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Sample records for reservation western cape

  1. The phytosociology of the Vermaaks, Marnewicks and Buffelsklip valleys of the Kammanassie Nature Reserve, Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cleaver

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term conservation ecosystems require a broader understanding of the ecological processes involved. Because ecosystems react differently to different management practices, it is important that a description and classification of the vegetation of an area are completed. A vegetation survey of the valley areas of the Kammanassie Nature Reserve was undertaken as part of a larger research project to assess the environmental impacts of large-scale groundwater abstraction from Table Mountain Group aquifers on ecosystems in the reserve. From a TWFNSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, 21 plant communities, which can be grouped into 13 major groups, were identified. A classification and description of these communities, as well as a vegetation map of the different areas are presented. Associated gradients in habitat w ere identified by using an ordination algorithm (DECORANA. The diagnostic species as well as the prominent and less conspicuous species of the tree, shrub, forb and grass strata are outlined. The study also resulted in a total number of 481 species being identified and the discovery of a new Erica species. These vegetation surveys and descriptions provide baseline information for management purposes and that allows monitoring as well as similar surveys to be conducted in future.

  2. A checklist of the non-acarine arachnids (Chelicerata: Arachnida of the De Hoop Nature Reserve, Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Haddad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA in conserved areas, arachnids were collected in the De Hoop Nature Reserve in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. The survey was carried out between 1999 and 2007, and consisted of five intensive surveys between two and 12 days in duration. Arachnids were sampled in five broad habitat types, namely fynbos, wetlands, i.e. De Hoop Vlei, Eucalyptus plantations at Potberg and Cupido’s Kraal, coastal dunes near Koppie Alleen and the intertidal zone at Koppie Alleen. A total of 274 species representing five orders, 65 families and 191 determined genera were collected, of which spiders (Araneae were the dominant taxon (252 spp., 174 genera, 53 families. The most species rich families collected were the Salticidae (32 spp., Thomisidae (26 spp., Gnaphosidae (21 spp., Araneidae (18 spp., Theridiidae (16 spp. and Corinnidae (15 spp.. Notes are provided on the most commonly collected arachnids in each habitat.Conservation implications: This study provides valuable baseline data on arachnids conserved in De Hoop Nature Reserve, which can be used for future assessments of habitat transformation, alien invasive species and climate change on arachnid biodiversity.

  3. Tuberculosis drug resistance in the Western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Drug resistance is a serious problem in the treatment of tuberculosis and a threat to successful tuberculosis control programmes. Local health workers have expressed concern that the increasing tuberculosis epidemic in the Western Cape is partly attributable to drug resistance. The aim of this study was to ...

  4. northern Sandveld, Western Cape, South Afric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    The Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) is currently carrying out detailed hydrogeological studies within the northern Sandveld area, Western Cape, South Africa. In addition, preliminary studies funded by DWAF, have also been carried out in the area assessing hydrological, ecological and botanical ...

  5. Validating homicide rates in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The Western Cape Province had the highest homicide rates in South Africa during the early 2000s. South African Police Service (SAPS) data suggested a significant decline in homicide rates in the Western Cape since 2007. It ranked second highest to the Eastern Cape Province until 2013 and ranked highest ...

  6. A checklist of the non-acarine arachnids (Chelicerata: Arachnida of the De Hoop Nature Reserve, Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Haddad

    2009-04-01

    Conservation implications: This study provides valuable baseline data on arachnids conserved in De Hoop Nature Reserve, which can be used for future assessments of habitat transformation, alien invasive species and climate change on arachnid biodiversity.

  7. An audit of povincial Gastroenterology services in the Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An audit of povincial Gastroenterology services in the Western Cape. G Watermeyer, MEC van Wyk, PA Goldberg. Abstract. Background. While disorders such as gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, gastrointestinal (GI) cancers and inflammatory bowel disease are prevalent among all racial groups in the Western Cape, ...

  8. Knowledge and attitudes in the rural Western Cape towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study found that farm residents in the Western Cape are potentially exposed to pesticides through various environmental routes including water. This emphasises the need to monitor water for pesticides in the Western Cape, but in order to do this, human and laboratory resources and capacities to conduct routine ...

  9. An audit of povincial Gastroenterology services in the Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to audit the availability of GI facilities in the provincial sector, which provides care for the majority of people in the Western Cape. Method. All hospitals in the Western Cape providing endoscopy were evaluated by means of a hands-on audit, to identify available organisational infrastructure.

  10. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Western Cape Liquor Act in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Western Cape Liquor Act in Khayelitsha. Alcohol is one of the key risk factors for the exceptionally high levels of interpersonal violence in South Africa's Western Cape Province. It is also an important contributor to disease. Reducing access to alcohol is one of several strategies ...

  11. An assessment of asthmatic patients at four Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such patients suffer recurrent asthma symptoms and use medication inappropriately, which po Box 3778, Tygerpark, 7536. A Bheekie. MPharm. Department of Pharmacology, University of the Western Cape,. Bellville, W Cape. J A Syce.Pho. Allergy Clinic, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, and. Institute of Child ...

  12. Managing climate risk in South Africa's Western Cape | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-05

    Jan 5, 2011 ... Meanwhile, the Western Cape's population is booming and job seekers are flocking to the region. Water demand in metropolitan Cape Town has more than tripled since the late 1970s. Across the province it grew by 60 per cent between 1996-2006. Recent land and water reforms aim to transfer at least 30 ...

  13. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Western Cape Liquor Act in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alcohol is one of the key risk factors for the exceptionally high levels of interpersonal violence in South Africa's Western Cape Province. It is also an important contributor to disease. Reducing access to alcohol is one of several strategies recommended for lowering alcohol-related harm; it has been identified as a suitable ...

  14. Temporality and Patterns of ART Adherence in the Western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an ethnographic study conducted over thirty months in South Africa's Western Cape Province ending in 2012, we explored ART adherence amongst almost 200 patients attending three clinics. This setting contained significant political, structural, economic and socio cultural barriers to the uptake of, and adherence to, ...

  15. Quality of asthma care: Western Cape Province, South Africa | Mash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One strategy was an audit tool to assist with assessing and improving the quality of care. Methods. The audit of asthma care targeted all primary care facilities that managed adult patients with chronic asthma within all six districts of the Western Cape province. The usual steps in the quality improvement cycle were followed.

  16. Missed opportunities for immunisation at hospitals in the western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    such as measles and whooping cough are still endemic despite the availability of free immunisation at community clinics. During the latter pan of 1992 the incidence of measles increased in several parts of South. Africa, including the western Cape. Despite a nationwide measles vaccine campaign in. 1990, measles vaccine ...

  17. Tuberculosis drug resistance in the Western Cape | Weyer | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Drug resistance is a serious problem in the treatment of tuberculosis and a threat to successful tuberculosis control programmes. Local health workers have expressed concern that the increasing tuberculosis epidemic in the Western Cape is partly attributable to drug resistance. The aim of this study was to ...

  18. Patterns and drivers of marine bioinvasions in eight Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa, fouling is the dominant vector of marine invasions, being responsible for 48% of the 86 alien introductions that are known. This study aimed to document alien species in fouling assemblages in eight Western Cape harbours and to assess patterns and potential drivers of these invasions. In each harbour, 10 ...

  19. A critical appraisal of Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 2011 the Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability v Government of The Republic of South Africa case flagged a lot of issues faced by persons with disabilities relating to access to education in South Africa. The case tackled certain perceptions about the ineducability of persons with profound and severe disability ...

  20. Waterbirds at the Theewaterskloof Dam, Western Cape, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With a perimeter of 82km, the Theewaterskloof Dam is the largest dam in the Western Cape. This paper, based on midsummer and mid-winter surveys between 1993 and 2005, assesses the importance of the dam for waterbirds. The median numbers of waterbirds in summer and winter were 3 086 and 1 321, respectively.

  1. Notification of pesticide poisoning in the western Cape, 1987 - 1991 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a paucity of data on pesticide-related morbidity and mortality in South Africa. A review of notifications to the western Cape office of the Department of National Health and Population Development from 1987 to 1991 was undertaken to describe the epidemiological profile of pesticide poisoning in the region.

  2. Afrikaans as an index of identity among Western Cape Coloured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the intimate domains. It appears that Afrikaans remains a strong marker of identity in the two semi-urban Western Cape Coloured communities, despite English largely being regarded as the language of upward socioeconomic mobility. Keywords: language shift, language maintenance, language attitudes, bilingualism ...

  3. Health care achievement and challenges in the Western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa is R17 billion annually. The budget of this province alone is R2.3 billion. A down-sizing of R200 million is a huge decrease and calls for wise and skilful management. Ebrahim Rasool. Provincial Minister of Health and Social Services. Department of Health. Western Cape. The Management and Staff. atMASA.

  4. Yersinia enterocolitica in the Western Cape | Finlayson | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yersinia enterocolitica, serotype 3, phage type 9a, has been isolated for the first time in the Western Cape. Sera from 59 abattoir workers were investigated for the presence of 0 and H agglutinins. These were present in one sample, suggesting a past infection. Sera from 115 Nama-speaking adults of the Kuboes area ...

  5. Heritage and the Development of Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Todeschini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The jurisdiction of Stellenbosch, located adjacent to, but outside of, the Cape Town metropolitan area in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, comprises over one thousand square kilometers of landscapes spanning: spectacular mountain wilderness areas; many productive rural valleys that are an integral part of the celebrated Cape Winelands; and a number of historic, characterful urban centres founded during the 17th century. Overall, this blend of domains attracts increasing numbers of tourists, while the places are also home to a growing population. The pressures for change and growth are significant: so is the need for appropriate policies and plans in the longer-term public interest. The authors report on a three-year project they are conducting for the local authority that focuses on the definition of the natural and cultural heritage and, in principle, on how development should be channelled.

  6. Flora of the Kap River Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Cloete

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis ot the flora of the newly proclaimed Kap River Reserve (600 ha is given. The reserve is adjacent to the Fish River and some 5 km from the Fish River Mouth It consists of a coastal plateau up to 100 m a.s.I. which is steeply dissected by the two rivers that partially form the boundary of the reserve. The flora of the reserve was sampled over a period o f three years and plants were collected in all the vegetation types of grassland, thicket and forest. 488 species were collected with a species to family ratio of 4:4. The majority of the taxa recorded represent the major phytochoria of the region. Nineteen species are endemic to the Eastern Cape, two are classed as vulnerable, five are rare, six are protected and a further seventeen are of uncertain status. The flora of the Kap River has closest affinities to that of the Alexandria Forest.

  7. An ethnobotany of Western Cape Rasta bush medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston Philander, Lisa

    2011-11-18

    This descriptive ethnobiological research is the first documentation of the materials utilized in the pharmacopeia of a novel group of herbalists, Rasta bush doctors, found in the botanically diverse Western Cape of South Africa. This article suggests that medicinal plants used by bush doctors unite the disparate ethnomedicines found in South Africa. Ethnospecies name and parts used were recorded during detailed inventories of 39 bush doctors. Collection of voucher specimens for botanical identification occurred in 15 locations. Herbal remedies were classified into use categories and were compared to historical ethnobotanical literature to ascertain previous cultural affiliations. There were 205 ethnospecies found in the Rastafari ethnobiology, 181 were used medicinally. Ethnospecies belong to 71 plant families and 71% belonged to six plant families: Rutaceae (13), Asteraceae (13), Apiaceae (9), Lamiaceae (8), Fabaceae (8), and Euphorbiaceae (7). The majority of remedies (49%) were foliage. Medicinal plants treated over 30 ailments including: gastrointestinal symptoms (11%), urogential complaints (11%), skin ailments (9%), and cardiovascular diseases (8%). Bush doctors appropriated remedies traditionally important to Zulu, KhoiSan, European and Xhosa healing traditions. Novel plants and plant utilization were noted for 22 plant species. Use of previously undocumented plant materials as medicinals denote distinct local knowledge including novel Rastafarian utilization of herbs for spiritual and ritual purposes. The range of the largely herbaceous pharmacopeia is narrow compared to the region's highly biodiverse materials and historical records of medicinal use. Bush doctors' experimentation with known herbal remedies illustrates a striking level of cross-cultural adaptation. This syncretic pharmacopeia reflects the cultural diversity of Southern Africa, drawing upon recent invasive species, European influence and traditional herbs used by the KhoiSan, Zulu and Xhosa

  8. Learners' experiences of learning support in selected Western Cape schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaniyi Bojuwoye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study explored Western Cape primary and secondary school learners' experiences regarding the provision and utilization of support services for improving learning. A qualitative interpretive approach was adopted and data gathered through focus group interviews involving 90 learners. Results revealed that learners received and utilized various forms of learning support from their schools, teachers, and peers. The learning support assisted in meeting learners' academic, social and emotional needs by addressing barriers to learning, creating conducive learning environments, enhancing learners' self-esteem and improving learners' academic performance.

  9. The birds of the alien Acacia thickets of the South-western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE BIRDS OF THE ALIEN ACACIA THICKETS. OF THE SOUTH WESTERN CAPE. 1. M. WINTERBOTTOM. Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology, University of Cape Town. About 1876, the Cape Superintendent of Plantations began using the Australian Acacia cyanophylla and A. cyclops on a large scale to fix ...

  10. Comparative study of the topography and sediments of the western and eastern continental shelves around Cape Comorin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Kidwai, R.M.; Nair, R.R.

    Western and eastern continental shelves around Cape Comorin show 3 well-defined regions of depositional environments each having its own characteric features. The environments extend from Cochin to Quilon Quilon to Cape Comorin and Cape Comorin...

  11. Delineation of groundwater recharge areas, western Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Walter, Donald A.

    2000-01-01

    The unconfined sand-and-gravel aquifer in western Cape Cod, Massachusetts, which is the sole source of water supply for the communities in the area, is recharged primarily from precipitation. The rate of recharge from precipitation is estimated to be about 26 inches per year (in/yr), or about 60 percent of the precipitation rate. This recharge rate yields a flow through the aquifer of about 180 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Groundwater flows radially outward from the top of the water-table mound in the north-central part of the flow system toward the coast, as indicated by the water-table contours on the large map on this sheet. Recharge that reaches the water table near the top of the mound travels deeper through the aquifer than recharge that reaches the water table closer to the coast. All recharge to the aquifer ultimately discharges to pumping wells, streams, or coastal areas; however, some of this recharge may flow first through kettle ponds before eventually reaching these discharge points.

  12. Description of a new moss frog from the south-western Cape (Anura ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new species of moss frog, genus Arthroleptella, is described from the Kleinrivier mountains of the south-western Cape. It is morphologically indistinguishable from the other three species in the area. The four Cape species are allopatric, each has a unique male advertisement call, and preliminary molecular data shows ...

  13. Seasonal frost and soil temperature data, Western Cape Mountains, South Africa, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Micro-climatic monitoring of air and ground was started in 1990 to evaluate climatic controls on the present-day diurnal soil frost environment in the Western Cape...

  14. demand for their determinations in the Western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-04-01

    Apr 1, 2004 ... costs, deaths and drug-related crime, there exists the very real and sinister potential of .... Costa e Silva JA. Evidence-based analysis of the worldwide abuse of licit and illicit drugs. Human Psychopharmacology 2002; 17: 131-140. 9. Flisher AJ, Ziervogel CF, Chalton DO, et al. Risk-taking behaviour of Cape ...

  15. Bilingualism and language shift in Western Cape communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper considers a number of pertinent sociolinguistic aspects of a distinct process of language shift recently noted in some historically Afrikaans first language (L1) communities established in the Cape Metropolitan area. Particularly, it considers qualitatively how a number of families made deliberate choices to change ...

  16. Van Willebrand's disease in the Western Cape | Bird | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haemophilia clinics at two tertiary referral hospitals (Groote Schuur Hospital and Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital) in the Westem Cape. Patients. Twenty-two patients (t 4 females, 8 males; ages 3 - 55 years) were studied. Those studied were selected for reasons of convenience, as they were compliant and ...

  17. The Palmiet River estuary in the south-western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zoology Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch .... American Optics refractometer. pH was estimated by using universal indicator paper. The water samples were frozen for further analyses. N03 - N, NH3 - N, reactive P04 - P and. R eprod u ced .... Robertson's (1979) regression of P:B against lifespan, and.

  18. Validating homicide rates in the Western Cape Province, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    measure to compare the extent of interpersonal violence across countries, cities and regions[6] – are considered inaccurate.[7] .... The province's holistic approach to violence prevention, which supports evidence-based ... Cape Town's decline in firearm homicide rates from 34.4 to 20.9/100 000 from 2001 to 2005 was.

  19. Tuberous sclerosis complex in the Western Cape, South Africa: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic neurocutaneous condition, which affects multiple organ systems. This study aimed to determine the presenting features of children with TSC in Cape Town, South Africa. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a TSC clinic, and clinical features at presentation were ...

  20. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to investigate habitat suitability of the Cape Vulture in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Griffin, R.; Estes, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    As the global urban population rapidly increases, many wild species lose habitat to human development. The Western Cape of South Africa contains one of Earth's 35 biodiversity hotspots, with remarkably high levels of species richness and endemism. Understanding the relationship between anthropogenic changes and key species in this region is crucial for conservation of its threatened ecosystems. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect that climate change and urbanization each have on habitat suitability of the Cape Vulture. This research utilized NASA satellite data and crowdsourced species sightings to model past, current, and future habitat suitability for this key species in the Western Cape. Data used from NASA Earth Observations included: Landsat 8- derived Land Cover, Modis Land Surface Temperature, Digital Elevation Models from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, and precipitation data which integrated in-situ stations with Infrared data. Species observations were sourced from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility online database. A geospatial modelling framework was used to generate maps of present, past and future suitable habitats for analysis and comparison. Changes in precipitation and temperature may be a factor in the extreme loss of habitat since 1995, and predict even more drastic loss in the future. This research provides insights on anthropogenic effects on a species' range which may be used to inform discussions of conservation as an element of environmentally sustainable development.

  1. A taxonomic revision of Maurocenia (Celastraceae, a Western Cape monotypic endemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Archer

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic account is given of the monotypic genus Maurocenia Mill. Maurocenia frangula Mill, has a restricted range and is endemic to the Cape Peninsula and the West Coast National Park. Western Cape. Maurocenia frangularia (L.Mill., the species name and author citation widely used in the past, is incorrect. It is characterized by. among others, pendulous ovules and gynodioecy, rare states in the Celastraceae. Maurocenia is apparently most closely related to the southern African genus Lauridia Eckl. & Zeyh.

  2. Dryland salinity: threatening water resources in the semi-arid Western Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bugan, Richard DH

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available in the soil and vadose zone of a 16 hectare small scale catchment, exhibiting evidence of dryland salinity and representative of semi-arid conditions in the Berg River catchment. At this site, salt sources and storage were studied and also groundwater...: THREATENING WATER RESOURCES IN THE SEMI-ARID WESTERN CAPE Increased dryland salinity in the Swartland and Overberg regions poses a threat to the bread basket of the Western Cape, water resources in an already water-stressed area, water supply...

  3. The diets of fish in three south-western Cape estuarine systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-09-26

    Sep 26, 1988 ... 'Ci. Table 2 The diets of fourteen fish species from the Bot River, Kleinmond and Palmiet estuaries in the south-western Cape. Only prey categories that. N. +:> contributed >0,5%V consumed by at least one species are included (- indicates < 0,5% contribution to occurrence or volume). ---w. '-' Food category.

  4. Cervical HPV natural history among young Western Cape, South African women: The randomized control EVRI Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudenga, Staci L.; Torres, B. Nelson; Botha, Matthys H.; Zeier, Michele; Abrahamsen, Martha E.; Glashoff, Richard H.; Engelbrecht, Susan; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; van der Laan, Louvina E.; Kipping, Siegfried; Taylor, Douglas; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to assess human papillomavirus (HPV) infection persistence and incidence 7-months post-enrollment by HPV vaccine study arm (vaccine or placebo). HIV-negative, sexually active women aged 16-24 years in the Western Cape, South Africa, were enrolled in the EVRI Trial

  5. Monitoring of long-term pavement performance sites in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, the Department of Transport and Public Works of the Western Cape province in South Africa entered into a contract with the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in South Africa to start a Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP...

  6. How do we know how much groundwater is stored in south-western Cape mountains?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Midgley, JJ

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Isotopes of water (D, O-18) in rain and streams were used to obtain an estimate of the amount of ground water in the south-western Cape Mountains. It was assumed that the groundwater reservoir is well-mixed and that the water isotope signals...

  7. The Bot River, a closed estuary in the south-western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tion of a large proportion of the invertebrate fauna in the vlei (cJ. Davies 1982) and thus the food source of wader populations. Thus it would appear that there is an urgent and immediate need to formulate a consistent management strategy for the Bot River estuary, an important and uni- que system in the western Cape.

  8. Homework Policy Review: A Case Study of A Public School in the Western Cape Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Verbra

    2018-01-01

    A key concern today is the question of homework in our nation's public schools. In this study, an investigation was conducted with the first no-homework policy, which has been introduced in one of the primary schools in the Western Cape. This study seeks to determine whether a no-homework policy will validate a positive or negative effect on…

  9. The diets of fish in three south-western Cape estuarine systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stomach contents of 2756 fish of 14 species taken by seine and gill netting in the Bot River, Kleinmond and Palmiet estuaries on the south-western Cape coast of South Africa were examined. The small juveniles of all species consumed primarily zooplankton before switching to their adult diets. Seven of the species, ...

  10. Occurrence of blood parasites in seabirds admitted for rehabilitation in the Western Cape, South Africa, 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, N J; Voogt, N M; Schaefer, A M; Peirce, M A; Vanstreels, R E T

    2017-01-15

    Blood parasites are generally uncommon in seabirds, and knowledge on their epidemiology is further limited by the fact that they often inhabit remote locations that are logistically difficult or expensive to study. We present a long term data set of blood smear examinations of 1909 seabirds belonging to 27 species that were admitted to a rehabilitation centre in Cape Town (Western Cape, South Africa) between 2001 and 2013. Blood parasites were detected in 59% of species (16/27) and 29% of individuals examined (551/1909). The following blood parasites were recorded: Babesia ugwidiensis, Babesia peircei, Babesia sp., Plasmodium sp., Leucocytozoon ugwidi, Hepatozoon albatrossi, Haemoproteus skuae and Spirochaetales. Several of the records are novel host-parasite associations, demonstrating the potential of rehabilitation centres for parasite and disease surveillance, particularly for species infrequently sampled from which no host-specific parasites have been described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Morphological characteristics of Cape sugarbirds ( Promerops cafer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cape sugarbirds (Promerops cafer) are the largest nectarivores in the Western Cape and feed almost exclusively on protea nectar and associated arthropods. Helderberg Nature Reserve, Western Cape, South Africa, has a large diversity of Protea and supports breeding sugarbirds. As part of a larger study, we captured ...

  12. Adaptation is.... Managing climate risk in South Africa's Western Cape

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    rising demand. “This scarce resource needs to be equitably and efficiently divided between the ecological reserve in rivers on the one hand, and domestic, industrial, and ... planning. It brings a multidisciplinary team of scientists together with farmers, community and industry groups, and a range of local planning authorities.

  13. A Systems Dynamic Model for Drug Abuse and Drug-Related Crime in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nyabadza, Farai; Coetzee, Lezanie

    2017-01-01

    The complex problem of drug abuse and drug-related crimes in communities in the Western Cape province cannot be studied in isolation but through the system they are embedded in. In this paper, a theoretical model to evaluate the syndemic of substance abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape province of South Africa is constructed and explored. The dynamics of drug abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape are simulated using STELLA software. The simulation results are...

  14. Non-metropolitan residential gated developments in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spocter, M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available functions, which further problematises the quest for suitable definitions of urban and rural. All settlements undergo temporal changes of its size, extent and nature; and this has blurred the urban-rural difference with one-dimensional classification... arbitrary population ranges. The average population size of towns in non-metropolitan Western Cape is 11 273, but this masks a size difference of 142 518 people between the smallest and largest town. 6 Table 1: Number of towns in non...

  15. Development and implementation of a Bridge Management System for the Provincial Government of the Western Cape, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development and implementation of a bridge management system for the Provincial Government Western Cape (PGWC). During the first phase of the project, the inventory and inspection modules were customised to meet the needs...

  16. Western Cape Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT) study: Measuring primary care organisation and performance in the Western Cape Province, South Africa (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Abdul-Rauf; le Grange, Cynthia; Bhagwan, Susheela; Manga, Nayna; Hellenberg, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Background Major health sector reform and the need for baseline measures of performance to determine impact. Aim Baseline audit of primary healthcare (PHC) performance. Setting Cape Town and Cape Winelands (rural) PHC facilities (PCFs) in Western Cape Province, South Africa. Method The South African cross-culturally validated ZA PCAT to audit PHC performance on 11 subdomains associated with improved health and reduced costs. Adult PCF users systematically sampled. All full-time doctors and nurse practitioners in PCFs sampled and all PCF managers in sub-districts sampled invited into the study. Results Data from 1432 users, 100 clinicians and 64 managers from 13 PCFs in 10 sub-districts analysed (figures show stakeholder percentages scoring subdomain performance ‘acceptable to good’). 11.5% users scored access ‘acceptable to good’; community orientation and comprehensive services provided 20.8% and 39.9%, respectively. Total PHC score for users 50.2%; for managers and practitioners 82.8% and 88.0%, respectively. Among practitioners access was lowest (33.3%); PHC team (98.0%) and comprehensive services available (100.0%) highest. Among managers, access (13.5%) and family centredness (45.6%) are lowest; PHC team (85.9%) and comprehensive services available (90.6%) highest. Managers scored access, family centredness and cultural competence significantly lower than practitioners. Users scored comprehensive services available, comprehensive services provided and community orientation significantly lower than practitioners and managers. Conclusion Gaps between users’ experience and providers’ assessments of PHC performance are identified. Features that need strengthening and alignment with best practice, provincial and national, and health policies are highlighted with implications for practitioner and manager training, health policy, and research. PMID:27247157

  17. Exploring ICF components in a survey among Xhosa speakers in Eastern & Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Arne H; Jelsma, Jennifer; Loeb, Mitchell; Maart, Soraya; Toni, Mzolisi Ka

    2008-01-01

    To contribute to the testing and development of the ICF model by exploring the relationship between activity limitations, participation restrictions and environmental barriers. Structured questionnaire-based interviews were carried out among a convenience sample of 950 households counting 4917 individuals in Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa. Approximately half of the households had at least one individual with disability, while the other half represented controls in the study. Activity limitations, participation restrictions and environmental barriers were operationalized by means of questions drawn directly from the ICF checklist. Principal component analyses supported a four-component solution for the activity and participation variables, and a two-component solution for the barrier variables. Scales for each sub-component were produced by adding the individual items under each sub-component. Male respondents are more restricted than females when it comes to social activities, individual care, education and mobility barriers. While respondents in Western Cape scored higher (more limitations and restrictions) on the activity and participation sub-scales individual care, daily activities and education, Eastern Cape respondents scored higher on both the environmental barrier sub-scales. A viable structure of sub-components under the broader ICF concepts has been demonstrated. The study has provided some support to viewing activity limitations and participation restrictions as two independent dimensions, but also invites further studies and refinement of the model.

  18. The pigments from Pinnacle Point Cave 13B, Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Earth pigments from the three excavations at Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (Western Cape Province, South Africa), spanning the terminal middle Pleistocene and earlier late Pleistocene, are described and analyzed. Qualitative geological categorization primarily rested on textural, fabric, and iron enrichment attributes. Comprehensive recovery allowed identification of non-anthropic pigmentaceous materials, questionable pigments, and 380 pigments (1.08 kg). Less chemically altered pigments were typically fine-grained sedimentary (FGS) rocks, tending to be soft, highly micaceous, prone to laminar fragmentation, and with reddish-brown streaks of intermediate nuance. More iron-enriched forms tended to be harder, denser, poorly micaceous, and with redder streaks of more saturated nuance. Some still qualified as FGS forms, but a large number were categorized as sandstone or iron oxide. Despite some temporal change in raw material profiles, circumstantial evidence suggests primarily local procurement from one outcrop throughout the sequence. Definitely utilized pieces (12.7%) were overwhelmingly ground. Unusual forms of modification include several notched pieces and a deliberately scraped 'chevron.' Controlling for fragmentation, streak properties of utilized versus unutilized pieces were used to investigate selective criteria. There was robust evidence for preferential grinding of the reddest materials, strongly suggestive evidence for saturation and darkness being subordinate selective criteria, and some indication of more intensive grinding of materials with the reddest, most saturated, and darkest streaks, and for some deliberate heating of pigments. These findings challenge the initial stages of color lexicalization predicted by the various versions of the basic color term (BCT) hypothesis, they provide grounds for rejecting hafting as a general explanatory hypothesis, and they cannot be accounted for by incidental heating. The results are more consistent with agreed upon

  19. Trophy Hunting and Trophy Size in Ugalla Game Reserve, Western

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    ABSTRACT. The present paper explores trends and variations in trophy size among wildlife species hunted in the Ugalla Game Reserve (UGR) of western Tanzania, in relation to hunting success (animals shot species-1 quota-1). Data on trophy hunting from 2006 – 2010 were obtained from the UGR office in.

  20. Trophy Hunting and Trophy Size in Ugalla Game Reserve, Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present paper explores trends and variations in trophy size among wildlife species hunted in the Ugalla Game Reserve (UGR) of western Tanzania, in relation to hunting success (animals shot species-1 quota-1). Data on trophy hunting from 2006 – 2010 were obtained from the UGR office in Tabora Region.

  1. Four new species of ,Erica (Ericaceae from Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. H. Oliver

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of Erica L. from the mountains of Western Cape are described:  E. richardii E.G.H.Oliv., rare and localized on quartzite cliffs in the foothills of the Great Swartberg north of Klaarstroom, E. anemodes E.G.H.Oliv., and E. viminalis E.G.H.Oliv., both restricted to the Hex River and adjacent mountains, and E.  limnophila E.G.H.Oliv., rare around high altitude marshes in the Wemmershoek and Dutoitskloof Mountains.

  2. Annual ryegrass toxicity in Thoroughbred horses in Ceres in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Grewar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of annual ryegrass toxicity occurred on a Thoroughbred stud in Ceres in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. This is the 1st report of annual ryegrass toxicity in horses in South Africa, although the condition has been reported in cattle and sheep populations in the past. Annual ryegrass toxicity is characterised by a variety of neurological signs including tremors, convulsions, recumbency and in many cases death. The description of the outbreak includes the history, clinical presentation and treatment protocol administered during the outbreak. Various epidemiological variables and their influence in the outbreak are also considered.

  3. The Sustainability and Challenges of Business Incubators in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thobekani Lose

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the growing interest in business incubation programmes and the benefits derived from such programmes, the path is beset by numerous challenges. This paper investigates the challenges faced by business incubators (BIs as they strive to support their clients. The study utilized a qualitative approach to collect data by way of interviews to gain in-depth knowledge and understanding of the concept and challenges of business incubators. The data were collected using structured and unstructured in-depth personal interviews, which were carried out with the respondents of business incubators in the Western Cape. The research participants for this study were limited to the business incubators on the database of a local organization that promotes small and medium enterprises (SMEs development strategy and programmes in the Western Cape Province. All five business incubators on the database were deemed suitable for the study. The results indicated that an average of twenty-five entrepreneurs graduated from the incubation programme in the last five years. Furthermore, lack of sponsorship, production space, advanced technological facilities (prototype and expansion to different areas were found to be among the challenges hindering incubators.

  4. A Systems Dynamic Model for Drug Abuse and Drug-Related Crime in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farai Nyabadza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex problem of drug abuse and drug-related crimes in communities in the Western Cape province cannot be studied in isolation but through the system they are embedded in. In this paper, a theoretical model to evaluate the syndemic of substance abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape province of South Africa is constructed and explored. The dynamics of drug abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape are simulated using STELLA software. The simulation results are consistent with the data from SACENDU and CrimeStats SA, highlighting the usefulness of such a model in designing and planning interventions to combat substance abuse and its related problems.

  5. The diet of brown hyaenas (Hyaena brunnea in Shamwari Game Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa

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    Kerry Slater

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown hyaenas (Hyaena brunnea were introduced to Shamwari Game Reserve in the Eastern Cape Province during 2002, but their feeding ecology is poorly understood. Feeding observations of brown hyaena by field guides and the collection of 31 scats from the study area took place over an 11 month period. Standard techniques were used to analyse the scats and identify prey items present. Ten dietary categories were identified from the scats, with a mean of 3.2 dietary categories per scat. Large mammal remains were found in 30 of the 31 scats, with kudu being the most abundant (61.0% of scats. Overall the two methods indicated at least 14 mammal species being fed on by the brown hyaena. The presence of mainly large mammal remains and invertebrates (in 38.7% of all scats, together with the feeding observations of mainly large mammals by field guides, suggests that brown hyaena in Shamwari are mainly scavengers and that sufficient carrion is available, thereby reducing the need for them to hunt. A 52.0% occurrence of plant matter was found in the scats, suggesting that plant material is an important component of their diet. Further studies are underway to investigate the feeding ecology of brown hyaena in Shamwari and surrounding areas. Conservation implications: Comprehensive scat analysis over a number of years, monitoring of individual movement patterns and population numbers of brown hyaena in and around conservation areas will be beneficial in quantifying resource use of this species.

  6. Distribution of Sipuncula in the Gulf of Valencia and Cape Nao (western Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero-Vicente, L M; De-La-Ossa-Carretero, J A; Del-Pilar-Ruso, Y; Sánchez-Lizaso, J L

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyses the distribution and diversity of sipunculan species inhabiting soft substrata in the Gulf of Valencia and Cape Nao (western Mediterranean) in relation to the characteristics of the sediment. Eighty-seven stations in 14 localities were sampled annually from 2004 to 2008. Nine species were reported, with Aspidosiphon (Aspidosiphon) muelleri being the dominant species in the area and Thysanocardia procera the most widely distributed. Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariate analysis showed how sipunculan abundances of certain species were related to the sediment characteristics, especially grain size. The shell-dwelling species A. (A.) muelleri and Phascolion (Phascolion) caupo were dominant in stations with high amount of coarse sand and gravel, while Sipunculus (Sipunculus) nudus appeared in stations dominated by fine sand with low organic content. Pn. (Pn.) caupo and T procera were reported for the first time in the study area. Moreover, it was the second record of Pn. (Pn.) caupo for the Mediterranean Sea.

  7. An Investigation into How Grade 5 Teachers Teach Natural Science Concepts in Three Western Cape Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Set, Beata; Hadman, Joanne; Ashipala, Daniel Opotamutale

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The rationale behind this study was to investigate how three Grade 5 Natural Sciences teachers in three Western Cape primary schools teach science concepts so as to enable the researcher to gain a deeper understanding and more insightful perception of the ways in which the pedagogical practices of South African primary school teachers…

  8. Validation and downscaling of Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) soil moisture using ground measurements in the Western Cape, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moller, J

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ) soil moisture product on METOP satellite (12.5 km and downscaled to 1 km resolution), against ground measurements of SWC taken with a Hydrosense II probe along transects of 360–820 m on agricultural and natural land at locations in the Western Cape...

  9. Comparative analysis of the PRMS and J2000 hydrological models applied to the Sandspruit Catchment, Western Cape, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bugan, Richard DH

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The applicability of distributed hydrological models to the semi-arid conditions in the Western Cape was investigated through the application of PRMS and J2000 in the Sandspruit Catchment. The Sandspruit is an annual river, with the catchment...

  10. Diversity and Contested Social Identities in Multilingual and Multicultural Contexts of the University of the Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Felix; Peck, Amiena

    2016-01-01

    We draw on Rampton's "Crossing: Language and Ethnicity Among Adolescents" (2014. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge) notion of "crossing" to explore contestations in ethnolinguistic, cultural and racial affiliations at the University of the Western Cape (UWC), a university built for "Coloureds" in apartheid South Africa, but…

  11. Agricultural land purchases for alternative uses – evidence from two farming areas in the Western Cape province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reed, LL

    2009-09-30

    Full Text Available for redistribution purposes. This paper reports on the extent of purchases of agricultural land for diverse reasons within an intensive and extensive agricultural farming area in the Western Cape, gathered through a survey of land buyers between January 2005...

  12. Analysis of measured L-band airborne land clutter from the Western Cape region of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Witt, JJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents backscatter analysis of L-band land clutter data, measured from an airborne platform, over various terrain types encountered in the Western Cape region of South Africa. The data processing steps are described and the backscatter...

  13. Fungicide sensitivity of Tapesia yallundae populations collected from 15 wheat fields in the Western Cape of South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ntushelo, K.; Crous, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    In the Western Cape province of South Africa, eyespot disease (Tapesia yallundae) of wheat is primarily controlled by fungicide applications. Previous studies have shown, however, that isolates of T. yallundae vary in their response to fungicides. In the present study, 20 isolates from each of 15

  14. A mid-Holocene candidate tsunami deposit from the NW Cape (Western Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Simon Matthias; Falvard, Simon; Norpoth, Maike; Pint, Anna; Brill, Dominik; Engel, Max; Scheffers, Anja; Dierick, Manuel; Paris, Raphaël; Squire, Peter; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-03-01

    Although extreme-wave events are frequent along the northwestern coast of Western Australia and tsunamis in 1994 and 2006 induced considerable coastal flooding locally, robust stratigraphical evidence of prehistoric tropical cyclones and tsunamis from this area is lacking. Based on the analyses of X-ray computed microtomography (μCT) of oriented sediment cores, multi-proxy sediment and microfaunal analyses, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and 14C-AMS dating, this study presents detailed investigations on an allochthonous sand layer of marine origin found in a back-barrier depression on the NW Cape Range peninsula. The event layer consists of material from the adjacent beach and dune, fines and thins inland, and was traced up to ~ 400 m onshore. Although a cyclone-induced origin cannot entirely be ruled out, the particular architecture and fabric of the sediment, rip-up clasts and three subunits point to deposition by a tsunami. As such, it represents the first stratigraphical evidence of a prehistoric, mid-Holocene tsunami in NW Western Australia. It was OSL-dated to 5400-4300 years ago, thus postdating the regional mid-Holocene sea-level highstand.

  15. The avifauna of Kwandwe Private Game Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian J.F.K. Craig

    2011-03-01

    Conservation implications: The varied thicket vegetation types of the Great Fish River Valley support a considerable diversity of bird species. If these habitats are managed for biodiversity conservation, they can support a large component of the terrestrial avifauna of the Eastern Cape region.

  16. Small carnivores of Parambikulam Tiger Reserve, southern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sreehari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The first ever detailed study on the small carnivores of the Parambikulam Tiger Reserve (PkTR in the southern Western Ghats, using camera trap techniques, reported 11 species.  A total of 1,350 camera-trap nights were used for the study.  This was supplemented with 242km of day transects and 344km of night transects using spot-lights.  The small carnivores reported were the Small Indian Civet Viverricula indica, Common Palm Civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, Brown Palm Civet Paradoxurus jerdoni, Indian Grey Mongoose Herpestes edwardsii, Stripe-necked Mongoose Herpestes vitticollis, Brown Mongoose Herpestes fuscus, Ruddy Mongoose Herpestes smithii, Smooth-coated Otter Lutrogale perspicillata, Nilgiri Marten Martes gwatkinsii, Jungle Cat Felis chaus and Leopard Cat Prionailurus bengalensis.  About 90% of the small carnivores captured in the camera traps in PKTR were members of the Viverridae family such as the Small Indian Civet (31.67%, Common Palm Civet (30% and Brown Palm Civet (28.33%.  The study recorded all the four species of mongoose known from the Western Ghats from PkTR.  Two out of the 11 small carnivores belong to the ‘Vulnerable’ category on the IUCN Red List. 

  17. Hereditary angio-oedema in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coovadia, K M; Chothia, M-Y; Baker, S G; Peter, J G; Potter, P C

    2018-03-28

    Hereditary angio-oedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant condition caused by a deficiency in the C1-esterase inhibitor protein, resulting in increased bradykinin release. It presents clinically with recurrent attacks of angio-oedema, commonly affecting the limbs, face, upper airway and gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about this condition in sub-Saharan Africa. To analyse and report on the clinical presentation and treatment of patients with HAE in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. A retrospective analysis was conducted on a series of 60 cases of HAE seen between 2010 and 2015 at the Allergy Diagnostic and Clinical Research Unit, University of Cape Town Lung Institute, and the Allergy Clinic at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town. The findings in 43 cases of type 1 HAE are described. Parameters assessed included age, gender, age of diagnosis, duration of illness, family history, identifiable triggers, average duration of attack, number of attacks per year and type of attack. A total of 43 patients were included in this study. Of these, 65.1% (28/43) were female. The median age at diagnosis was 20 years (interquartile range (IQR) 10 - 27) and the median duration of illness 10.5 years (IQR 6 - 22). Of the patients, 62.8% (27/43), 32.6% (14/43) and 4.7% (2/43) were of mixed ancestry, white and black African, respectively; 51.2% (22/43) were index cases, with the remaining 48.8% (21/43) diagnoses via family member screening, 12 families making up the majority of the cohort. The mean (standard deviation) duration of an acute attack was 49 (25.8) hours, and 64.3% (27/42), 71.4% (30/42), 14.3% (6/42) and 88.1% (37/42) of patients experienced facial or upper airway, abdominal, external genitalia and limb attacks, respectively. Danazol for long-term prophylaxis was used in 21 patients, while C1-inhibitor concentrate (Berinert) was accessed for short-term prophylaxis in only four patients. Acute life-threating attacks were treated with fresh frozen plasma in 11

  18. The Physics Entrepreneurship Program at Case Western Reserve University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cyrus

    2001-10-01

    The Physics Entrepreneurship Program is a new, two-year Master's Program designed to empower physicists as entrepreneurs. Launched by the Dept. of Physics at Case Western Reserve University in close cooperation with the Weatherhead School of Management, the program is now in its second year. This innovative new program has already attracted important attention from the business community, including seed funding of a student launched venture, international press coverage, including an article in Business Week, and government interest, including an invitation to brief the Advisory Board of the Mathematical and Physical Sciences Division of the National Science Foundation. This talk will discuss the structure and content of the program, the lessons we are learning, and early indicators of success including a student-launched new business venture that has already secured more than $ 250,000 in seed funding.

  19. Land Use Regression Modeling of Outdoor Noise Exposure in Informal Settlements in Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Chloé; Ragettli, Martina S.; Toyib, Olaniyan; Baatjies, Roslyn; Saucy, Apolline; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel; Röösli, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, noise exposure and its negative health effects have been little explored. The present study aimed to assess the noise exposure situation in adults living in informal settings in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. We conducted continuous one-week outdoor noise measurements at 134 homes in four different areas. These data were used to develop a land use regression (LUR) model to predict A-weighted day-evening-night equivalent sound levels (Lden) from geographic information system (GIS) variables. Mean noise exposure during day (6:00–18:00) was 60.0 A-weighted decibels (dB(A)) (interquartile range 56.9–62.9 dB(A)), during night (22:00–6:00) 52.9 dB(A) (49.3–55.8 dB(A)) and average Lden was 63.0 dB(A) (60.1–66.5 dB(A)). Main predictors of the LUR model were related to road traffic and household density. Model performance was low (adjusted R2 = 0.130) suggesting that other influences than those represented in the geographic predictors are relevant for noise exposure. This is one of the few studies on the noise exposure situation in low- and middle-income countries. It demonstrates that noise exposure levels are high in these settings. PMID:29053590

  20. Results of a pilot programme of mammographic breast cancer screening in the Western Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apffelstaedt, J P; Hattingh, R; Baatjes, K; Wessels, N

    2014-04-01

    Mammographic screening programmes are now established in developing countries. We present an analysis of the first screening programme in sub-Saharan Africa. Women aged > or = 40 years were identified at three primary healthcare centres in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, and after giving informed consent underwent mammography at a mobile unit. After a single reading, patients with American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) 3 - 5 lesions were referred to a tertiary centre for further management. Between 1 February 2011 and 31 August 2012, 2 712 screening mammograms were performed. A total of 261 screening mammograms were reported as BIRADS 3 - 5 (recall rate 9.6%). Upon review of the 250 available screening mammograms, 58 (23%) were rated benign or no abnormalities (BIRADS 1 and 2) and no further action was taken. In 32 women, tissue was acquired (biopsy rate for the series 1.2%); 10 cancers were diagnosed (biopsy malignancy rate 31%). For the entire series of 2 712 screening mammograms, the cancer diagnosis rate was 3.7/1 000 examinations. Of 10 cancers diagnosed at screening, 5 were TNM clinical stage 0, 2 stage I and 3 stage II. The low cancer detection rate achieved, and the technical and multiple administrative problems experienced do not justify installation of a screening programme using the model utilised in this series.

  1. Land Use Regression Modeling of Outdoor Noise Exposure in Informal Settlements in Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloé Sieber

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In low- and middle-income countries, noise exposure and its negative health effects have been little explored. The present study aimed to assess the noise exposure situation in adults living in informal settings in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. We conducted continuous one-week outdoor noise measurements at 134 homes in four different areas. These data were used to develop a land use regression (LUR model to predict A-weighted day-evening-night equivalent sound levels (Lden from geographic information system (GIS variables. Mean noise exposure during day (6:00–18:00 was 60.0 A-weighted decibels (dB(A (interquartile range 56.9–62.9 dB(A, during night (22:00–6:00 52.9 dB(A (49.3–55.8 dB(A and average Lden was 63.0 dB(A (60.1–66.5 dB(A. Main predictors of the LUR model were related to road traffic and household density. Model performance was low (adjusted R2 = 0.130 suggesting that other influences than those represented in the geographic predictors are relevant for noise exposure. This is one of the few studies on the noise exposure situation in low- and middle-income countries. It demonstrates that noise exposure levels are high in these settings.

  2. Karoo-fynbos biomass along an elevational gradient in the western Cape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Rutherford

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available A short characterization of the vegetational gradient from two basic physiognomic forms of fynbos, through Renosterbosveld to arid Karoo vegetation of the south-western Cape, is given with reference to possible vegetational analogues within similar gradients in winter-rainfall areas elsewhere. Description is limited to some aspects affecting biomass and its measurement, as well as to consideration of community stability needed for valid comparison of community biomass. Live individuals, including single dominant species, all other shrubs, graminoids and other herbaceous species as well as dead individuals were harvested separately in each major community type within an elevational gradient corresponding to the vegetational gradient described. Greatest biomass (14311 kg ha-1 was found in a summit restionaceous community, while lowest biomass (7564 kg ha-1 was found in a low-lying succulent Karoo community. There was an inverse relationship between elevation and percentage dead material mass and a strongly positive relationship between elevation and percentage biomass of the graminoid group. Total biomass values appear to be in keeping with available data for analogue communities in different Mediterranean climate areas, although distinct differences sometimes occur in the relative biomass contributions of component groups.

  3. An evaluation of guided reading in three primary schools in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruizinga, Alide

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Given that the South African government intends to improve its literacy rates by implementing Guided Reading in the primary schools, teachers are challenged to give good quality Guided Reading instruction. The study which this article draws on evaluates how teachers understand and implement Guided Reading in Grade 1 and 2 at three public schools in the Western Cape. Data were drawn from observations of teachers using Fountas & Pinnell’s Guided Reading instruction and a Guided Reading Self-Assessment Inventory. Analyses of the above-mentioned quantitative and qualitative research data indicate that South African teachers have a superficial understanding of Guided Reading. The study suggests that South African teachers struggle to implement Guided Reading in the classroom, because they do not create Guided Reading groups based on ongoing assessment and the teachers do not have access to levelled Guided Reading books. Furthermore, the new policy requirements for Guided Reading appear to fail to offer teachers a sufficient explanation of Guided Reading. I argue that, without addressing these basic requirements, it is unlikely that Guided Reading will be implemented with any success in the South African classrooms.

  4. Students' voices on spiritual care at a Higher Education Institution in the Western Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda, Ntombizodwa S; Klopper, Hester C; Phetlhu, Deliwe R

    2015-12-18

    Nurses have a moral obligation to ensure holistic care of patients, inclusive of the spiritual dimension. However, there seems to be a void in the teaching and learning of spiritual care in nursing curricula. Despite the South African Nursing Council being in favour of holistic nursing, there are no measures in place to ensure implementation of spiritual care, hence its practice is not standardised in nursing education in South Africa. Currently, the undergraduate nursing curriculum does not provide clear direction on how spiritual care in nursing should be integrated and the reason for this is not clear. It appears that the lack of professional regulation, difficulties in definition and the personalised nature of spiritual practice are partly responsible for the practice being barely enforced and scarcely practised by students in clinical placements. The aim of the study was to develop a practice theory for teaching-learning of spiritual care in the undergraduate nursing programme. The study objective was to describe and explore the students' experiencs of teaching-learning of spiritual care in the undergraduate nursing programme. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design with purposive sampling was used. The sample consisted of undergraduate nursing students at a University in the Western Cape Province. Measures for trustworthiness were applied. The findings indicated a need to provide support, a conducive learning environment and structure for teaching, learning and practice of spiritual care. There is a need for formal education regarding spiritual care in nursing.

  5. Three new species of Diascia (Scrophulariaceae from the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Steiner

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Three new annual species of Diascia Link & Otto are described from the Western Cape Province of South Africa. D. collina is characterized by greyish magenta flowers with two divergent yellow sacs containing oil-secreting trichomes. It is restricted to granite outcrops in the vicinity of Saldanha Bay, from the West Coast National Park and Langebaan north to Vredenburg. D. pusilla is closely related to D. collina. but differs from that species in having smaller flowers with shorter, ± parallel sacs, and posticous filaments that lack a protuberance where they bend sharply backwards towards the upper lip. It occurs in grey to whitish sands usually near seasonally moist or wet areas. It has not been found more than 35 km from the coast and ranges from Modderrivier, south o f Darling, north to Lambert’s Bay. D. appendiculata is related to D. diffusa (Thunb. Benth. and is characterized by having small, mainly reddish lilac to greyish magenta flowers, two shallow depressions in the corolla tube at the base of the upper lip, and posticous filaments with sterile appendages. It is known from only six localities in the general vicinity of Citrusdal and occurs in fynbos vegetation on lower mountain slopes or flats, in loose alluvial sands derived from Table Mountain Sandstone.

  6. Land Use Regression Modeling of Outdoor Noise Exposure in Informal Settlements in Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Chloé; Ragettli, Martina S; Brink, Mark; Toyib, Olaniyan; Baatjies, Roslyn; Saucy, Apolline; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel; Röösli, Martin

    2017-10-20

    In low- and middle-income countries, noise exposure and its negative health effects have been little explored. The present study aimed to assess the noise exposure situation in adults living in informal settings in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. We conducted continuous one-week outdoor noise measurements at 134 homes in four different areas. These data were used to develop a land use regression (LUR) model to predict A-weighted day-evening-night equivalent sound levels (L den ) from geographic information system (GIS) variables. Mean noise exposure during day (6:00-18:00) was 60.0 A-weighted decibels (dB(A)) (interquartile range 56.9-62.9 dB(A)), during night (22:00-6:00) 52.9 dB(A) (49.3-55.8 dB(A)) and average L den was 63.0 dB(A) (60.1-66.5 dB(A)). Main predictors of the LUR model were related to road traffic and household density. Model performance was low (adjusted R 2 = 0.130) suggesting that other influences than those represented in the geographic predictors are relevant for noise exposure. This is one of the few studies on the noise exposure situation in low- and middle-income countries. It demonstrates that noise exposure levels are high in these settings.

  7. Interactive simulations for promoting transdisciplinary understanding: a case study of the Western Cape fisheries, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Proches

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Simulations have proven beneficial in enabling participants from various backgrounds to meaningfully engage in learning from experience. The aim of this paper is to investigate how interactive simulations can play a role in navigating the changes faced in a multi- stakeholder setting, characterised by users dependent on marine resources and an authorising institution. Relevant literature in the areas of simulation and gaming, change management, systems thinking, and complexity theory was examined. A qualitative research approach and purposive sampling were employed. Interviews were first conducted with diverse stakeholders in the Western Cape fisheries of South Africa to determine the issues. A simulation was thereafter designed. The main findings from this study indicate that simulation use illustrates how the various stakeholders in a system interact, and how their actions and decisions influence each other. The simulation may be used in other areas of natural resource management, as well as in other kinds of multi- stakeholder scenarios. Keywords: Simulation and gaming, Change management, Fisheries, Multi-stakeholder scenarios, Systems thinking, Complexity theory Disciplines: Conflict Resolution, Leadership Studies, Management Studies, Natural Resource Management

  8. Feasibility of eradicating Ceratitis spp. fruit flies from the Western Cape of South Africa by the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Brian N.; Eyles, David K.

    2000-01-01

    Fruit production (deciduous fruit, table and wine grapes, and citrus) is a major export-based industry in the Western Cape, with more than 200,000 ha under cultivation. The gross value of these fruits (excluding wine) exceeds US$400 million per annum. Deciduous fruit and table grapes make up the major portion of the industry, with approximately 110,000 ha under production. The Western Cape is host to two species of fruit flies, the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and the Natal fruit fly, C. rosa Karsch. One or both of these species attack at least 19 species of fruits in this area. Both species have very similar life cycles and habits, and can cause enormous crop losses especially to fruits, but also to some vegetables. Both commercial and resource-limited farmers are affected by fruit flies. Control of fruit flies is currently based on ground applications of insecticides, either as full-cover foliar sprays or low-volume bait sprays. Control costs and crop losses for deciduous fruit and table grapes alone are estimated at US$4 million annually. South Africa is the only southern hemisphere deciduous fruit-exporting country that is not fruit fly-free or is not currently engaged in a project to eradicate fruit flies. Unless similar steps are taken, this situation is likely to threaten the competitiveness of the Western Cape's industry. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture of the United Nations recently approved funding for the INFRUITEC Centre of the ARC-Fruit, Vine and Wine Research Institute in Stellenbosch to undertake a study to determine the feasibility of eradicating fruit flies from the Western Cape by the sterile insect technique (SIT). Most fruits in the Western Cape are produced in valley systems, and many valleys are isolated from one another to a greater or lesser extent. The Western Cape is itself well isolated from other areas with fruit fly hosts: by the ocean on the eastern, southern and

  9. A framework for effective collaboration: a case study of collaboration in nursing education in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Felicity M; Khanyile, Thembisile D

    2013-09-01

    A fundamental purpose of mergers between higher education institutions (HEIs) in 2002 was to enable sharing of scarce resources between more advanced universities and those historically disadvantaged by the apartheid system of the South African Government. A common teaching platform for undergraduate nursing education in the Western Cape was established in 2005, in line with the transformation of the higher education system, as a collaborative initiative between three universities. In order to evaluate the common teaching platform, Stuffelbeam's context, input, process, product (CIPP) research model was employed. A sample of 108 participants was selected through stratified purposive sampling, and included three deputy vice-chancellors, three deans, three heads of department, 18 lecturers and 81 students. Semi-structured interviews were held with the staff members, whilst the students participated in focus group interviews. Open-ended questions informed by literature and the CIPP evaluation model were developed and used to guide the interviews. This enabled the researcher to obtain a rich description of the participants' experiences. The data were analysed inductively. The results revealed that the main purpose of collaboration was not achieved due to the lack of a common understanding of the concept of collaboration and its purpose; a lack of readiness to collaborate and a lack of sharing of resources. A framework for effective collaboration was developed based on the results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reactive-transport simulation of phosphorus in the sewage plume at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, David L.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.; Colman, John A.

    2003-01-01

    The subsurface transport of phosphorus introduced by the disposal of treated sewage effluent to ground-infiltration disposal beds at the Massachusetts Military Reservation on western Cape Cod was simulated with a three-dimensional reactive-transport model. The simulations were used to estimate the load of phosphorus transported to Ashumet Pond during operation of the sewage-treatment plant?from 1936 to 1995?and for 60 years following cessation of sewage disposal. The model accounted for spatial and temporal changes in water discharge from the sewage-treatment plant, ground-water flow, transport of associated chemical constituents, and a set of chemical reactions, including phosphorus sorption on aquifer materials, dissolution and precipitation of iron- and manganese-oxyhydroxide and iron phosphate minerals, organic carbon sorption and decomposition, cation sorption, and irreversible denitrification. The flow and transport in the aquifer were simulated by using parameters consistent with those used in previous flow models of this area of Cape Cod, except that numerical dispersion was much larger than the physical dispersion estimated in previous studies. Sorption parameters were fit to data derived from phosphorus sorption and desorption laboratory column experiments. Rates of organic carbon decomposition were adjusted to match the location of iron concentrations in an anoxic iron zone within the sewage plume. The sensitivity of the simulated load of phosphorus transported to Ashumet Pond was calculated for a variety of processes and input parameters. Model limitations included large uncertainties associated with the loading of the sewage beds, the flow system, and the chemistry and sorption characteristics in the aquifer. The results of current model simulations indicate a small load of phosphorus transported to Ashumet Pond during 1965?85, but this small load was particularly sensitive to model parameters that specify flow conditions and the chemical process by

  11. Unaccompanied and Separated Foreign Children in the Care System in the Western Cape – A Socio-Legal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sloth-Nielsen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the findings of a study of foreign children accommodated in the care system in the Western Cape, based on fieldwork conducted in child and youth care centres. The objectives of the study were firstly to map and quantify the number and demographics of foreign children placed in all CYCCs across the Western Cape. Secondly, the study aimed to analyse the reasons for children's migration and the circumstances around their placement in residential care institutions in order to establish whether family reunification was possible or desirable. Thirdly, the study explores the sufficiency of efforts made to trace and reunify the children with their families, whether in South Africa or across borders, as the institutional placement of children should not only be a last resort but it should preferably be temporary whilst family-based solutions are sought. Lastly, the documentation status of the children in the study was examined. Recommendations emanating from the research conclude the study.

  12. Patient transport from rural to tertiary healthcare centres in the Western Cape: Is there room for improvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Slabbert

    2011-03-01

    Discussion: The Western Cape EMS system is transferring significant numbers of seriously injured and ill patients, the largest group being young males following trauma. Focussed training, outreach and telemedicine services may help to improve the outcome for these patients. Appropriate protocols for the use of rotor and fixed wing resources are required, to help ensure patient outcome and make the best use of limited resources.

  13. Outsourcing vaccine logistics to the private sector: The evidence and lessons learned from the Western Cape Province in South-Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydon, Patrick; Raubenheimer, Ticky; Arnot-Krüger, Michelle; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-06-26

    With few exceptions, immunization supply chains in developing countries continue to face chronic difficulties in providing uninterrupted availability of potent vaccines up to service delivery levels, and in the most efficient manner possible. As these countries struggle to keep pace with an ever growing number of vaccines, more and more Ministries of Health are considering options of engaging the private sector to manage vaccine storage, handling and distribution on their behalf. Despite this emerging trend, there is limited evidence on the benefits or challenges of this option to improve public supply chain performance for national immunization programmes. To bridge this knowledge gap, this study aims to shed light on the value proposition of outsourcing by documenting the specific experience of the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The methodology for this review rested on conducting two key supply chain assessments which allowed juxtaposing the performance of the government managed segments of the vaccine supply chain against those managed by the private sector. In particular, measures of effective vaccine management best practice and temperature control in the cold chain were analysed. In addition, the costs of engaging the private sector were analysed to get a better understanding of the economics underpinning outsourcing vaccine logistics. The results from this analysis confirmed some of the theoretical benefits of outsourcing to the private sector. Yet, if the experience in the Western Cape can be deemed a successful one, there are several policy and practice implications that developing countries should be mindful of when considering engaging the private sector. While outsourcing can help improve the performance of the vaccine supply chain, it has the potential to do the reverse if done incorrectly. The findings and lessons learnt from the Western Cape experience can serve as a step towards understanding the role of the private sector in immunization

  14. Children with Speech Difficulties: A survey of clinical practice in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Pascoe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on a study by Joffe and Pring (2008 which investigated assessment and therapy methods used by Speech Language Therapists (SLTs in the United Kingdom for children with phonological difficulties. Joffe and Pring reported SLTs’ most favoured assessments and therapy approaches in that context. Children with speech difficulties are likely to form a considerable part of SLT caseloads in South Africa, but the choice of assessments may not be so clearcut given the linguistic diversity of the region and the fact that few assessments have been developed specifically for the SA population. Linked to difficulties with assessment, selection of intervention approaches may also pose challenges. This study aimed to investigate the methods of assessment and intervention used by SLTs in the Western Cape when working with children with speech difficulties. A questionnaire was sent to SLTs working with pre and/ or primary school- aged children. Twenty-nine clinicians of varying experience responded. The majority of SLTs (89% use informal assessment tools in combination with formal assessment. When using formal assessments, more than 50% of SLTs make modifications to better suit the population. Participants use a variety of intervention approaches, often in combination, and based on a child’s individual profile of difficulties and available resources. Forty-six percent of SLTs felt unsure about the selection of assessments and intervention for bi/multilingual children with speech difficulties. SLTs suggested that guidelines about accepted / typical speech development in the region would be helpful for their clinical practice. Clinical implications of the findings are discussed together with some suggestions for developing knowledge of children’s speech difficulties in the South African context.

  15. The academic transitional experiences of masters' students at the University of the Western Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jeffrey C; Julie, Hester

    2012-08-24

    Transition has been a major focus of educational institutions. However, most of the research into student transition focuses on the challenges related the transition from high school to university. Not much emphasis has been placed on the transition from undergraduate to postgraduate studies, despite the steadily increasing postgraduate enrolment rates in higher education institutions. The discrepancy between the enrolment and completion rates is an indication that postgraduate students are facing transitional challenges when engaging with postgraduate studies. The aim of this research study was to describe the academic transitional experiences of masters' students in the Faculty of Community Health Sciences at the University of the Western Cape. The objectives were to determine the academic preparedness of postgraduate students, to explore their primary motivations for pursuing postgraduate studies, and to assess their utilisation of the available support services at UWC. A quantitative, exploratory, descriptive research design was employed. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with masters' students during 2009, using convenience sampling. Data was statistically analysed using the SPSS to provide descriptive statistics. The majority of the sample indicated a lack of academic preparedness, even though most of them had a bachelor's degree. The primary reasons listed as motivation for master's study were to improve knowledge and reaching self-actualisation. The majority is still eager to complete their studies. Most support systems were utilised and students rated these services as a positive experience that facilitates smooth academic transition. However, concerns are that not many students utilised the academic writing centre and those who did, rated the overall service as average. One of the main recommendations was that a research culture needs to be established.

  16. The academic transitional experiences of masters’ students at the University of the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Hoffman

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Transition has been a major focus of educational institutions. However, most of the research into student transition focuses on the challenges related the transition from high school to university. Not much emphasis has been placed on the transition from undergraduate topostgraduate studies, despite the steadily increasing postgraduate enrolment rates in higher education institutions. The discrepancy between the enrolment and completion rates is an indication that postgraduate students are facing transitional challenges when engaging with postgraduate studies. The aim of this research study was to describe the academic transitional experiences of masters’ students in the Faculty of Community Health Sciences at the University of the Western Cape. The objectives were to determine the academic preparedness of postgraduate students, to explore their primary motivations for pursuing postgraduate studies, and to assess their utilisation of the available support services at UWC.A quantitative, exploratory, descriptive research design was employed. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with masters’ students during 2009, using convenience sampling. Data was statistically analysed using the SPSS to provide descriptive statistics. The majority of the sample indicated a lack of academic preparedness, even though most of them had a bachelor’s degree. The primary reasons listed as motivation for master’s study were to improve knowledge and reaching self-actualisation. The majority is still eager to complete their studies. Most support systems were utilised and students rated these services as a positive experience that facilitates smooth academic transition. However, concerns are that not many students utilised the academic writing centre and those who did, rated the overall service as average. One of the main recommendations was that a research culture needs to be established at undergraduate level, as this would give students greater exposure to

  17. Meteorological and oceanographic aspects of a winter storm over the south-western Cape Province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jury, M.R.; Shillington, F.A.; Prestidge, G.; Maxwell, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    In May the southern hemisphere circumpolar jet stream accelerates in response to a growing temperature gradient between the pole and equator. Initially, the jet stream may 'spin up' in pulses, causing the upper air current to become unstable and to meander equatorwards out of the higher latitudes (40-50 degrees S). Winter storms induced by the jet stream and which move, from west to east, to the south of the African continent are then guided by the upper air currents further north. Between 15 and 17 May 1984, such a sequence of synoptic weather events developed and the south-western Cape came under the influence of the 'roaring 40's'. In this article a chronology of the storm and its meteorological effects are described using data collected at the Koeberg nuclear power station, the Cape Town Airport Weather Office and across the south-western Cape. The destructive effects of the storm, particularly felt along the coast as a result of large swells and a significant storm surge, are discussed

  18. Diabetes mellitus in Zambia and the Western Cape province of South Africa: Prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sarah Lou; Ayles, Helen; Beyers, Nulda; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Muyoyeta, Monde; du Toit, Elizabeth; Yudkin, John S; Floyd, Sian

    2016-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for diabetes mellitus and examine its diagnosis and management in the study communities. This is a population-based cross-sectional study among adults in 24 communities from Zambia and the Western Cape (WC) province of South Africa. Diabetes is defined as a random blood glucose concentration (RBG)⩾11.1mmol/L, or RBGdiabetes diagnosis. For individuals with a prior diagnosis of diabetes, RBGprevalence of diabetes was 3.5% and 7.2% respectively. The highest risk groups identified were those of older age and those with obesity. Of those identified to have diabetes, 34.5% in Zambia and 12.7% in WC were previously unaware of their diagnosis. Among Zambian participants with diabetes, this proportion was lower among individuals with better education or with higher household socio-economic position. Of all those with previously diagnosed diabetes, 66.0% in Zambia and 59.4% in WC were not on any diabetes treatment, and 34.4% in Zambia and 32.7% in WC had a RBG concentration beyond the recommended level, ⩾7.8mmol/L. The diabetes risk factor profile for our study communities is similar to that seen in high-income populations. A high proportion of individuals with diabetes are not on diabetes treatment and of those on treatment a high proportion have high glycaemic concentrations. Such data may assist in healthcare planning to ensure timely diagnosis and management of diabetes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Inefficient procurement processes undermine access to medicines in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

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    Bvudzai P Magadzire

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. South Africa (SA has experienced several stock-outs of life-saving medicines for the treatment of major chronic infectious and non-communicable diseases in the public sector. Objective. To identify the causes of stock-outs and to illustrate how they undermine access to medicines (ATM in the Western Cape Province, SA. Methods. This qualitative study was conducted with a sample of over 70 key informants (frontline health workers, sub-structure and provincial health service managers. We employed the critical incident technique to identify significant occurrences in our context, the consequences of which impacted on access to medicines during a defined period. Stock-outs were identified as one such incident, and we explored when, where and why they occurred, in order to inform policy and practice. Results. Medicines procurement is a centralised function in SA. Health service managers unanimously agreed that stock-outs resulted from the following inefficiencies at the central level: (i delays in awarding of pharmaceutical tenders; (ii absence of contracts for certain medicines appearing on provincial code lists; and (iii suppliers’ inability to satisfy contractual agreements. The recurrence of stock-outs had implications at multiple levels: (i health facility operations; (ii the Chronic Dispensing Unit (CDU, which prepacks medicines for over 300 000 public sector patients; and (iii community-based medicines distribution systems, which deliver the CDU’s prepacked medicines to non-health facilities nearer to patient homes. For instance, stock-outs resulted in omission of certain medicines from CDU parcels that were delivered to health facilities. This increased workload and caused frustration for frontline health workers who were expected to dispense omitted medicines manually. According to frontline health workers, this translated into longer waiting times for patients and associated dissatisfaction. In some instances, patients were

  20. Revitalization of clinical skills training at the University of the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Jeggels

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Most educational institutions that offer health related qualifications make use of clinical skills laboratories. These spaces are generally used for the demonstration and assessment of clinical skills. The purpose of this paper is to share our experiences related to the revitalization of skills training by introducing the skills lab method at the School of Nursing (SoN, University of the Western Cape (UWC. To accommodate the contextual changes as a result of the restructuring of the higher education landscape in 2003, the clinical skills training programme at UWC had to be reviewed. With a dramatic increase in the student numbers and a reduction in hospital beds, the skills lab method provided students with an opportunity to develop clinical skills prior to their placement in real service settings. The design phase centred on adopting a skills training methodology that articulates with the case-based approach used by the SoN. Kolb’s, experiential learning cycle provided the theoretical underpinning for the methodology. The planning phase was spent on the development of resources. Eight staff members were trained by our international higher education collaborators who also facilitated the training of clinical supervisors and simulated patients. The physical space had to be redesigned to accommodate audio visual and information technology to support the phases of the skills lab method. The implementation of the skills lab method was phased in from the first-year level. An interactive seminar held after the first year of implementation provided feedback from all the role players and was mostly positive. The results of introducing the skills lab method include: a move by students towards self-directed clinical skills development, clinical supervisors adopting the role of facilitators of learning and experiential clinical learning being based on, amongst others, the students’ engagement with simulated patients. Finally, the recommendations relate

  1. Taphonomic and paleoecological change in the large mammal sequence from Boomplaas Cave, western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, J Tyler

    2013-12-01

    Excavations conducted by H.J. Deacon in the 1970s at Boomplaas Cave (BPA) uncovered a stratified sequence of Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Later Stone Age (LSA) deposits spanning the last >65,000 years. This study provides the first comprehensive and integrated taphonomic and paleoecological analysis of the BPA large mammals, with a focus on its implications for understanding human adaptations and environmental changes in southern Africa's Cape Floristic Region (CFR), an area that features prominently in understanding modern human origins. Taphonomic data indicate a complex history of human, carnivore, and raptor accumulation of the large mammal assemblage. The anthropogenic signal is largely absent from the bottom of the sequence (>65,000 years ago), intermediate in MSA and LSA assemblages from ~50,000 to 20,000 years ago, and strong in LSA deposits post-dating the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). When viewed in the broader CFR context, the inferred occupation history of BPA is consistent with the hypothesis that both MSA and LSA human populations were concentrated on the submerged coastline from ~60,000 to ~20,000 years ago. Intensive occupation following the LGM parallels an apparent increase in regional population densities, which may have been driven in part by rising sea levels. The BPA ungulate assemblage is characterized by the rise and decline of a taxonomically diverse grazing community, which peaks during the LGM. These changes are not correlated with taphonomic shifts, meaning that they are likely driven by environmental factors, namely the expansion and contraction of grassland habitats. Changes in ungulate diversity indicate that effective precipitation was highest during the LGM, corresponding with an intensified winter rainfall system. This is consistent with recent arguments that the LGM in this region may not have been extremely harsh and arid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Behavioural and chemical evidence for multiple colonisation of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wossler Theresa C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, is a widespread invasive ant species that has successfully established in nearly all continents across the globe. Argentine ants are characterised by a social structure known as unicoloniality, where territorial boundaries between nests are absent and intraspecific aggression is rare. This is particularly pronounced in introduced populations and results in the formation of large and spatially expansive supercolonies. Although it is amongst the most well studied of invasive ants, very little work has been done on this ant in South Africa. In this first study, we investigate the population structure of Argentine ants in South Africa. We use behavioural (aggression tests and chemical (CHC approaches to investigate the population structure of Argentine ants within the Western Cape, identify the number of supercolonies and infer number of introductions. Results Both the aggression assays and chemical data revealed that the Western Cape Argentine ant population can be divided into two behaviourally and chemically distinct supercolonies. Intraspecific aggression was evident between the two supercolonies of Argentine ants with ants able to discriminate among conspecific non-nestmates. This discrimination is linked to the divergence in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of ants originating from the two supercolonies. Conclusions The presence of these two distinct supercolonies is suggestive of at least two independent introductions of this ant within the Western Cape. Moreover, the pattern of colonisation observed in this study, with the two colonies interspersed, is in agreement with global patterns of Argentine ant invasions. Our findings are of interest because recent studies show that Argentine ants from South Africa are different from those identified in other introduced ranges and therefore provide an opportunity to further understand factors that determine the distributional and spread

  3. Measuring and modelling the water use of fruit tree orchards in the Western Cape province of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gush, Mark B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ?Cripps Pink? (?Pink Lady?) apple (Malus domestica) orchard in the Koue Bokkeveld region near Ceres (S33? 12? 03.57?; E19? 20? 15.06?), and an eight- year old ?Alpine? nectarine (Prunus persica) orchard near Wolseley (S33? 25? 0.59? and E19? 14? 44... Lady? apple orchard near Ceres, Western Cape Figure 4: Daily variation in reference evaporation (FAO56 ETo), observed and modelled total evaporation (ET), and transpiration (T) from August 2010 until July 2012 in an ?Alpine? nectarine orchard near...

  4. Two new species of Erica (Ericaceae; one from Western Cape and one from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. H. Oliver

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Erica L. from South Africa are described. E. jananthus E.G.H.Oliv. & I.M .Oliv. is confined to a single peak in the eastern Groot Swartberg Range in Western Cape and usually forms a small, gnarled, woody, shrublet growing in rock crevices with sticky white flowers and black subexserted anthers that have obtrullate decurrent appendages.E. psittacina E.G.H.Oliv. & I.M.Oliv. is from KwaZulu-Natal. It forms large woodv shrubs with numerous bright pinkflowers and occurs as a single population on a mountain near Creighton. Both descriptions are accompanied by line drawings and distribution maps

  5. Dryland salinity management in the semi-arid Western Cape (South Africa)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bugan, Richard DH

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Dryland salinity is a major factor affecting the water quality of the mid-to-lower-reaches of the Berg River, a pivotal source of water to Cape Town. The implementation of salinity management strategies is therefore essential. Distributed...

  6. Expectations of urban residents in the Western Cape on the 2010 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In general, those residing in the city of Cape Town and those who declare themselves supporters of football, show a high level of optimism about the potential economic growth as a result of the tournament. However, the residents outside the metropolitan core are less convinced that the World Cup will benefi t them directly ...

  7. Spatio-temporal aspects of gated residential security estates in non-metropolitan Western Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spocter, M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available located in settlements along the coast and/or in close proximity to the metropolitan area of Cape Town. Furthermore, the first half of the first decade of the twenty first century witnessed the planning authorisation approval of more than two thirds of all...

  8. The lived experience of being a speech-language therapist in the Western Cape public health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Jocelyn A; Mayers, Patricia; Kathard, Harsha

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the lived experience of being a Speech-Language Therapist (S-L Therapist) in the South African Western Cape public health service. The lived experience of seven S-L Therapists with varied clinical experience was illuminated using a qualitative phenomenological research design. S-L Therapists, working in the three Western Cape tertiary hospitals, provided an in-depth account of their experiences as S-L Therapists. The audio recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using an adaptation of Colaizzi's (1978) method of analysis. The rigour and trustworthiness of the research process was informed by consideration of issues of credibility, applicability, confirmability and dependability as they relate to phenomenological design. Five main themes emerged from data analysis: expectations of practice and practice realities; being part of the "underdog" profession: role definition and status; being connected; the holistic nature of the S-L Therapist's practice; and erosion or promotion.The implications for training and support of S-L Therapists by managers and policymakers and peers are highlighted.

  9. The Development Needs of Newly Appointed Senior School Leaders in the Western Cape South Africa: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelius Jansen van Vuuren

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The essential role that senior school leaders play in school leadership teams to ensure effective strategic leadership in schools has been the subject of intense discussion for many years. Crucial to this debate is the establishment of professional learning and leadership approaches for newly appointed senior school leaders. Recommendations for policy and practice highlight the importance of appropriate, multifaceted, developmental support initiatives for newly appointed school leaders. In many countries, including South Africa, a teaching qualification and, in most cases, extensive teaching experience is the only requirement for being appointed as a senior school leader in a school. This tends to suggest that no further professional development is required for newly appointed school leaders, the problem addressed in this paper. This paper reports on the main findings of the perceived development needs of newly appointed senior school leaders in the Western Cape, South Africa, and suggests that school leaders occupy a unique and specialist role in education, which requires relevant and specific preparation to support effective leadership. The respondents of this study report a lack of contextualised training and support before and after their appointment in their new roles creating unique development needs. This paper, therefore, employs a mixed-method approach to gather data to understand the perceived needs of twenty newly appointed senior school leaders in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  10. LESSONS FROM THE EVALUATION OF A PUBLIC OUT-PATIENT SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT PROGRAMME IN THE WESTERN CAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strebel, Anna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Substance abuse is widely regarded as a major health and social problem in South Africa, and particularly in the Western Cape (Corrigall, Ward, Stinson, Struthers, Frantz, Lund, Flisher & Joska, 2007; Myers, Fakier & Louw, 2009. The complex nature of patterns of substance abuse, as well as the particular problems associated with this abuse, has implications for the development and implementation of treatment interventions. The most common primary drug of abuse in the Western Cape amongst patients admitted to treatment programmes is methamphetamine (known locally as “tik” (Dada, Plüddemann, Parry, Vawda & Fourie, 2012. The previous decade saw a dramatic rise in methamphetamine (hereafter indicated as MA use, particularly among youths, with over half the patients in treatment for MA abuse being younger than 25 years (Plüddemann, Parry, Dada, Bhana, Bachoo & Fourie, 2010. MA is also often used in combination with other drugs, and this prevalence of poly-substance abuse needs to be taken into account in the planning of services (Harker, Kader, Myers, Falkier, Parry, Flisher, Peltzer, Ramlagan & Davids, 2008.

  11. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  12. Container terminal spatial planning - A 2041 paradigm for the Western Cape Province in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Havenga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the suitable location for an intermodal inland container terminal (IICT in the city of Cape Town. A container market segmentation approach is used to project growth for container volumes over a 30-year period for all origin and destination pairings on a geographical district level in an identified catchment area. The segmentation guides the decision on what type of facility is necessary to fulfil capacity requirements in the catchment area and will be used to determine the maximum space requirements for a future IICT. Alternative sites are ranked from most suitable to least suitable using multi-criteria analysis, and preferred locations are identified. Currently, South Africa’s freight movement is dominated by the road sector. Heavy road congestion is thus prevalent at the Cape Town Container Terminal (CTCT. The paper proposes three possible alternative sites for an IICT that will focus on a hub-and-spoke system of transporting freight.

  13. Towards measuring the transaction costs of co-management in Mkambati Nature Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blore, M L; Cundill, G; Mkhulisi, M

    2013-11-15

    During the last three decades, there has been an increased pursuit of participatory approaches to managing natural resources. In South Africa, this has been evident in the management of protected areas. In particular, land claims, which affect much of the conservation estate in South Africa, frequently result in co-management of protected areas by claimant communities and conservation agencies. This is occurring against a backdrop of declining state subsidies and growing expectations that South African conservation agencies will finance themselves while simultaneously stimulating local economic opportunities. In this context, it is important for co-management partners to understand and monitor the cost-effectiveness of management processes in achieving both the socio-economic and ecological targets of conservation management. Transaction costs are useful in gauging the cost-effectiveness of policies and institutions; however there is little methodological guidance for measuring transaction costs empirically. This study develops and tests a transaction costs model for a co-managed nature reserve in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Transaction costs were quantified by taking into account the total time spent in meetings annually, the daily opportunity cost of participants' time and the travel costs associated with attending such meetings. A key limitation in the development of this model was a lack of record keeping by the conservation agency. The model developed in this study offers a practical means for co-management partners in similar contexts to monitor how transaction costs change over time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies

  15. Reserve estimates in western basins. Part 2: Piceance Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, sandstone reservoirs of the Mesaverde group in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Total in place resource is estimated at 307.3 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 5.8 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. About 82.6% of the total evaluated resource is contained within sandstones that have extremely poor reservoir properties with permeabilities considered too low for commerciality using current frac technology. Cost reductions and technology improvements will be required to unlock portions of this enormous resource. Approximately 2.7% of the total resource is contained within sandstone reservoirs which do not respond to massive hydraulic fracture treatments, probably due to their natural lenticular nature. Approximately 6.8% of the total resource is located in deeply buried settings below deepest established production. Approximately 7.9% of the total resource is considered to represent tight reservoirs that may be commercially exploited using today`s hydraulic fracturing technology. Recent technology advances in hydraulic fracturing practices in the Piceance Basin Mesaverde has resulted in a marked improvement in per well gas recovery which, where demonstrated, has been incorporated into the estimates provided in this report. This improvement is so significant in changing the risk-reward relationship that has historically characterized this play, that previously uneconomic areas and resources will graduate to the economically exploitable category. 48 refs., 96 figs., 18 tabs.

  16. The use of human resource information systems in two retail organisations in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Udekwe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The retail industry is the largest contributor to employment and the gross domestic product (GDP in the Western Cape, South Africa. The management of human resources in this very competitive industry is a high priority for all retailers. The successful implementation, maintenance and use of human resource information systems (HRISs are an integral part of many retailers. Research purpose: Human resource information systems are difficult to implement and maintain, and as a result, organisations cannot effectively utilise these systems to their benefit. The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors affecting the implementation, maintenance and use of HRISs in two retail organisations in the Western Cape. Motivation of study: Many retailers find it difficult to apply and utilise HRISs to their benefit and to the systems’ full potential. This study explores the challenges retailers are facing when implementing, maintaining and using HRISs. Research design, approach and method: Multiple case studies were used to conduct the research. Data were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire using interviews. Twenty-one interviews were conducted in the two retail companies to gain an understanding of the use of HRISs within these organisations. The data were analysed using a thematic method of analysis. The units of analysis were the Human Resources and the Information Technology departments of both companies. The units of observation were (21 purposively selected employees in the two mentioned departments of both retail organisations. Main findings: This research shows an under-utilisation of the HRIS in both companies as a result of poor data quality, lack of adequate training and the high cost of implementing and maintaining the system. There is a gap in terms of data analytics and report generation. This gap leads to the under-utilisation of the HRISs preventing the retailers to optimise the benefits of the HRIS. Practical

  17. A founder BRCA2 mutation in non-Afrikaner breast cancer patients of the Western Cape of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, N C; Hamel, N; Schneider, S-R; Apffelstaedt, J P; Wijnen, J T; Foulkes, W D

    2012-02-01

    Founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been reported in many different populations. We studied 105 Coloured and 16 Black Xhosa women residing in the Western Cape of South Africa diagnosed with breast cancer. We screened these patients using our standard panel of six previously reported SA Afrikaner and Ashkenazi Jewish BRCA1/2 mutations and identified only two Afrikaner mutations. Further screening by the protein truncation test (BRCA1 exon 11, and BRCA2 exons 10 and 11) revealed an additional four deleterious mutations (BRCA1 c.1504_ 1508del,p.Leu502AlafsX2, BRCA2 c.2826_2829del,p.Ile943LysfsX16, c.6447_6448dup,p.Lys2150IlefsX19 and c.5771_5774del,p.Ile1924Argfs X38). The latter, also known in Breast Cancer Information Core nomenclature as 5999del4, was identified in 4 of 105 (3.8%) Coloureds and 4 of 16 (25%) Xhosa women, which makes it a frequent founder mutation in the Western Cape Province. Although this mutation was previously reported to occur in the Netherlands, haplotype analysis indicated two distinct origins for the Dutch and South African mutations, excluding the possibility of a common Dutch ancestor and suggesting gene flow from the indigenous tribes such as the Xhosa to the Coloured population instead. Further studies to determine the carrier rate of this variant in the Xhosa and other SA populations are warranted. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Promoting Physics Among Female Learners in the Western Cape Through Active Engagement (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendse, Gillian J.

    2009-04-01

    In 2006 the author organized a one-day intervention aimed at promoting physics among female learners at the University of Stellenbosch. The activities included an interactive lecture demonstration promoting active engagement, a hands-on session, and short presentations by female physicists addressing issues such as balancing family and career, breaking the stereotypes, and launching a successful career in physics. Each learner was expected to evaluate the program. In 2007 the author joined forces with Hip2B2 (Shuttleworth Foundation) to host a competition among grade-10 learners with the theme, ``promoting creativity through interactivity.'' The author was tasked by the Hip2B2-team to assist with a program for female learners planned for August 2008, coinciding with our national celebration of Women's Day. The event targeted 160 learners and took place in Durban, East London, Cape Town, and Johannesburg. The author shares some of the learners' experiences and personal triumphs.

  19. A Case Study of the Annual Evolution of the Cape Bathurst Polynya Complex in Western Amundsen Gulf, 2003-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galley, R. J.; Barber, D. G.; Key, E.; Prinsenberg, S.

    2008-12-01

    A case study focused on the spatial and temporal interaction of dynamic and thermodynamic sea ice processes in the southern Beaufort Sea (SBS) and Amundsen Gulf (AG) was conducted to determine the mechanisms which form the Cape Bathurst flaw lead polynya complex over an annual cycle. This study is motivated by the need to further understand the complex interaction of the Beaufort Sea perennial sea ice pack and a seasonal sea ice zone of the SBS and AG as it is manifested in the operation of the Cape Bathurst flaw lead polynya complex. Understanding the present interplay of thermodynamic and dynamic forcing in the polynya is vital should we hope to determine how it will operate in a future Arctic dominated by seasonal sea ice. The study area has been the subject of the Canadian Arctic Shelf Exchange Study and the International Polar Year - Circumpolar Flaw Lead Study. The case study presented here further attempts to provide context in terms the physical operation of the polynya and associated flaw lead system for the biological and oceanographic measurements that were made in the course of those studies. We first describe the regional scale evolution of sea ice in western AG between fall 2003 and summer 2004 representing sea ice formation through both dynamics and thermodynamics. We investigate fine scale sea ice thickness in western AG to determine the relative contribution of leads, ridges and level sea ice in spring 2004 prior to the formation of the polynya proper. The region's potential thermodynamic sea ice growth is modeled between freeze-up in 2003 and break-up in 2004. Finally, sea ice motion in the region between freeze-up and break- up in 2004 was used to help determine the relative contribution and timing of dynamic processes on the sea ice in our case study region. It is concluded that the formation of the Cape Bathurst polynya in spring results from the interaction of the Beaufort Sea perennial pack with seasonal sea ice in AG, beginning in fall.

  20. The use of earth observation data in hydrological investigations – a case study in a Semi-Arid Catchment (Western Cape, South Africa)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bugan, Richard DH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available data in hydrological investigations – a case study in a Semi-Arid Catchment (Western Cape, South Africa) Bugan, Richard DH Jovanovic, Nebojsa Garcia, C Teich, I ABSTRACT: The availability of hydrological data is a critical component in water...

  1. An investigation into diabetic patients knowledge of diabetes and its ocular complications in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Clarke-Farr

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a study which evaluated the knowledge of a sample of diabetic patients about their disease and its ocular complications. A comprehensive questionnaire was provided to diabetic patients in the Cape Town metropolitan district and its surrounds. Specifically, the questionnaire aimed to determine the patient’s knowledge of diabetes, their knowledge of the ocular complications of diabetes, the options for its management and treatment as well as a section considering other general information relating to diabetes and its ocular complications. Their subject knowledge about diabetes and its ocular complications was relatively limited as only 42% of respondents knew about the existence of two types of diabetes. Twenty nine percent of respondents believed that diabetes would not affect their eyes. Although 76% of the patients felt it very important to measure their blood sugar and 80% rated blood sugar control as very important, only 37% of the respondents measured their blood sugar on a daily basis. A particular concern was that although 96% of the respondents felt that it was important to have their eyes checked regularly, only 30% of the respondents stated that they had actually had their eyes checked every year. The results of this investigation support the need for diabetic patients to receive better patient education about diabetes and its ocular complications. Furthermore, attention needs to be paid to expanding patient access to diabetic screenings and ocular examinations in order to manage this condition effectively.

  2. Nuclear microanalysis of tooth enamel from a community in the Western Cape, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda-Vargas, C.A.; Naidoo, S.; Eisa, M.E.M.

    2007-01-01

    Extracted teeth collected from a Black African community living in the Gugulethu suburb of Cape Town, South Africa were studied by nuclear microscopy. Analysis by PIXE (with 3.0 MeV protons) of permanent extracted incisor and molar teeth from males and females of different ages showed a homogeneous elemental profile distribution for iron, zinc and strontium, irrespective of gender and/or age. Fluorine content as determined simultaneously from the 110 keV gamma-ray yield from proton bombardment had a similar mean value (females: 1.8% by mass and males: 1.6% by mass) for both genders. However, the mean content of strontium for females (97 μg g -1 ) was about 40% lower than that for males (69 μg g -1 ). In addition, a sub-group of children showed a smaller standard deviation on the distribution of zinc and fluorine. Previous results on the trace elemental concentration of the enamel of molar teeth, showed a depletion of up to 50% by mass for strontium after 20 h of exposure in acidic solution. Although the strontium level for the African female group fits this profile it is not certain what the demineralization observed was due too

  3. An investigation into diabetic patients knowledge of diabetes and its ocular complications in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Clarke-Farr

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a study which evaluated the knowledge of a sample of diabetic patients about their disease and its ocular complications. A comprehensive questionnaire was provided to diabetic patients in the Cape Town metropolitan district and its surrounds. Specifically, the questionnaire aimed to determine the patient’s knowledge of diabetes, their knowledge of the ocular complications of diabetes, the options for its management and treatment as well as a section considering other general information relating to diabetes and its ocular complications. Their subject knowledge about diabetes and its ocular complications was relatively limited as only 42% of respondents knew about the existence of two types of diabetes. Twenty nine percent of respondents believed that diabetes would not affect their eyes. Although 76% of the patients felt it very important to measure their blood sugar and 80% rated blood sugar control as very important, only 37% of the respondents measured their blood sugar on a daily basis. A particular concern was that although 96% of the respondents felt that it was important to have their eyes checked regularly, only 30% of the respondents stated that they had actually had their eyes checked every year. The results of this investigation support the need for diabetic patients to receive better patient education about diabetes and its ocular complications. Furthermore, attention needs to be paid to expanding patient access to diabetic screenings and ocular examinations in order to manage this condition effectively.

  4. Feeding practices and nutritional status of HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdel E. Rossouw

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Optimal infant- and young child–feeding practices are crucial for nutritional status, growth, development, health and, ultimately, survival. Human breast milk is optimal nutrition for all infants. Complementary food introduced at the correct age is part of optimal feeding practices. In South Africa, widespread access to antiretrovirals and a programme to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV have reduced HIV infection in infants and increased the number of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU infants. However, little is known about the feeding practices and nutritional status of HEU and HIV-unexposed (HU infants. Objective: To assess the feeding practices and nutritional status of HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed (HU infants in the Western Cape. Design: Prospective substudy on feeding practices nested in a pilot study investigating the innate immune abnormalities in HEU infants compared to HU infants. The main study commenced at week 2 of life with the nutrition component added from 6 months. Information on children’s dietary intake was obtained at each visit from the caregiver, mainly the mother. Head circumference, weight and length were recorded at each visit. Data were obtained from 6-, 12- and 18-month visits. World Health Organization feeding practice indicators and nutrition indicators were utilised. Setting: Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Western Cape. Mothers were recruited from the postnatal wards. Subjects: Forty-seven mother–infant pairs, 25 HEU and 22 HU infants, participated in this nutritional substudy. Eight (17% infants, one HU and seven HEU, were lost to follow-up over the next 12 months. The HEU children were mainly Xhosa (76% and HU were mainly mixed race (77%. Results: The participants were from poor socio-economic backgrounds. In both groups, adherence to breastfeeding recommendations was low with suboptimal dietary diversity. We noted a high rate of sugar- and salt-containing snacks given from a young age. The HU

  5. The supplier relationship practices of travel agencies in the Western Cape Province - What is the status quo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mornay Roberts-Lombard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the article is to explore the supplier relationship practices of travel agencies in the Western Cape province. The article wants to establish the current supplier relationship practices of travel agencies in the province and to identify limitations in supplier market relationships which might exist in the industry. Problem investigated: Relationships are the basis on which trade in the travel industry is built (George, 2006:224. The establishment and management of these relationships must be to the advantage of all parties in the relationship (Swart, 2003:120. Townes (2007 indicated that the current level of relationships that exists between travel agencies and their suppliers, especially the South African Airways (SAA, the Protea and Southern Sun hotel groups and motor vehicle rental companies such as AVIS is fragmented and negatively impairs on the ability of travel agents to deliver a quality service to their customers. To improve their overall level of service delivery to both corporate and leisure customers, it is important for travel agencies to know and understand the current level of their relationships with suppliers. It is against this background that the research was undertaken. Methodology: The target population for this study was 118 travel agencies of which 61 managers and/or owners participated through personal interviews in the completion of questionnaires. Data analysis was done by calculating averages and standard deviations, Explorative Factor Analysis (EFA, Cronbach Alpha-values and practical significance by means of effect sizes. Findings: The owners and managers of travel agencies are of the opinion that the strengthening of their existing relationships with suppliers must be prioritised. More emphasis should be placed on the strengthening of existing communication channels between travel agencies and their suppliers to secure the faster resolution of queries and complaints and to enhance the sharing

  6. Perceptions of traditional health practitioners on violence in the Helderberg Municipal Area, Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gibson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study on perceptions of violence was conducted with 56 traditional health practitioners (diviners: amagrirha in the Helderberg Municipal Area of Cape Town Metro. It forms a subsection of a larger study on African medicine. This particular research focuses on how traditional health practitioners perceive violence, including gender-related violence. Individual, in-depth interviews were done with 21 traditional health practitioners and focus group discussions were held with 35 participants. The paper reports on their understanding of, as well as the meanings attached to, community and gender-based violence in an urban setting. The traditional health practitioners related violence to a range of disconnections in society, ranging from not adhering to traditional norms and practices, to breaks in relations between parents and children, within families and in marital- and sexual relations. They referred to a general sense of disjuncture between the living and the ancestral worlds. The accumulative effect of this sense of not being connected was seen as damaging and a precursor to violence. In two sites where there were high concentrations of violence, ceremonies were held to purify the areas by ritual. In addition to attending to the physical manifestations of illness, distress and violence, these traditional health practitioners attempted to enhance and restore proper social relationships between the living, as well as between the living and the dead. Hierdie studie oor persepsies van geweld is gedoen met 56 tradisionele gesondheidspraktisyns (waarsêers: amagrirha in die Helderberg Munisipale gebied van Kaapstad Metro. Dit vorm deel van ’n groter studie gerig op Afrika-medisyne. Hierdie spesifieke navorsing fokus op hoe tradisionele gesondheidspraktisyns geweld beskou, insluitende geslags-gebaseerde geweld. individuele, in-diepte onderhoude is gevoer met 21 tradisionele gesondheidspraktisyns en fokusgroepbesprekings is gehou met 35 deelnemers

  7. Simulation of land use impacts on sediment and nutrient transfer in coastal areas of Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebel Micha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge for water resource management in Western Cape, South Africa, is the reduction of the growing sediment and nutrient loads in coastal areas, which belong to the areas most affected by land use change. We used the WebGIS based software STOFFBILANZ to simulate runoff, soil loss, sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen input in the surface water and groundwater of study area (ca. 6,450 km². The simulated runoff shows a large regional variability caused by the heterogeneous distribution of rainfall. For the reference catchment Klein River simulated total daily runoff fit the observed values of the reference year 2012. The calculation of potential input of sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen into waters is based on aggregated or generalized information on climate data, land use types, crop and fruit types, yields, mineral fertilizers, farm manure, nitrogen fixing by leguminous plants, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, and soil denitrification. Critical source areas for potential sediment input, particulate P input and diffuse N input are mainly agricultural areas. Additionally, point sources of high relevance for N and P are found in urban areas. Based on the potential input of sediment and nutrients the impacts of current land use change on water resources were estimated. We used the web-based information system WebLand for the simulation aiming at the provision of stakeholders with information for decision making in water resource management.

  8. New species of Drimia (Hyacinthaceae: Urgineoideae allied to Drimia marginata from Western and Northern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants until now identified as Drimia marginata (Thunb. Jessop on account of their leathery, oblong to elliptical leaves with thickened, cartilaginous margins and capitate inflorescences of campanulate flowers, are shown to comprise three sets of populations separable on leaf morphology, ecology and distribution. Typical D. marginata produces 1 (2 oblong, apiculate leaves with retrorsely-scabridulous margins and occurs in fine-grained clay soils on the Hantam and Roggeveld Plateaus. Plants from Namaqualand and the Richtersveld. described here as Drimia pulchromarginata J.C.Manning & Goldblatt. occur in sandy or gravelly soils and produce 2 -4 , elliptical to suborbicular, apiculate leaves with an ornate, duplex margin: the dorsal surface bears a submarginal band of dense, velvety trichomes fringing the thickened, colliculate margin. A third series of populations from seasonally moist sandstones at higher altitude on the interior mountains of the West Coast produces2 or 3(4 narrowly oblong, obtuse leaves with a simple, papillate or colliculate margin and are recognized as D. ligulata J.C.Manning & Goldblatt. A fourth taxon with a similar capitate inflorescence of campanulate flowers produces a solitary, subterete or subclavate leaf, elliptical in section. Recorded from scattered localities in the Northern and Western Cape', it is here described as D. vermiformis J.C.Manning & Goldblatt.

  9. Literacy for All? Using multilingual reading stories for literacy development in a Grade One classroom in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosper, Ancyfrida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a literacy pilot project which investigated the use of multilingual reading books and the pedagogical strategies that were employed by one bilingual teacher and her assistant to teach literacy in a linguistically diverse Grade 1 classroom in a primary school in the Western Cape, South Africa. Data were collected by means of classroom observations and semi-structured interviews to understand the teacher’s literacy instruction, reflecting her understanding of the multilingual pedagogical approach as a means of fostering learners’ biliteracy skills. Through the lens of the social constructivist theory and the notion of biliteracy, this paper argues that bilingual competence does not necessarily translate to biliteracy if the teaching approaches and learning materials are not systematically and adequately used to support learners’ listening, oral, reading and writing skills in different languages in an integrated and holistic manner in multilingual classrooms. It concludes that, despite the progressive South African Language-in-Education Policy which supports additive multilingualism, classroom practices continue to reinforce monolingualism in English, which deprives the majority of learners of meaningful access to literacy in different languages as they do not exploit the socio-cultural and cognitive capital embedded in the learners’ home languages for additive bilingual and biliteracy competence.

  10. Making a difference? Societal entrepreneurship and its significance for a practical theological ecclesiology in a local Western Cape context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius Swart

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the question of whether and how a local church or congregation can, as indissoluble dimension of its vocation as a Christian faith agent, make a difference by influencing the dynamics of social and economic change that are transforming the face and structures of ‘traditional’ social and religious life in its community. Based upon the authors’ own interest in the specific context of the Dutch Reformed congregation of Simondium in the Western Cape and the case study work that they have conducted in this context, an argument about the potential role of this congregation is developed through the conceptual lens of ‘societal entrepreneurship’. After exploring some recent thoughts on this concept in the literature, the authors use the results of their recently conducted case study work to show how the dynamics of a new entrepreneurial drive amongst long-established residents and newcomers in the Simondium region shape the social reality of both the region and the congregation in a forceful way. This insight leads the authors to develop a sociologically and theologically motivated argument about the way in which this changing reality offers newfound opportunities to the Simondium congregation to fulfil its Christian calling. As such, the notion of becoming an ‘entrepreneurial church’ is introduced and a more detailed perspective is offered on those factors that a contextually orientated practical theological ecclesiology should take into account in building the entrepreneurial model in the congregation.

  11. Relationship between socioeconomic status and HIV infection: findings from a survey in the Free State and Western Cape Provinces of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyasi, Erick Wekesa; Coetzee, David John

    2017-11-20

    Studies have shown a mixed association between socioeconomic status (SES) and prevalent HIV infection across and within settings in sub-Saharan Africa. In general, the relationship between years of formal education and HIV infection changed from a positive to a negative association with maturity of the HIV epidemic. Our objective was to determine the association between SES and HIV in women of reproductive age in the Free State (FSP) and Western Cape Provinces (WCP) of South Africa (SA). Cross-sectional. SA. We conducted secondary analysis on 1906 women of reproductive age from a 2007 to 2008 survey that evaluated effectiveness of Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission Programmes. SES was measured by household wealth quintiles, years of formal education and employment status. Our analysis principally used logistic regression for survey data. There was a significant negative trend between prevalent HIV infection and wealth quintile in WCP (Pstated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Water resource infrastructure implications of a green economy transition in the Western Cape Province of South Africa: a system dynamics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pienaar, Aliza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Western Cape Province government in South Africa has established the transition to a green economy as a high priority. The sustainable use of water resources has been identified as a critical necessity for such a green economy transition. The research summarised in this paper conceptualised the factors that relate to water resources, and that influence the transition to a green economy in the Western Cape Province. Subsequently, a system dynamics model was developed to evaluate the impact of key strategic interventions of the green economy transition. The results from the model show that the Province could possibly experience extreme water shortages in the near future if a business-as-usual scenario continues. However, with sufficient investment and effective management, the water demand of the Province can be met.

  13. Investigating a green economy transition of the electricity sector in the Western Cape province of South Africa: a system dynamics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oosthuizen, Juan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Western Cape Government in South Africa has identified the concept of a green economy as a way to transform the Province’s economy to one that is more sustainable from an economic, social, and environmental perspective. System dynamics modelling was used to develop a better understanding of the implications of different green economy policies and investments in the electricity sector of the Western Cape Province. The results suggest that continuing on the current policy path would increase the gap between demand and supply, increase the carbon footprint of the electricity sector, and not provide growth in employment in the sector. Strategic green economy investments are therefore expected to impact positively on a number of indicators across a number of sectors.

  14. Comparison of water-use by alien invasive pine trees growing in riparian and non-riparian zones in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dzikiti, Sebinasi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available -riparian zones in the Western Cape Province, South Africa Article Type: FLA Full Length Article Keywords: Sap flow; Scintillometer; Total evaporation; Transpiration; Two-source model Corresponding Author: Dr. Sebinasi Dzikiti, Ph.D Corresponding.... Sincerely yours, Sebinasi Dzikiti Corresponding author Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Natural Resources and Environment 11 Jan Cilliers Street, 7599 Stellenbosch South Africa Tel: +27 (0)21 888 2593 e-mail: sdzikiti...

  15. “HealthKick”: Formative assessment of the health environment in low-resource primary schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    de Villiers, Anniza; Steyn, Nelia P; Draper, Catherine E; Fourie, Jean M; Barkhuizen, Gerhard; Lombard, Carl J; Dalais, Lucinda; Abrahams, Zulfa; Lambert, Estelle V

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This study evaluated the primary school environment in terms of being conducive to good nutrition practices, sufficient physical activity and prevention of nicotine use, with the view of planning a school-based health intervention. Methods A sample of 100 urban and rural disadvantaged schools was randomly selected from two education districts of the Western Cape Education Department, South Africa. A situation analysis, which comprised an interview with the school principal...

  16. Reinterpreting the implementation gap: a case based analysis of District Health System implementation in the Western Cape Province in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Ubanesia Lolita

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examined an implementation gap through a case study on\\ud implementing a District Health System (DHS) in the Western Cape Province of South\\ud Africa between October 2001 and April 2006. The research project explored why this\\ud implementation gap existed and what could be learnt about public policy\\ud implementation from studying this implementation gap. The main data collection\\ud methods included interviews, public and other documents and observations on the\\ud public hea...

  17. Investigation into the relationship between the socio-economic and health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL Stellenberg

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive non-experimental approach was applied to investigate and describe the prevalence of factors influencing the health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting as a dissertation for a doctorate degree. For the purpose of this article the relationship between the socio-economic and health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting are described. The study only included economically active persons < 21 ^ 50 years. The objective was to determine the relationship between the health status and the socio-economic status of economically active Coloured people in an urban area as defined. The objectives set for the study were reached through a cross sectional study. The hypothesis, an association between the health status and the socio-economic status of the Coloured people of an urban area in the Western Cape was tested using the chi square statistical test. A purposeful stratified sample of 353 participants was drawn from the residential areas as defined for the purpose of the study. All social classes were well represented in the suburbs. Statistical associations on a 95% confidence interval were shown between the socio-economic status (i.e. educational level, income and occupation social habits, diet, and money available for food, exercise and the health status of the respondents. Recommendations were made based on the scientific evidence obtained through the study.

  18. Clinical skills required of ophthalmic nurse practitioners in tertiary level public hospitals in the Western Cape Province

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    U. Kyriacos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa has a 32-year history of training ophthalmic nurse practitioners (ONPs. The role and required skills and competencies of ONPs are not well documented in the international literature and are also absent from South African publications, including South African Nursing Council publications. Aim: This study aims to inform curriculum development and human resource planning by reporting on the clinical skills expected of ONPs by members of multidisciplinary ophthalmology teams. Method: A limited survey was undertaken in the ophthalmology wards and outpatient departments of three tertiary level hospitals in the Western Cape Province. A researcher-designed structured self-completion questionnaire was distributed to 30 ophthalmology practitioners: doctors, nurses and technicians. Respondents were asked to indicate the expected clinical skills of ONPs. Findings: All questionnaires were completed. All respondents favoured ONPs taking histories and performing emergency eye irrigations. There was less support for more complex procedures, such as B-scans. One-third of respondents did not expect ONPs to have skills in eight key areas, including examination of the anterior chamber angle for glaucoma. No statistically significant differences were found between responses of doctors and nurses, with one exception: more nurses (15/18 than doctors (4/10 had confidence in the ONP undertaking basic eye examinations for ocular motility (Fisher‘s exact test, P = 0 .035. Conclusion: In the study settings, ONPs are not using their specialist skills to the full. Not all practitioners were receptive to ONPs using the skills that they had acquired during their postgraduate diploma, threatening the educational effectiveness of this initiative.

  19. Biogeography and molar morphology of Pleistocene African elephants: new evidence from Elandsfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathlyn M.; Stynder, Deano D.

    2015-05-01

    Elandsfontein (EFT) is a Middle Pleistocene archaeological/paleontological site located in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The largest herbivore in the assemblage is Loxodonta atlantica zulu, an extinct member of the genus that includes modern African elephants. No Elephas recki specimens were recovered at EFT, despite their common occurrence in other regions of Africa at the same time. Because E. recki and L. atlantica molars are similar in appearance, but the two species are traditionally viewed as dominating different regions of Africa during the Pleistocene, isolated molars may on occasions have been assessed to species level on the basis of geography rather than morphology. The last morphologic evaluation of EFT elephants was conducted in the 1970s, and revisiting this issue with new specimens provides added insight into the evolution of elephants in Africa. Reevaluating morphological characteristics of EFT elephant molars, through qualitative and quantitative description and comparison with Middle Pleistocene E. recki recki, L. atlantica atlantica, and L. atlantica zulu molar morphology, corroborates assessment of EFT elephants as L. a. zulu. Two recently discovered, previously undescribed molars from EFT show that molars of L. a. zulu exhibit greater variation in enamel thickness, lamellar frequency, and occlusal surface morphology than previously reported. An update of the Pleistocene biogeography of Loxodonta and Elephas indicates that fossil remains of both are often found at the same localities in eastern Africa. Their rare co-occurrences in the north and south, however, suggest geographic separation of the two genera in at least some regions of Africa, which may have been based on habitat preference.

  20. The anatomical variation of the circulus arteriosus cerebri in a cadaver cohort representing the population dynamics of the Western Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilliers, Karen; Vorster, Willie; Page, Benedict John

    2017-09-05

    The literature revealed a connection between the variations of the Circulus arteriosus cerebri (CAC) and cerebrovascular disease, ischemia, stroke, aneurysms and atherosclerosis. The diameters of the vessels forming the CAC have been classified into 22 types by previous authors. The aim of this study was to assess the variation of the CAC (diameter, length and anomalies) in a cadaver cohort representing the population of the Western Cape. Thirty-nine subjects (female n = 11, male n = 28) who had died of causes unrelated to brain trauma, were obtained from Stellenbosch University. Additionally, a pilot study was done on 20 specimens. The CAC were removed and fixed for three weeks in 10% buffered formaldehyde. Digital images were taken and the vessels were measured using Adobe Creative Suite 5: Extended edition (Photoshop). The normal diameter (type 1) was observed in 41% of specimens and type 4 (hypoplastic posterior communicating artery) was observed in 23.1%. One case (bilateral hypoplastic posterior communicating arteries and a hypoplastic right posterior cerebral artery) was classified as "other", since it could not be classified into the 22 types. Additional variations included duplication (17.9%) and one point fusion (15.4%) of the anterior communicating artery. Studies have shown that about half of a healthy population have a typical CAC (normal diameter and no anomalies). In the present study the prevalence of a typical CAC was only 15.4%. Studies can only be compared if the same definitions for variations are used. The knowledge of these variations is important in endarterectomy, stenting head and neck surgery and angiography.

  1. The development of an implementation framework for service-learning during the undergraduate nursing programme in the Western Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester Julie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Service-learning (SL is a contested field of knowledge and issues of sustainability and scholarship have been raised about it. The South African Higher Education Quality Committee (HEQC has provided policy documents to guide higher education institutions (HEIs in the facilitation of SL institutionalisation in their academic programmes. An implementation framework was therefore needed to institutionalise the necessary epistemological shifts advocated in the national SL policy guidelines. Objectives: This article is based on the findings of a doctoral thesis that aimed at developing an SL implementation framework for the School of Nursing (SoN at the University of the Western Cape (UWC. Method: Mixed methods were used during the first four phases of the design and developmenti ntervention research model developed by Rothman and Thomas. Results: The SL implementation framework that was developed during Phase 3 specified the intervention elements to address the gaps that had been identified by the core findings of Phases 1 and 2. Four intervention elements were specified for the SL implementation framework. The first intervention element focused on the assessment of readiness for SL institutionalisation. The development of SL capacity and SL scholarship was regarded as the pivotal intervention element for three of the elements: the development of a contextual SL definition, an SL pedagogical model, and a monitoring and evaluation system for SL institutionalisation. Conclusion: The SL implementation framework satisfies the goals of SL institutionalisation, namely to develop a common language and a set of principles to guide practice, and to ensure the allocation of resources in order to facilitate the SL teaching methodology.The contextualised SL definition that was formulated for the SoN contributes to the SL operationalisation discourse at the HEI.

  2. The development of an implementation framework for service-learning during the undergraduate nursing programme in the Western Cape Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie, Hester

    2015-11-13

    Service-learning (SL) is a contested field of knowledge and issues of sustainability and scholarship have been raised about it. The South African Higher Education Quality Committee (HEQC) has provided policy documents to guide higher education institutions (HEIs) in the facilitation of SL institutionalisation in their academic programmes. An implementation framework was therefore needed to institutionalise the necessary epistemological shifts advocated in the national SL policy guidelines. This article is based on the findings of a doctoral thesis that aimed at developing an SL implementation framework for the School of Nursing (SoN) at the University of the Western Cape (UWC). Mixed methods were used during the first four phases of the design and developmenti ntervention research model developed by Rothman and Thomas. The SL implementation framework that was developed during Phase 3 specified the intervention elements to address the gaps that had been identified by the core findings of Phases 1 and 2. Four intervention elements were specified for the SL implementation framework. The first intervention element focused on the assessment of readiness for SL institutionalisation. The development of SL capacity and SL scholarship was regarded as the pivotal intervention element for three of the elements: the development of a contextual SL definition, an SL pedagogical model, and a monitoring and evaluation system for SL institutionalisation. The SL implementation framework satisfies the goals of SL institutionalisation, namely to develop a common language and a set of principles to guide practice, and to ensure the allocation of resources in order to facilitate the SL teaching methodology.The contextualised SL definition that was formulated for the SoN contributes to the SL operationalisation discourse at the HEI.

  3. A Critical Appraisal of Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability V Government of the Republic of South Africa

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    Petronell Kruger.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2011 the Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability v Government of The Republic of South Africa case flagged a lot of issues faced by persons with disabilities relating to access to education in South Africa. The case tackled certain perceptions about the ineducability of persons with profound and severe disability and the remaining charity-oriented perception by the South African Department of Basic Education. While the court made several important points in advancing universal access to education, the author argues that certain holes in the judgment hinders the existence of judicial finding truly infused with concerns of substantive equality. An example of this short-coming is the court's consideration of reasonableness when the right to basic education is an immediately realisable right. The author also argues that the South African developments in education policy for persons with disability, while positive, is insufficient to truly give effect to substantive equality – the claim to equality being made in the new constitutional dispensation. There is still an attitude that is too permissive of separating students based on abilism. The social model of thinking about requires a complete transformation of the education system that would not require a classification of learners by abilities but have a different constitution so as to accommodate all students and not unduly enable one group over another. The author considers the approaches from Canada and India to explore its responses to education for students with varying levels of ability. Canada's similar conception of equality and India's influence on South African constitutionalism and shared experience with massive equality gaps make these jurisdictions instructive.

  4. Taxi 'sugar daddies' and taxi queens: male taxi driver attitudes regarding transactional relationships in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, Cheryl; Strebel, Anna; Shefer, Tamara; Wagner, Claire

    2012-11-01

    Media reports are emerging on the phenomenon of young girls who travel with older mini-bus taxi drivers, and who are thought to have sex with the drivers in exchange for gifts and money. The extent to which such relationships might facilitate unsafe sexual practices and increased risks for both the men and the young women, often referred to as taxi queens, remains an important question in the light of the current challenges of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. However, very little research has been undertaken on this issue, especially regarding the perceptions and experiences of taxi drivers. Thus this paper aims to provide some preliminary findings on taxi drivers' attitudes and beliefs about taxi queens and their relationships with taxi drivers. A 22-item questionnaire was administered to 223 male taxi drivers in two regions in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Taxi drivers in this study largely saw the relationship between taxi drivers and the young girls who ride with them as providing status for both the girls and drivers, and there seemed to be recognition of the transactional nature of the relationship between taxi drivers and taxi queens. The stigmatisation of young girls who ride with taxi drivers was evident. Drivers had knowledge and awareness of the risks of unsafe sex and supported condom use, although there appeared to be some uncertainty and confusion about the likelihood of HIV infection between drivers and girls. While taxi drivers recognised the role of alcohol in relationships with young girls, they seemed to deny that the abuse of drugs was common. The study highlights a number of key areas that need to be explored with men in the taxi industry, in order to address risk behaviours for both taxi drivers and the girls who ride with them.

  5. Sustainable solutions for cooling systems in residential buildings: case study in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foudzai, F.; M' Rithaa, M. [Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town (South Africa). Dept. of Industrial Design

    2010-07-01

    sustainable cooling in residential buildings of Western Cape, South Africa are discussed.

  6. Contamination of rural surface and ground water by endosulfan in farming areas of the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    London Leslie

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In South Africa there is little data on environmental pollution of rural water sources by agrochemicals. Methods This study investigated pesticide contamination of ground and surface water in three intensive agricultural areas in the Western Cape: the Hex River Valley, Grabouw and Piketberg. Monitoring for endosulfan and chlorpyrifos at low levels was conducted as well as screening for other pesticides. Results The quantification limit for endosulfan was 0.1 μg/L. Endosulfan was found to be widespread in ground water, surface water and drinking water. The contamination was mostly at low levels, but regularly exceeded the European Drinking Water Standard of 0.1 μg/L. The two most contaminated sites were a sub-surface drain in the Hex River Valley and a dam in Grabouw, with 0.83 ± 1.0 μg/L (n = 21 and 3.16 ± 3.5 μg/L (n = 13 average endosulfan levels respectively. Other pesticides including chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, fenarimol, iprodione, deltamethrin, penconazole and prothiofos were detected. Endosulfan was most frequently detected in Grabouw (69% followed by Hex River (46% and Piketberg (39%. Detections were more frequent in surface water (47% than in groundwater (32% and coincided with irrigation, and to a lesser extent, to spraying and trigger rains. Total dietary endosulfan intake calculated from levels found in drinking water did not exceed the Joint WHO/FAO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR criteria. Conclusion The study has shown the need for monitoring of pesticide contamination in surface and groundwater, and the development of drinking water quality standards for specific pesticides in South Africa.

  7. Assessment of the impact of family physicians in the district health system of the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Swanepoel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2007, South Africa made family medicine a new speciality. Family physicians that have trained for this new speciality have been employed in the district health system since 2011. The aim of the present study was to explore the perceptions of district managers on the impact of family physicians on clinical processes, health system performance and health outcomes in the district health system (DHS of the Western Cape.Methods: Nine in-depth interviews were performed: seven with district managers and two with the chief directors of the metropolitan and rural DHS. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using the ATLAS-ti and the framework method.Results: There was a positive impact on clinical processes for HIV/AIDS, TB, trauma, noncommunicable chronic diseases, mental health, maternal and child health. Health system performance was positively impacted in terms of access, coordination, comprehensiveness and efficiency. An impact on health outcomes was anticipated. The impact was not uniform throughout the province due to different numbers of family physicians and different abilities to function optimally. There was also a perception that the positive impact attributed to family physicians was in the early stages of development. Unanticipated effects included concerns with their roles in management and training of students, as well as tensions with career medical officers.Conclusion: Early feedback from district managers suggests that where family physicians are employed and able to function optimally, they are making a significant impact on health system performance and the quality of clinical processes. In the longer term, this is likely to impact on health outcomes.

  8. The status of academic integrity amongst nursing students at a nursing education institution in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia J. Theart

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Honesty is regarded as a basic ethical value in all educational programmes, and academic integrity is of undisputed importance in educational environments. The literature reviewed revealed that academic dishonesty is wide-ranging and also encountered in the nursing education environment. This phenomenon is of concern to the nursing fraternity because of the proven positive correlation between unethical academic practices and future unethical professional behaviour. Limited research data regarding academic dishonesty at nursing education institutions in South Africa and this correlation motivated the present study. The purpose was to examine the status of academic integrity amongst nursing students at a nursing education institution in the Western Cape. Formulated objectives guided investigation of several variables which impact upon academic integrity, for example the incidence of and student perceptions around academic dishonesty.A quantitative, descriptive survey design was used, with a self-reported questionnaire (based on literature review and study objectives designed to obtain information about academic dishonesty. Provision was also made for qualitative input from the respondents by including three open-ended questions.It was found that academic dishonesty was a reality at the nursing education institution where this study was done. Cheating associated with plagiarism and assignments was identified as the main problem area. An unacceptably high level of dishonesty in completion of practical records was also an area of concern. The main recommendations are development and implementation of a code of honour and implementation of comprehensive academic integrity policies at the nursing education institution, with practical measures aimed at combating cheating in tests and examinations.

  9. Assessment of the impact of family physicians in the district health system of the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Swanepoel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2007, South Africa made family medicine a new speciality. Family physicians that have trained for this new speciality have been employed in the district health system since 2011. The aim of the present study was to explore the perceptions of district managers on the impact of family physicians on clinical processes, health system performance and health outcomes in the district health system (DHS of the Western Cape. Methods: Nine in-depth interviews were performed: seven with district managers and two with the chief directors of the metropolitan and rural DHS. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using the ATLAS-ti and the framework method. Results: There was a positive impact on clinical processes for HIV/AIDS, TB, trauma, noncommunicable chronic diseases, mental health, maternal and child health. Health system performance was positively impacted in terms of access, coordination, comprehensiveness and efficiency. An impact on health outcomes was anticipated. The impact was not uniform throughout the province due to different numbers of family physicians and different abilities to function optimally. There was also a perception that the positive impact attributed to family physicians was in the early stages of development. Unanticipated effects included concerns with their roles in management and training of students, as well as tensions with career medical officers. Conclusion: Early feedback from district managers suggests that where family physicians are employed and able to function optimally, they are making a significant impact on health system performance and the quality of clinical processes. In the longer term, this is likely to impact on health outcomes.

  10. The status of academic integrity amongst nursing students at a nursing education institution in the Western Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theart, Cecilia J; Smit, Ilze

    2012-06-20

    Honesty is regarded as a basic ethical value in all educational programmes, and academic integrity is of undisputed importance in educational environments. The literature reviewed revealed that academic dishonesty is wide-ranging and also encountered in the nursing education environment. This phenomenon is of concern to the nursing fraternity because of the proven positive correlation between unethical academic practices and future unethical professional behaviour. Limited research data regarding academic dishonesty at nursing education institutions in South Africa and this correlation motivated the present study. The purpose was to examine the status of academic integrity amongst nursing students at a nursing education institution in the Western Cape. Formulated objectives guided investigation of several variables which impact upon academic integrity, for example the incidence of and student perceptions around academic dishonesty. A quantitative, descriptive survey design was used, with a self-reported questionnaire (based on literature review and study objectives) designed to obtain information about academic dishonesty. Provision was also made for qualitative input from the respondents by including three open-ended questions. It was found that academic dishonesty was a reality at the nursing education institution where this study was done. Cheating associated with plagiarism and assignments was identified as the main problem area. An unacceptably high level of dishonesty in completion of practical records was also an area of concern. The main recommendations are development and implementation of a code of honour and implementation of comprehensive academic integrity policies at the nursing education institution, with practical measures aimed at combating cheating in tests and examinations.

  11. Self-induction of abortion among women accessing second-trimester abortion services in the public sector, Western Cape Province, South Africa: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, D; Grossman, D; Lince, N; Harries, J

    2014-04-01

    Despite South Africa's liberal abortion law permitting abortion on request in the first trimester and under restricted conditions for second-trimester pregnancies, the practice of unsafe self-induced abortion persists. However, the prevalence of this practice, the methods used and the reasons behind it are relatively under-researched. As part of a larger study seeking to improve abortion services in the Western Cape Province, we explored reports of prior attempts to self-induce abortion among women undergoing legal second-trimester abortion. To describe the prevalence and methods of and factors related to unsuccessful attempts at self-induction of abortion by women presenting without complications and seeking second-trimester abortion at public health facilities in the Western Cape. In a cross-sectional study from April to August 2010, 194 consenting women undergoing second-trimester abortion were interviewed by trained fieldworkers using structured questionnaires at four public sector facilities near Cape Town. Thirty-four women (17.5%; 95% confidence interval 12.7 - 23.4) reported an unsuccessful attempt to self-induce abortion during the current pregnancy before going to a facility for second-trimester abortion. No factors were significantly associated with self-induction, but a relatively high proportion of this small sample were unemployed and spoke an indigenous African language at home. A readily available herbal product called Stametta was most commonly used; other methods included taking tablets bought from unlicensed providers and using other herbal remedies. No use of physical methods was reported. The prevalence of unsafe self-induction of abortion is relatively high in the Western Cape. Efforts to inform women in the community about the availability of free services in the public sector and to educate them about the dangers of self-induction and unsafe providers should be strengthened to help address this public health issue.

  12. The association between race and Crohn's disease phenotype in the Western Cape population of South Africa, defined by the Montreal Classification System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Basson

    Full Text Available Inter-racial differences in disease characteristics and in the management of Crohn's disease (CD have been described in African American and Asian subjects, however for the racial groups in South Africa, no such recent literature exists.A cross sectional study of all consecutive CD patients seen at 2 large inflammatory bowel disease (IBD referral centers in the Western Cape, South Africa between September 2011 and January 2013 was performed. Numerous demographic and clinical variables at diagnosis and date of study enrolment were identified using an investigator administered questionnaire as well as clinical examination and patient case notes. Using predefined definitions, disease behavior was stratified as 'complicated' or 'uncomplicated'.One hundred and ninety four CD subjects were identified; 35 (18% were white, 152 (78% were Cape Coloured and 7(4% were black. On multiple logistic regression analysis Cape Coloureds were significantly more likely to develop 'complicated' CD (60% vs. 9%, p = 0.023 during the disease course when compared to white subjects. In addition, significantly more white subjects had successfully discontinued cigarette smoking at study enrolment (31% vs. 7% reduction, p = 0.02. No additional inter-racial differences were found. A low proportion of IBD family history was observed among the non-white subjects.Cape Coloured patients were significantly more likely to develop 'complicated' CD over time when compared to whites.

  13. Western Cape, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This permits safe artificial recharge of the various water quality portions at different points in the aquifer, either for recycling ... transferred to other potential sites for establishment of similar systems in arid and semi-arid areas of South Africa and the ... studies from over 50 countries from Europe, Asia, Africa, North and South ...

  14. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used to manage High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bitterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Denver; Gibson, Diana; Johnson, Quinton

    2016-12-24

    The aim of this study was to identify and document medicinal plants used to manage High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bitterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa. One hundred and twelve (112) respondents were interviewed between August 2014 and September 2015 through semi-structured surveys to gather data on the percentage of people who had been diagnosed with High Blood Pressure and/or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and to determine the frequency of medicinal plant and allopathic medicine use. Twelve (12) key respondents were subsequently selected, using a non-probability snowball sampling method. They were interviewed in-depth concerning their plant practices and assisted with plant collection. Twenty-four plant (24) species belonging to 15 families were identified for the management of High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The most frequently reported families were Asteraceae (20.8%), Lamiaceae (16.67%), Crassulaceae (8.33%) and Aizoaceae (8.33%). The remaining (45.54%) were evenly split over eleven families- Fabaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Capparaceae, Geraniaceae, Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Apocynaceae, Rutaceae, Asphodelaceae and Thymelaeaceae. The most commonly used plant species overall was Lessertia frutescens (96.55%). The most frequently used plant parts included leaves (57.63%) roots/bulbs (15.25%) and stems (11.86%), mostly prepared as infusions or decoctions for oral administration. Medicinal plants are widely used by High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus sufferers. They employ diverse plant species to manage both conditions. In addition, some sufferers often use prescribed allopathic medication, as well as medicinal plants, but at different intervals. Despite high usage the plants identified are not currently threatened (Red Data list status: least concern). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Information and knowledge sharing trends of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Western Cape, South Africa

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    Faeda Mohsam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, especially in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, are currently facing various financial and other obstacles, which may threaten their survival. Globalisation, the lowering of trade barriers and the reduction of import tariffs have resulted in increased international competition. Businesses are thus forced to undertake continuous improvements and innovation in order to survive, to keep abreast of change and to excel.Objectives: Effective knowledge sharing and consequent knowledge management (KM have been identified as definite approaches to enhancing competitive advantage. The research therefore aimed to establish to what extent small enterprises embrace their knowledge sharing activities and whether their knowledge sharing activities are managed at all. Furthermore, it examined how their knowledge sharing can contribute to their competitive advantage.Method: A case study approach was followed for this research. Selected SMEs from the engineering sector were the subject of the case study and SME owners, directors and managers of consulting civil engineering firms were interviewed to determine whether there are mechanisms in place to ensure better knowledge sharing within SMEs.Results: In general, respondents had stated that they possessed special factors that set them above their competitors:• The company strategy and good reputation of completing projects within the required timeframe. In other words, they were well known for their track record in terms of service delivery. • Their specialty in terms of different focus areas, namely structural and civil engineering, water supply and storm water design, transportation, sewer design and storm water traffic. • The fact that they operated in silos. This means that the specialists in their specific fields operated independently in groups, separately from everyone else in the company. • Their good relationship with local authorities

  16. A rapid appraisal of the status of mental health support in post-rape care services in the Western Cape

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    Naeemah Abrahams

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the well-known impact of rape on mental health and the widespread problem of rape in South Africa, mental health services for rape victims are scant and not a priority for acute-phase services. Survivors encounter multiple mental health struggles in this period including adherence to the post-exposure prophylaxis drugs to prevent HIV and finding support from important others. We have little information on what mental health is provided, by whom and how it is integrated into the post-rape package of care. Aim: The aim of the study was to do a rapid appraisal of mental health services for rape survivors to gain a better understanding of the current acute and long-term (secondary mental health services. Method: We conducted a qualitative study using a rapid assessment with a purposive sample of 14 rape survivors and 43 service providers recruited from post-rape sexual assault services in urban and rural Western Cape Province. Data were collected using semi-structured in-depth interviews and observations of survivor sessions with counsellors, nurses and doctors. The data were coded thematically for analysis. Results: Survivors of rape experienced a range of emotional difficulties and presented varying levels of distress and various levels of coping. Receiving support and care from others assisted them, but the poor integration of mental health within post-rape services meant few received formal mental health support or effective referrals. Multiple factors contributed to the poor integration: mental health was not given the same level of priority as other rape services (i.e. clinical care, including forensic management, the inadequate capacity of service providers to provide mental healthcare, including mental health illiteracy, the lack of continuity of care, the poor linkages to ongoing mental healthcare, and the mental health challenges caused by vicarious trauma and compassion fatigue. Conclusion: Providing effective

  17. IOC-Germany Advanced Training Course on Bathymetric Charting in the Western Indian Ocean: On board R.V. Meteor between Durban and Cape Town, South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The IOC-Germany Advanced Training Course on Bathymetric Charting in the Western Indian Ocean took place in Durban, South Africa, and on board R.V. METEOR during cruise M33/3 from Durban to Cape Town, from 15 to 29 December 1995. It was a follow-up of a similar, more basic course held in Madagascar and on board R.V. METEOR in 1987. The Course profited from the fact that in 1995 R.V. METEOR spent several months in the Indian Ocean to do research for the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WO...

  18. Self-enrolment antenatal health promotion data as an adjunct to maternal clinical information systems in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heekes, Alexa; Tiffin, Nicki; Dane, Pierre; Mutemaringa, Themba; Smith, Mariette; Zinyakatira, Nesbert; Barron, Peter; Seebregts, Chris; Boulle, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Information systems designed to support health promotion in pregnancy, such as the MomConnect programme, are potential sources of clinical information which can be used to identify pregnancies prospectively and early on. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility and value of linking records collected through the MomConnect programme, to an emergent province-wide health information exchange in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, which already enumerates pregnancies from a range of other clinical data sources. MomConnect registrations were linked to pregnant women known to the public health services using the limited identifiers collected by MomConnect. Three-quarters of MomConnect registrations could be linked to existing pregnant women, decreasing over time as recording of the national identifier decreased. The MomConnect records were usually the first evidence of pregnancy in pregnancies which were subsequently confirmed by other sources. Those at lower risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes were more likely to register. In some cases, MomConnect was the only evidence of pregnancy for a patient. In addition, the MomConnect records provided gestational age information and new and more recently updated contact numbers to the existing contact registry. The pilot integration of the data in the Western Cape Province of South Africa demonstrates how a client-facing system can augment clinical information systems, especially in contexts where electronic medical records are not widely available.

  19. Education at the Dittrick Museum of Medical History, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, James M

    2009-01-01

    The Dittrick Museum of Medical History pursues an educational mission as being part of a major research university. While the Dittrick dates to 1899 as a historical committee of the Cleveland Medical Library Association, it first affiliated with Case Western Reserve University in 1966, and became a department of the College of Arts and Sciences of CWRU in 1998. The Dittrick maintains a museum exhibition gallery that is open to the public free of charge, and museum staff provide guided tours on appointment. Much of the teaching and instruction at the Dittrick is conducted by university professors; their classes meet in the museum and use museum resources in the form of artifacts, images, archives, and rare books. Class projects using Dittrick collections may take the form of research papers, exhibitions, and online presentations. Dittrick staff assist in these classes and are available to help researchers use museum resources.

  20. Activity pattern of Sloth Bear Melursus ursinus (Mammalia: Ursidae in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, Western Ghats, India

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    T. Ramesh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We used information from systematic camera trapping surveys to study activity patterns of sloth bear (Melursus ursinus in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, Western Ghats during November 2009 to April 2010.Overall 61 independent photographs were obtained from 2600 trap nights. Sloth Bears showed bimodal peaks activities; late evening to midnight and small peak during sunrise. The mean activity time was 21:54 plus or minus 00:46 hrs. Although sloth bears were active throughout the day they exhibited reduced activity during the hottest hours of the day. Sloth Bears might have reduced their activity during the day to avoid the intense heat.Our data demonstrate that use of camera traps in documenting activity patterns can be an effective tool for identifying biological questions of sloth bear ecology for future studies.

  1. An integrated environmental risk assessment and management framework for enhancing the sustainability of marine protected areas: the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve case study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Elvis G B; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Morton, Brian; Lee, Joseph H W

    2015-02-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs), such as marine parks and reserves, contain natural resources of immense value to the environment and mankind. Since MPAs may be situated in close proximity to urbanized areas and influenced by anthropogenic activities (e.g. continuous discharges of contaminated waters), the marine organisms contained in such waters are probably at risk. This study aimed at developing an integrated environmental risk assessment and management (IERAM) framework for enhancing the sustainability of such MPAs. The IERAM framework integrates conventional environmental risk assessment methods with a multi-layer-DPSIR (Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response) conceptual approach, which can simplify the complex issues embraced by environmental management strategies and provide logical and concise management information. The IERAM process can generate a useful database, offer timely update on the status of MPAs, and assist in the prioritization of management options. We use the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve in Hong Kong as an example to illustrate the IERAM framework. A comprehensive set of indicators were selected, aggregated and analyzed using this framework. Effects of management practices and programs were also assessed by comparing the temporal distributions of these indicators over a certain timeframe. Based on the obtained results, we have identified the most significant components for safeguarding the integrity of the marine reserve, and indicated the existing information gaps concerned with the management of the reserve. Apart from assessing the MPA's present condition, a successful implementation of the IERAM framework as evocated here would also facilitate better-informed decision-making and, hence, indirectly enhance the protection and conservation of the MPA's marine biodiversity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Plasmid-mediated mcr-1 colistin resistance in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. clinical isolates from the Western Cape region of South Africa

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    Mae Newton-Foot

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colistin is a last resort antibiotic for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant Gram negative infections. Until recently, mechanisms of colistin resistance were limited to chromosomal mutations which confer a high fitness cost and cannot be transferred between organisms. However, a novel plasmid-mediated colistin resistance mechanism, encoded by the mcr-1 gene, has been identified, and has since been detected worldwide. The mcr-1 colistin resistance mechanism is a major threat due to its lack of fitness cost and ability to be transferred between strains and species. Surveillance of colistin resistance mechanisms is critical to monitor the development and spread of resistance.This study aimed to determine the prevalence of the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene, mcr-1, in colistin-resistant E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates in the Western Cape of South Africa; and whether colistin resistance is spread through clonal expansion or by acquisition of resistance by diverse strains. Methods Colistin resistant E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates were collected from the NHLS microbiology laboratory at Tygerberg Hospital. Species identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing was done using the API® 20 E system and the Vitek® 2 Advanced Expert System™. PCR was used to detect the plasmid-mediated mcr-1 colistin resistance gene and REP-PCR was used for strain typing of the isolates. Results Nineteen colistin resistant isolates, including 12 E. coli, six K. pneumoniae and one K. oxytoca isolate, were detected over 7 months from eight different hospitals in the Western Cape region. The mcr-1 gene was detected in 83% of isolates which were shown to be predominantly unrelated strains. Conclusions The plasmid-mediated mcr-1 colistin resistance gene is responsible for the majority of colistin resistance in clinical isolates of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. from the Western Cape of South Africa. Colistin resistance is not

  3. Implementing community participation through legislative reform: a study of the policy framework for community participation in the Western Cape province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Pardue, Caitlin; London, Leslie

    2012-08-25

    Amidst an evolving post-apartheid policy framework for health, policymakers have sought to institutionalize community participation in Primary Health Care, recognizing participation as integral to realizing South Africa's constitutional commitment to the right to health. With evolving South African legislation supporting community involvement in the health system, early policy developments focused on Community Health Committees (HCs) as the principal institutions of community participation. Formally recognized in the National Health Act of 2003, the National Health Act deferred to provincial governments in establishing the specific roles and functions of HCs. As a result, stakeholders developed a Draft Policy Framework for Community Participation in Health (Draft Policy) to formalize participatory institutions in the Western Cape province. With the Draft Policy as a frame of analysis, the researchers conducted documentary policy analysis and semi-structured interviews on the evolution of South African community participation policy. Moving beyond the specific and unique circumstances of the Western Cape, this study analyzes generalizable themes for rights-based community participation in the health system. Framing institutions for the establishment, appointment, and functioning of community participation, the Draft Policy proposed a formal network of communication - from local HCs to the health system. However, this participation structure has struggled to establish itself and function effectively as a result of limitations in community representation, administrative support, capacity building, and policy commitment. Without legislative support for community participation, the enactment of superseding legislation is likely to bring an end to HC structures in the Western Cape. Attempts to realize community participation have not adequately addressed the underlying factors crucial to promoting effective participation, with policy reforms necessary: to codify clearly

  4. The functioning of primary school learners with paraplegia/paraparesis in mainstream schools in the Western Cape, South Africa. An exploratory study.

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    Vosloo, San-Marie

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the reality of implementing policy guidelines that promote the inclusion of learners with disabilities in mainstream schools. According to the department of education in South Africa, learners who can satisfactorily be educated in an ordinary or mainstream school should be accommodated there. The Craig handicap assessment and reporting technique were used to identify activity limitations and participation restrictions of learners with paraplegia/paraparesis in the mainstream school setting in the Western Cape, South Africa. The Craig hospital inventory of environmental factors identified contextual factors that facilitate or restrict the participation of learners. The views of the learners, teachers and parents were compared in order to identify the facilitators and barriers that influence the participation of physically disabled learners in mainstream schooling. The study population comprised 15 learners between the ages of 6 and 14 years old with paraplegia/paraparesis, their parents and relevant class teachers in 13 mainstream schools of the Western Cape, South Africa. Findings indicate that cognitive independence and mobility are the two areas that most restricted the participation of the learners in the school. Resource availability, social support and equality were critical to facilitating the inclusion of learners at mainstream schools. It is recommended that a comprehensive research project be undertaken. Teacher support and training is essential for keeping the educators motivated and informed. Physical assistance to the learners should be provided in a structured and appropriate way. Physical accessibility, transport and medical information should be addressed at the institutional (school) level and is not the responsibility of the parents or caregivers of the disabled learners.

  5. Groundwater-quality data for a treated-wastewater plume near the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Ashumet Valley, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2006-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoie, Jennifer G.; LeBlanc, Denis R.; Fairchild, Gillian M.; Smith, Richard L.; Kent, Douglas B.; Barber, Larry B.; Repert, Deborah A.; Hart, Charles P.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Parsons, Luke A.

    2012-01-01

    A plume of contaminated groundwater extends from former disposal beds at the Massachusetts Military Reservation's wastewater-treatment plant toward Ashumet Pond, coastal ponds, and Vineyard Sound, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Treated sewage-derived wastewater was discharged to the rapid-infiltration beds for nearly 60 years before the disposal site was moved to a different location in December 1995. Water-quality samples were collected from monitoring wells, multilevel samplers, and profile borings to characterize the nature and extent of the contaminated groundwater and to observe the water-quality changes after the wastewater disposal ceased. Data are presented here for water samples collected in 2007 from 394 wells (at 121 well-cluster locations) and 780 multilevel-sampler ports (at 42 locations) and in 2006-08 at 306 depth intervals in profile borings (at 20 locations) in and near the treated-wastewater plume. Analyses of these water samples for field parameters (specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen and phosphate concentrations, and alkalinity); absorbance of ultraviolet/visible light; and concentrations of nitrous oxide, dissolved organic carbon, methylene blue active substances, selected anions and nutrients, including nitrate and ammonium, and selected inorganic solutes, including cations, anions, and minor elements, are presented in tabular format. The natural restoration of the sand and gravel aquifer after removal of the treated-wastewater source, along with interpretations of the water quality in the treated-wastewater plume, have been documented in several published reports that are listed in the references.

  6. Initial hydrological modelling to assess impacts of different land uses on process hydrology in a small-scale semi-arid catchment in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steudel, T

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available , W.F.O. Marasas, M.B. Hardy, F.J. Calitz, ?Effect of crop rotation on crown rot and the incidence of fusarium pseudograminearum in wheat in the Western Cape, South Africa,? Australian Plant Pathology, vol. 35, p.p. 419-426., 2006. + + climate...

  7. Case Western Reserve University — Treatment of Glioblastoma Using Chain-Like Nanoparticles

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    To overcome the limitations of current drugs to treat brain tumors, Case Western University seeks to integrate the unique features of a chain-like nanoparticle with the appropriate combination of complementary drugs.

  8. Operational demands on pre-hospital emergency care for burn injuries in a middle-income setting: a study in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgaier, Rachel L; Laflamme, Lucie; Wallis, Lee A

    2017-12-01

    Burns occur disproportionately within low-socioeconomic populations. The Western Cape Province of South Africa represents a middle-income setting with a high rate of burns, few specialists and few burn centres, yet a well-developed pre-hospital system. This paper describes the burn cases from a viewpoint of operational factors important to pre-hospital emergency medical services. A retrospective, cross-sectional study of administrative and patient records was conducted. Data were captured for all pre-hospital burn patients treated by public Emergency Medical Services over a continuous 12-month period. Data were captured separately at each site using a standardised data collection tool. Described categories included location (rural or urban), transport decision (transported or remained on scene), age (child or adult) and urgency (triage colour). EMS treated 1198 patients with confirmed burns representing 0.6% of the total EMS caseload; an additional 819 potential burn cases could not be confirmed. Of the confirmed cases, 625 (52.2%) were located outside the City of Cape Town and 1058 (88.3%) were transported to a medical facility. Patients from urban areas had longer mission times. Children accounted for 37.5% (n = 449) of all burns. The majority of transported patients that were triaged were yellow (n = 238, 41.6% rural and n = 182, 37.4% urban). Burns make up a small portion of the EMS caseload. More burns occurred in areas far from urban hospitals and burn centres. The majority of burn cases met the burn centre referral criteria.

  9. Newborn follow-up after discharge from a tertiary care hospital in the Western Cape region of South Africa: a prospective observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milambo, Jean Paul Muambangu; Cho, KaWing; Okwundu, Charles; Olowoyeye, Abiola; Ndayisaba, Leonidas; Chand, Sanjay; Corden, Mark H

    2018-01-01

    Current practice in the Western Cape region of South Africa is to discharge newborns born in-hospital within 24 h following uncomplicated vaginal delivery and two days after caesarean section. Mothers are instructed to bring their newborn to a clinic after discharge for a health assessment. We sought to determine the rate of newborn follow-up visits and the potential barriers to timely follow-up. Mother-newborn dyads at Tygerberg Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa were enrolled from November 2014 to April 2015. Demographic data were obtained via questionnaire and medical records. Mothers were contacted one week after discharge to determine if they had brought their newborns for a follow-up visit, and if not, the barriers to follow-up. Factors associated with follow-up were analyzed using logistic regression. Of 972 newborns, 794 (82%) were seen at a clinic for a follow-up visit within one week of discharge. Mothers with a higher education level or whose newborns were less than 37 weeks were more likely to follow up. The follow-up rate did not differ based on hospital length of stay. Main reported barriers to follow-up included maternal illness, lack of money for transportation, and mother felt follow-up was unnecessary because newborn was healthy. Nearly 4 in 5 newborns were seen at a clinic within one week after hospital discharge, in keeping with local practice guidelines. Further research on the outcomes of this population and those who fail to follow up is needed to determine the impact of postnatal healthcare policy.

  10. An Exploration of Genetic "g:" Hierarchical Factor Analysis of Cognitive Data from the Western Reserve Twin Project.

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    Luo, Dasen; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Hierarchical factor analyses involving Schmid-Leiman transformations were conducted on specific cognitive abilities data collected from 148 identical and 135 fraternal twin pairs from the Western Reserve Twin Project. Model fitting results reflect genetic influences on specific abilities and suggest that environmental influences are less…

  11. RESULTS OF COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE UNDERGROUND HYDROSPHERE WITHIN THE WESTERN SHOULDER OF THE BAIKAL RIFT (AS EXEMPLIFIED BY THE BAYANDAI – KRESTOVSKY CAPE SITE

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    Konstantin Zh. Seminsky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of comprehensive studies is the underground hydrosphere of the upper crust of the western shoulder of the Baikal rift, being characterized by high tectonic activity in the recent stage of tectogenesis. The studies were focused on the Bayandai – Krestovsky Cape site, considering it as a benchmark for the territory of the Western Pribiakalie (Fig. 1. The available hydrogeological survey database is used to study underground waters circulating at depth of several kilometers. Analyses of deeper waters are conducted on the basis of geophysical data. According to results of initial geological and geophysical studies [Семинский и др., 2010], the crust at the junction of the Siberian crater and the SayanBaikal folded belt is characterized by a hierarchic zoneblock structure (Fig. 2. Regardless of the scale of studies, the territory under study can be divided into sections of two types, that alternate from NW to SE and represent wide highly destructed zones and relatively monolithic blocks of the crust. The Obruchev fault system is distinguished as the main interblock zone (the 2nd hierarchic level in the study area. It represents the 50 km long NW shoulder of the Baikal rift (the1st hierarchic level and includes the Morskaya, Primorskaya and Prikhrebtovaya interplate zones (the 3rd hierarchic level. These zones are traced from depth of dozens of kilometers; at the surface, they are represented by fault structures of the highest hierarchic levels.Specific features of the current zoneblock divisibility of the crust serve as the structural basis for interpreting the materials obtained by hydrogeological studies conducted on the Bayandai – Krestovsky Cape site to research the distribution, mineralization and macrocomponent compositions of waters which represent the subsurface part of the underground lithosphere in the study area. The research is based on analyses of the underground water samples from 46 observation points

  12. Bats Increase the Number of Cultivable Airborne Fungi in the "Nietoperek" Bat Reserve in Western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokurewicz, Tomasz; Ogórek, Rafał; Pusz, Wojciech; Matkowski, Krzysztof

    2016-07-01

    The "Nietoperek" bat reserve located in Western Poland is one of the largest bat hibernation sites in the European Union with nearly 38,000 bats from 12 species. Nietoperek is part of a built underground fortification system from WWII. The aims of the study were (1) to determine the fungal species composition and changes during hibernation season in relation to bat number and microclimatic conditions and (2) evaluate the potential threat of fungi for bat assemblages and humans visiting the complex. Airborne fungi were collected in the beginning, middle and end of hibernation period (9 November 2013 and 17 January and 15 March 2014) in 12 study sites, one outside and 11 inside the complex. Ambient temperature (T a) and relative humidity (RH) were measured by the use of data loggers, and species composition of bats was recorded from the study sites. The collision method (Air Ideal 3P) sampler was used to detect 34 species of airborne fungi including Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). The density of airborne fungi isolated from the outdoor air samples varied from 102 to 242 CFU/1 m(3) of air and from 12 to 1198 CFU in the underground air samples. There was a positive relationship between number of bats and the concentration of fungi. The concentration of airborne fungi increased with the increase of bats number. Analysis of other possible ways of spore transport to the underground indicated that the number of bats was the primary factor determining the number of fungal spores in that hibernation site. Microclimatic conditions where Pd was found (median 8.7 °C, min-max 6.1-9.9 °C and 100 %, min-max 77.5-100.0 %) were preferred by hibernating Myotis myotis and Myotis daubentonii; therefore, these species are most probably especially prone to infection by this fungi species. The spores of fungi found in the underground can be pathogenic for humans and animals, especially for immunocompromised persons, even though their concentrations did not exceed limits and

  13. Health Systems Readiness to Manage the Hypertension Epidemic in Primary Health Care Facilities in the Western Cape, South Africa: A Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuboué Tchialeu, Rodrigue Innocent; Yaya, Sanni; Labonté, Ronald

    2016-02-29

    Developing countries are undergoing a process of epidemiological transition from infectious to noncommunicable diseases, described by the United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon as ''a public health emergency in slow motion." One of the most prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa is hypertension, which is a complex chronic condition often referred to as a "silent killer" and key contributor to the development of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Hypertensive patients in this setting are estimated to increase from 74.7 million in 2008 to 125.5 million in 2025, a 68% increase. However, there is an important gap between emerging high-level policies and recommendations, and the near-absence of practical guidance and experience delivering long-term medical care for noncommunicable diseases within resource-limited health systems. To address this gap, our study will consist of field investigations to determine the minimum health systems requirements to ensure successful delivery of antihypertensive medications when scaling-up interventions to control the hypertension epidemic. A cross-sectional analytic study will be conducted in the Western Cape using a mixed-method approach with two semistructured interview guides. The first will be for health professionals involved in the care of hypertensive patients within at least 6 community health centers (3 urban and 3 rural) to understand the challenges associated with their care. The second will be to map and assess the current supply chain management system of antihypertensive medications by interviewing key informants at different levels of the processes. Finally, modeling and simulation tools will be used to understand how to estimate minimum numbers of health workers required at each supply chain interval to ensure successful delivery of medications when scaling-up interventions. Funding for the study was secured through a Doctoral Research Award in October 2014 from the International Development Research Centre

  14. Water-use dynamics of an alien-invaded riparian forest within the Mediterranean climate zone of the Western Cape, South Africa

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    B. C. Scott-Shaw

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, the invasion of riparian forests by alien trees has the potential to affect the country's limited water resources. Tree water-use measurements have therefore become an important component of recent hydrological studies. It is difficult for South African government initiatives, such as the Working for Water (WfW alien clearing program, to justify alien tree removal and implement rehabilitation unless hydrological benefits are known. Consequently, water use within a riparian forest along the Buffeljags River in the Western Cape of South Africa was monitored over a 3-year period. The site consisted of an indigenous stand of Western Cape afrotemperate forest adjacent to a large stand of introduced Acacia mearnsii. The heat ratio method of the heat pulse velocity sap flow technique was used to measure the sap flow of a selection of indigenous species in the indigenous stand, a selection of A. mearnsii trees in the alien stand and two clusters of indigenous species within the alien stand. The indigenous trees in the alien stand at Buffeljags River showed significant intraspecific differences in the daily sap flow rates varying from 15 to 32 L day−1 in summer (sap flow being directly proportional to tree size. In winter (June, this was reduced to only 7 L day−1 when limited energy was available to drive the transpiration process. The water use in the A. mearnsii trees showed peaks in transpiration during the months of March 2012, September 2012 and February 2013. These periods had high average temperatures, rainfall and high daily vapor pressure deficits (VPDs – average of 1.26 kPa. The average daily sap flow ranged from 25 to 35 L in summer and approximately 10 L in the winter. The combined accumulated daily sap flow per year for the three Vepris lanceolata and three A. mearnsii trees was 5700 and 9200 L, respectively, clearly demonstrating the higher water use of the introduced Acacia trees during the winter

  15. Water-use dynamics of an alien-invaded riparian forest within the Mediterranean climate zone of the Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Shaw, Bruce C.; Everson, Colin S.; Clulow, Alistair D.

    2017-09-01

    In South Africa, the invasion of riparian forests by alien trees has the potential to affect the country's limited water resources. Tree water-use measurements have therefore become an important component of recent hydrological studies. It is difficult for South African government initiatives, such as the Working for Water (WfW) alien clearing program, to justify alien tree removal and implement rehabilitation unless hydrological benefits are known. Consequently, water use within a riparian forest along the Buffeljags River in the Western Cape of South Africa was monitored over a 3-year period. The site consisted of an indigenous stand of Western Cape afrotemperate forest adjacent to a large stand of introduced Acacia mearnsii. The heat ratio method of the heat pulse velocity sap flow technique was used to measure the sap flow of a selection of indigenous species in the indigenous stand, a selection of A. mearnsii trees in the alien stand and two clusters of indigenous species within the alien stand. The indigenous trees in the alien stand at Buffeljags River showed significant intraspecific differences in the daily sap flow rates varying from 15 to 32 L day-1 in summer (sap flow being directly proportional to tree size). In winter (June), this was reduced to only 7 L day-1 when limited energy was available to drive the transpiration process. The water use in the A. mearnsii trees showed peaks in transpiration during the months of March 2012, September 2012 and February 2013. These periods had high average temperatures, rainfall and high daily vapor pressure deficits (VPDs - average of 1.26 kPa). The average daily sap flow ranged from 25 to 35 L in summer and approximately 10 L in the winter. The combined accumulated daily sap flow per year for the three Vepris lanceolata and three A. mearnsii trees was 5700 and 9200 L, respectively, clearly demonstrating the higher water use of the introduced Acacia trees during the winter months. After spatially upscaling the

  16. A protocol for the methodological steps used to evaluate the alignment of rehabilitation services in the Western Cape, South Africa with the National Rehabilitation Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mji, Gubela; Rhoda, Anthea; Statham, Sue; Joseph, Conran

    2017-03-14

    Rehabilitation medicine plays an integral part in attainment of optimal functioning after injury or disease. The National Rehabilitation Policy of South Africa (NRP) (2000) highlights the need for access to professional health care services, redistribution and optimal utilisation of resources and research in the field of disability and rehabilitation. The government further ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) (2007), which validate the urgency in advancing the agenda of persons with disabilities. This paper outlines the methodological plan for evaluating rehabilitation services in the Western Cape, South Africa against the aims and objectives of the NRP as well as its principles and concepts. The evaluation process further focused on specific articles in the CRPD that were aligned with disability, health and rehabilitation. A mixed-method design was used to evaluate the alignment of rehabilitation services with the NRP in the Western Cape. Four rehabilitation study settings were selected to ensure that both inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation levels of care were covered at different contexts (rural and peri-urban). The sites were checked for the most prevalent rehabilitation-related conditions to ensure the identification of suitable instruments for measuring rehabilitation outcomes. Each study setting was linked to two researchers with one exploring the rehabilitation organizational structure of the sites and the other exploring the client outcomes after receiving rehabilitation services. Patients were evaluated at baseline and discharge, within seven days after admission and seven days prior to discharge. The evaluation was based on the rehabilitation organizational capacity to provide patient-oriented rehabilitation and the measurement of rehabilitation outcomes. Kaplan's framework of organisational capacity was used in the context of each study setting. For the measurement of service users' outcomes, the International

  17. Addressing adolescents’ risk and protective factors related to risky behaviours: Findings from a school-based peer-education evaluation in the Western Cape

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    Furzana Timol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peer-education programmes aim to bring about attitudinal and behavioural changes in their target audience. In the South African educational context, peer education is a favoured approach in dealing with issues such as HIV and AIDS, sexual decision-making and substance misuse. Given the reliance on peer-education programmes in the educational system, it is important to establish how well they are working. This study aims to assess the effect of an extensive, structured, time-limited, curriculum-based, peer-led educational programme on first-year high school learners in public schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Method: The curriculum called ‘Listen Up’ addresses issues such as supporting peers, sexual decision-making, healthy relationships, HIV risk, alcohol misuse and unwanted pregnancy in seven structured sessions. The programme targeted adolescents in Grade 8 growing up in what are considered to be risky environments in public schools in the Western Cape during 2012 and 2013. The intervention was evaluated based on 10 scales sourced from published literature related to the outcome indicators of future orientation, sensation-seeking, self-efficacy in sexual relations, HIV transmission knowledge, HIV prevention knowledge, HIV attitudes, sexual attitudes, decision-making, healthy relationships and social support. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse demographic and community characteristics and analyses of variance were used to detect differences between groups. The surveys were administered to a total of 7709 learners across three waves of the study in 27 peer intervention schools and eight control schools. Results: Immediately post intervention, statistically significant differences were noted for the intervention schools when compared to their baseline levels on measures of future orientation, self-efficacy in sexual relations, knowledge regarding HIV transmission, knowledge regarding HIV prevention and

  18. A new long-tubed subspecies of Pelargonium dipetalum (section Hoarea (Geraniaceae from the Albertinia-Swellendam area in Western Cape Province, South Africa

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    M. Marianne le Roux

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Field studies confirmed that unusually long-tubed populations of Pelargonium dipetalum from between Swellendam and Albertinia, Western Cape Province, South Africa, are a distinct ecotype adapted to pollination by the long-proboscid fly, Prosoeca longipennis. The geographical and morphological isolation of these populations suggests that they are reproductively isolated from short-tubed populations, which are pollinated by bees. Objectives: To determine and describe the floral variation in P. dipetalum, with a view to recognising the long-tubed populations at some taxonomic level. Method: All available collections were measured and compared. Results: Populations of P. dipetalum were segregated into a short-tubed form with hypanthium 3 mm – 24 mm long and mostly pink petals that occurs from Betty’s Bay to Knysna, and a long-tubed form with the hypanthium 34 mm – 54 mm long and consistently white petals that is restricted to a small area east of Swellendam between Suurbraak and Albertinia. We described the long-tubed form as the new subspecies P. dipetalum subsp. stenosiphon. Conclusion: The new subspecies increases our understanding of the diversity in P. dipetalum and represents a new taxon of conservation concern.

  19. Mind the gap! Risk factors for poor continuity of care of TB patients discharged from a hospital in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Lilian; Mukinda, Fidele; Dyers, Robin; Marais, Frederick; Sissolak, Dagmar

    2018-01-01

    TB patients discharged from hospitals in South Africa experience poor continuity of care, failing to continue TB treatment at other levels of care. Factors contributing to poor continuity of TB care are insufficiently described to inform interventions. To describe continuity of care and risk factors in TB patients discharged from a referral hospital in the Western Cape, South Africa. This retrospective observational study used routine information to describe continuity of care and risk factors in TB patients discharged from hospital. 788 hospitalized TB patients were identified in 6 months. Their median age was 32 years, 400 (51%) were male, and 653 (83%) were urban. A bacteriological TB test was performed for 74%, 25% were tested for HIV in hospital, and 32% of all TB patients had documented evidence of HIV co-infection. Few (13%) were notified for TB; 375 (48%) received TB medication; 284 (36%) continued TB treatment after discharge; 91 (24%) had a successful TB treatment outcome, and 166 (21%) died. Better continuity of care was associated with adults, urban residence, bacteriological TB tests in hospital and TB medication on discharge. Fragmented hospital TB data systems did not provide continuity with primary health care information systems. Discharged TB patients experienced poor continuity of care, with children, rural patients, those not tested for TB in hospital or discharged without TB medication at greatest risk. Suboptimal quality of hospital TB care and a fragmented hospital information system without linkages to other levels underpinned poor continuity of care.

  20. Sea breeze development under an offshore synoptic wind in the South-Western Cape and implications for the Stellenbosch wine-producing area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnardot, V.; Planchon, O.; Cautenet, S.

    2005-07-01

    Sea breezes were investigated during the maturation period of wine grapes in the South-Western Cape under particular synoptic wind conditions (onshore for Table Bay and offshore for False Bay). Observations from an automatic weather station network located in the Stellenbosch wine-producing area as well as the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS, non-hydrostatic, parallel, version 4.3) were used. Results showed that two sea breezes developed, one from Table Bay late in the morning, and the other from False Bay later in the afternoon. The coastal low strengthened and deflected the sea breeze from Table Bay towards the south and south-east of the study area, while the offshore large-scale circulation hindered the development of the sea breeze in the opposite direction over False Bay and delayed its movement towards land. The decrease in temperature resulting from the onset of the sea breeze from the Atlantic early in the afternoon could be significant for viticulture, reducing the duration and intensity of high temperature stress on grapevine functioning at the coolest locations.

  1. A decentralised model of psychiatric care: Profile, length of stay and outcome of mental healthcare users admitted to a district-level public hospital in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a lack of studies assessing the profile and outcome of psychiatric patients at entry-level public hospitals that are prescribed by the Mental Health Care Act to provide a decentralised model of psychiatric care. Objective. To assess the demographic and clinical profile as well as length of stay and outcomes of mental healthcare users admitted to a district-level public hospital in the Western Cape.  Method. Demographic data, clinical diagnosis, length of stay, referral profile and outcomes of patients (N=487 admitted to Helderberg Hospital during the period 1 January 2011 - 31 December 2011 were collected.  Results. Psychotic disorders were the most prevalent (n=287, 59% diagnoses, while 228 (47% of admission episodes had comorbid/secondary diagnoses. Substance use disorders were present in 184 (38% of admission episodes, 37 (57% of readmissions and 19 (61% of abscondments. Most admission episodes (n=372, 76% were discharged without referral to specialist/tertiary care.  Conclusion. Methamphetamine use places a significant burden on the provision of mental healthcare services at entry-level care. Recommendations for improving service delivery at this district-level public hospital are provided.

  2. Knowledge and use of emergency contraception among women in the Western Cape province of South Africa: a cross-sectional study

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    Smit Jennifer

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergency contraception (EC is widely available free of charge at public sector clinics in South Africa. At the same time, rates of teenage and unintended pregnancy in South Africa remain high, and there are few data on knowledge of EC in the general population in South Africa, as in other resource-limited settings. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered survey among 831 sexually active women at 26 randomly selected public sector clinics in the Western Cape province. Results Overall, 30% of the women had ever heard of EC when asked directly, after the method was described to them. Only 15% mentioned EC by name or description spontaneously. Knowledge of EC was independently associated with higher education, being married, and living in an urban setting. Four percent of women had ever used EC. Discussion These data suggest that knowledge of EC in this setting is more common among women of higher socioeconomic status living in urban areas. For EC to play a role in decreasing unintended pregnancy in South Africa, specific interventions are necessary to increase knowledge of the method, where to get it, and the appropriate time interval for its use before the need for EC arises. Future health promotion campaigns should target rural and low socioeconomic status communities.

  3. Mind the gap! Risk factors for poor continuity of care of TB patients discharged from a hospital in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukinda, Fidele; Dyers, Robin; Marais, Frederick; Sissolak, Dagmar

    2018-01-01

    Background TB patients discharged from hospitals in South Africa experience poor continuity of care, failing to continue TB treatment at other levels of care. Factors contributing to poor continuity of TB care are insufficiently described to inform interventions. Objective To describe continuity of care and risk factors in TB patients discharged from a referral hospital in the Western Cape, South Africa. Design This retrospective observational study used routine information to describe continuity of care and risk factors in TB patients discharged from hospital. Results 788 hospitalized TB patients were identified in 6 months. Their median age was 32 years, 400 (51%) were male, and 653 (83%) were urban. A bacteriological TB test was performed for 74%, 25% were tested for HIV in hospital, and 32% of all TB patients had documented evidence of HIV co-infection. Few (13%) were notified for TB; 375 (48%) received TB medication; 284 (36%) continued TB treatment after discharge; 91 (24%) had a successful TB treatment outcome, and 166 (21%) died. Better continuity of care was associated with adults, urban residence, bacteriological TB tests in hospital and TB medication on discharge. Fragmented hospital TB data systems did not provide continuity with primary health care information systems. Conclusions Discharged TB patients experienced poor continuity of care, with children, rural patients, those not tested for TB in hospital or discharged without TB medication at greatest risk. Suboptimal quality of hospital TB care and a fragmented hospital information system without linkages to other levels underpinned poor continuity of care. PMID:29370162

  4. Evaluation of selected aspects of the Nutrition Therapeutic Programme offered to HIV-positive women of child-bearing age in Western Cape Province, South Africa

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    Tine T. Hansen

    2015-04-01

    Objective: To evaluate implementation of the NTP at PHCs that provide antiretroviral therapy. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at 17 PHCs located within 3 districts of Western Cape Province. Two target groups were chosen: 32 staff members working at the sites and 21 women of child-bearing age enrolled in the NTP. Questionnaires were used to obtain data. Results: Only 2 women (10% lived in food-secure households; the rest were either at risk of hunger (29% or classified as hungry (61%. Most of the women knew they had to take the supplements to improve their nutritional status, but the majority only recalled receiving basic nutritional advice, and the information was mainly given verbally. Ten of the women had shared their supplements with others, mostly with their children. The study identified lack of clearly defined NTP responsibilities at the PHCs, causing confusion amongst the staff. Although many staff members expressed problems with the NTP, only 38% of them reported having routine evaluations regarding the programme. Conclusion: Several aspects compromised the effectiveness of the NTP, including socio- economic factors leading to clients’ non-compliance. The strategic organisation and implementation of the NTP varied between different PHCs offering antiretroviral therapy, and staff experienced difficulties with the logistics of the programme.

  5. [Cape Verde].

    Science.gov (United States)

    The capital of Cape Verde is Praia. As of 1995, Cape Verde had a population of 400,000 governed by a presidential, multiparty regime. 1994 gross national product and per capita income were, respectively, $346 million and $910. Per capita income grew at 1.8% per year over the period 1985-94. In 1994, Cape Verde owed $169.9 million, then being serviced at $11.9 million. For the same year, Cape Verde exported $53 million in goods and services and imported $188 million. As of 1995, the population was growing in size by 5.5% annually. In 1992-93, life expectancy at birth was 64.7 years and the infant mortality rate was 130 per 1000 births. Other data are presented on the country's topography, climate and vegetation, demographics, principal cities, population distribution, religions, political structure, economics and finances, foreign commerce, and transportation and communications.

  6. Domestic carnivore interactions with wildlife in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, Chile: husbandry and perceptions of impact from a community perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüttler, Elke; Saavedra-Aracena, Lorena; Jiménez, Jaime E

    2018-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of domestic carnivores worldwide have diverse positive affiliations with humans, but can provoke serious socio-ecological impacts when free-roaming. Unconfined dogs ( Canis familiaris ) and cats ( Felis catus ) interact with wildlife as predators, competitors, and disease-transmitters; their access to wildlife depends on husbandry, perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors of pet owners and non-owners. To better understand husbandry and perceptions of impacts by unconfined, domestic carnivores, we administered questionnaires ( n  = 244) to pet owners and non-owners living in one of the last wilderness areas of the world, the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, located in southern Chile. We used descriptive statistics to provide demographic pet and husbandry information, quantify free-roaming dogs and cats, map their sightings in nature, and report experiences and perceptions of the impact of free-roaming dogs and cats on wildlife. We corroborated our results with an analysis of prey remains in dog feces ( n  = 53). With generalized linear models, we examined which factors (i.e., food provisioning, reproductive state, rural/village households, sex, and size) predicted that owned dogs and cats bring wildlife prey home. Thirty-one percent of village dogs ( n  = 121) and 60% of dogs in rural areas ( n  = 47) roamed freely day and/or night. Free-roaming dog packs were frequently observed (64% of participants) in the wild, including a feral dog population on Navarino Island. Dogs (31 of 168) brought home invasive muskrats ( Ondatra zibethicus ) and avian prey, and over half of all cats (27 of 51) brought home mainly avian prey. Birds were also the most harassed wildlife category, affected by one third of all dogs and cats. Nevertheless, dog-wildlife conflicts were hardly recognized (<9% of observed conflicts and suspected problems), and only 34% of the participants thought that cats might impact birds. Diet analysis revealed that dogs consumed livestock

  7. Domestic carnivore interactions with wildlife in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, Chile: husbandry and perceptions of impact from a community perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Aracena, Lorena; Jiménez, Jaime E.

    2018-01-01

    Background Hundreds of millions of domestic carnivores worldwide have diverse positive affiliations with humans, but can provoke serious socio-ecological impacts when free-roaming. Unconfined dogs (Canis familiaris) and cats (Felis catus) interact with wildlife as predators, competitors, and disease-transmitters; their access to wildlife depends on husbandry, perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors of pet owners and non-owners. Methods To better understand husbandry and perceptions of impacts by unconfined, domestic carnivores, we administered questionnaires (n = 244) to pet owners and non-owners living in one of the last wilderness areas of the world, the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, located in southern Chile. We used descriptive statistics to provide demographic pet and husbandry information, quantify free-roaming dogs and cats, map their sightings in nature, and report experiences and perceptions of the impact of free-roaming dogs and cats on wildlife. We corroborated our results with an analysis of prey remains in dog feces (n = 53). With generalized linear models, we examined which factors (i.e., food provisioning, reproductive state, rural/village households, sex, and size) predicted that owned dogs and cats bring wildlife prey home. Results Thirty-one percent of village dogs (n = 121) and 60% of dogs in rural areas (n = 47) roamed freely day and/or night. Free-roaming dog packs were frequently observed (64% of participants) in the wild, including a feral dog population on Navarino Island. Dogs (31 of 168) brought home invasive muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) and avian prey, and over half of all cats (27 of 51) brought home mainly avian prey. Birds were also the most harassed wildlife category, affected by one third of all dogs and cats. Nevertheless, dog-wildlife conflicts were hardly recognized (cats might impact birds. Diet analysis revealed that dogs consumed livestock (64% of 59 prey occurrences), beavers (Castor canadensis, 14%), and birds (10

  8. Domestic carnivore interactions with wildlife in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, Chile: husbandry and perceptions of impact from a community perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Schüttler

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Hundreds of millions of domestic carnivores worldwide have diverse positive affiliations with humans, but can provoke serious socio-ecological impacts when free-roaming. Unconfined dogs (Canis familiaris and cats (Felis catus interact with wildlife as predators, competitors, and disease-transmitters; their access to wildlife depends on husbandry, perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors of pet owners and non-owners. Methods To better understand husbandry and perceptions of impacts by unconfined, domestic carnivores, we administered questionnaires (n = 244 to pet owners and non-owners living in one of the last wilderness areas of the world, the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, located in southern Chile. We used descriptive statistics to provide demographic pet and husbandry information, quantify free-roaming dogs and cats, map their sightings in nature, and report experiences and perceptions of the impact of free-roaming dogs and cats on wildlife. We corroborated our results with an analysis of prey remains in dog feces (n = 53. With generalized linear models, we examined which factors (i.e., food provisioning, reproductive state, rural/village households, sex, and size predicted that owned dogs and cats bring wildlife prey home. Results Thirty-one percent of village dogs (n = 121 and 60% of dogs in rural areas (n = 47 roamed freely day and/or night. Free-roaming dog packs were frequently observed (64% of participants in the wild, including a feral dog population on Navarino Island. Dogs (31 of 168 brought home invasive muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus and avian prey, and over half of all cats (27 of 51 brought home mainly avian prey. Birds were also the most harassed wildlife category, affected by one third of all dogs and cats. Nevertheless, dog-wildlife conflicts were hardly recognized (<9% of observed conflicts and suspected problems, and only 34% of the participants thought that cats might impact birds. Diet analysis revealed that

  9. Socioeconomic predictors and consequences of depression among primary care attenders with non-communicable diseases in the Western Cape, South Africa: cohort study within a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folb, Naomi; Lund, Crick; Fairall, Lara R; Timmerman, Venessa; Levitt, Naomi S; Steyn, Krisela; Bachmann, Max O

    2015-11-30

    Socioeconomic predictors and consequences of depression and its treatment were investigated in 4393 adults with specified non-communicable diseases attending 38 public sector primary care clinics in the Eden and Overberg districts of the Western Cape, South Africa. Participants were interviewed at baseline in 2011 and 14 months later, as part of a randomised controlled trial of a guideline-based intervention to improve diagnosis and management of chronic diseases. The 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10) was used to assess depression symptoms, with higher scores representing more depressed mood. Higher CESD-10 scores at baseline were independently associated with being less educated (p = 0.004) and having lower income (p = 0.003). CESD-10 scores at follow-up were higher in participants with less education (p = 0.010) or receiving welfare grants (p = 0.007) independent of their baseline scores. Participants with CESD-10 scores of ten or more at baseline (56 % of all participants) had 25 % higher odds of being unemployed at follow-up (p = 0.016), independently of baseline CESD-10 score and treatment status. Among participants with baseline CESD-10 scores of ten or more, antidepressant medication at baseline was independently more likely in participants who had more education (p = 0.002), higher income (p consequence of depression, and may also be a barrier to treatment. There are opportunities for improving the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of depression in primary care in inequitable middle income countries like South Africa. The trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials ( ISRCTN20283604 ).

  10. A cross-sectional survey to compare the competence of learners registered for the Baccalaureus Curationis programme using different learning approaches at the University of the Western Cape

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    Loretta Z. le Roux

    2012-02-01

    The results of the study indicated that progression in competence did not occur as learners progressed through higher levels of their training, except during the third-year of study. However, the study’s results confirmed the strengths of the Case-based clinical reasoning approach to teaching and learning. This approach is able to combine the strengths of the traditional methods, which dealt with large class sizes and that had a focus on learner centred learning, with a focus on clinical practice. This approach provides realistic opportunities for learners to experiment with solutions to dilemmas encountered in real life situations, from the protected and safe environment of the classroom. The first-year learners who were observed in this study, who although novices, were exposed to Case-based teaching approaches and showed more self-perceived competence than learners in later years. This occurred in spite of the limited exposure of the first-year learners to real life clinical situations. The outcome of this study recommends that more studies are conducted, in the School of Nursing at the University of the Western Cape (UWC, to explore teaching and learning approaches that fully maximise the clinical and theoretical competencies of the learners. The outcome further recommends that learner-centred teaching approaches, such as Case-based method, are applied to all year levels of study in the B.Cur programme, due to its proven value when it was applied to first-year learners. The Case-based clinical reasoning approach to learning, that has been implemented at the school, promotes competence and self confidence in learners and has enhanced their sense of responsibility to be actively involved in their own learning.

  11. Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH compounds: (acenaphthene and fluorene in water using indigenous bacterial species isolated from the Diep and Plankenburg rivers, Western Cape, South Africa

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    Oluwadara Oluwaseun Alegbeleye

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of PAH degrading microorganisms in two river systems in the Western Cape, South Africa and their ability to degrade two PAH compounds: acenaphthene and fluorene. A total of 19 bacterial isolates were obtained from the Diep and Plankenburg rivers among which four were identified as acenaphthene and fluorene degrading isolates. In simulated batch scale experiments, the optimum temperature for efficient degradation of both compounds was determined in a shaking incubator after 14 days, testing at 25 °C, 30 °C, 35 °C, 37 °C, 38 °C, 40 °C and 45 °C followed by experiments in a Stirred Tank Bioreactor using optimum temperature profiles from the batch experiment results. All experiments were run without the addition of supplements, bulking agents, biosurfactants or any other form of biostimulants. Results showed that Raoultella ornithinolytica, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus megaterium and Aeromonas hydrophila efficiently degraded both compounds at 37 °C, 37 °C, 30 °C and 35 °C respectively. The degradation of fluorene was more efficient and rapid compared to that of acenaphthene and degradation at Stirred Tank Bioreactor scale was more efficient for all treatments. Raoultella ornithinolytica, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus megaterium and Aeromonas hydrophila degraded a mean total of 98.60%, 95.70%, 90.20% and 99.90% acenaphthene, respectively and 99.90%, 97.90%, 98.40% and 99.50% fluorene, respectively. The PAH degrading microorganisms isolated during this study significantly reduced the concentrations of acenaphthene and fluorene and may be used on a larger, commercial scale to bioremediate PAH contaminated river systems.

  12. Reflections on clinical practice whilst developing a portfolio of evidence: Perceptions of undergraduate nursing students in the Western Cape, South Africa

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    Victoire Ticha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to develop clinical judgement, nurses should be encouraged to become analytical and critical thinkers. Development of a portfolio of evidence (PoE of reflection on clinical experiences is one of the strategies that can be used to enhance analytical and critical thinking amongst nursing students. Students’ perceptions of the process are important in order to encourage their reflective practice. PoE compilation at a school of nursing at a university in the Western Cape includes evidence of students’ clinical learning which they present in a portfolio. The students are expected to reflect on their clinical learning experiences and include these reflections in their portfolios. Objective: To describe the perceptions of fourth-year nursing students regarding reflective practice whilst compiling their PoEs. Method: A qualitative design was used to explore the perceptions of registered fourth-year nursing students with regard to their reflective practice whilst compiling their PoEs. Purposive sampling was used for selection of participants. Three focus group discussions were held, each consisting of six to eight participants. Data saturation was reached during the third meeting. Tesch’s method of data analysis was used. Results: Findings revealed that reflection enabled the learners to gain experience and identify challenges related to the expected events and tasks carried out at the hospitals and in the classroom whilst developing their PoE. Conclusion: The compilation of a PoE was a good teaching and learning strategy, and the skills, experience and knowledge that the participants in this study acquired boosted their self-esteem, confidence and critical thinking. Reflection also assisted in self-directed learning.

  13. HIV-1 subtypes B and C unique recombinant forms (URFs and transmitted drug resistance identified in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

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    Graeme Brendon Jacobs

    Full Text Available South Africa has the largest worldwide HIV/AIDS population with 5.6 million people infected and at least 2 million people on antiretroviral therapy. The majority of these infections are caused by HIV-1 subtype C. Using genotyping methods we characterized HIV-1 subtypes of the gag p24 and pol PR and RT fragments, from a cohort of female participants in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. These participants were recruited as part of a study to assess the combined brain and behavioural effects of HIV and early childhood trauma. The partial HIV-1 gag and pol fragments of 84 participants were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Different online tools and manual phylogenetic analysis were used for HIV-1 subtyping. Online tools included: REGA HIV Subtyping tool version 3; Recombinant Identification Program (RIP; Context-based Modeling for Expeditious Typing (COMET; jumping profile Hidden Markov Models (jpHMM webserver; and subtype classification using evolutionary algorithms (SCUEAL. HIV-1 subtype C predominates within the cohort with a prevalence of 93.8%. We also show, for the first time, the presence of circulating BC strains in at least 4.6% of our study cohort. In addition, we detected transmitted resistance associated mutations in 4.6% of analysed sequences. With tourism and migration rates to South Africa currently very high, we are detecting more and more HIV-1 URFs within our study populations. It is still unclear what role these unique strains will play in terms of long term antiretroviral treatment and what challenges they will pose to vaccine development. Nevertheless, it remains vitally important to monitor the HIV-1 diversity in South Africa and worldwide as the face of the epidemic is continually changing.

  14. Substance abuse treatment engagement, completion and short-term outcomes in the Western Cape province, South Africa: Findings from the Service Quality Measures Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Bronwyn; Williams, Petal Petersen; Govender, Rajen; Manderscheid, Ron; Koch, J Randy

    2018-02-21

    Optimizing the effectiveness of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is critical in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) with limited opportunities for SUD treatment. This is the first study to identify targets for interventions to improve the quality of SUD treatment in a LMIC. We explored correlates of three indicators of treatment quality (treatment engagement, completion and abstinence at treatment exit) using data from a SUD performance measurement system implemented in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The sample included data from 1094 adult treatment episodes representing 53% of the treatment episodes in 2016. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, we modeled socio-demographic, substance use and program correlates of treatment engagement, completion, and abstinence at treatment exit. Overall, 59% of patients completed treatment (48% of patients from outpatient services). Treatment completion was associated with greater likelihood of abstinence at treatment exit. Patients were more likely to complete treatment if they engaged in treatment, were older, and had more severe drug problems (characterized by daily drug use and heroin problems) and attended programs of shorter duration. Residential treatment was associated with greater likelihood of treatment engagement, completion, and abstinence at treatment exit. Improving rates of outpatient treatment completion will enhance the effectiveness of South Africa's SUD treatment system. Interventions that promote engagement in treatment, particularly among younger patients; reduce program length through referral to step-down continuing care; and ensure better matching of drug problem to treatment level and type could improve rates of treatment completion. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Performance in grade 12 mathematics and science predicts student nurses' performance in first year science modules at a university in the Western Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mthimunye, Katlego D T; Daniels, Felicity M

    2017-10-26

    The demand for highly qualified and skilled nurses is increasing in South Africa as well as around the world. Having a background in science can create a significant advantage for students wishing to enrol for an undergraduate nursing qualification because nursing as profession is grounded in scientific evidence. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive validity of grade 12 mathematics and science on the academic performance of first year student nurses in science modules. A quantitative research method using a cross-sectional predictive design was employed in this study. The participants included first year Bachelor of Nursing students enrolled at a university in the Western Cape, South Africa. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed to analyse the data by using the IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences versions 24. Descriptive analysis of all variables was performed as well as the Spearman's rank correlation test to describe the relationship among the study variables. Standard multiple linear regressions analysis was performed to determine the predictive validity of grade 12 mathematics and science on the academic performance of first year student nurses in science modules. The results of this study showed that grade 12 physical science is not a significant predictor (p > 0.062) of performance in first year science modules. The multiple linear regression revealed that grade 12 mathematics and life science grades explained 37.1% to 38.1% (R2 = 0.381 and adj R2 = 0.371) of the variation in the first year science grade distributions. Based on the results of the study it is evident that performance in grade 12 mathematics (β = 2.997) and life science (β = 3.175) subjects is a significant predictor (p < 0.001) of the performance in first year science modules for student nurses at the university identified for this study.

  16. Reflections on clinical practice whilst developing a portfolio of evidence: Perceptions of undergraduate nursing students in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoire Ticha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to develop clinical judgement, nurses should be encouraged to become analytical and critical thinkers. Development of a portfolio of evidence (PoE of reflection on clinical experiences is one of the strategies that can be used to enhance analytical and critical thinking amongst nursing students. Students’ perceptions of the process are important in order to encourage their reflective practice. PoE compilation at a school of nursing at a university in the Western Cape includes evidence of students’ clinical learning which they present in a portfolio. The students are expected to reflect on their clinical learning experiences and include these reflections in their portfolios.Objective: To describe the perceptions of fourth-year nursing students regarding reflective practice whilst compiling their PoEs.Method: A qualitative design was used to explore the perceptions of registered fourth-year nursing students with regard to their reflective practice whilst compiling their PoEs. Purposive sampling was used for selection of participants. Three focus group discussions were held, each consisting of six to eight participants. Data saturation was reached during the third meeting. Tesch’s method of data analysis was used.Results: Findings revealed that reflection enabled the learners to gain experience and identify challenges related to the expected events and tasks carried out at the hospitals and in the classroom whilst developing their PoE.Conclusion: The compilation of a PoE was a good teaching and learning strategy, and the skills, experience and knowledge that the participants in this study acquired boosted their self-esteem, confidence and critical thinking. Reflection also assisted in self-directed learning.

  17. An introductory survey of helminth control practices in South Africa and anthelmintic resistance on Thoroughbred stud farms in the Western Cape Province

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    S. Matthee

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-one per cent of 110 questionnaires, designed for obtaining information on helminth control practices and management on Thoroughbred stud farms in South Africa, were completed by farmers during 2000. The number of horses per farm included in the questionnaire survey ranged from 15 to 410. Foals, yearlings and adult horses were treated with anthelmintics at a mean of 7.3+ / -3.0, 6.6+ / -2.7 and 5.3+ / -2.3 times per year, respectively. An average of 3.4 different drugs were used annually, with ivermectin being used by most farmers during 1997-2000. On 43% of farms the weights of horses were estimated by weigh band and 45% of farmers estimated visually, while both were used on 7% of farms and scales on the remaining 5%. Doses were based on average group weight on 50% of the farms and on individual weights on 46%. Forty-three per cent of farmers performed faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT. Most farmers rotated horses between pastures and treated new horses at introduction. Faecal removal was practiced on 61% of farms and less than 50% of farmers used alternate grazing with ruminants. Faecal egg count reduction tests were done on 283 horses, using oxibendazole, ivermectin and moxidectin on 10, 9 and 5 farms, respectively, in the Western Cape Province during 2001. While the efficacy of oxibendazole was estimated by FECRT to range from 0-88% and moxidectin from 99-100%, ivermectin resulted in a 100% reduction in egg counts. Only cyathostome larvae were recovered from post-treatment faecal cultures.

  18. On the Gastropod Species Diversity of the “Izgoryaloto Gyune” Nature Reserve (Western Rhodopes, Bulgaria

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    Dilian G. Georgiev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the “Izgoryaloto Gyune” reserve (Bulgaria, West Rhodopes there are a total of 24 known species of snails after present study. Two species (Pomatias elegans and Cecilioides janii which occurrence in the West Rhodopes was considered as doubtful were registered on the territory of this protected area. Thirteen species were of conservation status: eleven species of all registered are included in the IUCN Red List for 2011 and two in the Bulgarian Biodiversity Act.

  19. Reserve estimates in western basins: Unita Basin. Final report, Part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, sandstone reservoirs of the Mesaverde group and Wasatch formation in the Uinta Basin, Utah. Total in-place resource is estimated at 395.5 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 3.8 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Two plays were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources; in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. About 82.1% of the total evaluated resource is contained within sandstones that have extremely poor reservoir properties with permeabilities considered too low for commerciality using current frac technology.

  20. Unconventional Oil Reserves Development in the Viking Play (Western Canada Using Horizontal Wells and Hydraulic Fracturing

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    T.B. Baishev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil production from the Viking play in Saskatchewan province started in the 1950s and continues since that time. Horizontal drilling and multistage fracturing have caused resurgence in development of this play. Based on the production data from several fields, the comparative results of the Viking play development using vertical and horizontal wells are presented. Horizontal wells drilling made it possible to increase oil production in those formation zones that were previously considered predominantly gas-saturated, as well as in the zones affected by water injection using vertical wells in order to maintain reservoir pressure. Infill drilling combined with longer lateral completion length also positively affected the development of oil reserves from the Viking play.

  1. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Metazoan community composition in tree hole aquatic habitats of Silent Valley National Park and New Amarambalam Reserve Forest of the Western Ghats, India

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    K.A. Nishadh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In a study of the metazoan community composition in tree hole aquatic habitat of a tropical rainforest, Silent Valley National Park, and the adjacent moist deciduous forest, New Amarambalam Reserve Forest, of the Western Ghats, 28 different species were recorded from 150 tree hole aquatic habitats with an average of 3-5 species per tree hole. Most of the recorded organisms (96.8% belong to Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies, Heteroptera (bugs, Diptera (flies, Coleoptera (beetles and Trichoptera (caddisflies. The study reports the first record of toe-winged beetle larvae (Ptilodactylidae in a tree hole aquatic habitat. The most significant observation is the prolific occurrence of trichopteran larvae as the second most abundant taxa in tree holes of Silent Valley National Park, and this stands as the first comprehensive record of the entire order in the habitat studied. The study upholds the importance of less explored microhabitats in the Western Ghats region in terms of sustaining unique community composition in the most delicate and extreme habitat conditions. It also puts forward important ecological research questions on biodiversity ecosystem functionality which could impart important lessons for managing and conserving the diminishing tropical evergreen forests which are significant for these unique habitats.

  2. "HealthKick": formative assessment of the health environment in low-resource primary schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Anniza; Steyn, Nelia P; Draper, Catherine E; Fourie, Jean M; Barkhuizen, Gerhard; Lombard, Carl J; Dalais, Lucinda; Abrahams, Zulfa; Lambert, Estelle V

    2012-09-17

    This study evaluated the primary school environment in terms of being conducive to good nutrition practices, sufficient physical activity and prevention of nicotine use, with the view of planning a school-based health intervention. A sample of 100 urban and rural disadvantaged schools was randomly selected from two education districts of the Western Cape Education Department, South Africa. A situation analysis, which comprised an interview with the school principal and completion of an observation schedule of the school environment, was done at all schools. Schools, on average, had 560 learners and 16 educators. Principals perceived the top health priorities for learners to be an unhealthy diet (50%) and to far lesser degree, lack of physical activity (24%) and underweight (16%). They cited lack of physical activity (33%) and non-communicable diseases (NCDs; 24%) as the main health priorities for educators, while substance abuse (66%) and tobacco use (31%) were prioritised for parents. Main barriers to health promotion programmes included lack of financial resources and too little time in the time table. The most common items sold at the school tuck shops were crisps (100%), and then sweets (96%), while vendors mainly sold sweets (92%), crisps (89%), and ice lollies (38%). Very few schools (8%) had policies governing the type of food items sold at school. Twenty-six of the 100 schools that were visited had vegetable gardens. All schools reported having physical activity and physical education in their time tables, however, not all of them offered this activity outside the class room. Extramural sport offered at schools mainly included athletics, netball, and rugby, with cricket and soccer being offered less frequently. The formative findings of this study contribute to the knowledge of key environmental and policy determinants that may play a role in the health behaviour of learners, their parents and their educators. Evidently, these show that school environments

  3. Patterns of prevalent HPV and STI co-infections and associated factors among HIV-negative young Western Cape, South African women: the EVRI trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Lynette J; Pokharel, Ubin; Sudenga, Staci L; Botha, Matthys H; Zeier, Michele; Abrahamsen, Martha E; Glashoff, Richard H; Engelbrecht, Susan; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; van der Laan, Louvina E; Kipping, Siegfried; Taylor, Douglas; Giuliano, Anna R

    2018-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence and describe the patterns of concurrent human papillomavirus (HPV) and STIs and associated factors among HIV-negative young Western Cape, South African women participating in the Efficacy of HPV Vaccine to Reduce HIV Infection (EVRI) trial. HIV-negative women aged 16-24 years old were enrolled in the EVRI trial (NCT01489527) and randomised to receive the licensed four-valent HPV vaccine or placebo. At study entry, participants were clinically evaluated for five STIs: herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and disease-causing HPV genotypes (6/11/16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59/68). Demographic and sexual history characteristics were compared among women with STI co-infections, single infection and no infection using Pearson χ 2 and Mann-Whitney tests. ORs were calculated to evaluate factors associated with STI co-infection prevalence. Among 388 young women, STI co-infection prevalence was high: 47% had ≥2 concurrent STIs, 36% had a single STI and 17% had none of the five evaluated STIs. HPV/HSV-2 (26%) was the most prevalent co-infection detected followed by HPV/HSV-2/ Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) (17%) and HPV/CT (15%). Co-infection prevalence was independently associated with alcohol use (adjusted OR=2.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 4.06) and having a sexual partner with an STI (adjusted OR=6.96, 95% CI 1.53 to 30.08). Among high-risk young women from underserved communities such as in Southern Africa, a multicomponent prevention strategy that integrates medical and behavioural interventions targeting both men and women is essential to prevent acquisition of concurrent STI infections and consequent disease. NCT01489527; Post-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. A cross-sectional survey to compare the competence of learners registered for the Baccalaureus Curationis programme using different learning approaches at the University of the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Z. le Roux

    2011-09-01

    exposure of the first-year learners to real life clinical situations. The outcome of this study recommends that more studies are conducted, in the School of Nursing at the University of the Western Cape (UWC, to explore teaching and learning approaches that fully maximise the clinical and theoretical competencies of the learners. The outcome further recommends that learner-centred teaching approaches, such as Case-based method, are applied to all year levels of study in the B.Cur programme, due to its proven value when it was applied to first-year learners. The Case-based clinical reasoning approach to learning, that has been implemented at the school, promotes competence and self confidence in learners and has enhanced their sense of responsibility to be actively involved in their own learning.

  5. A prospective cohort study on ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidities including childhood asthma in adolescents from the western Cape Province: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyib Olaniyan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings. In particular, data from sub-Sahara Africa is scarce and virtually absent among populations residing in informal residential settlements. Methods/design A prospective cohort study of 600 school children residing in four informal settlement areas with varying potential ambient air pollutant exposure levels in the Western Cape in South Africa is carried-out. The study has two follow-up periods of at least six-months apart including an embedded panel study in summer and winter. The exposure assessment component models temporal and spatial variability of air quality in the four study areas over the study duration using land-use regression modelling (LUR. Additionally, daily pollen levels (mould spores, tree, grass and weed pollen in the study areas are recorded. In the panel study asthma symptoms and serial peak flow measurements is recorded three times daily to determine short-term serial airway changes in relation to varying ambient air quality and pollen over 10-days during winter and summer. The health outcome component of the cohort study include; the presence of asthma using a standardised ISAAC questionnaire, spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric-oxide (FeNO and the presence of atopy (Phadiatop. Discussion This research applies state of the art exposure assessment approaches to characterize the effects of ambient air

  6. A prospective cohort study on ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidities including childhood asthma in adolescents from the western Cape Province: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniyan, Toyib; Jeebhay, Mohamed; Röösli, Martin; Naidoo, Rajen; Baatjies, Roslynn; Künzil, Nino; Tsai, Ming; Davey, Mark; de Hoogh, Kees; Berman, Dilys; Parker, Bhawoodien; Leaner, Joy; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel

    2017-09-16

    There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings. In particular, data from sub-Sahara Africa is scarce and virtually absent among populations residing in informal residential settlements. A prospective cohort study of 600 school children residing in four informal settlement areas with varying potential ambient air pollutant exposure levels in the Western Cape in South Africa is carried-out. The study has two follow-up periods of at least six-months apart including an embedded panel study in summer and winter. The exposure assessment component models temporal and spatial variability of air quality in the four study areas over the study duration using land-use regression modelling (LUR). Additionally, daily pollen levels (mould spores, tree, grass and weed pollen) in the study areas are recorded. In the panel study asthma symptoms and serial peak flow measurements is recorded three times daily to determine short-term serial airway changes in relation to varying ambient air quality and pollen over 10-days during winter and summer. The health outcome component of the cohort study include; the presence of asthma using a standardised ISAAC questionnaire, spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric-oxide (FeNO) and the presence of atopy (Phadiatop). This research applies state of the art exposure assessment approaches to characterize the effects of ambient air pollutants on childhood respiratory health, with a specific focus on

  7. “HealthKick”: Formative assessment of the health environment in low-resource primary schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the primary school environment in terms of being conducive to good nutrition practices, sufficient physical activity and prevention of nicotine use, with the view of planning a school-based health intervention. Methods A sample of 100 urban and rural disadvantaged schools was randomly selected from two education districts of the Western Cape Education Department, South Africa. A situation analysis, which comprised an interview with the school principal and completion of an observation schedule of the school environment, was done at all schools. Results Schools, on average, had 560 learners and 16 educators. Principals perceived the top health priorities for learners to be an unhealthy diet (50%) and to far lesser degree, lack of physical activity (24%) and underweight (16%). They cited lack of physical activity (33%) and non-communicable diseases (NCDs; 24%) as the main health priorities for educators, while substance abuse (66%) and tobacco use (31%) were prioritised for parents. Main barriers to health promotion programmes included lack of financial resources and too little time in the time table. The most common items sold at the school tuck shops were crisps (100%), and then sweets (96%), while vendors mainly sold sweets (92%), crisps (89%), and ice lollies (38%). Very few schools (8%) had policies governing the type of food items sold at school. Twenty-six of the 100 schools that were visited had vegetable gardens. All schools reported having physical activity and physical education in their time tables, however, not all of them offered this activity outside the class room. Extramural sport offered at schools mainly included athletics, netball, and rugby, with cricket and soccer being offered less frequently. Conclusion The formative findings of this study contribute to the knowledge of key environmental and policy determinants that may play a role in the health behaviour of learners, their parents and their educators. Evidently

  8. “HealthKick”: Formative assessment of the health environment in low-resource primary schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Villiers Anniza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated the primary school environment in terms of being conducive to good nutrition practices, sufficient physical activity and prevention of nicotine use, with the view of planning a school-based health intervention. Methods A sample of 100 urban and rural disadvantaged schools was randomly selected from two education districts of the Western Cape Education Department, South Africa. A situation analysis, which comprised an interview with the school principal and completion of an observation schedule of the school environment, was done at all schools. Results Schools, on average, had 560 learners and 16 educators. Principals perceived the top health priorities for learners to be an unhealthy diet (50% and to far lesser degree, lack of physical activity (24% and underweight (16%. They cited lack of physical activity (33% and non-communicable diseases (NCDs; 24% as the main health priorities for educators, while substance abuse (66% and tobacco use (31% were prioritised for parents. Main barriers to health promotion programmes included lack of financial resources and too little time in the time table. The most common items sold at the school tuck shops were crisps (100%, and then sweets (96%, while vendors mainly sold sweets (92%, crisps (89%, and ice lollies (38%. Very few schools (8% had policies governing the type of food items sold at school. Twenty-six of the 100 schools that were visited had vegetable gardens. All schools reported having physical activity and physical education in their time tables, however, not all of them offered this activity outside the class room. Extramural sport offered at schools mainly included athletics, netball, and rugby, with cricket and soccer being offered less frequently. Conclusion The formative findings of this study contribute to the knowledge of key environmental and policy determinants that may play a role in the health behaviour of learners, their parents and their

  9. Cape Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    458 young competitive basketball players in. Cape Town, including 122 club players and 336 school ... account for 12% of total sports injuries, they represent 25% of the total injury cost.” Similarly, knee injuries ... physical activity are well recognised. Although it is advantageous that 23 500 South African school children now.

  10. Joint environmental assessment for western NPR-1 3-dimensional seismic project at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), has prepared an Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-1124) to identify and evaluate the potential environmental impacts of the proposed geophysical seismic survey on and adjacent to the Naval Petroleum Reserve No.1 (NPR-1), located approximately 35 miles west of Bakersfield, California. NPR-1 is jointly owned and operated by the federal government and Chevron U.S.A. Production Company. The federal government owns about 78 percent of NPR-1, while Chevron owns the remaining 22 percent. The government`s interest is under the jurisdiction of DOE, which has contracted with Bechtel Petroleum Operations, Inc. (BPOI) for the operation and management of the reserve. The 3-dimensional seismic survey would take place on NPR-1 lands and on public and private lands adjacent to NPR-1. This project would involve lands owned by BLM, California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), California Energy Commission (CEC), The Nature Conservancy, the Center for Natural Lands Management, oil companies (Chevron, Texaco, and Mobil), and several private individuals. The proposed action is designed to provide seismic data for the analysis of the subsurface geology extant in western NPR-1 with the goal of better defining the commercial limits of a currently producing reservoir (Northwest Stevens) and three prospective hydrocarbon bearing zones: the {open_quotes}A Fan{close_quotes} in Section 7R, the 19R Structure in Section 19R, and the 13Z Structure in Section 13Z. Interpreting the data is expected to provide NPR-1 owners with more accurate locations of structural highs, faults, and pinchouts to maximize the recovery of the available hydrocarbon resources in western NPR-1. Completion of this project is expected to increase NPR-1 recoverable reserves, and reduce the risks and costs associated with further exploration and development in the area.

  11. Geospatial assessment and monitoring of historical forest cover changes (1920-2012) in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, K V; Saranya, K R L; Reddy, C Sudhakar; Krishna, P Hari; Jha, C S; Rao, P V V Prasada

    2014-12-01

    Deforestation in the biosphere reserves, which are key Protected Areas has negative impacts on biodiversity, climate, carbon fluxes and livelihoods. Comprehensive study of deforestation in biosphere reserves is required to assess the impact of the management effectiveness. This article assesses the changes in forest cover in various zones and protected areas of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, the first declared biosphere reserve in India which forms part of Western Ghats-a global biodiversity hotspot. In this study, we have mapped the forests from earliest available topographical maps and multi-temporal satellite data spanning from 1920's to 2012 period. Mapping of spatial extent of forest cover, vegetation types and land cover was carried out using visual interpretation technique. A grid cell of 1 km × 1 km was generated for time series change analysis to understand the patterns in spatial distribution of forest cover (1920-1973-1989-1999-2006-2012). The total forest area of biosphere reserve was found to be 5,806.5 km(2) (93.8 % of total geographical area) in 1920. Overall loss of forest cover was estimated as 1,423.6 km(2) (24.5 % of the total forest) with reference to 1920. Among the six Protected Areas, annual deforestation rate of >0.5 was found in Wayanad wildlife sanctuary during 1920-1973. The deforestation in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is mainly attributed to conversion of forests to plantations and agriculture along with submergence due to construction of dams during 1920 to 1989. Grid wise analysis indicates that 851 grids have undergone large-scale negative changes of >75 ha of forest loss during 1920-1973 while, only 15 grids have shown >75 ha loss during 1973-1989. Annual net rate of deforestation for the period of 1920 to 1973 was calculated as 0.5 followed by 0.1 for 1973 to 1989. Our analysis shows that there was large-scale deforestation before the declaration of area as biosphere reserve in 1986; however, the deforestation has drastically

  12. Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in the tribal population of the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve forest, Western Ghats, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N Pradeep; Srinivasan, R; Anish, T S; Nandakumar, G; Jambulingam, P

    2015-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), a neglected tropical disease, is reported to be prevalent in tribal villages located in the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve forests of Western Ghats, Kerala state, India. We carried out an investigation to characterize the species of Leishmania parasites involved in these infections prevalent among one of the oldest human tribal populations in India. Skin aspirates collected from 13 clinically diagnosed cases were subjected to histopathological investigations, serological rapid tests using 'rk39' and molecular diagnostics. Clinical manifestations recorded among the patients were hypo-pigmented erythematous nodules/papules on limbs and other parts of the body. Histopathological investigations of these skin lesions among patients showed Leishman-Donovan bodies in macrophages. None of the patients were found to be positive for rk39 tests, which detect active visceral leishmaniasis. Using three different genetic markers [kinetoplast minicircle DNA, 3' UTR region of heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Hsp70 gene] we identified the parasite species involved in these infections to be Leishmania donovani. The 6-phosphogluconate (6-PGDH) gene sequences of the parasite isolates from Western Ghats indicated close genetic relatedness to L. donovani isolates reported from Sri Lanka, also causing CL. This could be cited as another instance of 'local endemism' of organisms in this single 'bio-geographic unit'. © 2015 The Authors.

  13. FY-09 Summary Report to the Office of Petroleum Reserves on the Western Energy Corridor Initiative Activities and Accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas R. Wood

    2010-01-01

    To meet its programmatic obligations under the Energy Policy Act of 2005, the Office of Naval Petroleum and Shale Oil Reserves (NPSOR) has initiated the Western Energy Corridor Initiative (WECI). The WECI will implement the Unconventional Strategic Fuels Task Force recommendations for accelerating and promoting the development of domestic unconventional fuels to help meet the nations’ energy needs. The mission of the WECI is to bolster America’s future fuel security by facilitating socially and environmentally responsible development of unconventional fuels resources in the Western Energy Corridor, using sound engineering principles and science-based methods to define and assess benefits, impacts, uncertainties, and mitigation options and to resolve impediments. The Task Force proposed a three-year program in its commercialization plan. The work described herein represents work performed by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in support of the DOE’s WECI. This effort represents an interim phase of work, designed to initiate only select portions of the initiative, limited by available funding resources within NPOSR. Specifically, the work presented here addresses what was accomplished in FY-09 with the remaining carryover (~$420K) from NPOSR FY-08 funds. It was the intent of the NPOSR program to seek additional funding for full implementation of the full scope of work; however, the original tasks were reduced in scope, terminated, or eliminated (as noted below). An effort is ongoing to obtain funding to continue the tasks initiated under this project. This study will focus on the integrated development of multiple energy resources in a carbon-neutral and environmentally acceptable manner. Emphasis will be placed on analyses of the interrelationships of various energy-resource development plans and the infrastructure, employment, training, fiscal, and economic demands placed on the region as a result of various development scenarios. The interactions at build

  14. The Impact of Computer and Mathematics Software Usage on Performance of School Leavers in the Western Cape Province of South Africa: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Garth Spencer; Hardman, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    In this study the impact of computer immersion on performance of school leavers Senior Certificate mathematics scores was investigated across 31 schools in the EMDC East education district of Cape Town, South Africa by comparing performance between two groups: a control and an experimental group. The experimental group (14 high schools) had access…

  15. Evaluation of blood reservation and use for caesarean sections in a tertiary maternity unit in south western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshodi Yussuf A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haemorrhage from obstetric causes is the most common cause of maternal mortality in the developing world. Prevention of mortality from haemorrhage will necessarily involve prompt blood transfusions among other life saving measures. There are however limited stocks of fresh or stored blood in many health care facilities in Sub Saharan Africa. Caesarean section has been identified as a common indication for blood transfusion in obstetrics practice and its performance is often delayed by non availability of blood in our centre. An evaluation of blood reservation and use at caesarean sections in a tertiary maternity unit in Lagos, south western Nigeria should therefore assist in formulating the most rational blood transfusion policies. Methods Case records of 327 patients who had elective and emergency caesarian sections at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital between 1st October and 31st December 2007 were reviewed. Data pertaining to age, parity, booking status, type and indication for Caesarean section, pre- and post-operative packed cell volume, blood loss at surgery, units of blood reserved in the blood bank, unit(s of blood transfused and duration of hospital stay was extracted and the data analysed. Results There were 1056 deliveries out of which 327 (31% were by Caesarean section. During the study period, a total of 654 units of blood were reserved in the blood bank and subsequently made available in theatre. Out of this number, only 89 (13.6% were transfused to 41 patients. Amongst those transfused, twenty-six (54% were booked and 31 (75.6% had primary caesarian section. About 81% of those transfused had emergency caesarean section. The most common indication for surgery among those transfused were placenta praevia (9 patients with 21 units of blood and cephalo-pelvic disproportion (8 patients with 13 units. Conclusion Even though a large number of units of blood was reserved and made available in the theatre at

  16. Comparison of nectar foraging efficiency in the Cape honeybee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-03-17

    Mar 17, 1987 ... Comparison of nectar foraging efficiency in the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis Escholtz, and the African honeybee, Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille,. , in the western Cape Province. P.V. W-Worswick*. Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 Republic of South Africa.

  17. The ABSA Cape Epic Mountain Bike Challenge: impacts and legacies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Absa Cape Epic mountain bike race is held in and around the mountainous areas outside Cape Town, in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, since 2004. The 700km-plus race, along farm roads and mountain tracks, extends over an eight day period. The race is limited to 600 two-person male and female teams, ...

  18. Language policy and speech practice in Cape Town: An exploratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language policy and speech practice in Cape Town: An exploratory public health sector study. Michellene Williams, Simon Bekker. Abstract. Public language policy in South Africa recognises 11 official spoken languages. In Cape Town, and in the Western Cape, three of these eleven languages have been selected for ...

  19. Territoriality of Cape Sugarbirds ( Promerops cafer ) between and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Territoriality of Cape Sugarbirds (Promerops cafer) between and within breeding seasons. KM Calf, CT Downs, MI Cherry. Abstract. Cape Sugarbirds are southern African endemics, found in fynbos vegetation of the Western and Eastern Cape Provinces of South Africa, and they feed almost exclusively on the nectar of ...

  20. Nitrogen dynamics in land cleared of alien vegetation (Acacia saligna) and impacts on groundwater at Riverlands Nature Reserve (Western Cape, South Africa)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jovanovic, Nebojsa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available the hypothesis that clearing invasive alien vegetation may disturb the vegetation-micro-organism-soil N cycling system by producing a large once-off input of fresh tree litter fall rich in N and by eliminating a large N sink. Three experimental plots were...

  1. Using Sentinel-2A multispectral imagery to explore for deep groundwater resources in the Ceres-Tankwa Karoo, Western Cape, South Africa: Significance for the 'water-energy(-food) nexus' in an arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnady, Chris; Wise, Edward; Hartnady, Michael; Olianti, Camille; Hay, E. Rowena

    2017-04-01

    The Ceres-Tankwa region is an arid region in the south-western part of the main Karoo Basin, underlain by folded and faulted strata of the Cape and lower Karoo Supergroups in the syntaxis zone between the Western and Southern branches of the Cape Fold Belt. Explored for oil in the mid-1960s, with the drilling of the >3000 m deep KL1/65 borehole, the area recently attracted attention as a potential shale-gas prospect with the drilling in 2015 of the 671 m-deep KZF-1 research borehole on the farm Zandfontein (de Kock et al, 2016). KZF-1 encountered no positive indication of methane gas in the carbonaceous shale target but intersected a strong flow of deep groundwater from fractures in the basal Dwyka tillite. The accidental discovery of deep artesian groundwater, probably originating from the underlying Cape Supergroup aquifers and of significantly better quality than the shallow aquifer utilised by local farmers, has important implications for future development here. Using 13-channel multispectral data from the European Space Agency satellite Sentinel-2A, a false-colour composite image, centred about the KZF-1 location, was assembled by combination of selected spectral band-ratios. Stratigraphic layering and associated folding within the hitherto undivided, pelitic Tierberg Formation (Ecca Group), is revealed in striking new detail, together with narrow lines of stratal offset corresponding to previously unmapped faults. KZF-1 is evidently sited within an anomalous NE/SW-striking belt, unlike the general NNW/SSE strike of Cape-Karoo sequence strata in the north-western part of the image. Associated with a notable strike change of a lower Tierberg marker unit, subparallel to and aligned with a similar trend in the Swartruggens mountain foothills to the SW, a deep-seated, controlling, NE/SW-striking fault structure may continue downwards from the lower Karoo units into the underlying Cape strata, providing hydraulic connection. With the looming threat of global

  2. Cultural perspectives of land and livelihoods: A case study of Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve in far-Western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Ming Lam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent debates on human displacement caused by conservation have increasingly questioned: firstly, its justification in the name of biodiversity conservation; and secondly, the effectiveness of compensation in preventing impoverishment. Land compensation is widely practiced and it is a crucial part of contemporary people-centred conservation resettlement strategies. In this article, using the case of the Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve in Nepal, I argue that policy-makers′ belief that the social impacts of dislocation can be properly mitigated by economic-focused resettlement programmes alone is a myth. They have ignored the close relationships between place, social networks and livelihoods. A study of a displaced indigenous community known as Rana Tharus in far-western Nepal shows that a strong sense of nostalgia and homesickness is evident in this community. Displaced Ranas continue to idealise their old abode as ′paradise on Earth′ while experiencing their new home as only promoting poverty, helplessness and danger. Their anger is due to the fact that they no longer have the mutual help or support from their neighbours as they once did in their old abode. From the Ranas′ point of view, the old land had both high economic and social value. The study demonstrates that the act of displacement is a violent disruption of a community′s daily social contacts. The destruction of the Ranas′ social networks has not only led to their dispossession and threatened their livelihoods, but has also made them vulnerable, because these traditional social webs provided important alternative livelihoods in a rural economy. As a consequence, it has further reinforced their sense of nostalgia. The cultural and social meanings of land must be obtained prior to implementing any resettlement policies. The study indicates that if displacement is truly unavoidable for conserving biodiversity, more comprehensive rehabilitation resettlement policies than those

  3. AIDS-Related Endemic Mycoses in Western Cape, South Africa, and Clinical Mimics: A Cross-Sectional Study of Adults With Advanced HIV and Recent-Onset, Widespread Skin Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris; Lehloenya, Rannakoe; Claasens, Saskya; Spengane, Zandile; Prozesky, Hans; Burton, Rosie; Parker, Arifa; Wasserman, Sean; Meintjes, Graeme; Mendelson, Marc; Taljaard, Jantjie; Schneider, Johann W; Beylis, Natalie; Maloba, Bonnie; Govender, Nelesh P; Colebunders, Robert; Dlamini, Sipho

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Skin lesions are common in advanced HIV infection and are sometimes caused by serious diseases like systemic mycoses (SM). AIDS-related SM endemic to Western Cape, South Africa, include emergomycosis (formerly disseminated emmonsiosis), histoplasmosis, and sporotrichosis. We previously reported that 95% of patients with AIDS-related emergomycosis had skin lesions, although these were frequently overlooked or misdiagnosed clinically. Prospective studies are needed to characterize skin lesions of SM in South Africa and to help distinguish these from common HIV-related dermatoses. Methods We prospectively enrolled HIV-infected adult patients living in Western Cape, South Africa, with CD4 counts ≤100 cells/μL and widespread skin lesions present ≤6 months that were deemed clinically compatible with SM. We obtained skin biopsies for histopathology and fungal culture and collected epidemiological and clinical data. Results Of 34 patients enrolled and in whom a diagnosis could be made, 25 had proven SM: 14 had emergomycosis, and 3 each had histoplasmosis and sporotrichosis; for 5 additional patients, the fungal species could not be identified. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) had been initiated in the preceding 4 weeks for 11/25 (44%) patients with SM (vs no patients without SM). Plaques and scale crust occurred more frequently in patients with SM (96% vs 25%, P = .0002; and 67% vs 13%, P = .01, respectively). Conclusions Recent ART initiation and presence of plaques or scale crust should make clinicians consider SM in patients with advanced HIV infection in this geographic area. Clinical overlap between SM and other dermatoses makes early skin biopsy critical for timely diagnosis and treatment. PMID:29164168

  4. Cape fearless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the Ilita Labantu (IL) group in South Africa, that is working to reduce child abuse and violence against women. The group started in 1989, with the aim of reducing child rape and sexual assaults in five townships in Cape Town. Child rape is perpetuated by myths sustained by witch doctors and indigenous medicine that promote child rape as a cure-all for symptoms ranging from poverty to AIDS. IL has four satellite groups that educate rape and abuse victims and potential victims. It is assumed that girls are potential victims because of their early unawareness that gender is tied to some patterns of behavior. IL trained mass media groups to educate the general public. IL distributes public information materials on how to identify domestic violence and abuse and how to identify potential rapists within households. Materials are distributed to individuals in community programs and in training programs. Child survivors make presentations in playgroups in a nonthreatening way. IL interacts with courts of law, police stations, hospitals, and schools. The group refers 25-35 cases per day. The group is working on setting up private rooms in police stations where rape victims can make confidential complaints without public attention. IL also works to promote the use of alternative strategies for solving family conflicts.

  5. Creating a Minor in Applied Data Science: Case Western Reserve University Engages Business Leaders to Produce T-Shaped Professionals. A BHEF Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business-Higher Education Forum, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This case study examines how Business-Higher Education Forum (BHEF) member Case Western Reserve University is integrating T-shaped skills into a minor in applied data science. Through the collaboration of its business and higher education members, BHEF launched the National Higher Education and Workforce Initiative to create new undergraduate…

  6. Properties and CAPE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; O'Connell, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The role of properties in the solution of Computer Aided Process Engineering (CAPE) problems is described in terms of current trend, future challenges and important issues. Three distinct roles of properties in CAFE have been identified - a service role, a service plus advice role and a service......, advice plus solve role. The CAFE problems solved under each of these roles are described together with simple illustrative examples. Finally, the paper describes how some of the future problems related to integration of synthesis, design and control might be dealt with efficiently and reliably through co......-operative CAFE and properties methodologies. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Variable density management in riparian reserves: lessons learned from an operational study in managed forests of western Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel Chan; Paul Anderson; John Cissel; Larry Lateen; Charley. Thompson

    2004-01-01

    A large-scale operational study has been undertaken to investigate variable density management in conjunction with riparian buffers as a means to accelerate development of late-seral habitat, facilitate rare species management, and maintain riparian functions in 40-70 year-old headwater forests in western Oregon, USA. Upland variable retention treatments include...

  8. Small-scale Fisheries Governance and Understanding the Snoek (Thyrsites atun Supply Chain in the Ocean View Fishing Community, Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moenieba Isaacs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Postapartheid fisheries reform in South Africa, through the Marine Living Resources Act (MLRA 18 of 1998, used individual transferable quotas (ITQs to broaden resource access through allocating quotas to new entrants, even though the system has been created to reduce capacity through a reduction in the number of active fishers. The formal action space created through fisheries reform in South Africa left many artisanal fishers to operate in the informal action spaces, selling Thyrsites atun (snoek to poor communities to sustain their livelihoods. Artisanal fishers were not recognized by MLRA of 1998 and through class action case brought against the ITQ system, and in out of court settlement with the claimants in 2007, 1000 interim relief permits will be allocated to artisanal fishes and the development of a new small-scale fisheries policy for South Africa. In this case study of a fishing community in Ocean View, Cape Town I examine a snoek fishery that operates differently, through a community supply chain and informal markets, than that of the high value ITQ regulated species, yet plays a significant role in the livelihoods of artisanal fishers and in the food security of poor households. The findings of this case study show the failures of existing policy frameworks and the implications for the implementation of the new small-scale fisheries policy in South Africa.

  9. Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques to Detect Changes to the Prince Alfred Hamlet Conservation Area in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, P.; Lewarne, M.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding and identifying the spatial-temporal changes in the natural environment is crucial for monitoring and evaluating conservation efforts, as well as understanding the impact of human activities on natural resources, informing responsible land management, and promoting better decision-making. Conservation areas are often under pressure from expanding farming and related industry, invasive alien vegetation, and an ever-increasing human settlement footprint. This study focuses on detecting changes to the Prince Alfred Hamlet commonage, near Ceres in the Cape Floral Kingdom. It was chosen for its high conservation value and significance as a critical water source area. The study area includes a fast-growing human settlement footprint in a highly productive farming landscape. There are conflicting development needs as well as risks to agricultural production, and both of these threaten the integrity of the ecosystems which supply underlying services to both demands on the land. Using a multi-disciplinary approach and high-resolution satellite imagery, land use and land cover changes can be detected and classified, and the results used to support the conservation of biodiversity and wildlife, and protect our natural resources. The aim of this research is to study the efficacy of using remote sensing and GIS techniques to detect changes to critical conservation areas where disturbances can be understood, and therefore better managed and mitigated before these areas are degraded beyond repair.

  10. USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUES TO DETECT CHANGES TO THE PRINCE ALFRED HAMLET CONSERVATION AREA IN THE WESTERN CAPE, SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Duncan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and identifying the spatial-temporal changes in the natural environment is crucial for monitoring and evaluating conservation efforts, as well as understanding the impact of human activities on natural resources, informing responsible land management, and promoting better decision-making. Conservation areas are often under pressure from expanding farming and related industry, invasive alien vegetation, and an ever-increasing human settlement footprint. This study focuses on detecting changes to the Prince Alfred Hamlet commonage, near Ceres in the Cape Floral Kingdom. It was chosen for its high conservation value and significance as a critical water source area. The study area includes a fast-growing human settlement footprint in a highly productive farming landscape. There are conflicting development needs as well as risks to agricultural production, and both of these threaten the integrity of the ecosystems which supply underlying services to both demands on the land. Using a multi-disciplinary approach and high-resolution satellite imagery, land use and land cover changes can be detected and classified, and the results used to support the conservation of biodiversity and wildlife, and protect our natural resources. The aim of this research is to study the efficacy of using remote sensing and GIS techniques to detect changes to critical conservation areas where disturbances can be understood, and therefore better managed and mitigated before these areas are degraded beyond repair.

  11. "What do You Mean I've Got to Wait for Six Weeks?!" Understanding the Sexual Behaviour of Men and Their Female Partners after Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in the Western Cape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoesrie Toefy

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that voluntary male medical circumcision (VMMC reduces the incidence of the Type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in heterosexual men by up to 60%. However, there is an increased risk of transmission of STIs, including HIV, in the immediate post-operative period after receiving VMMC. This study is to understand sexual practices of couples in the post-operative period in a Coloured population in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.Coloured Males who had undergone VMMC in the previous six months in the Cape Town area and their partners participated in eight single-gender focus group discussions. The groups explored why the men decided to undergo VMMC, what kind of counselling they received, and how they experienced the 6-week post-operative period, including sexually.The primary motivation to VMMC uptake included religious injunction and hygiene reasons and protection against sexually transmitted infections not necessarily HIV. There was some exploration of alternative sexual practices. During the period immediately post operation the respondents spoke of pain and fear of any sexual arousal, but towards the end of the six week period, sexual desire returned. Both men and women felt that sex was important to maintain the relationship. Gaps were identified in the pre- and post-MC procedure counselling.There is a real risk that men in this population may begin sex before complete healing has occurred. VMMC counselling to encourage men to stay sexually safe in the wound-healing period, needs to take into account the real-life factors of the circumcised men. It is essential from a public health, and gender perspective that effective counselling strategies for the VMMC post-operative period, and the longer term, are developed and tested.

  12. Evaluating point-of-care testing for glycosylated haemoglobin in public sector primary care facilities in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mash, R; Ugoagwu, A; Vos, C; Rensburg, M; Erasmus, R

    2016-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus contributes significantly to the burden of disease in South Africa (SA). Monitoring of glycaemic control with glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is recommended, even though current laboratory-based testing does not support immediate clinical decision-making. To evaluate the costs and consequences for quality of care by introducing point-of-care (POC) testing for HbA1c for patients with type 2 diabetes at community health centres in Cape Town, SA. A quasi-experimental study was conducted at two control and two intervention sites in the same sub-district. The DCA Vantage Analyzer (Siemens, Germany) for POC testing was introduced at the intervention sites for 12 months. Patients were randomly selected from the diabetes register at the intervention (n=300) and control (n=300) sites, respectively, and data were collected from patient records at baseline and 12 months. Focus group interviews were performed at the intervention sites. Technical quality and cost implications were evaluated. POC testing was feasible, easy to integrate into the organisation of care, resulted in more immediate feedback to patients (p<0.001) and patients appeared more satisfied. POC testing did not improve test coverage, treatment intensification, counselling or glycaemic control. There was an incremental cost of ZAR2 110 per 100 tests. Compliance with quality control was poor, although control tests showed good reliability. This study does not support the introduction of POC testing for HbA1c in public sector primary care practice in the current context. POC testing should be evaluated further in combination with interventions to overcome clinical inertia and strengthen primary healthcare.

  13. Operating Reserve Reductions from a Proposed Energy Imbalance Market with Wind and Solar Generation in the Western Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Beuning, S.

    2012-05-01

    This paper considers several alternative forms of an energy imbalance market (EIM) proposed in the nonmarket areas of the Western Interconnection. The proposed EIM includes two changes in operating practices that independently reduce variability and increase access to responsive resources: balancing authority cooperation and sub-hourly dispatch. As the penetration of variable generation increases on the power system, additional interest in coordination would likely occur. Several alternative approaches could be used, but consideration of any form of coordinated unit commitment is beyond the scope of this analysis. This report examines the benefits of several possible EIM implementations--both separately and in concert.

  14. Cape Kennedy Thunderstorms Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cape Kennedy Thunderstorms Data contains an account of all thunderstorms reported in weather observations taken at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Florida between...

  15. Flexibility Reserve Reductions from an Energy Imbalance Market with High Levels of Wind Energy in the Western Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; S. Beuning

    2011-10-01

    The anticipated increase in variable generation in the Western Interconnection (WI) over the next several years has raised concerns about how to maintain system balance, especially in smaller Balancing Areas (BAs). Given renewable portfolio standards in the West, it is possible that more than 50 gigawatts (GW) of wind capacity will be installed by 2020. Significant quantities of solar generation are likely to be added as well. The consequent increase in variability and uncertainty that must be managed by the conventional generation fleet and responsive load make it attractive to consider ways in which Balancing Area Authorities (BAAs) can pool their variability and response resources, thus taking advantage of geographic and temporal diversity to increase overall operational efficiency. Our analysis considers several alternative forms of an Energy Imbalance Market (EIM) that have been proposed in the non-market areas of the WI. The proposed EIM includes two changes in operating practices that independently reduce variability and increase access to responsive resources: BAA cooperation and sub-hourly dispatch. As proposed, the EIM does not consider any form of coordinated unit commitment; however, over time it is possible that BAAs would develop formal or informal coordination plans. This report examines the benefits of several possible EIM implementations, both separately and in concert.

  16. What does an enabling environment for infant and young child nutrition look like at implementation level? Perspectives from a multi-stakeholder process in the Breede Valley Sub-District, Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, L M; McLachlan, M H; Drimie, S E

    2018-02-13

    Breede Valley is a sub-district of the Cape Winelands district, Western Cape Province, South Africa. The administrative capital of the district is situated in the semi-rural town Worcester. Findings of a baseline survey in Worcester revealed poor infant feeding practices and childhood under- and overnutrition, with particular concern over high levels of stunting and low dietary diversity. Maternal overweight and obesity was high. These characteristics made the site suitable to study multi-sectoral arrangements for infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The purpose of this study was to explore elements of an enabling environment with key stakeholders aimed at improving IYCN at implementation level. Focus group discussions and interviews were conducted with representatives from two vulnerable communities; local and district government; higher education institutions; business; and the media in the Breede Valley. Audio recordings were transcribed and data were analysed with the Atlas.TI software programme. The participants viewed knowledge and evidence about the first 1000 days of life as important to address IYCN. The impact of early, optimal nutrition on health and intellectual development resonated with them. The IYCN narrative in the Breede Valley could therefore be framed around nutrition's development impact in a well-structured advocacy campaign. Participants felt that capacity and resources were constrained by many competing agendas spreading public resources thinly, leaving limited scope for promotion and prevention activities. "People" were viewed as a resource, and building partnerships and relationships, could bridge some shortfalls in capacity. Conversations about politics and governance elicited strong opinions about what should be done through direct intervention, policy formulation and legislation. A lead government agency could not be identified for taking the IYCN agenda forward, due to its complexity. Participants proposed it should be referred to

  17. The "Cape Times"'s Portrayal of School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wet, Corene

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the "Cape Times"'s portrayal of school violence in the Western Cape (WC), South Africa, reporting on findings from a qualitative content analysis of 41 news articles retrieved from the SA Media database. The findings shed light on the victims and their victimisation, the perpetrators, as well as the context of the…

  18. The Cape Times's portrayal of school violence | de Wet | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explores the Cape Times's portrayal of school violence in the Western Cape (WC), South Africa, reporting on findings from a qualitative content analysis of 41 news articles retrieved from the SA Media database. The findings shed light on the victims and their victimisation, the perpetrators, as well as the context of ...

  19. Alcohol Use, Working Conditions, Job Benefits, and the Legacy of the “Dop” System among Farm Workers in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: Hope Despite High Levels of Risky Drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Phillip Gossage

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes alcohol consumption in five Western Cape Province communities. Cross-sectional data from a community household sample (n = 591 describe the alcohol use patterns of adult males and females, and farm workers vs. others. Data reveal that men were more likely to be current drinkers than women, 75.1% vs. 65.8% (p = 0.033; farm laborers were more likely to be current drinkers than individuals in other occupations 83.1% vs. 66.8% (p = 0.004. Group, binge drinking on weekends was the norm; men were more likely to be binge drinkers in the past week than women 59.8% vs. 48.8% (p = 0.086; farm workers were more likely to binge than others 75.0% vs. 47.5% (p < 0.001. The legacy of “Dop” contributes to current risky drinking behaviors. Farm owners or managers were interviewed on 11 farms, they described working conditions on their farms and how the legacy of “Dop” is reflected in the current use of alcohol by their workers. “Dop” was given to farm workers in the past on six of the 11 farms, but was discontinued for different reasons. There is zero tolerance for coming to work intoxicated; farm owners encourage responsible use of alcohol and assist farm workers in getting help for alcohol problems when necessary. The farm owners report some positive initiatives, were ahead of the movement to provide meaningful wages, and provide other important amenities. Further research is needed to assess whether progressive practices on some farms will reduce harmful alcohol use.

  20. Towards Developing an Initial Programme Theory: Programme Designers and Managers Assumptions on the Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence Club Programme in Primary Health Care Facilities in the Metropolitan Area of Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukumbang, Ferdinand C.; van Belle, Sara; Marchal, Bruno; van Wyk, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background The antiretroviral adherence club intervention was rolled out in primary health care facilities in the Western Cape province of South Africa to relieve clinic congestion, and improve retention in care, and treatment adherence in the face of growing patient loads. We adopted the realist evaluation approach to evaluate what aspects of antiretroviral club intervention works, for what sections of the patient population, and under which community and health systems contexts, to inform guidelines for scaling up of the intervention. In this article, we report on a step towards the development of a programme theory—the assumptions of programme designers and health service managers with regard to how and why the adherence club intervention is expected to achieve its goals and perceptions on how it has done so (or not). Methods We adopted an exploratory qualitative research design. We conducted a document review of 12 documents on the design and implementation of the adherence club intervention, and key informant interviews with 12 purposively selected programme designers and managers. Thematic content analysis was used to identify themes attributed to the programme actors, context, mechanisms, and outcomes. Using the context-mechanism-outcome configurational tool, we provided an explanatory focus of how the adherence club intervention is roll-out and works guided by the realist perspective. Results We classified the assumptions of the adherence club designers and managers into the rollout, implementation, and utilisation of the adherence club programme, constructed around the providers, management/operational staff, and patients, respectively. Two rival theories were identified at the patient-perspective level. We used these perspectives to develop an initial programme theory of the adherence club intervention, which will be tested in a later phase. Conclusion The perspectives of the programme designers and managers provided an important step towards developing

  1. Prevalence and predictors of problematic alcohol use, risky sexual practices and other negative consequences associated with alcohol use among safety and security employees in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker Burnhams, Nadine; Parry, Charles; Laubscher, Ria; London, Leslie

    2014-03-04

    Harmful alcohol use can compromise worker health and productivity. Persons employed in safety-sensitive occupations are particularly vulnerable to hazardous alcohol use and its associated risks. This study describes the patterns of harmful alcohol use, related HIV risks and risk factors for the harmful use of alcohol among a sample of employees in South Africa working in the safety and security sector. A cross-sectional study that formed the baseline for a clustered randomized control trial was undertaken in 2011. A random sample of 325 employees employed within a safety and security sector of a local municipality in the Western Cape Province of South Africa participated in the study. Data were collected by means of an 18-page self-administered structured questionnaire and analyzed using SAS/STAT software version 9.2. For all significance testing, the F-statistic and p-values are reported. Three hundred and twenty-five employees were surveyed. Findings suggest that more than half (76.1%) of the 78.9% of participants who consumed alcohol engaged in binge drinking, with close to a quarter reporting a CAGE score greater than the cut-off of 2, indicating potentially hazardous drinking patterns. The study further found that employees who use alcohol are more likely to engage in risky sexual practices when under the influence. A favorable drinking climate (p safety-sensitive occupations at the workplace. It suggests that persons employed within such positions are at high risk for developing alcohol-related disorders and for contracting HIV. This study highlights the need for testing a comprehensive package of services designed to prevent hazardous alcohol use among safety and security employees.

  2. A retrospective study evaluating the efficacy of identification and management of sepsis at a district-level hospital internal medicine department in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, in comparison with the guidelines stipulated in the 2012 Survivi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa Bhikoo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Currently there is little information on the identification, management and outcomes of patients with sepsis in developing countries. Simple cost-effective measures such as accurate identification of patients with sepsis and early antibiotic administration are achievable targets, within reach without having to make use of unsustainable protocols constructed in developed countries. Objectives. To assess the ability of clinicians at a district-level hospital to identify and manage sepsis, and to assess patient outcome in terms of in-hospital mortality and length of hospital stay given the above management. Methods. A retrospective descriptive study design was used, analysing data from the routine burden of disease audit done on a 3-monthly basis at Karl Bremer Hospital (KBH in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Results. The total sample size obtained was 70 patients, of whom 18 (25.7% had an initial triage blood pressure indicative of sepsis-induced hypotension. However, only 1 (5.5% of these 18 patients received an initial crystalloid fluid bolus of at least 30 mL/kg. The median time that elapsed before administration of antibiotics in septic shock was 4.25 hours. Furthermore, a positive delay in antibiotic administration (p=0.0039 was demonstrated. The data also showed that 8/12 patients (66.7% with septic shock received inappropriate amounts of fluids. The in-hospital mortality rate for sepsis was 4/24 (16.7%, for severe sepsis 11/34 (32.3% and for septic shock a staggering 9/12 (75.0%. Conclusions. The initial classification process and management of sepsis by clinicians at KBH is flawed. This inevitably leads to an increase in in-hospital mortality.

  3. Towards Developing an Initial Programme Theory: Programme Designers and Managers Assumptions on the Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence Club Programme in Primary Health Care Facilities in the Metropolitan Area of Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand C Mukumbang

    Full Text Available The antiretroviral adherence club intervention was rolled out in primary health care facilities in the Western Cape province of South Africa to relieve clinic congestion, and improve retention in care, and treatment adherence in the face of growing patient loads. We adopted the realist evaluation approach to evaluate what aspects of antiretroviral club intervention works, for what sections of the patient population, and under which community and health systems contexts, to inform guidelines for scaling up of the intervention. In this article, we report on a step towards the development of a programme theory-the assumptions of programme designers and health service managers with regard to how and why the adherence club intervention is expected to achieve its goals and perceptions on how it has done so (or not.We adopted an exploratory qualitative research design. We conducted a document review of 12 documents on the design and implementation of the adherence club intervention, and key informant interviews with 12 purposively selected programme designers and managers. Thematic content analysis was used to identify themes attributed to the programme actors, context, mechanisms, and outcomes. Using the context-mechanism-outcome configurational tool, we provided an explanatory focus of how the adherence club intervention is roll-out and works guided by the realist perspective.We classified the assumptions of the adherence club designers and managers into the rollout, implementation, and utilisation of the adherence club programme, constructed around the providers, management/operational staff, and patients, respectively. Two rival theories were identified at the patient-perspective level. We used these perspectives to develop an initial programme theory of the adherence club intervention, which will be tested in a later phase.The perspectives of the programme designers and managers provided an important step towards developing an initial programme

  4. Brucellosis in childhood in the Western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martin-Moreno S, Soto-Guzman 0, Bernardo-de Quiro's L, Reverte-Cejcido D,. Bascones-Cases C. Pancytopenia due to hemaphagocytosis in patients with. brucellOSis: a report of 7 cases. J Infect Dis 1983; 147: 445-449. 14. Department of Agriculture, Directorate at Animal Health. Brucellosis in cattle. Manual for the Farmer ...

  5. Yersinia enterocolitica in the Western Cape*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both our Yersinia strains were sensitive to ampicillin, strep- tomycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, erythromycin, kanamycin, neomycin, furazolidone, gentamicin, cephalo- sporin and trimethoprimjsulphamethoxazole, but resistant to novobiocin 30 Jig when tested with the disc technique. As was found by other workers, both ...

  6. Van Willebrand's disease in the Western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    such as epistaxis, gingival bleeding, gastro-intestinal bleeding and menorrhagia Haemarthroses, deep subcutaneous and intramuscular haematomas, .... and stop severe mucosal haemorrhage: this emphasises the important role of platelet WolF in normal haemostasis.' SAMJ. ARTICLES. This study was supported by a ...

  7. The Influence of Second-Hand Cigarette Smoke Exposure during Childhood and Active Cigarette Smoking on Crohn's Disease Phenotype Defined by the Montreal Classification Scheme in a Western Cape Population, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawanda Chivese

    Full Text Available Smoking may worsen the disease outcomes in patients with Crohn's disease (CD, however the effect of exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke during childhood is unclear. In South Africa, no such literature exists. The aim of this study was to investigate whether disease phenotype, at time of diagnosis of CD, was associated with exposure to second-hand cigarette during childhood and active cigarette smoking habits.A cross sectional examination of all consecutive CD patients seen during the period September 2011-January 2013 at 2 large inflammatory bowel disease centers in the Western Cape, South Africa was performed. Data were collected via review of patient case notes, interviewer-administered questionnaire and clinical examination by the attending gastroenterologist. Disease phenotype (behavior and location was evaluated at time of diagnosis, according to the Montreal Classification scheme. In addition, disease behavior was stratified as 'complicated' or 'uncomplicated', using predefined definitions. Passive cigarette smoke exposure was evaluated during 3 age intervals: 0-5, 6-10, and 11-18 years.One hundred and ninety four CD patients were identified. Cigarette smoking during the 6 months prior to, or at time of diagnosis was significantly associated with ileo-colonic (L3 disease (RRR = 3.63; 95% CI, 1.32-9.98, p = 0.012 and ileal (L1 disease (RRR = 3.54; 95% CI, 1.06-11.83, p = 0.040 compared with colonic disease. In smokers, childhood passive cigarette smoke exposure during the 0-5 years age interval was significantly associated with ileo-colonic CD location (RRR = 21.3; 95% CI, 1.16-391.55, p = 0.040. No significant association between smoking habits and disease behavior at diagnosis, whether defined by the Montreal scheme, or stratified as 'complicated' vs 'uncomplicated', was observed.Smoking habits were associated with ileo-colonic (L3 and ileal (L1 disease at time of diagnosis in a South African cohort.

  8. Fenología de Tayloria dubyi (Splachnaceae en las turberas de la Reserva de Biosfera Cabo de Hornos Phenology of Tayloria dubyi (Splachnaceae in the peatlands of the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOCELYN JOFRE

    2010-03-01

    diversity of bryophytes, greater than the species richness of vascular plants. Despite this fact, phenological studies on bryophytes are lacking for this ecoregion and Chile. Based on the study of the sporophytic phase of Tayloria dubyi, an endemic moss from the sub-Antarctic Magellanic ecoregion, we propose a methodology for phonological studies on austral bryophytes. We defined five phenophases, easily distinguishable with a hand-lens, which were monthly recorded during 2007 and 2008 in populations of T. dubyi at the Omora Ethnobotanical Park and Mejillones Bay on Navarino Island (55º S in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve. The sporophytic (or reproductive phase of T. dubyi presented a clear seasonality. After growing in November, in three months (December-February of the austral reproductive season the sporophytes mature and release their spores; by March they are already senescent. T. dubyi belongs to the Splachnaceae family for which entomochory (dispersal of spores by insects, specifically Diptera has been detected in the Northern Hemisphere. The period of spores release in T. dubyi coincides with the months of highest activity of Diptera which are potential dispersers of spores; hence, entomochory could also take place in sub-Antarctic Magellanic ecoregion. In sum, our work: (i defines a methodology for phenological studies in austral bryophytes, (ii it records a marked seasonality ion the sporophyte phase of T. dubyi, and (iii it proposes to evaluate in future research the occurrence of entomochory in Splachnaceae species growing in the sub-Antarctic peatlands and forest ecosystems in the Southern Hemisphere.

  9. Cape Kennedy Tower Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digitized data taken from original weather observations taken at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Florida. Elements recorded are wind speed and direction, wind speed...

  10. Cape Kennedy Weather Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digitized data taken from original weather observations taken at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Florida. Elements recorded are wind speed and direction,...

  11. Asthma triggers on the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation in western South Dakota: the Breathing Relief Education and Tribal Health Empowerment (BREATHE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Rae; Wallace, James

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to better understand asthma triggers and possible causes of exacerbations among BREATHE participants on the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation in western South Dakota. To qualify for enrollment, participants had to have physician-diagnosed asthma, be uncontrolled and have persistent symptoms. Participants were asked to identify their top two asthma triggers throughout their one-year enrollment during initial visits and subsequent phone follow-ups. In addition, participant's medical records were reviewed for visits to the emergency department (ED) to demonstrate asthma exacerbations. In 2008, 127 interviews were conducted with 45 enrolled participants for a total of 254 results. Overall, the three most common self reported triggers were cold air, dust and smoke and these comprised nearly half (48.4 percent) of all reports. Dust was reported in 16.5 percent of interviews and ranked among the top four for every season. Smoke (12.6 percent) and cold air (19.3 percent) were leaders in all seasons except summer, but humid air, pollens and strong odors were unique to summer. Exercise/activity ranked high during the winter and spring, but was reported less in summer and fall. There was no identifiable trend in ER visits by season. People with asthma living on the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation or other locations with similar community and geographic demographics are most likely to suffer an asthma exacerbation from exposure to cold air, dust, smoke and exercise/activity. Asthma education is necessary on all levels, but information on avoidance and control of these most common reported triggers is especially important.

  12. Marine littoral diatoms from the Gordon’s bay region of False Bay, Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giffen, MH

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gordon’s Bay region occupies the North western corner of false Bay, a large rectangular bay, bounded on the west by the Cape Peninsula ending at Cape Point, on the east by the precipitous slope of the Steenbras Mountains ending at the Cape...

  13. The Cape Times's portrayal of school violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corene de Wet

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the Cape Times's portrayal of school violence in the Western Cape (WC, South Africa, reporting on findings from a qualitative content analysis of 41 news articles retrieved from the SA Media database. The findings shed light on the victims and their victimisation, the perpetrators, as well as the context of the violence, identifying gangsterism, as well as school administrative and community factors as the reasons for violence in WC schools. It is argued that school violence and gangsterism are inextricably linked to the Cape Flats in particular, and that the interaction of forms of inequality and oppression such as racism, class privilege and gender oppression are structural root causes for school violence in this area of the WC. The study highlights the negative consequences of school violence on teaching and learning and on the economy. It is concluded that even if the Cape Times paints an exaggerated and atypical picture of violence in the gang-riddled parts of the WC, the detrimental effects thereof on the regions cannot be denied. The study therefore recommends a holistic approach to addressing the structural root causes of school violence where it takes place in the WC.

  14. Role of coal in the world energy picture until the year 2000. Reserves, resources, and availabilities from the Western European point of view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, R. (Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Projektleitung Energieforschung)

    1979-11-01

    The role of coal in the world energy picture is strongly determined, among other factors by the situation of the reserves of fossil primary energy sources. An analysis of the volume of the reserves leads to a higher estimation of crude oil and natural gas than is usual today and to the statement that the established coal reserves are not clearly defined and cannot be directly compared with oil and gas reserves. Altogether, the reserves of the fossil primary energy sources, especially of coal are so high that even a doubling of their present yearly consumption by the year 2000 does not mean that an exhaustion of the actual reserves is to be feared. However, the acutal availability of coal must be judged quite differently. Nature provides adequate coal reserves; yet the question as to whether these can be made available for the energy import countries of the year 2000 must be regarded sceptically.

  15. Assessment of the food available to cape anchovy during their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cape anchovy Engraulis capensis spawns serially between September and February each year on the western Agulhas Bank, South Africa. Food availability in terms of copepod biomass is important for successful spawning and subsequent recruitment. This note investigates the variability within a spawning season ...

  16. Cape Town's central city development: A strategy of partnership and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By critically examining the role that inclusionary housing policies, public transportation, and increased economic opportunities play in a more .... strengthening economic and social connections to the benefit of the wider metropolitan region. 2. ... Western Cape, local businesses and other urban development stakeholders,.

  17. 1Department of Psychiatry, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated with hazardous and harmful drinking in the Western Cape province, South Africa. Community surveys were conducted in two wine growing regions in this province to assess drinking behaviour, guide interventions and serve as a baseline for assessing the impact of population-level interventions. As part of a ...

  18. Balancing Authority Cooperation Concepts to Reduce Variable Generation Integration Costs in the Western Interconnection: Consolidating Balancing Authorities and Sharing Balancing Reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samaan, Nader A.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Nguyen, Tony B.; Diao, Ruisheng

    2017-05-07

    The study described in this chapter demonstrates the benefits of BA consolidation with the help of a detailed WECC system model and advanced methodology, which is also described in this chapter. The study aims to determine the potential savings in production cost and reduction in balancing reserve requirements in the WECC system. The study has found that effective use of the diversity in load and variable generation over a wide area can indeed help to achieve significant savings. The implementation cost for the consolidation was beyond the scope of this study. The analysis was performed for two different scenarios of VG penetration: 11% (8% wind and 3% solar) and 33% (24% wind and 9% solar) of WECC projected energy demand in 2020. In analysis of balancing reserves, the objective was to determine the reduction in balancing reserve requirements due to BA consolidation, in terms of required capacity and ramp-rates. Hour-ahead and 10-minute ahead forecast errors for load, wind, and solar were simulated. In addition, 1-minute resolution load, wind and solar data were used to derive balancing reserve requirements i.e. load-following and regulation requirements for each individual BA and for the consolidated BA (CBA). The reduction in balancing reserves was determined by calculating the difference between total reserve requirements that need to be carried by different BAs if they operate individually, and reserve requirements that need to be carried by the CBA. The study results show that the consolidated WECC system would have about a 50% overall reduction in balancing reserves for the 11% penetration scenario and a 65% reduction for the 33% penetration scenario in comparison with total reserve requirements that need to be carried by different BAs if they operate individually.

  19. Missed opportunities for immunisation at hospitals in the western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Missed opportunities for immunisation at hospitals in the western Cape - a reappraisal. C.A. Metcalf, D Yach, Z.J. de Beer. Abstract. Immunisation practices were examined at 6 hospitals in the western Cape during the latter half of 1992 to determine whether these practices had improved subsequent to the February 1991 ...

  20. The Humansdorp Cape Griffon Site

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZeldaH

    Figure 1. The cliff north-west of the town of Humansdorp, Eastern Cape, South Africa, where a small group of Cape Griffons Gyps coprotheres roosted, and reportedly bred, until the end of the. 19 th century. The trees seen in the picture are all alien, invasive, black wattles Acacia mearnsii. (Photo: A Boshoff).

  1. 33 CFR 80.525 - Cape Lookout, NC to Cape Fear, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Lookout, NC to Cape Fear, NC... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.525 Cape Lookout, NC to Cape Fear... southeast side of the Inlet. (g) Except as provided elsewhere in this section from Cape Lookout to Cape Fear...

  2. Contraceptive use and associated factors among adolescents on Santiago Island - Cape Verde - Western Africa Uso de métodos anticoncepcionais e fatores associados em adolescentes da Ilha de Santiago - Cabo Verde - África Ocidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mendes Tavares

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to estimate the prevalence of contraceptive use and associated factors among adolescents attending public schools on Santiago Island, Cape Verde. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was carried out with 368 sexually active adolescents aged 13-17years attending eight public elementary and high schools, randomly selected, on Santiago Island, Cape Verde, between January and March 2007. Poisson regression with robust variance was used for the multiple analysis of risk factors, at a 5% level of significance. RESULTS: among 368 adolescents, 69.3% reported having used a contraceptive method during the last act of sexual intercourse. The most frequently used method were condom (94.9% and pill (26.4%. Factors significantly and positively associated with contraceptive use were: living in the capital (PR=1.23; CI95%: 1.07; 1.39; having dated and had sexual intercourse (PR =1.53; CI95%: 1.14;2.06; and having more than nine years of schooling (PR=1.19; CI95%: 1.02; 1.38. CONCLUSIONS: more educated adolescents who studied in Praia (the capital city and were dating at the time of the study were more likely to use contraception. The high prevalence of condom use and the association between contraception use and years of schooling among adolescents may indicate that sexual and reproductive health policies have produced positive outcomes that may account for the decrease in HIV infection.OBJETIVO: estimar a prevalência do uso de métodos anticoncepcionais (MAC e fatores associados entre adolescentes de escola pública na ilha de Santiago em Cabo Verde. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal, realizado entre janeiro e março de 2007, com amostra aleatória de 368 adolescentes de 13 a 17 anos de idade, com vida sexual ativa, provenientes de oito escolas secundárias públicas da ilha de Santiago. Para análise múltipla dos fatores de risco foi utilizada a regressão de Poisson ajustada pela estimativa robusta de variância considerando-se nível de signific

  3. Feasibility of Pulse Oximetry Pre-discharge Screening Implementation for detecting Critical Congenital heart Lesions in newborns in a secondary level maternity hospital in the Western Cape, South Africa: The 'POPSICLe' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Niekerk, A M; Cullis, R M; Linley, L L; Zühlke, L

    2016-07-07

    Early detection of critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) through newborn pulse oximetry (POx) screening is an effective strategy for reducing paediatric morbidity and mortality rates and has been adopted by much of the developed world. To document the feasibility of implementing pre-discharge POx screening in well babies born at Mowbray Maternity Hospital, a busy government hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. Parent and staff acceptance was assessed. We conducted a prospective study of predischarge POx screening in one postnatal ward, following informed parental consent. During the 4-month study period, 1 017 of 2 256 babies discharged (45.1%) were offered POx screening and 1 001 were screened; 94.0% of tests took <3 minutes to perform, 4.3% 3 - 5 minutes and 1.7% >5 minutes. Eighteen patients needed second screens and three required third screens. Only 3.1% protocol errors were made, all without consequence. The vast majority (91.6%) of nursing staff reported insufficient time to perform the study screening in addition to their daily tasks, but ~75% felt that with a full nursing staff complement and if done routinely (not part of a study), pre-discharge POx screening could be successfully instituted at our facility. Over 98% of the mothers had positive comments. Two babies failed screening and required echocardiograms; one was diagnosed with CCHD and the other with neonatal sepsis. The sensitivity and specificity were 50% (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 - 98.7%) and 99.9% (95% CI 99.4 - 100%), respectively, with a percentage correct of 99.8%. POx screening was supported and accepted by staff and parents. If there are no nursing staff shortages and if it is done routinely before discharge, not as part of a study, we conclude that POx screening could be implemented successfully without excessive false positives or errors, or any additional burden to cardiology services.

  4. CAPE TOWN'S TIME-GUNS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although a great many articles have been writ- ten on the subject of Cape Town's noon gun (the. official terminology is 'time-gun') most of the writ- ers have not had access to the Lion Battery Fort. Record Book and the existance of more than one. Cape Town time-gun has only recently been re- corded. By 1807 a noon gun ...

  5. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Frugivory and seed dispersal by the Asian Elephant Elephas maximus in the tropical forests of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baskaran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Seed dispersal plays a potential role in plant species demographic processes. Elephants are important seed-dispersing agents. We studied frugivory and seed dispersal by Asian Elephants in the tropical deciduous and thorn forests of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, southern India. We determined fruit consumption based on the presence of seeds and fruit remnants in elephant dung piles. In total, we identified seeds of eight plant species belonging to seven families in 16% out of 455 dung piles examined between 1991 and 2004. Coinciding with a peak fruiting season in the study area, seeds and other fruit parts appeared in the dung piles significantly more frequently during the dry season than in the wet seasons (southwest and northeast monsoons. Owing to differences in fruit species abundance in different habitats, there was more evidence of fruit consumption in the dry thorn than in the dry and moist deciduous forests. This corresponds with insufficient grass availability in thorn forests during the dry season and an increase in browse consumption as a supplementary diet. Seeds of Tamarindus indica and Acacia intsia were found in elephant dung more frequently than other species. Seed and fruit remnants were found in almost an equal number of dung piles of both bulls and herds.

  6. Diet of the American mink Mustela vison and its potential impact on the native fauna of Navarino Island, Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, Chile Dieta del visón norteamericano Mustela vison y su impacto potencial sobre la fauna nativa de Isla Navarino, Reserva de Biosfera Cabo de Hornos, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELKE SCHÜTTLER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive exotic species of mammalian predators represent a major cause of vertebrate animal extinctions on islands, particularly those that lack native mammalian carnivores. In 2001, the American mink (Mustela vison was recorded for the first time on Navarino Island, in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve (55° S in Chile, representing the southernmost population of mink worldwide. In order to assess its potential impact on native fauna, we studied its diet on Navarino Island, as part of an integrative management program on invasive species. Over a three-year period (2005-2007 we collected 512 scats in semi-aquatic habitats: marine coasts, riparian and lake shores. Overall, the main prey was mammals (37 % biomass, and birds (36 %, followed by fish (24 %. Over the spring and summer, mink consumed significantly more birds, whereas mammals constituted the main prey over the autumn and winter when migratory birds had left the area. Among birds, the mink preyed mainly on adult Passeriformes, followed by Anseriformes and Pelecaniformes, caught as chicks. Among mammals, the exotic muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus was the most important prey, and together with the native rodent Abrothrix xanthorhinus it accounted for 78 % of the biomass intake. For an integrated management of invasive exotic mammal species on Navarino Island and in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve it is important to further research interactions established here among the various introduced mammals, and to initiate immediate control of the mink population in its initial stage of invasion.Las especies exóticas de mamíferos carnívoros invasores constituyen una de las principales causas de extinciones de vertebrados en islas, particularmente en aquellas que carecen de predadores mamíferos nativos. En 2001, el visón norteamericano (Mustela vison fue registrado por primera vez en Isla Navarino en la Reserva de Biosfera Cabo de Hornos (55° S en Chile, representando la población de visones m

  7. A description of pharmacological analgesia administration by public sector advanced life support paramedics in the City of Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Matthews

    2017-03-01

    Discussion: Pre-hospital acute pain management in the Western Cape does not appear to conform to best practice as Advanced Life Support providers in the Western Cape use low doses of morphine. Chest pain is an important reason for drug administration in acute pre-hospital pain. Multimodal analgesia is not a feature of care in this pre-hospital service. The development of a Clinical Practice Guideline for and training in pre-hospital pain should be viewed as imperative.

  8. Biodiversity status of urban remnant forests in Cape coast, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cape Coast Metropolis, which is close to Kakum forest, has its native forests being reduced to fragments. Biodiversity in these forest reserves are exposed to the threat of being cleared over night as a result of urbanization. There are reported cases of some rare or potential medicinal plant species that have disappeared ...

  9. Aspects of habitat disturbance by Cape porcupines in a savanna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Habitat disturbances by Cape porcupines (Hystrix africaeaustralis)in a savanna ecosystem were investigated at Nylsvley Nature Reserve by using transect line surveys for signs of porcupine foraging activities. The density of foraging diggings was significantly higher in Burkea savanna than in Acacia savanna. A significantly ...

  10. GREENHOUSE-GROWN CAPE GOOSEBERRY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    industry to make jam, sauce, pies, puddings, chutneneys, ice cream and fruit salads (Facciola,. 1990; Huxley, 1992). The processed products can then be sold to earn fairly good income and even be exported to earn foreign exchange. Despite the good natural flavour of the Kenyan. Cape gooseberry fruit and the potential to.

  11. Continuous Flow of Upper Labrador Sea Water around Cape Hatteras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Magdalena; Muglia, Mike; Bahr, Frank; Bane, John

    2018-03-14

    Six velocity sections straddling Cape Hatteras show a deep counterflow rounding the Cape wedged beneath the poleward flowing Gulf Stream and the continental slope. This counterflow is likely the upper part of the equatorward-flowing Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC). Hydrographic data suggest that the equatorward flow sampled by the shipboard 38 kHz ADCP comprises the Upper Labrador Sea Water (ULSW) layer and top of the Classical Labrador Sea Water (CLSW) layer. Continuous DWBC flow around the Cape implied by the closely-spaced velocity sections here is also corroborated by the trajectory of an Argo float. These findings contrast with previous studies based on floats and tracers in which the lightest DWBC constituents did not follow the boundary to cross under the Gulf Stream at Cape Hatteras but were diverted into the interior as the DWBC encountered the Gulf Stream in the crossover region. Additionally, our six quasi-synoptic velocity sections confirm that the Gulf Stream intensified markedly at that time as it approached the separation point and flowed into deeper waters. Downstream increases were observed not only in the poleward transport across the sections but also in the current's maximum speed.

  12. 33 CFR 165.530 - Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. 165.530 Section 165.530 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.530 Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. (a) Location. The following area is...

  13. 76 FR 38302 - Safety Zone; Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... Cape Charles City Harbor centered on position 37[deg]15'46.5'' N/076[deg]01'30'' W (NAD 1983). Due to... of materials, performance, design, or operation; test methods; sampling procedures; and related... the human environment. This rule is categorically excluded, under figure 2-1, paragraph (34)(g), of...

  14. Incidence, severity and management of cancer chemotherapy related oral mucositis in Eastern Cape and Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna E. Maree

    2012-10-01

      Die studie het die insidensie, tydsduur en intensiteit van orale mukositis in Oos en Wes Kaapse pasiënte wat kankerchemoterapie ontvang verken asook hoe hierdie simptoom hanteer is en die sukses hiervan volgens die pasiënte. ‘n Kwantitatiewe, ekploratiewe, kontekstuele opname is onderneem. ‘n Gerieflikheidsteekproef is gebruik om die deelnemers te verkry. Een hondered en sestig persone is genader en 66.3% (n = 106 het aan die studie deelgeneem. Die datainsamelingsmetode was self-rapportering met behulp van ’n vraelys en beskrywende statistiek is gebruik om die data te verwerk. Orale mukositis was ’n algemene probleem, aangesien 71.7% (n = 76 van die respondente die simptoom ondervind het. Pyn was nie goed beheer nie, aangesien 69.8% (n = 53 pyn ondervind het terwyl slegs 17.1% (n = 13 aangedui het dat hulle analgetika gebruik het. Meer as die helfte van die respondente het voorgeskrewe mond en keel preparate gebruik, terwyl 28.9% (n = 22 self gemedikeer het wat potensiële nadelige preparate ingesluit het. ’n Beduidende verskil is tussen die gebruik van nie voorgeskrewe medikasie en die duur van mukositis bevind (χ² = 0.81; p = 0.01. Die graad van die mukositis het nie die gebruik van die self-medikasie beinvloed nie. Hoe meer pyn ondervind is, hoe minder was die neiging om die mukositis self te behandel. Die hantering van orale mukositis bly ’n uitdaging. Die onsuksesvolle palliasie van hierdie simptoom kan tot die gebruik van potensieel nadelige self-sorg maatreëls lei.

  15. Tuberous sclerosis complex in the Western Cape, South Africa: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that manifests with benign non-invasive hamartomas in multiple organ systems and is associated ... Written consent was obtained from caregivers. Results. Over the 33-month ... Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic neurocutaneous condition, which affects multiple organ systems. This study aimed to determine the ...

  16. Who is the nutrition workforce in the Western Cape?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-12-21

    Dec 21, 2010 ... The majority of foodservice managers rated themselves as skilled, but least so in budget and financial management. INP managers rated themselves lowest on finances and dietetic quality control. Hospital dietitians rated themselves as least skilled on total parenteral nutrition and diversity management,.

  17. Health care achievement and challenges in the Western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to the tertiary academic hospitals in particular, have received wide press coverage and have often led to uncertainty ... We formed a strategic management team, which brought together some of the brains in the province to ... National Department of Health, the Financial and Fiscal. Commission or the Centre for Health Policy ...

  18. Agrichemical safety practices on farms in the western Cape | London ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While protective equipment was widely available, gloves and masks were seldom used, with little enforcement or commercial support from the suppliers of the equipment. Farm workers receive little training on pesticide safety, but interest in the possibility of further training for workers was high. In the absence of a system of ...

  19. Predictors of burnout among HIV nurses in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana Roomaney

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Factors such as workload, job status and interpersonal conflict in the work context, organisational constraints and stigma associated with HIV were found to be predictors of burnout in the sample of nurses. Our recommendations include developing and testing interventions aimed at reducing burnout among nurses, including reducing workload and creating conditions for less interpersonal conflict at work.

  20. The literacy of Geography teachers in the Western Cape Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    Further- more, the majority of the teachers held mis- conceptions about the appropriate mitigation strat- egies for climate change. These findings are in part corroborated by Bozdogan (2011), who found that. Turkish teachers had knowledge gaps and certain misconceptions about the concepts underlying global warming.

  1. Four decades of water recycling in Atlantis (Western Cape, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This permits safe artificial recharge of the various water quality portions at different points in the aquifer, either for recycling or for preventing seawater intrusion. All of the management actions are dependent on detailed data collection and this paper describes the various parts of the system, describes the data collection ...

  2. (Bitis; Viperidae) from the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-02-25

    Feb 25, 1997 ... Dwarf adders of the genus Bitis are popular in the interna- tional pet trade in reptiles, and although ... dwarf adder, B. schneideri) are already threatened, in pan, by illegal collecting for this trade (Branch .... between the eyes at the anterior edge of the orbit; I I right, 12 left circumorbitals; two scale rows ...

  3. The critical care nursing workforce in Western Cape hospitals - a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. A global shortage of registered nurses (RNs) has been reported internationally, and confirmed in South Africa by the National Audit of Critical Care services. Critical care nurses (CCNs) especially are in great demand and short supply. Purpose. The purpose of this study was to quantify the nursing workforce ...

  4. Temporality and Patterns of ART Adherence in the Western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 This work was supported by the Health Research Board (HRB) in Ireland and Irish Aid (IA) under their. Global Health ..... 4pm in the afternoon and Gabriella had not eaten since breakfast the previous morning. Gabriella became ...... Brandt R. (2009) The Mental Health of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Africa: A. Systematic ...

  5. An assessment of asthmatic patients at four Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To identify the profile of asthmatic patients visiting community pharmacies and to assess the appropriateness of their current asthma therapy. Design. Patients were identified as either chronic, newly diagnosed or undiagnosed. Asthma status was assessed from their current symptom and medication profiles and ...

  6. Sustainable safety volunteerism in the Strand, Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opperwjj

    a necessary component for the implementation of a sustainable, volunteer-based safety-promotion project. Keywords: ... the social and economic priorities prevalent among communities in the South, including issues of poverty, housing, human ...... (2004). Volunteerism during the transition into adulthood: A life course.

  7. Who is the nutrition workforce in the Western Cape? | Goeiman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hospital and district dietitians experienced common problems, as well as specific differences. Regarding problems, both categories referred to limited resources, inadequate number of available posts, and lack of acknowledgement and support from administrative and supply chain management. District dietitians were also ...

  8. The pattern of childhood in the western Cape | Roberts | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An analysis of poisoning cases treated at the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital dUring 1987 and of calls received on the poisons line is presented. Treatment of 1116 children was undertaken and 922 telephone calls were logged. Of the patients treated, 60% had ingested a drug and 30% had drunk paraffin.

  9. Prostate cancer among different racial groups in the Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. We aimed to compare the presenting features and management of prostate cancer among different racial groups. Patients and methods. We studied all patients diagnosed with prostate cancer at the Urological Oncology Clinic, Tygerberg Hospital, from January 1995 to December 2005. Most presented ...

  10. Brucellosis in childhood in the Western Cape | Hendricks | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnosis was made on the basis of a positive serological titre (> 1:160) for Brucella abortus. The prozone phenomenon was encountered in 6 cases; however, the Coombs test confirmed the diagnosis in these cases. Children under 7 years were treated with co-trimoxazole and rifampicin and those over 7 years with ...

  11. Afrikaans as an index of identity among Western Cape Coloured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    katevg

    indigenous Khoisan”. This is not a particularly accurate definition, as many slaves of Malaysian descent, .... Community 2, on the other hand, was specifically laid out by the apartheid government to become a Coloured ..... language, and (2), as a response to the question about finding it difficult to use different languages at ...

  12. Early diagnosis of prostate cancer in the Western Cape | Heyns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Early stage prostate cancer does not cause symptoms, and even metastatic disease may exist for years without causing symptoms or signs. Whereas early stage prostate cancer can be cured with radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy, the prognosis of patients with locally advanced or metastatic cancer is ...

  13. Notification ofpesticide poisoning in the western Cape, 1987 - 1991

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    notification of pesticide poisoning so as to facili- tate control of an iInportant potential public health probleIn. ... Poisoning caused by paraquat and organophosphate insecticides have been reported to be an important rea- .... were white, the majority (78%) being coloured. The circumstances of poisonings are summarised in.

  14. Four decades of water recycling in Atlantis (Western Cape, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the operation and history of the AWSS, and assesses artificial recharge and the resulting groundwater blend from a quantitative (water quantities) and qualitative (water quality) perspective. This review utilizes data gathered during the numerous previous investigations which have been under- taken in ...

  15. Sustainable safety volunteerism in the Strand, Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a growing recognition of the relevance and even centrality of volunteerism to adequate collective responses to poverty, housing and the promotion of human rights and, more recently, safety. Volunteerism by members of poor global South communities within their own communities has, however, remained relatively ...

  16. Yersinia enterocolitica in the Western Cape | Finlayson | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 47, No 1 (1973) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  17. Brucellosis in childhood in the Western Cape | Hendricks | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 85, No 3 (1995) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  18. The profile of disability grant applicants in Bishop Lavis, Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Disability grants in South Africa increased from 600 000 in 2000 to almost 1.3 million in 2004. This rise can be attributed to the HIV/ AIDS epidemic, South Africa's high rate of unemployment and possibly an increased awareness of constitutional rights. The Western Cape, which has a disability prevalence of ...

  19. The diets of littoral fish from the Cape Peninsula | Bennett | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intertidal fish communities in the south·western Cape have a high density and biomass, implying that the fish are important consumers in the ntertidal zone. Stomach content analyses of 20 species were undertaken to ascertain which food resources are most heavily exploited and the extent to which the co-existing fish ...

  20. AMPR BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURE CAPE EXPERIMENT V2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) was deployed during the Convection and Precipitation / Electrification Experiment (CaPE). AMPR data were...

  1. AMPR BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURE CAPE EXPERIMENT V2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) was deployed during the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment (CaPE). AMPR data...

  2. 46 CFR 7.45 - Cape Henlopen, DE to Cape Charles, VA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cape Henlopen, DE to Cape Charles, VA. 7.45 Section 7.45... Atlantic Coast § 7.45 Cape Henlopen, DE to Cape Charles, VA. (a) A line drawn from the easternmost extremity of Indian River Inlet North Jetty to latitude 38°36.5′ N. longitude 75°02.8′ W. (Indian River...

  3. 46 CFR 7.55 - Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. 7.55 Section 7.55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.55 Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. (a) A line drawn from Rudee Inlet Jetty Light “2” to...

  4. 33 CFR 80.505 - Cape Henlopen, DE to Cape Charles, VA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to Cape Charles, VA. (a) A line drawn from the seaward extremity of Indian River Inlet North Jetty to Indian River Inlet South Jetty Light. (b) A line drawn from Ocean City Inlet Light 6, 225° true across... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Henlopen, DE to Cape Charles...

  5. Youth ministry as an agency of youth development for the vulnerable youth of the Cape Flats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Religiosity has a profound role and influence on youth development within a community. Religiosity promotes risk reduction and positive moral characteristics and thus remains an avenue of opportunity for transformation in considering the lived experiences of vulnerable young people living on the Cape Flats in the Western Cape, South Africa. The Cape Flats is an area that is overwhelmed with unemployment, poverty, gang violence, chemical substance abuse and a general societal abandonment of young people. It is out of dire hopelessness that a meaningful relationship with God can be experienced by youth. The Cape Flats is, therefore, a fertile space for an intervention of religiosity. This article will research how the agency of youth ministry as a positive youth development can assist in youth development within a community in tension like that of the Cape Flats. While youth development is a broad category for consideration and research, this article will primarily focus on identity formation of young people, in particular, the vulnerable youth living on the Cape Flats.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The agency of youth ministry, in an evangelical epistemology, should seek to address the influencers on adolescent identity formation, as one�s identity has a direct bearing on faith formation. The potential outcome of the article would allow the youth ministry to take serious the impact of the lived realities of youth and adjust their programmatic designs and outcomes, in relation to youth faith formation.

  6. The impact of methamphetamine ("tik") on a peri-urban community in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Melissa H; Meade, Christina S; Kimani, Stephen; MacFarlane, Jessica C; Choi, Karmel W; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree; Kalichman, Seth C; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2014-03-01

    Over the last decade, South Africa's Western Cape has experienced a dramatic increase in methamphetamine ("tik") use. Our study explored local impressions of the impact of tik use in a peri-urban township community in Cape Town, South Africa. We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 55 women and 37 men who were regular attendees of alcohol-serving venues. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. A content analysis approach was used to identify themes related to the impact of tik use based on levels of the socio-ecological framework (individual, inter-personal and community). Tik use was reported to be a greater issue among Coloureds, compared to Blacks. At an individual level, respondents reported that tik use had adverse effects on mental, physical, and economic well-being, and limited future opportunities through school drop-out and incarceration. At an inter-personal level, respondents reported that tik use contributed to physical and sexual violence as well as increased rates of sexual risk behaviour, particularly through transactional sex relationships. Respondents described how tik use led to household conflict, and had negative impacts on children, including neglect and poor birth outcomes. At a community level, respondents linked tik use to increased rates of crime, violence and corruption, which undercut community cohesion. Our results highlight the negative impact that tik is having on individuals, households and the overall community in a peri-urban setting in South Africa. There is a clear need for interventions to prevent tik use in South Africa and to mitigate and address the impact of tik on multiple levels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  8. Oral receptivity of Aedes aegypti from Cape Verde for yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazeille, Marie; Yébakima, André; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Andriamahefazafy, Barrysson; Correira, Artur; Rodrigues, Julio Monteiro; Veiga, Antonio; Moreira, Antonio; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Grandadam, Marc; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2013-01-01

    At the end of 2009, 21,313 cases of dengue-3 virus (DENV-3) were reported in the islands of Cape Verde, an archipelago located in the Atlantic Ocean 570 km from the coast of western Africa. It was the first dengue outbreak ever reported in Cape Verde. Mosquitoes collected in July 2010 in the city of Praia, on the island of Santiago, were identified morphologically as Aedes aegypti formosus. Using experimental oral infections, we found that this vector showed a moderate ability to transmit the epidemic dengue-3 virus, but was highly susceptible to chikungunya and yellow fever viruses.

  9. Validation of the Spanish adaptation of the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Morato-Galán, Marta; García-López, Isabel; Ávila-Menéndez, Arántzazu

    2015-01-01

    The Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V) was developed.to promote a standardised approach to evaluating and documenting auditory perceptual judgments of vocal quality. This tool was originally developed in English language and its Spanish version is still inexistent. The aim of this study was to develop a Spanish adaptation of CAPE-V and to examine the reliability and empirical validity of this Spanish version. To adapt the CAPE-V protocol to the Spanish language, we proposed 6 phrases phonetically designed according to the CAPE-V requirements. Prospective instrument validation was performed. The validity of the Spanish version of the CAPE-V was examined in 4 ways: intra-rater reliability, inter-rater reliability and CAPE-V versus GRABS judgments. Inter-rater reliability coefficients for the CAPE-V ranged from 0.93 for overall severity to 0.54 for intensity; intra-rater reliability ranged from 0.98 for overall severity to 0.85 for intensity. The comparison of judgments between GRABS and CAPE-V ranged from 0.86 for overall severity to 0.61 for breathiness. The present study supports the use of the Spanish version of CAPE-V because of its validity and reliability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  10. Tecer sobe no ranking da Capes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Surpresa ainda maior foi verificar que prosseguimos no rumo da consolidação, crescendo no ranking – chegando a B3 em alguns campos, como pode ser visto no portal de buscas do Qualis Capes http://qualis.capes.gov.br/webqualis/principal.seamhttp://qualis.capes.gov, que apresenta nossa classificação abaixo:   B3 ADMINISTRAÇÃO, CIÊNCIAS CONTÁBEIS E TURISMO B4 CIÊNCIAS SOCIAIS APLICADAS I B4 EDUCAÇÃO B4 INTERDISCIPLINAR B5 DIREITO B5 HISTÓRIA C CIÊNCIA DA COMPUTAÇÃO

  11. Evaluation of sand reserves in del Plata City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the reserve of sand in the zone of del Plata city and beyond. This area is located in the S E edge of the department of San Jose near the mouth of Santa Lucia river. In this zone was identified the mantle of potentially exploitable sand which are based on their particle size, composition and depth of the limits cape. There are two powerful capes of sand separated by clay and silt

  12. NAMMA PRAIA CAPE VERDE RADIOSONDE V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NAMMA Praia Cape Verde Radiosonde data used Sippican MarkIIa DGPS (LOS) radiosondes, which were launched in support of NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary...

  13. The Cape doctor 1807-1910: perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Howard

    2004-01-01

    This chapter contrasts the Cape doctor in 1807 and in 1910, and finds that, in a whole variety of ways, the differences between the two were not of degree but of kind. Underlying this sea-change was the germ revolution of the late Victorian era, which transformed the Cape doctor out of all recognition, thereby laying important foundations for the development of the twentieth-century South African doctor.

  14. Sleep in the Cape Mole Rat: A Short-Sleeping Subterranean Rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Jean-Leigh; Gravett, Nadine; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Bennett, Nigel C; Archer, Elizabeth K; Manger, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    The Cape mole rat Georychus capensis is a solitary subterranean rodent found in the western and southern Cape of South Africa. This approximately 200-gram bathyergid rodent shows a nocturnal circadian rhythm, but sleep in this species is yet to be investigated. Using telemetric recordings of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) in conjunction with video recordings, we were able to show that the Cape mole rat, like all other rodents, has sleep periods composed of both rapid eye movement (REM) and slow-wave (non-REM) sleep. These mole rats spent on average 15.4 h awake, 7.1 h in non-REM sleep and 1.5 h in REM sleep each day. Cape mole rats sleep substantially less than other similarly sized terrestrial rodents but have a similar percentage of total sleep time occupied by REM sleep. In addition, the duration of both non-REM and REM sleep episodes was markedly shorter in the Cape mole rat than has been observed in terrestrial rodents. Interestingly, these features (total sleep time and episode duration) are similar to those observed in another subterranean bathyergid mole rat, i.e. Fukomys mechowii. Thus, there appears to be a bathyergid type of sleep amongst the rodents that may be related to their environment and the effect of this on their circadian rhythm. Investigating further species of bathyergid mole rats may fully define the emerging picture of sleep in these subterranean African rodents. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. From disasters to decisions: Cape Canaveral Marine Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    Five years ago, in August 1992, a tropical depression off the western coast of Africa formed, intensifying and gathering storm clouds as it began its journey westward. By the time it reached the US mainland, it had become a full-fledged hurricane -- Hurricane Andrew -- that blasted over south Florida and into south-central Louisiana. In Florida City, Fla., things went from bad to worse. One piece of metal debris -- airborne from the hurricane's 145 mile-per-hour winds -- punctured an oil tank, triggering a rapidly spreading oil spill that needed to be contained, and fast. The tank had a mechanism whereby oil was replenished when the container was less than full; so as oil was sucked out by the high winds, more came pouring in. In addition, a berm that would have somewhat contained the spill was stuck in open position. Enter Cape Canaveral Marine Services, Inc., (CCMS, Cape Canaveral, Fla.), an environmental services company well-versed in emergency spill response activities. Within seven weeks, CCMS had cleaned up and mitigated the impacts of the spill. Although the job posed significant challenges, the company was uniquely situated to respond quickly, efficiently, and effectively. After all, it had already been in the business for 20 years

  16. Atmospheric aerosol characterisation at Cape Grim and Global Warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, D.D.; Garton, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Australia Global Baseline monitoring station at Cape Grim in north western Tasmania is operated by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. ANSTO has been sampling, measuring and characterising fine particles of 2.5 μm diameters and less (PM2.5) at Cape Grim since the middle of 1992. Accelerator based ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques [2-41 have been used to identify over 25 different elemental species present in over 500 filters collected to date. The elements measured by PIXE, PIGME, ERDA and RBS include, H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb. Of the measured elements not listed the majority occurred at concentrations below 10 ng/m 3 . The average monthly mass variations over the 5 year period from 1992 to 1997 are given. The average non-soil potassium was 92% of the total potassium, showing that the vast majority of fine potassium was associated with smoke from biomass burning. The highest lead value of 542 ng/m 3 occurred on 21 June 1992 and was associated with 337 ng/m 3 of bromine which, after correction for bromine in sea salt (Na was 3 ), was about the correct ratio to be associated with combustion of leaded petrol in motor vehicles

  17. From disasters to decisions: Cape Canaveral Marine Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connell, K.A.

    1997-07-01

    Five years ago, in August 1992, a tropical depression off the western coast of Africa formed, intensifying and gathering storm clouds as it began its journey westward. By the time it reached the US mainland, it had become a full-fledged hurricane -- Hurricane Andrew -- that blasted over south Florida and into south-central Louisiana. In Florida City, Fla., things went from bad to worse. One piece of metal debris -- airborne from the hurricane`s 145 mile-per-hour winds -- punctured an oil tank, triggering a rapidly spreading oil spill that needed to be contained, and fast. The tank had a mechanism whereby oil was replenished when the container was less than full; so as oil was sucked out by the high winds, more came pouring in. In addition, a berm that would have somewhat contained the spill was stuck in open position. Enter Cape Canaveral Marine Services, Inc., (CCMS, Cape Canaveral, Fla.), an environmental services company well-versed in emergency spill response activities. Within seven weeks, CCMS had cleaned up and mitigated the impacts of the spill. Although the job posed significant challenges, the company was uniquely situated to respond quickly, efficiently, and effectively. After all, it had already been in the business for 20 years.

  18. 'Cape capture': Geologic data and modeling results suggest the holocene loss of a Carolina Cape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieler, E.R.; Ashton, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    For more than a century, the origin and evolution of the set of cuspate forelands known as the Carolina Capes-Hatteras, Lookout, Fear, and Romain-off the eastern coast of the United States have been discussed and debated. The consensus conceptual model is not only that these capes existed through much or all of the Holocene transgression, but also that their number has not changed. Here we describe bathymetric, lithologic, seismic, and chronologic data that suggest another cape may have existed between Capes Hatteras and Lookout during the early to middle Holocene. This cape likely formed at the distal end of the Neuse-Tar-Pamlico fiuvial system during the early Holocene transgression, when this portion of the shelf was fiooded ca. 9 cal (calibrated) kyr B.P., and was probably abandoned by ca. 4 cal kyr B.P., when the shoreline attained its present general configuration. Previously proposed mechanisms for cape formation suggest that the large-scale, rhythmic pattern of the Carolina Capes arose from a hydrodynamic template or the preexisting geologic framework. Numerical modeling, however, suggests that the number and spacing of capes can be dynamic, and that a coast can self-organize in response to a high-angle-wave instability in shoreline shape. In shoreline evolution model simulations, smaller cuspate forelands are subsumed by larger neighbors over millennial time scales through a process of 'cape capture.' The suggested former cape in Raleigh Bay represents the first interpreted geological evidence of dynamic abandonment suggested by the self-organization hypothesis. Cape capture may be a widespread process in coastal environments with large-scale rhythmic shoreline features; its preservation in the sedimentary record will vary according to geologic setting, physical processes, and sea-level history. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  19. Composition and biogeography of forest patches on the inland mountains of the southern Cape

    OpenAIRE

    C. J. Geldenhuys

    1997-01-01

    Patterns in species richness of 23 small, isolated forests on the inland mountains of the southern Cape were studied. Species richness of woody plants and vines of the Kouga-Baviaanskloof Forests was higher than in the western mountain complexes, where species richness in the more southern Rooiberg and Kamanassie Mountains was higher than in the Swartberg range. The Rooiberg, a dry mountain with small forests far away from the coastal source area, had more species than, and contained many spe...

  20. RRS Discovery Cruise 298, 23 Aug-25 Sep 2005. Cape Farewell and Eirik Ridge (CFER-1)

    OpenAIRE

    Bacon, S.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes scientific activities during RRS Discovery cruise 298 in the vicinity of Cape Farewell, southern Greenland, during early autumn 2005. A Deep Western Boundary Current array of seven moorings was deployed, and two IFREMER moorings were recovered, serviced and redeployed; also, a WHOI mooring was recovered. Hydrographic work comprised an area survey of 63 CTD/LADCP stations; up to 24 water samples were captured on each station for the measurement of salinity, dissolved oxyg...

  1. Racism and medical science in South Africa's Cape Colony in the mid- to late nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, H

    2000-01-01

    Racism has been a particular focus of the history of Western medicine in colonial South Africa. Much of the research to date has paradoxically interpreted Western medicine as both a handmaiden of colonialism and as a racist gatekeeper to the benefits of Western medical science. This essay suggests that while these conclusions have some validity, the framework in which they have been devised is problematic. Not only is that framework contradictory in nature, it underplays differences within Western medicine, privileges the history of explicit and intentional racial discrimination in medicine, and encourages a separate analysis of racism in law, in the medical profession, and in medical theory and practice. Using the example of the Cape Colony in South Africa, this paper shows how legislation, class, institutional setting, and popular stereotypes could influence the form, timing, and degree of racism in the medical professional, and in medical theory and practice. It also argues for an analytical distinction between 'racist medicine' and 'medical racism.'

  2. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    , of thought both familiar and less familiar: Neoplatonic emanationism, perennialism, pantheism, universalism, and esotericism. Western Sufism, then, is the product not of the new age but of Islam, the ancient world, and centuries of Western religious and intellectual history. Drawing on sources from antiquity...

  3. neonatal bacterial meningitis in Cape Town children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neonatal bacterial meningitis in Cape Town children. Bacterial meningitis is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in South Africa. However, comprehensive regional or national epidemiological data, essential for rational public health interventions, are lacking. The purpose of this 1-year prospective study, from.

  4. THE EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE OF SOUTH AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    POT ENTIAL FOR CASSAVA PRODUCTION IN THE BATHURST RÉGION OF. THE EASTERN CAPE ... Cassava (Manihot escrtlenta) is a minor crop in South Africa that has had periodic rises in interest since it was first cultivated in the country. Interest .... Hardened tissue culture plants were used to establish this trial due to ...

  5. 76 FR 22719 - Cape Wind Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Energy Project AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE), Interior..., or disapprove a Construction and Operations Plan (COP) for the Cape Wind Energy Project located on..., easements, or rights-of-way for renewable energy projects on the OCS. The Secretary delegated that authority...

  6. Zoology Department, University of Cape Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NOTES ON THE ECOLOGY OF PATELLA CONCOLOR AND CELLANA. CAPENSlS, AND THE EFFECTS OF HUMAN CONSUMPTION ON. LIMPET POPULATIONS ... fixed sites to determine the amount of movement taking place. I am most grateful to Mrs. Giles of Cape Town for access to her collection of P. concolor,.

  7. Recovery of eastern Cape heathland after fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. F. G. Jacot Guillarmod

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available In parts of the eastern Cape, fire is increasing in frequency and intensity in heathland, due mainly to the presence of adventive exotic tree species. These adventives also smother the indigenous vegetation under a dense canopy or with leaf litter. This heathland* flora requires a long period to reach its climax and under present conditions, this is rarely attained.

  8. The Cape Times's portrayal of school violence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UVP

    2016-05-30

    May 30, 2016 ... the economy. It is concluded that even if the Cape Times paints an exaggerated and atypical picture of violence in the gang- ... bullying, shootings, stabbings, gangsterism, drug trafficking, theft of property and vandalism, racially motivated violence and ...... Pupils feeling heavy weight of gangs, violence and ...

  9. April 1992 Cape Mendocino, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On April 25, 1992 at 11:06 am local time (April 25 at 18:06 GMT), a magnitude 7.1 earthquake occurred in the Cape Mendocino area. Two additional earthquakes,...

  10. Zoology Department, University o/Cape Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zoology Department, University o/Cape Town. ABSTRACT. Forty-six species were recorded in association with Patella spp., but most of these are casual associates, seeking temporary shelter. The shell surface offers an important substrate for algae. The amphipod Hyale grandicornla is often associated with Patella, ...

  11. A 'private adventure'? John Herschel's Cape voyage and the production of the 'Cape Results'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskin, Steven William

    2002-07-01

    This dissertation considers the life of John Herschel (1792 1871) from the years 1833 to 1847. In 1833 Herschel sailed from London to Cape Town, southern Africa, to undertake (at his own expense) an astronomical exploration of the southern heavens, as well as a terrestrial exploration of the area around Cape Town. After his return to England in 1838, he was highly esteemed and became Britain's most recognized scientist. In 1847 his southern hemisphere astronomical observations were published as the Cape Results. The main argument of this dissertation is that Herschel's voyage, and the publication of the Cape Results, in addition to their contemporary scientific importance, were also significant for nineteenth-century politics and culture. This dissertation is a two-part dissertation. The first part is entitled “John Herschel's Cape Voyage: Private Science, Public Imagination, and the Ambitions of Empire”; and the second part, “The Production of the Cape Results.” In the first part it is demonstrated that the reason for Herschel's cultural renown was the popular notion that his voyage to the Cape was a project aligned with the imperial ambitions of the British government. By leaving England for one of its colonies, and pursuing there a significant scientific project, Herschel was seen in the same light as other British men of science who had also undertaken voyages of exploration and discovery. It is then demonstrated, in the second part of this work, that the production of the Cape Results, in part because of Herschel's status as Britain's scientific figurehead, was a significant political and cultural event. In addition to the narrow area of Herschel scholarship, this dissertation touches on other areas of research in the history of science as well: science and culture, science and empire, science and politics, and what has been called the “new” history of scientific books.

  12. FOGO-2014: Monitoring the Fogo 2014 Eruption, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Rui; Faria, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Fogo volcano, located in the Cape Verde Archipelago offshore Western Africa, is a complete stratovolcano system that was created by the Cape Verde hotspot, forming the island of Fogo. The top (Pico do Fogo) reaches ~2830m above sea level, and raises ~1100m above Chã das Caldeiras, an almost flat circular area with approximately 10 kilometres in the north-south direction and 7 kilometres in the east-west direction. Chã das Caldeiras, surrounded towards the West by the ~1000m high Bordeira rampart, has been inhabited since the early 20th Century, because it is one of the most productive agricultural areas in this semi-arid country. Fogo volcano erupted on November 23, 2014 (~10:00UTC) on a subsidiary vent of the main cone, after 19 years of inactivity. C4G (Collaboratory for Geosciences), a distributed research infrastructure created in 2014 in the framework of the Portuguese Roadmap for Strategic Research Infrastructures, immediately offered support to the Cape Verdean authorities, with the goal of complementing the permanent geophysical monitoring network operated in Fogo island by INMG, the Cape Verdean Meteorological and Geophysical Institute. This permanent network is composed of seven seismographic stations and three tiltmeter stations, and the data is transmitted in real time to the INMG geophysical laboratory in São Vicente Island, where it is analysed on a routine basis. Pre-eruptive activity started to be detected by the permanent monitoring network on October 2014, with earthquakes occurring at depths larger than 15 km. These events led to a first volcanic warning to the Cape Verdean Civil Protection Agency. On November 22 several volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded at shallow depths, indicating shallow fracturing. On the basis of this activity, INMG issued a formal alert of an impending eruption to the Civil Protection Agency, ~24 hours before the onset of the eruption. Volcanic tremor and clear tiltmeter signals were recorded about one hour

  13. 33 CFR 117.823 - Cape Fear River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Fear River. 117.823 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.823 Cape Fear River. The draw of the Cape Fear Memorial Bridge, mile 26.8, at Wilmington need not open for the passage of vessel from 8...

  14. A historical overview of the Western Province Senior Schools Sports ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First a brief overview of multi-coded school sport organization in Cape Town is present ed. Next, the emergence of the Western Province Senior Schools Sport Union (WPSSSU) and how this organization differed with all existing patterns of school sport management is explored. The ideology underpinning this organization, ...

  15. Missed opportunities for measles immunisation in selected western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-20

    Apr 20, 1991 ... tality despite the presence of an efficacious vaccine. I Measles is a major health problem in South ... In the western Cape this took the form of a measles immunisation campaign in February and March. .... showed that awareness campaigns can work; 92% of children attending urban hospitals and 90% of ...

  16. Investigation into metal contamination of the Berg River, Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A recent decline in water quality of the Berg River, Western Cape, South Africa, has led to the investigation into the degree of metal pollution in the river system. This study was conducted over a period of one year, from May 2004 to May 2005. The nitric acid digestion technique was used to extract metals from water, ...

  17. Trends in numbers of Kelp Gulls Larus dominicanus off western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The number of Kelp Gulls Larus dominicanus breeding at 11 islands in South Africa's Western Cape province increased during the period 1978 to 1999–2000 and then decreased. The increase came after removal of controls on gulls and was associated with supplementary food provided by fish factories and rubbish tips.

  18. Western Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    This discussion of Western Samoa, which lies 2575 km northeast of Auckland, New Zealand, focuses on the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; and relations the US. The population of Western Samoa, as of 1985, totals 163,000 with an annual growth rate of 0.9%. The infant mortality rate is 13/1000; life expectancy is 65 years. The main islands are formed ranges of extinct volcanoes. Volcanic activity last occurred in 1911. More than 2000 years age, waves of Polynesians migrated from Southeast Asia to the Samoan Islands. Samoans are the 2nd largest Polynesian group, after the Maoris of New Zealand, and speak a Polynesian dialect. Samoans have tended to retain their traditional ways despite exposure to European influence for more than 150 years. Most Samoans live within the traditional social system based on an extended family group, headed by a chief. Western Samoans are Christian. Education is free but not compulsory. In 1967, 95% of the children of primary school age attended school. From 1947 to 1961, a series of constitutional advances, assisted by visits from UN missions, brought Western Samoa from dependent status to self-government and finally to independence. The 1960 constitution is based on the British pattern of parliamentary democracy, modified to take Samoan customs into account. The present head of state holds his position for life. Future heads of state will be elected by the Legislative Assembly for 5-year terms. The Parliament consists of the Legislative Assembly and the head of state. The Supreme Court is the superior court of record and has full jurisdiction in civil, criminal, and constitutional matters. The "matai" of chief system still dominates the politics of Western Samoa, although several political parties have been formed and seem to be taking root. The "matai" system is a predominantly conservative force but does provide for change. Western Samoa is predominantly

  19. A 550 ka record of aeolian activity near North West Cape, Australia: inferences from grain-size distributions and bulk chemistry of SE Indian Ocean deep-sea sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuut, J.-B.W.; Temmesfeld, F.; De Deckker, P.

    2014-01-01

    The terrigenous fraction of sediments from a deep-sea sediment core recovered from the northwestern Western Australian continental slope offshore North West Cape, SE Indian Ocean, reveals a history of Western Australian climate throughout the last 550 ka. End-member modelling of a data set of

  20. A practical approach to the nutritional management of chronic kidney disease patients in Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ameh, Oluwatoyin I.; Cilliers, Lynette; Okpechi, Ikechi G.

    2016-01-01

    Background The multi-racial and multi-ethnic population of South Africa has significant variation in their nutritional habits with many black South Africans undergoing a nutritional transition to Western type diets. In this review, we describe our practical approaches to the dietary and nutritional management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients in Cape Town, South Africa. Discussion Due to poverty and socio-economic constraints, significant challenges still exist with regard to achieving...

  1. RRS Discovery Cruise 309-310, 18 Aug-05 Sep 2006. Cape Farewell and Eirik Ridge (CFER-2)

    OpenAIRE

    Bacon, S.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes scientific activities during RRS Discovery cruise 309-310 in the vicinity of Cape Farewell, southern Greenland, during late summer 2006. A Deep Western Boundary Current array of seven moorings was recovered and a replacement array of five moorings was deployed. For IFREMER, one mooring and one glider were recovered; one IfM-GEOMAR and three NIOZ moorings were recovered, serviced and redeployed. Hydrographic work comprised 25 CTD/LADCP stations, and three t...

  2. A Morphological Study of the Vertebral Venous Plexus and its Connections in the Cape Dune Mole-Rat, Bathyergus suillus (Bathyergidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotze, S.H.; Boonzaier, J.; Vorster, W.; Hoogland, P.V.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Bathyergus suillus are subterranean rodents found in the Western Cape of South Africa, where they inhabit sandy, humid burrows. Vertebral venous plexuses around the vertebral column have been implicated in aiding the maintenance of a constant central nervous system temperature via its connections

  3. Initial Observations by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity at Cape York, Meridiani Planum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, David J.

    2012-01-01

    so far are quite different from any rocks previously encountered by Opportunity and Spirit. Several light-toned vein deposits (approx 1 cm) were discovered in the bench that borders the western flanks of Cape York. The vein "Homestake" is rich in Ca and S, and it exhibits a spectral feature near 1000 run caused by hydration, indicating that "Homestake" consists substantially of gypsum. The relationship(s) between these veins and the sulfate-rich layered deposits at Meridiani Planum remains uncertain. The veins might have been deposited by sulfate-rich fluids perhaps either in the immediate aftermath of the impact that formed Endeavour Crater or at some later time. Current uncertainties notwithstanding, the novel lithologies at Cape York are significantly older than the sulfate-rich sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum, and these lithologies have recorded episodes of aqueous activity from earlier epochs, perhaps during the Noachian. The author acknowledges the contributions of the Athena Science Team, the MER engineering team, JPL and NASA.

  4. Great deal achieved at Cape's nuclear island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Since the civil engineering contract commenced a great deal has been achieved at Escom's Koeberg nuclear power station north of Cape Town. About 50 percent of the civil work has now been done and the entire project remains on schedule for a January 1982 start-up on nuclear reactor unit number one and a January 1983 start-up on unit two. Final handover is scheduled for January 1984. Completion of the civil works is scheduled for December 1981. The construction of the Koeberg nuclear power station is discussed, as well as the contractors for the civil engineering work

  5. Some observations on two early Cape florilegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. H. Oliver

    1980-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of early Cape florilegia and codices exist in libraries in Europe and South Africa. Four of these florilegia are closely related and are housed in the Brenthurst Library, Johannesburg, the Botanical Research Institute, Pretoria, the Bodleian Library, Oxford and the Rijksherbarium, Leiden. The first two are compared and discussed in detail in this article. Arising from this comparison, a new interpretation of the interrelationship and origins of the four florilegia is proposed. The key volume is the florilegium in the Botanical Research Institute, Pretoria.

  6. Firewood consumption around Budongo Forest Reserve in western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wood fuel is renewable. but its consumption can be sustained when the rate of harvesting does not exceed the growtb rate. For a per capita firewood consumption of 0.7 m3 in Masindi and 0.6 m3 in Hoima District, age, sex, and family size. influenced the levels of fuelwood consumption. Willingness to participate in ...

  7. The transport of atmospheric sulfur over Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Samantha L.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.

    2013-11-01

    Cape Town, renowned for its natural beauty, is troubled by an unpleasant brown haze pollution, in which atmospheric sulfur plays a major role. This study investigates whether Cape Town is a net producer or recipient of anthropogenic sulfur pollution. In the study, two atmospheric chemistry-transport models (RegCM and WRF) are used to simulate atmospheric flow and chemistry transport over South Africa for two years (2001 and 2002). Both models reproduce the observed seasonal variability in the atmospheric flow and SO2 concentration over Cape Town. The models simulations agree on the seasonal pattern of SO2 over South Africa but disagree on that of SO4. The simulations show that ambient sulfur in Cape Town may be linked with pollutant emissions from the Mpumalanga Highveld, South Africa's most industrialized region. While part of atmospheric SO2 from the Highveld is transported at 700 hPa level toward the Indian Ocean (confirming previous studies), part is transported at low level from the Highveld toward Cape Town. In April, a band of high concentration SO2 extends between the Highveld and Cape Town, following the south coast. Extreme sulfur pollution events in Cape Town are associated with weak flow convergence or stagnant conditions over the city, both of which encourage the accumulation of pollution. However the study suggests that atmospheric sulfur is being advected from Mpumalanga Highveld to Cape Town and this may contribute to atmospheric pollution problems in Cape Town.

  8. The spiders of the Swartberg Nature Reserve in South Africa (Arachnida: Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Dippenaar-Schoeman

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Swartberg Nature Reserve is situated in the Large Swartberg mountain range, in the Oudtshoorn district of the Western Cape Province. Spiders were collected from the reserve over a 10-year period. This is one of the inventory projects of the South African National Survey (SANSA for spiders of the Succulent Karoo Biome. A total of 45 families comprising 136 genera and 186 species were collected, all which are new records for the area. This represents about 9.4 of the total known South African spider fauna. Of the spiders collected 142 species (76.5 were wanderers and 44 (23.5 web dwellers. The plant dwellers comprised 43.3 of the total number of species and the ground dwellers 56.7 . The Gnaphosidae was the most diverse family represented by 33 species, followed by the Salticidae with 23 and Thomisidae with 15. Ten species are possibly new to science and the Filistatidae is a first record for South Africa. An annotated checklist with information on the guilds, habitat preference and web types are provided.

  9. Patterns of plant speciation in the Cape floristic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Niet, Timotheüs; Johnson, Steven D

    2009-04-01

    Plant species have accumulated in the Cape region of southern Africa to a much greater degree than in areas of equivalent size in the rest of the subcontinent. Although this could be a consequence simply of lower extinction rates in the Cape, most researchers have invoked high rates of ecological speciation, driven by unique aspects of the Cape environment, as the primary explanation for this richness. To assess these ideas, we analyzed the frequencies of ecological shifts among 188 sister species pairs obtained from molecular phylogenies of eight Cape clades. Ecological shifts were evident in 80% of sister species pairs, with general habitat, pollinator, and fire-survival strategy shifts being especially frequent. Contrary to an established idea that shifts in soil type are frequently associated with speciation of Cape taxa, these shifts were relatively rare, occurring in just 17% of species pairs. More cases of sister species divergence are accompanied solely by floral than by vegetative diversification, suggesting an important role for pollinator-driven speciation. In an analysis of two large orchid genera that have radiated in both the Cape and the rest of southern Africa, the frequency of ecological shifts (general habitat, soil type, altitude and flowering time), did not differ between sister species pairs in the Cape region and those outside it. Despite suggestions that Cape plants tend to have small range sizes and show fine-scale patterns of speciation, range size did not differ significantly between species in the Cape and those outside it. We conclude that ecological speciation is likely to have been important for radiation of the Cape flora, but there is no evidence as yet for special "Cape" patterns of ecological speciation.

  10. The Cape Town Statement on Geoethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, Giuseppe; Peppoloni, Silvia; Bobrowsky, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The interest of geoscientists in (geo)ethical aspects of geoscience knowledge, education, research and practice is rising and today geoethics has a significant visibility. This prominence is the result of hard work done in the last 4 years by the IAPG - International Association for Promoting Geoethics (http://www.geoethics.org), a not-for-profit, multidisciplinary, scientific network (with more than 1350 members in 107 countries) established for widening the discussion and creating awareness about problems of ethics applied to the geosciences. IAPG has produced a strong conceptual substratum on which to base the future development of geoethics, by clarifying the meaning of the word Geoethics, formalizing its definition, and identifying a framework of reference values on which the geoscience community can base more effective codes of conduct. IAPG members have published numerous books and articles in peer reviewed international journals, and organized scientific sessions to bring geoethics at the most important geoscience conferences. Geoethical issues have been included in the European project ENVRI-Plus, dedicated to the environmental and solid Earth research infrastructures. Moreover, the most prestigious geoscience organizations around the world now recognize geoethics as an important issue that warrants attention. This success was confirmed by the high quality of contents and the large participation of scientists in the 6 technical sessions and single panel session on geoethics organized by IAPG at the 35th IGC - International Geological Congress, held in 2016 in Cape Town (South Africa), with the cooperative work of different geoscience organizations (IUGS-TGGP - Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism; GSL - Geological Society of London; EFG - European Federation of Geologists; EGS - EuroGeoSurveys; AGI - American Geosciences Institute; AGU - American Geophysical Union, and AAWG - African Association of Women in Geosciences). IAPG considers the 35th

  11. Effect of ultrasound treatment on visual color, vitamin C, total phenols, and carotenoids content in Cape gooseberry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez-Santos, Luis Eduardo; Martínez-Girón, Jader; Arias-Jaramillo, Maria Enith

    2017-10-15

    Strong interest of consumers in acquiring minimally processed foods that conserve the different micronutrients has raised the need to study the effect of food processing methods on quality attributes. The aim of the study was to determine the effect ultrasound treatment on color, and the bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, total phenols, carotenoids, and provitamin A) of Cape gooseberry juice. Color values, ascorbic acid, total phenols, carotenoids, and Retinol Activity Equivalent (RAE) were measured. The results indicate significant reductions (pCape gooseberry juice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Facilities at ARIES for the Nainital–Cape Survey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... A collaborative programme searching for mmag pulsations in chemically peculiar stars in the northern hemisphere was initiated in 1997 between Nainital, India, and Cape Town, South Africa. It was therefore named as the Nainital–Cape Survey programme. The detection limits imposed by the observing ...

  13. Methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviour in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4Department of Psychiatry & Mental Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa. Abstract ... review research conducted in Cape Town on the link between methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviour. Method: A ... in school, out of school youth, adults in the community, men who have sex with men and sex workers.

  14. Cape Town's central city development: A strategy of partnership and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to address this urban challenge, the Cape Town Partnership developed the Central City Development Strategy (CCDS), a ten-year plan that calls for the densification of the central city to re-plan Cape Town into a more liveable, inclusive, democratic, and sustainable urban space. By critically examining the role that ...

  15. Risk factors for meningococcal disease in Cape Town | Moodley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the risk factors associated with meningococcal disease among children living in Cape Town. Design. A case-control study was conducted from October 1993 to January 1995. Setting. The study population consisted of all children tmder the age of 14 years who were resident in the Cape Town ...

  16. report on family planning clinics conducted in the cape town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-03-13

    Mar 13, 1971 ... REPORT ON FAMILY PLANNING CLINICS CONDUCTED IN THE CAPE TOWN. MUNICIPAL AREA FROM 1960 TO 1969*. ISOBEL ROBERTSON, M.B., CH.B., D.P.H., Maternal and Child Welfare Officer, City Healch Deparcmenc,. Cape Town. SUMMARY. A statistical survey of the attendances at Family ...

  17. Maternal mortality in the Cape Province, 1990 - 1992

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    province were compared. Setting. A11111 Cape provincial hospitals and hospitals supported by the Cape Provincial Administration. SUbjects. Matemal deaths notified from January 1990 to. December 1992. Outcome measures. The maternal mortality rate (MMR), characteristics of the patients who died and causes of death.

  18. Muslim Public Claiming Heritage in Post-Apartheid Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1929-11-29

    great-great-grandson (of Tuan Guru, the then) the Imaum, or Priest, of the Chiappini-Street Mosque,” told a journalist of the. Cape Times that: The Circle of Islam around Cape Town and suburbs, prophesied by a holy man of Islam 260 years ago, ...

  19. Sexual behaviour of Cape Town high-school students | Flisher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To document prevalence rates for selected aspects of sexual behaviour among Cape Town high-school students and to conduct a survival analysis of age at first intercourse. Design. Cross-sectional survey. Setting. State high schools in Cape Town. Subjects. A multistage cluster sample of 2 740 grade 8 and 11 ...

  20. Comparison of nectar foraging efficiency in the Cape honeybee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colonies of African honeybees have significantly (p < 0,05) more unsuccessful foragers than colonies of Cape honeybees, while Cape colonies have significantly (p < 0,02) more foragers returning with nectar. No significant difference was observed in the numbers of returning pollen gatherers or foragers carrying both ...

  1. Sugar preferences and digestion by Cape white-eyes, Zosterops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In choice tests, birds preferred sucrose over glucose of equivalent weight, irrespective of concentration. It appears likely that the Cape white-eye has high levels of sucrase activity, although further study is needed to verify this. Key words: frugivory, sugar, fruit composition, digestion, preference, Cape white-eye, Zosterops ...

  2. Tourism Policies and the Space Economy of the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The key objective of this paper is to x-ray the situation in the tourism development process of the post-1994 tourism sector of the Eastern Cape Province. This paper uses empirical data to examine the extent to which actors in the Eastern Cape tourism sector interpreted the national tourism policies. The White Paper on ...

  3. Ekman estimates of upwelling at cape columbine based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ekman estimates of upwelling at cape columbine based on measurements of longshore wind from a 35-year time-series. AS Johnson, G Nelson. Abstract. Cape Columbine is a prominent headland on the south-west coast of Africa at approximately 32°50´S, where there is a substantial upwelling tongue, enhancing the ...

  4. The Security and Development Nexus in Cape Town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the security and development nexus takes on specific forms depending on the context, and that in Cape Town’s coloured townships it is embodied in policies and practices around what has come to be known as the ‘war on gangs’. Furthermore, the war on gangs in Cape Town...

  5. THE ECOLOGY OF PATELLA LINNAEUS FROM THE CAPE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE ECOLOGY OF PATELLA LINNAEUS FROM THE. CAPE PENINSULA, SOUTH AFRICA. I. l:ONATION, MOVEMENTS AND FEEDING. G. M. BRANCH. Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town. INTRODUCTION. The genus Patella comprises intertidal and infratidal animals, which- are important not only because ...

  6. Perinatal mortality in the Cape Province, 1989 - 1991

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-05-05

    May 5, 1995 ... birth-weight infants, stillbirths and early neonatal deaths in each planning region of the Cape Province ... low-birth-weight, stillbirth and early neonatal mortality rates are in greatest need of improved ... Subdirectorate: Nursing, Hospital and Health Service Branch, Cape. Provincial Administration. H. H. Louw.

  7. Cape hake Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    S. Afr. Shipp. News Fishg Ind. Rev. 28(4): 62,. 63, 65, 67. BOTHA, L. 1986 — Reproduction, sex ratio and rate of natural mortality of Cape hakes Merluccius capensis Cast. and M. paradoxus Franca in the Cape of Good Hope area. S. Afr. J. mar. Sci. 4: 23–35. BURMEISTER, L. 2000 — Survey based assessment of the stock.

  8. Short Note Lumbering the gauntlet: Cape Gannet fledglings killed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This account presents the first known observations of Cape Gannet Morus capensis fledgling mortalities as a result of aggressive nest defence behaviour by African Penguins Spheniscus demersus. Observations were conducted in 2013 on Bird Island, Algoa Bay, South Africa – the world's largest breeding colony of Cape ...

  9. Aspects of the digestion in the Cape porcupine | van Jaarsveld ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The digestive capabilities of the Cape porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis) were studied using captive and field animals. The stomach contents comprised 6,47% of the body mass and had a low pH (2,0).The Cape porcupine also has a long small intestine (670 em). The large stomach and small intestine form a very efficient ...

  10. Preschool development of coloured children in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preschool development of coloured children in Cape Town. C.D. Molteno, J Hollingshead, A.D. Moodie, D Bradshaw, M.D. Bowie, W Willoughby. Abstract. Developmental screening was applied during infancy to a birth cohort of 1 000 coloured infants born consecutively in Cape Town. The developmental progress of a ...

  11. Short Communications: First record of freshwater fish on the Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a non-exhaustive survey of freshwater bodies on five islands of the archipelago, the first presence of a freshwater fish was recorded. Using barcoding sequences, the species was identified as the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a highly invasive species alien to the Cape Verdean Islands. Key words: Cape Verde, guppy, ...

  12. Surviving gangs, violence and racism in cape town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz

    Surviving Gangs, Violence and Racism in Cape Town offers an ethnographic study of young men in Cape Town and considers how they stay safe in when growing up in post-apartheid South Africa. Breaking away from previous studies looking at structural inequality and differences, this unique book focuses...

  13. The 1992 measles epidemic in Cape Town - a changing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the last 6 years there has been a decline in the incidence of measles in Cape Town. However, during August 1992 an outbreak occurred, with cases reported at many schools in children presumably immunised. The objectives of this study were to characterise the epidemic in Cape Town and to determine possible ...

  14. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) mediated decrease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a phytochemically active component obtained from honeybee hive propolis. CAPE has been reported to show antimitogenic, anticancer, and other beneficial medicinal properties. Many of its activities have been reported to be mediated by inhibiting levels of matrix ...

  15. Outbreak of poliomyelitis--Cape Verde, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    During August 16-October 17, 2000, 33 cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), including seven (21%) deaths, were reported in Cape Verde, an archipelago of 10 islands west of Senegal and Mauritania. Preliminary laboratory results identified wild type 1 poliovirus among eight cases. The first patient was a child aged 2 years from the capital city of Praia; paralysis onset occurred August 16. The child had received one dose of the recommended three doses of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Twenty-two cases were reported from the island of Santiago, seven from Sal, three from San Vincente, and one from Maio. The ages of the AFP patients ranged from 3 months-38 years; 11 (33%) were aged or = 15 years. No deaths were reported among patients aged or = 15 years (CFR: 57%). Of 33 cases with known vaccination status, 13 (39%) were fully vaccinated.

  16. Exploration report in mining reserve XIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoturno Pioppo, J.; Lara Vigil, P.

    1991-01-01

    This report has been referred to the antecedents and works developed in the mining Reservation XIV. This Reservation, covered a 1900 km2 surface, involving the aerial photography Valentines Cerro Chato, Chileno, Rossel y Rius, Sarandi del Yi and Cuchilla del Pescado. It has been reduced this area to western part of the aerial phothograpy Pavas, releasing other areas such as Chileno, Rossel y Rius, Cuchilla del Pescado y Cerro Chato. Finally, gold, sulphures, pirite and carbonates iron oxides findings have been found.

  17. The story of heart transplantation: From cape town to cape comorin

    OpenAIRE

    Aakshi Kalra; Sandeep Seth; Milind Padmaker Hote; Balram Airan

    2016-01-01

    Norman Shumway is widely regarded as the father of heart transplantation although the world's first adult human heart transplant was performed by Christiaan Barnard, on December 3, 1967, at the Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. Adrian Kantrowitz performed the world's first pediatric heart transplant on December 6, 1967 and Norman Shumway performed the first adult heart transplant in the United States on January 6, 1968, at the Stanford University Hospital. In India, PK Sen at...

  18. Cognitive reserve in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, A M; Stern, Y

    2011-06-01

    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer's disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer's disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and other age-related problems.

  19. Cape capture’: Geologic data and modeling results suggest the Holocene loss of a Carolina Cape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieler, E. Robert; Ashton, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    For more than a century, the origin and evolution of the set of cuspate forelands known as the Carolina Capes—Hatteras, Lookout, Fear, and Romain—off the eastern coast of the United States have been discussed and debated. The consensus conceptual model is not only that these capes existed through much or all of the Holocene transgression, but also that their number has not changed. Here we describe bathymetric, lithologic, seismic, and chronologic data that suggest another cape may have existed between Capes Hatteras and Lookout during the early to middle Holocene. This cape likely formed at the distal end of the Neuse-Tar-Pamlico fluvial system during the early Holocene transgression, when this portion of the shelf was flooded ca. 9 cal (calibrated) kyr B.P., and was probably abandoned by ca. 4 cal kyr B.P., when the shoreline attained its present general configuration. Previously proposed mechanisms for cape formation suggest that the large-scale, rhythmic pattern of the Carolina Capes arose from a hydrodynamic template or the preexisting geologic framework. Numerical modeling, however, suggests that the number and spacing of capes can be dynamic, and that a coast can self-organize in response to a high-angle-wave instability in shoreline shape. In shoreline evolution model simulations, smaller cuspate forelands are subsumed by larger neighbors over millennial time scales through a process of ‘cape capture.’ The suggested former cape in Raleigh Bay represents the first interpreted geological evidence of dynamic abandonment suggested by the self-organization hypothesis. Cape capture may be a widespread process in coastal environments with large-scale rhythmic shoreline features; its preservation in the sedimentary record will vary according to geologic setting, physical processes, and sea-level history.

  20. Composition and origin of PM10 in Cape Verde: Characterization of long-range transport episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, P.; Almeida, S. M.; Cardoso, J.; Almeida-Silva, M.; Nunes, T.; Cerqueira, M.; Alves, C.; Reis, M. A.; Chaves, P. C.; Artíñano, B.; Pio, C.

    2016-02-01

    A receptor modelling study was performed to identify source categories and their contributions to the PM10 total mass at the Cape Verde archipelago. Trajectory statistical methods were also used to characterize the main atmospheric circulation patterns causing the transport of air masses and to geographically identify the main potential source areas of each PM10 source category. Our findings point out that the variability of the PM10 levels at Cape Verde was prompted by the advections of African mineral dust. The mineral dust load was mainly composed by clay-silicates mineral derived elements (22% of the PM10 total mass on average) with lower amounts of carbonates (9%). A clear northward gradient was observed in carbonates concentration that illustrates the differences in the composition according to the source regions of mineral dust. Mineral dust was frequently linked to industrial emissions from crude oil refineries, fertilizer industries as well as oil and coal power plants, located in the northern and north-western coast of the African continent (29%). Sea salt was also registered in the PM10 mass during most part of the sampling period, with a lower impact in the PM10 levels than the mineral dust one (26%). Combustion aerosols (6%) reached the highest mean values in summer as a consequence of the emissions from local-regional sources. Biomass burning aerosols produced from October to November in sub-sahelian latitudes, had a clear influence in the content of elemental carbon (EC) recorded at Cape Verde but a small impact in the PM10 total mass levels. A minor contribution to the PM10 mass has been associated to secondary inorganic compounds-SIC. Namely, ammonium sulfate and nitrate (SIC 1-5%) and calcium sulfate and nitrate (SIC 2-3%). The main origin of SIC 1 was attributed to emissions of SO2 and NOx from industrial sources located in the northern and north-western African coast and from wildfires produced in the continent. SIC 2 had a clear regional origin

  1. Western blotting using chemiluminescent substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria-Schaffer, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Western blotting is a powerful and commonly used tool to identify and quantify a specific protein in a complex mixture (Towbin et al., 1979). The technique enables indirect detection of protein samples immobilized on a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Urban infrastructure and natural resource flows: evidence from Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Katherine

    2013-09-01

    The current economic development trajectory is fundamentally unsustainable. However, decoupling economic growth from excessive natural resource consumption can be adopted as a means to deviate from this current trajectory. Decoupling enables economic growth and human development through non-material growth, without the environmental and social casualties of the incumbent model. Cities are the current and future context for socio development as well as a significant part of the cause and solution to sustainability challenges. Cities account for the majority of production and consumption activities leading to environmental degradation, and they are also the primary location for economic, institutional, and human capital. Innovative responses to global challenges generally emerge during the interaction between these kinds of capital. This paper presents the case of three of Cape Town's resource flows namely; electricity, water and solid waste, as mediated by networked urban infrastructure, to demonstrate the possibility of urban scale decoupling. Conclusions indicate that while decoupling can occur at the city scale, it is unlikely to be sufficient for the realization of sustainable urban development. Purposive interventions are therefore critical for successful, sustainable urban transitions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Conopeptides from Cape Verde Conus crotchii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinho Antunes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine Cone snails of the genus Conus contain complex peptide toxins in their venom. Living in tropical habitats, they usually use the powerful venom for self-defense and prey capture. Here, we study Conus crotchii venom duct using a peptide mass-matching approach. The C. crotchii was collected on the Cape Verde archipelago in the Boa Vista Island. The venom was analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. About 488 molecular masses between 700 Da and 3000 Da were searched bymatching with known peptide sequences from UniProtKB protein sequence database. Through this method we were able to identify 12 conopeptides. For validation we considered the error between the experimental molecular mass (monoisotopic and the calculated mass of less than 0.5 Da. All conopeptides detected belong to the A-, O1-, O2-, O3-, T- and D-superfamilies, which can block Ca2+ channels, inhibit K+ channels and act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs. Only a few of the detected peptides have a 100% UniProtKB database similarity, suggesting that several of them could be newly discovered marine drugs.

  4. Characterization of polyphenol oxidase from Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Karent; Osorio, Edison

    2016-04-15

    Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) is an exotic fruit highly valued, however it is a very rich source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO). In this study, Cape gooseberry PPO was isolated and biochemically characterized. The enzyme was extracted and purified using acetone and aqueous two-phase systems. The data indicated that PPO had the highest substrate affinity for chlorogenic acid, 4-methylcatechol and catechol. Chlorogenic acid was the most suitable substrate (Km=0.56±0.07 mM and Vmax=53.15±2.03 UPPO mL(-1) min(-1)). The optimal pH values were 5.5 for catechol and 4-methylcatechol and 5.0 for chlorogenic acid. Optimal temperatures were 40°C for catechol, 25°C for 4-methylcatechol and 20°C for chlorogenic acid. In inhibition tests, the most potent inhibitor was found to be ascorbic acid followed by L-cysteine and quercetin. This study shows possible treatments that can be implemented during the processing of Cape gooseberry fruits to prevent browning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. COGNITIVE RESERVE IN AGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Adrienne M.; Stern, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer’s disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related problems. PMID:21222591

  6. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  7. Simulation Of Aqua-Ammonia Refrigeration System Using The Cape-Open To Cape-Open COCO Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janavi Gohil

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have simulated a flow sheet of aqua ammonia refrigeration system using Cape Open simulator. The main aim of writing this paper is to compare the results obtained from thermodynamic simulation of aqua ammonia refrigeration system and the results obtained from the flow sheet simulation in Cape-Open to Cape-Open COCO simulator. The corresponding COP values obtained from both the sources are calculated and compared. With the error being very minute the calculations using simulator prove to be more efficient and timesaving when compared to the results obtained by calculations done using tedious thermodynamic simulations and constant mass balance for different process conditions.

  8. Ovarian reserve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja

    2012-01-01

    2-5 of the menstrual cycle or during withdrawal bleeding, blood sampling and transvaginal sonography was performed. After adjusting for age, ovarian reserve parameters were lower among users than among non-users of hormonal contraception: serum AMH concentration by 29.8% (95% CI 19.9 to 38...... was observed between duration of hormonal-contraception use and ovarian reserve parameters. No dose-response relation was found between the dose of ethinyloestradiol and AMH or AFC. This study indicates that ovarian reserve markers are lower in women using sex steroids for contraception. Thus, AMH...... concentration and AFC may not retain their accuracy as predictors of ovarian reserve in women using hormonal contraception. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration is an indirect marker of the number of small follicles in the ovary and thereby the ovarian reserve. The AMH concentration is now widely...

  9. New species of mayflies (Ephemeroptera) from Cape Verde

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soldán, Tomáš; Bojková, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3926, č. 4 (2015), s. 561-575 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cape Verde * Macaronesia * West Africa Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.994, year: 2015

  10. Pestalotioid fungi from Restionaceae in the Cape Floral Kingdom.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Eight pestalotioid fungi were isolated from the Restionaceae growing in the Cape Floral Kingdom of South Africa. Sarcostroma restionis, Truncatella megaspora, T. restionacearum and T. spadicea are newly described. New records include Pestalotiopsis matildae, Sarcostroma lomatiae, Truncatella betulae

  11. Pestalotioid fungi from Restionaceae in the Cape Floral Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.J.; Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Eight pestalotioid fungi were isolated from the Restionaceae growing in the Cape Floral Kingdom of South Africa. Sarcostroma restionis, Truncatella megaspora, T. restionacearum and T. spadicea are newly described. New records include Pestalotiopsis matildae, Sarcostroma lomatiae, Truncatella betulae

  12. Geochemistry of Pegmatites associated with the cape coast granite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geochemistry of Pegmatites associated with the cape coast granite complex in the Egyaa and Akim Oda areas of southern Ghana. PM Nude, JEK Hanson, SB Dampare, TT Akiti, S Osae, ES Nyarko, N Zkaria, S Enti-Brown ...

  13. GRIP BARBADOS/CAPE VERDE RADIOSONDE V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Barbados/Cape Verde radiosonde data set consists of generally two soundings per day (06Z and 12Z) launched from Barbados, and one sounding per day (12Z)...

  14. Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  15. Tuberculosis in Cape Town: An age-structured transmission model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nello Blaser

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The protective effect of a first latent infection on subsequent infections and the faster progression in previously treated patients are the key determinants of the age-structure of TB notification rates in Cape Town.

  16. Strategies GeoCape Intelligent Observation Studies @ GSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelaere, Pat; Frye, Stu; Moe, Karen; Mandl, Dan; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Flatley, Tom; Geist, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides information a summary of the tradeoff studies conducted for GeoCape by the GSFC team in terms of how to optimize GeoCape observation efficiency. Tradeoffs include total ground scheduling with simple priorities, ground scheduling with cloud forecast, ground scheduling with sub-area forecast, onboard scheduling with onboard cloud detection and smart onboard scheduling and onboard image processing. The tradeoffs considered optimzing cost, downlink bandwidth and total number of images acquired.

  17. Radiation survey and decontamination of cape Arza from depleted uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Perko

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the action of NATO A-10 airplanes in 1999, the cape Arza, Serbia and Montenegro was contaminated by depleted uranium. The clean-up operations were undertaken at the site, and 242 uranium projectiles and their 49 larger fragments were removed from the cape. That is about 85% of the total number of projectiles by which Arza was contaminated. Here are described details of the applied procedures and results of the soil radioactivity measurements after decontamination.

  18. A Cretaceous origin for fire adaptations in the Cape flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tianhua; Lamont, Byron B; Manning, John

    2016-10-05

    Fire has had a profound effect on the evolution of worldwide biotas. The Cape Floristic Region is one of the world's most species-rich regions, yet it is highly prone to recurrent fires and fire-adapted species contribute strongly to the overall flora. It is hypothesized that the current fire regimes in the Cape could be as old as 6-8 million years (My), while indirect evidence indicates that the onset of fire could have reached 18 million years ago (Ma). Here, we trace the origin of fire-dependent traits in two monocot families that are significant elements in the fire-prone Cape flora. Our analysis shows that fire-stimulated flowering originated in the Cape Haemodoraceae 81 Ma, while fire-stimulated germination arose in the African Restionaceae at least 70 Ma, implying that wildfires have been a significant force in the evolution of the Cape flora at least 60 My earlier than previous estimates. Our results provide strong evidence for the presence of fire adaptations in the Cape from the Cretaceous, leading to the extraordinary persistence of a fire-adapted flora in this biodiversity hotspot, and giving support to the hypothesis that Cretaceous fire was a global phenomenon that shaped the evolution of terrestrial floras.

  19. Perspectives of wild medicine harvesters from Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Petersen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cape Town is a fast-growing cityscape in the Cape Floristic Region in South Africa with 24 formally protected conservation areas including the World Heritage Table Mountain National Park. These sites have been protected and managed as critical sites for local biodiversity, representing potentially one-third of all Cape Floristic Region flora species and 18% of South Africa's plant diversity. Cape Town is also inhabited by a rapidly growing culturally and economically diverse citizenry with distinct and potentially conflicting perspectives on access to, and management of, local natural resources. In a qualitative study of 58 locally resident traditional healers of distinct cultural groups, we examined motivations underlying the generally illicit activity of harvesting of wild resources from Cape Town protected areas. Resource harvester motivations primarily link to local economic survival, health care and cultural links to particular resources and practices, 'access for all' outlooks, and wholesale profit-seeking perspectives. We describe these motivations, contrast them with the current formal, legal and institutional perspectives for biodiversity protection in the city, and propose managerial interventions that may improve sustainability of ongoing harvest activities. Significance: The study reveals, for the first time in the Cape Floristic Region, informal economy viewpoints on terrestrial nature and how its direct use has important economic and cultural roles – specifically in wild medicine harvesting and trade. We contrast the formal and informal approaches to nature conservation in the city and propose new considerations for conservation managers.

  20. 75 FR 81637 - Commercial Lease for the Cape Wind Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... Commercial Lease for the Cape Wind Energy Project AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and... Renewable Energy Development on the Outer Continental Shelf (``OCS'') for the Cape Wind Energy Project... requirements of 30 CFR 285.231. The Lease is for the Cape Wind Energy Project (``Project'') which grants Cape...

  1. Medium-term follow-up of ulcerative colitis in Cape Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-08-19

    Aug 19, 1989 ... all known cases of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis diag- nosed in the Greater Cape Town area (magisterial districts of. Bellville, Goodwood, Wynberg, Simonstown and Cape Town). Gastro-intestinal Clinic, Department of Medicine, Univer- sity of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape. Town.

  2. Skyline Reservation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Flight reservation application used for in-country flights by USAID and DoS staff in Afghanistan. The application is managed and maintained by the vendor and USAID...

  3. The Study of Reservation Scheme for Managing Parking Cruising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Duo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cruising for parking is a main contributor to traffic jam while the related researches are few. Assume travelers are well-informed, this paper first analyses user equilibrium (UE in no parking fee scheme with different scarcity of parking spaces. We get a conclusion that information fails to solve traffic problems effectively in absent of control. Followed by the principle of cape and trade, the paper proposes parking reservation scheme which combining guidance (information with tolling (control. Example shows that system cost reduces significantly after the implementation of the parking reservation scheme.

  4. Is the Western Cape at risk for an outbreak of preventable childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... mass campaigns for measles and polio. The coverage will need to be sustainably improved before introducing rubella vaccine as part of the EPI schedule. The reasons given by caregivers for their children not being immunized are valuable pointers as to where interventions should be focussed. SAMJ Vol. 98 (1) 2008: pp ...

  5. The pattern of childhood in the western Cape pOIsonIng

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constant vigilance must be maintained if childhood poisoning is to be prevented. S AIr Med J .... animals 2. The remaining 8 calls (7%) were of a general nature. The subjects of calls relating to bites and stings and plants are set out in Tables V and VI. Discussion. The service offered by the Poisons Information Service is not.

  6. Poverty and human immunodeficiency virus in children: a view from the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Barend Jacobus; Esser, Monika; Godwin, Sarah; Rabie, Helena; Cotton, Mark Fredric

    2008-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is the region affected worst by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with the most southern countries, including Botswana, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, and South Africa, carrying the highest disease burden. This geographic distribution represents a complex interaction among virological, political, social, cultural, and economic forces. In South Africa the HIV epidemic is seemingly unchecked, with 18% of the adult population infected. Although South Africa is a mid-developed country, there is a large chasm between the wealthy and the poor, with many living in moderate to extreme poverty. Poverty creates conditions that fuel the HIV epidemic while HIV exacerbates the multiple interlinking causes of poverty. Children are the most vulnerable members of society, severely affected by all components of the poverty cycle. Although improved health education and access to care will alleviate many problems, sustainable poverty alleviation should form an essential component of the response to AIDS. The formulation of the United Nations Millennium Developmental Goals is an important step in the right direction, but global and local political commitment is essential for success.

  7. Infant feeding practices among mothers with and without HIV in Western Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nordstrand, Møyfrid Elin

    2012-01-01

    Master i samfunnsernæring The HIV prevalence in adults and children in South Africa is high. South Africa is also a country where the breastfeeding rate is low and the child mortality rate is high. HIV-infected mothers have to weigh the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) through breastfeeding versus the risk of other diseases from formula feeding when choosing infant feeding practice. In 2007 researches conducted a third and last wave in a panel survey in Khayelitsha. I...

  8. The oak tree in history and its legacy in the Western Cape | Kemp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirdly the change from forest to urban tree and its consequent contribution to our historical and architectural legacies are presented. The essay relies on a mix of primary, secondary as well as popular sources like web pages and ordinary literature and does not claim to be botany specific. Where appropriate, scientific ...

  9. Clinical significance identification in the of aero-allergen western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... pteronyssimus (73%), South African grasses (38%), tree pollens (22,4%), flower and weed pollens (19,6%), cat (27%), dog (12%) and feathers (18,6%). One-third of the 1 372 children screened at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital Allergy Service had positive specific IgE responses to environmental allergens.

  10. The academic transitional experiences of masters’ students at the University of the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Hoffman

    2012-08-01

    A quantitative, exploratory, descriptive research design was employed. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with masters’ students during 2009, using convenience sampling. Data was statistically analysed using the SPSS to provide descriptive statistics. The majority of the sample indicated a lack of academic preparedness, even though most of them had a bachelor’s degree. The primary reasons listed as motivation for master’s study were to improve knowledge and reaching self-actualisation. The majority is still eager to complete their studies. Most support systems were utilised and students rated these services as a positive experience that facilitates smooth academic transition. However, concerns are that not many students utilised the academic writing centre and those who did, rated the overall service as average. One of the main recommendations was that a research culture needs to be established

  11. care unit in a regional hospital in the Western Cape, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infrastructure, human resources and expert support leads to children being managed in general wards with low nurse-to-patient ratios, resulting in an increased risk of nosocomial infections and death.[3-6]. Paediatric intensive care is defined as a 'physical space that is designated to manage critically ill children who require.

  12. Bridge management system for the Western Cape provincial government, South Africa: implementation and utilization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nell, AJ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available and rip rap scour protection Culvert on TR 31/5 100 1815 92.24 1711 Seal inject cracks and construct new pier to strengthen element Culvert on TR 31/6 100 1861 93.6 1822 Provide epoxy bonded plates to strengthen element Culvert on TR 33/2 100 1956..., joint repairs and bush clearing) and once-off repair activities (e.g. major structural repairs and scour repairs) in the BMS. This would enable asset managers to plan and manage their budgets and program maintenance activities efficiently. • In some...

  13. Four decades of water recycling in Atlantis (Western Cape, South Africa): Past, present and future

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bugan, Richard DH

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available careful management of the artificial recharge and abstraction for balancing water levels. Water quality management is a further key issue at Atlantis for ensuring the highest quality potable water. Groundwater quality varies from point to point...

  14. Land use management: A dryland salinity mitigation measure (Western Cape, South Africa)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bugan, Richard DH

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to simulate the hydrology and salinity fluxes in the Sandspruit catchment with the JAMS/J2000 – NaCl semi-distributed hydrosalinity model and to Identify land use/management scenarios that would minimise the impacts...

  15. Teaching health promotion: experiences from the University of the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Struters

    2006-02-01

    than from classroom based learning or textbooks located within their own discipline. The results suggest that health promotion is an ideal subject for physiotherapy students to study collaboratively with the other health disciplines. One group of students wrote: “We have learnt much more than any textbook or lecturer could ever teach us.”

  16. The water balance of a seasonal stream in the semi-arid Western Cape (South Africa)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bugan, Richard DH

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A detailed water balance and conceptual flow model was calculated and developed for the Sandspruit catchment for the period 1990 to 2010 on a winter rainfall water-year (1 April - 31 March) basis. The Sandspruit catchment (quaternary catchment G10J...

  17. Socio-economic gradients in prevalent tuberculosis in Zambia and the Western Cape of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Tom A; Ayles, Helen; Leacy, Finbarr P; Schaap, A; Boccia, Delia; Beyers, Nulda; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Floyd, Sian

    2018-04-01

    To describe the associations between socio-economic position and prevalent tuberculosis in the 2010 ZAMSTAR Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey, one of the first large tuberculosis prevalence surveys in Southern Africa in the HIV era. The main analyses used data on 34 446 individuals in Zambia and 30 017 individuals in South Africa with evaluable tuberculosis culture results. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for prevalent TB by two measures of socio-economic position: household wealth, derived from data on assets using principal components analysis, and individual educational attainment. Mediation analysis was used to evaluate potential mechanisms for the observed social gradients. The quartile with highest household wealth index in Zambia and South Africa had, respectively, 0.55 (95% CI 0.33-0.92) times and 0.70 (95% CI 0.54-0.93) times the adjusted odds of prevalent TB of the bottom quartile. College or university-educated individuals in Zambia and South Africa had, respectively, 0.25 (95% CI 0.12-0.54) and 0.42 (95% CI 0.25-0.70) times the adjusted odds of prevalent TB of individuals who had received only primary education. We found little evidence that these associations were mediated via several key proximal risk factors for TB, including HIV status. These data suggest that social determinants of TB remain important even in the context of generalised HIV epidemics. © 2018 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Mapping the N-Year design rainfall - A case study for the Western Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khuluse, S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available distribution (GPD) approximation to exceedances is plausible. This includes examining the sensitivity of the average excess, the dispersion index and return level values to a range of threshold values. Inference for the extreme value model is done by maximum... continuous surface over the study area. This continuous surface or spatial random field is denoted as fY (s; t) : s 2 D R2; t 2 Tg, whereD is a fixed, continuous subset of a two-dimensional plane and t 2 T is an index for the temporal component...

  19. Ethical issues that confront nurses in private hospitals in the Western Cape Metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethelwynn L. Stellenberg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nurses are faced daily with a variety of ethical issues which could be as a result of budget cuts, target setting, the shortage of nurses and expertise. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to identify ethical issues related to patient care, to describe ethical issues related to patient diversity, rights and human dignity. To describe ethical issues related to caring in nursing and to the workplace environment. Method: A quantitative explorative descriptive research design was applied. A stratified sample of (n = 142/5% was drawn from all nurses and caregivers (N = 2990 working in a selected group of eight private hospitals. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect the data. Statistical tests were applied to determine statistical relationships between variables. Results: Results included (95% of respondents provided safe and committed care to their patients, (99% loved to care for their patients and (93% believed in the Nurses’ Pledge of Service. Fifty percent (50% of the respondents indicated verbal abuse from patients and only (59% experienced openness and transparency in the work environment. Analysis further identified that the caregivers did not respect the noble tradition of the profession and experienced the most verbal abuse. Conclusion: This study has identified ethical issues which may give rise to conflict within the workplace environment if not adequately addressed by management. The study further showed that the use of caregivers not regulated in nursing practice may pose as a threat to the safety of the patient.

  20. The birds of the alien Acacia thickets of the South-western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is of some interest to compare the avifauna of these Acacia thickets with that of stands of mixed exotic trees, often including some Acacia but also Eucalyptus, Pinus, Quercus,. Populus and other genera. Only 50 lists are available for this habitat, however. There are. 35 species which occur in 5% or more of the lists;of which ...

  1. Farm worker injuries on Western Cape fruit farms: the role of the lay health worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, S; Kritzinger, A

    2005-11-01

    An exploratory and descriptive study to obtain basic data on the extent, nature, sources and severity of injuries sustained on fruit farms was conducted. The possibility of utilizing lay health workers (LHWs) on farms to document routine information on injuries was also investigated. Descriptive information of all injuries occurring on selected farms, both occupational and other, needing some form of treatment, were documented over a one-year period from June 1999 to May 2000. A purposive non-probability sampling method was used. Forty-eight fruit farms with a history of trained LHWs were purposefully selected. Injuries were documented using a one-page questionnaire. A total of 500 injuries were recorded, giving an average of 10.4 injuries per farm per year. Half of these injuries were work-related. Workers aged 20-39 were most at risk. Injuries sustained were related to routine activities of fruit farming, occurred mostly in the orchards and involved cuts, bruises and abrasions to the hands, including the fingers, and the eyes. Most of the non-work related injuries occurred in and around the home. A third of these injuries were sustained by persons injuries were violence- and alcohol related. Most of the injuries required basic primary health care that could be managed by the LHW. Injury severity caused people to take time off for one third of the cases. A relatively high occupational injury rate in comparison to high-income countries. Occupational Health and Safety legislation needs to be institutionalized and adhered to. Alcohol and violence on farms is a serious public health problem. LHWs could potentially play an important role in documenting injury data.

  2. The critical care nursing workforce in Western Cape hospitals – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-11-16

    Nov 16, 2006 ... Intensive care units (ICUs) and high-care units (HCUs) were classified in the questionnaire. Findings ... adult HCUs (11, 2), 1 paediatric HCU (public), 3 neonatal HCUs (public) and 5 high-dependency units (HDUs) for adults (public), with 720 .... renal replacement therapy, inotropic support and invasive ...

  3. Dietary Intake, Nutrition, and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A.; Hamrick, Kari J.; Corbin, Karen D.; Hasken, Julie; Marais, Anna-Susan; Brooke, Lesley E.; Blankenship, Jason; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Gossage, J. Phillip

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we describe the nutritional status of women from a South African community with very high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Nutrient intake (24-hours recall) of mothers of children with FASD was compared to mothers of normal controls. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). More than 50 percent of all mothers were below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins A, D, E, and C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Mean intakes were below the Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin K, potassium, and choline. Mothers of children with FASD reported significantly lower intake of calcium, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), riboflavin, and choline than controls. Lower intake of multiple key nutrients correlates significantly with heavy drinking. Poor diet quality and multiple nutritional inadequacies coupled with prenatal alcohol exposure may increase the risk for FASD in this population. PMID:24568797

  4. The impacts of regulation on business in the Waste Sector: Evidence from the Western Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The waste sector has been identified as a sector which can contribute towards South Africa’s economic growth and the creation of green jobs. Policies and regulations are often identified as a potential limiting factor for growth in the waste sector...

  5. Climate Change Science: The Literacy of Geography Teachers in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Raymond; Le Grange, Lesley; Beets, Peter

    2015-01-01

    One of the universal responses to tackling global climate change is teaching climate change concepts at all levels of formal education. This response requires, among other things, teachers who are fully literate about climate change science, so that they can explain the concepts underlying the causes, impacts and solutions of climate change as…

  6. Physical education in the coloured community of theWestern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Initially these programmes were the result of middle-class colonial society attempting to inculcate their values into the urban poor in order to maintain hegemonic control. This is understood against a backdrop of racism displayed by Whites in the broader society towards Coloured persons during the 19 th and 20th centuries.

  7. Constraints to quality education and support for all: A Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... discourse of justification to debate the implementation of inclusive education that will benefit all learners, including learners with high-level support needs. Keywords: continuum of support; emerging economy; high-level support needs; inclusive education; inclusive schools; learning support teachers; mainstream teachers ...

  8. Genotypic characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bacteraemia at Tygerberg hospital, western cape province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orth, H.; Salaam-Dreyer, Z.; Makgotlho, E.; Sinha, B.; Wasserman, E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: There is a paucity of studies on the genotypic characterisation of invasive S. aureus strains and the incidence of communityacquired methicillin resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) infections in South Africa. In this study we characterized S. aureus isolates from bacteraemia episodes using

  9. Agrichem.ical safety practices on farm.s in the western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Control and safe handling of agrichemicals is a key aspect of the .... 15. 10. 5 o. Agrichemical sources and storage, con- trol and disposal attitudes and practices. The majority of farmers (72%) reported receiving the bulk of their agrichemicals directly from agrichemical .... the farmer or manager as part of the worker's general.

  10. Barriers to adherence to antiretroviral treatment in a regional hospital in Vredenburg, Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo N. Azia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa currently runs the largest public antiretroviral treatment (ART programme in the world, with over 80% of people living with HIV and/or AIDS on ART. However, in order to appreciate the benefits of using ART, patients are subject to uncompromising and long-term commitments of taking at least 95% of their treatment as prescribed. Evidence shows that this level of adherence is seldom achieved because of a multilevel and sometimes interwoven myriad of factors. Objective: We described the challenges faced by patients on ART in Vredenburg with regard to ART adherence. Methods: A descriptive qualitative research design was used. Eighteen non-adhering patients on ART in the Vredenburg regional hospital were purposefully selected. Using a semistructured interview guide, we conducted in-depth interviews with the study participants in their mother tongue (Afrikaans. The interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and translated into English. The data were analysed manually using the thematic content analysis method. Results: Stigma, disclosure, unemployment, lack of transport, insufficient feeding, disability grants and alternative forms of therapy were identified as major barriers to adherence, whereas inadequate follow-ups and lack of patient confidentiality came under major criticisms from the patients. Conclusion: Interventions to address poverty, stigma, discrimination and disclosure should be integrated with group-based ART adherence models in Vredenburg while further quantitative investigations should be carried out to quantify the extent to which these factors impede adherence in the community.

  11. rural grade 2 western Cape disorders in in the and hearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-01-19

    Jan 19, 1991 ... 1-6. 9. Tschopp CF. Chronic otitis media and cholesteatoma in Alaskan native children. In: McCabe B, Sade J, Abramson M, eds. Cholesceacoma: Firs! Nacional Conference. New York: Aesculapius Publications, 1977: 290-292. 10. Baxter JD, Ling D. Ear disease and hearing loss among rhe Eskimo. SAMJ.

  12. Évaluation de l'efficacité de la Western Cape Liquor Act à Khayelitsha

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... de diabète après le diabète gestationnel en Afrique du Sud. Les femmes ayant souffert de diabète sucré de la grossesse, un diabète temporaire qui apparaît pendant la grossesse, présentent un risque élevé de développer le diabète de type 2 après leur grossesse. Voir davantageIntervention intégrée quant au risque de ...

  13. Clinical significance identification in the of aero-allergen western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-01-19

    Jan 19, 1991 ... trees peaked at fixed times each year: oak in August; plane in. September and pine between August and ... (38%), tree pollens (22,4%), flower and weed pollens (19,6%), cat (27%), dog (12%) and feathers (18,6%) ... Skin-prick test responses in 104 white children were compared with those obtained in 105 ...

  14. Ethical issues that confront nurses in private hospitals in the Western Cape Metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethelwynn L. Stellenberg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nurses are faced daily with a variety of ethical issues which could be as a result of budget cuts, target setting, the shortage of nurses and expertise.Objectives: The objectives of the study were to identify ethical issues related to patient care, to describe ethical issues related to patient diversity, rights and human dignity. To describe ethical issues related to caring in nursing and to the workplace environment.Method: A quantitative explorative descriptive research design was applied. A stratified sample of (n = 142/5% was drawn from all nurses and caregivers (N = 2990 working in a selected group of eight private hospitals. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect the data. Statistical tests were applied to determine statistical relationships between variables.Results: Results included (95% of respondents provided safe and committed care to their patients, (99% loved to care for their patients and (93% believed in the Nurses’ Pledge of Service. Fifty percent (50% of the respondents indicated verbal abuse from patients and only (59% experienced openness and transparency in the work environment. Analysis further identified that the caregivers did not respect the noble tradition of the profession and experienced the most verbal abuse.Conclusion: This study has identified ethical issues which may give rise to conflict within the workplace environment if not adequately addressed by management. The study further showed that the use of caregivers not regulated in nursing practice may pose as a threat to the safety of the patient.

  15. A centile chart for birth weight for an urban population of the Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evidence from large epidemiological studies has supported concern that being born light for gestational age (LiGA) may be detrimental. The incidence of LiGA babies is an important indicator of the health of women of reproductive age in deprived communities. In the assessment of LiGA in the Western Cape, centile charts ...

  16. A centile chart for birth weight for an urban population of the Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    id inary en in rgence. Afr Med iology of. Infect ral. SAMJ. ARTICLES. A centile chart for birth weight for an urban population of the Western. Cape. G. B. Theron, M. L. Thompson. Evidence from large epidemiological studies has .... fitted by smooth linear and quadratic functions of gestational age by the method of maximum ...

  17. Foundations for literacy: emergent literacy competencies of grade R learners on the Cape Flats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenberg, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    International research has demonstrated that a considerable amount of children's literacy development occurs prior to formal schooling and that emergent literacy skills at school entry are strong predictors of later literacy and general academic achievement. These findings have prompted vigorous early intervention programmes aimed at promoting emergent literacy development to optimise the development of conventional literacy. While there is considerable research conducted in developed countries, there is limited research on the emergent literacy skills of children in South African contexts. In the light of increasing evidence of poor literacy performance of South African children in the foundation phase of schooling it is imperative that appropriate and timely intervention be undertaken. However it is important that intervention be informed by baseline assessments of the children's literacy competencies in the full spectrum of socio-cultural contexts in this diverse country. This study documents the emergent literacy competencies of 101 grade R (the year prior to grade 1, equivalent to kindergarten in the United States) learners attending schools in historically disadvantaged coloured communities on the Cape Flats in the Western Cape. An Emergent Literacy and Language Assessment protocol was developed for use with this population. The children's performance on the assessment tool indicated that in general they possessed a reasonable repertoire of emergent literacy skills. Although they displayed adequate skills to support acquisition of print decoding skills necessary for fluent reading, weaknesses in the decontextualised language skills that have been found to support later reading comprehension, were evident.

  18. A simulation age-specific tuberculosis model for the Cape Town metropole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farai Nyabadza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB continues to present an insurmountable health burden in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. TB dynamics in adults is different from that in children, with the former determining the latter. Because the dynamics of TB are largely dependent on age, planning for interventions requires reasonable and realistic projections of the incidence across ages. It is thus important to model the dynamics of TB using mathematical models as predictive tools. We considered a TB compartmental model that is age dependent and whose parameters are set as functions of age. The model was fitted to the TB incidence data from the Cape Town metropole. The effective contact rate, a function of both age and time, was changed to fit the model to the notification rates of active TB disease cases. Our simulations illustrate that age structure plays an important role in the dynamics of TB. Projections on the future of the epidemic were made for each age group. The projected results show that TB incidence is likely to increase in the lower age groups of the population. It is clearly evident that even very simple models when applied to limited data can actually give valuable insights. Our results show that the age groups who have the highest incidence rates of active TB disease have the highest contribution in the transmission of TB. Furthermore, interventions should be targeted in the age group 25-34 years.

  19. Composition and biogeography of forest patches on the inland mountains of the southern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Geldenhuys

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Patterns in species richness of 23 small, isolated forests on the inland mountains of the southern Cape were studied. Species richness of woody plants and vines of the Kouga-Baviaanskloof Forests was higher than in the western mountain complexes, where species richness in the more southern Rooiberg and Kamanassie Mountains was higher than in the Swartberg range. The Rooiberg, a dry mountain with small forests far away from the coastal source area, had more species than, and contained many species which are absent from, the larger, moister forests of the Kamanassie which are closest to the coastal source areas. Neither altitude nor distance from the source area, the forests south of the coastal mountains, nor long-distance dispersal, adequately explained the variation in species richness. The variations are best explained in terms of dispersal corridors along the Gouritz and Gamtoos River systems which connect the coastal forests with the inland mountains. The distribution patterns of four species groups in relation to the geomorphological history of the two river systems provide relative dates for the expansion and contraction of temperate forest, subtropical forest and subtropical transitional thicket in the southern Cape.

  20. Cape Verdean Notions of Migrant Remittances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Åkesson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of money from migrants to their non-migrant relatives is a key, symbol of the quality and meaning of transnational kinship relations. This article analyses how people in Cape Verde view migrant family members’ economic obligations and it examines the concomitant moral discourse. Through a detailed ethnographic study the article explores how gender and kinship positions interplay with the moral obligation to send remittances, and it also inquires into the differences between rural and urban people’s attitudes towards monetary gifts. Moreover, the importance of the receiver’s status in the local society is discussed and the role of the personal relation between the sender and the receiver. Thus the analysis goes beyond an instrumental and rationalistic approach to remittances, which is common in much research, and explores the significance of this money for emotions and social relations.Para os seus parentes não emigrantes as remessas dos emigrantes são um símbolo chave da qualidade e do significado das relações de parentesco transnacionais. Este artigo analisa como as pessoas em Cabo Verde encaram as obrigações económicas dos emigrantes membros de família e examina o discurso moral concomitante. Através de um estudo etnográfico detalhado o artigo explora como posições de género e parentesco interagem com a obrigação moral de enviar remessas e também investiga as diferenças entre as atitudes das pessoas rurais e urbanas relativamente às ofertas monetárias. Além disso, discute-se a importância do estatuto do receptor na sociedade local e o papel da relação pessoal entre remetente e receptor. Assim, a análise vai além de uma abordagem instrumental e racionalista das remessas, o que é habitual em muitas pesquisas, explorando o significado deste dinheiro em termos de emoções e relações sociais.

  1. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  2. Western Canada uranium perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The current situation in the exploration for uranium in British Columbia, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, and Saskatchewan is reviewed. A moratorium on exploration has been in effect in British Columbia since 1980; it is due to expire in 1987. Only the Blizzard deposit appears to have any economic potential. The Lone Gull discovery in the Thelon Basin of the Northwest Territories has proven reserves of more than 35 million pounds U 3 O 8 grading 0.4%. Potentially prospective areas of the northern Thelon Basin lie within a game sanctuary and cannot be explored. Exploration activity in Saskatchewan continues to decline from the peak in 1980. Three major deposits - Cluff Lake, Rabbit Lake and Key Lake - are in production. By 1985 Saskatchewan will produce 58% of Canada's uranium, and over 13% of the western world's output. (L.L.) (3 figs, 2 tabs.)

  3. Mercury Cycling in Salt Marsh Pond Ecosystems: Cape Cod, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, P. M.; Gonneea, M. E.; Lamborg, C. H.; Kroeger, K. D.; Swarr, G.; Vadman, K. J.; Baldwin, S.; Brooks, T. W.; Green, A.

    2014-12-01

    We are measuring total mercury (HgT) and monomethylmercury (CH3Hg+ or MMHg) in pore water, surface water, and sediment cores from two salt marsh pond systems on the south shore of Cape Cod, MA to characterize the distribution of mercury species and to identify features that influence mercury speciation and transport. Sage Lot Pond is relatively undisturbed and has low nitrogen loading (12 kg ha-1 y-1). It is part of the Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Reserve and is surrounded by undeveloped wooded uplands. In contrast, Great Pond is highly impacted. Nitrogen loading to the site is elevated (600 kg ha-1 y-1) and the marsh is adjacent to a large residential area. In both systems, a 1 to 2 m organic-rich peat layer overlies the permeable sand aquifer. Groundwater in this region is typically oxic, where pore water within salt marsh peat is suboxic to anoxic. We hypothesize that redox gradients at the transition from the root zone to peat and at the peat-sand interface may provide habitat for MMHg-producing anaerobic bacteria. Preliminary results from a 2-m nearshore depth profile at Sage Lot Pond indicate HgT in groundwater within the sand aquifer occurred primarily in the > 0.2 μm fraction, with unfiltered concentrations exceeding 100 pM. Filtered (fraction of filtered HgT in peat pore water. Although MMHg in both groundwater and pore water remained around 1 pM throughout our depth profile, we observed an increase in sediment MMHg (0.3 to 1.6 μg/kg) at the peat-sand interface. MMHg comprised ~50% of the HgT concentration in pore water suggesting mercury in the salt marsh peat is biologically available.

  4. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve and fts educational facilities are run by the Transvaal. Division of. Nature Conservation. ... tion and the education facilities provided. The former are utilized mainly by the general public ... artist Paul Bosman (already reviewed in the EEASA newsletter). The co-founders of the Foundation are.

  5. Session 7: Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.; Crockford, G.

    2001-01-01

    The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)

  6. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  7. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reserve, the total length being 66 km with six overnight huts. There are also the BokmakiePie. Nature Troil. and the Cheetah Interpretive Troil. which can be used by day visitors. The former has two loops, one of 10 km and another of 17 km. The. Cheetah Troil. is much shorter and various points of interest are interpreted en ...

  8. Foraging range and habitat use by Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres from the Msikaba colony, Eastern Cape province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan B. Pfeiffer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the extent of subsistence farmland in Africa, little is known about endangered species that persist within them. The Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres is regionally endangered in southern Africa and at least 20% of the population breeds in the subsistence farmland area previously known as the Transkei in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. To understand their movement ecology, adult Cape Vultures (n = 9 were captured and fitted with global positioning system/global system for mobile transmitters. Minimum convex polygons (MCPs,and 99% and 50% kernel density estimates (KDEs were calculated for the breeding and non breeding seasons of the Cape Vulture. Land use maps were constructed for each 99% KDE and vulture locations were overlaid. During the non-breeding season, ranges were slightly larger(mean [± SE] MCP = 16 887 km2 ± 366 km2 than the breeding season (MCP = 14 707 km2 ± 2155 km2. Breeding and non-breeding season MCPs overlapped by a total of 92%. Kernel density estimates showed seasonal variability. During the breeding season, Cape Vultures used subsistence farmland, natural woodland and protected areas more than expected. In the non-breeding season, vultures used natural woodland and subsistence farmland more than expected, and protected areas less than expected. In both seasons, human-altered landscapes were used less, except for subsistence farmland. Conservation implications: These results highlight the importance of subsistence farm land to the survival of the Cape Vulture. Efforts should be made to minimise potential threats to vultures in the core areas outlined, through outreach programmes and mitigation measures.The conservation buffer of 40 km around Cape Vulture breeding colonies should be increased to 50 km.

  9. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  10. [Hypertrophy and coronary reserve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motz, W; Scheler, S

    2008-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy represents the structural mechanism of adaptation of the left ventricle as the answer of a chronic pressure overload in arterial hypertension. Initially an increment in left ventricular wall thickness occurs. In this stadium of "concentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress, LV ejection fraction and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium remain unchanged. In the further time course of disease LV dilatation will be present. In this phase of "excentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium rise and LV ejection fraction decreases. Patients with arterial hypertension frequently complain of angina pectoris. Angina pectoris and the positive exercise tolerance test or the positive myocardial scintigraphy are the consequence of the impaired coronary flow reserve. The coronary flow reserve is diminished due to structural and functional changes of the coronary circulation. ACE-inhibitors and AT1-receptor blockers cause a significant improvement of coronary flow reserve and regression of both left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis.

  11. The cold climate geomorphology of the Eastern Cape Drakensberg: A reevaluation of past climatic conditions during the last glacial cycle in Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, SC; Barrows, TT; Telfer, MW; Fifield, LK

    2017-01-01

    publisher: Elsevier articletitle: The cold climate geomorphology of the Eastern Cape Drakensberg: A reevaluation of past climatic conditions during the last glacial cycle in Southern Africa journaltitle: Geomorphology articlelink: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2016.11.011 content_type: article copyright: Crown Copyright © 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Strategic Analysis for the MER Cape Verde Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Daniel; Belluta, Paolo; Herman, Jennifer; Hwang, Pauline; Mukai, Ryan; Porter, Dan; Jones, Byron; Wood, Eric; Grotzinger, John; Edgar, Lauren; hide

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has recently completed a two year campaign studying Victoria Crater. The campaign culminated in a close approach of Cape Verde in order to acquire high resolution imagery of the exposed stratigraphy in the cliff face. The close approach to Cape Verde provided significant challenges for every subsystem of the rover as the rover needed to traverse difficult, uncharacterised terrain and approach a cliff face with the potential of blocking out solar energy and communications with Earth. In this paper we describe the strategic analyses performed by the science and engineering teams so that we could successfully achieve the science objectives while keeping the rover safe.

  13. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  14. Communication and relationship satisfaction in Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiew, Danika N; Halford, W Kim; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Liu, Shuang

    2016-03-01

    The current study compared Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples' communication and examined how culture moderates the association of communication with relationship satisfaction. We coded the communication of 33 Western couples, 36 Chinese couples, and 54 intercultural Chinese-Western couples when discussing a relationship problem and when reminiscing about positive relationship events. Couples with Chinese female partners showed fewer positive behaviors and more negative behaviors (as classified in existing Western coding systems) than couples with Western female partners. The male partner's culture had few associations with couples' rates of communication behavior. Relationship satisfaction was associated with low rates of negative behaviors and high rates of most of the positive behaviors across cultural groups, and these associations were more evident in problem discussions than positive reminiscences. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Hypertension care at a Cape Town community health centre | Lunt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To describe the demographic profile of hypertensive patients and the quality of care for hypertension at a Cape Town community health centre (CHC). Design. Prospective, descriptive study. Setting and subjects. Medium-sized CHC, attended by 1098 hypertensive patients during a 1-year period from 1 January ...

  16. High prevalence of avian malaria infection to avifauna at Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation was undertaken during January and February 2004, to determine the epidemiological risk of avian malaria infection to seabirds at the proposed marine animal rehabilitation complex, to be sited at Cape Receife. Despite low numbers of mosquitoes trapped, the incidence of avian malaria infections was ...

  17. Migrations of humpback whales past Cape Vidal, South Africa, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shore-based surveys of migrating humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae were undertaken from Cape Vidal, northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, each year between 1988 and 1991, and in 2002. Daily observations of migrating whale groups were carried out from an approx. 60 m-high platform during all surveys.

  18. Factors influencing the breeding success of Cape Gannets Morus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the 2002/2003 breeding season at Malgas Island, South Africa, 125 nests of Cape Gannets Morus capensis, of which at least one partner was of known age, were monitored. The age of birds at these nests ranged from five to 22 years. At five nests, the ages of both partners were known; ages were similar for birds ...

  19. Cape Vulture usurps Bearded Vulture nest | Crowson | Vulture News

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cape Vulture usurps Bearded Vulture nest. John Crowson, Sonja Krüger. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  20. Increase in hospital admissions for acute childhood asthma in Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine whether hospital admissions for acute childhood asthma were rising in Cape Town in line with the experience of other countries, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital's records for the period 1978 - 1990 were analysed. These were compared with total admissions for non-surgical causes and lower ...

  1. Archive of bathymetry data collected at Cape Canaveral, Florida, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mark E.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Thompson, David M.; Troche, Rodolfo J.; Kranenburg, Christine J.; Klipp, Emily S.

    2015-10-07

    Remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of the sea floor, acquired by boat- and aircraft-based survey systems, were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, Florida, for the area at Cape Canaveral.

  2. Supernumerary registrar experience at the University of Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Despite supernumerary registrars (SNRs) being hosted in South African (SA) training programmes, there are no reports of their experience. Objectives. To evaluate the experience of SNRs at the University of Cape Town, SA, and the experience of SNRs from the perspective of. SA registrars (SARs). Methods.

  3. Service transformation plans in the Eastern Cape informed by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Part I of this research paper presented a needs and gap analysis for the management of schizophrenia, bipolar mood disorder and major depression for the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. It identified deficits and inequitable distribution of human resources and beds in the province. In this article, Part II, the ...

  4. Human papillomavirus in normal cervical smears from Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The types of HPV found in normal cervical tissue from Cape Town did not differ significantly from those found elsewhere in the world. Nine per cent (17/192) were positive for 'high-risk' HPV types which are associated with premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. In the age group 20 - 39 years, 15 of 92 (16%) were ...

  5. Human papillomavirus in normal cervical smears from Cape Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to be 13% (25/192) using Southern blot hybridisation. The types of HPV found in normaJ cervical tissue from Cape. Town did not differ significantly from those found elsewhere in the world. Nine per cent (17/192) were positive for 'high-risk' HPV types which are associated with premalignant and malignant cervical lesions.

  6. Haematology outreach clinics in the Free State and Northern Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients' domicile, how they were referred, types of diagnoses and ... The intention was to offer a more accessible and affordable service to more patients in the Free State and Northern Cape, in accordance with provincial policy.' The Departments of ... The cost would have been higher if consultants had had to stay over.

  7. Counter-Insurgency in the Cape Colony, 1872 - 1882 | Kotze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acceptance of responsible government in 1872 entailed that the Cape Colony had to provide its own security arrangements. The two British regiments that were still deployed at ... The Molteno as well as the Sprigg ministry eventually paid the highest political price for the failure of their respective defence schemes not ...

  8. Urban Ecology in Cape Town: South African Comparisons and Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarel S. Cilliers

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Little urban ecological research has been done in South Africa. The papers in the Ecology and Society special feature Urban Ecological and Social-Ecological Research in the City of Cape Town make, therefore, an important contribution to the development of urban ecology locally and globally. Different approaches have been used in the study of urban ecology of different urban areas in South Africa. Cape Town is situated in a biodiversity hotspot and is the only South African city which includes a national park. As a result the urban ecological studies were mainly driven by urban nature conservation concerns. In other cities such as Durban, open space planning and environmental management were the major issues which focused ecological studies on urban areas whereas other studies of urban areas in the Eastern Cape and North-West provinces included private and public open spaces and man-made habitats. We reflect on the Cape Town studies in a South African context and highlight conservation of biodiversity, protection of ecosystem services, management of control measures, and the conflict between humans and nature. A brief synthesis has also been given of South African urban ecological research in general.

  9. Estimating Cape hare occupancy and abundance in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study outlines the importance of integrating spotlighting data and occupancy modelling to estimate the spatial occupancy, abundance and habitat preferences of Cape hares Lepus capensis in southern Tunisia. Exploring the spatial distribution pattern of this species is problematic because of its nocturnal and secretive ...

  10. Observations on the lambing interval of the cape bushbuck ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A record of births from three Cape bushbuck ewes at Queens Park Zoo, East London, from November 1971 to December 1974, indicated that the mean lambing interval of Tragelaphus scriptus sylvaticus in captivity is 249 days and that ewes reach sexual maturity at approximately one year of age.

  11. New Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres roosts in the Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... 1 Birds of Prey Programme, Endangered Wildlife Trust, Private Bag X11, Modderfontein,. 1645, South Africa. 2 Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife, P.O. Box 13053, Cascades, 3202. *Corresponding author: andreb@ewt.org.za. There have been very few recent records of active Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres.

  12. The Cape horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus capensis is an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    S. C. PILLAR* and M. BARANGE*. Crustaceans, principally copepods and euphausiids, were most frequently found in the stomachs of Cape horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus capensis collected during demersal research surveys (1992–1995) in summer on the west coast and in winter on the south coast of South Africa.

  13. ( Acacia melanoxylon ) in Southern Cape Forests, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Australian Blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon) was actively introduced into the indigenous forests of the southern Cape until about 1930. On the perception that this exotic species constituted a threat to the indigenous forest, a policy of eradication was followed. This perception that Blackwood is capable of progressively ...

  14. Kidney structure of a euryhaline mammal, the Cape clawless otter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cape clawless otter (Aonyx capensis) is one of the few species of mammals that occur in both freshwater and marine habitats, and it therefore must be able to tolerate the high rates of water flux typical of aquatic animals as well as the desiccating effects of seawater. The clawless otter has paired, discrete multirenculate ...

  15. The staff training and development initiatives at the Cape Peninsula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Library staff training and development is a crucial element in ensuring positive user experiences within libraries. A staff component consistently exposed to relevant training and development interventions should not be underestimated. This paper will explore the processes and methods used at the Cape Peninsula ...

  16. Carriage of Haemophilus influenzae in Cape Town children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little is known about the epideIDiology of Haemophilus influenzae infections in South Africa. This study was designed to determine the prevalence, serotype distribution, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and effect of age and hospitalisation on the carriage of H. influenzae in 322 Cape Town children. The overall and type b ...

  17. Role of Stakeholders at Cape Coast PPAG Youth Centre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated whether the activities or the roles performed by the various stakeholders at the Cape Coast Planned Parenthood Association of Ghana (PPAG) youth centre impacted positively on the youth behaviour and performance at the centre. The sample comprised 22 teachers, 50 parents and 3 social welfare ...

  18. Strategic Military Colonisation: The Cape Eastern Frontier 1806–1872

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cape Eastern Frontier of South Africa offers a fascinating insight into British military strategy as well as colonial development. The Eastern Frontier was for over 100 years a very turbulent frontier. It was the area where the four main population groups (the Dutch, the British, the Xhosa and the Khoikhoi) met, and in many ...

  19. Observations of severe hypoxia and offshore displacement of cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1994, persistent and pronounced hypoxic conditions developed off the coast of central and northern Namibia, with oxygen levels <0.5 ml.l–1 in bottom water over much of the continental shelf. These conditions apparently displaced juvenile Cape hake Merluccius capensis offshore from their typical inshore habitat, ...

  20. Virological studies of water from the Cape Flats reclamation plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Department of Water Affairs recently published its policy on the management of the water resources of the RSA. I This provides an outline of the expected population growth as well as the demand for potable water in the Cape Town area. The studies have shown that all known fresh-water supplies will be fully committed ...

  1. comparison of Cape Town and Durban business perceptions of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    comparison of Cape Town and Durban business perceptions of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... In hosting future events, it is recommended that relevant government departments and stakeholders such as event managers involve and consult local businesses through ...

  2. Behavioural ecology and communication in the Cape grysbok

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and olfactory communication were prominent, but visual displays were poorly developed. Scent mar1<.ing with the ... tion and communication of the small antelope has lagged be- hind that of other bovids. Yet, the Cape ...... habits of grysbok would favour auditory and tactile com-. 29 munication rather than visual displays.

  3. HD 12098 and Other Results from Nainital–Cape Survey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Nainital;Cape Survey was started with an aim to search for new rapidly oscillating Ap stars in the northern hemisphere.We discovered one new mono-periodic roAp star HD 12098. The frequency separation of HD 12098 suggests a rotation period of 5.5 days for the star. We summarize here the observations ...

  4. Reproductive biology of the cape serotine bat, Eptesicus capensis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive biology of the Cape serotine bat, Eptesicus capensis, was investigated histologically. The study was based on 67 specimens collected over a six-year period. This species is seasonally monoestrous, normally giving birth to twins during November. Spermatogenesis peaks during autumn (March-May) when ...

  5. Observations of microtrash ingestion in Cape Vultures in the Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two pieces of microtrash were collected from the nest of another nestling. Neither nestling appeared to have skeletal deformities or feather stress bars. Our results highlight the persistence of microtrash ingestion by Cape Vulture nestlings, which could impact the species negatively. Keywords: conservation, nestling, trash, ...

  6. Child pedestrian injuries in the Cape metropolitan area - final results ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over a 12-month period 430 children under 14 years of age presented to Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in Cape Town having been injured as pedestrians, and 106 children who died from such injuries were registered at the regional state mortuary. Information about the circumstances surrounding injury was ...

  7. Quality assurance in the foundation phase in the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main focus of this study was whether and how provision is made to enhance the quality of education in the Foundation Phase. After a case study investigation into a primary school and its view on quality assurance and interviews with the Department of Education: Eastern Cape province it became apparent that more ...

  8. Composition of commercial Cape chamomile oil (Eriocephalus punctualus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierendorff, H.G.; Stahl-Biskup, E.; Posthumus, M.A.; Beek, van T.A.

    2003-01-01

    Cape chamomile oil obtained from the herb Eriocephalus punctulatus DC (Asteraceae) was analysed by GC and GC–MS. It was shown to consist of about 50 aliphatic esters, together amounting to more than 50% of the oil. 2-Methylbutyl 2-methylpropanoate (21.2%), 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutanoate (5.6%),

  9. The epidemiology of hypertension family practice in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prevalence study of hypertension in 8 family practices in low socio-economic areas of Cape Town examined 1046 patients over the age of 15 years. The crude prevalence rate of hypertension was 20,26%. There was no significant sex difference. Systolic pressure, diastolic pressure and hypertensive status increased with ...

  10. Child pedestrian injuries in the Cape metropolitan area - final results ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acknowledged in the planning of future road safety measures. ... At present, road traffic injuries. (RTls) are the single most important .... their home territory. In areas such as the Cape Peninsula where high-density or informal housing predominates, it is more realistic to accept this behaviour as normal than .to seek ways of ...

  11. Sustainable and equitable sanitation in informal settlements of Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... vision to strive towards sustainable and equitable sanitation services. Perspectives, priorities, and barriers to sustainability and equity in implementation, recognised amongst water and sanitation sector stakeholders in Cape Town, were analysed and compared with policy documents and municipal records. The research ...

  12. Prefabricated solution to modular construction in Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Nuno; Amado, Miguel; Pinho, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, the lack of adequate housing in Cape Verde is a growing problem. The migration of the population living in the countryside to the major cities generates an increase of the diameter of the cities. With the lack of economic power, the migrating families tend to occupy the land with houses which don't present proper conditions to living. Praia is the capital of Cape Verde and so on the biggest city of the country. This fact leads Praia to being the city with major economic power and job offer in all country. Consequently, Praia has developed the biggest slum of the Cape Verde and it is urgent to approach this problem in order to create solutions that reveal capacity to start solving it. Cape Verde's unique dry subtropical climate turns indispensable a careful resolution of the housing, in order to ensure the comfort of the occupants. The modular construction is a solution with potential to approach this problem with a fast and economic response. In order to answer the situation, this article introduces a modular solution in order to reach the needing of thermal comfort to the specific case of Praia.

  13. A student surgical society – the Cape Town experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The UCT Surgical Society is a student-managed academic society that promotes undergraduate interest in the field of surgery at the. University of Cape Town. It is Africa's first student surgical society, and with over 700 enrolled members in 2009 has grown to become both one of the largest academic medical student ...

  14. Consumption patterns of street food consumers in Cape Town | Hill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional survey conducted in Cape Town metropolitan area, with trained fieldworkers using a structured questionnaire on 1121 SF consumers. The first ten clients who visited a randomly-sampled SF vendor were approached and invited to participate. Data were analysed using IBM Statistics SPSS version 23.

  15. A generalization of CAPE into potential-energy convertibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Jun-Ichi; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Guichard, Françoise

    2005-04-01

    The concept of the potential-energy convertibility (PEC) is proposed as a generalization of convective available potential energy (CAPE). It is defined as a vertical integral of buoyancy weighted by a non-dimensional normalized vertical momentum. This is a measure of convertibility of potential energy into kinetic energy in the sense that the actual conversion rate is recovered when PEC evaluated by the convective-scale local buoyancy and vertical momentum, as available from cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations, is multiplied by the normalization factor for the vertical momentum. It reduces to CAPE, when the standard parcel-lifted buoyancy and a unit value for the normalized vertical momentum are used. It is equivalent to Arakawas-Schubert's cloud work function, when the buoyancy and the vertical momentum profile for an entraining plume are used. PEC evaluated from locally defined buoyancy and vertical momentum in CRM simulations correlates better with the convective precipitation than CAPE. The evaluation of PEC within a convective parametrization may be possible with an appropriate definition of the effective entrainment rate, for example, which is expected to improve CAPE-based convective parametrizations.

  16. Trophic structure and biomass distribution on two East Cape rocky ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1980-01-12

    Jan 12, 1980 ... Trophic structure and biomass distribution on two. East Cape rocky shores. A Mclachlan, H.W. Lombard and S. Louwrens. Zoology Department, University of Port Elizabeth, Port Elizabeth. The distribution and biomass of macrofauna and macroalgae is described for two intertidal rocky shores near Port Eliza ...

  17. Party identification and service delivery protests in the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Service delivery protests against municipalities in South Africa have become common. This article discusses the relationship between party identification and these protests. It presents an in-depth analysis of two qualitative case studies: one in the Eastern Cape Province, where protests have mainly been about the shortage ...

  18. Delivery of the Nutrition Supplementation Programme in the Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Division for Human Nutrition, Department of Interdisciplinary Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, W Cape. Per Ole Iversen ... More focus on the education part of the NSP would enable mothers to manage their children's nutrition better. ..... common chronic conditions and prescribing in sport. • It presents ...

  19. Aggressive behaviour of an adult male Cape fur seal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a report of a marine predator (the white shark) being threatened by a member of the species on which it preys (a male Cape fur seal). Although these events may be rarely observed or occur infrequently, they may have important implications for the predator and its prey.We suggest that shark mobbing by adult male ...

  20. Anthropometric profile of the coloured population of the Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study of a sample of 976 randomly selected coloured persons 15 - 64 years of age living in the Cape Peninsula included measurement of height, weight and mid-arm circumference and calculation of the body mass index (BMI). The mean height of the men was 167,6 cm and that of the women 156 cm. Mean weight, BMI ...