomfort conditions when compared with the other two types. This study investigated a number of factors influencing draught discomfort and temperature stratification in an office environment equipped with impinging jet ventilation IJV. The factors considered to be: shape of the air supply device, supply airflow rate and supply air temperature. Acceptable Air Distribution Performance Index (ADPI, effective temperature, and ventilation efficiency obtained that the square cross sectional area of supply air duct at 0.1h (case-II height from foot level gives more acceptable indoor air quality and human thermal comfort when compared with the other types. Also, this type gives good air distribution system not only promotes a comfortable and healthy environment for occupants, but also contributes to energy conservation.

  13. Impact of a national plan for future electricity supply on ambient air quality in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Changsub; Hong, Jiyoun

    2016-01-01

    South Korea has recently chosen coal as the major energy source for the future national electricity power supply, mainly due to economic reasons. This has raised concerns about national air quality, considering the serious air pollution associated with the long-range transport of Chinese air pollutants. In the present study, we simulated air pollution levels for 2027 considering the changes in electricity power plants of South Korea proposed by the sixth Basic Plan for Long-Term Electricity Supply and Demand (6th BPE, 2013–2027). Compared to the emissions in 2010, the emissions of CO, NO x , SO x , and PM 10 from electricity supply in the Incheon, Gyunggi, Gangwon, Chungnam, and Gyeongnam regions will increase by 20–50% in 2027. The resulting number of days on which pollution levels exceeded the national air quality standards for O 3 and PM 10 will increase by fewer than 6 days in all regions, which seems to be a minor increase. However, that of NO 2 over the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA, including Incheon, part of Gyunggi, and Seoul) showed a marked increase of more than 21 days. Therefore, an impact from secondary air pollution, such as acid rain and PM 2.5 formation, can be expected, although this requires quantification. - Highlights: • Air quality impact assessment of future electricity supply plan was conducted. • Future emissions changes by expansion of electricity capacity was estimated. • Future coal-powered plants can cause intense NO x emissions over Seoul, Korea. • Consequent NO 2 level will increase significantly over Seoul Metropolitan Area.

  14. Performance of Chilled Beam with Radial Swirl Jet and Diffuse Ceiling Air Supply in Heating Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Bård; Mustakallio, Panu; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2013-01-01

    The performance of diffuse ceiling air supply and chilled beam with swirl jet (CSW) in heating mode (winter situation) was studied and compared with regard to the generated indoor environment. An office mock-up with one occupant was simulated in a test room (4.5 x 3.95 x 3.5 m3 (L x W x H...

  15. Investigating the impact of noise incidence angle on the sound insulation of a supply air window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten B.; Tambo, Torben

    2015-01-01

    The Danish Environmental Agency introduced in 2007 a guideline “Noise from roads”, in which noise limits for open windows were introduced. This guideline has led to investigations of open windows with good sound insulation, and among one of these windows are the “Supply Air Window”. Prior sound i...

  16. The scope of inducing natural air supply via the façade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Engel, P.J.W.; Kurvers, S.R.

    2017-01-01

    An overview is given of recent developments in the use of a system of inducing natural air supply via the façade in the Netherlands. This is followed by a review of the results of measurements from climate chamber experiments of its inducing ventilation performance and detailed insights gained

  17. Test procedure for calibration, grooming and alignment of the LDUA Purge Air Supply System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) is a remotely operated manipulator used to enter into underground waste tanks through one of the tank risers. National Electric Code requirements mandate that the in-tank portions of the LDUA be maintained at a positive pressure for entrance into a flammable atmosphere. The LDUA Purge Air Supply System (PASS) is a small, portable air compressor, which provides a constant low flow of instrument grade air for this purpose. This procedure is used to assure that the instrumentation and equipment comprising the PASS is properly adjusted in order to achieve its intended functions successfully

  18. Supply Inventory Management: Industrial Prime Vendor Program at the Air Force Air Logistics Centers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... in maintenance, repair, and overhaul facilities. The IPV Program is a customer-oriented, supply-chain management initiative that transfers complete responsibility for bench-stock material to a third-party vendor...

  19. Experimental study on airflow fluctuation characteristic of an underfloor air supply terminal unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jinping [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Building Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wu, Yanfang [Design Institute of Guangzhou Metro Corporation, Guangzhou 510010 (China)

    2010-11-15

    In order to investigate dynamic characteristic of underfloor air supply terminal unit, an IFV900A hot-wire anemometer was used to measure the corresponding velocity field. Turbulence intensity and power spectrum density exponent of air velocity signal were analyzed. The result showed that the outlet velocity distribution of underfloor air supply terminal unit was uniform. With increment of height, the velocity distribution trends to be uniform. Two velocity attenuation regions appear during airflow development. Turbulence intensity changes obviously with height. It is lower than that of mechanical wind. Turbulence intensity goes up with the increment of jetting distance. Power spectrum density exponent trends to the value of natural wind with increase of jetting distance and decrease of wind velocity. The exponent value approaches to the value of typical natural wind for the air velocity is 0.5 m/s under high supply air rate. With airflow diffusion, the fluctuation characteristic of airflow varies obviously with the jetting direction. The fluctuation characteristic of airflow changes to that of natural wind with the increase of height which can improve comfort of indoor environment. (author)

  20. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall not... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. 84.156 Section 84.156 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...

  1. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. (a) The static... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. 84.157 Section 84.157 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH...

  2. Cognitive and Teaching Style Preferences of Officers Attending the Air Force Reserve Officer Training Instructor Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraska, Marie; Harris, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the cognitive style and teaching style preferences of instructors enrolled in the Reserve Officer Training Corps instructor course at the Academic Instructor School at Maxwell Air Force base. Sixty-five cases were examined for two research questions: (1) To what extent is there…

  3. Energy supply and conversion to hydrogen: how to improve the air quality in Buenos Aires city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, Nestor R.; Bergallo, Juan E.; Corso, Hugo L.; Bolcich, Juan C.

    1998-01-01

    The regional power distribution and the market free regulation, take the companies of this sector to an increasing competition by the supply. This situation induces conceptual and technical changes, that seem oriented to a greater complementation of power menu, with consequent structuring of power chains of better economic management. In the case of electrical park, they exist power stations nonsintonizables with the fluctuations of demand, those that noticeably alter the prices to which energy can be sold. In these cases, the strategy is oriented to accumulation, to supply energy deferred in time, or in the form and place that greater rent offers. Multinational programs that illustrate these situations, with long trajectory and important resources exist, like the EUROQUEBEC, that contemplates the hydroelectricity surplus export from Canada to Europe in hydrogen form. (author)

  4. Experimental investigation on a turbine compressor for air supply system of a fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Masayasu [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokosuka (Japan); Tsuchiyama, Syozo [Shipbuilding Research Association, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    This report covers part of a joint study on a PEFC propulsion system for surface ships, summarized in a presentation to this Seminar, entitled {open_quotes}Study on a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) Propulsion System for Surface Ships{close_quotes}, and which envisages application to a 1,500 DWT cargo vessel. The aspect treated here concerns a study on the air supply system for the PEFC, with particular reference to system components.

  5. The Career Job Reservation System. Is the Issuance System Best Serving the Needs of the Air Force?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    AD-A241 065 (i AIR WAR COLLEGE RESEARCH REPORT THE CAREER JOB RESERVATION SYSTEM- IS THE ISSUANCE SYSTEM BEST SERVING THE NEEDS OF THE AIR FORCE... THE NEEDS OF THE AIR FORCE? by Ernest V. Marshall Lieutenant Colonel, USAF A DEFENSE ANALYTICAL STUDY SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY IN FULFILLMENT OF THE...EXECUTIVE SUMMARY TITLE: The Career Job Reservation (CJR) Sy3tem--Is it serving the needs of the Air Force? AUTHOR: Ernest V. Marshall, Licutenant

  6. Investigating the impact of noise incidence angle on the sound insulation of a supply air window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten B.; Tambo, Torben

    2015-01-01

    The Danish Environmental Agency introduced in 2007 a guideline “Noise from roads”, in which noise limits for open windows were introduced. This guideline has led to investigations of open windows with good sound insulation, and among one of these windows are the “Supply Air Window”. Prior sound i...... in the receiving room ceiling, have been simulated and show a general improvement of the sound reduction index from 500 Hz and above, and an improvement of ~3-4 dB at 2 kHz, in relation to the noise angle ofindidence.......The Danish Environmental Agency introduced in 2007 a guideline “Noise from roads”, in which noise limits for open windows were introduced. This guideline has led to investigations of open windows with good sound insulation, and among one of these windows are the “Supply Air Window”. Prior sound...... insulation measurements of the Supply Air Window show a difference in the frequency range above 2 kHz, for field measurements carried out according to EN ISO 140-5 and laboratory measurements carried out according to EN ISO 10140-2. It is found that the sound insulation measured in the field setup...

  7. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test... ......do ......do The air-supply hose, detachable coupling, and demand valve of the demand class or pressure-demand valve of the pressure-demand class for Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure...

  8. Potential Impact of the National Plan for Future Electric Power Supply on Air Quality in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, C.; Hong, J.

    2014-12-01

    Korean Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) announced the national plan for Korea's future electric power supply (2013 - 2027) in 2013. According to the plan, the national demand for electricity will be increased by 60% compared to that of 2010 and primary energy sources for electric generation will still lean on the fossil fuels such as petroleum, LNG, and coal, which would be a potential threat to air quality of Korea. This study focused on two subjects: (1) How the spatial distribution of the primary air pollutant's emissions (i.e., NOx, SOx, CO, PM) will be changed and (2) How the primary emission changes will influence on the national ambient air quality including ozone in 2027. We used GEOS-Chem model simulation with modification of Korean emissions inventory (Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS)) to simulate the current and future air quality in Korea. The national total emissions of CO, NOx, SOx, PM in year 2027 will be increased by 3%, 8%, 13%, 2%, respectively compared to 2010 and there are additional concern that the future location of the power plants will be closer to the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), where there are approximately 20 million population vulnerable to the potentially worsened air quality. While there are slight increase of concentration of CO, NOx, SOx, and PM in 2027, the O3 concentration is expected to be similar to the level of 2010. Those results may imply the characteristics of air pollution in East Asia such as potentially severe O3 titration and poorer O3/CO or O3/NOx ratio. Furthermore, we will discuss on the impact of transboundary pollution transport from China in the future, which is one of the large factors to control the air quality of Korea.

  9. The Air Force Mobile Forward Surgical Team (MFST): Using the Estimating Supplies Program to Validate Clinical Requirement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nix, Ralph E; Onofrio, Kathleen; Konoske, Paula J; Galarneau, Mike R; Hill, Martin

    2004-01-01

    .... The primary objective of the study was to provide the Air Force with the ability to validate clinical requirements of the MFST assemblage, with the goal of using NHRC's Estimating Supplies Program (ESP...

  10. Study on the influence of supplying compressed air channels and evicting channels on pneumatical oscillation systems for vibromooshing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glăvan, D. O.; Radu, I.; Babanatsas, T.; Babanatis Merce, R. M.; Kiss, I.; Gaspar, M. C.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a pneumatic system with two oscillating masses. The system is composed of a cylinder (framework) with mass m1, which has a piston with mass m2 inside. The cylinder (framework system) has one supplying channel for compressed air and one evicting channel for each work chamber (left and right of the piston). Functionality of the piston position comparatively with the cylinder (framework) is possible through the supplying or evicting of compressed air. The variable force that keeps the movement depends on variation of the pressure that is changing depending on the piston position according to the cylinder (framework) and to the section form that is supplying and evicting channels with compressed air. The paper presents the physical model/pattern, the mathematical model/pattern (differential equations) and numerical solution of the differential equations in hypothesis with the section form of supplying and evicting channels with compressed air is rectangular (variation linear) or circular (variation nonlinear).

  11. Overcurrent Abuse of Primary Prismatic Zinc–Air Battery Cells Studying Air Supply Effects on Performance and Safety Shut-Down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Larsson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Overcurrent abuse has been performed on commercial 48 Ah primary prismatic zinc (Zn–Air battery cells with full air supply as well as with shut-off air supply. Compared to other battery technologies, e.g., lithium-ion batteries, metal–air batteries offer the possibility to physically stop the battery operation by stopping its air supply, thus offering an additional protection against severe battery damage in the case of, e.g., an accidental short circuit. This method may also reduce the electrical hazard in a larger battery system since, by stopping the air supply, the voltage can be brought to zero while maintaining the energy capacity of the battery. Measurements of overdischarge currents and current cut-off by suffocation have been performed to assess the safety of this type of Zn–air battery. The time to get to zero battery voltage is shown to mainly be determined by the volume of air trapped in the cell.

  12. Air pollution and health impact emboided in supply chains in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.

    2016-12-01

    Close economic linkage and consequent air pollutant emissions embodied in trade among Chinese regions have been widely discussed. Yet the related health impacts across regions remain unaddressed. Here, we integrated four state-of-the-art models to for the first time estimate PM2.5 related premature deaths along the supply chains across seven Chinese regions, and we quantified cross impacts among receptors, producers, assemblers, consumers, and sectors. We find that, due to the atmospheric transport, in 2010, 33% of national premature deaths were caused by emissions released in other regions, and the trans-boundary effect is more significant from north to south and from east to west. From a supply chain perspective, 38% of national premature deaths were associated with production for in a region to supply other regions' consumption. For instance, 20-35% of premature deaths related to the highly developed east coastal regions' consumption were caused by emissions in the central and western regions. Sectorally, similar to the widely concerned heavy industries, direct emissions from agricultural and residential activities together contributed near half of national total premature deaths, posing a great challenge for recent pollution reduction action, which are mainly focusing on industrial restructuring. Our results emphasize the importance of regarding pollution related premature deaths in China as a national systemic problem, instead of targeting the pollution producers (region or sector) in isolation. Multilateral and multi-sector cooperation is in urgent need to improve the national atmospheric environment.

  13. Verification of Energy Reduction Effect through Control Optimization of Supply Air Temperature in VRF-OAP System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hyeon Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper developed an algorithm that controls the supply air temperature in the variable refrigerant flow (VRF, outdoor air processing unit (OAP system, according to indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity, and verified the effects after applying the algorithm to real buildings. The VRF-OAP system refers to a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC system to complement a ventilation function, which is not provided in the VRF system. It is a system that supplies air indoors by heat treatment of outdoor air through the OAP, as a number of indoor units and OAPs are connected to the outdoor unit in the VRF system simultaneously. This paper conducted experiments with regard to changes in efficiency and the cooling capabilities of each unit and system according to supply air temperature in the OAP using a multicalorimeter. Based on these results, an algorithm that controlled the temperature of the supply air in the OAP was developed considering indoor and outdoor temperatures and humidity. The algorithm was applied in the test building to verify the effects of energy reduction and the effects on indoor temperature and humidity. Loads were changed by adjusting the number of conditioned rooms to verify the effect of the algorithm according to various load conditions. In the field test results, the energy reduction effect was approximately 15–17% at a 100% load, and 4–20% at a 75% load. However, no significant effects were shown at a 50% load. The indoor temperature and humidity reached a comfortable level.

  14. Development of a model for activated sludge aeration systems: linking air supply, distribution, and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraa, Oliver; Rieger, Leiv; Alex, Jens

    2017-02-01

    During the design of a water resource recovery facility, it is becoming industry practice to use simulation software to assist with process design. Aeration is one of the key components of the activated sludge process, and is one of the most important aspects of modelling wastewater treatment systems. However, aeration systems are typically not modelled in detail in most wastewater treatment process modelling studies. A comprehensive dynamic aeration system model has been developed that captures both air supply and demand. The model includes sub-models for blowers, pipes, fittings, and valves. An extended diffuser model predicts both oxygen transfer efficiency within an aeration basin and pressure drop across the diffusers. The aeration system model allows engineers to analyse aeration systems as a whole to determine biological air requirements, blower performance, air distribution, control valve impacts, controller design and tuning, and energy costs. This enables engineers to trouble-shoot the entire aeration system including process, equipment and controls. It also allows much more realistic design of these highly complex systems.

  15. Environmental Assessment for Type III Fuel Hydrant System at Grissom Air Reserve Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    emissions from  architectural  coatings and asphalt paving operations. Emissions of all criteria pollutants    Grissom Air Reserve Base  3‐7  October 2011...3.4 CULTURAL RESOURCES 3.4.1 EVALUATION CRITERIA Cultural resources include archaeological resources, historic  architectural  or engineering...potable water distribution  system (GARB 2007).    Drinking water is sampled periodically by  bioenvironmental  engineering personnel at various locations

  16. External CO2 and water supplies for enhancing electrical power generation of air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, So; Fujiki, Itto; Sano, Daisuke; Okabe, Satoshi

    2014-10-07

    Alkalization on the cathode electrode limits the electrical power generation of air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs), and thus external proton supply to the cathode electrode is essential to enhance the electrical power generation. In this study, the effects of external CO2 and water supplies to the cathode electrode on the electrical power generation were investigated, and then the relative contributions of CO2 and water supplies to the total proton consumption were experimentally evaluated. The CO2 supply decreased the cathode pH and consequently increased the power generation. Carbonate dissolution was the main proton source under ambient air conditions, which provides about 67% of total protons consumed for the cathode reaction. It is also critical to adequately control the water content on the cathode electrode of air-cathode MFCs because the carbonate dissolution was highly dependent on water content. On the basis of these experimental results, the power density was increased by 400% (143.0 ± 3.5 mW/m(2) to 575.0 ± 36.0 mW/m(2)) by supplying a humid gas containing 50% CO2 to the cathode chamber. This study demonstrates that the simultaneous CO2 and water supplies to the cathode electrode were effective to increase the electrical power generation of air-cathode MFCs for the first time.

  17. Air-supplied pinhole discharge in aqueous solution for the inactivation of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganuma, Ryota; Yasuoka, Koichi

    2018-04-01

    An air-supplied pinhole discharge in aqueous solution has been developed to provide a short-lived and odorless bactericide to replace current conventional disinfectants such as O3, ClO-, HClO, and ClO2. The pinhole discharge that was initiated inside a water bubble generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitrous acid (HNO2) simultaneously. The concentrations of H2O2, HNO2, and HNO3 were 16.3, 13.9, and 17.4 mg/L, respectively when flow rates of NaCl solution and air were 72 and 12.5 mL/min, respectively. The pH value of the solution was 3.87, and HO2 radicals were generated from the reaction of H2O2 with HNO2. The efficacy of sterilization of discharge-treated water was evaluated by changing the acetic solutions. A 4-orders-of-magnitude decrease in Escherichia coli survival rate was observed after treatment with a sodium citrate solution of pH 3.2 for 60 s.

  18. Impact of forest biomass residues to the energy supply chain on regional air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael, S; Tarelho, L; Monteiro, A; Sá, E; Miranda, A I; Borrego, C; Lopes, M

    2015-02-01

    The increase of the share of renewable energy in Portugal can be met from different sources, of which forest biomass residues (FBR) can play a main role. Taking into account the demand for information about the strategy of FBR to energy, and its implications on the Portuguese climate policy, the impact of energy conversion of FBR on air quality is evaluated. Three emission scenarios were defined and a numerical air quality model was selected to perform this evaluation. The results reveal that the biomass thermal plants contribute to an increment of the pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere, however restricted to the surrounding areas of the thermal plants, and most significant for NO₂ and O₃. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Using the Estimating Supplies Program to Develop Materiel Solutions for the U.S. Air Force Aeromedical Evacuation In-Flight Kit (FFQDM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hopkins, Curtis; Nix, Ralph; Pang, Gerry; Konoske, Paula

    2008-01-01

    ... NHRC's medical modeling tool the Estimating Supplies Program (ESP) for the development and management of Air Force medical Allowance Standards as a baseline for standardization throughout the services...

  20. Evaluation of simplified ventilation system with direct air supply through the facade in a school in a cold climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mysen, M. [Norwegian Building Research Institute, Blindern, Oslo (Norway); Department of Energy and Process Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Schild, P. G.; Hellstrand, V.; Thunshelle, K. [Norwegian Building Research Institute, Blindern, Oslo (Norway)

    2004-07-01

    Many educational buildings in industrialised countries have poor indoor climate, according to today's knowledge about the impact of indoor climate on well-being and productivity. Budget restrictions and practical limitations such as lack of space for central air handling units and ventilation ducts, have motivated the application of simplified ventilation systems in some schools, such as taking unconditioned supply air directly from the facade. One such school was recently evaluated in Norway. On cold days, thermal comfort in the classroom deteriorated due to cold down draught from the supply outlet. In addition, moist and fertile conditions for microbiological growth were observed in the air supply ductwork. On the other hand the same pupils are more satisfied with the school and have less sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms during winter than summer. An improved control strategy with a temperature-compensated CO{sub 2} set-point for controlling the air flow is suggested. This could improve thermal comfort and reduce energy use without compromising perceived air quality (PAQ) during cold weather. Furthermore it could improve indoor air quality (IAQ) during warm weather with only a slight increase of energy use. Further evaluation of an improved solution is needed before such a ventilation concept can be recommended in cold climates. (author)

  1. PENGELOLAAN MATA AIR UNTUK PENYEDIAAN AIR RUMAHTANGGA BERKELANJUTAN DI LERENG SELATAN GUNUNGAPI MERAPI (Springs Management for Sustainability Domestic Water Supply in the South West of Merapi Volcano Slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmadji Sudarmadji

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Mata air merupakan pemunculan air tanah ke permukaan tanah. Pemanfaatan mata air sangat beragam, antara lain penggunaan untuk keperluan air minum, irigasi, perikanan, untuk obyek wisata. Mata air mempunyai debit terbatas, namun kualitasnya baik, penggunaannya beragam, hal tersebut sering terjadi konflik pemanfaatan. Di saat musim kemarau, beberapa mata air merupakan sumber air satu-satunya di suatu tempat, sehingga pengelolaannya harus dilakukan secara baik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengelolaan mata air berbasis teknologi tepat guna dalam penyediaan air rumahtangga di lereng selatan Gunungapi Merapi. Penelitian dilakukan dengan survei dan observasi di lapangan terhadap mata air yang digunakan untuk penyediaan air rumahtangga. Sejumlah responden pengguna mata air dan tokoh masyarakat setempat diwawancarai secara bebas dan terstruktur untuk memperoleh data pengelolaan mata air. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kondisi lingkungan dan karakteristik mata air, pengetahuan masyarakat dan budaya lokal yang beragam akan berpengaruh terhadap pengelolaanmata air. Perkembangan teknologi tidak dapat diabaikan dalam pengelolaan sumberdaya air. Hal ini dapat dipadukan dengan budaya masyarakat setempat dalam pengelolaan mata air, sehingga dapat diperoleh manfaat yang optimal dan kesinambungan fungsi dan manfaat mata air tersebut.   ABSTRACT Spring is the groundwater which comes out on ground surface. The use of water from springs is very diverse, varying from water for drinking, irrigation, fisheries, even for tourism. The springs usually have a limited discharge but the water quality from springs is good, therefore they are often facing some conflicts in utilization. In the dry season, in fact the springs are the only source of water supply; therefore the management of the spring should be done properly. This research aims to study the spring management based on appropriate technology in relation to household water supply in the

  2. 42 CFR 84.159 - Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements. 84.159 Section 84.159 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  3. Installation Restoration Program Records Search for Twin Cities Air Force Reserve Base, Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    Sandstone, white, mediu poorly sorted and silty.!0-80+ Galesville Sandstone Sandstone, yellow to whi grained, poorly cemented Eau Claire Sandstone 0-150...Quality Data All potable water for Twin Cities AFRB is obtained from the City of Minneapolis. The potable water is supplied to the base by one 12-inch main...34 Exploration drilling, testing, and design of well fields for potable water supply with an installed capacity of over 65 mgd. " Determination of

  4. Air Quality and Health Impacts of an Aviation Biofuel Supply Chain Using Forest Residue in the Northwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Vikram; Gao, Allan H; Martinkus, Natalie B; Wolcott, Michael P; Lamb, Brian K

    2018-04-03

    Forest residue is a major potential feedstock for second-generation biofuel; however, little knowledge exists about the environmental impacts of the development and production of biofuel from such a feedstock. Using a high-resolution regional air quality model, we estimate the air quality impacts of a forest residue based aviation biofuel supply chain scenario in the Pacific Northwestern United States. Using two potential supply chain regions, we find that biomass and biofuel hauling activities will add simulation. Using BenMAP, a health impact assessment tool, we show that avoiding slash pile burning results in a decrease in premature mortality as well as several other nonfatal and minor health effects. In general, we show that most air quality and health benefits result primarily from avoided slash pile burning emissions.

  5. Control of the Air Supply Subsystem in a PEMFC with Balance of Plant Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Cruz Rojas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design of a control scheme for improving the air supply subsystem of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC with maximum power of 65 kW. The control scheme is evaluated in a plant simulator which incorporates the balance of plant (BOP components and is built in the aspenONE® platform. The aspenONE® libraries and tools allows introducing the compressor map and sizing the heat exchangers used to conduct the reactants temperature to the operating value. The PEMFC model and an adaptive controller were programmed to create customized libraries used in the simulator. The structure of the plant control is as follows: the stoichiometric oxygen excess ratio is regulated by manipulating the compressor power, the equilibrium of the anode-cathode pressures is achieved by tracking the anode pressure with hydrogen flow manipulation; the oxygen and hydrogen temperatures are regulated in the heat exchangers, and the gas humidity control is obtained with a simplified model of the humidifier. The control scheme performance is evaluated for load changes, perturbations and parametric variations, introducing a growing current profile covering a large span of power, and a current profile derived from a standard driving speed cycle. The impact of the control scheme is advantageous, since the control objectives are accomplished and the PEMFC tolerates reasonably membrane damage that can produce active surface reduction. The simulation analysis aids to identify the safe Voltage-Current region, where the compressor works with mechanical stability.

  6. 30 CFR 57.5006 - Air Quality-Surface Only [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air Quality-Surface Only 57.5006 Section 57.5006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality, Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate...

  7. Metal-enclosed air-insulated switchgear for the use in railway power supply systems; Metallgekapselte, luftisolierte Bahnstromschaltanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loenard, D.; Northe, J. [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH Power Systems, Offenbach (Germany); Blecher, U. [Ritter Starkstromtechnik GmbH und Co. KG, Geschaeftsbereich Anlagen und Werk fuer Schaltanlagen, Olfen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The medium-voltage switchgear of type TracFeed TAC has been designed for the use in standard, booster (1AC) and autotransformer (2AC) 25 kV 50/60 Hz railway power supply systems. This railway switchgear is of metal-enclosed air-insulated design and has been type tested according to EN 62271-200. It meets the special requirements described in the paper entitled ''Requirements on medium-voltage switchgear for railway power supply'' published in No. 10/2003. (orig.)

  8. Strategic Positioning of United States Air Force Civil Engineer Contingency Equipment within the Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    International Journal of Production Economics , 118(1), 168- 174. Olson, D. L., & Wu, D. D. (2010). A Review of Enterprise Risk Management in Supply...Huffington Post. Tang, C. S. (2006). Perspectives in Supply Chain Risk Management. International Journal of Production Economics , 103(2), 451-488. Thun, J...H., & Hoenig, D. (2011). An Empirical Analysis of Supply Chain Risk Management in the German Automotive Industry. International Journal of

  9. Effect of car speed on amount of air supplied by ventilation system to the space of car cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fišer, Jan; Pokorný, Jan

    2014-03-01

    The amount of air supplied by ventilation system (HVAC system) of a car into a cabin is one of the main parameters for the correct simulation and prediction of a car cabin heat load. This amount is not based only on the current setting of the HVAC system, but also on the actual operating conditions and speed of the car. The authors therefore carried out experiments in the cabin of a passenger car in real traffic, while observing the amount of air on the speed of the car and setting of flap in mixing chamber. In a subsequent analysis the authors defined dependence of the airflow rate supplied by HVAC system on the speed of the car. Obtained empirical formulas were then used as a part of the code which calculates the data for the HVAC boundary conditions in the simulation of the car cabin environment.

  10. Contributing recharge areas to water-supply wells at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, in southwestern Ohio, has operated three well fields--Area B, Skeel Road, and the East Well Fields--to supply potable water for consumption and use for base activities. To protect these well fields from contamination and to comply with the Ohio Wellhead Protection Plan, the Base is developing a wellhead-protection program for the well fields. A three-dimensional, steady-state ground-water-flow model was developed in 1993 to simulate heads in (1) the buried-valley aquifer system that is tapped by the two active well fields, and in (2) an upland bedrock aquifer that may supply water to the wells. An advective particle-tracking algorithm that requires estimated porosities and simulated heads was used to estimate ground-water-flow pathlines and traveltimes to the active well fields. Contributing recharge areas (CRA's)--areas on the water table that contribute water to a well or well field--were generated for 1-, 5-, and 10-year traveltimes. Results from the simulation and subsequent particle tracking indicate that the CRA's for the Skeel Road Well Fields are oval and extend north- ward, toward the Mad River, as pumping at the well field increases. The sizes of the 1-, 5-, and 10-year CRA's of Skeel Road Well Field, under maximum pumping conditions, are approximately 0.5, 1.5 and 3.2 square miles, respectively. The CRA's for the Area B Well Field extend to the north, up the Mad River Valley; as pumping increases at the well field, the CRA's extend up the Mad River Valley under Huffman Dam. The sizes of the 1-, 5-, and 10-year CRA's of Area B Well Field, under maximum pumping conditions, are approximately 0.1, 0.5, and 0.9 square miles, respectively. The CRA's for the East Well Field are affected by nearby streams under average pumping conditions. The sizes of the 1-, 5-, and 10-year CRA's of the East Well Field, under maximum pumping conditions, are approximately 0.2, 1.2, and 2.4 square miles, respectively. However, as pumping increases

  11. HOW THE MILITARY CAN INTEGRATE UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS IN THE CIVIL RESERVE AIR FLEET

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    park preservation, agriculture , and precision mapping.4 Online shopping giant Amazon began researching UAS options for package delivery in 2013 and...solutions for agricultural monitoring, while sparsely populated farmland provides a haven for their operation without safety or airspace concerns...uav-uas-amazon- octocopter-bezos-science-aircraft-unmanned- robot /#close, 12 December 2013. Hennigan, W.J. “Air Force Hires Civilian Drone Pilots

  12. Environmental Assessment: Grade and Pave Shoulders on Runway 15/33 Westover Air Reserve Base, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    Hubbard Memorial Library 24 Center Street Ludlow, MA 01056 At the end of the 30-day public review period the Air Force will consider any comments...drinking water but is used as a bathing beach in Chicopee Memorial State Park. Cooley Brook is categorized as “Attaining Some Uses; Other Uses not...blackberries (Rubus spp.), and blueberries (Vaccinium spp.). Larvae feed on lupine (Lupinus perennis) or wild indigo (Baptisia tinctoria

  13. Removal of Particles from the Supply Air of Ventilation Systems Avoiding the Formation of Sensory Pollution Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    with filtration. Finally, an experiment was designed to test the effect of different particle filters, activated carbon filters and their combinations on the perceived air quality after several months of continuous use. A commercially available HVAC filter that has low emissions of pollutants, even after...... an important role. Sensory pollutants emitted from used filters can have significant adverse impact on occupant performance. Therefore, removal of particles from the supply air of ventilation systems without the subsequent emission of pollutants into the airstream seems to be essential. Correct maintenance...... substantial time in service, would mean a step forward towards finding an engineering solution to the problem. Additional measurements examined the effect of different pressure sensing techniques and several modifications of an air handling unit on the accuracy of the measurements of pressure drop over...

  14. High cell density cultivation of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 using glucose without the need for oxygen enriched air supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Reeta; Duane, Gearoid; Kenny, Shane T; Cerrone, Federico; Guzik, Maciej W; Babu, Ramesh P; Casey, Eoin; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2015-04-01

    High Cell Density (HCD) cultivation of bacteria is essential for the majority of industrial processes to achieve high volumetric productivity (g L(-1) h(-1) ) of a bioproduct of interest. This study developed a fed batch bioprocess using glucose as sole carbon and energy source for the HCD of the well described biocatalyst Pseudomonas putida KT2440 without the supply of oxygen enriched air. Growth kinetics data from batch fermentations were used for building a bioprocess model and designing feeding strategies. An exponential followed by linearly increasing feeding strategy of glucose was found to be effective in maintaining biomass productivity while also delaying the onset of dissolved oxygen (supplied via compressed air) limitation. A final cell dry weight (CDW) of 102 g L(-1) was achieved in 33 h with a biomass productivity of 3.1 g L(-1) h(-1) which are the highest ever reported values for P. putida strains using glucose without the supply of pure oxygen or oxygen enriched air. The usefulness of the biomass as a biocatalyst was demonstrated through the production of the biodegradable polymer polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). When nonanoic acid (NA) was supplied to the glucose grown cells of P. putida KT2440, it accumulated 32% of CDW as PHA in 11 h (2.85 g L(-1) h(-1) ) resulting in a total of 0.56 kg of PHA in 18 L with a yield of 0.56 g PHA g NA(-1) . © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Modelling of air flow supply in a room at variable regime by using both K - E and spalart - allmaras turbulent model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbut, Vadim; Voznyak, Orest; Sukholova, Iryna; Myroniuk, Khrystyna

    2017-12-01

    The abstract is to The article is devoted to the decision of actual task of air distribution efficiency increasing with the help of swirl and spread air jets to provide normative parameters of air in the production apartments. The mathematical model of air supply with swirl and spread air jets in that type of apartments is improved. It is shown that for reachin of air distribution maximal efficiency it is necessary to supply air by air jets, that intensively extinct before entering into a working area. Simulation of air flow performed with the help of CFD FLUENT (Ansys FLUENT). Calculations of the equation by using one-parameter model of turbulence Spalart-Allmaras are presented. The graphical and the analytical dependences on the basis of the conducted experimental researches, which can be used in subsequent engineering calculations, are shown out. Dynamic parameters of air flow that is created due to swirl and spread air jets at their leakage at variable regime and creation of dynamic microclimate in a room has been determined. Results of experimental investigations of air supply into the room by air distribution device which creates swirl air jets for creation more intensive turbulization air flow in the room are presented. Obtained results of these investigations give possibility to realize engineer calculations of air distribution with swirl air jets. The results of theoretical researches of favourable influence of dynamic microclimate to the man are presented. When using dynamic microclimate, it's possible to decrease conditioning and ventilation system expenses. Human organism reacts favourably on short lasting deviations from the rationed parameters of air environment.

  16. Modelling of air flow supply in a room at variable regime by using both K - E and spalart – allmaras turbulent model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korbut Vadim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The abstract is to The article is devoted to the decision of actual task of air distribution efficiency increasing with the help of swirl and spread air jets to provide normative parameters of air in the production apartments. The mathematical model of air supply with swirl and spread air jets in that type of apartments is improved. It is shown that for reachin of air distribution maximal efficiency it is necessary to supply air by air jets, that intensively extinct before entering into a working area. Simulation of air flow performed with the help of CFD FLUENT (Ansys FLUENT. Сalculations of the equation by using one-parameter model of turbulence Spalart-Allmaras are presented. The graphical and the analytical dependences on the basis of the conducted experimental researches, which can be used in subsequent engineering calculations, are shown out. Dynamic parameters of air flow that is created due to swirl and spread air jets at their leakage at variable regime and creation of dynamic microclimate in a room has been determined. Results of experimental investigations of air supply into the room by air distribution device which creates swirl air jets for creation more intensive turbulization air flow in the room are presented. Obtained results of these investigations give possibility to realize engineer calculations of air distribution with swirl air jets. The results of theoretical researches of favourable influence of dynamic microclimate to the man are presented. When using dynamic microclimate, it’s possible to decrease conditioning and ventilation system expenses. Human organism reacts favourably on short lasting deviations from the rationed parameters of air environment.

  17. Improved airline-type supplied-air plastic suit. [For personnel protection against inhalation of airborne plutonium and tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, L. Jr.; Zippler, D.B.; Cofer, C.H.; Harper, J.A.

    1978-06-01

    Two piece supplied-air plastic suits are used extensively at the Savannah River Plant for personnel protection against inhalation of airborne plutonium and tritium. Worker comfort and noise level problems gave impetus to development of an improved suit and aid distribution system. The resulting plastic suit and development work are discussed. The plastic suit unit cost is less than $20, the hearing zone noise level is less than 75 dBA, protection factors exceed 10,000, and user comfort is approved. This suit is expected to meet performance requirements for unrestricted use.

  18. Contribution of 222Rn in domestic water supplies to 222Rn in indoor air in Colorado homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, E.P.; Wanty, R.B.; Nyberg, P.

    1992-01-01

    The contribution of 222Rn from domestic water wells to indoor air was investigated in a study of 28 houses near Conifer, CO. Air concentrations determined by alpha-track detectors (ATDs) and continuous radon monitors were compared with the predictions of a single-cell model. In many of the houses, the water supply was shown to contribute significantly to levels of indoor 222Rn. The data from the ATD study were augmented with a continuous monitoring study of a house near Lyons, CO. The well water in that house has the highest known concentration of 222Rn in water yet reported (93 MBq m-3). The temporal pattern in the indoor 222Rn concentration corresponds to water-use records. In general, it is difficult to quantify the proportion of indoor radon attributable to water use. Several lines of evidence suggest that the single-cell model underestimates this proportion. Continuous-monitoring data, although useful, are impractical due to the cost of the equipment. We propose a protocol for 222Rn measurement based on three simultaneous integrating radon detectors that may help estimate the proportion of indoor 222Rn derived from the water supply

  19. CONVERTER SOLAR RADIATION INTO ELECTRICITY TO SUPPLY THE AUTOMOTIVE SEMICONDUCTOR THERMOELECTRIC AIR CONDITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the possibility to increase the efficiency of converters of solar radiation into electricity by combining constructive photoelectric effect, See-beck thermoeffect and semiconductor solar cells, which will create integrated device to provide power semiconductor thermoelectric automobile air conditioner. 

  20. Treatment of synthetic arsenate wastewater with iron-air fuel cell electrocoagulation to supply drinking water and electricity in remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Hwan; Maitlo, Hubdar Ali; Park, Joo Yang

    2017-05-15

    Electrocoagulation with an iron-air fuel cell is an innovative arsenate removal system that can operate without an external electricity supply. Thus, this technology is advantageous for treating wastewater in remote regions where it is difficult to supply electricity. In this study, the possibility of real applications of this system for arsenate treatment with electricity production was verified through electrolyte effect investigations using a small-scale fuel cell and performance testing of a liter-scale fuel cell stack. The electrolyte species studied were NaCl, Na 2 SO 4 , and NaHCO 3 . NaCl was overall the most effective electrolyte for arsenate treatment, although Na 2 SO 4 produced the greatest electrical current and power density. In addition, although the current density and power density were proportional to the concentrations of NaCl and Na 2 SO 4 , the use of concentrations above 20 mM of NaCl and Na 2 SO 4 inhibited arsenate treatment due to competition effects between anions and arsenate in adsorption onto the iron hydroxide. The dominant iron hydroxide produced at the iron anode was found to be lepidocrocite by means of Raman spectroscopy. A liter-scale four-stack iron-air fuel cell with 10 mM NaCl electrolyte was found to be able to treat about 300 L of 1 ppm arsenate solution to below 10 ppb during 1 day, based on its 60-min treatment capacity, as well as produce the maximum power density of 250 mW/m 2 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Air Transport Pilot Supply and Demand: Current State and Effects of Recent Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Southwest), and Cargo (e.g., FEDEX) carriers  Intl = International operation (e.g., China Air)  Ret = Retirement at age 65 at that node  Oth = Loss...Furlough at that node  SPIntl = New pilot from International operation (e.g., China Air)  SPADMil = New pilot from AD Military  SPRCMil = New pilot...QUINN AVIATION INC                                 GRAYS FLYING SERVICE INC                           TLC  FLYING INC

  2. The environment of nature reserves under anthropogenic load: air transport of pollution to the North of European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, A. A.; Ivanova, Yu. A.; Veremeychik, A. O.

    2012-04-01

    Nature reserves are created to keep in their original states natural environment, flora and fauna of various ecological systems, territories, climatic zones, etc. Now natural objects everywhere exist under anthropogenic loading from man-made activities. It is impossible to avoid atmospheric or river transport of pollution to the environment of reserved territories. The main idea of the work is to analyze atmospheric transport of anthropogenic metals (Ni, Cu, Pb, Fe, Al), as well as of soot (black carbon - BC) from Russian large industrial areas (source-regions) to the territories of nature reserves at the North of European Russia - the Kostomukshsky reserve (KR) in Karelia (64.57°N, 30.67°E) and the Nenetzky reserve (NR) at the Pechora River mouth (68,5°N, 53,5°E). The basic data for these 2 points were back trajectories of air mass transport calculated for every day of January, April, July, and October during 10 years from 2001 to 2010. We used NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Data Files with HYSPLIT 4 model and two approaches for analyzing the trajectories. The main source-regions were chosen for each reserve. The annual source emissions for the last decade are generalized from the data published by Roshydromet of Russia (http://www.nii-atmosphere.ru/files/PUBL/Eg_2008.doc). The deposition velocity was a sum of dry and wet components. The equal values of deposition velocities onto the surface were assumed for all impurities because they are mainly on submicron aerosol particles under atmospheric transport for a long distance. The seasonal and spatial variations of averaged deposition velocity were accounted in accordance with surface properties and precipitation regimes. As a result, the maximal air concentrations of aerosol pollutants are observed in cold seasons, whereas the maximal fluxes onto the surface occur in warm period. Thus, it's possible that the cleanest air does not indicate the same surface. Fe and Al are the crust (dust or soil) elements. Thus, their main

  3. Development of a Data-Driven Predictive Model of Supply Air Temperature in an Air-Handling Unit for Conserving Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goopyo Hong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a data-driven predictive model that can predict the supply air temperature (SAT in an air-handling unit (AHU by using a neural network. A case study was selected, and AHU operational data from December 2015 to November 2016 was collected. A data-driven predictive model was generated through an evolving process that consisted of an initial model, an optimal model, and an adaptive model. In order to develop the optimal model, input variables, the number of neurons and hidden layers, and the period of the training data set were considered. Since AHU data changes over time, an adaptive model, which has the ability to actively cope with constantly changing data, was developed. This adaptive model determined the model with the lowest mean square error (MSE of the 91 models, which had two hidden layers and sets up a 12-hour test set at every prediction. The adaptive model used recently collected data as training data and utilized the sliding window technique rather than the accumulative data method. Furthermore, additional testing was performed to validate the adaptive model using AHU data from another building. The final adaptive model predicts SAT to a root mean square error (RMSE of less than 0.6 °C.

  4. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply, installation and modification of air-handling systems for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply, installation and modification of air-handling systems for the LHC. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with AMEC SPIE (DE), the lowest bidder after realignment, for the supply, installation and modification of air-handling systems for the LHC for a total amount of 8 222 490 euros (12 511 396 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The rate of exchange used is that stipulated in the tender.

  5. Passenger evaluation of the optimum balance between fresh air supply and humidity from 7-h exposures in a simulated aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wyon, David Peter; Lagercrantz, Love Per

    2007-01-01

    -h transatlantic flights were carried out at four rates of fresh outside air supply – 1.4, 3.3, 4.7, and 9.4 l/s per person (3, 7, 10, and 20 cfm/person) – resulting in humid-ity levels, ranging from 7% to 28% relative humidity (RH). Four groups of 16–18 subjects acted as passengers and crew and were......A 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin with realistic pollution sources was built inside a climate chamber capable of providing fresh outside air at very low humidity. Maintaining a constant 200 l/s rate of total air supply, i.e. recircu-lated and make-up air, to the cabin, experiments simulating 7...

  6. Research on the water hammer protection of the long distance water supply project with the combined action of the air vessel and over-pressure relief valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D D; Jiang, J; Zhao, Z; Yi, W S; Lan, G

    2013-01-01

    We take a concrete pumping station as an example in this paper. Through the calculation of water hammer protection with a specific pumping station water supply project, and the analysis of the principle, mathematical models and boundary conditions of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve we show that the air vessel can protect the water conveyance system and reduce the transient pressure damage due to various causes. Over-pressure relief valve can effectively reduce the water hammer because the water column re-bridge suddenly stops the pump and prevents pipeline burst. The paper indicates that the combination set of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve can greatly reduce the quantity of the air valve and can eliminate the water hammer phenomenon in the pipeline system due to the vaporization and water column separation and re-bridge. The conclusion could provide a reference for the water hammer protection of long-distance water supply system

  7. Evaluation of the effects of exposure to organic solvents and hazardous noise among US Air Force Reserve personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Hughes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss affects many workers including those in the military and may be caused by noise, medications, and chemicals. Exposures to some chemicals may lead to an increase in the incidence of hearing loss when combined with hazardous noise. This retrospective study evaluated the risk for hearing loss among Air Force Reserve personnel exposed to occupational noise with and without exposures to toluene, styrene, xylene, benzene, and JP-8 (jet fuel. Risk factors associated with hearing loss were determined using logistic and linear regression. Stratified analysis was used to evaluate potential interaction between solvent and noise exposure. The majority of the subjects were male (94.6% and 35 years or older on the date of their first study audiogram (66%. Followed for an average of 3.2 years, 9.2% of the study subjects had hearing loss in at least one ear. Increasing age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.03 per year of age and each year of follow-up time (OR = 1.23 were significantly associated with hearing loss. Low and moderate solvent exposures were not associated with hearing loss. Linear regression demonstrated that hearing loss was significantly associated with age at first study audiogram, length of follow-up time, and exposure to noise. Hearing decreased by 0.04 decibels for every decibel increase in noise level or by almost half a decibel (0.4 dB for every 10 decibel increase in noise level.

  8. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL...

  9. Respirator studies for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Protection factors for supplied-air respirators. Progress report, October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hack, A.; Bradley, O.D.; Trujillo, A.

    1977-12-01

    This report describes the work performed during FY 1977 for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The Protection Factors (efficiency) provided by 25 NIOSH approved supplied-air respirators were determined while the devices were worn by a panel of anthropometrically selected test subjects. The major recommendation was that demand-type respirators should neither be used nor approved

  10. Basic study for a large AC current supply with a single phase air-core Bi2223 high temperature superconducting transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanato, N.; Kishi, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Kondo, M.

    2017-07-01

    The authors have been developing a compact power supply with a single-phase Bi2223 high temperature superconducting (HTS) transformer. The conventional transformer has an iron-core for enhancing magnetic coupling between its primary coil and secondary one. However, the iron-core has great majority of size and weight of the transformer and therefore it is desirable to be removed for a smaller and lighter transformer. In this paper, the authors propose an air-core HTS transformer for a more compact power supply than the conventional one. As experimental results, it is shown that appropriate design of the air-core transformer has a possibility to decrease the weight and volume of the large AC current supply.

  11. ACCOUNTING FOR NONUNIFORMITY OF WATER CONSUMPTION IN THE EXHAUST AIR HEAT RECLAMATION SYSTEMS FOR HOT WATER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarin Oleg Dmitrievich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to assessment of the influence of variation of daily hot water consumption on the predicted energy effect by using heat recovery of exhaust air in typical exhaust ventilation systems of the most commonly used flat buildings during their switch to the mechanical induction for the pre-heating of water for hot water supply. It outlines the general principle of the organization of this method of energy saving and presents the basic equations of heat transfer in the heat exchanger. The article proposes a simplified method of accounting for changes in the heat transfer coefficient of air-to-water heat exchanger with fluctuations of water demand using existing dependencies for this coefficient from the rate flow of heating and heated fluid through the device. It presents observations to identify the parameters of the real changes of water consumption during the day with the main quantitative characteristics of normally distributed random variables. Calculation of thermal efficiency of the heat exchange equipment using dimensionless parameters through the number of heat transfer under the optimal opposing scheme of fluid motion is completed under conditions of variable water flow rate for the type residential building of the П3-1/16 series using the Monte Carlo method for numerical modeling of stochastic processes. The estimation of the influence of fluctuation of the current water consumption on the instantaneous thermal efficiency factor of the heat exchanger and the total energy consumption of the building is given, and it is shown that the error of said calculation using average daily parameters is within the margin of usual engineering calculation.

  12. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ Home The environment and your health Air Air While we don’t often think about the ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be ...

  13. Atmospheric dispersion modeling of hazardous air pollutant emissions from USDOE Oak Ridge Reservation Facilities. Volume 1, Independent Assessment conducted from April 1994 to December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    Title 3 of the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments addresses the emissions of 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and mandates that EPA develop technology-based [Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT)] standards for the control of these pollutants from approximately 174 source categories. After implementation of technology-based standards, EPA is required to further evaluate ''residual risk'' from HAP emissions, and, if required, develop more stringent standards to protect human health and the environment with an ''adequate margin of safety''. Recognizing that EPA will be issuing risk-based regulations after MACT standards have been implemented, the US Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) has conducted an evaluation of ambient air impacts of HAP emissions from its installations located on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This report provides results of atmospheric dispersion modeling conducted to determine ambient air impacts of HAP emissions from facilities located on the ORR

  14. Optimisation of compressed-air supply for control purposes at Valorec Services AG; Optimierung der Steuerluft - Versorgung bei der Valorec Services AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dott, R.; Afjei, T.

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that looked at the possibilities of optimising the supply of compressed air provided around the clock by four compressor systems of varying ages in a facility in Basle, Switzerland. The initial situation is analysed and the potential for making savings is estimated. Various possibilities for improvement are considered including changing the topology of the compressed-air network, the replacement of certain compressors and a new control system. Appropriate measures are proposed and compared with new installations.

  15. Proposal to negotiate amendments to an existing contract for the supply, installation and modification of air-handling systems for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the proposal to negotiate amendments to an existing contract for the supply, installation and modification of air-handling systems for the LHC. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to approve amendments to the existing contract for the supply, installation and modification of air-handling systems for the LHC with AMEC SPIE (DE) for a total amount not exceeding 2 563 080 euros (3 900 000 Swiss francs), not subject to revision, bringing the total contract amount to a maximum of 10 785 570 euros (16 411 390 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The rate of exchange used is that stipulated in the initial tender.

  16. Eliminate the Army and Air Force Reserves: Building a Robust National Guard to Meet 21st Century Operational Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    CENTURY REFORM Militia Reform and the Creation of the Army Reserve The Spanish -American War of 1898 is often cited as providing the impetus for...substantial gain in 1908 when Congress established a Medical Reserve Corps to address medical inadequacies identified during Spanish -American War.6...study the matter.26 Lack of transparency in the reserve components bureaucracies prevented the GAO from providing members of Congress a definitive

  17. Design and development of a low cost, high current density power supply for streamer free atmospheric pressure DBD plasma generation in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vishal; Visani, Anand; Srinivasan, R.; Agarwal, Vivek

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a new power supply architecture for generating a uniform dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in air medium at atmospheric pressure. It is quite a challenge to generate atmospheric pressure uniform glow discharge plasma, especially in air. This is because air plasma needs very high voltage for initiation of discharge. If the high voltage is used along with high current density, it leads to the formation of streamers, which is undesirable for most applications like textile treatment, etc. Researchers have tried to generate high-density plasma using a RF source, nanosecond pulsed DC source, and medium frequency AC source. However, these solutions suffer from low current discharge and low efficiency due to the addition of an external resistor to control the discharge current. Moreover, they are relatively costly and bulky. This paper presents a new power supply configuration which is very compact and generates high average density (˜0.28 W/cm2) uniform glow DBD plasma in air at atmospheric pressure. The efficiency is also higher as no external resistor is required to control the discharge current. An inherent feature of this topology is that it can drive higher current oscillations (˜50 A peak and 2-3 MHz frequency) into the plasma that damp out due to the plasma dissipation only. A newly proposed model has been used with experimental validation in this paper. Simulations and experimental validation of the proposed topology are included. Also, the application of the generated plasma for polymer film treatment is demonstrated.

  18. Mobilization and Defense Management Technical Reports Series. Contemporary Issues Affecting the Ability of Commercial Air Cargo Carriers to Support the Civil Air Reserve Fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    will ne soil to the domestic air carriers. fTherefore, to take advantaqe o the inherent cap-ability in thie airframes 4ill require the DOD to enhance...strategic airlift needs during a national emergency. 81 AD-5 3 459 MOB SZTONMAN FNS MANGMENT TCNIA NEPORT FORCES WASHINGTON OC D BAIER ET AL 0 A 8 M

  19. Air Force Operational Medicine: Using the Estimating Supplies Program to Develop Materiel Solutions for the Operational Clinical Requirements for the U.S. Air Force Otolaryngology Team (FFENT)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hopkins, Curt; Nix, Ralph; Konoske, Paula; Pang, Gerry; Hill, Martin; Negus, Tracy; Onofrio, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    ...) conduct a proof of concept study to assess the validity and feasibility of using NHRC's medical modeling tool for the development and management of Air force medical Allowance Standards as a baseline...

  20. Evaluating Opportunities for Improved Processes and Flow Rates in Royal Saudi Air Force F-15 Reparable Items Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-15

    the process (Anupindi et al, 2011). 27 How Does Lean Relate to Government? Lean started in the manufacturing sector to improve productivity...selected techniques are supply chain mapping, the lean management approach, and gap analysis. The research suggests that these techniques can improve F-15...14 Lean

  1. Canine Supply for Physical Security: An Analysis of the Royal Australian Air Force Military Working Dog Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    to account for these omissions more readily. 1. Variation of Observations Table 2 lists the mean average, standard deviation, minimum and maximum...PHYSICAL SECURITY: AN ANALYSIS OF THE ROYAL AUSTRALIAN AIR FORCE MILITARY WORKING DOG PROGRAM by Mark W. Powell March 2016 Thesis...AN ANALYSIS OF THE ROYAL AUSTRALIAN AIR FORCE MILITARY WORKING DOG PROGRAM 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Mark W. Powell 7. PERFORMING

  2. Contributions of air pollution and climate warming to tufa wetland degradation in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, eastern rim of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, X.; Tang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Massive deposition of calcium carbonate in ambient temperature waters forms magnificent tufa wetlands, many of which are designated as protected areas and are popular tourist destinations. There is a tufa wetland belt along the Eastern Rim of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (ERQTP), and many of them are experiencing degradation, such as nutrient enrichment and tufa degradation. Meanwhile, there is also an air pollution belt in the ERQTP. This study was made to understand the correlation of tufa wetland degradation with climate change and air pollution for Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (hereafter Jiuzhaigou). Atmospheric changes were first studied. The results show that annual mean air temperature increased by 1.2oC from 1951 to 2014. Anthropogenic emissions contributed to over 90% annual wet deposition fluxes of reactive sulfur and nitrogen and caused acid rain (pHair pollutants. Then, the impacts of air pollution and climate warming on tufa wetlands were further investigated. We found that precipitation was calcite-unsaturated so it could dissolve exposed tufa and considerably reduce tufa deposition rate and even cause tufa dissolution in shallow waters. These effects enhanced as precipitation pH decreased. Annual volume-weighted mean concentration of reactive nitrogen in wet deposition and runoff were 26.1 and 14.8 µmol L-1, respectively, both exceeding China's national standard of total nitrogen in runoff for nature reserves (14.3 µmol L-1) and this suggested a nitrogen fertilization effect of wet deposition on green algae. As water temperature is the limiting factor of algal growth in Jiuzhaigou and temperature in the top layer (0-5 cm) of runoff (with a depthair pollutants have contributed to tufa wetland degradation in Jiuzhaigou, but in order to better quantify the contributions, further studies are needed, as many other anthropogenic and natural processes also influence tufa wetland evolution.

  3. Comparison of the Performance of Chilled Beam with Swirl Jet and Diffuse Ceiling Air Supply: Impact of Heat Load Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Bård; Mustakallio, Panu; Kosonen, Risto

    2013-01-01

    temperature was controlled at 24 °C. The quality of the generated indoor environment as defined in ISO standard 7730 (2005) was assessed based on comprehensive physical measurements. The systems created Category A thermal environment in cooling situations at heat load of 50 W∙m−2 and 78 W∙m−2 (office room...... (ventilation effectiveness of 0.4) and the air flow rate had to be above minimum to safeguard the indoor air quality. The radial swirl jet of chilled beam also was not capable of creating complete mixing at high and concentrated heat load (ventilation effectiveness of 0.7)....

  4. Department of Energy Air Emissions Annual Report Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H Calendar Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Richard [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (Y-12), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-30

    As defined in the preamble of the final rule, the entire DOE facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) must meet the 10 mrem/yr ED standard.1 In other words, the combined ED from all radiological air emission sources from Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) and any other DOE operation on the reservation must meet the 10 mrem/yr standard. Compliance with the standard is demonstrated through emission sampling, monitoring, calculations and radiation dose modeling in accordance with approved EPA methodologies and procedures. DOE estimates the ED to many individuals or receptor points in the vicinity of ORR, but it is the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) that determines compliance with the standard.

  5. Impact of primary and secondary air supply intensity in stove on emissions of size-segregated particulate matter and carbonaceous aerosols from apple tree wood burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Shen, Zhenxing; Zhang, Leiming; Zhang, Qian; Lei, Yali; Cao, Junji; Huang, Yu; Liu, Suixin; Zheng, Chunli; Xu, Hongmei; Liu, Hongxia; Pan, Hua; Liu, Pingping; Zhang, Renjian

    2018-04-01

    In order to assess emission factors (EF) more accurately from household biomass burning, a series of laboratory-controlled apple tree wood burning tests were conducted to measure the EFs of size-segregated particulate matter (PM) and carbonaceous aerosols. The controlled burning experiments were conducted with designed primary air (PA) and secondary air (SA) supply intensity. An optimum value of 7 m3·h- 1 was found for SA, resulting the highest modified combustion efficiency (92.4 ± 2.5%) as well as the lowest EFs of PM2.5 (0.13 ± 0.01 g·MJ- 1), OC (0.04 ± 0.03 g·MJ- 1) and EC (0.03 ± 0.01 g·MJ- 1). SA values of 7 and 10 m3·h- 1 resulted the lowest EFs for all the different PM sizes. In a test with PA of 6 m3·h- 1 and SA of 7 m3·h- 1, very low EFs were observed for OC1 (8.2%), OC2 (11.2%) and especially OP (Pyrolyzed OC) (0%, not detected), indicating nearly complete combustion under this air supply condition. Besides SA, higher PA was proved to have positive effects on PM and carbonaceous fraction emission reduction. For example, with a fixed SA of 1.5 m3·h- 1, EFs of PM2.5 decreased from 0.64 to 0.27 g·MJ- 1 when PA increased from 6 to 15 m3·h- 1 (P < 0.05). Similar reductions were also observed in EFs of OC, EC and size segregated PM.

  6. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial

  7. Air

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Air is all around us. Learn how it is used in art, technology, and engineering. Five easy-to-read chapters explain the science behind air, as well as its real-world applications. Vibrant, full-color photos, bolded glossary words, and a key stats section let readers zoom in even deeper. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Abdo Zoom is a division of ABDO.

  8. Histology and gametogenesis in Heleobia piscium (Cochliopidae from the Multiple Use Reserve “Isla Martín García,” Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Martin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Heleobia piscium (d’Orbigny, 1835, a member of the Cochliopidae family found only in South America, is distributed from Entre Ríos, Delta del Paraná, and the littoral of the Río de la Plata down as far as to Punta Indio (Buenos Aires, the southernmost limit of the snail’s geographical distribution. To date, little information is available regarding the reproductive cycle of species within this family either in Argentina or throughout South America. The present work analyzed the histology of the reproductive system of the gonochoric species H. piscium and determined the stages oogenesis and spermatogenesis under natural conditions. Specimens of H. piscium were collected in the Multiple-Use Natural Reserve Isla Martín García, located in the Upper Río de la Plata estuary to the south of the mouth of the Uruguay River. The gametogenic cycle in both sexes was found to consist of the following stages: early maturation, maturation, and evacuation. The maturation period was found to extend from January to October and evacuation of the gametes to start in November and end in February (summer in the Southern Hemisphere. The results indicated the H. piscium exhibit a reproductive cycle without a resting period.

  9. Opiliones (Arachnida de la Reserva Histórica de Santa Catalina (Buenos Aires, Argentina y sus implicancias biogeográficas Opiliones (Arachnida from the Santa Catalina Historical Reserve (Buenos Aires, Argentina and their biogeographic implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elián Leandro Guerrero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available : Fueron halladas dos especies de Opiliones en la Reserva Histórica de Santa Catalina (Buenos Aires, Argentina, Holmbergiana weyenberghii (Holmberg (Eupnoi, Sclerosomatidae, Gagrellinae y Discocyrtus prospicuus (Holmberg (Laniatores, Gonyleptidae, Pachylinae. Ambos taxones están asociados a bosques de Celtis ehrenbergiana y bosques higrófilos a lo largo de la costa del río de la Plata, por lo que pertenecen al área opiliológica Mesopotámica. La Reserva Histórica de Santa Catalina no está cerca de la costa del río, por lo cual los bosques de Santa Catalina son considerados como un refugio de una distribución histórica de los opiliones mesopotámicos, siendo una extensión o digitación de su distribución natural siguiendo el sistema hidrológico del río Matanza-Riachuelo. En adición, se ofrecen datos sobre la historia natural de ambas especies.Two species of opiliones have been found in the Santa Catalina Historical Reserve (Buenos Aires, Argentina, Holmbergiana weyenberghii (Holmberg (Eupnoi, Sclerosomatidae, Gagrellinae and Discocyrtus prospicuus (Holmberg (Laniatores, Gonyleptidae, Pachylinae. Both species are associated with Celtis ehrenbergiana woods and hygrophilous woods along all the coast of the La Plata river, so they belong to the Mesopotamic opiliological area. The Historic Reserve of Santa Catalina is not near the river coast, and because of this the Santa Catalina forests is considered as a refuge of an historical distribution of the mesopotamic opiliones, being an extension or fingering of their natural distribution following the Matanza-Riachuelo rivers hydrological system. In addition, data about the natural history of both species is offered.

  10. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  11. Development of a high-yielding bioprocess for 11-α hydroxylation of canrenone under conditions of oxygen-enriched air supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contente, Martina Letizia; Guidi, Benedetta; Serra, Immacolata; De Vitis, Valerio; Romano, Diego; Pinto, Andrea; Lenna, Roberto; de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Molinari, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    A high yielding bioprocess for 11-α hydroxylation of canrenone (1a) using Aspergillus ochraceus ATCC 18500 was developed. The optimization of the biotransformation involved both fermentation (for achieving highly active mycelium of A. ochraceus) and biotransformation with the aim to obtain 11-α hydroxylation with high selectivity and yield. A medium based on sucrose as C-source resulted particularly suitable for conversion of canrenone into the corresponding 11-hydroxy derivative, whereas the use of O 2 -enriched air and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a co-solvent for increasing substrate solubility played a crucial role for obtaining high yields (>95%) of the desired product in high chemical purity starting from 30mM (10.2g/L) of substrate. The structure of the hydroxylated product was confirmed by a combination of two-dimensional NMR proton-proton correlation techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Solar thermal energy / exhaust air heat pump / wood pellet furnace for a sustainable heat supply of low energy buildings in older buildings; Solarthermie / Abluft-Waermepumpe / Pelletofen. Kombisysteme zur nachhaltigen Waermeversorgung von Niedrigenergiehaeusern im Gebaeudebestand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenbach, Nikolaus; Born, Rolf [Institut Wohnen und Umwelt GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Staerz, Norbert [Ingenieurbuero inPlan, Pfungstadt (Germany)

    2009-11-13

    The research project under consideration reports on combination systems for a sustainable heat supply for low-energy buildings in older building. For this, a central and decentralized system configuration consisting of solar thermal energy, exhaust air heat pump and wood pellet furnace are presented. Solutions for an interaction of these three heat suppliers in one plant are designated regarding the control strategy. The fundamentals of the computerized simulations for the central and decentralized system are presented. A cost estimate with both variants of the combination system as well as a comparison with conventional energy-saving heat supply systems follow.

  13. NGLs supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, I.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation dealt with the supply of natural gas liquids (NGLs) as a prelude to a review of the Alliance pipeline project. With all approvals having been received both in Canada and the United States, and complete financing secured, construction of the line will commence in the spring of 1999, with operation scheduled to begin Oct. 1, 2000. U.S. midwest and Alberta field gas prices, natural gas production in Alberta and British Columbia, current Alberta gas exports, the Aux Sable's NGL markets, market access for Western Canadian NGLs, historical disposition of Alberta ethane, propane and butyl ethane availability in Alberta, and historical and forecast NGL recovery in Alberta and British Columbia with and without the Alliance pipeline were reviewed. It was concluded that additional natural gas pipeline capacity is necessary to stimulate industry activity and monetize Western Canada Sedimentary Basin reserves. In turn, increased natural gas production will stimulate NGL exports. The Alliance Pipeline will provide additional NGL export capacity and potentially increase producer netbacks while minimizing capital expenditures. . 14 figs

  14. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  15. KEKB electromagnet power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Masato; Kubo, Tadashi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Numbers of electromagnet power supply for KEKB are 2,243 except BT. To satisfy stability, DAC in the current control circuit, current detector, R and D of small thermostatic bath and a calibration method of current using CPU were introduced. They satisfied needs. With producing R and D apparatus of switching source, problems of ripple, stability and noise were solved, so that we began mass production. In this paper, many kinds of R and D and performance and troubles after operation of KEKB power source are described. A plan of design of power supply consisted of seven items such as high accuracy, serial communication of interface, small type, high affectivity, easy maintenance, independence of current setting and current detector for monitor and control of radiation and conduction noise of switching power supply. These items were satisfied by development of interface board of ARCNET communication, introduction of double buffer method for interface through CPU, power supply unit by air-cooled method using a switching method and small thermostatic oven for bending and quadrupole electromagnet. R and D of DCCT, burden and shunt resistance, DAC, thermostatic bath, power supply, offset and gain calibration by double buffer method, specification of power supply, various kinds of measurements of mass production apparatus at rising, after long operation and problems before and after operation are reported. The results of R and D made satisfy the specification of stability and ripple of power supply. Although many switching power supply were operated, there was no noise and troubles at the initial period decreased. However, in order to use many power supply, the performance measurement and maintenance are very important at long shut down. (S.Y.)

  16. Independent Auditors Report on the Examination of Existence, Completeness, and Rights of United States Air Force Operating Materials and Supplies-Ammunition and Tactical Missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-21

    UNDER SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ( COMPTROLLER )/CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DOD ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE (FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT AND COMPTROLLER ...2015-164 │ 3 August 21, 2015 MEMORANDUM FOR UNDER SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ( COMPTROLLER )/CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DOD ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE AIR...FORCE (FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT AND COMPTROLLER ) SUBJECT: Independent Auditor’s Report on the Examination of Existence, Completeness, and Rights of

  17. Holonic'' energy supply system developed by advanced compressed-air energy storage technologies. Holonic na energy-shakai wo hiraku atsshuku kuki riyo system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, H. (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-11-10

    Global environment and energy problem become serious. This paper proposed an utilizing system of compressed air as a countermeasure and explained a newly devised compressor, compressed air energy storage and utilization. The devised compressor sprays pressurized coolant liquid into a pressure vessel from upper side to cool and compress inner air at the same time, and carries out nearly isothermal compression to the adiabatic compression of conventionsl compressors (polytropic exponent is 1.02 by a simple experiment), so that a system which is highly efficient and does not require high accuracy can be realized. Compressed air made by using midnight power and natural energy, can be stored in a large scale in underground caves or seabottom. This air can be used for cooling and heating, or for direct water cleaning. In addition, through the cooperation of a large power source and dispersing type technique, a holonic society which can exhibit both advantages will be realized. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Strategic Supply

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexander, Kelly; Cole, Heather; Cural, Ahmet; Daugherty, Darryl; Howard, Russell; Keane, Thomas; Louie, K. Y; McNeely, Rosa; Mordente, Patrick; Petrillo, Robert

    2006-01-01

    .... The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) has defined SCM as,"...encompassing the planning and management of all activities involved in sourcing and procurement, conversion, and all Logistics Management activities...

  19. Nursing Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Nursing Supplies Page Content Article Body Throughout most of ... budget. (Nursing equipment also makes wonderful baby gifts.) Nursing Bras A well-made nursing bra that comfortably ...

  20. Strategic Supply

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexander, Kelly; Cole, Heather; Cural, Ahmet; Daugherty, Darryl; Howard, Russell; Keane, Thomas; Louie, K. Y; McNeely, Rosa; Mordente, Patrick; Petrillo, Robert

    2006-01-01

    ...; but rather, as an enabler across all industries. Therefore, this industry study looked at Strategic Supply as an integrated process performed by industries to obtain comparative and competitive advantage in the global marketplace...

  1. Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Maxwell Laboratories capacitor charging power supply is the first commercial spinoff from the NASA CCDS program - a consortia of industries and government establishments to accelerate development of ground and space based commercial applications of NASA technology. The power supply transforms and conditions large voltages to charge capacitors used in x-ray sources, medical accelerators, etc. It is lighter, more reliable, more compact and efficient. Originally developed for space lasers, its commercial potential was soon recognized.

  2. Water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    Options and methodologies for the development of fresh water supplies on Bikini Atoll are much the same as those practiced in the rest of the Marshall Islands and for that matter, most atolls in the central Pacific Ocean Basin. That is, rainfall distribution on Bikini produces a distinct wet season, lasting from about May through November, with the remaining months being generally dry. As a result, fresh water from surface catchments tends to be plentiful during the wet season? but is usually scarce during the dry months, and alternative sources such as groundwater must be utilized during this time. On Bikini the problems of fresh water supply are somewhat more difficult than for most Marshall Island atolls because rainfall is only about half the Marshall Island's average. Tus water supply is a critical factor limiting the carrying capacity of Bikini Atoll. To address this problem BARC has undertaken a study of the Bikini Atoll water supply. Te primary objectives of this work are to determine: (1) alternatives available for fresh water supply, 2 the amounts, location and quality of available supplies and 3 optimal development methods. The study planned for one's year duration, has been underway only since the summer of 1985 and is thus not yet fully completed. However, work done to date, which is presented in this report of preliminary findings, provides a reasonably accurate picture of Bikini's fresh water supplies and the various options available for their development. The work remaining to be completed will mainly add refinements to the water supply picture presented in the sections to follow

  3. Manufacturing Technology Support (MATES) II Task Order 0006: Air Force Technology and Industrial Base Research and Analysis. Subtask Order 0004: Study on Supply Chains and Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    production exceptions. He also pushed through significant new organizational changes based on naturally occurring problem-solving employee “ hives .” He...engineering change orders, product requisitions or releases, production , shipment and so on) to reduce effort and increase quality and on-time...delivery (Communications); 3. Foster greater collaboration to improve production planning, more quickly identify and resolve supply chain issues and

  4. Optimization of Marine Forces Reserve Equipment Redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    industry as an example. Bertrand and Bookbinder begin with a basic supply chain logistics model of a large warehouse supplying a number of retail...solutions, and perform fast sensitivity analysis on the competing objectives. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Optimization, Marine Forces Reserve, redistribution...reallocation, equipment supply , logistics 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 61 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY

  5. Method for reducing excess heat supply experienced in typical Chinese district heating systems by achieving hydraulic balance and improving indoor air temperature control at the building level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Gudmundsson, Oddgeir; Thorsen, Jan Eric

    2016-01-01

    A common problem with Chinese district heating systems is that they supply more heat than the actual heat demand. The reason for this excess heat supply is the general failure to use control devices to adjust the indoor temperature and flow in the building heating systems in accordance......, and stabilize indoor temperatures. The feasibility and the energy consumption reduction of this approach were verified by means of simulation and a field test. By moving the system from centrally planned heat delivery to demand-driven heat delivery, excess heat loss can be significantly reduced. Results show...... that once the hydraulic balance is achieved and indoor temperatures are controlled with this integrated approach, 17% heat savings and 42.8% pump electricity savings can be achieved. The energy savings will also have a positive environmental effect with seasonal reductions of 11 kg CO2, 0.1 kg SO2, and 0...

  6. Testing Group of Helicoidal Expander – Electric Generator at Comoti Test Bench, Using Air Supplied by 3 Compressors Type CU128G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian UNGUREANU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describe a project dedicated to exploitation of natural gas, an important quantity of mechanical clean energy is loosed continuously by not using expansion energy in laminating process gas. A group of helicoidal expander – electrical generator was manufactured and tested. It is designed to produce electric energy for own facilities of a gas station or to supply local networks of gas distribution.

  7. The effects of electrostatic particle filtration and supply-air filter condition in classrooms on the performance of schoolwork by children (RP-1257)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David Peter; Jensen, Kasper Lynge

    2008-01-01

    and indicated their environmental perceptions and the intensity of any symptoms. A sensory panel of adults judged the air quality in the classrooms soon after the pupils left. Operating the electrostatic air cleaners considerably reduced the concentration of particles in the classrooms. The effect was greater......) effects of particle effects were inconsistent, removal outside the pollen season. When new filters were installed, the e although this is believed to be due to sequential and unbalanced presentation of filter conditions and to the fact that the used filters retained very little dust....

  8. Occupant evaluation of 7-hour exposures in a simulated aircraft cabin - Part 1: Optimum balance between fresh air supply and humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wyon, David Peter; Lagercrantz, Love Per

    2005-01-01

    Low humidity in the aircraft cabin environment has been identified as a possible cause of symptoms experienced during long flights. A mock-up of a 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin with realistic pollution sources was built inside a climate chamber, capable of providing fresh outside air at very...

  9. Effects of ozone chemistry and outside air supply on passenger self-evalua-tion of symptoms during 4-hour exposures in a simulated aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Tamás, Gyöngyi; Myśków, Danuta

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in a simulated 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin, installed in a climate chamber, to determine the extent to which cabin air quality and passenger symptoms are affected by ozone chemistry. A total of 30 subjects were exposed to four conditions: two rates of outside...

  10. Investigations of power supply and propulsion for a lighter-than-air high altitude platform; Untersuchungen zu Energieversorgung und Antrieb einer Leichter-als-Luft-Hoehenplattform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotulla, Michael

    2008-06-20

    High altitude platforms are one alternative to replace ground-bounded relay stations for telecommunication purposes. Already in service are such concepts like tethered balloons or stratospheric airplanes in the field of surveillance, for example to patrol borders. Disadvantages of those concepts are either to disturb the airspace by the wire or to be constricted in terms of mission endurance. Thus, untethered high altitude airships with long mission endurance are currently in the focus of research. One basic requirement for telecommunication platforms is to remain in a fix positioning frame over ground. Therefore wind speed has to be compensated by the propulsion system of the airship. The scope of this work is to investigate the drive and power generation system of a multiple-unit airship. The reduced rigidness of the hull and the resulting lower structural weight yield a higher load capacity and hence increase the mission length by larger fuel reserves. The drawbacks of this configuration are higher stabilization demands and distributed drive units. This leads to a rather complex propulsion system for which a real-time simulation model is provided. Besides electrical driven propellers, the system involves gas turbines and generators to work as power plants, back-up batteries, power-electronics and distribution. Those power plants reflect the state of the art and are thus rather conservative compared to other propulsion concepts for high altitude platforms. The advantage of splitting up the power generation into multiple units is to run only as much power plants as currently required and for this reason, to save energy. In addition, an involvement of the back-up battery reduces the ineffective operation of a power plant in part load. Another reason to employ a battery system is that highly dynamic power requirements, caused for example by a gust of wind, cannot be covered immediately by the power plants. The maximum discharge power of the back-up battery is at

  11. 40 CFR 63.131 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.131 [Reserved] ...

  12. Erratum to: Impacts of rising air temperatures and emissions mitigation on electricity demand and supply in the United States: a multi-model comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarland, James; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon; Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Jaglom, Wendy S.; Colley, Michelle; Patel, Pralit; Eom, Jiyon; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Schultz, Peter; Venkatesh, Boddu; Haydel, Juanita; Mack, Charlotte; Creason, Jared

    2015-07-07

    The electric power sector both affects and is affected by climate change. Numerous studies highlight the potential of the power sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Yet fewer studies have explored the physical impacts of climate change on the power sector. The present analysis examines how projected rising temperatures affect the demand for and supply of electricity. We apply a common set of temperature projections to three well-known electric sector models in the United States: the US version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA), the Regional Electricity Deployment System model (ReEDS), and the Integrated Planning Model (IPM®). Incorporating the effects of rising temperatures from a control scenario without emission mitigation into the models raises electricity demand by 1.6 to 6.5 % in 2050 with similar changes in emissions. The increase in system costs in the reference scenario to meet this additional demand is comparable to the change in system costs associated with decreasing power sector emissions by approximately 50 % in 2050. This result underscores the importance of adequately incorporating the effects of long-run temperature change in climate policy analysis.

  13. Aplikasi Model Sistem Dinamik Untuk Perencanaan Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Air Dalam Rangka Memenuhi Kebutuhan Supply Dan Demand Energi Listrik Di Kepulauan (Studi Kasus: Pulau Madura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addin Aditya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the energy problems in Indonesia is uneven electrification ratio. According to PT. PLN (Persero East Java Distribution, Madura Island has the lowest electrification ratio in East Java, which is 59.02%. At present, Madura gets their electricity supply from Java Island through 2 high voltage sea cable circuit 150.000 volts with 2x100 MW capacity. However, that’s not enough to fulfill the Madura electricity demand. This research aims to develop a dynamic model of the hydroelectric power system in order to increase Madura’s electrification ratio. In this research, we use a dynamic system model to analyze both technical and economical aspect of developing the hydroelectric power system. A dynamic system model approach is a part of the concept which means it articulate the problem as a comprehensive system and relation between each element of it. We hope this research can pull the trigger of energy independence which is correspond with local resource especially in the eastern island of Indonesia.

  14. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  15. Maintaining the Civil Reserve Air Fleet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schauber, Donald

    2000-01-01

    .... This paper investigates and analyzes the thesis that the shift in global business practices and a robust economy, combined with CRAF activation concerns, endangers the future of the CRAF program...

  16. Maintaining Civil Reserve Air Fleet Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-22

    adoitional aircraft committed by the : art ;er. For example, if a carrier commits an aircraft to Stage 1. it is also included in Stages II and III. Carriers...35 9. :2nltea States aviation policy, both internaticnal ana comestic . snai be aesigned to strengthen the nation’s airlift cap-sility anz wnere...34Strategy and the Operational Level of War." The Operational Art of Warfare Across the Spectrum of Conflict. Carlisle Barracks. PA: Strategic Studies

  17. Optimising nitrogen elimination performance in an urban waste water treatment plant by regulating the air supply.; Optimizacion del rendimiento de eliminacion de nitrogeno en una EDAR urbana mediante la regulacion de la aportacion de aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filter, M.; Rodriguez-Roda, I.; Colprin, J.; Poch, M.

    2002-07-01

    This study sought to optimise the performance of the biological elimination of nitrogen in an urban waste water treatment plant that was not designed to eliminate nutrients. Previous studies had indicated that regulating the air flow could have a decisive effects in guaranteeing the existence of aerobic and anoxic areas in the biological reactor, which are necessary conditions for the nitrification/denitrification process to take place. The air flow was regulated manually in accordance with the monitoring of the dissolved oxygen content and the daily analyses of nitrogen in the effluent. The results show that during the seven months of the study, nitrogen elimination performance was high and nitrogen in the effluent was below the legal limit at all times. (Author) 5 refs.

  18. Behind the Power Curve: The Regular Air Force Pilots Shortages Effect on Air National Guard Fighter Squadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    the current intellectual content on the subject is oriented toward problem identification tied to studies of alternatives and effects on regular Air...training expense. A substantial investment of fiscal, intellectual , and 5 manpower resources is made when generating the training requisites...small section devoted to Guard and Reserve manning issues outlined the interrelated supply and demand nature of affiliating pilots separating from

  19. The anaesthesia gas supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabyasachi Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The anaesthesia gas supply system is designed to provide a safe, cost-effective and convenient system for the delivery of medical gases at the point of-use. The doctrine of the anaesthesia gas supply system is based on four essential principles: Identity, continuity, adequacy and quality. Knowledge about gas supply system is an integral component of safe anaesthetic practice. Mishaps involving the malfunction or misuse of medical gas supply to operating theatres have cost many lives. The medical gases used in anaesthesia and intensive care are oxygen, nitrous oxide, medical air, entonox, carbon dioxide and heliox. Oxygen is one of the most widely used gases for life-support and respiratory therapy besides anaesthetic procedures. In this article, an effort is made to describe the production, storage and delivery of anaesthetic gases. The design of anaesthesia equipment must take into account the local conditions such as climate, demand and power supply. The operational policy of the gas supply system should have a backup plan to cater to the emergency need of the hospital, in the event of the loss of the primary source of supply.

  20. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a ventilation and air conditioning system for the ECN3 experimental area and the TCC8 and GHN300 service tunnels and for the dismantling of the existing system

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a ventilation and air conditioning system for the ECN3 experimental area and the TCC8 and GHN300 service tunnels and for the dismantling of the existing system

  1. Capacity flexibility allocation in an outsourced supply chain with reservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulaksil, Youssef; Grunow, Martin; Fransoo, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    We consider a contract manufacturer that serves a limited number of outsourcers (customers) on a single capacitated production line. the outsourcers have different levels of demand uncertainty and the contract manufacturer faces the question how to allocate the contractual capacity flexibility...... in an optimal way. The contractual capacity flexibility is a contract parameter that sets the amount of demand the contract manufacturer is obliged to accept from the outsourcers. We develop a hierachical model that consists of two decision levels. At the tactical level, the contract manufacturer allocates...... parameters to the lower decision level, where the operational planning decisions are made and actual demands are observed. We perform a numerical study by solving the two-level hierachical planning problem iteratively. We first solve the higher level problem, which has been formulated as an integer program...

  2. Trends in uranium supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, M.

    1976-01-01

    Prior to the development of nuclear power, uranium ores were used to a very limited extent as a ceramic colouring agent, as a source of radium and in some places as a source of vanadium. Perhaps before that, because of the bright orange and yellow colours of its secondary ores, it was probably used as ceremonial paint by primitive man. After the discovery of nuclear fission a whole new industry emerged, complete with its problems of demand, resources and supply. Spurred by special incentives in the early years of this new nuclear industry, prospectors discovered over 20 000 occurrences of uranium in North America alone, and by 1959 total world production reached a peak of 34 000 tonnes uranium from mines in South Africa, Canada and United States. This rapid growth also led to new problems. As purchases for military purposes ended, government procurement contracts were not renewed, and the large reserves developed as a result of government purchase incentives, in combination with lack of substantial commercial market, resulted in an over-supply of uranium. Typically, an over-supply of uranium together with national stockpiling at low prices resulted in depression of prices to less than $5 per pound by 1971. Although forecasts made in the early 1970's increased confidence in the future of nuclear power, and consequently the demand for uranium, prices remained low until the end of 1973 when OPEC announced a very large increase in oil prices and quite naturally, prices for coal also rose substantially. The economics of nuclear fuel immediately improved and prices for uranium began to climb in 1974. But the world-wide impact of the OPEC decision also produced negative effects on the uranium industry. Uranium production costs rose dramatically, as did capital costs, and money for investment in new uranium ventures became more scarce and more expensive. However, the uranium supply picture today offers hope of satisfactory development in spite of the many problems to be

  3. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for tritium supply and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    Tritium, a radioactive gas used in all of the Nation's nuclear weapons, has a short half-life and must be replaced periodically in order for the weapon to operate as designed. Currently, there is no capability to produce the required amounts of tritium within the Nuclear Weapons Complex. The PEIS for Tritium Supply and Recycling evaluates the alternatives for the siting, construction, and operation of tritium supply and recycling facilities at each of five candidate sites: the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, the Nevada Test Site, the Oak Ridge Reservation, the Pantex Plant, and the Savannah River Site. Alternatives for new tritium supply and recycling facilities consist of four different tritium supply technologies: Heavy Water Reactor, Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor, Advanced Light Water Reactor, and Accelerator Production of Tritium. The PEIS also evaluates the impacts of the DOE purchase of an existing operating or partially completed commercial light water reactor or the DOE purchase of irradiation services contracted from commercial power reactors. Additionally, the PEIS includes an analysis of multipurpose reactors that would produce tritium, dispose of plutonium, and produce electricity. Evaluation of impacts on land resources, site infrastructure, air quality and acoustics, water resources, geology and soils, biotic resources, cultural and paleontological resources, socioeconomics, radiological and hazardous chemical impacts during normal operation and accidents to workers and the public, waste management, and intersite transport are included in the assessment

  4. Endogeneity of Money Supply: Evidence From Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Oguzhan Cepni; Ibrahim Ethem Guney

    2017-01-01

    There is a long discussion among academics and central bankers about the theories of money supply. According to the exogenous view, central banks have the full control over money supply via policy actions including the adjustments of interest rates and reserve ratios, both of which alter commercial banks’ lending decisions. However, the theory of endogenous money supply emphasizes the role of demand for bank loans in money creation. More specifically, banks create money by meeting the demand ...

  5. The supply of non-renewable resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daubanes, Julien Xavier; Lasserre, Pierre

    that the substitution effect always dominates: A price increase at some point in space and time causes NRR supply to decrease at all other points. This new but orthodox supply setting extends to NRRs the partial equilibrium analysis of demand and supply policies. Thereby, it provides a generalization of many results......There exists no formal treatment of non-renewable resource (NRR) supply, systematically deriving quantity as function of price. We establish instantaneous restricted (fixed reserves) and unrestricted NRR supply functions. The supply of a NRR at any date and location not only depends on the local...... contemporary price of the resource but also on prices at all other dates and locations. Besides the usual law of supply, which characterizes the own-price effect, cross-price effects have their own law. They can be decomposed into a substitution effect and a stock compensation effect. We show...

  6. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air...

  7. Oil and Gas: Supply Issues After Katrina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bamberger, Robert L; Kumins, Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    .... Assessment of damage to oil and gas production rigs, as well as refineries, continues. Some operating refineries whose crude supply has been interrupted are borrowing crude from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR...

  8. Canadian gas supply : an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochefort, T.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the daily production from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) from 1986 to 1997 was presented. This presentation also outlined Canadian production trends, Canadian reserves and resources, and supply challenges. Ultimate conventional marketable gas from the WCSB, the Scotian Shelf, the Beaufort Sea and Canada's Arctic region was estimated at 591 TCF. Issues regarding supply and demand of natural gas such as the impact of electricity restructuring on pricing, generation fuel mix, the capacity of the U.S. market to absorb Canadian heavy oil production, and the influence of the rate of technological advances on supply and demand were outlined. The overall conclusion confirmed the health and competitiveness of the Canadian upstream sector and expressed confidence that the WCSB can support rising levels of production to meet the expected continued market growth. tabs., figs

  9. Advanced air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2011-01-01

    The aim of total volume air distribution (TVAD) involves achieving uniform temperature and velocity in the occupied zone and environment designed for an average occupant. The supply of large amounts of clean and cool air are needed to maintain temperature and pollution concentration at acceptable....... Ventilation in hospitals is essential to decrease the risk of airborne cross-infection. At present, mixing air distribution at a minimum of 12 ach is used in infection wards. Advanced air distribution has the potential to aid in achieving healthy, comfortable and productive indoor environments at levels...... higher than what can be achieved today with the commonly used total volume air distribution principles....

  10. Analysis of natural gas supply strategies at Fort Drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucky, D.J.; Shankle, S.A.; Anderson, D.M.

    1992-07-01

    This analysis investigates strategies for Fort Drum to acquire a reliable natural gas supply while reducing its gas supply costs. The purpose of this study is to recommend an optimal supply mix based on the life-cycle costs of each strategy analyzed. In particular, this study is intended to provide initial guidance as to whether or not the building and operating of a propane-air mixing station is a feasible alternative to the current gas acquisition strategy. The analysis proceeded by defining the components of supply (gas purchase, gas transport, supplemental fuel supply); identifying alternative options for each supply component; constructing gas supply strategies from different combinations of the options available for each supply component and calculating the life-cycle costs of each supply strategy under a set of different scenarios reflecting the uncertainty of future events

  11. Laser power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, D.

    1975-01-01

    The laser power supply includes a regulator which has a high voltage control loop based on a linear approximation of a laser tube negative resistance characteristic. The regulator has independent control loops for laser current and power supply high voltage

  12. Airborne Power Supply Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Airborne Power Supply Unit (APSU) is a programmable DC/DC converter that can supply multiple constant voltage or constant current outputs in a small enclosure,...

  13. Power Supply, Electrical

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes a method for evaluation of electrical power supply operational and performance characteristics; identifies supporting tests...report is applicable to conversion type electrical supplies, rotary and static converters, but not applicable to power supply converters that convert energy in any form other than electrical to electrical energy.

  14. Cognitive reserve in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, A M; Stern, Y

    2011-06-01

    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer's disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer's disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and other age-related problems.

  15. THE COSTS OF ENERGY SUPPLY SECURITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogner, H.H.; Langlois, L.M.; McDonald, A.; Weisser, D.; Howells, M.

    2007-07-01

    In general, increasing a country's energy supply security does not come for free. It costs money to build up a strategic reserve, to increase supply diversity or even to accelerate energy efficiency improvements. Nor are all investments in increasing energy supply security cost effective, even if the shocks they are designed to insure against can be predicted with 100% accuracy. The first half of the paper surveys different definitions and strategies associated with the concept of energy supply security, and compares current initiatives to establish an 'assured supply of nuclear fuel' to the International Energy Agency's (IEA's) system of strategic national oil reserves. The second half of the paper presents results from several case studies of the costs and effectiveness of selected energy supply security policies. One case study examines alternative strategies for Lithuania following the scheduled closure of the Ignalina-2 nuclear reactor in 2009. The second case study examines, for countries with different energy resources and demand structures, the effectiveness of a policy to increase supply diversity by expanding renewable energy supplies. (auth)

  16. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  17. Supply Chain Management og Supply Chain costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Mortensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    Formålet med denne artikel er at belyse de muligheder som ligger i at integrere virksomhedens økonomiske styring med begrebet Supply Chain Management (SCM). Dette søges belyst ved først at beskrive den teoretiske ramme, hvori SCM indgår. Herefter analyseres begrebet Supply Chain Costing (SCC) som...... Århus. Et resultat er, at via begrebet Supply Chain Costing skabes der mulighed for at måle logistikkædens aktiviteter i kr./øre. Anvendelsen af denne information har også strategisk betydning for at kunne vælge kunde og leverandør. Ved hjælp af integrationen skabes der også helt nye mulighed...

  18. AC power supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, H.

    1987-01-01

    An ac power supply system includes a rectifier fed by a normal ac supply, and an inverter connected to the rectifier by a dc link, the inverter being effective to invert the dc output of the receiver at a required frequency to provide an ac output. A dc backup power supply of lower voltage than the normal dc output of the rectifier is connected across the dc link such that the ac output of the rectifier is derived from the backup supply if the voltage of the output of the inverter falls below that of the backup supply. The dc backup power may be derived from a backup ac supply. Use in pumping coolant in nuclear reactor is envisaged. (author)

  19. Sustainable Supply Chain Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy

    A significant conceptual and practical challenge is how to integrate triple bottom line (TBL; including economic, social and environmental) sustainability into global supply chains. Although this integration is necessary to slow down global resource depletion, understanding is limited of how...... to implement TBL goals across the supply chain. In supply chain design, the classic economic perspective still dominates, although the idea of the TBL is more widely disseminated. The purpose of this research is to add to the sustainable supply chain management literature (SSCM) research agenda...... by incorporating the physical chain, and the (information and financial) support chains into supply chain design. This manuscript tackles issues of what the chains are designed for and how they are designed structurally. Four sustainable businesses are used as illustrative case examples of innovative supply chain...

  20. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Aidonis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 3rd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on Athens Metropolitan Expo, November 7 & 8 2015, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics Technological Educational Institute of Central Macedonia, in collaboration with the: a Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH, b Greek Association of Supply Chain Management (EEL of Northern Greece and the c Supply Chain & Logistics Journal. During the 2-Days Conference more than 60 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Transportation, (ii Best Practices in Logistics, (iii Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, (iv Food Logistics, (v New Trends in Business Logistics, and (vi Green Supply Chain Management. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Operational Research, the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  1. Endogeneity of Money Supply: Evidence From Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguzhan Cepni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a long discussion among academics and central bankers about the theories of money supply. According to the exogenous view, central banks have the full control over money supply via policy actions including the adjustments of interest rates and reserve ratios, both of which alter commercial banks’ lending decisions. However, the theory of endogenous money supply emphasizes the role of demand for bank loans in money creation. More specifically, banks create money by meeting the demand of economic agents. In this study, we investigate which of the money supply theories holds in Turkish economy for the period 2006-2015 by employing cointegration and causality tests. Our findings show that the causality runs from bank loans to money supply both in the short and long terms, which supports the endogenous view in a sense that central bank and the banks fully meet the total demand for money in Turkish economy.

  2. Safety-related control air systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This Standard applies to those portions of the control air system that furnish air required to support, control, or operate systems or portions of systems that are safety related in nuclear power plants. This Standard relates only to the air supply system(s) for safety-related air operated devices and does not apply to the safety-related air operated device or to air operated actuators for such devices. The objectives of this Standard are to provide (1) minimum system design requirements for equipment, piping, instruments, controls, and wiring that constitute the air supply system; and (2) the system and component testing and maintenance requirements

  3. Switzerland's electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inwyler, Ch.

    1980-01-01

    After a short description of Switzerland's electricity supply industry, the author comments on the production and consumption of electrical energy as well as on Switzerland's role within the European grid. A brief survey of electricity supply as a service is followed by a discussion of the political tools (such as e.g. the referendum, the hearing procedure etc.), which are an essential clue for understanding the position of the electricity supply industry in Switzerland. (Auth.)

  4. Switching power supply filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prithvi R. (Inventor); Abare, Wayne (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A filter for a switching power supply. The filter includes a common mode inductor with coil configurations allowing differential mode current from a dc source to pass through but attenuating common mode noise from the power supply so that the noise does not reach the dc source. The invention also includes the use of feed through capacitors at the switching power supply input terminals to provide further high-frequency noise attenuation.

  5. SILVER ZINC POWER SUPPLY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phase IIb, Task I of the Missile Power Supply program, which involves the design, development, fabrication, and test of an 8500 watt battery...converter breadboard power supply , was continued during the preceding quarter. The results of evaluation of partial battery sections (modules), of the final...reported and analyzed. The progress of the work on the Missile Power Supply DC to DC converter breadboard is reported. The subcontractor’s Second

  6. Synchronous DC Power Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The patent describes a synchronous direct current (dc) power supply which has the power supply input drive synchronized with the pulse repetition...frequency (PRF) of the amplifying or load circuit requiring the dc power for operation. This limits the occurrence of ripple components in the power ... supply output to the spectral positions of the PRF lines, eliminating ripple interference with signal processing in the load. An astable multivibrator is

  7. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  8. Supply chain components

    OpenAIRE

    Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  9. Field-Based Procedures for Screening Diver's Air

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lillo, R

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Navy Diver's Air Sampling Program coordinates use mandatory semi-annual air purity testing of compressors used to supply diver's air in the Fleet The current approach of sending gas-sampling kits...

  10. Supplies should match growing demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmusen, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The natural gas industry is currently enjoying healthy growth prospects. Not only is the demand for natural gas steadily growing; the outlook for increasing gas reserves is promising as well. The success of natural gas in the marketplace reflects, on one hand, continuous attention paid to public and customer requirements and, on the other hand, the ability of the gas industry to direct technological developments toward the increasing public demand for gas at competitive market prices supplied in a reliable, safe and environmentally friendly manner. In the past, the gas industry has been involved in the development of technologies for everything from gas production to the end user and from borehole to burner tip, and the author believes that the industry must continue or even increase its emphasis on technology in the future in order to capture new market opportunities. He explains this by looking at the supply side, the demand side and the structural side of the business

  11. COGNITIVE RESERVE IN AGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Adrienne M.; Stern, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer’s disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related problems. PMID:21222591

  12. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  13. Influences of the pulsed power supply on corona streamer appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. van Veldhuizen; T.M.P. Briels (Tanja); L.R. Grabowski; A.J.M. Pemen; U. M. Ebert (Ute)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractPulsed positive corona streamers in air are studied by images obtained with an intensified CCD camera. Using a switched capacitor power supply, thin streamers are observed that branch. A power supply consisting of a 4-stage transmission line transformer gives pulses of much higher

  14. Optimal Design of a Standalone Photovoltaic Power Supply System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to optimally design a stand alone photovoltaic power supply system for air conditioning application at Samara University to be used as an alternative to diesel generator supply. Samara University is established in samara town, Afar region and has an average daily radiation of 6.10kwh/m2, sun shine ...

  15. Ovarian reserve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja

    2012-01-01

    2-5 of the menstrual cycle or during withdrawal bleeding, blood sampling and transvaginal sonography was performed. After adjusting for age, ovarian reserve parameters were lower among users than among non-users of hormonal contraception: serum AMH concentration by 29.8% (95% CI 19.9 to 38...... was observed between duration of hormonal-contraception use and ovarian reserve parameters. No dose-response relation was found between the dose of ethinyloestradiol and AMH or AFC. This study indicates that ovarian reserve markers are lower in women using sex steroids for contraception. Thus, AMH...... concentration and AFC may not retain their accuracy as predictors of ovarian reserve in women using hormonal contraception. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration is an indirect marker of the number of small follicles in the ovary and thereby the ovarian reserve. The AMH concentration is now widely...

  16. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating conditions... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091...

  17. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  18. Pulsed Power Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The patent describes a step-up power supply which is provided by a plurality of transistors arranged to drive respective, equal turn primary windings...winding, thus maximizing the total voltage applied to the transformer. The power supply amplifies pulses from a blocking oscillator to drive a tuned-plate, tuned-grid transmitter.

  19. Variable Input Power Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An electronic power supply using pulse width modulated (PWM) voltage regulation provides a regulated output for a wide range of input voltages. Thus...switch to change the level of voltage regulation and the turns ratio of the primary winding of the power supply output transformer, thereby obtaining increased tolerance to input voltage change. (Author)

  20. Regulating Digital Power Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The patent relates to a digital power supply regulator using pulse counts and a feedback servo loop. Analog MOS circuitry is extremely sensitive to...radiation and there are undesirable results when not placed in a suitable radiation-free environment. The present invention is a regulated power supply but

  1. Airborne Power Supply Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The airborne power supply study considers the conversion of 400 cycle aircraft power to regulated DC voltages. Topics include the review of present...power conversion techniques, monolithic IC and hybrid series voltage regulators, power supply problem areas, trade-off considerations and power system

  2. Supply regimes in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max

    2006-01-01

    Supply in fisheries is traditionally known for its backward bending nature, owing to externalities in production. Such a supply regime, however, exist only for pure open access fisheries. Since most fisheries worldwide are neither pure open access, nor optimally managed, rather between the extrem...

  3. Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Andreas; Handfield, Robert B.

    Supply chain management has made great strides in becoming a discipline with a standalone body of theories. As part of this evolution, researchers have sought to embed and integrate observed supply chain management phenomena into theoretical statements. In our review, we explore where we have been...

  4. Skyline Reservation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Flight reservation application used for in-country flights by USAID and DoS staff in Afghanistan. The application is managed and maintained by the vendor and USAID...

  5. Selected supplies prognosis problems of aviation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żurek, J.; Czapla, R.

    2016-06-01

    Aviation technology, i.e. aircraft, control and airfield infrastructure wear out, become defective and need servicing. It seems indispensible to maintain facilities and spare parts at a level necessary to keep the technology in commission. The paper discusses the factors influencing spare parts supply requirements to secure air operations. Aviation technology has been classified with regard to various criteria, which influence the choice of supply management strategies, along with availability and aircraft exploitation cost. The method of optimization of the stock for a complex system characterized by series reliability structure according to the wear-out and cost criteria assuming Poisson's process of demand has been presented.

  6. Optimal Location of Marine Forces Reserve Units by Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    GA Naval Air Station Atlanta, GA Robins Air Force Base/Warner Robins, GA Dobbins Army Reserve Base, GA Forest Park, GA Rome, GA a31 Marine...Island Arsenal, IL a65 Grissom Army Reserve Base/ Peru , IN Indianapolis, IN Terre Haute, IN a66 Perrysburg, OH Selfridge Army National Guard Base

  7. 32 CFR 903.5 - Reserve enlistment procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reserve enlistment procedures. 903.5 Section 903.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY TRAINING AND SCHOOLS AIR FORCE ACADEMY PREPARATORY SCHOOL § 903.5 Reserve enlistment procedures. (a) Civilians...

  8. Water resources of the White Earth Indian Reservation, northwestern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Water resources in the White Earth Indian Reservation meet the present (1988) needs for potable supply and other household uses and provide valuable ecological, recreational, and aesthetic benefits. Total annual water use in the Reservation is about 460 million gallons per year. Domestic supply from privately owned wells and municipal systems accounts for roughly three-fourths of the water use, and irrigation of croplands and nurseries accounts for approximately one-fourth, depending on rainfall.

  9. Foreign uranium supply. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, N.B.; Steyn, J.J.

    1978-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of the extent to which foreign uranium may be available to United States utilities in the short term (through 1980), the intermediate term (1981--1985), and the long term (1986--95). All free world foreign uranium producers and prospects are included, with particular emphasis on Australia, Canada, southern Africa, France, and French-speaking Africa. The assessment includes reserves, resources, exploration and prospects; firm and potential production capacity and prospects; national policies and relevant political and economic conditions; foreign uranium demand; etc. Conclusions are: Foreign supply capability is greater than foreign demand in the near term. The current availability of uncommitted future Australian production presents an unusual opportunity for establishing commercial relations with very substantial producers. Foreign uranium contracts represent an increase in diversity of supply and access to resources but have less assurance of supply than do domestic contracts. However, uncertainties can frequently be accommodated within an overall procurement program, thereby retaining the diversity and price advantages of foreign procurement. The practice of market pricing of contracts reduces the incentives for foreign contracting

  10. 76 FR 51847 - Air Cargo Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Chain Management Professionals, Express Delivery and Logistics Association, International Air Transport... diverse needs of the air cargo supply chain. TSA Response: The 9/11 Act required the Secretary of Homeland... allows industry participants to conduct screening at stages earlier within the cargo supply chain and off...

  11. WATER SUPPLY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.D. Clark

    1996-02-06

    This analysis defines and evaluates the surface water supply system from the existing J-13 well to the North Portal. This system includes the pipe running from J-13 to a proposed Booster Pump Station at the intersection of H Road and the North Portal access road. Contained herein is an analysis of the proposed Booster Pump Station with a brief description of the system that could be installed to the South Portal and the optional shaft. The tanks that supply the water to the North Portal are sized, and the supply system to the North Portal facilities and up to Topopah Spring North Ramp is defined.

  12. Uranium supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This report covers the period 1983 to 1995. It draws together the industry's latest views on future trends in supply and demand, and sets them in their historical context. It devotes less discussion than its predecessors to the technical influences underpinning the Institute's supply and demand forecasts, and more to the factors which influence the market behaviour of the industry's various participants. As the last decade has clearly shown, these latter influences can easily be overlooked when undue attention is given to physical imbalances between supply and demand. (author)

  13. WATER SUPPLY ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    This analysis defines and evaluates the surface water supply system from the existing J-13 well to the North Portal. This system includes the pipe running from J-13 to a proposed Booster Pump Station at the intersection of H Road and the North Portal access road. Contained herein is an analysis of the proposed Booster Pump Station with a brief description of the system that could be installed to the South Portal and the optional shaft. The tanks that supply the water to the North Portal are sized, and the supply system to the North Portal facilities and up to Topopah Spring North Ramp is defined

  14. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  15. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  16. Redmedial Action Plan for the Risk-Based Remediation of Site ST14 (SWMU 68), LPSTID 104819; the Former Base Refueling Area (A0C7); the French Underdrain System (SWMU 64); and the North Oil/Water Separator (SWMU 67), Carswell Air Force Base, Naval Air Station Fort Worth Joint Reserve Base, Texas. Volume 1: Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ...) to prepare a remedial action plan (RAP) in support of a risk-based remediation decision for soil and groundwater contaminated with fuel hydrocarbons at Site ST14 at Carswell Air Force Base (AFB), Texas...

  17. 40 CFR 80.605 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 80.605 Section 80.605 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA...

  18. 40 CFR 80.609 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 80.609 Section 80.609 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA...

  19. 40 CFR 80.534 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 80.534 Section 80.534 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA...

  20. 40 CFR 86.220-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.220-94 Section 86.220-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  1. 40 CFR 86.217-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.217-94 Section 86.217-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  2. 40 CFR 86.212-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.212-94 Section 86.212-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  3. 40 CFR 86.241-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.241-94 Section 86.241-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  4. 40 CFR 86.207-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.207-94 Section 86.207-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  5. 40 CFR 86.243-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.243-94 Section 86.243-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  6. 40 CFR 86.210-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.210-94 Section 86.210-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  7. 40 CFR 86.245-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.245-94 Section 86.245-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  8. 40 CFR 86.225-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.225-94 Section 86.225-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  9. POWER SUPPLY PROTECTIVE CIRCUITRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recommendation a corrective action plan was made as a solution to the high cost of common and protective circuitry in terms, of reliability of the power supply types A, B, C, D and E in the Minuteman system. (Author)

  10. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidonis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 2nd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on October 5-6, 2012, in Katerini, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics of Alexander Technological Educational Institution (ATEI of Thessaloniki, in collaboration with the Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH. During the 2-Days Conference more than 50 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Business Logistics, (ii Transportation, Telematics and Distribution Networks, (iii Green Logistics, (iv Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, and (v Services and Quality. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Humanitarian Logistics, Green Supply Chains of the Agrifood Sector and the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  11. Characterizing Oregon's supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In many regions throughout the world, freight models are used to aid infrastructure investment and : policy decisions. Since freight is such an integral part of efficient supply chains, more realistic : transportation models can be of greater assista...

  12. Secure Water Supply

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ginsberg, M. D; Hock, V. F; Pappas, A. G

    2004-01-01

    ...) contaminants in water systems. Water security is a life safety issue. Water supply systems on military installations and forward facilities are vulnerable to both conventional, industrial and military CB agent contamination by terrorists...

  13. Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng Olesen, Thomas

    with companies in the maritime sector. This report “Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics – Business strategies in the offshore supply industry” is the second report in mapping project D. It examines the markets and business strategies of various suppliers and furthermore presents an analysis of the challenges...... and opportunities for the companies engaged in the different parts of the sector. The report is developed from interviews with top management of key players in the Danish supply industry combined with studies on management literature. The macro- and meso levels of the offshore sector are examined in the CBS...... Maritime report “Offshore Supply Chain Dynamics – The main drivers in the energy sector and the value chain characteristics for offshore oil and gas and offshore wind”, which constitutes the first part of mapping project D. It offers insights into the main drivers in the energy sector (macro level...

  14. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve and fts educational facilities are run by the Transvaal. Division of. Nature Conservation. ... tion and the education facilities provided. The former are utilized mainly by the general public ... artist Paul Bosman (already reviewed in the EEASA newsletter). The co-founders of the Foundation are.

  15. Session 7: Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.; Crockford, G.

    2001-01-01

    The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)

  16. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  17. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reserve, the total length being 66 km with six overnight huts. There are also the BokmakiePie. Nature Troil. and the Cheetah Interpretive Troil. which can be used by day visitors. The former has two loops, one of 10 km and another of 17 km. The. Cheetah Troil. is much shorter and various points of interest are interpreted en ...

  18. Understanding the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management represents new business philosophy and includes strategically positioned and much wider scope of activity in comparison with its "older brother" - management of logistics. Philosophy of the concept of supply chain is directed to more coordination of key business functions of every link in distribution chain in the process of organization of the flow of both goods and information, while logistic managing instruments are focused on internal optimum of flows of goods and information within one company. Applying the concept of integrated supply chain among several companies makes the importance of operative logistics activity even greater on the level of one company, thus advancing processes of optimum and coordination within and between different companies and confirms the importance of logistics performances for the company’s profitability. Besides the fact that the borders between companies are being deleted, this concept of supply chain in one distribution channel influences increasing of importance of functional, i.e. traditional business managing approaches but instead it points out the importance of process managing approaches. Although the author is aware that "there is nothing harder, more dangerous and with uncertain success, but to find a way for introducing some novelties (Machiavelli, it would be even his additional stimulation for trying to bring closer the concept and goals of supply chain implementation that are identified in key, relevant, modern, theoretical and consulting approaches in order to achieve better understanding of the subject and faster implementation of the concept of supply chain management by domestic companies.

  19. Supply chain optimization for pediatric perioperative departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Janice L; Doyle, Robert

    2011-09-01

    Economic challenges compel pediatric perioperative departments to reduce nonlabor supply costs while maintaining the quality of patient care. Optimization of the supply chain introduces a framework for decision making that drives fiscally responsible decisions. The cost-effective supply chain is driven by implementing a value analysis process for product selection, being mindful of product sourcing decisions to reduce supply expense, creating logistical efficiency that will eliminate redundant processes, and managing inventory to ensure product availability. The value analysis approach is an analytical methodology for product selection that involves product evaluation and recommendation based on consideration of clinical benefit, overall financial impact, and revenue implications. Copyright © 2011 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The future of medical radioisotope supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peykov, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    The NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have been actively examining the causes of supply shortages of the most widely used isotope in medical diagnostic imaging, technetium-99m ( 99m Tc), and its parent isotope molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo). As a result of this examination, the HLG-MR has developed a policy approach that includes principles and supporting recommendations to address the causes of these supply shortages. Six policy principles were agreed by the HLG-MR in March 2011. These are implementation of full-cost recovery and outage reserve capacity (ORC) for 99 Mo production, a government role in the market, conversion to low-enriched uranium targets, international collaboration and periodic reviews of the supply chain. This article describes progress made in the implementation of the six principles and examines the projected global capacity for medical radioisotope production in the near future. (author)

  1. When will fossil fuel reserves be diminished?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiee, Shahriar; Topal, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    Crude oil, coal and gas are the main resources for world energy supply. The size of fossil fuel reserves and the dilemma that 'when non-renewable energy will be diminished' is a fundamental and doubtful question that needs to be answered. This paper presents a new formula for calculating when fossil fuel reserves are likely to be depleted and develops an econometrics model to demonstrate the relationship between fossil fuel reserves and some main variables. The new formula is modified from the Klass model and thus assumes a continuous compound rate and computes fossil fuel reserve depletion times for oil, coal and gas of approximately 35, 107 and 37 years, respectively. This means that coal reserves are available up to 2112, and will be the only fossil fuel remaining after 2042. In the Econometrics model, the main exogenous variables affecting oil, coal and gas reserve trends are their consumption and respective prices between 1980 and 2006. The models for oil and gas reserves unexpectedly show a positive and significant relationship with consumption, while presenting a negative and significant relationship with price. The econometrics model for coal reserves, however, expectedly illustrates a negative and significant relationship with consumption and a positive and significant relationship with price. Consequently, huge reserves of coal and low-level coal prices in comparison to oil and gas make coal one of the main energy substitutions for oil and gas in the future, under the assumption of coal as a clean energy source. (author)

  2. Air Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  3. Huge supply/demand increases seen in oxygenate forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoades, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    Industry originally projected that oxygenate supply would not be able to meet the demand created by U.S. oxygenated and reformulated gasoline mandates. This paper reports that those projections have been reserved in two recent industry reports - one from Chemical Market Associates Inc. (CMAI) and one from Pace Consultants Inc. Pace's report, by Paulo Nery and Nathan Sims, predicts gasoline and oxygenates demand, and examines the role ethanol may play in changing those values. CMAI's report estimates captive supply and demand of butylenes and oxygenates. Oxygenates are entering the domestic gasoline market this winter as a result of the 1990 U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments. Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is the most important oxygenate, although ethanol, ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) are gathering market strength. Ethanol's strength is derived from President Bush's ruling granting a waiver to reformulated gasoline containing ethanol. This waiver allows ethanol blends to have a vapor pressure 1 psi higher than other types of gasoline

  4. Oil supply in Central and South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Roberto F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates a cumulative supply curve for conventional oil in the Central and South American (CSA) region. The curve includes volumes from provinces not previously assessed by other organizations, as well as reserve growth. Volumes for the previously unassessed provinces are estimated using a variable shape distribution (VSD) model. Then the volumes are allocated to CSA countries based on each country's share of proved reserves. Figures provided by the cumulative supply curve are stock variables for all time, unlike the traditional supply curve where they are flow variables that can continue from one period to the next. In this study, the fixed stock approach is used since it provides practical information with respect to the concerns that some have expressed about oil scarcity in the near future. Results indicate that Central and South American oil is more abundant than often assumed, and can be produced at costs below current market oil prices, and substantially below mid-2008 prices.

  5. [The study of medical supplies automation replenishment algorithm in hospital on medical supplies supplying chain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xi

    2012-07-01

    The thesis aims to study the automation replenishment algorithm in hospital on medical supplies supplying chain. The mathematical model and algorithm of medical supplies automation replenishment are designed through referring to practical data form hospital on the basis of applying inventory theory, greedy algorithm and partition algorithm. The automation replenishment algorithm is proved to realize automatic calculation of the medical supplies distribution amount and optimize medical supplies distribution scheme. A conclusion could be arrived that the model and algorithm of inventory theory, if applied in medical supplies circulation field, could provide theoretical and technological support for realizing medical supplies automation replenishment of hospital on medical supplies supplying chain.

  6. Integration of vaccine supply chains with other health commodity supply chains: a framework for decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Prashant; Lydon, Patrick; Oswald, Julianna; Dicko, Modibo; Zaffran, Michel

    2014-11-28

    One of the primary objectives of National Immunization Programs is to strengthen and optimize immunization supply chains so that vaccines are delivered to the end recipients effectively, efficiently and sustainably. As a result of larger investments in global health and a wider portfolio of vaccines, global agencies are recognizing the need for vaccine supply chains to operate at their most optimal levels. Integration with other supply chains is often presented as a strategy to improve efficiency. However, it remains unclear if the proposed benefits from integration of vaccine supply chains with other supply chains will outweigh the costs. This paper provides a framework for deciding where such integration offers the most significant benefits. It also cautions about the pitfalls of integration as a one size fits all strategy. It also highlights the need for systematic collection of cost and efficiency data in order to understand the value of integration and other such initiatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Innovation Across the Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Druehl, Cheryl; Carrillo, Janice; Hsuan, Juliana

    Innovation is an integral part of every firm’s ongoing operations. Beyond product innovation, supply chain innovations offer a unique source of competitive advantage. We synthesize recent research on innovation in the supply chain, specifically, innovative supply chain processes...

  8. [Hypertrophy and coronary reserve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motz, W; Scheler, S

    2008-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy represents the structural mechanism of adaptation of the left ventricle as the answer of a chronic pressure overload in arterial hypertension. Initially an increment in left ventricular wall thickness occurs. In this stadium of "concentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress, LV ejection fraction and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium remain unchanged. In the further time course of disease LV dilatation will be present. In this phase of "excentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium rise and LV ejection fraction decreases. Patients with arterial hypertension frequently complain of angina pectoris. Angina pectoris and the positive exercise tolerance test or the positive myocardial scintigraphy are the consequence of the impaired coronary flow reserve. The coronary flow reserve is diminished due to structural and functional changes of the coronary circulation. ACE-inhibitors and AT1-receptor blockers cause a significant improvement of coronary flow reserve and regression of both left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis.

  9. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity- conditioned air. For this...

  10. Reserve valuation in electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Pablo Ariel

    Operational reliability is provided in part by scheduling capacity in excess of the load forecast. This reserve capacity balances the uncertain power demand with the supply in real time and provides for equipment outages. Traditionally, reserve scheduling has been ensured by enforcing reserve requirements in the operations planning. An alternate approach is to employ a stochastic formulation, which allows the explicit modeling of the sources of uncertainty. This thesis compares stochastic and reserve methods and evaluates the benefits of a combined approach for the efficient management of uncertainty in the unit commitment problem. Numerical studies show that the unit commitment solutions obtained for the combined approach are robust and superior with respect to the traditional approach. These robust solutions are especially valuable in areas with a high proportion of wind power, as their built-in flexibility allows the dispatch of practically all the available wind power while minimizing the costs of operation. The scheduled reserve has an economic value since it reduces the outage costs. In several electricity markets, reserve demand functions have been implemented to take into account the value of reserve in the market clearing process. These often take the form of a step-down function at the reserve requirement level, and as such they may not appropriately represent the reserve value. The value of reserve is impacted by the reliability, dynamic and stochastic characteristics of system components, the system operation policies, and the economic aspects such as the risk preferences of the demand. In this thesis, these aspects are taken into account to approximate the reserve value and construct reserve demand functions. Illustrative examples show that the demand functions constructed have similarities with those implemented in some markets.

  11. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  12. Supply chain quality management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Amoozad Mahdiraji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there are several methods introduced for the improvement of operational performances. Total quality management and supply chain management are two methods recommended for this purpose. These two approaches have been studied in most researches separately, while they have objectives in common, and this makes them a strategic means, which can be used, simultaneously. Total quality management and supply chain management play significant roles to increase the organizational competitiveness power. Moreover, they have only one purpose that is customer satisfaction, and they are different only on their approaches to reach their objectives. In this research, we aim to study both approaches of quality management and supply chain, their positive increasing effects that may be generated after their integration. For this purpose, the concept and definitions of each approach is studied, independently, their similarities and differences are recognized, and finally, the advantages of their integration are introduced.

  13. Petroleum supply annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  14. Supply Chain Connectivity: Enhancing Participation in the Global Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Patalinghug, Epictetus E.

    2015-01-01

    Supply chain connectivity is vital for the efficient flow of trade among APEC economies. This paper reviews the literature and supply chain management, describes the barriers to enhancing participation in global supply chain, analyzes the various measures of supply chain performance, and suggests steps for the Philippines to fully reap the benefits of the global value chain.

  15. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarczynski, M.A. [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Environmental Protection Engineering, Department of Indoor Environment Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin (Poland); International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Melikov, A.K.; Lyubenova, V. [International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kaczmarczyk, J. [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Department of Heating, Ventilation and Dust Removal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-10-15

    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front toward the upper part of the body (upper chest, head). The subjects could control the flow rate (velocity) of the supplied air in the vicinity of their bodies. The results indicate an airflow with elevated velocity applied to the face significantly improves the acceptability of the air quality at the room air temperature of 26 C and relative humidity of 70%. (author)

  16. Air ventilation/controlling facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1997-12-12

    When all electricity supply from the outside of a power plant are lost, a power generator directly connected to an emergency steam turbine which is driven by steams introduced from a nuclear reactor is driven to supply electricity required in the power plant. Cool water prepared by a refrigerator is used as cooling water in an air ventilation/controlling facility of a room equipped with the power generating facility. As the refrigerator, a refrigerator of an existent emergency air cooling water system for an auxiliary air ventilation/controlling equipment is used. This can extend the period of time till the temperature of the room where the power generator is disposed exceeds the temperature range capable of keeping the integrity of the power generator even when all the AC power supply are lost to inactivate the function of the air ventilation/controlling system. (I.S.)

  17. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    The recent financial crisis has rekindled interest in the foreign aid supply behaviour of bilateral donors. Using the latest data covering the period 1960-2009, this paper examines how such behaviour is related to domestic factors. Based on a simple empirical model, a distinction is made between ...... substantial heterogeneity between countries. There is also good evidence that donor behaviour continues to evolve over time. As such, past trends in aid supplies are unlikely to provide a good guide to those of the future....

  18. Switch mode power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hui Jun

    1993-06-01

    This book concentrates on switch mode power supply. It has four parts, which are introduction of switch mode power supply with DC-DC converter such as Buck converter boost converter, Buck-boost converter and PWM control circuit, explanation for SMPS with DC-DC converter modeling and power mode control, resonance converter like resonance switch, converter, multi resonance converter and series resonance and parallel resonance converters, basic test of SMPS with PWM control circuit, Buck converter, Boost converter, flyback converter, forward converter and IC for control circuit.

  19. World electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magerl, H.

    1986-01-01

    Neither in the group of market economy oriented industrialized countries, nor in the group of the developing countries has there been a decoupling of electricity consumption and economic growth; since 1973, the consumption of electricity has grown more than the total energy consumption, even exceeding economic growth. In the Federal Republic of Germany, public power supply has reached a particularly positive structure of primary energy, from the aspect of energy economy, for some 90% is produced from coal, nuclear power and water power. In addition to ensuring the continuity of supply and thus creating independence from the world energy markets, this also adds to domestic job security. (orig.) [de

  20. Electricity supply in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, H.J.

    1993-09-01

    This briefing deals with the electricity supply industry in India in two parts. In the first, the structure and organization of the industry is described under sections dealing with national government involvement, energy policy, state electricity boards, regional electricity boards, state corporations, the private sector and private investment in the power sector including foreign investment. Secondly, the power supply system is described covering generation, plant load factor, non-utility generation, nuclear power, transmission and distribution, system losses and electricity consumption. (8 tables) (UK)

  1. Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta

    2017-01-01

    Supply Chan management (SCM) som begreb stammer fra starten af 1990´erne. Mange definitioner af begrebet har været i cirkulation siden da, men overordnet er der enighed om, at det handler om at styre og optimere materiale- og informationsstrømme fra råvareleverandør til slutbruger.......Supply Chan management (SCM) som begreb stammer fra starten af 1990´erne. Mange definitioner af begrebet har været i cirkulation siden da, men overordnet er der enighed om, at det handler om at styre og optimere materiale- og informationsstrømme fra råvareleverandør til slutbruger....

  2. Cooling Performance Test of the SCT LV&HV Power Supply Rack

    CERN Document Server

    Böhm, J; Vacek, V

    2005-01-01

    The cooling performance test of the 52U rack, housing SCT LV&HV power supplies for 192 detector modules, being located in USA15 cavern, has been curried out. The rack was equipped with two air-water heat exchangers, air turbine, four vertical fan tray units under crates and horizontal fans in four Artesyn AC/DC power supply units. The resistive dummy loads for 192 power supply channels have been placed in four crates and housed in the adjacent rack.

  3. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  4. Essentials of supply chain management

    CERN Document Server

    Hugos, Michael H

    2011-01-01

    The latest thinking, strategies, developments, and technologies to stay current in supply chain management Presenting the core concepts and techniques of supply chain management in a clear, concise and easily readable style, the Third Edition of Essentials of Supply Chain Management outlines the most crucial tenets and concepts of supply chain management.

  5. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008-2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  6. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  7. Humanitarian relief supply chain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper models a humanitarian relief chain that includes a relief goods supply chain and an evacuation chain in case of a natural disaster. Optimum network flow is studied for both the chains by considering three conflicting objectives, namely demand satisfaction in relief chain, demand satisfaction in evacuation chain ...

  8. Investments secure supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Baarle, D.

    2006-01-01

    In order to guarantee the supply of energy considerable investment must be made to improve the infrastructure (e.g. capacity for LNG-transport and -storage) and ties with the natural gas supplier in the Russian Federation must be intensified [nl

  9. Baby supplies you need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newborn care - baby supplies ... easiest for changing diapers and cleaning baby up. Mittens for the baby's hands to keep them from ... Carlo WA. The newborn infant. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme ... NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  10. Sediment supply to beaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels

    2014-01-01

    and this reduces confidence in predictions of long-term shoreline change. In this paper, field measurements of suspended sediment load and cross-shore transport on the lower shoreface are used to derive a model for sediment supply from the lower to the upper shoreface at large spatial and temporal scales. Data...

  11. Supply Chain Costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Jesper Normann; Kristensen, Jesper; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    Based Costing (ABC) på et forsyningskædeniveau – heri benævnt Supply Chain Costing (SCC). Udoverdefordelederfindesved ABCtilføjerSCCogså et økonomisk grundlag til det strategiske rationale, der ofte ligger bag opbygningen af virksomhedens forsyningskæde, og kan dermed medvirke til konkret...

  12. Innovation in Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Maximilian; Korbel, Jakob; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    . Moreover, along with the fourth industrial revolution – industry 4.0 – new technologies such as cyber physical systems are fast gaining popularity. Hence, based on the analysis of relevant literature, we further develop the supply chain committee model, developed by Kaluza et al. (2003) to demonstrate how...

  13. Supply Chain Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jürgen

    Die Produktionslogistik hat im Rahmen der Materialbeschaffung und der Belieferung von externen Kunden vielfältige Beziehungen zu Lieferanten und Kunden. Im Ansatz des Supply Chain Managements (Lieferkettenmanagement), kurz auch als SCM bezeichnet, versucht man, sowohl Lieferanten als auch Kunden in die gesamte Logistikplanung zu integrieren. SCM umfasst dabei vor allem folgende Aufgaben: Bedarfs- und Bestandsplanung der Materialien entlang der Lieferkette

  14. APS power supply controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, C.W.; Despe, O.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide comprehensive coverage of the APS power supply control design. This includes application software, embedded controller software, networks, and hardware. The basic components will be introduced first, followed by the requirements driving the overall design. Subsequent sections will address each component of the design one by one. Latter sections will address specific applications

  15. Resources transfer and centralization in Brazilian electrical sector: the reversion global reserve (RGR) and the guarantee global reserve (GGR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Amaral Filho, J.B. de.

    1991-01-01

    This dissertation makes the analysis of resources transfer and centralization in Brazilian electrical sector, through reversion global reserve (RGR) and guarantee global reserve (GGR). RGR and GGR are funds. RGR finances sectorial investments in electric power and GGR aims the supply of deficient concessionaires. Governmental investments and the results of this application are showing. (M.V.M.). 55 refs, 2 figs, 61 tabs

  16. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  17. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine and... distribution with the induction system valves in any position. (c) No air intake may open within the engine... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091...

  18. Energy Supply System for Industrial Poultry Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The gas engine driven carbon dioxide heat pump designed for providing the heat, cold and electricity for industrial poultry house is proposed. The scheme differs from the known by using recuperative heat exchanger installed between the exhaust air duct of poultry house and heat pump evaporator and the heat curtain installed on the air duct after the evaporator. The air coming into the poultry house after the regenerative heat exchanger is supplied to the heat pump gas cooler. The heat pump produces heat of the required parameters of the input air and water for watering of poultry, space heating, etc. Heat pump compressor is driven by gas engine (GPA, by natural gas or biogas. The part of the gas-piston engine heat is used for adjusting the optimal heat pump mode and for regeneration of the absorbent in an evaporative cooler. The proposed technical solution of the above scheme provides a higher COP of the heat pump. Installing of heat curtain does not require the use of non-freezing solution to prevent icing of the air outlet of heat pump evaporator. The latter allows producing, besides electric power and heat, still cold (with the use off the adsorption-refrigerating machine and provide drying air inlet evaporative cooler (if necessary.

  19. Integrated supply chain risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaan Bredell

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Integrated supply chain risk management (ISCRM has become indispensable to the theory and practice of supply chain management. The economic and political realities of the modern world require not only a different approach to supply chain management, but also bold steps to secure supply chain performance and sustainable wealth creation. Integrated supply chain risk management provides supply chain organisations with a level of insight into their supply chains yet to be achieved. If correctly applied, this process may optimise management decision-making and assist in the protection and enhancement of shareholder value.

  20. Analysing the impacts of air quality policies on ecosystem services; a case study for Telemark, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, L; White, L; Miles, A; Roberts, P

    2018-01-15

    There is an increasing interest in considering the effects of air pollution on ecosystem services supply in order to enhance cost-benefit analyses of air pollution policies. This paper presents a generic, conceptual approach that can be used to link atmospheric deposition of air pollutants to ecosystem services supply and societal benefits. The approach is applied in a case study in the Telemark county of Norway. First, we examine the potential effects of four European air quality policy scenarios on N deposition in the ecosystems of this county. Second, we analyse the subsequent impacts on the supply of three ecosystem services: carbon sequestration, timber production and biodiversity. Changes in the supply of the first two services are analysed in both physical and monetary units, biodiversity effects are only analysed in physical terms. The scenarios derive from work conducted in the context of the European National Emissions Ceilings Directive. In the 2010 base case the benefits of carbon sequestration are estimated at 13 million euro per year and the value of timber harvesting at 2.9 million euro per year. Under the examined policy scenarios aiming to reduce nitrogen emissions the societal benefits resulting from these two ecosystem services in Telemark are found to be reduced; the scenarios have little effect on terrestrial biodiversity. Such results cannot be scaled up, individual ecosystem services respond differently to changes in air pollution depending upon type of pollutant, type of ecosystem, type of service, and the magnitude of change. The paper further presents an analysis of the uncertainties that need to be considered in linking air pollution and ecosystem services including those in deposition rates, ecosystem responses, human responses and in the values of ecosystem services. Our conceptual approach is also useful for larger scale analysis of air pollution effects on ecosystem services, for example at national or potentially European scale

  1. Endogenous money supply and the business cycle

    OpenAIRE

    William T. Gavin; Finn E. Kydland

    1996-01-01

    This paper documents changes in the cyclical behavior of nominal data series that appear after 1979:Q3 when the Federal Reserve implemented a policy to lower the inflation rate. Such changes were not apparent in real variables. A business cycle model with impulses to technology and a role for money is used to show how alternative money supply rules are expected to affect observed business cycle facts. In this model, changes in the money supply rules have almost no effect on the cyclical behav...

  2. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  3. Power Supply PP-6373 ()/U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final report covers the performance and general design of the PP-6373( )/U Power Supply . Numerical data and accompanying graphs delineate...terminal characteristics of the power supply . The design of the power supply is considered at both system and circuit levels. The PP-6373( )/U Power Supply provides...single phase, or 120/208 volt--3 phase. The power supply may also operate from dc power sources ranging from 80-360 Vdc. Output current capability is 0

  4. Variable oxygen/nitrogen enriched intake air system for internal combustion engine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poola, Ramesh B.; Sekar, Ramanujam R.; Cole, Roger L.

    1997-01-01

    An air supply control system for selectively supplying ambient air, oxygen enriched air and nitrogen enriched air to an intake of an internal combustion engine includes an air mixing chamber that is in fluid communication with the air intake. At least a portion of the ambient air flowing to the mixing chamber is selectively diverted through a secondary path that includes a selectively permeable air separating membrane device due a differential pressure established across the air separating membrane. The permeable membrane device separates a portion of the nitrogen in the ambient air so that oxygen enriched air (permeate) and nitrogen enriched air (retentate) are produced. The oxygen enriched air and the nitrogen enriched air can be selectively supplied to the mixing chamber or expelled to atmosphere. Alternatively, a portion of the nitrogen enriched air can be supplied through another control valve to a monatomic-nitrogen plasma generator device so that atomic nitrogen produced from the nitrogen enriched air can be then injected into the exhaust of the engine. The oxygen enriched air or the nitrogen enriched air becomes mixed with the ambient air in the mixing chamber and then the mixed air is supplied to the intake of the engine. As a result, the air being supplied to the intake of the engine can be regulated with respect to the concentration of oxygen and/or nitrogen.

  5. Are uranium reserves adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Against a backdrop of growing concerns about global warming and geopolitical pressures on fossil energies, especially natural gas and oil, interest in nuclear power has revived considerably. Conscious of its addiction to oil and reeling from a series of gigantic blackouts, the United States, in the words of its president, must 'aggressively move forward with the construction of nuclear power plants'. Some European countries have approved new power plant construction (Finland and France), while the more reserved ones (Belgium, Germany and Sweden) have begun to show a change in attitude. Asia, meanwhile, is host to the planet's largest number of potential nuclear construction projects in this first half of the 21. century. All these signs point to a sharp rise in uranium consumption, the basic fuel for these plants. But are there enough resources to support a nuclear revival on a planetary scale? The publication of the Red Book on uranium in late May 2006 was an opportunity for Thierry Dujardin, Deputy Director of Science and Development at the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency, to take stock of resources. He gives his opinion in this paper

  6. Water resources of the Red Lake Indian Reservation, northwestern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the Red Lake Indian Reservation Tribal Council, to evaluate the water resources of the contiguous Red Lake Indian Reservation. Water resources of the contiguous Red Lake Indian Reservation meet the present (1989) needs for potable supply and other household uses. In addition, they provide ecological, recreational, and aesthetic benefits.

  7. World energy demands and coal reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Kovács

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the expected increase in the world’s population and taking the estimated improvement in both technology and living standards into account, the paper forecasts energy demands. In 2000, actual energy consumption was 380-400 EJ.year-1, the forecast for the year 2050 is 600-1,050 EJ.year-1, while for the year 2100 it is 900-3,600 EJ.year-1. On the basis of the expected shares of the different fuels (coal, mineral oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, renewable energies, it can be assumed that in 2050 coal demand will be between 122-200 EJ.year-1 while the total coal demand for the 45 years ahead is estimated to be 5,500-6,900 EJ.year-1. This rate of demand basically involves an approximately 2 % increase every year.On the basis of data in relevant literature, the world’s coal reserves are: the industrial coal reserve is 800-1,000 · 109 tons, the geological stock is 5-15 1012 tons and the expected stock is 8-35 1012 tons. The world’s industrial coal reserve (which is economically exploitable at the present technological level guarantees supply for 200 years while the detected geological stock guarantees supply for a round 1,000 years.

  8. Sustaining the Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-01

    assure continued access during bankrupcy, mergers and acqusition , the DoD should consider negotiating longer term (multi year, multiple year contracts...number of mergers and acquisitions as carriers sought to increase the scope of their networks. There were also some major carrier failures as the

  9. Implementing Smart Cards into the Air Force Reserve

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McClannan, Keith

    2001-01-01

    Smart card technology is essentially about a credit card with a brain. Smart cards have an embedded microchip that allows the card to hold digital data up to the available memory installed on the card...

  10. Implementing Smart Cards into the Air Force Reserve

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McClannan, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Smart card technology is essentially about a credit card with a brain, Smart cards have an embedded microchip that allows the card to hold digital data up to the available memory installed on the card...

  11. Suitability of Missions for the Air Force Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Antenna Systems 116 9.2 123 6.9 1C21 Combat Control 492 9.2 35 6.1 3 1.7 1A81 Airborne Crypto Language Anal 1,365 8.9 79 5.2 28...requirements, represented by the RAP in the case of the F-16 and comparable currency and proficiency requirements for mobility units. Deployment demand and

  12. Discontinuous Mode Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagadinos, John; Poulos, Ethel

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses the changes made to a standard push-pull inverter circuit to avoid saturation effects in the main inverter power supply. Typically, in a standard push-pull arrangement, the unsymmetrical primary excitation causes variations in the volt second integral of each half of the excitation cycle that could lead to the establishment of DC flux density in the magnetic core, which could eventually cause saturation of the main inverter transformer. The relocation of the filter reactor normally placed across the output of the power supply solves this problem. The filter reactor was placed in series with the primary circuit of the main inverter transformer, and is presented as impedance against the sudden changes on the input current. The reactor averaged the input current in the primary circuit, avoiding saturation of the main inverter transformer. Since the implementation of the described change, the above problem has not reoccurred, and failures in the main power transistors have been avoided.

  13. High voltage power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruitberg, A. P.; Young, K. M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage power supply is formed by three discrete circuits energized by a battery to provide a plurality of concurrent output signals floating at a high output voltage on the order of several tens of kilovolts. In the first two circuits, the regulator stages are pulse width modulated and include adjustable ressistances for varying the duty cycles of pulse trains provided to corresponding oscillator stages while the third regulator stage includes an adjustable resistance for varying the amplitude of a steady signal provided to a third oscillator stage. In the first circuit, the oscillator, formed by a constant current drive network and a tuned resonant network included a step up transformer, is coupled to a second step up transformer which, in turn, supplies an amplified sinusoidal signal to a parallel pair of complementary poled rectifying, voltage multiplier stages to generate the high output voltage.

  14. Natural gas supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-10-01

    This article comments data about the share of natural gas in the energy demand in Europe, about the uses of natural gas by different sectors (housing and office buildings, electricity production, and industry) in Europe, and about gas European imports and about gas supply origins. Graphs are displaying the evolution of energy demand in some European countries between 1990 and 2006 and for different energy sources (natural gas, coal, oil, primary energy, and renewable energies), the evolution of gas production and consumption in different countries of the European Union between 1990 and 2006, and gas import origins in the European Union in 2006. Gas pipeline projects between gas producing countries and Europe are briefly presented, and the development of liquefied natural gas is briefly commented and outlined as a contribution to supply diversification

  15. Electricity supply in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    Electric power was introduced in Denmark in 1891. Recently, the development of the Danish electricity supply industry has been influenced by a number of political measures aiming at a cleaner environment. The booklet gives a general introduction to the industry in Denmark. It reflects the actual supply situation and looks at the future as well as giving a survey of the historical and political background. In addition to relevant statistics, brief information is given on national energy balance, consumption, costs and pricing, distribution and transmission, end-use efficiency, electric power generation, imports and exports, wind power, cogeneration and district heating, pollutive emission, planning and Danish energy policy. There is also a list of useful addresses. (AB)

  16. Towards Intelligent Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur; Møller, Charles

    2012-01-01

    applied to the context of organizational processes can increase the success rate of business operations. The framework is created using a set of theoretical based constructs grounded in a discussion across several streams of research including psychology, pedagogy, artificial intelligence, learning...... of deploying inapt operations leading to deterioration of profits. To address this problem, we propose a unified business process design framework based on the paradigm of intelligence. Intelligence allows humans and human-designed systems cope with environmental volatility, and we argue that its principles......, business process management and supply chain management. It outlines a number of system tasks combined in four integrated management perspectives: build, execute, grow and innovate, put forward as business process design propositions for Intelligent Supply Chains....

  17. Supply Chain Interoperability Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-19

    International Journal of Production Economics 85 (2): 199-215. Dumond, E. J. 1994. Making best use of... International Journal of Production Economics 87 (3) (2/18): 333-47. Gunasekaran, A., H. J. Williams, and R. E. McGaughey. 2005. Performance measurement...supply chain quality management and its relevance to academic and industrial practice. International Journal of Production Economics 96 : 315-37.

  18. Natural gas supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After having briefly commented the share of natural gas in the primary consumed energy in Europe and in France, and the reasons for its evolution, this document highlights that gas is mainly used for heating, electricity production and industrial purposes, that Europe possesses limited gas resources and must therefore rely on importations. It comments the diversification of supply sources, evokes new gas-pipeline projects between Europe and producer countries (mainly Russia), and briefly comments the development of liquefied natural gas

  19. Supply chain finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasavica Petar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of supply chain finance is a response to global illiquidity, intensified through the global economic crisis and globalization of commercial and financial flows. The growing illiquidity undermines credit ratings of economic entities, thereby reducing the potential for achieving the projected goals (profitability and portfolio quality. In order to overcome this, banks have introduced certain products flexible to the requirements of specific transactions. The concerned products redirect the focus from a client's credit rating and risk to the credit rating and risk of a business partner (buyer, resulting in benefits for all transaction participants ('win-win-win'. Moreover, the activities are targeted at transaction analysis, i.e. the isolation and protection of the cash flow as the source of financial instrument's repayment. On the other hand, there has been an increasing number of transactions based on the risk of the commercial bank of the client's business partner, or on the risk of collateral (inventory. The focus is actually placed on the financing of adequate supply chain stages, given that counterparty relationship management has been proven to be crucial for efficient management of one's own business. The tensions existing in the relations between partners (increasingly long payment deadlines are in the basis of the supply chain finance concept. Decisions made by banks are based on the entire supply chain (wide information basis, thereby shifting the focus from the product (as was the case before the crisis to the client's needs. Thus, decisions become increasingly comprehensive, quicker, and more precise, and portfolios less risky. Through the individual portfolio of banks, the market of national economies also becomes safer and more liquid. These are rather profitable transactions, because, due to the risk transfer, financing is enabled to companies to whom classic crediting in most cases is not available.

  20. 40 CFR 63.141-63.142 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater §§ 63.141-63.142 [Reserved] ...

  1. 40 CFR 63.124-63.125 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater §§ 63.124-63.125 [Reserved] ...

  2. Self contained compressed air breathing apparatus to facilitate personnel decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.W.

    1963-11-01

    This report describes the modification of a Self Contained Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus to provide extended respiratory protection to grossly contaminated personnel during a decontamination period which may exceed the duration of the Breathing Apparatus air supply. (author)

  3. 24 CFR 3280.715 - Circulating air systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... applied only to surfaces that are dry and dust-, dirt-, oil-, and grease-free. Tapes and mastic closure..., Factory Made Air Ducts and Connectors. Air supply terminal devices (registers) when installed in kitchen...

  4. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration Supply Chain Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lettice, Fiona; Durowoju, Olatunde

    2012-01-01

    Effective supply chain integration, and the tight co-ordination it creates, is an essential pre-requisite for successful supply chain management.  Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration is a practical reference on recent research in the area of supply chain integration focusing on distributed decision-making problems. Recent applications of various decision-making tools for integrating supply chains are covered including chapters focusing on: •Supplier selection, pricing strategy and inventory decisions in multi-level supply chains, •RFID-enabled distributed decision-making, •Operational risk issues and time-critical decision-making for sensitive logistics nodes, Modelling end to end processes to improve supply chain integration, and •Integrated systems to improve service delivery and optimize resource use. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration provides an insight into the tools and methodologies of this field with support from real-life case studies demonstrating successful application ...

  5. The design of supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge Sørensen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Keywords Supply Chain Management, Supply Chain Design, Literature studyAbstract Argues stability is a design objective for supply chain design alongside cost, leadtime and responsiveness. Performs an extensive literature study on supply chain design,identifies methods, theories and objectives...... in the existing literature. Describes the conceptexternal specificity and how it's used to design supply chains. Using the concept upstream,archetypes of risk minimal and maximal design are identified. Downstream the conceptdescribes two viable scenarios, one minimizing the impact, the other minimizing...... theprobability of (intended) departure of a supply chain partner. Finally, principles for supplychain design are described and managerial outlined....

  6. Safety-related control air systems - approved 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    This standard applies to those portions of the control air system that furnish air required to support, control, or operate systems or portions of systems that are safety related in nuclear power plants. This standard relates only to the air supply system(s) for safety-related air operated devices and does not apply to the safety-related air operated device or to air operated actuators for such devices. The objectives of this standard are to provide (1) minimum system design requirements for equipment, piping, instruments, controls, and wiring that constitute the air supply system; and (2) the system and component testing and maintenance requirements

  7. Poster Puzzler Solution: Taking in Air | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current Poster Puzzler image shows the top of Building 560, where a new supply air handler was recently installed by Facilities Maintenance and Engineering (FME) staff, as part of lab renovations in wing 1, floor 1. FME staff enlarged the attic of the building to make space for the air handler. Building 560, the largest building at the NCI at Frederick campus, houses about 120 labs and has 19 air handlers. A supply air handler draws in outside air, filters it, cools or heats it, and adjusts the humidity to provide clean conditioned air to the laboratories. The Building 560 air handler weighs approximately 22,500 pounds and moves 22,000 cubic feet of air per minute.

  8. Port supply chain integration : analyzing biofuel supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Leonie C. E.; Vis, Iris F. A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on port supply chain integration to strengthen operational and business performance. We provide a structured and comprehensive method to enable port supply chain integration and demonstrate its applicability to the biofuel supply chain. We define the value proposition, role,

  9. Zero Carryover Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Solar Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowenstein, A.; Slayzak, S.; Kozubal, E.

    2006-07-01

    A novel liquid-desiccant air conditioner that dries and cools building supply air will transform the use of direct-contact liquid-desiccant systems in HVAC applications, improving comfort, air quality, and providing energy-efficient humidity control.

  10. Bavarian air monitoring system (LUEB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The LUEB has been set up for the purpose of monitoring atmopsheric pollutants and their cumulative effect on ecological subsystems. The stationary measuring points record the long-term effects of air pollution by means of biological indicators and supply short-term information on air quality and on the local meteorological conditions. In addition, there are vehicles for air pollution measurement which cover different measuring points as specified in the TA Luft (Technical Rule for Air Pollution Abatement). The measured data are evaluated by statistical methods. (orig.) [de

  11. Exploring the economic consequences of letting a supplier hold reserve storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abginehchi, Soheil; Larsen, Christian; Thorstenson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    We consider a single-item, periodic review inventory control problem with discrete non-stationary stochastic demand. The time horizon is finite and all shortages at the downstream level are backordered. There are two modes of supply: a normal supplier and a reserve storage supply. The reserve...

  12. Twenty Years of AIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Perniola

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available About two decades ago, cloning of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE gene materialized one of the most important actors on the scene of self-tolerance. Thymic transcription of genes encoding tissue-specific antigens (ts-ags is activated by AIRE protein and embodies the essence of thymic self-representation. Pathogenic AIRE variants cause the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1, which is a rare and complex disease that is gaining attention in research on autoimmunity. The animal models of disease, although not identically reproducing the human picture, supply fundamental information on mechanisms and extent of AIRE action: thanks to its multidomain structure, AIRE localizes to chromatin enclosing the target genes, binds to histones, and offers an anchorage to multimolecular complexes involved in initiation and post-initiation events of gene transcription. In addition, AIRE enhances mRNA diversity by favoring alternative mRNA splicing. Once synthesized, ts-ags are presented to, and cause deletion of the self-reactive thymocyte clones. However, AIRE function is not restricted to the activation of gene transcription. AIRE would control presentation and transfer of self-antigens for thymic cellular interplay: such mechanism is aimed at increasing the likelihood of engagement of the thymocytes that carry the corresponding T-cell receptors. Another fundamental role of AIRE in promoting self-tolerance is related to the development of thymocyte anergy, as thymic self-representation shapes at the same time the repertoire of regulatory T cells. Finally, AIRE seems to replicate its action in the secondary lymphoid organs, albeit the cell lineage detaining such property has not been fully characterized. Delineation of AIRE functions adds interesting data to the knowledge of the mechanisms of self-tolerance and introduces exciting perspectives of therapeutic interventions against the related diseases.

  13. Essays on sustainable supply management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, H.R.

    2014-01-01

    The growing concern for organizations’ social responsibility and sustainable behavior has been accompanied by considerable awareness of how organizations manage their supply chains. For many organizations, a large proportion of their sustainability impact comes from their inbound supply chain, an

  14. Modular High Voltage Power Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, Matthew R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-18

    The goal of this project is to develop a modular high voltage power supply that will meet the needs of safeguards applications and provide a modular plug and play supply for use with standard electronic racks.

  15. Microbiological contamination of compressed air used in dentistry: an investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, M; Lynch, R M; Robson, M G

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this preliminary investigation was twofold: 1) to examine the possibility of cross-contamination between a dental-evacuation system and the compressed air used in dental operatories and 2) to capture and identify the most common microflora in the compressed-air supply. The investigation used swab, water, and air sampling that was designed to track microorganisms from the evacuation system, through the air of the mechanical room, into the compressed-air system, and back to the patient. Samples taken in the vacuum system, the air space in the mechanical room, and the compressed-air storage tank had significantly higher total concentrations of bacteria than the outside air sampled. Samples of the compressed air returning to the operatory were found to match the outside air sample in total bacteria. It was concluded that the air dryer may have played a significant role in the elimination of microorganisms from the dental compressed-air supply.

  16. Automated Medical Supply Chain Management: A Remedy for Logistical Shortcomings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    AU/ACSC/2016 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE DISTANCE LEARNING AIR UNIVERSITY AUTOMATED MEDICAL SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT: A REMEDY FOR...Technology Workflow,” 18 November 2011, accessed 10 July 2016, http://www.mobileaspects.com/ blog /2011/11/18/evaluating-tissue-tracking- technology-solutions...Technology Workflow. November 18, 2011. http://www.mobileaspects.com/ blog /2011/11/18/evaluating-tissue-tracking-technology- solutions-part-2

  17. Assessment of renewable energy reserves in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Falin; Lu, Shyi-Min; Tseng, Kuo-Tung; Wang, Eric; Lee, Si-Chen

    2010-01-01

    Since Taiwan imports more than 99% of energy supply from foreign countries, energy security has always been the first priority for government to formulate energy policy. The development of renewable energy not only contributes to the independence of energy supply, but also achieves benefits of economic development and environmental protection. Based upon information available to public, the present paper reassesses reserves of various renewable energies in Taiwan. The assessment includes seven kinds of renewable energies, namely, solar energy, wind power, biomass energy, wave energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy and hydropower, which are all commercialized and matured in terms of current technologies. Other renewable energies, which have not proven as matured as the aforementioned ones, are only assessed preliminarily in this paper, such as second generation of biomass, deep geothermal energy, the Kuroshio power generation and ocean thermal energy conversion. According to the estimation of this paper, the reserve of wind energy, up to 29.9 kWh/d/p (i.e., kWh per day per person), is the largest one among seven kinds of renewable energies in Taiwan, followed by 24.27 kWh/d/p of solar energy, 4.55 kWh/d/p of biomass, 4.58 kWh/d/p of ocean energy, 0.67 kWh/d/p of geothermal energy and 16.79 kWh/d/p of hydropower. If regarding biomass as a primary energy, and assuming 40% being the average efficiency to convert primary energy into electricity, the total power of the seven kinds of renewable energy reserves is about 78.03 kWh/d/p, which is equal to 2.75 times of 28.35 kWh/d/p of national power generation in 2008. If the reserves of 54.93 kWh/d/p estimated from other four kinds of renewable energies that have not technically matured yet are also taken into account, it will result that the reserves of renewable energy in Taiwan can be quite abundant. Although the results of the assessment point out that Taiwan has abundant renewable energy resources, the four inherent

  18. EISA Section 526: Impacts on DESC Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    in Venezuela’s Orinoco Belt (a band of oil deposited roughly beneath the Orinoco River ). Estimates of recover- able reserves in this belt range from...Chapter 4 COSRC Supply and Availability The main deposits of Canadian oil sands are located in Athabasca, Peace River , and Cold Lake in the province of...capable of recovering 20–25 percent of the oil in place. It is commonly used to extract heavy oil from the Kern River formation in California. Toe

  19. Endogeneity Of Indonesian Money Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Rachma, Meutia Safrina

    2010-01-01

    There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5)-2010(6), the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not hav...

  20. Supply Chain Dynamics in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Banomyong

    2009-01-01

    Supply chain management in Asia is a relatively novel topic but a key challenge for all Asian based manufacturers and traders when trying to integrate into the "global market". The purpose of the paper is to describe key supply chain issues faced in Asia. These issues are related to supply chain security that forces Asian firms to comply with numerous requirements as well as the importance of a properly managed supply chain in enhancing firms' competitiveness. The critical role played by Asia...

  1. Environmentally conscious supply chain design

    OpenAIRE

    Altmann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability has become a critical topic in all areas of supply chain management. As discussed earlier, drivers for this development can be identified as both internal and external phenomena. Since customers are one of the key stakeholders in supply chain management, special attention is paid to the impact of costumers´ behavior on sustainable supply chain design decisions. In this context, two main research questions were analyzed: 1.What is the appropriate way to design a supply chain...

  2. Energy discharge heater power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskierny, W.

    1992-11-01

    The heater power supply is intended to supply capacitively stored,energy to embedded heater strips in cryo magnets. The amount of energy can be controlled by setting different charge different capacitor values. Two chassis' can be operated in series or interlocks are provided. The charge voltage, number of capacitors pulse can be monitored. There and dual channel has two discharge supplies in one chassis. This report reviews the characteristics of this power supply further

  3. ENDOGENEITY OF INDONESIAN MONEY SUPPLY

    OpenAIRE

    Rachma, Meutia Safrina

    2011-01-01

    There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5)-2010(6), the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not hav...

  4. Detox fashion supply chain

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This first volume on detox fashion discusses various interesting topics including a Toxic-Free Supply Chain for Textiles and Clothing; Environmental Issues in Textiles; Global Regulations, Restrictions & Research; Making the Change: Consumer Adoption of Sustainable Fashion; and Strategies for Detoxing Your Wardrobe. It provides an overview of the chemical-related issues confronting the fashion sector, summarizes global regulations, and discusses how to make the change by changing consumers’ attitude towards adopting sustainable fashion, as well as the best strategies for detoxing our wardrobes.

  5. Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng Olesen, Thomas

    The value chains for offshore oil and gas and offshore wind are both basically driven by the demand for energy. This is heavily dependent on a number of factors including the price of various energy sources and the policy making of the states which influence legislation, indirect subsidies...... and direct investments. At the center of both value chains are the energy companies. The energy companies have a number of suppliers and sub suppliers which provide a range of equipment and services to the offshore operations. The supply industry is characterized by horizontal cooperation (between suppliers...

  6. Water supply and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piacek, P.

    1987-01-01

    Experience is described with the operation of the water supply, the chemical water treatment systems and the unit condensate treatment at the V-2 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice. The technology is described which is applied to obtain raw water from the Slnava water reservoir and the respective technological system for its treatment is described. Also described are the treatment of the make-up water for the primary and secondary coolant circuits, demineralization, regeneration of ion exchange filters, neutralization of regeneration waste, sludge dewatering and the treatment of steam turbine condensates. (B.S.)

  7. EEC's: natural uramium supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The demand for nuclear fuel to supply the nuclear plants within the ECC (31,200 MW at the end of last year) totalled nearly 9,600 tons of natural uranium and 4,900 of separation work units (SWU). Once reactors currently under construction come into service, the demand for natural uranium will reach 13,200 tons by 1985 and that for SWUs to 8,600. If one takes the years 1981 to 1985, total natural uranium needs during this period will be 56,300 tons and those for SWUs 35.100 [fr

  8. Food and water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  9. Energy supply in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidou Ni; Niendak Sze

    1995-01-01

    Coal is the main primary energy source in China. How to use coal cleanly and efficiently is the extremely important problem in China. Energy conservation and technology innovation are the key measures for mitigation of the pressure of energy supply. Import of energy (petroleum, LNG and high calorific coal) is inevitable. China has quite abundant energy resources, but the energy resource per capita is rather low. Because of the structure of industry and backwardness of technology, the energy consumption per unit GNP is also very low

  10. Environmental Retail Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzab, Herbert; Munch, Hilde; de Faultrier, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    been undertaken through an investigative approach applying a web-scan framework which included the analysis of web sites and publicly published documents such as annual reports and corporate social responsibility reports. Findings – The authors identified 34 environmental sustainability initiatives...... which were grouped into eight categories; they refer to “fundamental environmental attitude”, “use of energy”, “use of input material”, “product”, “packaging”, “transport”, “consumption” and “waste”. The level of environmental supply chain management can be characterised as very operational and very...

  11. Meeting Ontario's electricity supply challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between nuclear generation and other existing power generation, with particular reference to the natural gas industry. The aim of the paper was to present a rationale for an extensive nuclear restart in the near future in Ontario. An energy forecast was provided, generating capacity requirements were examined, with particular reference to requirements beyond conservation and renewable energy supplies. The cost effectiveness of nuclear rehabilitation was compared to combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT) in terms of capital and non-fuel costs. Future prospects of gas prices were discussed, as well as the possibilities of demand outstripping supply. CCGT costs were compared to nuclear rehabilitation in terms of overall electricity prices, including capital, non-fuel operating costs and fuel costs. Steps towards making the nuclear option a reality included a sustainable market environment; clear policy framework; a balanced energy mix; long term price certainty; and clear regulatory requirements. In was concluded that in order to regenerate its potential, the nuclear industry must demonstrate world class project management; fixed scope; fixed supplier prices; program commitment; guarantees; and realistic future production estimates. It was also concluded that nuclear restart and life extension was an extremely attractive option for consumers, offering long term stable competitive power, with fuel diversity and future reserves as well as zero greenhouse gas emissions and an optimization and use of existing facilities. Challenges in creating the right climate for nuclear rehabilitation were the difficulties in making the nuclear option attractive to investors as well as developing correct estimation of project times, costs, and scopes and allocation of project risks. tabs., figs

  12. Food supply reliance on groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Puma, Michael; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Water resources, essential to sustain human life, livelihoods and ecosystems, are under increasing pressure from population growth, socio-economic development and global climate change. As the largest freshwater resource on Earth, groundwater is key for human development and food security. Yet, excessive abstraction of groundwater for irrigation, driven by an increasing demand for food in recent decades, is leading to fast exhaustion of groundwater reserves in major agricultural areas of the world. Some of the highest depletion rates are observed in Pakistan, India, California Central Valley and the North China Plain aquifers. In addition, the growing economy and population of several countries, such as India and China, makes prospects of future available water and food worrisome. In this context, it is becoming particularly challenging to sustainably feed the world population, without exhausting our water resources. Besides, food production and consumption across the globe have become increasingly interconnected, with many areas' agricultural production destined to remote consumers. In this globalisation era, trade is crucial to the world's food system. As a transfer of water-intensive goods, across regions with varying levels of water productivity, food trade can save significant volumes of water resources globally. This situation makes it essential to address the issue of groundwater overuse for global food supply, accounting for international food trade. To do so, we quantify the current, global use of non-renewable groundwater for major crops, accounting for various water productivity and trade flows. This will highlight areas requiring quickest attention, exposing major exporters and importers of non-renewable groundwater, and thus help explore solutions to improve the sustainability of global food supply.

  13. Power Supply PP-6418( )/U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The power supply , designated POWER SUPPLY PP-6418( )/U, furnishes 0-100 amperes DC over an output voltage range of 24 to 32V DC from a nominal 120...output at end of charge. (Modified constant potential charging mode with variable current limiting.) The high reliability power supply design

  14. Designing structural supply chain flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulinski, Ksawery Jan

    2012-01-01

    In a continuously changing business environment the role of supply chain flexibility is constantly increasing. A flexible supply chain can ensure survival in quickly changing market conditions as well as enable sustainable growth. This thesis explores the topic of supply chain flexibility with focus

  15. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... meeting the following requirements: (1) With the vehicle in a stationary position, compressed air reserve... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem. The following requirements apply to vehicles with air brake and air-over-hydraulic...

  16. Supply and demand perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trienekens, Pieter

    1999-01-01

    The outlook for the European gas market is one of steady growth. This growth will manifest itself in all regions and in all sectors of the market, but most strongly in the power generating sector. To meet future demand, it is necessary to bring gas to Western Europe from remote sources in Russia, North Africa and Norway. These new gas supplies require heavy investments in production and transportation, which can only be undertaken on the basis of long-term take-or-pay contracts. Famous examples of such contracts are the development of the Troll field, the Yamal-Europe pipeline connection, and the bringing on stream of Nigerian LNG for Europe. Tensions are likely to arise between the nature of these long-term gas contracts and the dynamic nature of demand in the gas market, and more specifically in the main growth market, the power sector. The presentation further elaborates on the tensions underlying supply and demand in the years to come

  17. Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012; Koci, Joel; Harris, Roger; Sevebeck, Kathryn P.; Alleman, Dawn; Swanson, Lynette

    2009-01-01

    This publication reviews the major phytotoxic air pollutants, in decreasing order of severity, they include oxidants, sulfur dioxide, and particulates. Topics also include the connection between weather and air pollution and a section on diagnosing air pollution damage to trees.

  18. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  19. The design of supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge Sørensen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    in the existing literature. Describes the conceptexternal specificity and how it's used to design supply chains. Using the concept upstream,archetypes of risk minimal and maximal design are identified. Downstream the conceptdescribes two viable scenarios, one minimizing the impact, the other minimizing......Keywords Supply Chain Management, Supply Chain Design, Literature studyAbstract Argues stability is a design objective for supply chain design alongside cost, leadtime and responsiveness. Performs an extensive literature study on supply chain design,identifies methods, theories and objectives...

  20. Practical switching power supply design

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Martin C

    1990-01-01

    Take the ""black magic"" out of switching power supplies with Practical Switching Power Supply Design! This is a comprehensive ""hands-on"" guide to the theory behind, and design of, PWM and resonant switching supplies. You'll find information on switching supply operation and selecting an appropriate topology for your application. There's extensive coverage of buck, boost, flyback, push-pull, half bridge, and full bridge regulator circuits. Special attention is given to semiconductors used in switching supplies. RFI/EMI reduction, grounding, testing, and safety standards are also deta

  1. The uranium supply strategy of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, S.

    2014-01-01

    Currently there are 28 units of nuclear power plants (NPPs) under construction in China. Most of these plants will be put into operation sequentially in a couple years. The paper will present the operational and construction status of NPPs in China. As the reactor fleet increases, the requirement for uranium will also substantially increase. Due to declining air quality, as atmospheric pollution spreads rapidly from northern parts to southern parts of China, the option to develop nuclear power has become the highest priority. Uranium demand will be the key to support the expanded nuclear power in the future. Current and future requirements of uranium and the envisaged supply strategy will be discussed. Domestic production is seen as one of the channels to meet the increased requirement. As the uranium price remain low, there will be limited the expansion of domestic production in the short term. The exploration of economic resources is being promoted. Decreasing production costs is mandated in operations due to low uranium prices at present. Development of overseas uranium resources is another channel to supply for the NPPs. Through acquisition of uranium mining projects, advanced uranium projects and exploration projects, China can meet the requirement of NPPs in the long-term. Joint venture partnership is also flexible option for developing uranium resources overseas. Purchasing uranium in the market is the third option. Complementing the supply by domestic production and overseas development, purchase of uranium product in the market is a simple and easy option. Advantages and disadvantages of these three channels and how these can be combined into an integrated strategy of supply and the proprotionate weightage of each channel for the potential future supply of uranium to the NNP fleet will be discussed. (author)

  2. 40 CFR 86.238-94-86.239-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.238-94-86.239-94 Section 86.238-94-86.239-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures §§ 86.238-94—86.239-94 [Reserved] ...

  3. 40 CFR 86.233-94-86.234-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.233-94-86.234-94 Section 86.233-94-86.234-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures §§ 86.233-94—86.234-94 [Reserved] ...

  4. ENDOGENEITY OF INDONESIAN MONEY SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meutia Safrina Rachma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5-2010(6, the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not have control power on money supply. The bank is only able to maintain the stability and control the movement of broad money supply. Keywords: Endogenous variable, money supply, vector autoregressionJEL classification numbers: E51, E52, E58

  5. AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF A FOOD SECURITY COMMODITY RESERVE: COMMODITY VS. CASH

    OpenAIRE

    Young, C. Edwin; Westcott, Paul C.; Hoffman, Linwood A.; Lin, William W.; Rosen, Stacey L.

    1999-01-01

    The cost of operating the Food Security Commodity Reserve as a commodity reserve was compared with the cost of a cash reserve to purchase food aid supplies only in the period of need. Preliminary simulation results reveal the cash reserve to be less costly in almost all cases.

  6. Massachusetts Study of Teacher Supply and Demand: Trends and Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jesse; Berg-Jacobson, Alex; Atchison, Drew; Lee, Katelyn; Vontsolos, Emily

    2015-01-01

    In April 2015, the Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (ESE) commissioned American Institutes for Research (AIR) to develop a comprehensive set of 10-year projections of teacher supply and demand in order to inform planning for future workforce needs. This included state-level projections both in the aggregate, as well…

  7. Oklahoma Study of Educator Supply and Demand: Trends and Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg-Jacobson, Alex; Levin, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    In June 2014, the Oklahoma State Regents of Higher Education (OSRHE) commissioned American Institutes for Research (AIR) to conduct a study to better understand both historical and future predicted trends of educator supply and demand across Oklahoma. OSRHE commissioned the study in partnership with the Oklahoma Commission for Teacher Preparation…

  8. Ecosystem service markets 101: supply and demand for nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza; Jeff Kline; Trista Patterson

    2012-01-01

    Establishing markets for ecosystem services—the benefits that nature provides, such as clean air, water, and wildlife habitat—has gained traction in some circles as a way to finance the conservation of these public goods. Market influences on supply and demand work in tandem to encourage ecosystem protection. Jeff Kline and Trista Patterson, scientists with the...

  9. Assessment of domestic water supply situation in rural communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water is needed by man for the sustenance of life and it is the second most important natural resource used by man after the air were breathe. Man survives longer without food than without water. The socio-economic development of man is determined partly by the availability of water. The supply of safe pipe-borne water in ...

  10. Power Supply Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The Cuk DC to DC Switching Converter was developed by Caltech Professors, Slobodan Cuk and R. D. Middlebrook. The converter changes unsuitable dc voltage into one or more voltages suitable for powering electronic equipment; it can also be used in converting dc current to ac and vice versa. It was named one of the 100 most significant technical advances of 1979. The Cuk converter is more efficient than previous conversion devices, simpler, smaller, lighter, cheaper and highly reliable. The first application of the technology is in the Compucorp 685 word/data processor, manufactured by Compucorp. NASA waived title rights; Caltech granted exclusive license to the inventors, who in turn, transferred their rights to a company they founded called TESLA Company, which sublicenses the converter design and related technology to companies making power supplies for use in their own products.

  11. Switching power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalka, A.M.

    1984-06-05

    The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.

  12. Supply chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snieckus, Darius

    2000-01-01

    'Logic' (Leading Oil and Gas Industry Competitiveness) is a government-industry supply chain management initiative which aims to improve the competitiveness of the UK's North Sea business by 1 billion UK pounds by 2002 and its export performance by 50% inside 5 years. Much of the article is devoted to the background and views of Logic's chief executive Chris. Freeman. Freeman makes clear that 'unlike Crine, we are not a cost-reduction initiative: that may be one of the outcomes, but we are really focusing on the co-operation side of things'. Logic aims to change the culture of the UK offshore industry through example. Freeman believes that the creation of collaborative success will flag up industry and give credence to Logics objectives

  13. NNSA TRITIUM SUPPLY CHAIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrick, Steven [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC, USA; Cordaro, Joseph [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC, USA; Founds, Nanette [National Nuclear Security Administration, Albuquerque, NM, USA; Chambellan, Curtis [National Nuclear Security Administration, Albuquerque, NM, USA

    2013-08-21

    Savannah River Site plays a critical role in the Tritium Production Supply Chain for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The entire process includes: • Production of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods (TPBARs) at the Westinghouse WesDyne Nuclear Fuels Plant in Columbia, South Carolina • Production of unobligated Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) at the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) in Portsmouth, Ohio • Irradiation of TPBARs with the LEU at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Watts Bar Reactor • Extraction of tritium from the irradiated TPBARs at the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) at Savannah River Site • Processing the tritium at the Savannah River Site, which includes removal of nonhydrogen species and separation of the hydrogen isotopes of protium, deuterium and tritium.

  14. FY 1977 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Research and development of solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply (Research and development of systems for large buildings); 1977 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Ogata kenchikubutsuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-31

    This project is aimed at development of (1) devices for solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply, and (2) low-cost, safe systems incorporating the above devices, which are easily inspected and maintained, in which optimum buildings for effective utilization of solar energy are also investigated. Precision of the system analysis is improved by feeding back the results obtained by the basic studies conducted so far into the simulation. The technical supports for commercialization of heat collectors, refrigerators, heat-storage tanks and radiation type ceilings are also obtained. These results are combined for the designs of a real-size test building. In this year, works to install the facilities in the Oita University's test building are completed. These facilities include 40 units of large-size heat collectors (each approximately 2 m by 7.5 m in size); an absorption refrigerator of 30 uSRT in which single- and double-effect systems are combined; 2 piston-flow type heat-storage tanks, each 45 m{sup 3} in capacity; and others including analyzer, associated piping, duct, instrumentation and electrical systems. The test runs are conducted for the control systems, and long- and short-term instrumentation systems to draw the test schedules for optimizing the full-scale runs to be conducted in the next year. The operating and instrumentation manuals, and operating schedules are also drawn. (NEDO)

  15. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  16. Analysing biomass torrefaction supply chain costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanberg, Martin; Olofsson, Ingemar; Flodén, Jonas; Nordin, Anders

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop a techno-economic system model to evaluate how logistics and production parameters affect the torrefaction supply chain costs under Swedish conditions. The model consists of four sub-models: (1) supply system, (2) a complete energy and mass balance of drying, torrefaction and densification, (3) investment and operating costs of a green field, stand-alone torrefaction pellet plant, and (4) distribution system to the gate of an end user. The results show that the torrefaction supply chain reaps significant economies of scale up to a plant size of about 150-200 kiloton dry substance per year (ktonDS/year), for which the total supply chain costs accounts to 31.8 euro per megawatt hour based on lower heating value (€/MWhLHV). Important parameters affecting total cost are amount of available biomass, biomass premium, logistics equipment, biomass moisture content, drying technology, torrefaction mass yield and torrefaction plant capital expenditures (CAPEX). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adapting transport modes to supply chains classified by the uncertainty supply chain model: A case study at Manaus Industrial Pole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Lucena Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses transport modes supporting Uncertainty Supply Chain Model (USCM in the case of Manaus Industrial Pole (PIM, an industrial cluster in the Brazilian Amazon that hosts six hundred factories with diverse logistics and supply chain managerial strategies. USCM (Lee, 2002; Fisher, 1997develops a dot matrix classification of the supply chains considering several attributes (e.g., agility, cost, security, responsiveness and argues that emergent economies industrial clusters, in the effort to keep attractiveness for technological frontier firms, need to adapt supply chain strategies according to USCM attributes. The paper takes a further step, discussing which transport modes are suitable to each supply chain classified at the USCM in PIM´s case. The research´s methods covered the use of PIM´s statistical official database (secondary data, interviews with the main logistical services providers of PIM and phone survey with a sample of firms (primary data. Findings confirm the theoretical argument that different supply chains will demand different transport modes running at the same time in the same industrial cluster (Oliveira, 2009. In the case of PIM, this implies investments on port and airport infrastructure and a strategic focus on air transport mode, due to (1 short life cycle of products, (2 distance from suppliers, (3 quick response to demand and (4 the fact that even PIM´s standard products use, in average, forty per cent of air transport at inbound logistics.

  18. Developing sustainable food supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B Gail

    2008-02-27

    This paper reviews the opportunities available for food businesses to encourage consumers to eat healthier and more nutritious diets, to invest in more sustainable manufacturing and distribution systems and to develop procurement systems based on more sustainable forms of agriculture. The important factors in developing more sustainable supply chains are identified as the type of supply chain involved and the individual business attitude to extending responsibility for product quality into social and environmental performance within their own supply chains. Interpersonal trust and working to standards are both important to build more sustainable local and many conserved food supply chains, but inadequate to transform mainstream agriculture and raw material supplies to the manufactured and commodity food markets. Cooperation among food manufacturers, retailers, NGOs, governmental and farmers' organizations is vital in order to raise standards for some supply chains and to enable farmers to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices.

  19. Concurrent Product & Supply Chain Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gubi, Ebbe

    it is a structural premise. We also know that logistics costs generally are estimated 15-20% of total product costs. Accordingly, it stands to reason that a company can reduce costs, and thereby gain an edge on its competitors, by tailoring the supply chain in question to an individual product or product family; i......The purpose of this thesis is to increase the understanding of interplays between products and supply chains. In academia, there seem to be an acknowledgement that the nature of a given product has a major influence on the performance of the supply chain associated with it – for one.......e. by creating Focused Supply Chains. At the same time, customer satisfaction can be increased. As a second means to achieving a better fit between product and supply chain, the firm can deploy Design for Logistics, the discipline of considering the supply chain during product creation. The thesis sets out...

  20. SILVER ZINC MISSILE POWER SUPPLY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phase IIb, Task I of the Missile Power Supply which consists of development, fabrication and test of an 8500 watt battery-converter breadboard power ...001 are reported and analyzed. The progress of the work on the Missile Power Supply DC to DC converter breadboard is reported.... supply , was continued during the quarter ending September 30, 1967. The basic parameters used in the design of the 95 volt battery breadboard are

  1. A Case Study of the Degree of Collaboration Between Various Levels in the Reparable Chain in the United States Air Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Robert A., Jr

    2005-01-01

    .... Can these processes be applied to the Air Force supply chain? This thesis intends to examine the flows and relationships to identify opportunities Air Combat Command Regional Supply Squadron (ACCRSS...

  2. Estimating Swedish biomass energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, J.; Lundqvist, U.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass is suggested to supply an increasing amount of energy in Sweden. There have been several studies estimating the potential supply of biomass energy, including that of the Swedish Energy Commission in 1995. The Energy Commission based its estimates of biomass supply on five other analyses which presented a wide variation in estimated future supply, in large part due to differing assumptions regarding important factors. In this paper, these studies are assessed, and the estimated potential biomass energy supplies are discusses regarding prices, technical progress and energy policy. The supply of logging residues depends on the demand for wood products and is limited by ecological, technological, and economic restrictions. The supply of stemwood from early thinning for energy and of straw from cereal and oil seed production is mainly dependent upon economic considerations. One major factor for the supply of willow and reed canary grass is the size of arable land projected to be not needed for food and fodder production. Future supply of biomass energy depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities. Biomass energy has to compete with other energy sources as well as with alternative uses of biomass such as forest products and food production. Technical progress may decrease the costs of biomass energy and thus increase the competitiveness. Economic instruments, including carbon taxes and subsidies, and allocation of research and development resources, are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of biomass energy

  3. Economy of wood supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imponen, V.

    1993-01-01

    Research and development of wood fuels production was vigorous in the beginning of the 1980's. Techniques and working methods used in combined harvesting and transportation of energy and merchantable wood were developed in addition to separate energy wood delivery. After a ten year silent period the research on this field was started again. At present the underutilization of forest supplies and the environmental effects of energy production based on fossil fuels caused the rebeginning of the research. One alternative for reduction of the price of wood fuels at the utilization site is the integration of energy and merchantable wood deliveries together. Hence the harvesting and transportation devices can be operated effectively, and the organizational costs are decreased as well. The wood delivery costs consist of the stumpage price, the harvesting and transportation costs, and of general expenses. The stumpage price form the largest cost category (over 50 %) of the industrial merchantable wood delivery, and the harvesting and transportation costs in the case of thinningwood delivery. Forest transportation is the largest part of the delivery costs of logging residues. The general expenses, consisting of the management costs and the interest costs of the capital bound to the storages, form a remarkable cost category in delivery of low-rank wood for energy or conversion purposes. The costs caused by the harvesting of thinningwood, the logging residues, chipping and crushing, the lorry transportation are reviewed in this presentation

  4. Energy Storage Devices as Prime Power Supplies for Low Energy, High Voltage Marx Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-30

    ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES AS PRIME POWER SUPPLIES FOR LOW ENERGY , HIGH VOLTAGE MARX GENERATORS David Wetz University of Texas at Arlington...DISTRIBUTION IS UNLIMITED. AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY Directed Energy Directorate 3550 Aberdeen Ave SE AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND...30-09-2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Energy Storage Devices as Prime Power Supplies for Low Energy , High Voltage Marx Generators 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  5. Development growth of uranium reserves during mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroux, M.

    1989-01-01

    According to the 1988 issue of the Nuclear Energy Agency report 'Uranium Resources, Production and Demand' (the Red Book), total uranium resources remained constant, and compare with those given in the 1986 issue. However, the low cost category of the Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR), that is to say potentially mineable reserves under present market conditions, presents a different picture. These show a decrease of 54 000 tonnes U, or about 3.5%, from the 1 January 1985 level. It seems insignificant until compared with what was removed from the ground - only a quarter of the 71 500 tonnes U of the low cost uranium that was extracted during 1985 and 1986 was renewed by the industry. This is probably related to the low level of exploration activity since 1983. Moreover, new uranium might be not as easy to find as some past discoveries have led us to believe. While in 1988 it appears there is enough low cost uranium to supply existing reactors, the picture quickly changes. From 1991 onwards, for 30 years' supply for existing reactors, uranium will have to come from RAR in the higher cost category. (author)

  6. Supply of fossil heating and motor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaegi, W.; Siegrist, S.; Schaefli, M.; Eichenberger, U.

    2003-01-01

    This comprehensive study made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) within the framework of the Energy Economics Fundamentals research programme examines if it can be guaranteed that Swiss industry can be supplied with fossil fuels for heating and transport purposes over the next few decades. The results of a comprehensive survey of literature on the subject are presented, with a major focus being placed on oil. The study examines both pessimistic and optimistic views and also presents an overview of fossil energy carriers and the possibilities of substituting them. Scenarios and prognoses on the availability of fossil fuels and their reserves for the future are presented. Also, new technologies for exploration and the extraction of fossil fuels are discussed, as are international interdependencies that influence supply. Market and price scenarios are presented that take account of a possible increasing scarcity of fossil fuels. The implications for industry and investment planning are examined

  7. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Solar-powered hot-air system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Solar-powered air heater supplies part or all of space heating requirements of residential or commercial buildings and is interfaced with air to water heat exchanger to heat domestic hot water. System has potential application in drying agricultural products such as cotton, lumber, corn, grains, and peanuts.

  9. Astronaut Rescue Air Pack (ARAP) and Emergency Egress Air Pack (EEAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, W. L.; Clew, R. D.; Waddell, H. M., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Two designs for a lightweight, low profile, mobile rescue apparatus providing a 15-minute air supply and self-contained two-way communications assembly are described. Units are designed for astronaut use in hazardous environments.

  10. Market Investigation for Surface Supplied Diving Air Compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-12

    PHILLIPS CARTNER & CO., INC. 700 North Fairfax St., Ste. 400 Alexandria, VA 22313-5457 ADDRESS WHERE COMMENTS AND QUESTIONS CAN BE SENT Commander U.S...fmber op’i "erations. The ob ’ isto gafýe the miformat necessary to pepare a document fo .. quantity prcurement Those intereste in acuiring greater... questions or comments, please feel free to contact Mr. Ted Beasley at (803) 532-2575. Mr. Beasley is our Regional Manager for your area. Very truly

  11. Cost Analysis of Outsourcing An Air Force Supply Squadron

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    clearly delineated in the contract and should result in 92 Francois Melese, and Raymond E. Franck Jr...Guide to Risk Management Tools and Techniques.” March (1998). 100 15. Melese, Francois, and Franck, Raymond E. Jr. “Government Outsourcing: An...Report., 1997. 29. Pinker, Aron , Charles G. Smith, and Jack W. Booher. “Selecting Effective Acquisition Process Metrics.” Acquisition Review

  12. Nuclear, uranium, reserves, sustainability, independence; Nucleaire, Uranium, reserves, durabilite, independance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acket, C

    2007-06-15

    In order to evaluate the energy independence concerning the nuclear energy, the author takes the state of the art about the uranium. He details the fuel needs, the reserves on the base of the today available techniques, the reserves on the base of the future techniques and concludes positively on the energy independence for the nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  13. Proposed replacement and operation of the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride supply and fluidized-bed chemical processing systems at Building 9212, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to replace the existing anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems for the Weapons Grade Highly Enriched Uranium Chemical Recovery and Recycle Facility, Building 9212, which is located within the Y-12 Plant on DOE`s Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The proposed replacement system would be based upon modern design criteria and safety analyses. The replacement AHF supply and distribution system equipment would be located on the existing Dock 8/8A at Building 9212. Utilities would be extended to the dock to service the process equipment. The following process equipment modules would be prefabricated for installation at the modified dock: an AHF cylinder enclosure, an AHF supply manifold and vaporizer module, an AHF sump tank and transfer skid, and an AHF supply off-gas scrubber assembly module. The fluidized-bed reactor system would be constructed in an area adjacent to the existing system in Building 9212. The replacement equipment would consist of a new reduction fluidized-bed reactor, a hydrofluorination fluidized-bed reactor, and associated air emission control equipment. The no-action alternative, which is the continued operation of the existing AHF supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems, was also evaluated.

  14. Proposed replacement and operation of the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride supply and fluidized-bed chemical processing systems at Building 9212, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to replace the existing anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems for the Weapons Grade Highly Enriched Uranium Chemical Recovery and Recycle Facility, Building 9212, which is located within the Y-12 Plant on DOE's Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The proposed replacement system would be based upon modern design criteria and safety analyses. The replacement AHF supply and distribution system equipment would be located on the existing Dock 8/8A at Building 9212. Utilities would be extended to the dock to service the process equipment. The following process equipment modules would be prefabricated for installation at the modified dock: an AHF cylinder enclosure, an AHF supply manifold and vaporizer module, an AHF sump tank and transfer skid, and an AHF supply off-gas scrubber assembly module. The fluidized-bed reactor system would be constructed in an area adjacent to the existing system in Building 9212. The replacement equipment would consist of a new reduction fluidized-bed reactor, a hydrofluorination fluidized-bed reactor, and associated air emission control equipment. The no-action alternative, which is the continued operation of the existing AHF supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems, was also evaluated

  15. The effect of a personalized ventilation system on perceived air quality and SBS symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Zeng, Q.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2002-01-01

    Perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and performance were studied with 30 human subjects. Experiments were performed in an office set-up with six workplaces, each equipped with a Personalized Ventilation System (PVS). Each PVS allowed the amount of supply air and its direction to be controlled...... condition in regard to perceived air quality, perception of freshness and intensity of SBS symptoms was when PVS supplied outdoor air at 20 deg.C. Perceived air quality in this case was significantly better (p...

  16. Nuclear reactor power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, B.M.

    1984-01-01

    The redundant signals from the sensor assemblies measuring the process parameters of a nuclear reactor power supply are transmitted each in its turn to a protection system which operates to actuate the protection apparatus for signals indicating off-process conditions. Each sensor assembly includes a number of like sensors measuring the same parameters. The protection system has a number of separate protection units, each unit receiving the process signals from the like sensors of each assembly in its turn. The sets of process signals derived from the sensor parameter assemblies are each in its turn transmitted from the protection system to the control system which impresses control signals on the reactor or its components to counteract the tendency for conditions to drift off-normal status requiring operation of the protection system. A parameter signal selector is interposed between the protection system and the control system. This selector prevents a parameter signal of a set of signals, which differs from the other parameter signals of the set by more than twice the allowable variation of the sensors which produce the set, from passing to the control system. The connection between the protection units and the selector is four separate fiber optic channels so that electrical interaction between the protection units and the selector or control system is precluded. The selectors include a pair of signal selection units, one unit sending selected process signals to primary control channels and the other sending selected process signals to back-up control channels. Test signals are periodically impressed on a selected pair of a selected unit and control channels. When test signals are so impressed the selected control channel is disabled from transmitting control signals to the reactor and/or its associated components

  17. Test of Different Air Distribution Concepts for a Single-Aisle Aircraft Cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Damsgaard, Charlotte; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, air is supplied to the aircraft cabin either by individual nozzles or by supply slots. The air is expected to be fully mixed in the cabin, and the system is considered to be a mixing ventilation system. This paper will describe different air distribution systems known from other...

  18. The "Family Tree" of Air Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    2011-01-01

    that all the known types of air distribution systems are interconnected in a “family tree”. The influence of supplied momentum flow versus buoyancy forces is discussed, and geometries for high ventilation effectiveness are indicated as well as geometries for fully mixed flow. The paper will also show...... conditions which are not used for air distribution in general. A number of experiments with different air distribution systems are addressed, and they illustrate the behaviour at the different conditions discussed in the paper.......In this paper all total volume air distribution principles are addressed based on discussions of air flow pattern in a room with heat sources giving a cooling load. The supply and exhaust air openings are considered to have different locations and sizes in the room, and it is possible to show...

  19. Numerical Predictions of Air Distribution in Rooms - Status and Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The purpose of an air distribution system in a ventilated room is to supply fresh air, remove heat load or supply heating, and create a pleasant and uniform climate in the occupied zone. A pleasant climate is in this context defined as a fairly low air velocity, small velocity and temperature gra...... gradients through the room and a low concentration of polluting substances, if any....

  20. The transfer of radon from domestic water to indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prichard, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental literature dealing with the release of radon from water to air is reviewed and synthesized. Primary emphasis is placed on releases from domestic water supplies to indoor air within the context of a general indoor radon problem. The widely used assumption of 1 rhoCi/L increment in indoor air per 10 000 rhoCi/L in the water supply is valid, but regional and individual variations are important

  1. Dietetics supply and demand: 2010-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Roderick S; Williams, James H; Papneja, Jesleen; Sen, Namrata; Hogan, Paul

    2012-03-01

    -credentialed dietetics practitioners declined from 3% in the early 1990s to 1.5% by 2010. • The net supply of CDR-credentialed dietetics practitioners is projected to grow by 1.1% annually. • Approximately 75% of the demand for the dietetics workforce will be met by the 2020 supply of CDR-credentialed dietetics practitioners. • The aging population, health care reform, increased prevalence of certain conditions (including obesity), and growth in the food industry are key factors affecting the demand. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Models for supply chain reengineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.; Hvolby, H.H.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide a first step in the development of a coherent set of modelling methods for supply chain reengineering. This paper shows that different fields of attention in supply chain management should be approached with different modelling methods. Three modelling methods

  3. Incentives in Supply Function Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetter, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The author analyses delegation in homogenous duopoly under the assumption that the firm-managers compete in supply functions. In supply function equilibrium, managers’ decisions are strategic complements. This reverses earlier findings in that the author finds that owners give managers incentives...

  4. Negotiations in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2008-01-01

    negotiation literature. Subsequently, an empirical case study is presented, which explicitly aims at exploring the role of negotiations between members of a supply chain. Based on the findings, the paper concludes on specific, normative guidelines for negotiations for improved supply chain competitiveness...

  5. Realities of Supply Chain Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampstra, R.P.; Ashayeri, J.; Gattorna, J.

    2006-01-01

    Successful supply chain collaboration (SCC) practices are rather exceptional, yet collaboration is believed to be the single most pressing need in supply chain management.In this paper we discuss the realities of SCC, present prerequisites for the collaboration process, indicate where the process

  6. Managing the Global Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøtt-Larsen, Tage; Schary, Philip B.; Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    The world today faces global competition. The supply chain is vital part of the globalization process. Presenting a global view of the scope and complexity of supply chain management, this book reflects the rapid change that has taken place within the supply chain and its environment. This new ed...... well as current examples of best practice of managing supply chains in a global context.......The world today faces global competition. The supply chain is vital part of the globalization process. Presenting a global view of the scope and complexity of supply chain management, this book reflects the rapid change that has taken place within the supply chain and its environment. This new...... edition has been fully updated with recent changes in concepts, technology and practice. Integration and collaboration are keywords in future competition. Firms must be agile and lean at the same time. The book gives an insightful overview of the conceptual foundations of the global supply chain, as...

  7. Commercial helium reserves, continental rifting and volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballentine, C. J.; Barry, P. H.; Hillegonds, D.; Fontijn, K.; Bluett, J.; Abraham-James, T.; Danabalan, D.; Gluyas, J.; Brennwald, M. S.; Pluess, B.; Seneshens, D.; Sherwood Lollar, B.

    2017-12-01

    Helium has many industrial applications, but notably provides the unique cooling medium for superconducting magnets in medical MRI scanners and high energy beam lines. In 2013 the global supply chainfailed to meet demand causing significant concern - the `Liquid Helium Crisis' [1]. The 2017 closure of Quatar borders, a major helium supplier, is likely to further disrupt helium supply, and accentuates the urgent need to diversify supply. Helium is found in very few natural gas reservoirs that have focused 4He produced by the dispersed decay (a-particle) of U and Th in the crust. We show here, using the example of the Rukwa section of the Tanzanian East African Rift, how continental rifting and local volcanism provides the combination of processes required to generate helium reserves. The ancient continental crust provides the source of 4He. Rifting and associated magmatism provides the tectonic and thermal mechanism to mobilise deep fluid circulation, focusing flow to the near surface along major basement faults. Helium-rich springs in the Tanzanian Great Rift Valley were first identified in the 1950's[2]. The isotopic compositions and major element chemistry of the gases from springs and seeps are consistent with their release from the crystalline basement during rifting [3]. Within the Rukwa Rift Valley, helium seeps occur in the vicinity of trapping structures that have the potential to store significant reserves of helium [3]. Soil gas surveys over 6 prospective trapping structures (1m depth, n=1486) show helium anomalies in 5 out of the 6 at levels similar to those observed over a known helium-rich gas reservoir at 1200m depth (7% He - Harley Dome, Utah). Detailed macroseep gas compositions collected over two days (n=17) at one site allows us to distinguish shallow gas contributions and shows the deep gas to contain between 8-10% helium, significantly increasing resource estimates based on uncorrected values (1.8-4.2%)[2,3]. The remainder of the deep gas is

  8. Developing a dynamic control system for mine compressed air networks

    OpenAIRE

    Van Heerden, S.W.; Pelzer, R.; Marais, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Mines in general, make use of compressed air systems for daily operational activities. Compressed air on mines is traditionally distributed via compressed air ring networks where multiple shafts are supplied with compressed air from an integral system. These compressed air networks make use of a number of compressors feeding the ring from various locations in the network. While these mines have sophisticated control systems to control these compressors, they are not dynamic systems. Compresso...

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  10. Managing the Global Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøtt-Larsen, Tage; Schary, Philip B.; Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    The world today faces global competition. The supply chain is vital part of the globalization process. Presenting a global view of the scope and complexity of supply chain management, this book reflects the rapid change that has taken place within the supply chain and its environment. This new...... well as current examples of best practice of managing supply chains in a global context....... edition has been fully updated with recent changes in concepts, technology and practice. Integration and collaboration are keywords in future competition. Firms must be agile and lean at the same time. The book gives an insightful overview of the conceptual foundations of the global supply chain, as...

  11. Managing the Global Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; Skjøtt-Larsen, Tage; Kinra, Aseem

    edition has been fully updated with recent changes in concepts, technology and practice. Integration and collaboration are keywords in future competition. Firms must be agile and lean at the same time. The book gives an insightful overview of the conceptual foundations of the global supply chain, as......The world today faces global competition. The supply chain is vital part of the globalization process. Presenting a global view of the scope and complexity of supply chain management, this book reflects the rapid change that has taken place within the supply chain and its environment. This new...... well as current examples of best practice of managing supply chains in a global context....

  12. Managing the Global Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; Skjøtt-Larsen, Tage; Kinra, Aseem

    The world today faces global competition. The supply chain is vital part of the globalization process. Presenting a global view of the scope and complexity of supply chain management, this book reflects the rapid change that has taken place within the supply chain and its environment. This new...... edition has been fully updated with recent changes in concepts, technology and practice. Integration and collaboration are keywords in future competition. Firms must be agile and lean at the same time. The book gives an insightful overview of the conceptual foundations of the global supply chain, as...... well as current examples of best practice of managing supply chains in a global context....

  13. Strategy Guideline. Compact Air Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, Arlan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  14. Air distribution and ventilation effectiveness in an occupied room heated by warm air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajcik, Michal; Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    . Contaminant removal effectiveness and air change efficiency were used to evaluate ventilation effectiveness. No significant risk of thermal discomfort due to vertical air temperature differences or draught was found. When the room was heated by warm air, buoyancy forces were important for ventilation......Air distribution, ventilation effectiveness and thermal environment were experimentally studied in a simulated room in a low-energy building heated and ventilated by warm air supplied by a mixing ventilation system. Measurements were performed for various positions of the air terminal devices...... and at different simulated outside conditions, internal heat gains and air change rates. Floor heating was also simulated and compared with the warm air heating system. Vertical air temperature profiles, air velocity profiles and equivalent temperatures were derived in order to describe the thermal environment...

  15. Youth Problems on Indian Reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Ruth M., Ed.

    Juvenile delinquency was identified as the major problem affecting youth on Indian reservations. Causes for delinquency which were discussed included culture conflict, expectation of failure, unemployment, failure of homes and parents, discrimination, inadequate education, off-reservation schools, and alcoholism. Needs identified by tribal leaders…

  16. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  17. Air conditioner with three stages of indirect regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthington, M.N.

    1987-01-01

    An air conditioner is described comprising: a cabinet defining an internal evaporation chamber and having an air inlet and an air outlet; a heat exchanger mounted in the cabinet and defining an air movement path between the air inlet and the air outlet; means for supplying air to be cooled to the air inlet of the cabinet of movement through the air movement path of the heat exchanger in a heat exchanger relationship; air diversion means for continuously diverting some of the air emerging from the air outlet of the cabinet; and means in the evaporation chamber of the cabinet for recirculating spraying water into the chiller tube of the heat exchanger for interacting with the diverted air moving therethrough to evaporatively cool the heat exchanger

  18. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is the... of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects of these air...

  19. "Bullwhip Effect" in Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelko Ščukanec

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The system which connects all the elements between theproducer and the consumer is called the supply chain. This definitionof the supply chain shows its complexity, dynamics anduncertainty. Successful operation of supply chains requires thebest possible coordination of its elements, which obviously indicatesthe utmost importance of the information flow alongthem. The operation of supply chains on the whole has to bemore successful than the operation of their individual elements.It should be noted that such a complex process may give rise toa series of problems, unwanted events, as well as substantial reductionin profits and the level of service. One of such unwantedphenomena which may occur in the supply chain is the"bullwhip effect". This is a possible increase in the diversity oforders which occurs when we move along the elements of thesupply chain (from the customers' orders to the producers' orders.The work analyses the processes within the supply chainsand the occurrence of the bullwhip effect. The main causes ofthe bullwhip effect that we encounter daily in the supply chainshave been clearly defined. The paper also presents the mainnegative consequences of such a disturbance within the supplychains, and provides possible solutions for avoiding the bullwhipeffect.

  20. Status quo of supply technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Shigeo

    1987-09-01

    Problems for gas supply function, activity of the Gas Association, and technological development mainly of the presented subjects are reported. According to the materials released by the Gas Associattion, demands for city gas by the 21st Century is expected to be rather high with 3.6% annual growth rate. It is premissed on an assumption that the superior quality of the city gas satisfying customer requirements would be further upgraded. The problems confronted by the supply function for this purpose are the pursuit for less cost, improvement in security, and stable gas supply. The Gas Association carried out research, investigation, preparation of standards, etc., and published instructive materials such as guide for main and branch piping, guide for supply piping, technical standards for gas related works, etc. It also has been endeavoring to popularize the use of polyethylene pipies, and studying the evaluation method for the renewal and repair of gas conduits and house regulator supply system, etc. The supply function has been working on the cutting dowm of costs, inprovement in security, and developing technologies such as underground probing radar, inteligent pipe locator, identifier for gas and water supply tubes, estimation of ground subsidence, inspection of inside of pipes by a television camera, etc. (1 tab)

  1. Improving supply chain collaborations and performance of inefficient supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sanei

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern manufacturing enterprises are required to collaborate by their business partners through their business process operations such as design, manufacture, distribution, and aftersales services. And furthermore performance evaluation is of great importance for effective supply chain man agement. Therefore, DEA can help companies to remove some of the in efficiencies in operational processes in order to become more effective. The current paper develops one approach for determining the DEA projections for inefficient supply chains. Meanwhile this approach aims at providing an easy, efficient and more practical approach based on the performance evaluation for the multi-member supply chain. And ultimately, this model is illustrated by an numerical example of Chinese commercial bank, and case study application to provide of machine-making supply chain.

  2. Classification of uranium reserves/resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    Projections of future availability of uranium to meet present and future nuclear power requirements depend on the reliability of uranium resource estimates. Lack of harmony of the definition of the different classes of uranium reserves and resources between countries makes the compilation and analysis of such information difficult. The problem was accentuated in the early 1990s with the entry of uranium producing countries from the former Soviet Union, eastern Europe and China into the world uranium supply market. The need for an internationally acceptable reserve/resource classification system and terminology using market based criteria is therefore obvious. This publication was compiled from participant's contributions and findings of the Consultants Meetings on Harmonization of Uranium Resource Assessment Concepts held in Vienna from 22 to 25 June 1992, and two Consultants Meetings on the Development of a More Meaningful Classification of Uranium Resources held in Kiev, Ukraine on 24-26 April 1995 and 20-23 August 1996. This document includes 11 contributions, summary, list of participants of the Consultants Meetings. Each contribution has been indexed and provided with an abstract

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly presents data describing the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders; operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data are divided into two sections: Summary statistics and Detailed statistics.

  5. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A compressor used to supply breathing air to a diver...

  6. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  7. Cognitive Reserve Scale and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene León

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construct of cognitive reserve attempts to explain why some individuals with brain impairment, and some people during normal ageing, can solve cognitive tasks better than expected. This study aimed to estimate cognitive reserve in a healthy sample of people aged 65 years and over, with special attention to its influence on cognitive performance. For this purpose, it used the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS and a neuropsychological battery that included tests of attention and memory. The results revealed that women obtained higher total CRS raw scores than men. Moreover, the CRS predicted the learning curve, short-term and long-term memory, but not attentional and working memory performance. Thus, the CRS offers a new proxy of cognitive reserve based on cognitively stimulating activities performed by healthy elderly people. Following an active lifestyle throughout life was associated with better intellectual performance and positive effects on relevant aspects of quality of life.

  8. Fractional Reserve Banking: Some Quibbles

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David

    2010-01-01

    We explore several unaddressed issues in George Selgin’s (1988) claim that the best monetary system to maintain monetary equilibrium is a fractional reserve free banking one. The claim that adverse clearing balances would limit credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking system is more troublesome than previously reckoned. Both lengthened clearing periods and interbank agreements render credit expansion unrestrained. “The theory of free banking” confuses increases in money held with...

  9. Habitat characterization of the Tortugas Ecological Reserve south using photographic and quadrat methods.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We supply habitat characterization data along a single randomly oriented transect at each of 16 sampling stations in the Tortugas South Ecological Reserve. This...

  10. Empirical analysis of optimal strategic petroleum reserve in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Yi-Ming; Wu, Gang; Liu, Lan-Cui; Fan, Ying

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese government began to prepare for the establishment of strategic petroleum reserve in March 2004. Therefore, answering the question of what level of strategic petroleum reserve would be suitable for China's future economic development becomes essential. Using a decision tree model based on a cost function, this paper quantifies China's optimal strategic petroleum reserve for the period 2005-2020. This approach provides a methodology reference for further quantified discussion on China's SPR. Our results show that: for economic development and security of the energy supply, the strategic petroleum reserve should be the equivalent of 30-60 days of net oil import for an optimal solution, when the oil price is $ 50/bbl; with a reserve of an equivalent of 60-90 days of net oil import to have an optimal solution when oil price is $20-35/bbl. (author)

  11. Reserve Retirement Equality: Treating Reserves Fairly While Saving Taxpayer Dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    rata .121 For example, a Reserve who performs the equivalent of five years of active duty, will receive one-fourth the retired pay of his active duty...4,225 per month.124 But because reserve-retirement benefits are based on pro rata years of service, this officer’s years of service for retirement...purposes are 3,146 retirement points divided by 360.125 This results in 8.74 years pro rata years of service.126 His retirement benefits thus are

  12. The U.S. Air Force Aeromedical Evacuation Mission: A Mission for the Air Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    for one night of lodging for out of town members per UTA .75 With most out of town members driving up the night before to be in place for a 0700 am...had lost all objectivity. Most important, I would like to thank my wife and daughter for the amount of time they allowed me to spend on the...colossal undertaking of completing the ASCS On -Line Master’s Program, of which, this paper is the final culmination. Thank you to my wife, for reading my

  13. LCA of Drinking Water Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit; Meron, Noa; Rygaard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    water over sea water, the significant impacts from changed drinking water quality and reduced environmental burden from wastewater reuse instead of desalination. Some of the main challenges in conducting LCAs of water supply systems are their complexity and diversity, requiring very large data......Water supplies around the globe are growing complex and include more intense treatment methods than just decades ago. Now, desalination of seawater and wastewater reuse for both non-potable and potable water supply have become common practice in many places. LCA has been used to assess...... the potentials and reveal hotspots among the possible technologies and scenarios for water supplies of the future. LCA studies have been used to support decisions in the planning of urban water systems and some important findings include documentation of reduced environmental impact from desalination of brackish...

  14. Risikobasiertes Supply-Chain-Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Andreas; Schinz, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Das Management erlebt seit einigen Jahren dahingehend einen Paradigmenwechsel, dass nicht mehr Unternehmen als einzelne autonome Einheiten im Wettbewerb zueinander stehen, sondern die Supply Chains, in denen diese Unternehmen eingebunden sind. Ursachen hierfür sind beispielsweise die Auslagerung...

  15. Supply Chain Shipment Pricing Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This data set provides supply chain health commodity shipment and pricing data. Specifically, the data set identifies Antiretroviral (ARV) and HIV lab shipments to...

  16. The 3He Supply Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2009-05-01

    One of the main uses for 3He is in gas proportional counters for neutron detection. Radiation portal monitors deployed for homeland security and non-proliferation use such detectors. Other uses of 3He are for research detectors, commercial instruments, well logging detectors, dilution refrigerators, for targets or cooling in nuclear research, and for basic research in condensed matter physics. The US supply of 3He comes almost entirely from the decay of tritium used in nuclear weapons by the US and Russia. A few other countries contribute a small amount to the world’s 3He supply. Due to the large increase in use of 3He for homeland security, the supply has dwindled, and can no longer meet the demand. This white paper reviews the problems of supply, utilization, and alternatives.

  17. Public Water Supply Systems (PWS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset includes boundaries for most public water supply systems (PWS) in Kansas (525 municipalities, 289 rural water districts and 13 public wholesale water...

  18. Radioisotope Power Supply, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Between 1998 and 2003, Hi-Z Technology developed and built a 40 mW radioisotope power supply (RPS) that used a 1 watt radioisotope heater unit (RHU) as the energy...

  19. Natural gas supply in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chegrouche, L.

    1992-01-01

    The geopolitical events over the last two years are such that the present natural gas supply schemes risk being overthrown. Recourse, to satisfy future European demands, to additional volumes coming from outlying sources will inevitably force the actors to define new strategies and to reconsider the reorganization of the transmission system' structure. Besides, the use of their capacities is closely bound to supply flexibility. At the same time, the saturation of the production and transmission capacities within the nearby outkirts combined with the purchasers' resolve to diversify their supply sources will undoubtedly shift the dynamics of the natural gas supply to potential sources and their access costs before the end of the century. 24 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs., 4 maps

  20. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.

    2008-09-15

    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  1. Renewable Energy Development on Fort Mojave Reservation Feasiblity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell Gum, ERCC analytics LLC

    2008-03-17

    The Ft. Mojave tribe, whose reservation is located along the Colorado River in the states of Arizona, California, and Nevada near the point where all three states meet, has a need for increased energy supplies. This need is a direct result of the aggressive and successful economic development projects undertaken by the tribe in the last decade. While it is possible to contract for additional energy supplies from fossil fuel sources it was the desire of the tribal power company, AHA MACAV Power Service (AMPS) to investigate the feasibility and desirability of producing power from renewable sources as an alternative to increased purchase of fossil fuel generated power and as a possible enterprise to export green power. Renewable energy generated on the reservation would serve to reduce the energy dependence of the tribal enterprises on off reservation sources of energy and if produced in excess of reservation needs, add a new enterprise to the current mix of economic activities on the reservation. Renewable energy development would also demonstrate the tribe’s support for improving environmental quality, sustainability, and energy independence both on the reservation and for the larger community.

  2. Uranium prospecting and uranium supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kegel, K.E.

    1975-01-01

    Following of short historical survey, estimations of the uranium resources of the western world made in the middle of 1975 are presented and interpreted. The most common methods of prospecting and exploration of the mines and of production and processing of the uranium eres are described. A short survey of the situation of supply and demand is supplemented by a description of the activities of the two German companies in the field of uranium supply. (UA/AK) [de

  3. TRANSISTOR HIGH VOLTAGE POWER SUPPLY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, G.E.

    1958-07-15

    High voltage, direct current power supplies are described for use with battery powered nuclear detection equipment. The particular advantages of the power supply described, are increased efficiency and reduced size and welght brought about by the use of transistors in the circuit. An important feature resides tn the employment of a pair of transistors in an alternatefiring oscillator circuit having a coupling transformer and other circuit components which are used for interconnecting the various electrodes of the transistors.

  4. Incentives in Supply Function Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetter, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The author analyses delegation in homogenous duopoly under the assumption that firm-managers compete in supply functions. He reverses earlier findings in that owners give managers incentives to act in an accommodating way. That is, optimal delegation reduces per-firm output and increases profits ...... to above-Cournot profits. Moreover, in supply function equilibrium, the mode of competition is endogenous. This means that the author avoids results that are sensitive with respect to assuming either Cournot or Bertrand competition....

  5. Supply strategy for SMR deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccagna, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    This document provides a description of Babcock and Wilcox's deployment strategy for the mPower™ Small Modular Reactor from the perspective of Supply Chain and Manufacturing. A desirable future state of readiness is described as one which leverages and revitalizes an existing supply chain and manufacturing infrastructure, as well as leveraging an existing workforce of engineering, construction, and project management employees. B and W's mPower™ SMR value proposition offers many desired design and operating advantages to the SMR market. (author)

  6. Improving Energy Security for Air Force Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, David

    Like civilian infrastructure, Air Force installations are dependent on electrical energy for daily operations. Energy shortages translate to decreased productivity, higher costs, and increased health risks. But for the United States military, energy shortages have the potential to become national security risks. Over ninety-five percent of the electrical energy used by the Air Force is supplied by the domestic grid, which is susceptible to shortages and disruptions. Many Air Force operations require a continuous source of energy, and while the Air Force has historically established redundant supplies of electrical energy, these back-ups are designed for short-term outages and may not provide sufficient supply for a longer, sustained power outage. Furthermore, it is the goal of the Department of Defense to produce or procure 25 percent of its facility energy from renewable sources by fiscal year 2025. In a government budget environment where decision makers are required to provide more capability with less money, it is becoming increasingly important for informed decisions regarding which energy supply options bear the most benefit for an installation. The analysis begins by exploring the field of energy supply options available to an Air Force installation. The supply options are assessed according to their ability to provide continuous and reliable energy, their applicability to unique requirements of Air Force installations, and their costs. Various methods of calculating energy usage by an installation are also addressed. The next step of this research develops a methodology and tool which assesses how an installation responds to various power outage scenarios. Lastly, various energy supply options are applied to the tool, and the results are reported in terms of cost and loss of installation capability. This approach will allow installation commanders and energy managers the ability to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of various energy investment options.

  7. Water crisis: the metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, regional water supply conflict

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-07-01

    Many large population centres are currently facing considerable difficulties with planning issues to secure future water supplies, as a result of water allocation and environmental issues, litigation, and political dogma. A classic case occurs in the metropolitan Atlanta area, which is a rapidly growing, large population centre that relies solely on surface water for supply. Lake Lanier currently supplies about 70% of the water demand and has been involved in a protracted legal dispute for more than two decades. Drought and environmental management of the reservoir combined to create a water shortage which nearly caused a disaster to the region in 2007 (only about 35 days of water supply was in reserve). While the region has made progress in controlling water demand by implementing a conservation plan, per capita use projections are still very high (at 511 L/day in 2035). Both non-potable reuse and indirect reuse of treated wastewater are contained in the most current water supply plan with up to 380,000 m3/day of wastewater treated using advanced wastewater treatment (nutrient removal) to be discharged into Lake Lanier. The water supply plan, however, includes no additional or new supply sources and has deleted any reference to the use of seawater desalination or other potential water sources which would provide diversification, thereby relying solely on the Coosa and Chattahoochee river reservoirs for the future. © 2014 IWA Publishing.

  8. Improving healthcare value through clinical community and supply chain collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Lisa; Demski, Renee; Ken Lee, K H; Mustafa, Zishan; Frank, Steve; Wolisnky, Jean Paul; Cohen, David; Khanna, Jay; Ammerman, Joshua; Khanuja, Harpal S; Unger, Anthony S; Gould, Lois; Wachter, Patricia Ann; Stearns, Lauren; Werthman, Ronald; Pronovost, Peter

    2017-03-01

    We hypothesized that integrating supply chain with clinical communities would allow for clinician-led supply cost reduction and improved value in an academic health system. Three clinical communities (spine, joint, blood management) and one clinical community-like physician led team of surgeon stakeholders partnered with the supply chain team on specific supply cost initiatives. The teams reviewed their specific utilization and cost data, and the physicians led consensus-building conversations over a series of team meetings to agree to standard supply utilization. The spine and joint clinical communities each agreed upon a vendor capping model that led to cost savings of $3 million dollars and $1.5 million dollars respectively. The blood management decreased blood product utilization and achieved $1.2 million dollars savings. $5.6 million dollars in savings was achieved by a clinical community-like group of surgeon stakeholders through standardization of sutures and endomechanicals. Physician led clinical teams empowered to lead change achieved substantial supply chain cost savings in an academic health system. The model of combining clinical communities with supply chain offers hope for an effective, practical, and scalable approach to improving value and engaging physicians in other academic health systems. This clinician led model could benefit both private and academic health systems engaging in value optimization efforts. N/A. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Improved Effectiveness of Reserve Forces During Reserve Duty Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadaway, Harry H.

    The problem areas of motivation, job enrichment, recruiting, and retention are addressed from the viewpoint of the behavioral scientist. Special attention is given to relating job enrichment and motivation techniques, as successfully demonstrated in industry, to the United State Army Reserve. Research method utilized was a literature review…

  10. Forecasting world natural gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Fattah, S. M.; Startzman, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Using the multi-cyclic Hubert approach, a 53 country-specific gas supply model was developed which enables production forecasts for virtually all of the world's gas. Supply models for some organizations such as OPEC, non-OPEC and OECD were also developed and analyzed. Results of the modeling study indicate that the world's supply of natural gas will peak in 2014, followed by an annual decline at the rate of one per cent per year. North American gas production is reported to be currently at its peak with 29 Tcf/yr; Western Europe will reach its peak supply in 2002 with 12 Tcf. According to this forecast the main sources of natural gas supply in the future will be the countries of the former Soviet Union and the Middle East. Between them, they possess about 62 per cent of the world's ultimate recoverable natural gas (4,880 Tcf). It should be noted that these estimates do not include unconventional gas resulting from tight gas reservoirs, coalbed methane, gas shales and gas hydrates. These unconventional sources will undoubtedly play an important role in the gas supply in countries such as the United States and Canada. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  11. CHALLENGES OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia GALANTON

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article highlights the basic characteristics of the supply chain, specific to changes in the business environment of companies at the beginning of the 21st century. Supply chain activities turn natural resources, raw materials and components into a finished product, which is then delivered to the final customer. The supply chain incorporates the production process alongside the raw material acquisition and distribution of finished products, encompassing all the existing process responsible for transforming the materials taken from the supplier to the finished products delivered to customers. Today, competitiveness and performance of an organization are dependent on belonging to an efficient and effective supply-delivery chain where synergies exist due to the establishment and implementation of common goals and strategies by partners. Competition does not take place between independent organizations or between small groups of organizations, but between supply and delivery chains, made up of interconnected networks of producers, distributors and logistics providers. Under these circumstances, supply chain managers must seek solutions to respond promptly to the most important challenges in the field.

  12. Biomass supply chain optimisation for Organosolv-based biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarola, Sara; Patel, Mayank; Shah, Nilay

    2014-05-01

    This work aims at providing a Mixed Integer Linear Programming modelling framework to help define planning strategies for the development of sustainable biorefineries. The up-scaling of an Organosolv biorefinery was addressed via optimisation of the whole system economics. Three real world case studies were addressed to show the high-level flexibility and wide applicability of the tool to model different biomass typologies (i.e. forest fellings, cereal residues and energy crops) and supply strategies. Model outcomes have revealed how supply chain optimisation techniques could help shed light on the development of sustainable biorefineries. Feedstock quality, quantity, temporal and geographical availability are crucial to determine biorefinery location and the cost-efficient way to supply the feedstock to the plant. Storage costs are relevant for biorefineries based on cereal stubble, while wood supply chains present dominant pretreatment operations costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Requirements of supply chain management in differentiating European pork chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trienekens, Jacques; Wognum, Nel

    2013-11-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained by research into pork chain management in the EU Integrated Project Q-Porkchains. Changing demands for intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes of pork products impact the way supply chain management should be organized from the farmer down to the consumer. The paper shows the importance of Quality Management Systems for integrating supply chains and enhancing consumer confidence. The paper also presents innovations in information system integration for aligning information exchange in the supply chain and logistics concepts based on innovative measurement technologies at the slaughterhouse stage. In the final section research challenges towards sustainable pork supply chains satisfying current consumer demands are presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ART Or AGR: Deciphering Which Reserve Program is Best Suited for Today’s Total Force Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    independent arbitrator ruled that Whiteman Air Force Base violated its contract with American Federation of Government Employees (AFGE) Local 2361...Section CSAF - Chief of Staff of the Air Force DODI - Department of Defense Instruction FECA - Federal Employees Compensation Act FEGLI - Federal ...time federal civil service employees, assigned to an Air Force Reserve unit, and also required to occupy an equivalent Reserve military position with

  15. Cerebral correlates of cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Lawrence J; Staff, Roger T; Fox, Helen C; Murray, Alison D

    2016-01-30

    Cognitive reserve is a hypothetical concept introduced to explain discrepancies between severity of clinical dementia syndromes and the extent of dementia pathology. We examined cognitive reserve in a research programme that followed up a non-clinical sample born in 1921 or 1936 and IQ-tested age 11 years in 1932 or 1947. Structural MRI exams were acquired in about 50% of the sample from whom a subsample were recruited into an additional fMRI study. Here, we summarise findings from seven inter-related studies. These support an understanding of cognitive reserve as a balance between positive life course activity-driven experiences and the negative effects of brain pathologies including cerebrovascular disease and total and regional brain volume loss. Hypothesised structural equation models illustrate the relative causal effects of these positive and negative contributions. Cognitive reserve is considered in the context of choice of interventions to prevent dementia and the opposing effects of cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer like brain appearances. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  17. Fuel cell power supply with oxidant and fuel gas switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, J.F.; Chludzinski, P.J.; Dantowitz, P.

    1987-04-14

    This invention relates to a fuel cell vehicular power plant. Fuel for the fuel stack is supplied by a hydrocarbon (methanol) catalytic cracking reactor and CO shift reactor. A water electrolysis subsystem is associated with the stack. During low power operation part of the fuel cell power is used to electrolyze water with hydrogen and oxygen electrolysis products being stored in pressure vessels. During peak power intervals, viz, during acceleration or start-up, pure oxygen and pure hydrogen from the pressure vessel are supplied as the reaction gases to the cathodes and anodes in place of air and methanol reformate. This allows the fuel cell stack to be sized for normal low power/air operation but with a peak power capacity several times greater than that for normal operation. 2 figs.

  18. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  19. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  20. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.

    2001-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is a potential risk to human health. Prolonged exposure to indoor pollutants may cause various infectious, allergic and other diseases. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a broad array of internal and external sources. Internal sources include building and furnishing materials, consumer and commercial products, office equipment, micro-organisms, pesticides and human occupants activities. External sources include soil, water supplies and outside makeup air. The main indoor air pollutants of concern are inorganic gases, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radon and its daughters, particulates and microbes. The magnitude of human exposure to indoor pollutants can be estimated or predicted with the help of mathematical models which have been developed using the data from source emission testing and field monitoring of pollutants. In order to minimize human exposure to indoor pollutants, many countries have formulated guidelines / standards for the maximum permissible levels of main pollutants. Acceptable indoor air quality can be achieved by controlling indoor pollution sources and by effective ventilation system for removal of indoor pollutants. (author)

  1. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...... balancing measure, which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the electricity demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR...

  2. Environmental status of the Hanford Reservation for CY-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.

    1975-09-01

    Environmental data collected at the Hanford Reservation during 1974 showed continued compliance of Hanford operations with all applicable State and Federal regulations. Data are presented on levels of radioactivity in samples of surface air, drinking water, Columbia River water and other surface waters, soil, and tissues of wild animals and water fowl collected at various locations

  3. Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Ababsa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  4. Modeling a Reparable Supply Chain and Applying CPFR Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-08

    transportation, and recycling [9]. The Air Force with its need to operate and maintain aircraft is no different. Its supply chain includes parts required to...encompasses all the processes from product design, production, product promotion, and order fulfillment all the way through end-of-life recycling and disposal...textbooks is the Proctor & Gamble (P&G) order pattern for one of its best-selling products, Pampers diapers . Customers consumed diapers at a steady rate

  5. Primary reserve studies for high wind power penetrated systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2015-01-01

    load shedding. The impact of low inertia caused due to displacement of conventional generators by wind penetration on the power system frequency is investigated in this paper. The possibilities of improving frequency with increase in primary reserve supplied from conventional generators are analyzed....... This paper further explores the capabilities of wind turbines to provide support during underfrequency to prevent load shedding. Maximum wind penetration possible without causing load shedding following a large disturbance is also investigated....

  6. 41 CFR 105-71.133 - Supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... aggregate fair market value upon termination or completion of the award, and if the supplies are not needed...-Award Requirements/Changes, Property, and Subawards § 105-71.133 Supplies. (a) Title. Title to supplies...

  7. International air cargo operations and gateways : their emerging importance to the state of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Air cargo transport has become particularly important in todays expanding global : economy for the movement of high-value goods such as electronics, computer components, : precision equipment, medical supplies, auto parts, and perishables. Air car...

  8. Air Force Journal of Logsitics. Volume 31, Number 3, Fall 2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ... with an assessment of the measures to determine the effectiveness of Air Force SCM transformation. The assessment provides several recommendations to improve the current suite of metrics used to manage the Air Force supply chain...

  9. Supply Chain Management Practices in Toy Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew; Arlbjørn, Jan Stentoft; Johansen, John

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - Innovative products usually experience highly unpredictable and variable demand. This is especially valid for the volatile and seasonal toy industry, which produces high obsolete inventory, lost sales and markdown. In such a volatile industry, what supply chain management (SCM) practices...... are applicable and effective? This study seeks to explore SCM practices, and identify practical and theoretical gaps in toy supply chains. Design/methodology/approach - This article includes a longitudinal and in-depth case study during the past year in an international toy manufacturer, which includes...... (traditional mass-production or push-models). These low-responsive practices in the toy supply chain are not caused only by slow knowledge diffusion. SCM know-how is not yet capable of managing such levels of volatility and seasonality. Therefore, explanations of these theoretical gaps and what new theories...

  10. Availability and Expiry of Essential Medicines and Supplies During the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Pharmacotherapy Group,. Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin,. Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights reserved. Available online at http://www.tjpr.org. Research Article. Availability and Expiry of Essential Medicines and. Supplies During the 'Pull' and 'Push' Drug Acquisition. Systems in a Rural Ugandan Hospital.

  11. The economics of promoting security of energy supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Machiel; Zwart, Gijsbert; ten Cate, Arie

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the welfare effects of two policies directed at the security of energy supply: investments in strategic petroleum reserves and a cap on the production of gas from the largest Dutch gas field. Market failures can justify such policies, in particular failure of individual consumers

  12. 77 FR 40253 - Reserve Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    .... The commentators represented Rural Development employees who work with the Multi-Family Housing Direct... their annual over-inflated tax bills and assessments. As a result, rent income funding that could be..., as rents cannot be raised to an amount that will cover all current and future reserve expenses...

  13. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Togeby, Mikael; Østergaard, Jacob

    This report summaries the research outcomes of the project ‘Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)’, which has received the support from Energinet.dk’s PSO program, Grant no. 2005-2-6380. The objective of this project is to investigate the technology of using electricity demands for providing...

  14. 500 Watt Diesel Fueled TPV Portable Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, W. E.; Morgan, M. D.; Sundaram, V. S.; Butcher, T.

    2003-01-01

    A test-bed 500 watt diesel fueled thermophotovoltaic (TPV) portable power supply is described. The goal of the design is a compact, rugged field portable unit weighing less than 15 pounds without fuel. The conversion efficiency goal is set at 15% fuel energy to electric energy delivered to an external load at 24 volts. A burner/recuperator system has been developed to meet the objectives of high combustion air preheat temperatures with a compact heat exchanger, low excess air operation, and high convective heat transfer rates to the silicon carbide emitter surface. The burner incorporates a air blast atomizer with 100% of the combustion air passing through the nozzle. Designed firing rate of 2900 watts at 0.07 gallons of oil per hour. This incorporates a single air supply dc motor/fan set and avoids the need for a system air compressor. The recuperator consists of three annular, concentric laminar flow passages. Heat from the combustion of the diesel fuel is both radiantly and convectively coupled to the inside wall of a cylindrical silicon carbide emitter. The outer wall of the emitter then radiates blackbody energy at the design temperature of 1400°C. The cylindrical emitter is enclosed in a quartz envelope that separates it from the photovoltaic (PV) cells. Spectral control is accomplished by a resonant mesh IR band-pass filter placed between the emitter and the PV array. The narrow band of energy transmitted by the filter is intercepted and converted to electricity by an array of GaSb PV cells. The array consists of 216 1-cm × 1-cm GaSb cells arranged into series and parallel arrays. An array of heat pipes couple the PV cell arrays to a heat exchanger which is cooled by forced air convection. A brief status of the key TPV technologies is presented followed by data characterizing the performance of the 500 watt TPV system.

  15. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum supply annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  2. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R.

    1990-10-01

    This two-volume report, the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1989, is the nineteenth in an annual series that began in 1971. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at the three major US Department of Energy (DOE) production and research installations in Oak Ridge on the immediate areas' and surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation and wildlife, and through these multiple and varied pathways, the resident human population. Information is presented for the environmental monitoring Quality Assurance (QA) Program, audits and reviews, waste management activities, land special environmental studies. Data are included for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). Volume 1 presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions based on environmental monitoring at the three DOE installations and in the surrounding environs during calendar year (CY) 1989. Volume 1 is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report about the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the reader who does not want an in-depth review of 1989 data. Volume 2 presents the detailed data from which these conclusions have been drawn and should be used in conjunction with Volume 1

  3. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R. (eds.)

    1990-10-01

    This two-volume report, the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1989, is the nineteenth in an annual series that began in 1971. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at the three major US Department of Energy (DOE) production and research installations in Oak Ridge on the immediate areas' and surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation and wildlife, and through these multiple and varied pathways, the resident human population. Information is presented for the environmental monitoring Quality Assurance (QA) Program, audits and reviews, waste management activities, land special environmental studies. Data are included for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). Volume 1 presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions based on environmental monitoring at the three DOE installations and in the surrounding environs during calendar year (CY) 1989. Volume 1 is intended to be a stand-alone'' report about the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the reader who does not want an in-depth review of 1989 data. Volume 2 presents the detailed data from which these conclusions have been drawn and should be used in conjunction with Volume 1.

  4. Economic Modeling of Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Bo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the variable nature of wind resources, the increasing penetration level of wind power will have a significant impact on the operation and planning of the electric power system. Energy storage systems are considered an effective way to compensate for the variability of wind generation. This paper presents a detailed production cost simulation model to evaluate the economic value of compressed air energy storage (CAES in systems with large-scale wind power generation. The co-optimization of energy and ancillary services markets is implemented in order to analyze the impacts of CAES, not only on energy supply, but also on system operating reserves. Both hourly and 5-minute simulations are considered to capture the economic performance of CAES in the day-ahead (DA and real-time (RT markets. The generalized network flow formulation is used to model the characteristics of CAES in detail. The proposed model is applied on a modified IEEE 24-bus reliability test system. The numerical example shows that besides the economic benefits gained through energy arbitrage in the DA market, CAES can also generate significant profits by providing reserves, compensating for wind forecast errors and intra-hour fluctuation, and participating in the RT market.

  5. Essays in the California electricity reserves markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxoglou, Konstantinos

    This dissertation examines inefficiencies in the California electricity reserves markets. In Chapter 1, I use the information released during the investigation of the state's electricity crisis of 2000 and 2001 by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to diagnose allocative inefficiencies. Building upon the work of Wolak (2000), I calculate a lower bound for the sellers' price-cost margins using the inverse elasticities of their residual demand curves. The downward bias in my estimates stems from the fact that I don't account for the hierarchical substitutability of the reserve types. The margins averaged at least 20 percent for the two highest quality types of reserves, regulation and spinning, generating millions of dollars in transfers to a handful of sellers. I provide evidence that the deviations from marginal cost pricing were due to the markets' high concentration and a principal-agent relationship that emerged from their design. In Chapter 2, I document systematic differences between the markets' day- and hour-ahead prices. I use a high-dimensional vector moving average model to estimate the premia and conduct correct inferences. To obtain exact maximum likelihood estimates of the model, I employ the EM algorithm that I develop in Chapter 3. I uncover significant day-ahead premia, which I attribute to market design characteristics too. On the demand side, the market design established a principal-agent relationship between the markets' buyers (principal) and their supervisory authority (agent). The agent had very limited incentives to shift reserve purchases to the lower priced hour-ahead markets. On the supply side, the market design raised substantial entry barriers by precluding purely speculative trading and by introducing a complicated code of conduct that induced uncertainty about which actions were subject to regulatory scrutiny. In Chapter 3, I introduce a state-space representation for vector autoregressive moving average models that enables

  6. Air lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palkovich, P.; Gruber, J.; Madlener, W.

    1974-01-01

    The patent refers to an air lock system preferably for nuclear stations for the transport of heavy loads by means of a trolley on rails. For opening and closing of the air lock parts of the rails are removed, e.g. by a second rail system perpendicular to the main rails. (P.K.)

  7. Who Manages Our Supply Chains?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flöthmann, Christoph

    to manage the manifold tasks they face on a daily basis. Unfortunately, as globalization has simultaneously increased the complexity of supply chains and the demand for highly qualified personnel, companies are facing a significant undersupply of talent (Cottrill, 2010). Moreover, organizations appear......While managers in traditional management functions focus on developing strong expertise to become “specialists” in their own discipline, supply chain managers are a different species: They have to combine a cross-functional understanding of various business fields and multi-faceted competencies...... to lack understanding of supply chain personnel and how to support their recruitment, succession planning, and training and development (John, 2015). Surprisingly, at the same time, scientific research on that topic is relatively scarce. In response, the overarching purpose of this paper...

  8. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence

  9. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  10. Synergies between energy supply networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jianzhnog; Yan, Jinyue; Desideri, Umberto

    2017-01-01

    Energy system integration uses a whole-system approach to optimize the synergies between energy supply networks to facilitate and coordinate the grid integration of distributed energy resources while enabling the synergies and conflicts between the local distribution networks and the national lev...... and integration of local renewables including solar energy wind geothermal waste heat and biomass is presented.......Energy system integration uses a whole-system approach to optimize the synergies between energy supply networks to facilitate and coordinate the grid integration of distributed energy resources while enabling the synergies and conflicts between the local distribution networks and the national level...... objectives to be understood and optimally coordinated. The latest research on the network coupling technologies analysis of synergies between energy supply networks and optimal use of synergies in network operation is discussed. A diagram on the possible interactions between different energy networks...

  11. MODELING SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Agarwal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the dynamic behavior of the variables that can play a major role in the performance improvement in a supply chain, a System Dynamics-based model is proposed. The model provides an effective framework for analyzing different variables affecting supply chain performance. Among different variables, a causal relationship among different variables has been identified. Variables emanating from performance measures such as gaps in customer satisfaction, cost minimization, lead-time reduction, service level improvement and quality improvement have been identified as goal-seeking loops. The proposed System Dynamics-based model analyzes the affect of dynamic behavior of variables for a period of 10 years on performance of case supply chain in auto business.

  12. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-29

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: Petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  14. Renewables in Global Energy Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Renewable energies are essential contributors to the energy supply portfolio as they contribute to world energy supply security, reducing dependency on fossil fuel resources, and provide opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gases. Differences in definition and lack of adequate data complicated the discussion between participants on these key issues. The International Energy Agency believes that this fact sheet can be of use to all to facilitate the debate on the past, current and future place and role of renewables in total energy supply. Our goal is to present as objectively as possible the main elements of the current renewables energy situation. The definitions and coverage of national statistics vary between countries and organisations. In this fact sheet, the renewables definition includes combustible renewables and waste (CRW), hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, tide and wave energy.

  15. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence

  16. Designing the Reverse Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobbi, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    for the reverse supply chain. Design/methodology/approach – In order to identify the relevance of the Fisher model, the model needs to be recast in terms of PRV, which, in this context, is considered the independent variable in the reverse logistics arena. Products defined as innovative in Fisher's taxonomy....... Research limitations/implications – The focus is restricted to the industry of electrical and electronic products. Practical implications – Based on the outcome of the study, managers are able to determine the basic prerequisites for the design of their reverse supply chains. Originality/value – Previous......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of the product residual value (PRV) and the loss of value over time of returned products in the reverse supply chain configuration. It also examines whether or not the distinction of Fisher's functional and innovative products holds...

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  18. Uranium reserves and exploration activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meehan, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    The strategy that ERDA plans to employ regarding resource appraisal is outlined. All types of uranium occurrences will be evaluated as sources of domestic ore reserves. Industry's exploration efforts will be compiled. These data will include information on land acquisition and costs, footage drilled and costs, estimates of exploration activities and expenditures, exploration for non-sandstone deposits, exploration in non-established areas, and foreign exploration plans and costs. Typical data in each of these areas are given

  19. Gas reserves, discoveries and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniere, A.

    2006-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2004, new discoveries, located mostly in the Asia/Pacific region, permitted a 71% produced reserve replacement rate. The Middle East and the offshore sector represent a growing proportion of world gas production Non-conventional gas resources are substantial but are not exploited to any significant extent, except in the United States, where they account for 30% of U.S. gas production. (author)

  20. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  1. Indian Reserves: Canada's Developing Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Musto, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    Indian reserves are the most visible reminder of the separation of aboriginal people from the rest of Canada and other Canadians. Illness patterns and social conditions in Native communities closely parallel those in developing nations. While they continue to have a large burden of infectious diseases, these groups also have an increased incidence of chronic and lifestyle diseases as well as environment-related conditions. Similarities can be seen in urban areas between immigrants from abroad...

  2. Cooling system with compressor bleed and ambient air for gas turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, Jan H.; Marra, John J.

    2017-11-21

    A cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine blade cooling fluid supply and from an ambient air source to the turbine blade cooling fluid supply to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The cooling system may include a compressor bleed conduit extending from a compressor to the turbine blade cooling fluid supply that provides cooling fluid to at least one turbine blade. The compressor bleed conduit may include an upstream section and a downstream section whereby the upstream section exhausts compressed bleed air through an outlet into the downstream section through which ambient air passes. The outlet of the upstream section may be generally aligned with a flow of ambient air flowing in the downstream section. As such, the compressed air increases the flow of ambient air to the turbine blade cooling fluid supply.

  3. Leading a supply chain turnaround.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Reuben E

    2004-10-01

    Just five years ago, salespeople at Whirlpool were in the habit of referring to their supply chain organization as the "sales disablers." Now the company excels at getting products to the right place at the right time--while managing to keep inventories low. How did that happen? In this first-person account, Reuben Slone, Whirlpool's vice president of Global Supply Chain, describes how he and his colleagues devised the right supply chain strategy, sold it internally, and implemented it. Slone insisted that the right focal point for the strategy was the satisfaction of consumers at the end of the supply chain. Most supply chain initiatives do the opposite: They start with the realities of a company's manufacturing base and proceed from there. Through a series of interviews with trade customers large and small, his team identified 27 different capabilities that drove industry perceptions of Whirlpool's performance. Knowing it was infeasible to aim for world-class performance across all of them, Slone weighed the costs of excelling at each and found the combination of initiatives that would provide overall competitive advantage. A highly disciplined project management office and broad training in project management were key to keeping work on budget and on benefit. Slone set an intense pace--three "releases" of new capabilities every month--that the group maintains to this day. Lest this seem like a technology story, however, Slone insists it is just as much a "talent renaissance." People are proud today to be part of Whirlpool's supply chain organization, and its new generation of talent will give the company a competitive advantage for years to come.

  4. Green supply chains: a new priority for supply chain managers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ittmann, H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is not a comprehensive overview of green logistics. What it endeavours to do is to sensitise, in a very summarised way, those involved in logistics and supply chain management about the importance of green logistics and to highlight...

  5. Discussion: the supply price control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlechild, S.

    1993-01-01

    Following the paper given by the Director General of the Office of Electricity Regulation (OFFER) at the Centre for the Study of Regulated Industries (CRI) seminar on Regulatory Policy and the Energy Sector held in November 1992, the issue of Supply Price Controls is debated. The role of OFFER as standing between Government and the Regional Electricity Companies is explored in a question and answer session, covering areas such as pool versus, contract prices, market forces, regulatory arrangements for the electricity supply, price discrimination and franchise markets. (UK)

  6. LPG world supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    Over the course of this decade, the global LPG market has moved from being tight, where supply barely exceeded non-price sensitive demand, to the current market situation where supply growth has outstripped demand growth to such an extent that current fundamentals suggest that considerable length will prevail in the market over the near term. As is the case for many other energy commodity markets, the LPG industry has experienced a considerable transformation over the last five years with many new LPG supply projects coming on-stream and demand growth in many developing markets slowing in response to higher energy prices. The near term challenge for LPG producers will be securing outlets for output as the market becomes increasingly oversupplied. With expanding LPG supply and a worldwide tightness in the naphtha market, it is expected that petrochemical consumers will favor relatively low priced LPG over naphtha and the resulting increase in LPG cracking rates will go some way to reducing the expected supply surplus. However, the timing of several new LPG supply projects and the start-up of LPG-based petrochemical plants in the Middle-East are expected to impact global LPG trade and pricing over the next few years. Thus, at this point in time, the global LPG market has a high degree of uncertainty with questions remaining over the impact of high energy (and LPG) prices on traditional and developing market demand, the timing of new supply projects and the combined effect of these two factors on international LPG prices. World LPG production has been rising in nearly every region of the world over the last few years and totaled about 229 million tons in 2007, which is some 30 million tons per year higher than in 2000. The exception is North America which accounts for the largest share of global LPG supply at about 24% but production there has remained relatively flat in recent years. Strong LPG production growth in the Middle-East which contributed to about 19% of

  7. World oil supply and demand'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Apart from a collapse of oil and gas consumption in the CIS, a strong increase in demand in the newly industrialized countries and an upward trend in the OECD countries are observed. Non-Opec supply continued to grow, with a production decline in Usa and Russia but a record production level in the North Sea and a remarkable revival in South America (Colombia, Argentina) and Africa (Congo, Angola). In Opec countries, the trend goes from supply control to development of production capacity. Situations in Saudi Arabia, Iran and Iraq are detailed

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  9. Getting help from others: the effects of demand and supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Douglas A

    2014-11-01

    This article investigates whether the help with care needs that is received from others depends on the potential supply of family helpers. Data from the first round of survey data collected in the National Health and Aging Trends Study are used to create measures of whether help is received, the number of helpers, and the hours of help received. Regression analysis is used to relate these outcomes to indicators of the demand for and supply of helpers. Analyses suggest limited evidence that the receipt of help is a supply-driven phenomenon. Although the measures of child-caregiver supply are not associated with a binary indicator of help received, caregiver-supply factors are associated with the number of helpers and the total hours of help received. Findings on the total number of helpers and total hours of care have implications for the division of care labor within families and between families and nonfamily members. Foreseeable trends in the demand for and the supply of help suggest further evolution in patterns of elders' receipt of help with care needs. Even if those with needs for care continue to have their needs addressed by one or more helpers, the number of helpers, and the aggregate amount of help they provide, is likely to undergo adjustment in response to changing family patterns. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Reserves, resources and eve of bell-shaped curve peak of discovered reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragicevic, T.; Kolundzic, S.

    2005-01-01

    Through the whole 20. century modern world was marked by accelerated development, and its progress was based, among other things, on sufficient and reliable energy supply. As fossil fuels have represented a large share in total energy sources with ever growing share of oil and natural gas consumption, in the 1990s serious concerns were raised about limited availability of these fuels. In line with the oil reserves life cycle theory presented by bell-shaped curve, M. King Hubbert predicted in 1956 that the U.S.A. would reach the peak of the curve in 1970 (which really happened). Other experts predicted that global oil reserves would reach their peak in the period 1990-2000, and now the new peaks are projected for 2006, 2009, 2013, 2020 and even 2030. Despite the fact that some predictions turned to be false, and despite our inclination to take a more optimistic view, we should face the fact that even the most optimistic 2030 is not far away. The term p eak oil , denoting the period when the known reserves would reach their production peaks, has been increasingly present in the literature and in the media. It does not implicate that oil reserves will disappear in one of the predicted years. Intense oil production will continue, but total reserves will decline. According to predictions, natural gas reserves are not expected to reach their peak before the end of the 21st century. Methane hydrates reserves could protrude throughout the 22nd century. Nevertheless, the peak oil phenomenon has serious implications for the mankind and for oil companies. The changes that will affect oil companies will not be equal for super-majors or majors and medium-sized and small-sized oil companies. Different are the ways that the changes will affect the countries with strong economies and those with weaker ones. Modern economies rely on fuel consumption. Moving people and goods from one place to another is not only the matter of transport and leisure. Availability and accessibility of

  11. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  12. Operating experience of a portable thermophotovoltaic power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Frederick E.; Doyle, Edward F.; Shukla, Kailash

    1999-03-01

    Two configurations of man-portable thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power supplies based on Thermo Power's supported continuous fiber emitter have been designed, built, and are being tested. The systems use narrow-band, fibrous, ytterbia emitters radiating to bandgap matched silicon photovoltaic arrays with dielectric stack filters for optical energy recovery and recuperators for thermal energy recovery. The systems have been designed for operation with propane and with combustion air preheat temperatures of up to 1250 K. To operate at air preheat temperatures above the auto-ignition temperature of the fuel, a unique fuel delivery system was devised which results in the micromixing and rapid combustion of the fuel and air right in the emitter fibers. This allows the ytterbia emitter fibers to run much hotter (˜2000 K) than any of the surrounding structure.

  13. Brain reserve and cognitive reserve in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Maria A.; Leavitt, Victoria M.; Riccitelli, Gianna; Comi, Giancarlo; DeLuca, John; Filippi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We first tested the brain reserve (BR) hypothesis in multiple sclerosis (MS) by examining whether larger maximal lifetime brain volume (MLBV; determined by genetics) protects against disease-related cognitive impairment, and then investigated whether cognitive reserve (CR) gained through life experience (intellectually enriching leisure activities) protects against cognitive decline independently of MLBV (BR). Methods: Sixty-two patients with MS (41 relapsing-remitting MS, 21 secondary progressive MS) received MRIs to estimate BR (MLBV, estimated with intracranial volume [ICV]) and disease burden (T2 lesion load; atrophy of gray matter, white matter, thalamus, and hippocampus). Early-life cognitive leisure was measured as a source of CR. We assessed cognitive status with tasks of cognitive efficiency and memory. Hierarchical regressions were used to investigate whether higher BR (ICV) protects against cognitive impairment, and whether higher CR (leisure) independently protects against cognitive impairment over and above BR. Results: Cognitive status was positively associated with ICV (R2 = 0.066, p = 0.017). An ICV × disease burden interaction (R2 = 0.050, p = 0.030) revealed that larger ICV attenuated the impact of disease burden on cognition. Controlling for BR, higher education (R2 = 0.047, p = 0.030) and leisure (R2 = 0.090, p = 0.001) predicted better cognition. A leisure × disease burden interaction (R2 = 0.037, p = 0.030) showed that leisure independently attenuated the impact of disease burden on cognition. Follow-up analyses revealed that BR protected against cognitive inefficiency, not memory deficits, whereas CR was more protective against memory deficits than cognitive inefficiency. Conclusion: We provide evidence of BR in MS, and show that CR independently protects against disease-related cognitive decline over and above BR. Lifestyle choices protect against cognitive impairment independently of genetic factors outside of one's control

  14. 46 CFR 108.467 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water supply. 108.467 Section 108.467 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.467 Water supply. The water supply of a foam extinguishing system must not be the water supply of the fire main system on the unit unless when...

  15. Novel supplies for powering a sueprconducting magnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevtchenko, O.A.; Krooshoop, Hendrikus J.G.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Grunblatt, G.; Shevchenko, A.A.; Kolesnitchenko, A.F.; Sidorenko, V.D.; Grytsina, A.E.; Lysenko, V.; Scherbakov, V.I.; Anashkin, O.; Keylin, V.E.

    2000-01-01

    A family of new supplies for powering superconducting magnets was developed in our institutes. As an example, two supplies are described in the paper. One of the supplies uses superconducting, another-semiconductor-based repetitive switches. Both supplies are able to generate 1 Volt at the

  16. 29 CFR 1470.33 - Supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Changes, Property, and Subawards § 1470.33 Supplies. (a) Title. Title to supplies acquired under a grant.... If there is a residual inventory of unused supplies exceeding $5,000 in total aggregate fair market value upon termination or completion of the award, and if the supplies are not needed for any other...

  17. 40 CFR 31.33 - Supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 31.33 Supplies. (a) Title. Title to supplies acquired under a...) Disposition. If there is a residual inventory of unused supplies exceeding $5,000 in total aggregate fair market value upon termination or completion of the award, and if the supplies are not needed for any...

  18. 32 CFR 33.33 - Supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 33.33 Supplies. (a) Title. Title to supplies acquired under a...) Disposition. If there is a residual inventory of unused supplies exceeding $5,000 in total aggregate fair market value upon termination or completion of the award, and if the supplies are not needed for any...

  19. 38 CFR 43.33 - Supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 43.33 Supplies. (a) Title. Title to supplies acquired under a...) Disposition. If there is a residual inventory of unused supplies exceeding $5,000 in total aggregate fair market value upon termination or completion of the award, and if the supplies are not needed for any...

  20. Natural gas reserves/total energy consumption: a useful new ratio for addressing global climate change concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    Energy analysts have used the reserves/production ratios for oil and natural gas for decades as indicators of the ability of countries to maintain or increase their production of those fuels. The global community is now faced with the challenge of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from a variety of sources, with the energy sector being the largest contributor to the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Natural gas has emerged as a highly desirable fuel, since it produces lower emissions of carbon dioxide than coal or oil for equivalent amounts of energy supplied. The ratio of a country's proven natural gas reserves to its total energy consumption is a good indicator of its ability to improve its air quality situation or address greenhouse gas reduction targets from domestic natural gas sources. This paper provides the ratio for several countries at different stages of development, and discusses some of the implications. In countries where exploration for natural gas has been limited, the estimated resources in place may sometimes be a more useful indicator than proven reserves, and could be used instead. (author)