WorldWideScience

Sample records for reservation stream enhancement

  1. Fort Hall Reservation Stream Enhancement : 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, David C.

    1999-10-01

    Habitat enhancement and protection were the main focus of the Resident Fish Program during 1999. Biotic sampling included a genetic survey of salmonids on the Fort Hall Reservation. In addition, density and biomass of fish in select Bottoms streams was monitored. Enhancement and protection included anchoring 1,327 m of evergreen tree revetments and erecting three kilometers of enclosure fence. Physical sampling during 1999 included sediment and depth surveys and chemical measurements. Baseline SADM's, used to track changes in channel morphology and specifically track movements of silt through the system were completed for eight strata in Big Jimmy Creek. Numbers of fish in Clear creek were much lower than previous years. In addition, numbers of fry counted at Broncho Bridge were significantly lower than previous years. Future monitoring will determine whether low numbers are cyclic and related to weak year classes or low numbers are the result of anthropogenic influences. Permit fishing seasons continued to provide a source of income for the Tribes and an opportunity for non-tribal members to fish Bottoms streams. Mean catch rate by anglers on Bottoms streams increased from that of previous years to 1.02 fish per hour.

  2. New approaches to e-reserve linking, sharing and streaming

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Ophelia; Patrick, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Aimed at academic library practitioners, this book describes how e-reserve services can evolve and adapt to the changing virtual learning environment of higher education. New approaches discussed include: the integration of subscribed, free, and copyrighted resources within course management systems; innovative employment of open URL link resolvers to connect e-reserve with library e-resources and services; video streaming within course documents; and the creative use of bibliographic software to produce customized reading lists. New Approaches to E-Reserve includes detailed descriptions and e

  3. 75 FR 18146 - Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation and... available in fiscal year (FY) 2010 for the Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program (WREP) throughout the United... enhance conservation outcomes on wetlands and adjacent lands. WREP targets and leverages resources to...

  4. Habitat Restoration/Enhancement Fort Hall Reservation : 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, Hunter [Shoshone Bannock Tribes

    2009-07-23

    Habitat enhancement, protection and monitoring were the focus of the Resident Fisheries Program during 2008. Enhancement and protection included sloping, fencing and planting wetlands plugs at sites on Spring Creek (Head-waters). Many previously constructed instream structures (rock barbs and wing dams) were repaired throughout the Fort Hall Indian Reservation (Reservation). Physical sampling during 2008 included sediment and depth measurements (SADMS) in Spring Creek at the Car Removal site. SADMS, used to track changes in channel morphology and specifically track movements of silt through Bottoms stream systems were completed for 5 strata on Spring Creek. Water temperature and chemistry were monitored monthly on Spring Creek, Clear Creek, Diggie Creek, and Portneuf (Jimmy Drinks) and Blackfoot rivers. Fish population densities and biomass were sampled in five reservation streams which included nine sites. Sampling protocols were identical to methods used in past years. Numbers of fish in Spring Creek series remained relatively low, however, there was an increase of biomass overall since 1993. Salmonid fry densities were monitored near Broncho Bridge and were similar to 2006, and 2007, however, as in years past, high densities of macrophytes make it very difficult to see fry in addition to lack of field technicians. Mean catch rate by anglers on Bottoms streams stayed the same as 2007 at 1.5/hr. Numbers of fish larger than 18-inches caught by anglers increased from 2007 at .20 to .26/hr.

  5. Protecting and Enhancing River and Stream Continuity

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Scott D.; Bowden, Alison; Graber, Brian

    2007-01-01

    As long linear ecosystems, rivers and streams are particularly vulnerable to fragmentation. There is growing concern about the role of road crossings – and especially culverts – in altering habitats and disrupting river and stream continuity. The River and Stream Continuity Project began in the year 2000 with a startup grant from the Massachusetts Watershed Initiative. The University of Massachusetts took the lead in convening a group of people from a variety of agencies and organizations who...

  6. Acoustic streaming enhanced electrodeposition of nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Dahl; Møller, Per

    2003-01-01

    surface was observed. A theory based on mechanical interaction between organic additives adhering to the cathode surface and ultrasonically induced streaming- phenomena is presented here to account for the observed uniform filling behaviour. The present study further indicates a correlation between fringe......-patterns on the surface of the deposit and near-boundary acoustic streaming....

  7. Stream flow unaffected by Eucalyptus plantation harvesting implicates water use by the native forest streamside reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Smethurst

    2015-03-01

    New hydrological insights: Plantation harvest had little effect on steam flow, despite a 6–11 m rise in water table level under the plantation area. This result suggests that the native forest reserve intercepted groundwater moving laterally between the plantation and the stream. Measured and simulated runoff coefficients were similarly low (5% and 3%, respectively, but simulated removal of the native forest led to an increase to 38%. Therefore, plantation management in this type of landscape is likely to have little impact on stream flows where there is an intact native rainforest reserve beside the stream.

  8. 7 CFR 1467.9 - Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. 1467.9 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.9 Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program. (a) Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program (WREP). (1) The...

  9. Enhanced Stream Processing in a DBMS Kernel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Liarou (Erietta); S. Idreos (Stratos); S. Manegold (Stefan); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractContinuous query processing has emerged as a promising query processing paradigm with numerous applications. A recent development is the need to handle both streaming queries and typical one-time queries in the same application. For example, data warehousing can greatly benefit from the

  10. Enhanced stream processing in a DBMS kernel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liarou, E.; Idreos, S.; Manegold, S.; Kersten, M.; Paton, N.W.; Guerrini, G.; Catania, B.; Castellanos, M.; Atzeni, P.; Fraternali, P.; Gounaris, A.

    2013-01-01

    Continuous query processing has emerged as a promising query processing paradigm with numerous applications. A recent development is the need to handle both streaming queries and typical one-time queries in the same application. For example, data warehousing can greatly benefit from the integration

  11. Habitat Restoration/Enhancement Fort Hall Reservation : 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, David C.

    2003-03-01

    Habitat enhancement, protection and monitoring were the focus of the Resident Fisheries Program during 2001. Enhancement and protection included sloping, fencing and planting willows at sites on Diggie Creek, Clear Creek and Spring Creek. In addition, many previously constructed instream structures (rock barbs and wing dams) were repaired throughout the Fort Hall Indian Reservation (Reservation). In 2001, exclosure fences were erected on Diggie Creek (250 m barbed wire; (70 m jack), Wood Creek (500 m jack), Clear Creek (20 m jack), Ross Fork Creek (200 m jack), West Fork Creek (200 m jack)) and the Portneuf River (1 km barbed wire; 100 m jack). Jack and rail exclosure fences that had deteriorated over the past ten years were repaired at numerous areas throughout the Reservation. Physical sampling during 2001 included sediment and depth surveys (SADMS) in Big Jimmy Creek and Diggie Creek. SADMS, used to track changes in channel morphology and specifically track movements of silt through Bottoms stream systems were completed for eight and nine strata in the Big Jimmy and Diggie Creek, respectively. Baseline SADM data was collected in Diggie Creek to monitor the effects of bank sloping and revegetation on channel morphology and sediment levels through time. Water temperature was monitored (hourly) in Spring Creek, Clear Creek, Ross Fork Creek and Big Jimmy Creek. Biotic sampling included invertebrate sampling in the 200 and 300 series of Clear Creek. Fish population densities and biomass were sampled in Clear Creek 200 and 300 series. Sampling protocols were identical to methods used in past years. Numbers of fish in Clear Creek 300 series remained similar to 2000 while numbers of fish in Clear Creek 200 series dropped to near pre project levels. Salmonid fry densities were monitored near Broncho Bridge and were significantly higher than 2000. A mark-recapture study was initiated in spring 2001 to estimate numbers of spawning adults using the Head End of Spring Creek

  12. Fish fauna of small streams of the Catua-Ipixuna Extractive Reserve, State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Py-Daniel, L. H. R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in an Amazonas state conservation unit, the Catuá-Ipixuna Extractive Reserve (Catuá-IpixunaRESEX. The main purpose was to provide an ichthyological survey of its small streams, all them tributaries of theSolimões River. Nine small streams (up to 4 m width and 1 m depth were sampled in September 2006. A total of 1,525specimens were captured, belonging to 78 species, 24 families and eight orders. Eight species had higher abundancesand represented altogether 61.4 % of all collected specimens (Hemigrammus belotii, Microphilypnus amazonicus,Physopyxis ananas, Apistogramma agassizii, Elachocharax pulcher, Apistogramma cf. cruzi, Gladioglanisconquistador and Copella nigrofasciata. Based on the high number of singletons and doubletons present in oursamples, as well as the estimated number of species for those streams (106 spp., we believe that the total fish speciesrichness present in the Catuá-Ipixuna Extractive Reserve may be considerably higher than indicated by our samples.This seems especially true when considering the dimensions of the Catuá-Ipixuna RESEX and the dense hydrographicnetwork present in the area.

  13. Acoustic Streaming and Heat and Mass Transfer Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, E. H.; Gopinath, A.

    1996-01-01

    A second order effect associated with high intensity sound field, acoustic streaming has been historically investigated to gain a fundamental understanding of its controlling mechanisms and to apply it to practical aspects of heat and mass transfer enhancement. The objectives of this new research project are to utilize a unique experimental technique implementing ultrasonic standing waves in closed cavities to study the details of the generation of the steady-state convective streaming flows and of their interaction with the boundary of ultrasonically levitated near-spherical solid objects. The goals are to further extend the existing theoretical studies of streaming flows and sample interactions to higher streaming Reynolds number values, for larger sample size relative to the wavelength, and for a Prandtl and Nusselt numbers parameter range characteristic of both gaseous and liquid host media. Experimental studies will be conducted in support to the theoretical developments, and the crucial impact of microgravity will be to allow the neglect of natural thermal buoyancy. The direct application to heat and mass transfer in the absence of gravity will be emphasized in order to investigate a space-based experiment, but both existing and novel ground-based scientific and technological relevance will also be pursued.

  14. Local correlation detection with linearity enhancement in streaming data

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Qing

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenges in detecting the potential correlation between numerical data streams, which facilitates the research of data stream mining and pattern discovery. We focus on local correlation with delay, which may occur in burst at different time in different streams, and last for a limited period. The uncertainty on the correlation occurrence and the time delay make it diff cult to monitor the correlation online. Furthermore, the conventional correlation measure lacks the ability of ref ecting visual linearity, which is more desirable in reality. This paper proposes effective methods to continuously detect the correlation between data streams. Our approach is based on the Discrete Fourier Transform to make rapid cross-correlation calculation with time delay allowed. In addition, we introduce a shape-based similarity measure into the framework, which ref nes the results by representative trend patterns to enhance the signif cance of linearity. The similarity of proposed linear representations can quickly estimate the correlation, and the window sliding strategy in segment level improves the eff ciency for online detection. The empirical study demonstrates the accuracy of our detection approach, as well as more than 30% improvement of eff ciency. Copyright 2013 ACM.

  15. The importance of a Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest for the conservation of stream fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CE. Yoshida

    Full Text Available Preservation of terrestrial fauna and flora has been the main reason for the settlement of most protected areas in the past 30 years, but although those areas may include water bodies, this does not necessarily mean that the biodiversity of freshwater environments are also protected. In the present study, the fauna inventory of eight streams (1st, 2nd, 4th and 5th orders of three microbasins of Japi Mountain, a Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest recognised by UNESCO since 1994, located in São Paulo state, southeast of Brazil, was conducted. The hypothesis of this study is that the conservation of this area is important for the maintenance of the aquatic biodiversity of this biome, and so, this world hotspot deserves priority conservation actions. From 2005 to 2007, benthic macroinvertebrates, fishes and, eventually, anuran amphibians were sampled in these streams. The results showed that Japi Mountain contributes to the conservation of 138 taxonomic units of the aquatic biota and covers a rich and representative biodiversity of freshwater fauna of the world (0.2%, Neotropical region (0.9%, Brazil (2.4% and São Paulo state (17.9%. The studied streams in the Environmental Protection Area help protect endangered taxa like the fishes Neoplecostomus paranensis and Pareiorhina cf rudolphi, and shelter freshwater invertebrates and fishes whose distribution is restricted to the Brazilian territory. Japi Mountain is also an important haven of species that was missing there like the frog species Vitreorana eurygnatha. Thus, this species inventory emphasises the importance of conservation actions of the freshwater environments of this Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest.

  16. The importance of a Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest for the conservation of stream fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, C E; Uieda, V S

    2014-05-01

    Preservation of terrestrial fauna and flora has been the main reason for the settlement of most protected areas in the past 30 years, but although those areas may include water bodies, this does not necessarily mean that the biodiversity of freshwater environments are also protected. In the present study, the fauna inventory of eight streams (1st, 2nd, 4th and 5th orders) of three microbasins of Japi Mountain, a Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest recognised by UNESCO since 1994, located in São Paulo state, southeast of Brazil, was conducted. The hypothesis of this study is that the conservation of this area is important for the maintenance of the aquatic biodiversity of this biome, and so, this world hotspot deserves priority conservation actions. From 2005 to 2007, benthic macroinvertebrates, fishes and, eventually, anuran amphibians were sampled in these streams. The results showed that Japi Mountain contributes to the conservation of 138 taxonomic units of the aquatic biota and covers a rich and representative biodiversity of freshwater fauna of the world (0.2%), Neotropical region (0.9%), Brazil (2.4%) and São Paulo state (17.9%). The studied streams in the Environmental Protection Area help protect endangered taxa like the fishes Neoplecostomus paranensis and Pareiorhina cf rudolphi, and shelter freshwater invertebrates and fishes whose distribution is restricted to the Brazilian territory. Japi Mountain is also an important haven of species that was missing there like the frog species Vitreorana eurygnatha. Thus, this species inventory emphasises the importance of conservation actions of the freshwater environments of this Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest.

  17. First signs of macroinvertebrate recovery following enhanced restoration of boreal streams used for timber floating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotto, Francesca; Nilsson, Christer; Polvi, Lina E; McKie, Brendan G

    2017-12-26

    Although ecological restoration generally succeeds in increasing physical heterogeneity, many projects fail to enhance biota. Researchers have suggested several possible explanations, including insufficient restoration intensity, or time-lags in ecological responses that prevent detection of significant changes in short-term monitoring programs. This study aims to evaluate whether benthic macroinvertebrate communities responded to an expanded set of stream restoration measures within a study period of one to five years after completion of the restoration project. We studied ten forest streams in northern Sweden that were channelized in the past for timber floating. Managers subjected six of these streams to habitat restoration, on each of these we selected two reaches, located in close proximity but differing in restoration intensity. In "basic" restored reaches, the restoration managers broke up the channelized banks and returned cobbles and small boulders to the main channel. In "enhanced" restoration reaches, they added additional large wood and boulders to reaches previously subjected to basic restoration, and rehabilitated gravel beds. The remaining four streams were not restored, and thus represent the baseline impacted (channelized) condition. We surveyed stream benthic assemblages before the enhanced restoration (year 2010) and three times afterwards between 2011 and 2015. Five years after restoration, macroinvertebrate assemblages at the enhanced restored reaches were more differentiated from channelized conditions than those at basic-restored reaches. This reflected increased relative abundances of the insect orders Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera and the bivalve molluscs Sphaeriidae, and decreased relative abundances of Chironomidae (Diptera). Analysis of functional traits provided further insights on the mechanistic explanations driving the recovery, e.g., indicating that the augmented channel retention capacity at enhanced restored reaches favored taxa

  18. Marine reserves enhance the recovery of corals on Caribbean reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumby, Peter J; Harborne, Alastair R

    2010-01-11

    The fisheries and biodiversity benefits of marine reserves are widely recognised but there is mounting interest in exploiting the importance of herbivorous fishes as a tool to help ecosystems recover from climate change impacts. This approach might be particularly suitable for coral reefs, which are acutely threatened by climate change, yet the trophic cascades generated by reserves are strong enough that they might theoretically enhance the rate of coral recovery after disturbance. However, evidence for reserves facilitating coral recovery has been lacking. Here we investigate whether reductions in macroalgal cover, caused by recovery of herbivorous parrotfishes within a reserve, have resulted in a faster rate of coral recovery than in areas subject to fishing. Surveys of ten sites inside and outside a Bahamian marine reserve over a 2.5-year period demonstrated that increases in coral cover, including adjustments for the initial size-distribution of corals, were significantly higher at reserve sites than those in non-reserve sites. Furthermore, macroalgal cover was significantly negatively correlated with the change in total coral cover over time. Recovery rates of individual species were generally consistent with small-scale manipulations on coral-macroalgal interactions, but also revealed differences that demonstrate the difficulties of translating experiments across spatial scales. Size-frequency data indicated that species which were particularly affected by high abundances of macroalgae outside the reserve had a population bottleneck restricting the supply of smaller corals to larger size classes. Importantly, because coral cover increased from a heavily degraded state, and recovery from such states has not previously been described, similar or better outcomes should be expected for many reefs in the region. Reducing herbivore exploitation as part of an ecosystem-based management strategy for coral reefs appears to be justified.

  19. Marine reserves enhance the recovery of corals on Caribbean reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Mumby

    Full Text Available The fisheries and biodiversity benefits of marine reserves are widely recognised but there is mounting interest in exploiting the importance of herbivorous fishes as a tool to help ecosystems recover from climate change impacts. This approach might be particularly suitable for coral reefs, which are acutely threatened by climate change, yet the trophic cascades generated by reserves are strong enough that they might theoretically enhance the rate of coral recovery after disturbance. However, evidence for reserves facilitating coral recovery has been lacking. Here we investigate whether reductions in macroalgal cover, caused by recovery of herbivorous parrotfishes within a reserve, have resulted in a faster rate of coral recovery than in areas subject to fishing. Surveys of ten sites inside and outside a Bahamian marine reserve over a 2.5-year period demonstrated that increases in coral cover, including adjustments for the initial size-distribution of corals, were significantly higher at reserve sites than those in non-reserve sites. Furthermore, macroalgal cover was significantly negatively correlated with the change in total coral cover over time. Recovery rates of individual species were generally consistent with small-scale manipulations on coral-macroalgal interactions, but also revealed differences that demonstrate the difficulties of translating experiments across spatial scales. Size-frequency data indicated that species which were particularly affected by high abundances of macroalgae outside the reserve had a population bottleneck restricting the supply of smaller corals to larger size classes. Importantly, because coral cover increased from a heavily degraded state, and recovery from such states has not previously been described, similar or better outcomes should be expected for many reefs in the region. Reducing herbivore exploitation as part of an ecosystem-based management strategy for coral reefs appears to be justified.

  20. Enhanced video display and navigation for networked streaming video and networked video playlists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sachin

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present an automatic enhanced video display and navigation capability for networked streaming video and networked video playlists. Our proposed method uses Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL) as presentation language and Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) as network remote control protocol to automatically generate a "enhanced video strip" display for easy navigation. We propose and describe two approaches - a smart client approach and a smart server approach. We also describe a prototype system implementation of our proposed approach.

  1. Polymer-enhanced energy harvesting from streaming potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Trieu; Xie, Yanbo; de Vreede, Lennart; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Fujii, T.; Hibara, A.; Takeuchi, S.; Fukuba, T.

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution, we present the experimental results of energy conversion from the streaming potential when a polymer, polyacrylic acid (PAA) with concentration from 200 ppm to 4000 ppm in background electrolyte KCl solution was used as the working fluid. The results show that when PAA was

  2. Streaming Video to Enhance Students' Reflection in Dance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijen, Ali; Lam, Ineke; Wildschut, Liesbeth; Simons, P. Robert-Jan; Admiraal, Wilfried

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation case study that describes the experiences of 15 students and 2 teachers using a video-based learning environment, DiViDU, to facilitate students' daily reflection activities in a composition course and a ballet course. To support dance students' reflection processes streaming video was applied as follows: video…

  3. The response of macroinvertebrates to artificially enhanced detritus levels in plantation streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, J. L.; Dobson, M.

    The leaves and wood from vegetation surrounding headwater streams constitute a major food source for aquatic invertebrates, providing they are retained upon the streambed and not transported downstream. This study investigated the response of aquatic invertebrates to artificially increased detritus retention, in an effort to reproduce the naturally occurring build up of dead organic matter associated with streams in old-growth forest. The background detrital standing stock in streams in Kielder Forest (Northumberland, UK) was low, approximately 32 gm-2. Two streams flowing through dense conifer plantation and one in open broadleaved woodland were manipulated by the addition of logs over a 10 m stream reach. After several months, log addition significantly enhanced detrital standing stocks in both conifer and broadleaved streams. Total invertebrate abundance, taxon richness and the numbers of certain numerically dominant families were significantly higher in experimental than reference reaches in both conifer and broadleaved streams. This response was most marked for detritivores, whilst non-detritivore groups often showed no response to the manipulation. Whilst in the short term the responses to enhanced retention may reflect a redistribution of the local fauna, it is argued that over a longer time-scale, a genuine increase in invertebrate density and diversity could occur. Allowing old-growth forest to develop in planted valley bottoms may be a viable management option for conservation. If established alongside streams, it would ensure continuous input of woody material and the fauna may benefit from the resulting increase in detritus retention.

  4. Biomass estimation of Triplectides egleri Sattler (Trichoptera, Leptoceridae in a stream at Ducke Reserve, Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Gomes de Brito

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Biomass is a fundamental measure for understanding the structure and functioning (e.g. fluxes of energy and nutrients in the food chain of aquatic ecosystems. We aim to provide predictive models to estimate the biomass of Triplectides egleri Sattler, 1963, in a stream in Central Amazonia, based on body and case dimensions. We used body length, head-capsule width, interocular distance and case length and width to derive biomass estimations. Linear, exponential and power regression models were used to assess the relationship between biomass and body or case dimensions. All regression models used in the biomass estimation of T. egleri were significant. The best fit between biomass and body or case dimensions was obtained using the power model, followed by the exponential and linear models. Body length provided the best estimate of biomass. However, the dimensions of sclerotized structures (interocular distance and head-capsule width also provided good biomass predictions, and may be useful in estimating biomass of preserved and/or damaged material. Case width was the dimension of the case that provided the best estimate of biomass. Despite the low relation, case width may be useful in studies that require low stress on individuals.

  5. Method For Enhanced Gas Monitoring In High Density Flow Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Drasek, William A.; Mulderink, Kenneth A.; Marin, Ovidiu

    2005-09-13

    A method for conducting laser absorption measurements in high temperature process streams having high levels of particulate matter is disclosed. An impinger is positioned substantially parallel to a laser beam propagation path and at upstream position relative to the laser beam. Beam shielding pipes shield the beam from the surrounding environment. Measurement is conducted only in the gap between the two shielding pipes where the beam propagates through the process gas. The impinger facilitates reduced particle presence in the measurement beam, resulting in improved SNR (signal-to-noise) and improved sensitivity and dynamic range of the measurement.

  6. Evidence That Marine Reserves Enhance Resilience to Climatic Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Fiorenza; Saenz-Arroyo, Andrea; Greenley, Ashley; Vazquez, Leonardo; Espinoza Montes, Jose Antonio; Rossetto, Marisa; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2012-01-01

    Establishment of marine protected areas, including fully protected marine reserves, is one of the few management tools available for local communities to combat the deleterious effect of large scale environmental impacts, including global climate change, on ocean ecosystems. Despite the common hope that reserves play this role, empirical evidence of the effectiveness of local protection against global problems is lacking. Here we show that marine reserves increase the resilience of marine populations to a mass mortality event possibly caused by climate-driven hypoxia. Despite high and widespread adult mortality of benthic invertebrates in Baja California, Mexico, that affected populations both within and outside marine reserves, juvenile replenishment of the species that supports local economies, the pink abalone Haliotis corrugata, remained stable within reserves because of large body size and high egg production of the protected adults. Thus, local protection provided resilience through greater resistance and faster recovery of protected populations. Moreover, this benefit extended to adjacent unprotected areas through larval spillover across the edges of the reserves. While climate change mitigation is being debated, coastal communities have few tools to slow down negative impacts of global environmental shifts. These results show that marine protected areas can provide such protection. PMID:22855690

  7. Reservation information sharing enhancement for deflection routing in OBS network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Donghui; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhou, Zhiyu

    2005-03-07

    The resource contention problem is critical in Just-Enough-Time (JET) based optical burst switching (OBS) networks. Although deflection routing (DR) reduces the contention probability in some degree, it does not give much improvement under heavy traffic load. This paper analyzed the inducement causing contention in OBS networks, and proposed Resource Information Sharing Enhancement (RISE) scheme. Theoretical analysis shows that this scheme achieves shorter length of the detour path than normal DR. We simulated this scheme on both full mesh network and practical 14-node NSFNET. The simulation results show that it gives at best 2 orders magnitude improvement in reducing the burst contention probability over its previous routing approaches.

  8. Enhancing the quality of service of video streaming over MANETs using MDC and FEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Weihua; Guo, Rui

    2012-04-01

    Path and server diversities have been used to guarantee reliable video streaming communication over wireless networks. In this paper, server diversity over mobile wireless ad hoc networks (MANETs) is implemented. Particularly, multipoint-to-point transmission together with multiple description coding (MDC) and forward error correction (FEC) technique is used to enhance the quality of service of video streaming over the wireless lossy networks. Additionally, the dynamic source routing (DSR) protocol is used to discover maximally disjoint routes for each sender and to distribute the workload evenly within the MANETs for video streaming applications. NS-2 Simulation study demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed mechanism and it shows that the approach achieves better quality of video streaming, in terms of the playable frame rate, reliability and real-time performance on the receiving side.

  9. Measurement of Streaming Potential in Downhole Application: An Insight for Enhanced Oil Recovery Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Mohd Tengku Amran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Downhole monitoring using streaming potential measurement has been developing in order to respond to actual reservoir condition. Most studies have emphasized on monitoring water flooding at various reservoir condition and improving the approaches of measurement. Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR could significantly improve oil recovery and the efficiency of the process should be well-monitored. Alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP flooding is the most promising chemical EOR method due to its synergy of alkaline, surfactant and polymer, which could enhance the extraction of residual oil. However, limited studies have been focused on the application of streaming potential in EOR processes, particularly ASP. Thus, this paper aims to review the streaming potential measurement in downhole monitoring with an insight for EOR application and propose the potential measurement in monitoring ASP flooding. It is important for a preliminary study to investigate the synergy in ASP and the effects on oil recovery. The behaviour of streaming potential should be investigated when the environment of porous media changes with respect to ASP flooding. Numerical model can be generated from the experimental data to forecast the measured streaming potential signal during production associated with ASP flooding. Based on the streaming potential behaviour on foam assisted water alternate gas (FAWAG and water alternate gas (WAG processes, it is expected that the streaming potential could change significantly when ASP flooding alters the environment and surface properties of porous media. The findings could provide new prospect and knowledge in the relationship between streaming potential and ASP mechanisms, which could be a potential approach in monitoring the efficiency of the process.

  10. Advanced Reactive Power Reserve Management Scheme to Enhance LVRT Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwanik Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: To increase the utilization of wind power in the power system, grid integration standards have been proposed for the stable integration of large-scale wind power plants. In particular, fault-ride-through capability, especially Low-Voltage-Ride-Through (LVRT, has been emphasized, as it is related to tripping in wind farms. Therefore, this paper proposes the Wind power plant applicable-Effective Reactive power Reserve (Wa-ERPR, which combines both wind power plants and conventional generators at the Point of Interconnection (POI. The reactive power capability of the doubly-fed induction generator wind farm was considered to compute the total Wa-ERPR at the POI with reactive power capability of existing generators. By using the Wa-ERPR management algorithm, in case of a violation of the LVRT standards, the amount of reactive power compensation is computed using the Wa-ERPR management scheme. The proposed scheme calculates the Wa-ERPR and computes the required reactive power, reflecting the change of the system topology pre- and post-contingency, to satisfy the LVRT criterion when LVRT regulation is not satisfied at the POI. The static synchronous compensator (STATCOM with the capacity corresponding to calculated amount of reactive power through the Wa-ERPR management scheme is applied to the POI. Therefore, it is confirmed that the wind power plant satisfies the LVRT criteria by securing the appropriate reactive power at the POI, by applying of the proposed algorithm.

  11. Extended value stream mapping to enhance sustainability: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartini, Sri; Ciptomulyono, Udisubakti; Anityasari, Maria

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a review of literature on extended VSM to enhance sustainable manufacturing. Literature review was done using two viewpoints. First, analyzed of the literature based on its research methods, research scope and the metrics used to measure sustainable manufacturing. Second, analyzed of the literature based on its contribution, its application area and its limitation. Though some researches had proposed how to increase sustainability, none of those researches showed the effect of the increase of performance metrics to the level of sustainability. Finally, this paper discusses the limitation of previous researches and proposes some opportunities and challenges for future research.

  12. Drug perfusion enhancement in tissue model by steady streaming induced by oscillating microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jin Sun; Kwon, Yong Seok; Lee, Kyung Ho; Jeong, Woowon; Chung, Sang Kug; Rhee, Kyehan

    2014-01-01

    Drug delivery into neurological tissue is challenging because of the low tissue permeability. Ultrasound incorporating microbubbles has been applied to enhance drug delivery into these tissues, but the effects of a streaming flow by microbubble oscillation on drug perfusion have not been elucidated. In order to clarify the physical effects of steady streaming on drug delivery, an experimental study on dye perfusion into a tissue model was performed using microbubbles excited by acoustic waves. The surface concentration and penetration length of the drug were increased by 12% and 13%, respectively, with streaming flow. The mass of dye perfused into a tissue phantom for 30s was increased by about 20% in the phantom with oscillating bubbles. A computational model that considers fluid structure interaction for streaming flow fields induced by oscillating bubbles was developed, and mass transfer of the drug into the porous tissue model was analyzed. The computed flow fields agreed with the theoretical solutions, and the dye concentration distribution in the tissue agreed well with the experimental data. The computational results showed that steady streaming with a streaming velocity of a few millimeters per second promotes mass transfer into a tissue. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Streambed Hydraulic Conductivity Structures: Enhanced Hyporheic Exchange and Contaminant Removal in Model and Constructed Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, S.; Higgins, C. P.; McCray, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Urban- and agriculturally-impacted streams face widespread water quality challenges from excess nutrients, metals, and pathogens from nonpoint sources, which the hyporheic zone (HZ) can capture and treat. However, flow through the HZ is typically small relative to stream flow and thus water quality contributions from the HZ are practically insignificant. Hyporheic exchange is a prominent topic in stream biogeochemistry, but growing understanding of HZ processes has not been translated into practical applications. In particular, existing HZ restoration structures (i.e. cross-vanes) do not exchange water efficiently nor control the residence time (RT) of downwelling streamwater. Here we present subsurface modifications to streambed hydraulic conductivity (K) to drive efficient hyporheic exchange and control RT, thereby enhancing the effectiveness of the HZ. Coordinated high K (i.e. gravel) and low K (i.e. concrete, clay) modifications are termed Biohydrochemical Enhancement structures for Streamwater Treatment (BEST). BEST can simply use native sediments or may also incorporate reactive geomedia to enhance reactions. The contaminant mitigation potentials of BEST were estimated based on hyporheic flow and RT outputs from MODFLOW and MODPATH models and reported nutrient, metal, and pathogen removal rate constants from literature for specific porous media. Reactions of interest include denitrification and removal of phosphate, metals, and E. coli. Simulations showed that BEST structures in series can substantially improve water quality in small streams along reaches of tens of meters. The model results are compared to observed data in tank and constructed stream experiments. Preliminary results with BEST incorporating woodchip geomedia demonstrate rapid denitrification exceeding model predictions. These experiments should establish BEST as a novel stream restoration structure or Best Management Practice (BMP) option to help practitioners achieve stormwater compliance.

  14. A new error resilience method for FGS video enhancement bit-stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ran; Zhang, Zhao-yang; An, Ping

    2006-05-01

    Video streaming over the Internet usually encounters with bandwidth variations and packet losses, which impacted badly on the reconstructed video quality. Fine Granularity Scalability (FGS) can well provide bit-rate adaptability to different bandwidth conditions over the Internet, due to its fine granular and error resilience. However, the effective solution of packet losses is Multiple Description Coding (MDC), but a great deal of redundancy information is brought up. For an FGS video bit-stream, the base layer is usually very small and of high importance, error-free transmission could be achieved through classical error resilience technique. As a result, the overall streaming quality is mostly dependent on the enhancement layer. Moreover, it is worthy of note that the different bit-planes are of different importance, which are suitable to unequal protection (UEP) strategy. So, a new joint MDC and UEP method is proposed to protect the enhancement layer in this paper. In the proposed method, the MDC encoder/decoder is embedded into the normal enhancement layer encoder/decoder. By considering of the unequal protection of bit-plane and the redundancy of MDC, the two most significant bit-planes adopt the MDC-based strategy. While, the remaining bit-planes only encoded by normal enhancement layer coding system. Experimental results are demonstrated to testify the efficiency of our proposed method.

  15. Does plasticity enhance or dampen phenotypic parallelism? A test with three lake-stream stickleback pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, K B; Bukhari, M; Kaeuffer, R; Rolshausen, G; Räsänen, K; Bolnick, D I; Peichel, C L; Hendry, A P

    2016-01-01

    Parallel (and convergent) phenotypic variation is most often studied in the wild, where it is difficult to disentangle genetic vs. environmentally induced effects. As a result, the potential contributions of phenotypic plasticity to parallelism (and nonparallelism) are rarely evaluated in a formal sense. Phenotypic parallelism could be enhanced by plasticity that causes stronger parallelism across populations in the wild than would be expected from genetic differences alone. Phenotypic parallelism could be dampened if site-specific plasticity induced differences between otherwise genetically parallel populations. We used a common-garden study of three independent lake-stream stickleback population pairs to evaluate the extent to which adaptive divergence has a genetic or plastic basis, and to investigate the enhancing vs. dampening effects of plasticity on phenotypic parallelism. We found that lake-stream differences in most traits had a genetic basis, but that several traits also showed contributions from plasticity. Moreover, plasticity was much more prevalent in one watershed than in the other two. In most cases, plasticity enhanced phenotypic parallelism, whereas in a few cases, plasticity had a dampening effect. Genetic and plastic contributions to divergence seem to play a complimentary, likely adaptive, role in phenotypic parallelism of lake-stream stickleback. These findings highlight the value of formally comparing wild-caught and laboratory-reared individuals in the study of phenotypic parallelism. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Trapping of Embolic Particles in a Vessel Phantom by Cavitation-Enhanced Acoustic Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Adam D.; Park, Simone; Vaughan, Benjamin L.; Cain, Charles A.; Grotberg, James B.; Xu, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Cavitation clouds generated by short, high-amplitude, focused ultrasound pulses were previously observed to attract, trap, and erode thrombus fragments in a vessel phantom. This phenomenon may offer a noninvasive method to capture and eliminate embolic fragments flowing through the bloodstream during a cardiovascular intervention. In this article, the mechanism of embolus trapping was explored by particle image velocimetry (PIV). PIV was used to examine the fluid streaming patterns generated by ultrasound in a vessel phantom with and without crossflow of blood-mimicking fluid. Cavitation enhanced streaming, which generated fluid vortices adjacent to the focus. The focal streaming velocity, uf, was as high as 120 cm/s, while mean crossflow velocities, uc, were imposed up to 14 cm/s. When a solid particle 3-4 mm diameter was introduced into crossflow, it was trapped near the focus. Increasing uf promoted particle trapping while increasing uc promoted particle escape. The maximum crossflow Reynolds number at which particles could be trapped, Rec, was approximately linear with focal streaming number, Ref, i.e. Rec = 0.25Ref + 67.44 (R2=0.76) corresponding to dimensional velocities uc=0.084uf + 3.122 for 20 < uf < 120 cm/s. The fluidic pressure map was estimated from PIV and indicated a negative pressure gradient towards the focus, trapping the embolus near this location. PMID:25109407

  17. 75 FR 73027 - Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative and Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative and Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation and Natural Resources... producers to voluntarily implement conservation practices that avoid, control, and trap nutrient runoff...

  18. Dynamics of microbial community structure and nutrient removal from an innovative side-stream enhanced biological phosphorus removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shahinoor; Zhang, Yanyan; Dong, Shimiao; McPhedran, Kerry N; Rashed, Ehab M; El-Shafei, Maha M; Noureldin, Ahmed M; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    Biological phosphorous (P) and nitrogen (N) removal from municipal wastewater was studied using an innovative anoxic-aerobic-anaerobic side-stream treatment system. The impact of influent water quality including chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium and orthophosphate concentrations on the reactor performance was evaluated. The results showed the system was very effective at removing both COD (>88%) and NH4(+)-N (>96%) despite varying influent concentrations of COD, NH4(+)-N, and total PO4(3-)-P. In contrast, it was found that the removal of P was sensitive to influent NH4(+)-N and PO4(3-)-P concentrations. The maximum PO4(3-)-P removal of 79% was achieved with the lowest influent NH4(+)-N and PO4(3-)-P concentration. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays showed a high abundance and diversity of phosphate accumulating organisms (PAO), nitrifiers and denitrifiers. The MiSeq microbial community structure analysis showed that the Proteobacteria (especially β-Proteobacteria, and γ-Proteobacteria) were the dominant in all reactors. Further analysis of the bacteria indicated the presence of diverse PAO genera including Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis, Tetrasphaera, and Rhodocyclus, and the denitrifying PAO (DPAO) genus Dechloromonas. Interestingly, no glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) were detected in any of the reactors, suggesting the advantage of proposed process in term of PAO selection for enhanced P removal compared with conventional main-stream processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Documentation of a daily mean stream temperature module—An enhancement to the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Michael J.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Regan, R. Steven; Atkinson, R. Dwight

    2017-09-15

    A module for simulation of daily mean water temperature in a network of stream segments has been developed as an enhancement to the U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). This new module is based on the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Stream Network Temperature model, a mechanistic, one-dimensional heat transport model. The new module is integrated in PRMS. Stream-water temperature simulation is activated by selection of the appropriate input flags in the PRMS Control File and by providing the necessary additional inputs in standard PRMS input files.This report includes a comprehensive discussion of the methods relevant to the stream temperature calculations and detailed instructions for model input preparation.

  20. Civil Reserve Air Fleet Enhancement Program: a study of its viability in today's environment

    OpenAIRE

    Wales, William S.

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited During the 1970s and 1980s, there existed a gap between the strategic mobility requirement and the nation's cargo assets to meet this requirement. Consequently, the Military Airlift Command developed and implemented the Civil Reserve Air Fleet Enhancement Program (CEP) to bridge this gap. Civilian airlines were given monetary and other incentives to modify their existing wide- body passenger aircraft enabling them to carry military-siz...

  1. Three-stage variability-based reserve modifiers for enhancing flexibility reserve requirements under high variable generation penetrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krad, Ibrahim; Gao, David Wenzhong; Ibanez, Eduardo; Ela, Erik

    2016-12-01

    The electric power system has continuously evolved in order to accommodate new technologies and operating strategies. As the penetration of integrated variable generation in the system increases, it is beneficial to develop strategies that can help mitigate their effect on the grid. Historically, power system operators have held excess capacity during the commitment and dispatch process to allow the system to handle unforeseen load ramping events. As variable generation resources increase, sufficient flexibility scheduled in the system is required to ensure that system performance is not deteriorated in the presence of additional variability and uncertainty. This paper presents a systematic comparison of various flexibility reserve strategies. Several of them are implemented and applied in a common test system, in order to evaluate their effect on the economic and reliable operations. Furthermore, a three stage reserve modifier algorithm is proposed and evaluated for its ability to improve system performance.

  2. Flow characteristics of streams that drain the Fort Apache and San Carlos Indian reservations, east-central Arizona, 1930-86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldys, Stanley; Bayles, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Streamflow characteristics of the Salt River and Gila River basins in the Fort Apache and San Carlos Indian Reservations, were studied in response to pending adjudication of water resources in those basins. Statistical summaries were compiled for 28 streamflow-gaging stations in and near the reservation. Mean annual streamflow for 1930-86 was computed for stations with complete records for the period; for those stations with records that did not completely cover the 1930-86 period, record extension techniques were used. Mean annual streamflow for ungaged sites on streams with gaging stations was estimated by interpolation between data points using drainage-area ratios. Two regional-regression equations were derived to estimate mean annual streamflow at sites on ungaged natural streams. The standard error of the regression for estimation of mean annual flow for sites in the Salt River basin is -37 to +59%. The standard error of the regression for estimation of mean annual flow for sites in the Gila River basins is -18 to +21%. (USGS)

  3. An Enhanced Reservation-Based MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.15.4 Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, José A.; Silva, Helder D.; Macedo, Pedro; Rocha, Luis A.

    2011-01-01

    The IEEE 802.15.4 Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is an enabling standard for wireless sensor networks. In order to support applications requiring dedicated bandwidth or bounded delay, it provides a reservation-based scheme named Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS). However, the GTS scheme presents some drawbacks, such as inefficient bandwidth utilization and support to a maximum of only seven devices. This paper presents eLPRT (enhanced Low Power Real Time), a new reservation-based MAC protocol that introduces several performance enhancing features in comparison to the GTS scheme. This MAC protocol builds on top of LPRT (Low Power Real Time) and includes various mechanisms designed to increase data transmission reliability against channel errors, improve bandwidth utilization and increase the number of supported devices. A motion capture system based on inertial and magnetic sensors has been used to validate the protocol. The effectiveness of the performance enhancements introduced by each of the new features is demonstrated through the provision of both simulation and experimental results. PMID:22163826

  4. An Enhanced Reservation-Based MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.15.4 Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Rocha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.15.4 Medium Access Control (MAC protocol is an enabling standard for wireless sensor networks. In order to support applications requiring dedicated bandwidth or bounded delay, it provides a reservation-based scheme named Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS. However, the GTS scheme presents some drawbacks, such as inefficient bandwidth utilization and support to a maximum of only seven devices. This paper presents eLPRT (enhanced Low Power Real Time, a new reservation-based MAC protocol that introduces several performance enhancing features in comparison to the GTS scheme. This MAC protocol builds on top of LPRT (Low Power Real Time and includes various mechanisms designed to increase data transmission reliability against channel errors, improve bandwidth utilization and increase the number of supported devices. A motion capture system based on inertial and magnetic sensors has been used to validate the protocol. The effectiveness of the performance enhancements introduced by each of the new features is demonstrated through the provision of both simulation and experimental results.

  5. A relativistic self-consistent model for studying enhancement of space charge limited emission due to counter-streaming ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M. C.; Verboncoeur, J.

    2016-10-01

    A maximum electron current transmitted through a planar diode gap is limited by space charge of electrons dwelling across the gap region, the so called space charge limited (SCL) emission. By introducing a counter-streaming ion flow to neutralize the electron charge density, the SCL emission can be dramatically raised, so electron current transmission gets enhanced. In this work, we have developed a relativistic self-consistent model for studying the enhancement of maximum transmission by a counter-streaming ion current. The maximum enhancement is found when the ion effect is saturated, as shown analytically. The solutions in non-relativistic, intermediate, and ultra-relativistic regimes are obtained and verified with 1-D particle-in-cell simulations. This self-consistent model is general and can also serve as a comparison for verification of simulation codes, as well as extension to higher dimensions.

  6. Image Encryption Using Stream Cipher Based on Nonlinear Combination Generator with Enhanced Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belmeguenaï Aîssa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The images are very largely used in our daily life; the security of their transfer became necessary. In this work a novel image encryption scheme using stream cipher algorithm based on nonlinear combination generator is developed. The main contribution of this work is to enhance the security of encrypted image. The proposed scheme is based on the use the several linear feedback shifts registers whose feedback polynomials are primitive and of degrees are all pairwise coprimes combined by resilient function whose resiliency order, algebraic degree and nonlinearity attain Siegenthaler’s and Sarkar, al.’s bounds. This proposed scheme is simple and highly efficient. In order to evaluate performance, the proposed algorithm was measured through a series of tests. These tests included visual test and histogram analysis, key space analysis, correlation coefficient analysis, image entropy, key sensitivity analysis, noise analysis, Berlekamp-Massey attack, correlation attack and algebraic attack. Experimental results demonstrate the proposed system is highly key sensitive, highly resistance to the noises and shows a good resistance against brute-force, statistical attacks, Berlekamp-Massey attack, correlation attack, algebraic attack and a robust system which makes it a potential candidate for encryption of image.

  7. Enhanced electroporation in plant tissues via low frequency pulsed electric fields: influence of cytoplasmic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asavasanti, Suvaluk; Stroeve, Pieter; Barrett, Diane M; Jernstedt, Judith A; Ristenpart, William D

    2012-01-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF) are known to be effective at permeabilizing plant tissues. Prior research has demonstrated that lower pulse frequencies induce higher rates of permeabilization, but the underlying reason for this response is unclear. Intriguingly, recent microscopic observations with onion tissues have also revealed a correlation between PEF frequency and the subsequent speed of intracellular convective motion, i.e., cytoplasmic streaming. In this paper, we investigate the effect of cytoplasmic streaming on the efficacy of plant tissue permeabilization via PEF. Onion tissue samples were treated with Cytochalasin B, a known inhibitor of cytoplasmic streaming, and changes in cellular integrity and viability were measured over a wide range of frequencies and field strengths. We find that at low frequencies (f streaming results in a 19% decrease in the conductivity disintegration index compared with control samples. Qualitatively, similar results were observed using a microscopic cell viability assay. The results suggest that at low frequencies convection plays a statistically significant role in distributing more conductive fluid throughout the tissue, making subsequent pulses more efficacious. The key practical implication is that PEF pretreatment at low frequency can increase the rate of tissue permeabilization in dehydration or extraction processes, and that the treatment will be most effective when cytoplasmic streaming is most active, i.e., with freshly prepared plant tissues. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  8. Growth-Enhanced Transgenic Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) Strains Have Varied Success in Simulated Streams: Implications for Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggatt, Rosalind A; Sundström, L Fredrik; Woodward, Krista; Devlin, Robert H

    2017-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transgenic fish have accelerated growth and could improve production efficiency in aquaculture. However, concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish should they escape rearing facilities. While environmental effects have been examined in some GH transgenic models, there is a lack of information on whether effects differ among different constructs or strains of transgenic fish. We compared growth and survival of wild-type coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) fry, a fast-growing GH transgenic strain containing a metallothionein promoter (TMT), and three lines/strains containing a reportedly weaker histone-3 promoter (TH3) in hatchery conditions and semi-natural stream tanks with varying levels of natural food and predators. Rank order of genotype size and survival differed with varying environmental conditions, both within and among experiments. Despite accelerated growth in hatchery conditions, TMT fry gained little or no growth enhancement in stream conditions, had enhanced survival when food was limiting, and inconsistent survival under other conditions. Rank growth was inconsistent in TH3 strains, with one strain having highest, and two strains having the lowest growth in stream conditions, although all TH3 strains had consistently poor survival. These studies demonstrate the importance of determining risk estimates for each unique transgenic model independent of other models.

  9. Growth-Enhanced Transgenic Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch Strains Have Varied Success in Simulated Streams: Implications for Risk Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind A Leggatt

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH transgenic fish have accelerated growth and could improve production efficiency in aquaculture. However, concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish should they escape rearing facilities. While environmental effects have been examined in some GH transgenic models, there is a lack of information on whether effects differ among different constructs or strains of transgenic fish. We compared growth and survival of wild-type coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch fry, a fast-growing GH transgenic strain containing a metallothionein promoter (TMT, and three lines/strains containing a reportedly weaker histone-3 promoter (TH3 in hatchery conditions and semi-natural stream tanks with varying levels of natural food and predators. Rank order of genotype size and survival differed with varying environmental conditions, both within and among experiments. Despite accelerated growth in hatchery conditions, TMT fry gained little or no growth enhancement in stream conditions, had enhanced survival when food was limiting, and inconsistent survival under other conditions. Rank growth was inconsistent in TH3 strains, with one strain having highest, and two strains having the lowest growth in stream conditions, although all TH3 strains had consistently poor survival. These studies demonstrate the importance of determining risk estimates for each unique transgenic model independent of other models.

  10. Association of wintering raptors with Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program grasslands in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A.; Brittingham, M.; Grove, G.

    2010-01-01

    Conservation grasslands can provide valuable habitat resource for breeding songbirds, but their value for wintering raptors has received little attention. We hypothesized that increased availability of grassland habitat through the Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) has resulted in an increase or redistribution in numbers of four species of raptors in Pennsylvania since 2001. We tested this by analyzing winter raptor counts from volunteer surveys, conducted from 2001 to 2008, for Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus), Northern Harriers (Circus cyaneus), and American Kestrels (Falco sparverius). During that period, numbers of wintering Northern Harriers increased by more than 20% per year. Log-linear Poisson regression models show that all four species increased in the region of Pennsylvania that had the most and longest-established conservation grasslands. At the county scale (N= 67), Bayesian spatial models showed that spatial and temporal population trends of all four species were positively correlated with the amount of conservation grassland. This relationship was particularly strong for Northern Harriers, with numbers predicted to increase by 35.7% per year for each additional 1% of farmland enrolled in CREP. Our results suggest that conservation grasslands are likely the primary cause of the increase in numbers of wintering Northern Harriers in Pennsylvania since 2001. ?? 2010 The Authors. Journal of Field Ornithology ?? 2010 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  11. Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, Angelo, Lamb, Dave; Scott, Jason

    2003-12-01

    actions included: (1) Implement habitat restoration and enhancement measures in Alder, Benewah, Evans, and Lake Creeks; (2) Purchase critical watershed areas for protection of fisheries habitat; (3) Conduct an educational/outreach program for the general public within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation to facilitate a 'holistic' watershed protection process; (4) Develop an interim fishery for tribal and non-tribal members of the reservation through construction, operation and maintenance of five trout ponds; (5) Design, construct, operate and maintain a trout production facility; and (6) Implement a five-year monitoring program to evaluate the effectiveness of the hatchery and habitat improvement projects. Since that time, much of the mitigation activities occurring within the Coeur d'Alene sub-basin have had a connection to the project entitled 'Implement of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation', which is sponsored and implemented by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program and is the subject of this report.

  12. Computer program documentation for the enhanced stream-water quality model QUAL2E. Final report, August 1984-June 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.C.; Barnwell, T.O.

    1985-08-01

    Presented in the manual are recent modifications and improvements to the widely used stream water quality model QUAL-II. Called QUAL2E, the enhanced model incorporates improvements in eight areas: (1) algal, nitrogen, phosphorus, and dissolved oxygen interactions; (2) algal growth rate; (3) temperature; (4) dissolved oxygen; (5) arbitrary non-conservative constituents; (6) hydraulics; (7) downstream boundary concentrations; and (8) input/output modifications. QUAL2E, which can be operated either as a steady-state or as a dynamic model, is intended for use as a water-quality planning tool.

  13. Enhancing the Dialogue in Simultaneous Class-Based and Live Video-Streamed Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsbak, Vibe Alopaeus; Ørngreen, Rikke; Thorsen, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    from home via the Internet. In live video-streamed teaching classes teachers tend to choose one-way communication instead of dialogue. We know from our early findings that technology issues are one of the main reasons for this, since the same teachers use dialogue and discussions in traditional......The bachelor programme in biomedical laboratory analysis at VIA University College in Aarhus has established a blended class concept which combines traditional and live broadcast teaching. 1-2 days a week students have the choice either to attend teaching sessions in the traditional way or to work...... teaching. This paper describes a work-in-progress project focused on developing possibilities for a more dialogue-based approach to live video-streamed teaching. We present our new setup and argue for educational designs which this is believed to support, and we outline the research design for collecting...

  14. Enhancing the Dialogue in Simultaneous Class-Based and Live Video-Streamed Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsbak, Vibe Alopaeus; Bendsen, Thomas; Thorsen, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    or to work from home via the Internet. In live video-streamed teaching classes teachers tend to choose one-way communication instead of dialogue. We know from our early findings that technology issues are one of the main reasons for this, since the same teachers use dialogue and discussions in traditional......Abstract: The bachelor programme in biomedical laboratory analysis at VIA University College in Aarhus has established a blended class concept which combines traditional and live broadcast teaching. 1-2 days a week students have the choice either to attend teaching sessions in the traditional way...... teaching. This paper describes a work-in-progress project focused on developing possibilities for a more dialogue-based approach to live video-streamed teaching. We present our new setup and argue for educational de- signs which this is believed to support, and we outline the research design for collecting...

  15. An Enhanced Access Reservation Protocol with a Partial Preamble Transmission Mechanism in NB-IoT Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Taehoon; Kim, Dong Min; Pratas, Nuno; Popovski, Petar; Sung, Dan Keun

    2017-01-01

    In this letter, we propose an enhanced Access Reservation Protocol (ARP) with a partial preamble transmission (PPT) mechanism for the narrow band Internet of Things (NB-IoT) systems. The proposed ARP can enhance the ARP performance by mitigating the occurrence of preamble collisions, while being compatible with the conventional NB-IoT ARP. We provide an analytical model that captures the performance of the proposed ARP in terms of false alarm, mis-detection and collision probabilities. Moreov...

  16. Enhancement of the Civil Reserve Air Fleet: An Alternative for Bridging the Airlift Gap

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palmby, William

    1995-01-01

    .... During the 1970s and 1980s, the Military Airlift Command's attempts to reduce the airlift deficit included a CRAF Enhancement Program that subsidized the conversion of CRAF jumbo aircraft into cargo-convertibles...

  17. Primary Path Reservation Using Enhanced Slot Assignment in TDMA for Session Admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Koneri Chandrasekaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET is a self-organized collection of nodes that communicates without any infrastructure. Providing quality of service (QoS in such networks is a competitive task due to unreliable wireless link, mobility, lack of centralized coordination, and channel contention. The success of many real time applications is purely based on the QoS, which can be achieved by quality aware routing (QAR and admission control (AC. Recently proposed QoS mechanisms do focus completely on either reservation or admission control but are not better enough. In MANET, high mobility causes frequent path break due to the fact that every time the source node must find the route. In such cases the QoS session is affected. To admit a QoS session, admission control protocols must ensure the bandwidth of the relaying path before transmission starts; reservation of such bandwidth noticeably improves the admission control performance. Many TDMA based reservation mechanisms are proposed but need some improvement over slot reservation procedures. In order to overcome this specific issue, we propose a framework—PRAC (primary path reservation admission control protocol, which achieves improved QoS by making use of backup route combined with resource reservation. A network topology has been simulated and our approach proves to be a mechanism that admits the session effectively.

  18. Advances in Glass Formulations for Hanford High-Alumimum, High-Iron and Enhanced Sulphate Management in HLW Streams - 13000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.

    2013-01-16

    The current estimates and glass formulation efforts have been conservative in terms of achievable waste loadings. These formulations have been specified to ensure that the glasses are homogenous, contain essentially no crystalline phases, are processable in joule-heated, ceramic-lined melters and meet Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Contract terms. The WTP?s overall mission will require the immobilization of tank waste compositions that are dominated by mixtures of aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), bismuth (Bi), iron (Fe), phosphorous (P), zirconium (Zr), and sulphur (S) compounds as waste-limiting components. Glass compositions for these waste mixtures have been developed based upon previous experience and current glass property models. Recently, DOE has initiated a testing program to develop and characterize HLW glasses with higher waste loadings and higher throughput efficiencies. Results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of increases in waste loading from about 25 wt% to 33-50 wt% (based on oxide loading) in the glass depending on the waste stream. In view of the importance of aluminum limited waste streams at Hanford (and also Savannah River), the ability to achieve high waste loadings without adversely impacting melt rates has the potential for enormous cost savings from reductions in canister count and the potential for schedule acceleration. Consequently, the potential return on the investment made in the development of these enhancements is extremely favorable. Glass composition development for one of the latest Hanford HLW projected compositions with sulphate concentrations high enough to limit waste loading have been successfully tested and show tolerance for previously unreported tolerance for sulphate. Though a significant increase in waste loading for high-iron wastes has been achieved, the magnitude of the increase is not as substantial as those achieved for high-aluminum, high-chromium, high-bismuth or sulphur

  19. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program Research, Monitoring and Evaluation Plan; Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation, 1997-2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, Angelo; Lamb, Dave; Peters, Ronald

    2002-11-01

    channel forms. In addition, ponds have been constructed to trap sediment from rill and gully erosion associated with agricultural practices, and to provide flow enhancement and ameliorate elevated stream temperatures during the summer base flow period. The implementation of restoration efforts that target the key habitats and lifestages for resident westslope cutthroat trout on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation is one means the Tribe is using to partially mitigate for lost anadromous fisheries. In this context, restoration is consistent with the definition provided by Ebersole et al. (1997), who described stream restoration as the reexpression of habitat capacity in a stream system. At the reach scale, habitat capacity is affected by biotic (e.g., riparian vegetation) and physical (e.g., flooding) processes. Superimposed on the natural biotic and physical processes are anthropogenic stressors (e.g., logging, roads and grazing) that suppress habitat capacity and can result in simplified, degraded stream reaches. The effectiveness of habitat restoration, measured as an increase in native trout abundance, is dependent on reducing limiting factors (e.g., passage barriers, high water temperatures, sediment transport from source areas) in areas that are critical for spawning and rearing lifestages. This plan outlines a monitoring strategy to help determine the effectiveness of specific restoration/enhancement treatments and to track the status of trout populations in four target watersheds.

  20. Social success of in-stream habitat improvement: from fisheries enhancement to the delivery of multiple ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maare Marttila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Stream restoration often aims to enhance fisheries by improving stream conditions for target fish species. However, river restoration has a potential impact on a variety of ecosystem services. Among stakeholders, the emerging expectations about restoration attain different priorities. How well these expectations are met influences social perceptions of success or failure. Although public support for restoration is known to have a significant impact on the sustainability and overall success of restoration, social aspects are rarely considered in this context. To address these issues, we conducted a questionnaire study among the residents and fishermen of three recently restored rivers in Finland. Results indicate that both user groups highly supported the restoration goals, but they were not always satisfied with the restoration outcomes. The changes in landscape value and amenity and fish provisioning had the highest influence on the user groups' attitudes. Restoration-induced changes in ecosystem services showed clear variation between the different locations, but the differences in the perceptions of the two user groups were less evident. Comparing perceptions between the user groups and locations and applying the ecosystem services approach are a novel contribution to the debate on restoration success. Our study highlights the importance of perspective, social-ecological context, and adequate communication for success.

  1. Enhancing Conservation Education Opportunities in Nature Reserves in Tropical Countries: A Case Study in Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rome, Abigail; Romero, Bart

    1998-01-01

    To meet the educational needs of residents and visitors at a nature reserve in Belize, educators developed a program to teach participating students and provide ongoing educational resources for future visitors. Fifteen North-American college students received academic training in rainforest ecology and environmental education. They then created…

  2. Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macy, Tom L.; James, Gary A.

    2003-03-01

    The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public out reach was emphasized during this first year of the project. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and off-stream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements were signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Two landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and one chose OWEB as a funding source. Two landowners implemented there own enhancement measures protecting 3 miles of stream. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin. We provided input to the John Day Summary prepared for the NWPPC by ODFW. The Tribe worked with the Umatilla National Forest on the Clear Creek Dredgetailings Rehabilitation project and coordinated regularly with USFS Fisheries, Hydrology and Range staff.

  3. Evaluation of the capabilities of the Hanford Reservation and Envirocare of Utah for disposal of potentially problematic mixed low-level waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, R.D.; Pohl, P.I.; Cheng, W.C.; Gruebel, M.M.; Wheeler, T.A.; Langkopf, B.S.

    1998-03-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area is developing a program to address and resolve issues associated with final waste form performance in treating and disposing of DOE`s mixed low-level waste (MLLW) inventory. A key issue for the program is identifying MLLW streams that may be problematic for disposal. Previous reports have quantified and qualified the capabilities of fifteen DOE sites for MLLW disposal and provided volume and radionuclide concentration estimates for treated MLLW based on the DOE inventory. Scoping-level analyses indicated that 101 waste streams identified in this report (approximately 6,250 m{sup 3} of the estimated total treated MLLW) had radionuclide concentrations that may make their disposal problematic. The radionuclide concentrations of these waste streams were compared with the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for a DOE disposal facility at Hanford and for Envirocare`s commercial disposal facility for MLLW in Utah. Of the treated MLLW volume identified as potentially problematic, about 100 m{sup 3} exceeds the WAC for disposal at Hanford, and about 4,500 m{sup 3} exceeds the WAC for disposal at Envirocare. Approximately 7% of DOE`s total MLLW inventory has not been sufficiently characterized to identify a treatment process for the waste and was not included in the analysis. In addition, of the total treated MLLW volume, about 30% was associated with waste streams that did not have radionuclide concentration data and could not be included in the determination of potentially problematic waste streams.

  4. A comprehensive approach to enhancing sexual health education in the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsberg, S A; Malemud, C J; Novak, T; Cole-Kelly, K; Wile, M Z; Spanos, P; Nosek, T M

    2003-10-01

    We report on the Sexual Health Curriculum Enhancement project at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. Using a US dollars 100000 grant from Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, Inc., we have developed and are in the process of implementing a comprehensive, cross-disciplinary and innovative curriculum that is based on three primary objectives for teaching sexual health: attitude change, behavior change, and knowledge acquisition. Five general strategies to incorporate specific sexual health content into the medical school curriculum have been implemented: (1). Faculty Development; (2). Additional Didactics; (3). Cased-Based Learning; (4). Testing and Assessment; and (5). Electronic (Computer/Web-Based Enhancements).

  5. Supersonic gas streams enhance the formation of massive black holes in the early universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Shingo; Hosokawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki; Kuiper, Rolf

    2017-09-29

    The origin of super-massive black holes in the early universe remains poorly understood. Gravitational collapse of a massive primordial gas cloud is a promising initial process, but theoretical studies have difficulty growing the black hole fast enough. We report numerical simulations of early black hole formation starting from realistic cosmological conditions. Supersonic gas motions left over from the Big Bang prevent early gas cloud formation until rapid gas condensation is triggered in a protogalactic halo. A protostar is formed in the dense, turbulent gas cloud, and it grows by sporadic mass accretion until it acquires 34,000 solar masses. The massive star ends its life with a catastrophic collapse to leave a black hole-a promising seed for the formation of a monstrous black hole. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  6. Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macy, Tom L.; James, Gary A.

    2003-03-01

    The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach was emphasized during this first year of the project. During the past year we concentrated on satisfying landowner needs, providing cost share alternatives, providing joint projects and starting implementation. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and offstream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements have been signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Some landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and others chose OWEB as a funding source. The exact amount of stream protection due to other funding sources probably exceeds that by BPA, however most would not have entered any program without initial Tribal outreach. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin.

  7. Unequal Protection of Video Streaming through Adaptive Modulation with a Trizone Buffer over Bluetooth Enhanced Data Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouzbeh Razavi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth enhanced data rate wireless channel can support higher-quality video streams compared to previous versions of Bluetooth. Packet loss when transmitting compressed data has an effect on the delivered video quality that endures over multiple frames. To reduce the impact of radio frequency noise and interference, this paper proposes adaptive modulation based on content type at the video frame level and content importance at the macroblock level. Because the bit rate of protected data is reduced, the paper proposes buffer management to reduce the risk of buffer overflow. A trizone buffer is introduced, with a varying unequal protection policy in each zone. Application of this policy together with adaptive modulation results in up to 4 dB improvement in objective video quality compared to fixed rate scheme for an additive white Gaussian noise channel and around 10 dB for a Gilbert-Elliott channel. The paper also reports a consistent improvement in video quality over a scheme that adapts to channel conditions by varying the data rate without accounting for the video frame packet type or buffer congestion.

  8. Unequal Protection of Video Streaming through Adaptive Modulation with a Trizone Buffer over Bluetooth Enhanced Data Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razavi Rouzbeh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bluetooth enhanced data rate wireless channel can support higher-quality video streams compared to previous versions of Bluetooth. Packet loss when transmitting compressed data has an effect on the delivered video quality that endures over multiple frames. To reduce the impact of radio frequency noise and interference, this paper proposes adaptive modulation based on content type at the video frame level and content importance at the macroblock level. Because the bit rate of protected data is reduced, the paper proposes buffer management to reduce the risk of buffer overflow. A trizone buffer is introduced, with a varying unequal protection policy in each zone. Application of this policy together with adaptive modulation results in up to 4 dB improvement in objective video quality compared to fixed rate scheme for an additive white Gaussian noise channel and around 10 dB for a Gilbert-Elliott channel. The paper also reports a consistent improvement in video quality over a scheme that adapts to channel conditions by varying the data rate without accounting for the video frame packet type or buffer congestion.

  9. Biomonitoring of intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams in Europe: Current practice and priorities to enhance ecological status assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbington, Rachel; Chadd, Richard; Cid, Núria; Csabai, Zoltán; Miliša, Marko; Morais, Manuela; Munné, Antoni; Pařil, Petr; Pešić, Vladimir; Tziortzis, Iakovos; Verdonschot, Ralf C M; Datry, Thibault

    2018-03-15

    Intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES) are common across Europe and dominate some Mediterranean river networks. In all climate zones, IRES support high biodiversity and provide ecosystem services. As dynamic ecosystems that transition between flowing, pool, and dry states, IRES are typically poorly represented in biomonitoring programmes implemented to characterize EU Water Framework Directive ecological status. We report the results of a survey completed by representatives from 20 European countries to identify current challenges to IRES status assessment, examples of best practice, and priorities for future research. We identify five major barriers to effective ecological status classification in IRES: 1. the exclusion of IRES from Water Framework Directive biomonitoring based on their small catchment size; 2. the lack of river typologies that distinguish between contrasting IRES; 3. difficulties in defining the 'reference conditions' that represent unimpacted dynamic ecosystems; 4. classification of IRES ecological status based on lotic communities sampled using methods developed for perennial rivers; and 5. a reliance on taxonomic characterization of local communities. Despite these challenges, we recognize examples of innovative practice that can inform modification of current biomonitoring activity to promote effective IRES status classification. Priorities for future research include reconceptualization of the reference condition approach to accommodate spatiotemporal fluctuations in community composition, and modification of indices of ecosystem health to recognize both taxon-specific sensitivities to intermittence and dispersal abilities, within a landscape context. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Strategy to Enhance Student Experiences in Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response: Medical Reserve Corps Nursing Student Summer Externship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Loren Nell Melton

    Development of the public health nursing workforce is crucial to advancing our nation's health. Many organizations, including the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the US Department of Health and Human Services, have identified the need for strengthening academia's connection to public health and tailoring experiences to enhance workforce competency. The Oklahoma Medical Reserve Corps (OKMRC) Nursing Student Summer Externship was developed as a strategy to provide nursing students with strengthened knowledge and skills in disaster response through a structured summer volunteer experience with nurse educators within the OKMRC. The Medical Reserve Corps is a national organization with more than 200 000 volunteers dedicated to strengthening public health, improving emergency response capabilities, and building community resiliency. In the summer of 2015, the OKMRC offered a 10-week public health emergency preparedness and response externship pilot program to 8 nursing students. In the summer of 2016, the program expanded to include 3 Oklahoma baccalaureate nursing programs. Students completed trainings and participated in activities designed to provide a broad base of knowledge, an awareness of the local disaster plans, and leadership skills to assist their communities with preparedness and disaster response.

  11. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound and transient arterial occlusion for quantification of arterial perfusion reserve in peripheral arterial disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amarteifio, E., E-mail: erick.amarteifio@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Wormsbecher, S. [University Hospital of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Krix, M. [University Hospital of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Bracco Imaging Germany, Konstanz (Germany); Demirel, S. [University Hospital of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular Surgery, Heidelberg (Germany); Braun, S. [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Delorme, S. [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Boeckler, D. [University Hospital of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular Surgery, Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, H.-U. [University Hospital of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Weber, M.-A. [University Hospital of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    Objective: To quantify muscular micro-perfusion and arterial perfusion reserve in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) with dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and transient arterial occlusion. Materials and methods: This study had local institutional review board approval and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. We examined the dominant lower leg of 40 PAD Fontaine stage IIb patients (mean age, 65 years) and 40 healthy volunteers (mean age, 54 years) with CEUS (7 MHz; MI, 0.28) during continuous intravenous infusion of 4.8 mL microbubbles. Transient arterial occlusion at mid-thigh level simulated physical exercise. With time-CEUS-intensity curves obtained from regions of interest within calf muscles, we derived the maximum CEUS signal after occlusion (max) and its time (t{sub max}), slope to maximum (m), vascular response after occlusion (AUC{sub post}), and analysed accuracy, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and correlations with ankle-brachial index (ABI) and walking distance. Results: All parameters differed in PAD and volunteers (p < 0.014). In PAD, t{sub max} was delayed (31.2 {+-} 13.6 vs. 16.7 {+-} 8.5 s, p < 0.0001) and negatively correlated with ankle-brachial-index (r = -0.65). m was decreased in PAD (4.3 {+-} 4.6 mL/s vs. 13.1 {+-} 8.4 mL/s, p < 0.0001) and had highest diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity/specificity, 75%/93%) for detection of diminished muscular micro-perfusion in PAD (cut-off value, m < 5{approx}mL/s). Discriminant analysis and ROC curves revealed m, and AUC{sub post} as optimal parameter combination for diagnosing PAD and therefore impaired arterial perfusion reserve. Conclusions: Dynamic CEUS with transient arterial occlusion quantifies muscular micro-perfusion and arterial perfusion reserve. The technique is accurate to diagnose PAD.

  12. Streams with Strahler Stream Order

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Stream segments with Strahler stream order values assigned. As of 01/08/08 the linework is from the DNR24K stream coverages and will not match the updated...

  13. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program : Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d’Alene Reservation : 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firehammer, Jon A.; Vitale, Angelo J.; Hallock, Stephanie A. [Coeur d' Alene Tribe Department of Natural Resources Fisheries Program

    2009-09-08

    diversity, and increase the probability of persistence in the face of anthropogenic influences and prospective climate change. This included recovering the lacustrine-adfluvial life history form that was historically prevalent and had served to provide both resilience and resistance to the structure of cutthroat trout populations in the Coeur d'Alene basin. To this end, the Coeur d'Alene Tribe closed Lake Creek and Benewah Creek to fishing in 1993 to initiate recovery of westslope cutthroat trout to historical levels. However, achieving sustainable cutthroat trout populations also required addressing biotic factors and habitat features in the basin that were limiting recovery. Early in the 1990s, BPA-funded surveys and inventories identified limiting factors in Tribal watersheds that would need to be remedied to restore westslope cutthroat trout populations. The limiting factors included: low-quality, low-complexity mainstem stream habitat and riparian zones; high stream temperatures in mainstem habitats; negative interactions with nonnative brook trout in tributaries; and potential survival bottlenecks in Coeur d'Alene Lake. In 1994, the Northwest Power Planning Council adopted the recommendations set forth by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe to improve the Reservation fishery (NWPPC Program Measures 10.8B.20). These recommended actions included: (1) Implement habitat restoration and enhancement measures in Alder, Benewah, Evans, and Lake Creeks; (2) Purchase critical watershed areas for protection of fisheries habitat; (3) Conduct an educational/outreach program for the general public within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation to facilitate a 'holistic' watershed protection process; (4) Develop an interim fishery for tribal and non-tribal members of the reservation through construction, operation and maintenance of five trout ponds; (5) Design, construct, operate and maintain a trout production facility; and (6) Implement a monitoring program to

  14. Motivations for enrollment into the Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program in the James River Basin of South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfrimmer, Jarrett; Gigliotti, Larry M.; Stafford, Joshua; Schumann, David; Bertrand, Katie

    2017-01-01

    The Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) targets high-priority conservation needs (e.g., water quality, wildlife habitat) by paying landowners an annual rental rate to remove environmentally sensitive or agriculturally unproductive lands from rowcrop production, and then implement conservation practices on these lands. This study examined motivations of South Dakota landowners for enrolling in the James River Basin CREP. All 517 newly enrolled landowners were mailed a questionnaire in 2014 measuring demographics, behaviors, opinions, and motivations (60% response rate). Cluster analysis of 10 motivations for enrolling identified three motivation groups (wildlife = 40%, financial = 35%, environmental = 25%). The financial group had the youngest mean age (62 years), followed by the wildlife (65) and environmental groups (68). Among respondents, 43% favored the public access requirement of this CREP with the environmental group most in favor. Understanding landowner enrollment motivations and decision criteria will assist in strategies (e.g., financial incentives, increasing yield via habitat restoration) for increasing future participation.

  15. Heat recovery enhancement in HENs using a combinatorial approach of paths combination and process streams' temperature flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelbagi Osman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Current economic uncertainties and tighter environmental regulations has led industries to consider energy conservation projects more seriously. In this paper, the option of varying the process stream temperature has been suggested as a mean of increasing heat recovery for heat exchanger networks (HEN. Alternatives are generated and assessed using a developed approach. Essentially, the approach involves systematic steps in varying the Hot and/or Cold streams' temperature for each stream in a way that increases the heat recovery approach temperature (HRAT, thus allowing more heat to be recovered. Using the combinatorial method of paths combinations, the adjustment of heat loads for hot and cold utilities from the heat load shifting through the heat exchanger network could be made and assessed accordingly. The changes in temperature made to the streams while exploring each alternative has to be kept within small magnitude i.e., around 1–5 °C. A user friendly computer program has been developed for performing the approach in view of the significant number of iterations required. An example is used in this paper to demonstrate the application of the developed approach.

  16. Design considerations for large woody debris placement in stream enhancement projects. North American Journal of Fisheries Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Hilderbrand; A. Dennis Lemly; C. Andrew Dolloff; Kelly L. Harpster

    1998-01-01

    Log length exerted a critical influence in stabilizing large woody debris (LWD) pieces added as an experimental stream restoration technique. Logs longer than the average bank-full channel width (5.5 m) were significantly less likely to be displaced than logs shorter than this width. The longest log in stable log groups was significantly longer than the longest log in...

  17. Stream Crossings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Physical measurements and attributes of stream crossing structures and adjacent stream reaches which are used to provide a relative rating of aquatic organism...

  18. Structure and Spatial Distribution of the Chironomidae Community in Mesohabitats in a First Order Stream at the Poço D'Anta Municipal Biological Reserve in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovi Rosa, Beatriz Figueiraujo Jabour; de Oliveira, Vívian Campos; Alves, Roberto da Gama

    2011-01-01

    The Chironomidae occupy different habitats along the lotic system with their distribution determined by different factors such as the substrate characteristics and water speed. The input of vegetable material from the riparian forest allows a higher habitat diversity and food to the benthic fauna. The main aim of this paper is to verify the structure and spatial distribution of the Chironomidae fauna in different mesohabitats in a first order stream located at a Biological Reserve in the southeast of Brazil. In the months of July, August, and September 2007, and in January, February, and March 2008, samples were collected with a hand net (250 µm) in the following mesohabitats: litter from riffles, litter from pools, and sediment from pools. The community structure of each mesohabitat was analyzed through the abundance of organisms, taxa richness, Pielou's evenness, Shannon's diversity, and taxa dominance. Similarity among the mesohabitats was obtained by Cluster analysis, and Chironomidae larvae distribution through the Correspondence analysis. Indicator species analysis was used to identify possible taxa preference for a determined mesohabitat. The analyzed mesohabitats showed high species richness and diversity favored by the large environmental heterogeneity. Some taxa were indicators of the type of mesohabitat. The substrate was the main factor that determined taxa distribution in relation to water flow differences (riffle and pool). Stream characteristics such as low water speed and the presence of natural mechanisms of retention may have provided a higher faunistic similarity between the areas with different flows. The results showed that the physical characteristics of each environment presented a close relationship with the structure and spatial distribution of the Chironomidae fauna in lotic systems. PMID:21529258

  19. Interpreting the Hydrology of a Desert Mountain Stream to a General Public: Using Multimedia to Enhance Informal Experiential Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, G. C.; Carpenter, K. D.

    2002-12-01

    Sabino Canyon near Tucson, Arizona draws over 1 million visits per year. The centerpiece of the canyon is Sabino Creek, an ephemeral stream fed by seasonal snowmelt and monsoon rains. Frequently asked questions by canyon visitors include: How can a stream flow in the desert environment? Why are the surrounding mountaintops so much cooler and wetter? How can the stream flow without recent rain or snowmelt? Where does the water go? The NSF STC for Sustainability of semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas (SAHRA) has partnered with the USGS and the USDA Forest Service to develop static displays and a touch-screen electronic kiosk for the Sabino Canyon Visitors Center that explain what streamflow is, where the waters of Sabino Creek originate, where they go, what conditions produce flash flooding, and the hydrology of sky island environments. The kiosk, and an associated Web site, also give current weather and streamflow conditions at various points in the canyon, plus typical and extreme conditions for the current date. Designing displays that attract and inform a diverse mix of visitors with varying levels of interest, reading levels, and attention spans is a major challenge. We have integrated static displays featuring light boxes with a touch-screen kiosk featuring graphics, animation, video, sound effects, and voice-overs. Optional sub-titles are in five languages. The goal is to attract visitors to the display and then meet their various interests and information needs. Hydrology is a foreign subject to the great majority of people, and opportunities to informally educate them are relatively scarce. This presentation will show how current multimedia technology can be combined with proven methods of informal experiential education to communicate some basic hydrologic principles.

  20. Comparison of drinking water treatment process streams for optimal bacteriological water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lionel; Braun, Kalan; Fabris, Rolando; Hoefel, Daniel; Morran, Jim; Monis, Paul; Drikas, Mary

    2012-08-01

    Four pilot-scale treatment process streams (Stream 1 - Conventional treatment (coagulation/flocculation/dual media filtration); Stream 2 - Magnetic ion exchange (MIEX)/Conventional treatment; Stream 3 - MIEX/Conventional treatment/granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration; Stream 4 - Microfiltration/nanofiltration) were commissioned to compare their effectiveness in producing high quality potable water prior to disinfection. Despite receiving highly variable source water quality throughout the investigation, each stream consistently reduced colour and turbidity to below Australian Drinking Water Guideline levels, with the exception of Stream 1 which was difficult to manage due to the reactive nature of coagulation control. Of particular interest was the bacteriological quality of the treated waters where flow cytometry was shown to be the superior monitoring tool in comparison to the traditional heterotrophic plate count method. Based on removal of total and active bacteria, the treatment process streams were ranked in the order: Stream 4 (average log removal of 2.7) > Stream 2 (average log removal of 2.3) > Stream 3 (average log removal of 1.5) > Stream 1 (average log removal of 1.0). The lower removals in Stream 3 were attributed to bacteria detaching from the GAC filter. Bacterial community analysis revealed that the treatments affected the bacteria present, with the communities in streams incorporating conventional treatment clustering with each other, while the community composition of Stream 4 was very different to those of Streams 1, 2 and 3. MIEX treatment was shown to enhance removal of bacteria due to more efficient flocculation which was validated through the novel application of the photometric dispersion analyser. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synergy between nature reserves and agri-environmental schemes in enhancing ditch bank target species plant diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leng, X.; Musters, C.J.M.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2010-01-01

    The issue of what conservation strategies to apply in agricultural landscape for the most effective protection of biodiversity has been debated for some years. The creation and maintenance of nature reserves is often hampered by both ecological and economic factors, while the ecological

  2. Stream systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack E. Williams; Gordon H. Reeves

    2006-01-01

    Restored, high-quality streams provide innumerable benefits to society. In the Pacific Northwest, high-quality stream habitat often is associated with an abundance of salmonid fishes such as chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), and steelhead (O. mykiss). Many other native...

  3. Accuracy enhancement for forecasting water levels of reservoirs and river streams using a multiple-input-pattern fuzzification approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Nariman; El-Shafie, Ahmed; Mirzaei, Majid; Galavi, Hadi; Mukhlisin, Muhammad; Jaafar, Othman

    2014-01-01

    Water level forecasting is an essential topic in water management affecting reservoir operations and decision making. Recently, modern methods utilizing artificial intelligence, fuzzy logic, and combinations of these techniques have been used in hydrological applications because of their considerable ability to map an input-output pattern without requiring prior knowledge of the criteria influencing the forecasting procedure. The artificial neurofuzzy interface system (ANFIS) is one of the most accurate models used in water resource management. Because the membership functions (MFs) possess the characteristics of smoothness and mathematical components, each set of input data is able to yield the best result using a certain type of MF in the ANFIS models. The objective of this study is to define the different ANFIS model by applying different types of MFs for each type of input to forecast the water level in two case studies, the Klang Gates Dam and Rantau Panjang station on the Johor river in Malaysia, to compare the traditional ANFIS model with the new introduced one in two different situations, reservoir and stream, showing the new approach outweigh rather than the traditional one in both case studies. This objective is accomplished by evaluating the model fitness and performance in daily forecasting.

  4. Accuracy Enhancement for Forecasting Water Levels of Reservoirs and River Streams Using a Multiple-Input-Pattern Fuzzification Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nariman Valizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water level forecasting is an essential topic in water management affecting reservoir operations and decision making. Recently, modern methods utilizing artificial intelligence, fuzzy logic, and combinations of these techniques have been used in hydrological applications because of their considerable ability to map an input-output pattern without requiring prior knowledge of the criteria influencing the forecasting procedure. The artificial neurofuzzy interface system (ANFIS is one of the most accurate models used in water resource management. Because the membership functions (MFs possess the characteristics of smoothness and mathematical components, each set of input data is able to yield the best result using a certain type of MF in the ANFIS models. The objective of this study is to define the different ANFIS model by applying different types of MFs for each type of input to forecast the water level in two case studies, the Klang Gates Dam and Rantau Panjang station on the Johor river in Malaysia, to compare the traditional ANFIS model with the new introduced one in two different situations, reservoir and stream, showing the new approach outweigh rather than the traditional one in both case studies. This objective is accomplished by evaluating the model fitness and performance in daily forecasting.

  5. Presurgical evaluation of cerebral perfusion reserve in patients for cardiovascular surgery using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT with diamox enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Kaname; Nakashima, Hiromichi; Tanaka, Kuniyoshi; Kitano, Tokio; Murashima, Shuichi; Takeda, Kan; Yuasa, Hiroshi; Yada, Isao; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-03-01

    Cerebrovascular stroke is one of the major complications in cardiovascular surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of preoperative {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT and acetazolamide (diamox) enhancement to predict neurological complications in cardiovascular surgery. Eighteen patients with coronary disease, valvular disease or aortic aneurysm were studied before the operations. Regional cerebral blood flow and perfusion reserve were evaluated using ECD SPECT before and after the intravenous administration of diamox (1 g). Three cases with moderate to severe baseline abnormalities and poor perfusion reserve had cerebral infarction postoperatively. Twelve cases with good to fair perfusion reserve had no neurological complication. Three cases having poor perfusion reserve had the operations with more intensive brain protection, in which higher perfusion pressure to the brain was maintained during cardiopulmonary bypass, and no neurological complication was observed. In conclusion, patients who have moderately or markedly abnormal baseline flow with poor perfusion reserve may have some risk of neurological complications in cardiovascular surgery. ECD SPECT with diamox enhancement may give information useful for selection of operation procedures. (author).

  6. We All Stream for Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    More than ever, teachers are using digital video to enhance their lessons. In fact, the number of schools using video streaming increased from 30 percent to 45 percent between 2004 and 2006, according to Market Data Retrieval. Why the popularity? For starters, video-streaming products are easy to use. They allow teachers to punctuate lessons with…

  7. Wetland Reserve Program enhances site occupancy and species richness in assemblages of anuran amphibians in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Susan C.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Faulkner, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    We measured amphibian habitat use to quantify the effectiveness of conservation practices implemented under the Wetland Reserve Program (WRP), an initiative of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Natural Resources Conservation Service. From February to June 2007, we quantified calling male anurans in cultivated cropland, former cultivated cropland restored through the WRP, and mature bottomland hardwood forest. Sites were located in two watersheds within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley of Arkansas and Louisiana, USA. We estimated detection probability and site occupancy within each land use category using a Bayesian hierarchical model of community species occurrence, and derived an estimate of species richness at each site. Relative to sites in cultivated cropland, nine of 1 l species detected were significantly more likely to occur at WRP sites and six were more likely to occur at forested sites. Species richness estimates were also higher for WRP and forested sites, compared to those in cultivated cropland. Almost half (45 %) of the species responded positively to both WRP and forested sites, indicating that patches undergoing restoration may be important transitional habitats. Wetland Reserve Program conservation practices are successful in restoring suitable habitat and reducing the impact of cultivation-induced habitat loss on amphibians in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley.

  8. Enhanced sorption of mercury from compact fluorescent bulbs and contaminated water streams using functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Avinash; Vidyarthi, S.R. [Department of Chemical Engineering Harcourt Butler Technological Institute, Kanpur 208001, U.P. (India); Sankararamakrishnan, Nalini, E-mail: nalini@iitk.ac.in [Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016, U.P. (India)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Oxidized (CNT-OX), CNT-I, CNT-S were prepared. • Capacity of CNT-S (151.5 mg/g) was higher than other CNTs. • Applied to the removal of Hg(II) from spiked and natural coal wash waters. • Applied to the removal of Hg(0) from compact fluorescent lamps. - Abstract: Three different functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes were prepared, namely, oxidized CNTs (CNT-OX), iodide incorporated MWCNT (CNT-I) and sulfur incorporated MWCNT (CNT-S). The as prepared adsorbents were structurally characterized by various spectral techniques like scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX), Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. Loading of iodide and sulfur was evident from the EDAX graphs. The adsorption properties of Hg{sup 2+} as a function of pH, contact time and initial metal concentration were characterized by Cold vapor AAS. The adsorption kinetics fitted the Pseudo second order kinetics and equilibrium was reached within 90 min. The experimental data were modeled with Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Redushkevich and Temkin isotherms and various isotherm parameters were evaluated. It was found that the mercury adsorption capacity for the prepared adsorbents were in the order of CNT-S > CNT-I > CNT-OX > CNT. Studies have been conducted to demonstrate the applicability of the sorbent toward the removal of Hg(0) from broken compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs and Hg(II) from contaminated water streams.

  9. Stream Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital representation of the map accompanying the "Kansas stream and river fishery resource evaluation" (R.E. Moss and K. Brunson, 1981.U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  10. Evidence for fish dispersal from spatial analysis of stream network topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, N.P.; Angermeier, P.L.

    2008-01-01

    Developing spatially explicit conservation strategies for stream fishes requires an understanding of the spatial structure of dispersal within stream networks. We explored spatial patterns of stream fish dispersal by evaluating how the size and proximity of connected streams (i.e., stream network topology) explained variation in fish assemblage structure and how this relationship varied with local stream size. We used data from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program in wadeable streams of the Mid-Atlantic Highlands region (n = 308 sites). We quantified stream network topology with a continuous analysis based on the rate of downstream flow accumulation from sites and with a discrete analysis based on the presence of mainstem river confluences (i.e., basin area >250 km2) within 20 fluvial km (fkm) from sites. Continuous variation in stream network topology was related to local species richness within a distance of ???10 fkm, suggesting an influence of fish dispersal within this spatial grain. This effect was explained largely by catostomid species, cyprinid species, and riverine species, but was not explained by zoogeographic regions, ecoregions, sampling period, or spatial autocorrelation. Sites near mainstem river confluences supported greater species richness and abundance of catostomid, cyprinid, and ictalurid fishes than did sites >20 fkm from such confluences. Assemblages at sites on the smallest streams were not related to stream network topology, consistent with the hypothesis that local stream size regulates the influence of regional dispersal. These results demonstrate that the size and proximity of connected streams influence the spatial distribution of fish and suggest that these influences can be incorporated into the designs of stream bioassessments and reserves to enhance management efficacy. ?? 2008 by The North American Benthological Society.

  11. An integrated environmental risk assessment and management framework for enhancing the sustainability of marine protected areas: the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve case study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Elvis G B; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Morton, Brian; Lee, Joseph H W

    2015-02-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs), such as marine parks and reserves, contain natural resources of immense value to the environment and mankind. Since MPAs may be situated in close proximity to urbanized areas and influenced by anthropogenic activities (e.g. continuous discharges of contaminated waters), the marine organisms contained in such waters are probably at risk. This study aimed at developing an integrated environmental risk assessment and management (IERAM) framework for enhancing the sustainability of such MPAs. The IERAM framework integrates conventional environmental risk assessment methods with a multi-layer-DPSIR (Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response) conceptual approach, which can simplify the complex issues embraced by environmental management strategies and provide logical and concise management information. The IERAM process can generate a useful database, offer timely update on the status of MPAs, and assist in the prioritization of management options. We use the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve in Hong Kong as an example to illustrate the IERAM framework. A comprehensive set of indicators were selected, aggregated and analyzed using this framework. Effects of management practices and programs were also assessed by comparing the temporal distributions of these indicators over a certain timeframe. Based on the obtained results, we have identified the most significant components for safeguarding the integrity of the marine reserve, and indicated the existing information gaps concerned with the management of the reserve. Apart from assessing the MPA's present condition, a successful implementation of the IERAM framework as evocated here would also facilitate better-informed decision-making and, hence, indirectly enhance the protection and conservation of the MPA's marine biodiversity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced Removal of Enterococcus faecalis Biofilms in the Root Canal Using Sodium Hypochlorite Plus Photon-Induced Photoacoustic Streaming: An In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shahrani, Mohammed; DiVito, Enrico; Hughes, Christopher V.; Nathanson, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of laser-activated irrigation by photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) using Er:YAG laser energy in decontaminating heavily colonized root canal systems in vitro. Materials and methods: Extracted single-rooted human teeth (n=60) were mechanically and chemically prepared, sterilized, inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis for 3 weeks, and randomly assigned to four groups (n=15): Group I (control, no decontamination), Group II (PIPS+6% NaOCl), Group III (PIPS+saline), and Group IV (6% NaOCl). PIPS settings were all preset to 50 μsec pulse, 20 mJ, 15 Hz, for an average power of 0.3 W. After decontamination, the remaining live microbes from all specimens were collected and recovered via plate counting of the colony-forming units (CFUs). Randomized root canal surfaces were examined with scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser microscopy. Mean variance and Dunnett's t test (post-hoc test) comparisons were used to compare mean scores for the three groups with the control group. Results: The CFU analysis showed the following measurements (mean±SE): Group I (control), 336.8±1.8; Group II (PIPS+NaOCl), 0.27±0.21; Group III (PIPS+saline), 225.0±21; and Group IV (NaOCl), 46.9±20.29. Group II had significantly lower CFUs than any other groups (p<0.05). Both imaging analyses confirmed levels of remaining bacteria on examined root surfaces. Conclusions: The use of the PIPS system along with NaOCl showed the most efficient eradication of the bacterial biofilm. It appears that laser-activated irrigation (LAI) utilizing PIPS may enhance the disinfection of the root canal system. PMID:24717113

  13. Fisheries Habitat Evaluation on Tributaries of the Coeur d`Alene Indian Reservation : 1990 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, Suzy

    1992-02-01

    Ranking criteria were developed to rate 19 tributaries on the Coeur d`Alene Indiana Reservation for potential of habitat enhancement for westslope cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi, and bull trout, Salvelinus malma. Cutthroat and bull trout habitat requirements, derived from an extensive literature review of each species, were compared to the physical and biological parameters of each stream observed during an aerial -- helicopter survey. Ten tributaries were selected for further study, using the ranking criteria that were derived. The most favorable ratings were awarded to streams that were located completely on the reservation, displayed highest potential for improvement and enhancement, had no barriers to fish migration, good road access, and a gradient acceptable to cutthroat and bull trout habitation. The ten streams selected for study were Bellgrove, Fighting, Lake, Squaw, Plummer, Little Plummer, Benewah, Alder, Hell`s Gulch and Evans creeks.

  14. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

  15. Are climate warming and enhanced atmospheric deposition of sulfur and nitrogen threatening tufa landscapes in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xue; Du, Jie; Lugli, Stefano; Ren, Jinhai; Xiao, Weiyang; Chen, Pan; Tang, Ya

    2016-08-15

    Massive deposition of calcium carbonate in ambient temperature waters (tufa) can form magnificent tufa landscapes, many of which are designated as protected areas. However, tufa landscapes in many areas are threatened by both local anthropogenic activities and climate change. This study, for the first time, posed the question whether the tufa landscape degradation (characterized by tufa degradation and increased biomass of green algae) in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve of China is partially caused by regional air pollution and climate warming. The results indicate that wet deposition (including rain and snow) polluted by anthropogenic SO2, NOx, and NH3 emissions dissolves exposed tufa and may considerably reduce tufa deposition rate and even cause tufa dissolution within shallow waters. These effects of wet deposition on tufa enhanced as pH of wet deposition decreased from 8.01 to 5.06. Annual Volume Weighted Mean concentration of reactive nitrogen (including NH4(+) and NO3(-)) in wet deposition (26.1μmolL(-1)) was 1.8 times of the corresponding value of runoff (14.8μmolL(-1)) and exceeded China's national standard of total nitrogen in runoff for nature reserves (14.3μmolL(-1)), indicating a direct nitrogen fertilization effect of wet deposition on green algae. As water temperature is the major limiting factor of algal growth in Jiuzhaigou and temperature in the top layer (0-5cm) of runoff (depthnatural processes also influence tufa landscape evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhanced horizontal extreme-echo speed occurrence leading to polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) increase at solar-wind pressure enhancement during high-speed solar wind stream events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y.; Kirkwood, S.; Kwak, Y.; Kim, K.; Shepherd, G. G.

    2013-12-01

    We report on horizontal extreme echo speeds (HEES, ≥ 300 ms^{-1}) observed in long-periodic polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) correlated with solar-wind speed in high speed solar wind streams (HSS) events. The observations were made from VHF 52 MHz radar measurements at Esrange (67.8°N, 20.4°E) between June 1-August 8 in 2006 and 2008. The periodicities of PMSE counts and the volume reflectivity primarily occur at 7, 9 and 13.5 days possibly by the effects of HSS, while the periodicities at 4-6 days are competitively coherent between planetary waves appearing in temperature and solar-wind speed during HSS events. The peaks of both HEES occurrence rate relative to PMSE and turbulence dominantly occur at solar-wind pressure enhancement with minor peaks continued under the passage of HSS over the magnetopause, followed by PMSE peaks in 1-3 days later. This study gives the results that the precipitating high-energetic particles (> 30 keV) during HSS likely induce D-region ionization involved with the consecutive processes of HEES, turbulence and PMSE. The turbulence evolved from the HEES can be explained with the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, which was observed in PMSE by Röttger et al. [11th International Workshop on technical and scientific aspects of MST Radar, 2006] and firstly simulated for PMSE generation by Hill et al. [Earth Planets Space, 1999]. The HEES is understood as the speed of fast moving ions, accelerated by strong electric field as Lee & Shepherd [JGR, 2010] suggested with the supersonic velocities persisting in polar mesospheric clouds (PMC) region observed at enhanced O(^1S) emission rate ( 10 kR) by WINDII/UARS satellite.

  17. Predicted effect of landscape position on wildlife habitat value of Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program wetlands in a tile-drained agricultural region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, David L.; Crumpton, William R.; Green, David; Loan-Wilsey, Anna; Cooper, Tom; Johnson, Rex R.

    2013-01-01

    Justification for investment in restored or constructed wetland projects are often based on presumed net increases in ecosystem services. However, quantitative assessment of performance metrics is often difficult and restricted to a single objective. More comprehensive performance assessments could help inform decision-makers about trade-offs in services provided by alternative restoration program design attributes. The primary goal of the Iowa Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program is to establish wetlands that efficiently remove nitrates from tile-drained agricultural landscapes. A secondary objective is provision of wildlife habitat. We used existing wildlife habitat models to compare relative net change in potential wildlife habitat value for four alternative landscape positions of wetlands within the watershed. Predicted species richness and habitat value for birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles generally increased as the wetland position moved lower in the watershed. However, predicted average net increase between pre- and post-project value was dependent on taxonomic group. The increased average wetland area and changes in surrounding upland habitat composition among landscape positions were responsible for these differences. Net change in predicted densities of several grassland bird species at the four landscape positions was variable and species-dependent. Predicted waterfowl breeding activity was greater for lower drainage position wetlands. Although our models are simplistic and provide only a predictive index of potential habitat value, we believe such assessment exercises can provide a tool for coarse-level comparisons of alternative proposed project attributes and a basis for constructing informed hypotheses in auxiliary empirical field studies.

  18. Cellular Subcompartments through Cytoplasmic Streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieuchot, Laurent; Lai, Julian; Loh, Rachel Ann; Leong, Fong Yew; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Stajich, Jason; Jedd, Gregory

    2015-08-24

    Cytoplasmic streaming occurs in diverse cell types, where it generally serves a transport function. Here, we examine streaming in multicellular fungal hyphae and identify an additional function wherein regimented streaming forms distinct cytoplasmic subcompartments. In the hypha, cytoplasm flows directionally from cell to cell through septal pores. Using live-cell imaging and computer simulations, we identify a flow pattern that produces vortices (eddies) on the upstream side of the septum. Nuclei can be immobilized in these microfluidic eddies, where they form multinucleate aggregates and accumulate foci of the HDA-2 histone deacetylase-associated factor, SPA-19. Pores experiencing flow degenerate in the absence of SPA-19, suggesting that eddy-trapped nuclei function to reinforce the septum. Together, our data show that eddies comprise a subcellular niche favoring nuclear differentiation and that subcompartments can be self-organized as a consequence of regimented cytoplasmic streaming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Activity Based Costing in Value Stream Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    S. S. Abuthakeer; P.V. Mohanram; Kumar, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to integrate Value Stream Map (VSM) with the cost aspects. A value stream map provides a blueprint for implementing lean manufacturing concepts by illustrating information and materials flow in a value stream. The objective of the present work is to integrate the various cost aspects. The idea is to introduce a cost line, which enhances the clarity in decision making. The redesigned map proves to be effective in highlighting the improvement areas, in terms of quantitative ...

  20. Enhancing the Fit through Adaptive Co-management: Creating and Maintaining Bridging Functions for Matching Scales in the Kristianstads Vattenrike Biosphere Reserve, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Olsson

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we focus on adaptive governance of social-ecological systems (SES and, more specifically, on social factors that can enhance the fit between governance systems and ecosystems. The challenge lies in matching multilevel governance system, often characterized by fragmented organizational and institutional structures and compartmentalized and sectorized decision-making processes, with ecosystems characterized by complex interactions in time and space. The ability to create the right links, at the right time, around the right issues in multilevel governance systems is crucial for fostering responses that build social-ecological resilience and maintain the capacity of complex and dynamic ecosystems to generate services for human well-being. This is especially true in the face of uncertainty and during periods of abrupt change and reorganization. We draw on our earlier work in the Kristianstads Vattenrike Biosphere Reserve (KVBR, in southern Sweden, to provide new insights on factors that can improve such linking. We focus especially on the bridging function in SES and the factors that constrain bridging in multilevel governance systems, and strategies used to overcome these. We present two features that seem critical for linking organizations dynamically across multiple levels: 1 the role of bridging organizations and 2 the importance of leadership. Bridging organizations and the bridging function can be vulnerable to disturbance, but there are sources of resilience for securing these key structures and functions in SES. These include social mechanisms for combining multiple sources of knowledge, building moral and political support in social networks, and having legal and financial support as part of the adaptive governance structure.

  1. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. [Physical and chemical interactions of Enhanced Oil Recovery reagents with hydrocarbons present in petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

  2. Restoration of Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osborne, L. L.; Bayley, P. B.; Higler, L. W. G.

    1993-01-01

    Sammenskrivning af resultater fra symposium: Lowland Streams Restoration Workshop, Lund, Sweden, August 1991......Sammenskrivning af resultater fra symposium: Lowland Streams Restoration Workshop, Lund, Sweden, August 1991...

  3. Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation; Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish, Water, and Wildlife Program, REVISED 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, Angelo; Lamb, Dave; Scott, Jason

    2004-04-01

    actions included: (1) Implement habitat restoration and enhancement measures in Alder, Benewah, Evans, and Lake Creeks; (2) Purchase critical watershed areas for protection of fisheries habitat; (3) Conduct an educational/outreach program for the general public within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation to facilitate a 'holistic' watershed protection process; (4) Develop an interim fishery for tribal and non-tribal members of the reservation through construction, operation and maintenance of five trout ponds; (5) Design, construct, operate and maintain a trout production facility; and (6) Implement a five-year monitoring program to evaluate the effectiveness of the hatchery and habitat improvement projects. Since that time, much of the mitigation activities occurring within the Coeur d'Alene sub-basin have had a connection to the project entitled 'Implement of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation', which is sponsored and implemented by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program and is the subject of this report.

  4. 3-D RESERVOIR AND STOCHASTIC FRACTURE NETWORK MODELING FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY, CIRCLE RIDGE PHOSPHORIA/TENSLEEP RESERVOIR, WIND RIVER RESERVATION, ARAPAHO AND SHOSHONE TRIBES, WYOMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul La Pointe; Jan Hermanson; Robert Parney; Thorsten Eiben; Mike Dunleavy; Ken Steele; John Whitney; Darrell Eubanks; Roger Straub

    2002-11-18

    This report describes the results made in fulfillment of contract DE-FG26-00BC15190, ''3-D Reservoir and Stochastic Fracture Network Modeling for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Circle Ridge Phosphoria/Tensleep Reservoir, Wind River Reservation, Arapaho and Shoshone Tribes, Wyoming''. The goal of this project is to improve the recovery of oil from the Tensleep and Phosphoria Formations in Circle Ridge Oilfield, located on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, through an innovative integration of matrix characterization, structural reconstruction, and the characterization of the fracturing in the reservoir through the use of discrete fracture network models. Fields in which natural fractures dominate reservoir permeability, such as the Circle Ridge Field, often experience sub-optimal recovery when recovery processes are designed and implemented that do not take advantage of the fracture systems. For example, a conventional waterflood in a main structural block of the Field was implemented and later suspended due to unattractive results. It is estimated that somewhere less than 20% of the OOIP in the Circle Ridge Field have been recovered after more than 50 years' production. Marathon Oil Company identified the Circle Ridge Field as an attractive candidate for several advanced IOR processes that explicitly take advantage of the natural fracture system. These processes require knowledge of the distribution of matrix porosity, permeability and oil saturations; and understanding of where fracturing is likely to be well-developed or poorly developed; how the fracturing may compartmentalize the reservoir; and how smaller, relatively untested subthrust fault blocks may be connected to the main overthrust block. For this reason, the project focused on improving knowledge of the matrix properties, the fault block architecture and to develop a model that could be used to predict fracture intensity, orientation and fluid flow/connectivity properties. Knowledge

  5. A novel method for enhancing on-stream stability of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline hydro-upgrading catalyst. Post-treatment of HZSM-5 zeolite by combined steaming and citric acid leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Xiuying [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Fan, Yu.; Shi, Gang; Liu, Haiyan [The Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Co., China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Liu, Zhihong [Science and Technology Management Department, PetroChina Company, Ltd., World Tower, 16 Andelu, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100011 (China); Bao, Xiaojun [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); The Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Co., China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China)

    2007-07-30

    This article describes a novel modification method consisting of steaming and subsequent citric acid leaching to finely tune acidity and pore structure of HZSM-5 zeolite and thereby to enhance the on-stream stability of the zeolite derived fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline hydro-upgrading catalyst. A series of dealuminated HZSM-5 zeolites and their derived catalysts were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), {sup 27}Al MAS NMR, nitrogen adsorption, temperature programmed desorption of ammonium (NH{sub 3}-TPD) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy of chemisorbed pyridine. The results showed that the citric acid leaching could preferentially remove the extra-framework Al (EFAl) species formed by steaming treatment and thus reopen the EFAl-blocked pore channels of the steamed zeolite. The steaming treatment at a suitable temperature and subsequent citric acid leaching not only decreased the strength of acid sites to a desirable degree but also increased the ratio of medium and strong Lewis acidity to medium and strong Broensted acidity, both of which conferred the resulting catalyst with superior selectivity to aromatics, good hydroisomerization activity and gasoline research octane number (RON) preservability, as well as enhanced on-stream stability. The results fully demonstrated that the treatments by steaming and followed citric acid leaching can serve as an important method for adjusting the physicochemical properties of HZSM-5 zeolite. (author)

  6. Efeito da pressão antrópica sobre igarapés na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, área de floresta na Amazônia Central Effect of the human pressure on the streams of the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, a forest area in Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sávio José Filgueiras Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    following environmental variables: pH, water electrical conductivity, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe2+ cations and suspended material. It was possible to see significant differences in the concentration of hydrogen ions, electrical conductivity and in the suspended material content, among the studied streams. In the stream in which the headwaters are within the reserve, the mean values corresponding to pH, electrical conductivity and suspended material were 4.47; 6.44 mS cm-1 and 1.25 mg L-1, respectively; and the highest values found in the impacted ones were 6.84, 141.50 mS cm-1 and 9.50 mg L-1. The results show that the stream which drains the forest area maintains its natural characteristics as it is protected from human activities, and the ones which come from the urban area are impacted.

  7. Stellar streams in the Galactic thick disk: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, P.; Reddy, Bacham E.

    Here we report preliminary results of our study of chemical tagging of member stars of two Galactic stellar streams. Both the streams, kinematically belong to the thick disk component of the Galaxy. We analysed high resolution spectra of 42 member stars: 17 from Arcturus stream and 25 from ``AF06 stream''. The LTE (Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium) abundance analysis was performed differentially with respect to the sun. Abundance results suggest that both the streams are metal poor and enhanced in α-process elements (O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti) very similar to the thick disk chemistry. Also, results suggest that the two streams probably did not originate by the dispersion of open clusters.

  8. The Midwest Stream Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2012-01-01

    In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) and USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC) will be collaborating with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA) to assess stream quality across the Midwestern United States. The sites selected for this study are a subset of the larger NRSA, implemented by the EPA, States and Tribes to sample flowing waters across the United States (http://water.epa.gov/type/rsl/monitoring/riverssurvey/index.cfm). The goals are to characterize water-quality stressors—contaminants, nutrients, and sediment—and ecological conditions in streams throughout the Midwest and to determine the relative effects of these stressors on aquatic organisms in the streams. Findings will contribute useful information for communities and policymakers by identifying which human and environmental factors are the most critical in controlling stream quality. This collaborative study enhances information provided to the public and policymakers and minimizes costs by leveraging and sharing data gathered under existing programs. In the spring and early summer, NAWQA will sample streams weekly for contaminants, nutrients, and sediment. During the same time period, CERC will test sediment and water samples for toxicity, deploy time-integrating samplers, and measure reproductive effects and biomarkers of contaminant exposure in fish or amphibians. NRSA will sample sites once during the summer to assess ecological and habitat conditions in the streams by collecting data on algal, macroinvertebrate, and fish communities and collecting detailed physical-habitat measurements. Study-team members from all three programs will work in collaboration with USGS Water Science Centers and State agencies on study design, execution of sampling and analysis, and reporting.

  9. Arcturus stream : A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, P.; Reddy, Bacham Eswar

    Stellar streams are a group of gravitationally unbound stars which share same kinematic properties, and hence form coherent structures in the velocity space. Their origin is not clear. The concept of stellar streams or moving groups was introduced much early (Eggen 1958) and were thought as dispersed cluster remnants retaining the original kinematics. Subsequently, studies suggested that these are debris of accreted satellite galaxy in the Milkyway and belong to an old stellar population in the solar neighborhood. Kinematic studies reveal that the stream member stars are old and belong to thick disk of the Galaxy. Satellite acceretion scenario is one front runner proposal for the thick disk formation in the Galactic disk. In this study, we have explored one of the streams, known as Arcturus stream, through high resolution spectroscopy. Preliminary abundance results for a sample of Arcturus stream are obtained and compared with groups of stars that belong to thick disk and dwarf spheroidals. Alpha elements, that are known to be produced mainly in the massive but short lived SNII, seem to be enhanced relative to Fe, a dominant product in long lived SNIa. This suggests that the Arcturus stream stars are old and are mostly produced in the era where SNII was predominant. Abundance results are very similar to the results of Galactic thick disk, which is a distinct component in the disk, both kinematically and chemically. It seems Arcturus is a subgroup within the thick disk but to establish whether the group is distinct from the thick disk, we have to determine differential age estimate for a sample of thick disk and Arcturus stars at the overlapping [Fe/H].

  10. 3-D Reservoir and Stochastic Fracture Network Modeling for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Circle Ridge Phosphoria/Tensleep Reservoir, and River Reservation, Arapaho and Shoshone Tribes, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Pointe, Paul R.; Hermanson, Jan

    2002-09-09

    The goal of this project is to improve the recovery of oil from the Circle Ridge Oilfield, located on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, through an innovative integration of matrix characterization, structural reconstruction, and the characterization of the fracturing in the reservoir through the use of discrete fracture network models.

  11. Enhanced and updated spatially referenced statistical assessment of dissolved-solids load sources and transport in streams of the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew P.; Buto, Susan G.; Lambert, Patrick M.; Rumsey, Christine A.

    2017-03-07

    Approximately 6.4 million tons of dissolved solids are discharged from the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) to the Lower Colorado River Basin each year. This results in substantial economic damages, and tens of millions of dollars are spent annually on salinity control projects designed to reduce salinity loads in surface waters of the UCRB. Dissolved solids in surface water and groundwater have been studied extensively over the past century, and these studies have contributed to a conceptual understanding of sources and transport of dissolved solids. This conceptual understanding was incorporated into a Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) model to examine sources and transport of dissolved solids in the UCRB. The results of this model were published in 2009. The present report documents the methods and data used to develop an updated dissolved-solids SPARROW model for the UCRB, and incorporates data defining current basin attributes not available in the previous model, including delineation of irrigated lands by irrigation type (sprinkler or flood irrigation), and calibration data from additional monitoring sites.Dissolved-solids loads estimated for 312 monitoring sites were used to calibrate the SPARROW model, which predicted loads for each of 10,789 stream reaches in the UCRB. The calibrated model provided a good fit to the calibration data as evidenced by R2 and yield R2 values of 0.96 and 0.73, respectively, and a root-mean-square error of 0.47. The model included seven geologic sources that have estimated dissolved-solids yields ranging from approximately 1 to 45 tons per square mile (tons/mi2). Yields generated from irrigated agricultural lands are substantially greater than those from geologic sources, with sprinkler irrigated lands generating an average of approximately 150 tons/mi2 and flood irrigated lands generating between 770 and 2,300 tons/mi2 depending on underlying lithology. The coefficients estimated for six

  12. StreamCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The StreamCat Dataset provides summaries of natural and anthropogenic landscape features for ~2.65 million streams, and their associated catchments, within the...

  13. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  14. Productivity of Stream Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Grabmayer, C.A.; Hendriks, R.D.A.; Ishihara, A.; Klop, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called 'productive' if it can be evaluated continually in such a way that a uniquely determined stream in constructor normal form is obtained as the limit. Whereas

  15. Productivity of Stream Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, Jörg; Grabmayer, Clemens; Hendriks, Dimitri; Isihara, Ariya; Klop, Jan

    2007-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continuously in such a way that a uniquely determined stream is obtained as the limit. Whereas productivity is undecidable

  16. Productivity of stream definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Grabmayer, C.A.; Hendriks, D.; Isihara, A.; Klop, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continually in such a way that a uniquely determined stream in constructor normal form is obtained as the limit. Whereas

  17. Landscaping Considerations for Urban Stream Restoration Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Pam

    2004-01-01

    ... after restoration and its functionality for public use. The landscaping component of such stream and riparian restoration projects must be emphasized given its importance of visual success and public perception. The purpose of this technical note is to address landscaping considerations associated with urban stream and riparian restoration projects, and provide ideas to managers for enhancing the visual appeal and aesthetic qualities of urban projects.

  18. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program : Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation : 2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, Angelo J.; Hallock, Stephanie A.; Firehammer, Jon A.

    2008-12-12

    This annual report summarizes previously unreported data collected to fulfill the contractual obligations for BPA project No.1990-044-00, 'Coeur d'Alene Subbasin Fisheries Habitat Enhancement', during the 2006 calendar year. Even though the contract performance period for this project crosses fiscal and calendar years, the timing of data collection and analysis, as well as implementation of restoration projects, lends itself to this reporting schedule. The 2006 performance period marked the first year that BPA implemented its Process Improvement Initiative with the Pisces system serving as the vehicle for developing statements of work and tracking project performance. This document attempts to provide some consistency between the project objectives, around which past reports have been structured, and the new work element format adopted for use in Pisces. The report is formatted into three primary sections that respectively provide results and discussion of: (1) monitoring and evaluation of biological and physical habitat indicators; (2) implementation of restoration and enhancement projects; and (3) education and outreach work performed during 2006. The relevant work elements and/or milestones found in the statement of work are listed under these section headings and described in the body of the report.

  19. Benthic invertebrate fauna, small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Bruce Wallace; S.L. Eggert

    2009-01-01

    Small streams (first- through third-order streams) make up >98% of the total number of stream segments and >86% of stream length in many drainage networks. Small streams occur over a wide array of climates, geology, and biomes, which influence temperature, hydrologic regimes, water chemistry, light, substrate, stream permanence, a basin's terrestrial plant...

  20. Stretch-minimising stream surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael

    2015-05-01

    We study the problem of finding stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a divergence-free vector field. These surfaces are generated by motions of seed curves that propagate through the field in a stretch minimising manner, i.e., they move without stretching or shrinking, preserving the length of their arbitrary arc. In general fields, such curves may not exist. How-ever, the divergence-free constraint gives rise to these \\'stretch-free\\' curves that are locally arc-length preserving when infinitesimally propagated. Several families of stretch-free curves are identified and used as initial guesses for stream surface generation. These surfaces are subsequently globally optimised to obtain the best stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a given divergence-free vector field. Our algorithm was tested on benchmark datasets, proving its applicability to incompressible fluid flow simulations, where our stretch-minimising stream surfaces realistically reflect the flow of a flexible univariate object. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ionization and NO production in the polar mesosphere during high-speed solar wind streams. Model validation and comparison with NO enhancements observed by Odin-SMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkwood, S.; Belova, E. [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna (Sweden). Polar Atmospheric Research; Osepian, A. [Polar Geophysical Institute, Murmansk (Russian Federation); Urban, J.; Perot, K. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden). Dept. of Radio and Space Science; Sinha, A.K. [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai (India)

    2015-09-01

    Precipitation of high-energy electrons (EEP) into the polar middle atmosphere is a potential source of significant production of odd nitrogen, which may play a role in stratospheric ozone destruction and in perturbing large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns. High-speed streams of solar wind (HSS) are a major source of energization and precipitation of electrons from the Earth's radiation belts, but it remains to be determined whether these electrons make a significant contribution to the odd-nitrogen budget in the middle atmosphere when compared to production by solar protons or by lower-energy (auroral) electrons at higher altitudes, with subsequent downward transport. Satellite observations of EEP are available, but their accuracy is not well established. Studies of the ionization of the atmosphere in response to EEP, in terms of cosmic-noise absorption (CNA), have indicated an unexplained seasonal variation in HSS-related effects and have suggested possible order-of-magnitude underestimates of the EEP fluxes by the satellite observations in some circumstances. Here we use a model of ionization by EEP coupled with an ion chemistry model to show that published average EEP fluxes, during HSS events, from satellite measurements (Meredith et al., 2011), are fully consistent with the published average CNA response (Kavanagh et al., 2012). The seasonal variation of CNA response can be explained by ion chemistry with no need for any seasonal variation in EEP. Average EEP fluxes are used to estimate production rate profiles of nitric oxide between 60 and 100 km heights over Antarctica for a series of unusually well separated HSS events in austral winter 2010. These are compared to observations of changes in nitric oxide during the events, made by the sub-millimetre microwave radiometer on the Odin spacecraft. The observations show strong increases of nitric oxide amounts between 75 and 90 km heights, at all latitudes poleward of 60 S, about 10 days after the

  2. Case Report: "ADHD Trainer": the mobile application that enhances cognitive skills in ADHD patients [version 5; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Ruiz-Manrique

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 10 year old patient diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and comorbid video game addiction, who was treated with medication combined with a novel cognitive training method based on video games called TCT method. A great risk of developing video game or internet addiction has been reported in children, especially in children with ADHD. Despite this risk, we hypothesize that the good use of these new technologies might be useful to develop new methods of cognitive training. The cognitive areas in which a greater improvement was observed through the use of video games were visuospatial working memory and fine motor skills. TCT method is a cognitive training method that enhances cognitive skills such as attention, working memory, processing speed, calculation ability, reasoning, and visuomotor coordination. The purpose of reviewing this case is to highlight that regular cognitive computerized training in ADHD patients may improve some of their cognitive symptoms and might be helpful for treating video game addiction.

  3. Targeted enhancement of glutamate-to-γ-aminobutyrate conversion in Arabidopsis seeds affects carbon-nitrogen balance and storage reserves in a development-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fait, Aaron; Nesi, Adriano Nunes; Angelovici, Ruthie; Lehmann, Martin; Pham, Phuong Anh; Song, Luhua; Haslam, Richard P; Napier, Johnathan A; Galili, Gad; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2011-11-01

    In seeds, glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) operates at the metabolic nexus between carbon and nitrogen metabolism by catalyzing the unidirectional decarboxylation of glutamate to form γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). To elucidate the regulatory role of GAD in seed development, we generated Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transgenic plants expressing a truncated GAD from Petunia hybrida missing the carboxyl-terminal regulatory Ca(2+)-calmodulin-binding domain under the transcriptional regulation of the seed maturation-specific phaseolin promoter. Dry seeds of the transgenic plants accumulated considerable amounts of GABA, and during desiccation the content of several amino acids increased, although not glutamate or proline. Dry transgenic seeds had higher protein content than wild-type seeds but lower amounts of the intermediates of glycolysis, glycerol and malate. The total fatty acid content of the transgenic seeds was 50% lower than in the wild type, while acyl-coenzyme A accumulated in the transgenic seeds. Labeling experiments revealed altered levels of respiration in the transgenic seeds, and fractionation studies indicated reduced incorporation of label in the sugar and lipid fractions extracted from transgenic seeds. Comparative transcript profiling of the dry seeds supported the metabolic data. Cellular processes up-regulated at the transcript level included the tricarboxylic acid cycle, fatty acid elongation, the shikimate pathway, tryptophan metabolism, nitrogen-carbon remobilization, and programmed cell death. Genes involved in the regulation of germination were similarly up-regulated. Taken together, these results indicate that the GAD-mediated conversion of glutamate to GABA during seed development plays an important role in balancing carbon and nitrogen metabolism and in storage reserve accumulation.

  4. Hydrography - Streams and Shorelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The hydrography layer consists of flowing waters (rivers and streams), standing waters (lakes and ponds), and wetlands -- both natural and manmade. Two separate...

  5. User aware video streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerofsky, Louis; Jagannath, Abhijith; Reznik, Yuriy

    2015-03-01

    We describe the design of a video streaming system using adaptation to viewing conditions to reduce the bitrate needed for delivery of video content. A visual model is used to determine sufficient resolution needed under various viewing conditions. Sensors on a mobile device estimate properties of the viewing conditions, particularly the distance to the viewer. We leverage the framework of existing adaptive bitrate streaming systems such as HLS, Smooth Streaming or MPEG-DASH. The client rate selection logic is modified to include a sufficient resolution computed using the visual model and the estimated viewing conditions. Our experiments demonstrate significant bitrate savings compare to conventional streaming methods which do not exploit viewing conditions.

  6. The case against streaming

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Natalia Mironova

    2014-01-01

    .... Cassidy, the safety coordinator at the Airline Pilots Association, says Levine and others advocating for live data streaming are oversimplifying the issue and overlooking the logistical concerns...

  7. Exposure of wood in floodplains affects its chemical quality and its subsequent breakdown in streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, Rubén; Gómez, Rosa

    2016-02-01

    In stream ecosystems, coarse organic matter from the riparian vegetation, a key food resource, is often retained in the floodplains before reaching the channel. During floodplain exposure, organic matter can be affected by abiotic and biotic processes ("preconditioning"), which alter its quality and affect its subsequent decomposition in streams. We analyzed the effect of floodplain preconditioning on wood quality (lignin, C, N, P, K, among others), and its subsequent aquatic breakdown, paying special attention to microbial activity. We simulated preconditioned standard wooden sticks on one arid stream floodplain for 3 and 4 months, and then monitored their breakdown in three different streams, together with control (non-preconditioned) sticks. Preconditioning reduced lignin mass and C:N and lignin:N ratios, caused the leaching of soluble nutrients such as P and K, as well as N immobilization by microbes. These changes enhanced the breakdown of wood in the first week of immersion, but had no effect on breakdown rates after 4 months of incubation in the streams, although N immobilization was diminished. Our results suggest that terrestrial preconditioning could alter the role of wood as a long-lasting nutrients and energy source for freshwater ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin I. Bayala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is a key parameter in the energy balance model. However, the spatial resolution of the retrieved LST from sensors with high temporal resolution is not accurate enough to be used in local-scale studies. To explore the LST–Normalised Difference Vegetation Index relationship potential and obtain thermal images with high spatial resolution, six enhanced image sharpening techniques were assessed: the disaggregation procedure for radiometric surface temperatures (TsHARP, the Dry Edge Quadratic Function, the Difference of Edges (Ts∗DL and three models supported by the relationship of surface temperature and water stress of vegetation (Normalised Difference Water Index, Normalised Difference Infrared Index and Soil wetness index. Energy Balance Station data and in situ measurements were used to validate the enhanced LST images over a mixed agricultural landscape in the sub-humid Pampean Region of Argentina (PRA, during 2006–2010. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS thermal datasets were assessed for different spatial resolutions (e.g., 960, 720 and 240 m and the performances were compared with global and local TsHARP procedures. Results suggest that the Ts∗DL technique is the most adequate for simulating LST to high spatial resolution over the heterogeneous landscape of a sub-humid region, showing an average root mean square error of less than 1 K.

  9. Description of a fire and its effects in the Nylsvley Nature Reserve: a synthesis report

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gandar, MV

    1982-10-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Description of a fire and its effects in the Nylsvley Nature Reserve.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 44 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Description of a fire and its effects... in the Nylsvley Nature Reserve.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  10. LHCb trigger streams optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkach, D.; Kazeev, N.; Neychev, R.; Panin, A.; Trofimov, I.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Vesterinen, M.

    2017-10-01

    The LHCb experiment stores around 1011 collision events per year. A typical physics analysis deals with a final sample of up to 107 events. Event preselection algorithms (lines) are used for data reduction. Since the data are stored in a format that requires sequential access, the lines are grouped into several output file streams, in order to increase the efficiency of user analysis jobs that read these data. The scheme efficiency heavily depends on the stream composition. By putting similar lines together and balancing the stream sizes it is possible to reduce the overhead. We present a method for finding an optimal stream composition. The method is applied to a part of the LHCb data (Turbo stream) on the stage where it is prepared for user physics analysis. This results in an expected improvement of 15% in the speed of user analysis jobs, and will be applied on data to be recorded in 2017.

  11. Characterization of HIFU transducers designed for sonochemistry application: Acoustic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallez, L; Touyeras, F; Hihn, J-Y; Bailly, Y

    2016-03-01

    Cavitation distribution in a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound sonoreactors (HIFU) has been extensively described in the recent literature, including quantification by an optical method (Sonochemiluminescence SCL). The present paper provides complementary measurements through the study of acoustic streaming generated by the same kind of HIFU transducers. To this end, results of mass transfer measurements (electrodiffusional method) were compared to optical method ones (Particle Image Velocimetry). This last one was used in various configurations: with or without an electrode in the acoustic field in order to have the same perturbation of the wave propagation. Results show that the maximum velocity is not located at the focal but shifted near the transducer, and that this shift is greater for high powers. The two cavitation modes (stationary and moving bubbles) are greatly affect the hydrodynamic behavior of our sonoreactors: acoustic streaming and the fluid generated by bubble motion. The results obtained by electrochemical measurements show the same low hydrodynamic activity in the transducer vicinity, the same shift of the active focal toward the transducer, and the same absence of activity in the post-focal axial zone. The comparison with theoretical Eckart's velocities (acoustic streaming in non-cavitating media) confirms a very high activity at the "sonochemical focal", accounted for by wave distortion, which induced greater absorption coefficients. Moreover, the equivalent liquid velocities are one order of magnitude larger than the ones measured by PIV, confirming the enhancement of mass transfer by bubbles oscillation and collapse close to the surface, rather than from a pure streaming effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Stream Gauges and Satellite Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdorf, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Satellite measurements should not be viewed as a replacement for stream gauges. However, occasionally it is suggested that because satellite-based measurements can provide river discharge, a motivation for satellite approaches is an increasing lack of stream gauges. This is an argument for more stream gauges, but not necessarily for satellite measurements. Rather, in-situ and spaceborne methods of estimating discharge are complementary. Stream gauges provide frequent measurements at one point in the river reach whereas satellites have the potential to measure throughout all reaches but at orbital repeat intervals of days to weeks. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography satellite mission (SWOT) is an opportunity to further develop these complements. The motivation for SWOT, and indeed for any satellite based method of estimating discharge, should not be as a replacement for stream gauges. Scientific and application uses should motivate the measurements. For example, understanding floods with their dynamic water surfaces are best sampled from remote platforms that provide water surface elevations throughout the floodwave. As another example, today’s water and energy balance models are giving outputs at increasing spatial resolution and are making use of water surface elevations throughout the modeled basin. These models require a similar resolution in the calibrating and validating observations. We should also be aware of practical limitations. In addition to providing spatially distributed hydrodynamic measurements on rivers, SWOT will be able to measure storage changes in the estimated 30 million lakes in the world that are larger than a hectare. Knowing the storage changes in these lakes is especially important in certain regions such as the Arctic but gauging even a small fraction of these is impractical. Another motivator for satellite methods is that even in the presence of stream gauges, discharge data is not always well shared throughout all countries

  13. Application of the Hydroecological Integrity Assessment Process for Missouri Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennen, Jonathan G.; Henriksen, James A.; Heasley, John; Cade, Brian S.; Terrell, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Natural flow regime concepts and theories have established the justification for maintaining or restoring the range of natural hydrologic variability so that physiochemical processes, native biodiversity, and the evolutionary potential of aquatic and riparian assemblages can be sustained. A synthesis of recent research advances in hydroecology, coupled with stream classification using hydroecologically relevant indices, has produced the Hydroecological Integrity Assessment Process (HIP). HIP consists of (1) a regional classification of streams into hydrologic stream types based on flow data from long-term gaging-station records for relatively unmodified streams, (2) an identification of stream-type specific indices that address 11 subcomponents of the flow regime, (3) an ability to establish environmental flow standards, (4) an evaluation of hydrologic alteration, and (5) a capacity to conduct alternative analyses. The process starts with the identification of a hydrologic baseline (reference condition) for selected locations, uses flow data from a stream-gage network, and proceeds to classify streams into hydrologic stream types. Concurrently, the analysis identifies a set of non-redundant and ecologically relevant hydrologic indices for 11 subcomponents of flow for each stream type. Furthermore, regional hydrologic models for synthesizing flow conditions across a region and the development of flow-ecology response relations for each stream type can be added to further enhance the process. The application of HIP to Missouri streams identified five stream types ((1) intermittent, (2) perennial runoff-flashy, (3) perennial runoff-moderate baseflow, (4) perennial groundwater-stable, and (5) perennial groundwater-super stable). Two Missouri-specific computer software programs were developed: (1) a Missouri Hydrologic Assessment Tool (MOHAT) which is used to establish a hydrologic baseline, provide options for setting environmental flow standards, and compare past and

  14. Percent Agriculture Adjacent to Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  15. Acoustic streaming in microchannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tribler, Peter Muller

    , the acoustic streaming flow, and the forces on suspended microparticles. The work is motivated by the application of particle focusing by acoustic radiation forces in medical, environmental and food sciences. Here acoustic streaming is most often unwanted, because it limits the focusability of particles...... oscillating plates. Furthermore, under general thermodynamic conditions, we derive the time-dependent first- and second-order equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. The coupling from fluid equations to particle motion is achieved through the expressions for the streaming-induced drag...

  16. Controlling the acoustic streaming by pulsed ultrasounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, Mauricio; Castro, Angélica

    2013-01-01

    We propose a technique based on pulsed ultrasounds for controlling, reducing to a minimum observable value the acoustic streaming in closed ultrasonic standing wave fluidic resonators. By modifying the number of pulses and the repetition time it is possible to reduce the velocity of the acoustic streaming with respect to the velocity generated by the continuous ultrasound mode of operation. The acoustic streaming is observed at the nodal plane where a suspension of 800nm latex particles was focused by primary radiation force. A mixture of 800nm and 15μm latex particles has been also used for showing that the acoustic streaming is hardly reduced while primary and secondary forces continue to operate. The parameter we call "pulse mode factor" i.e. the time of applied ultrasound divided by the duty cycle, is found to be the adequate parameter that controls the acoustic streaming. We demonstrate that pulsed ultrasound is more efficient for controlling the acoustic streaming than the variation of the amplitude of the standing waves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Academic streaming in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falaschi, Alessandro; Mønster, Dan; Doležal, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The TF-NETCAST task force was active from March 2003 to March 2004, and during this time the mem- bers worked on various aspects of streaming media related to the ultimate goal of setting up common services and infrastructures to enable netcasting of high quality content to the academic community...... in Europe. We report on a survey of the use of streaming media in the academic community in Europe, an open source content delivery network, and a portal for announcing live streaming events to the global academic community.......The TF-NETCAST task force was active from March 2003 to March 2004, and during this time the mem- bers worked on various aspects of streaming media related to the ultimate goal of setting up common services and infrastructures to enable netcasting of high quality content to the academic community...

  18. Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  19. Future Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  20. Channelized Streams in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This draft dataset consists of all ditches or channelized pieces of stream that could be identified using three input datasets; namely the1:24,000 National...

  1. Streaming tearing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  2. Streaming media bible

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mack, Steve

    2002-01-01

    This book "tells you everything you need to know to produce professional-quality streaming media for the Internet, from an overview of the available systems and tools to high-end techniques for top quality results...

  3. Scientific stream pollution analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nemerow, Nelson Leonard

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the analysis of water pollution that presents a careful balance of the biological,hydrological, chemical and mathematical concepts involved in the evaluation of stream...

  4. DNR 24K Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — 1:24,000 scale streams captured from USGS seven and one-half minute quadrangle maps, with perennial vs. intermittent classification, and connectivity through lakes,...

  5. Numeric Analysis for Relationship-Aware Scalable Streaming Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung Ki Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequent packet loss of media data is a critical problem that degrades the quality of streaming services over mobile networks. Packet loss invalidates frames containing lost packets and other related frames at the same time. Indirect loss caused by losing packets decreases the quality of streaming. A scalable streaming service can decrease the amount of dropped multimedia resulting from a single packet loss. Content providers typically divide one large media stream into several layers through a scalable streaming service and then provide each scalable layer to the user depending on the mobile network. Also, a scalable streaming service makes it possible to decode partial multimedia data depending on the relationship between frames and layers. Therefore, a scalable streaming service provides a way to decrease the wasted multimedia data when one packet is lost. However, the hierarchical structure between frames and layers of scalable streams determines the service quality of the scalable streaming service. Even if whole packets of layers are transmitted successfully, they cannot be decoded as a result of the absence of reference frames and layers. Therefore, the complicated relationship between frames and layers in a scalable stream increases the volume of abandoned layers. For providing a high-quality scalable streaming service, we choose a proper relationship between scalable layers as well as the amount of transmitted multimedia data depending on the network situation. We prove that a simple scalable scheme outperforms a complicated scheme in an error-prone network. We suggest an adaptive set-top box (AdaptiveSTB to lower the dependency between scalable layers in a scalable stream. Also, we provide a numerical model to obtain the indirect loss of multimedia data and apply it to various multimedia streams. Our AdaptiveSTB enhances the quality of a scalable streaming service by removing indirect loss.

  6. E3 Value Stream Mapping How-to Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentations and PDFs on value stream mapping for various sectors, which can reveal substantial opportunities to reduce costs, enhance production flow, save time, reduce inventory, and improve environmental performance.

  7. Gulf stream separation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Joseph

    Climate models currently struggle with the more traditional, coarse ( O(100 km) ) representation of the ocean. In these coarse ocean simulations, western boundary currents are notoriously difficult to model accurately. The modeled Gulf Stream is typically seen exhibiting a mean pathway that is north of observations, and is linked to a warm sea-surface temperature bias in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Although increased resolution ( O(10 km) ) improves the modeled Gulf Stream position, there is no clean recipe for obtaining the proper pathway. The 70 year history of literature on the Gulf Stream separation suggests that we have not reached a resolution on the dynamics that control the current's pathway just south of the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Without a concrete knowledge on the separation dynamics, we cannot provide a clean recipe for accurately modeling the Gulf Stream at increased resolutions. Further, any reliable parameterization that yields a realistic Gulf Stream path must express the proper physics of separation. The goal of this dissertation is to determine what controls the Gulf Stream separation. To do so, we examine the results of a model intercomparison study and a set of numerical regional terraforming experiments. It is argued that the separation is governed by local dynamics that are most sensitive to the steepening of the continental shelf, consistent with the topographic wave arrest hypothesis of Stern (1998). A linear extension of Stern's theory is provided, which illustrates that wave arrest is possible for a continuously stratified fluid.

  8. Measuring hepatic functional reserve using T1 mapping of Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced 3T MR imaging: A preliminary study comparing with (99m)Tc GSA scintigraphy and signal intensity based parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Masataka; Namimoto, Tomohiro; Shimizu, Kie; Morita, Kosuke; Sakamoto, Fumi; Oda, Seitaro; Nakaura, Takeshi; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Shiraishi, Shinya; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2017-07-01

    To determine the utility of liver T1-mapping on gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for the measurement of liver functional reserve compared with the signal intensity (SI) based parameters, technetium-99m-galactosyl serum albumin ((99m)Tc-GSA) scintigraphy and indocyanine green (ICG) clearance. This retrospective study included 111 patients (Child-Pugh-A 90; -B 21) performed with both Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced liver MR imaging and (99m)Tc-GSA (76 patients with ICG). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to compare diagnostic performances of T1-relaxation-time parameters [pre-(T1pre) and post-contrast (T1hb) Gd-EOB-DTPA], SI based parameters [relative enhancement (RE), liver-to-muscle-ratio (LMR), liver-to-spleen-ratio (LSR)] and (99m)Tc-GSA scintigraphy blood clearance index (HH15)] for Child-Pugh classification. Pearson's correlation was used for comparisons among T1-relaxation-time parameters, SI-based parameters, HH15 and ICG. A significant difference was obtained for Child-Pugh classification with T1hb, ΔT1, all SI based parameters and HH15. T1hb had the highest AUC followed by RE, LMR, LSR, ΔT1, HH15 and T1pre. The correlation coefficients with HH15 were T1pre 0.22, T1hb 0.53, ΔT1 -0.38 of T1 relaxation parameters; RE -0.44, LMR -0.45, LSR -0.43 of SI-based parameters. T1hb was highest for correlation with HH15. The correlation coefficients with ICG were T1pre 0.29, T1hb 0.64, ΔT1 -0.42 of T1 relaxation parameters; RE -0.50, LMR -0.61, LSR -0.58 of SI-based parameters; 0.64 of HH15. Both T1hb and HH15 were highest for correlation with ICG. T1 relaxation time at post-contrast of Gd-EOB-DTPA (T1hb) was strongly correlated with ICG clearance and moderately correlated HH15 with (99m)Tc-GSA. T1hb has the potential to provide robust parameter of liver functional reserve. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Streaming Pool: reuse, combine and create reactive streams with pleasure

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    When connecting together heterogeneous and complex systems, it is not easy to exchange data between components. Streams of data are successfully used in industry in order to overcome this problem, especially in the case of "live" data. Streams are a specialization of the Observer design pattern and they provide asynchronous and non-blocking data flow. The ongoing effort of the ReactiveX initiative is one example that demonstrates how demanding this technology is even for big companies. Bridging the discrepancies of different technologies with common interfaces is already done by the Reactive Streams initiative and, in the JVM world, via reactive-streams-jvm interfaces. Streaming Pool is a framework for providing and discovering reactive streams. Through the mechanism of dependency injection provided by the Spring Framework, Streaming Pool provides a so called Discovery Service. This object can discover and chain streams of data that are technologically agnostic, through the use of Stream IDs. The stream to ...

  10. Environmental controls of wood entrapment in upper Midwestern streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Eric C.; Finlay, Jacques; Johnson, Lucinda; Newman, Raymond; Stefan, Heinz; Vondracek, Bruce C.

    2011-01-01

    Wood deposited in streams provides a wide variety of ecosystem functions, including enhancing habitat for key species in stream food webs, increasing geomorphic and hydraulic heterogeneity and retaining organic matter. Given the strong role that wood plays in streams, factors that influence wood inputs, retention and transport are critical to stream ecology. Wood entrapment, the process of wood coming to rest after being swept downstream at least 10 m, is poorly understood, yet important for predicting stream function and success of restoration efforts. Data on entrapment were collected for a wide range of natural wood pieces (n = 344), stream geomorphology and hydraulic conditions in nine streams along the north shore of Lake Superior in Minnesota. Locations of pieces were determined in summer 2007 and again following an overbank stormflow event in fall 2007. The ratio of piece length to effective stream width (length ratio) and the weight of the piece were important in a multiple logistic regression model that explained 25% of the variance in wood entrapment. Entrapment remains difficult to predict in natural streams, and often may simply occur wherever wood pieces are located when high water recedes. However, this study can inform stream modifications to discourage entrapment at road crossings or other infrastructure by applying the model formula to estimate the effective width required to pass particular wood pieces. Conversely, these results could also be used to determine conditions (e.g. pre-existing large, stable pieces) that encourage entrapment where wood is valued for ecological functions.

  11. Streams and their future inhabitants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, K.; Friberg, N.

    2006-01-01

    In this fi nal chapter we look ahead and address four questions: How do we improve stream management? What are the likely developments in the biological quality of streams? In which areas is knowledge on stream ecology insuffi cient? What can streams offer children of today and adults of tomorrow?...

  12. Optimized H.264/AVC-Based Bit Stream Switching for Mobile Video Streaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liebl Günther

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We show the suitability of H.264/MPEG-4 AVC extended profile for wireless video streaming applications. In particular, we exploit the advanced bit stream switching capabilities using SP/SI pictures defined in the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC standard. For both types of switching pictures, optimized encoders are developed. We introduce a framework for dynamic switching and frame scheduling. For this purpose we define an appropriate abstract representation for media encoded for video streaming, as well as for the characteristics of wireless variable bit rate channels. The achievable performance gains over H.264/MPEG-4 AVC with constant bit rate (CBR encoding are shown for wireless video streaming over enhanced GPRS (EGPRS.

  13. The molecular mechanism and physiological role of cytoplasmic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Motoki; Ito, Kohji

    2015-10-01

    Cytoplasmic streaming occurs widely in plants ranging from algae to angiosperms. However, the molecular mechanism and physiological role of cytoplasmic streaming have long remained unelucidated. Recent molecular genetic approaches have identified specific myosin members (XI-2 and XI-K as major and XI-1, XI-B, and XI-I as minor motive forces) for the generation of cytoplasmic streaming among 13 myosin XIs in Arabidopsis thaliana. Simultaneous knockout of these myosin XI members led to a reduced velocity of cytoplasmic streaming and marked defects of plant development. Furthermore, the artificial modifications of myosin XI-2 velocity changed plant and cell sizes along with the velocity of cytoplasmic streaming. Therefore, we assume that cytoplasmic streaming is one of the key regulators in determining plant size. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of Stream Metabolism on Nitrate Concentrations in an Urban Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, S. H.; Lautz, L.; Vidon, P.; Stella, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrate dynamics in urban streams differ from many natural streams due to unique water inputs (e.g., wastewater, runoff from impervious cover) and often limited hyporheic exchange. Biogeochemical processes affecting N concentration in streams also differ from more natural systems as in-stream assimilation may be enhanced by biota due to increased primary productivity, while denitrification in stream sediments may be reduced owing to limited carbon input and reduced hyporheic exchange. This study investigates NO3 dynamics in a first-order stream in Syracuse, NY, which has urbanized headwaters with minimal stream-groundwater interaction and no riparian cover, and a natural downstream section, with meandering channel morphology and mature vegetation. Seasonal water sampling, NO3 injection tests and isotopic analysis of NO3 were performed to identify sources and sinks throughout the year, along with measures of filamentous algae density. The urban headwater reach has a maximum NO3 concentration of 0.2 mg N/L in the spring through fall, with a minimum uptake length of 900 m, no canopy cover, and high algae mat density. NO3 increases to 0.8 mg N/L beginning in the fall leaf-off period and continuing into winter in the urban reach. The downstream natural reach has NO3 concentrations between 0.6 and 1.2 mg N/L from December to September but dropped below 0.4 mg N/L in October and November during leaf-off. This section of the stream has almost 100% canopy cover during the summer and low algae mat density. Low NO3 concentrations in the urban reach (open canopy), combined with high algae density, suggest that autotrophic uptake by filamentous green algae is a major assimilatory sink of NO3 in the summer. In the natural reach, the addition of organic matter to the stream at leaf-off led to a strong decrease in N concentration (likely owing to a short-term increase in denitrification) followed by an increase in N concentration in winter as algae/plant uptake ceased. These

  15. Activity Based Costing in Value Stream Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Abuthakeer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to integrate Value Stream Map (VSM with the cost aspects. A value stream map provides a blueprint for implementing lean manufacturing concepts by illustrating information and materials flow in a value stream. The objective of the present work is to integrate the various cost aspects. The idea is to introduce a cost line, which enhances the clarity in decision making. The redesigned map proves to be effective in highlighting the improvement areas, in terms of quantitative data. TAKT time calculation is carried out to set the pace of production. Target cost is set as a bench mark for product cost. The results of the study indicates that implementing VSM led to reduction in the following areas: processing lead time by 34%, processing cycle time was reduced by 35%, Inventory level by 66% and product cost from Rs 137 to Rs 125. It was found that adopting VSM in a small scale industry can make significant improvements.

  16. Habitat Quality and Anadromous Fish Production Potential on the Warm Springs Indian Reservation: Annual Report 1987.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinith, Robert

    1987-12-01

    In 1987, The Warm Springs Indian Reservation Anadromous Fish Production and Habitat Improvement Program was in the sixth year of a scheduled eleven year program. To date, 21 kilometers of reservation stream habitat have been enhanced for salmonid production benefits. Unusual climatic conditions created a severe drought throughout the Warm Springs River Basin and Shitike Creek in 1987. Temperature extremes and low annual discharges ensued throughout reservation waters. Study sites, located in the Warm Springs River Basin and Shitike Creek, continued to be monitored for physical biological parameters. Post treatment evaluation of bioengineering work in Mill Creek (Strawberry Falls Project) was conducted. Despite low discharges, physical habitat parameters were improved and notable gains were observed in both spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytascha) and summer steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) abundance and biomass at post treatment sites. Major bioengineering work was completed at the Mill Creek (Potter's Pond) Site. 19 refs., 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  17. Interaction of streaming and attention in human auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Rupp, André; Dykstra, Andrew R

    2015-01-01

    Serially presented tones are sometimes segregated into two perceptually distinct streams. An ongoing debate is whether this basic streaming phenomenon reflects automatic processes or requires attention focused to the stimuli. Here, we examined the influence of focused attention on streaming-related activity in human auditory cortex using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Listeners were presented with a dichotic paradigm in which left-ear stimuli consisted of canonical streaming stimuli (ABA_ or ABAA) and right-ear stimuli consisted of a classical oddball paradigm. In phase one, listeners were instructed to attend the right-ear oddball sequence and detect rare deviants. In phase two, they were instructed to attend the left ear streaming stimulus and report whether they heard one or two streams. The frequency difference (ΔF) of the sequences was set such that the smallest and largest ΔF conditions generally induced one- and two-stream percepts, respectively. Two intermediate ΔF conditions were chosen to elicit bistable percepts (i.e., either one or two streams). Attention enhanced the peak-to-peak amplitude of the P1-N1 complex, but only for ambiguous ΔF conditions, consistent with the notion that automatic mechanisms for streaming tightly interact with attention and that the latter is of particular importance for ambiguous sound sequences.

  18. Stream Water Quality Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — QUAL2K (or Q2K) is a river and stream water quality model that is intended to represent a modernized version of the QUAL2E (or Q2E) model (Brown and Barnwell 1987).

  19. Numerical Modelling of Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Kristian

    In recent years there has been a sharp increase in the use of numerical water quality models. Numeric water quality modeling can be divided into three steps: Hydrodynamic modeling for the determination of stream flow and water levels. Modelling of transport and dispersion of a conservative dissol...... dissolved substance. Modeling of chemical and biological turnover of substances....

  20. Streaming-video produktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, Poul

    2004-01-01

     E-learning Lab på Aalborg Universitet har i forbindelse med forskningsprojektet Virtuelle Læringsformer og Læringsmiljøer foretaget en række praktiske eksperimenter med streaming-video produktioner. Hensigten med denne artikel er at formidle disse erfaringer. Artiklen beskriver hele produktionsf...... E-learning Lab på Aalborg Universitet har i forbindelse med forskningsprojektet Virtuelle Læringsformer og Læringsmiljøer foretaget en række praktiske eksperimenter med streaming-video produktioner. Hensigten med denne artikel er at formidle disse erfaringer. Artiklen beskriver hele...... produktionsforløbet: fra ide til færdigt produkt, forskellige typer af præsentationer, dramaturgiske overvejelser samt en konceptskitse. Streaming-video teknologien er nu så udviklet med et så tilfredsstillende audiovisuelt udtryk at vi kan begynde at fokusere på, hvilket indhold der er velegnet til at blive gjort...... tilgængeligt uafhængigt af tid og sted. Afslutningsvis er der en række kildehenvisninger, blandt andet en oversigt over de streaming-video produktioner, som denne artikel bygger på....

  1. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...... description of the Rabbit design and some of the cryptanalytic results available....

  2. Music Streaming in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Rex

    This report analyses how a ’per user’ settlement model differs from the ‘pro rata’ model currently used. The analysis is based on data for all streams by WiMP users in Denmark during August 2013. The analysis has been conducted in collaboration with Christian Schlelein from Koda on the basis of d...

  3. Riparian deforestation, stream narrowing, and loss of stream ecosystem services

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Bernard W.; Bott, Thomas L.; Jackson, John K.; Kaplan, Louis A.; Newbold, J. Denis; Standley, Laurel J.; Hession, W. Cully; Horwitz, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    A study of 16 streams in eastern North America shows that riparian deforestation causes channel narrowing, which reduces the total amount of stream habitat and ecosystem per unit channel length and compromises in-stream processing of pollutants. Wide forest reaches had more macroinvertebrates, total ecosystem processing of organic matter, and nitrogen uptake per unit channel length than contiguous narrow deforested reaches. Stream narrowing nullified any potential advantages of deforestation ...

  4. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish and Wildlife Program Habitat Protection Plan; Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation, 1997-2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, Angelo; Roberts, Frank; Peters, Ronald

    2002-06-01

    Throughout the last century, the cumulative effects of anthropogenic disturbances have caused drastic watershed level landscape changes throughout the Reservation and surrounding areas (Coeur d'Alene Tribe 1998). Changes include stream channelization, wetland draining, forest and palouse prairie conversion for agricultural use, high road density, elimination of old growth timber stands, and denuding riparian communities. The significance of these changes is manifested in the degradation of habitats supporting native flora and fauna. Consequently, populations of native fish, wildlife, and plants, which the Tribe relies on as subsistence resources, have declined or in some instances been extirpated (Apperson et al. 1988; Coeur d'Alene Tribe 1998; Lillengreen et al. 1996; Lillengreen et al. 1993; Gerry Green Coeur d'Alene Tribe wildlife Biologist, personal communication 2002). For example, bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) are not present at detectable levels in Reservation tributaries, westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) are not present in numbers commensurate with maintaining harvestable fisheries (Lillengreen et al. 1993, 1996), and the Sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus) are not present at detectable levels on the Reservation (Gerry Green, Coeur d'Alene Tribe wildlife biologist, personal communication). The Coeur d'Alene Tribe added Fisheries and Wildlife Programs to their Natural Resources Department to address these losses and protect important cultural, and subsistence resources for future generations. The Tribal Council adopted by Resolution 89(94), the following mission statement for the Fisheries Program: 'restore, protect, expand and re-establish fish populations to sustainable levels to provide harvest opportunities'. This mission statement, focused on fisheries restoration and rehabilitation, is a response to native fish population declines throughout the Tribe's aboriginal territory

  5. Re-meandering of lowland streams: will disobeying the laws of geomorphology have ecological consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Klaus Kevin; Friberg, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the restoration of physical habitats and its influence on macroinvertebrate community structure in 18 Danish lowland streams comprising six restored streams, six streams with little physical alteration and six channelized streams. We hypothesized that physical habitats and macroinvertebrate communities of restored streams would resemble those of natural streams, while those of the channelized streams would differ from both restored and near-natural streams. Physical habitats were surveyed for substrate composition, depth, width and current velocity. Macroinvertebrates were sampled along 100 m reaches in each stream, in edge habitats and in riffle/run habitats located in the center of the stream. Restoration significantly altered the physical conditions and affected the interactions between stream habitat heterogeneity and macroinvertebrate diversity. The substrate in the restored streams was dominated by pebble, whereas the substrate in the channelized and natural streams was dominated by sand. In the natural streams a relationship was identified between slope and pebble/gravel coverage, indicating a coupling of energy and substrate characteristics. Such a relationship did not occur in the channelized or in the restored streams where placement of large amounts of pebble/gravel distorted the natural relationship. The analyses revealed, a direct link between substrate heterogeneity and macroinvertebrate diversity in the natural streams. A similar relationship was not found in either the channelized or the restored streams, which we attribute to a de-coupling of the natural relationship between benthic community diversity and physical habitat diversity. Our study results suggest that restoration schemes should aim at restoring the natural physical structural complexity in the streams and at the same time enhance the possibility of re-generating the natural geomorphological processes sustaining the habitats in streams and rivers. Documentation of

  6. Small Streams - 50 ft Setback

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is streams extracted from the VHD that have a drainage area of less than two square miles. These streams are given a simple 50-foot setback from top of...

  7. Query Processing on Data Streams

    OpenAIRE

    Stegmaier, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    Data stream processing is currently gaining importance due to the rapid increase in data volumes and developments in novel application areas like e-science, e-health, and e-business. In this thesis, we propose an architecture for a data stream management system and investigate methods for query processing on data streams in such systems. In contrast to traditional database management systems (DBMSs), queries on data streams constitute continuous subscriptions for retrieving interesting data r...

  8. Analysis of hydraulic characteristics for stream diversion in small stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang-Jin; Jun, Kye-Won [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju(Korea)

    2001-10-31

    This study is the analysis of hydraulic characteristics for stream diversion reach by numerical model test. Through it we can provide the basis data in flood, and in grasping stream flow characteristics. Analysis of hydraulic characteristics in Seoknam stream were implemented by using computer model HEC-RAS(one-dimensional model) and RMA2(two-dimensional finite element model). As a result we became to know that RMA2 to simulate left, main channel, right in stream is more effective method in analysing flow in channel bends, steep slope, complex bed form effect stream flow characteristics, than HEC-RAS. (author). 13 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  9. Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation; Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish, Water, and Wildlife Program, Progress Report 1996-1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, Angelo; Bailey, Dee; Peters, Ron

    2003-06-01

    fishes in Coeur d'Alene Lake from 1997 to 1998. Four out of the six most commonly sampled species are non-native. Northern pikeminnow and largescale suckers are the only native species among the six most commonly sampled. Northern pikeminnow comprise 8-9% of the electroshocking catch and 18-20% of the gillnet catch. Largescale suckers comprise 24-28% of the electroshocking catch and 9-21% of the gillnet catch. Cutthroat trout and mountain whitefish, on the other hand, comprise less than 1% of the catch when using electroshocking methods and about 1.4% of the gillnet catch. Since 1994, the Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish, Water and Wildlife Program has conducted an extensive mark-recapture study (Peters et al. 1999). To date, 636 fish have been tagged and 23 fish have been recaptured. We are finding that northern pike have a tendency to migrate from the original sampling site, while largemouth bass appear very territorial, rarely moving from the site where they were tagged. Both species are most commonly associated with shallow, near-shore habitats, where the potential for encountering seasonal migrations of cutthroat trout is maximized. Low-order tributaries provide the most important spawning habitat for cutthroat trout on the Reservation. The mapped distribution of potentially suitable spawning gravel was patchy and did not vary considerably within reaches or between watersheds. Furthermore, the quantity of spawning gravel was low, averaging just 4.1% of measured stream area. The lack of a strong association between spawning gravel abundance and several reach characteristics (gradient, proportion of gravel and pea gravel) corroborates the findings of other authors who suggest that local hydrologic features influence spawning gravel availability. Although the distribution of spawning substrate was patchy within the target watersheds, there is probably adequate habitat to support resident and adfluvial spawners because of currently depressed numbers. Spawning gravels

  10. Testing the field of dreams hypothesis: functional responses to urbanization and restoration in stream ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudduth, Elizabeth B; Hassett, Brooke A; Cada, Peter; Bernhardt, Emily S

    2011-09-01

    As catchments become increasingly urban, the streams that drain them become increasingly degraded. Urban streams are typically characterized by high-magnitude storm flows, homogeneous habitats, disconnected riparian zones, and elevated nitrogen concentrations. To reverse the degradation of urban water quality, watershed managers and regulators are increasingly turning to stream restoration approaches. By reshaping the channel and reconnecting the surface waters with their riparian zone, practitioners intend to enhance the natural nutrient retention capacity of the restored stream ecosystem. Despite the exponential growth in stream restoration projects and expenditures, there has been no evaluation to date of the efficacy of urban stream restoration projects in enhancing nitrogen retention or in altering the underlying ecosystem metabolism that controls instream nitrogen consumption. In this study, we compared ecosystem metabolism and nitrate uptake kinetics in four stream restoration projects within urban watersheds to ecosystem functions measured in four unrestored urban stream segments and four streams draining minimally impacted forested watersheds in central North Carolina, U.S.A. All 12 sites were surveyed in June through August of 2006 and again in January through March of 2007. We anticipated that urban streams would have enhanced rates of ecosystem metabolism and nitrate uptake relative to forested streams due to the increases in nutrient loads and temperature associated with urbanization, and we predicted that restored streams would have further enhanced rates for these ecosystem functions by virtue of their increased habitat heterogeneity and water residence times. Contrary to our predictions we found that stream metabolism did not differ between stream types in either season and that nitrate uptake kinetics were not different between stream types in the winter. During the summer, restored stream reaches had substantially higher rates of nitrate uptake

  11. Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

  12. Re-Meandering of Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Klaus Kevin; Friberg, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the restoration of physical habitats and its influence on macroinvertebrate community structure in 18 Danish lowland streams comprising six restored streams, six streams with little physical alteration and six channelized streams. We hypothesized that physical habitats and macroinver...

  13. Flow intermittency changes in-stream carbon processing of Alpine streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjung, Astrid; Battin, Tom; Butturini, Andrea; Ejarque, Elisabet; Sabater, Francesc; Schelker, Jakob; Stadler, Masumi

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological conditions are a major driver of carbon processing in Alpine headwater streams. So far, the consequences of flow intermittency on dissolved carbon are mainly studied in Mediterranean and desert areas. However, the hydrological regime of most Alpine headwater streams is predicted to change drastically due to climate change and anthropogenic uses such as hydropower and water abstraction. Hence, understanding how extreme events, such as flow intermittency, affect sources and fate of carbon in these streams is crucial. We tackled this question by a mesocosm experiment, where we measured relevant parameters of the carbon cycle during artificially introduced drought scenarios. These drought scenarios consisted in different magnitudes of discharge which were applied on six flumes fed by the stream water of a well-studied Alpine stream over three weeks. Monitoring of dissolved organic matter (DOM) quantity and quality, oxygen and CO2 of surface water and the hyporheic zone permitted us to find the threshold of low base flow that causes severe changes in DOM quantity and quality and link these changes to primary production. Even though autotrophs were identified as the principal source of DOM increase in the flumes with low discharge, we also found a relevant imprint of hyporheic heterotrophic activity on DOM quality and increasing carbon mineralization, due to enhanced water residence times and exchange with the hyporheic zone. These results suggest that DOM quality and quantity of Alpine streams will experience similar changes with flow intermittency, as found in other climatic regions. Further they help to improve the understanding of in-stream metabolism (autotrophic vs. heterotrophic) related to carbon processing during drought events.

  14. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  15. Ovarian reserve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja

    2012-01-01

    2-5 of the menstrual cycle or during withdrawal bleeding, blood sampling and transvaginal sonography was performed. After adjusting for age, ovarian reserve parameters were lower among users than among non-users of hormonal contraception: serum AMH concentration by 29.8% (95% CI 19.9 to 38...... was observed between duration of hormonal-contraception use and ovarian reserve parameters. No dose-response relation was found between the dose of ethinyloestradiol and AMH or AFC. This study indicates that ovarian reserve markers are lower in women using sex steroids for contraception. Thus, AMH...... concentration and AFC may not retain their accuracy as predictors of ovarian reserve in women using hormonal contraception. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration is an indirect marker of the number of small follicles in the ovary and thereby the ovarian reserve. The AMH concentration is now widely...

  16. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.

    2008-09-15

    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  17. STREAM2016: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Geoffrey [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC) facilities including accelerators, light sources and neutron sources and sensors that study, the environment, and the atmosphere, are producing streaming data that needs to be analyzed for next-generation scientific discoveries. There has been an explosion of new research and technologies for stream analytics arising from the academic and private sectors. However, there has been no corresponding effort in either documenting the critical research opportunities or building a community that can create and foster productive collaborations. The two-part workshop series, STREAM: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop (STREAM2015 and STREAM2016), were conducted to bring the community together and identify gaps and future efforts needed by both NSF and DOE. This report describes the discussions, outcomes and conclusions from STREAM2016: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop, the second of these workshops held on March 22-23, 2016 in Tysons, VA. STREAM2016 focused on the Department of Energy (DOE) applications, computational and experimental facilities, as well software systems. Thus, the role of “streaming and steering” as a critical mode of connecting the experimental and computing facilities was pervasive through the workshop. Given the overlap in interests and challenges with industry, the workshop had significant presence from several innovative companies and major contributors. The requirements that drive the proposed research directions, identified in this report, show an important opportunity for building competitive research and development program around streaming data. These findings and recommendations are consistent with vision outlined in NRC Frontiers of Data and National Strategic Computing Initiative (NCSI) [1, 2]. The discussions from the workshop are captured as topic areas covered in this report's sections. The report

  18. The California stream quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Egler, Amanda L.; May, Jason T.

    2017-03-06

    In 2017, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) project is assessing stream quality in coastal California, United States. The USGS California Stream Quality Assessment (CSQA) will sample streams over most of the Central California Foothills and Coastal Mountains ecoregion (modified from Griffith and others, 2016), where rapid urban growth and intensive agriculture in the larger river valleys are raising concerns that stream health is being degraded. Findings will provide the public and policy-makers with information regarding which human and natural factors are the most critical in affecting stream quality and, thus, provide insights about possible approaches to protect the health of streams in the region.

  19. The LHCb Turbo Stream

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, Sean; Vesterinen, Mika Anton; Williams, John Michael

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction and discarding the raw event. In the Turbo stream the trigger will write out a compact summary of physics objects containing all information necessary for analyses, and this will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissi...

  20. The LHCb Turbo Stream

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the "turbo stream" the trigger will write out a compact summary of "physics" objects containing all information necessary for analyses, and this will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during...

  1. The LHCb Turbo stream

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070171

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the Turbo stream the trigger will write out a compact summary of physics objects containing all information necessary for analyses. This will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during 2015 wi...

  2. Skyline Reservation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Flight reservation application used for in-country flights by USAID and DoS staff in Afghanistan. The application is managed and maintained by the vendor and USAID...

  3. Professor reveals darter reserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article on on reserve population of watercress darter in Pinson, AL to help save the population in Roebuck Spring after a significant fish kill in 2008.

  4. Stream salamanders as indicators of stream quality in Maryland, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southerland, M.T.; Jung, R.E.; Baxter, D.P.; Chellman, I.C.; Mercurio, G.; Volstad, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Biological indicators are critical to the protection of small, headwater streams and the ecological values they provide. Maryland and other state monitoring programs have determined that fish indicators are ineffective in small streams, where stream salamanders may replace fish as top predators. Because of their life history, physiology, abundance, and ubiquity, stream salamanders are likely representative of biological integrity in these streams. The goal of this study was to determine whether stream salamanders are effective indicators of ecological conditions across biogeographic regions and gradients of human disturbance. During the summers of 2001 and 2002, we intensively surveyed for stream salamanders at 76 stream sites located west of the Maryland Coastal Plain, sites also monitored by the Maryland Biological Stream Survey (MBSS) and City of Gaithersburg. We found 1,584 stream salamanders, including all eight species known in Maryland, using two 15 ? 2 m transects and two 4 m2 quadrats that spanned both stream bank and channel. We performed removal sampling on transects to estimate salamander species detection probabilities, which ranged from 0.67-0.85. Stepwise regressions identified 15 of 52 non-salamander variables, representing water quality, physical habitat, land use, and biological conditions, which best predicted salamander metrics. Indicator development involved (1) identifying reference (non-degraded) and degraded sites (using percent forest, shading, riparian buffer width, aesthetic rating, and benthic macroinvertebrate and fish indices of biotic integrity); (2) testing 12 candidate salamander metrics (representing species richness and composition, abundance, species tolerance, and reproductive function) for their ability to distinguish reference from degraded sites; and (3) combining metrics into an index that effectively discriminated sites according to known stream conditions. Final indices for Highlands, Piedmont, and Non-Coastal Plain

  5. Data streams algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Muthukrishnan, S

    2014-01-01

    Data stream algorithms as an active research agenda emerged only over the past few years, even though the concept of making few passes over the data for performing computations has been around since the early days of Automata Theory. The data stream agenda now pervades many branches of Computer Science including databases, networking, knowledge discovery and data mining, and hardware systems. Industry is in synch too, with Data Stream Management Systems (DSMSs) and special hardware to deal with data speeds. Even beyond Computer Science, data stream concerns are emerging in physics, atmospheric

  6. TRACING THE ORIGIN OF THE AQUARIUS STREAM. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylie-de Boer, Elizabeth; Freeman, Kenneth; Keller, Stefan [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Williams, Mary; Steinmetz, Matthias [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Munari, Ulisse, E-mail: ewylie@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: kcf@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: mary@aip.de [INAF Astronomical Observatory of Padova, 36012 Asiago (Italy)

    2012-08-10

    We present an abundance analysis of six member stars of the recently discovered Aquarius stream, in an attempt to ascertain whether this halo stream is real and, if so, to understand its origin. The mean metallicities of the six stars have a dispersion of only 0.10 dex, indicating that they are part of a chemically coherent structure. We then investigate whether the stream represents the debris of a disrupted dwarf galaxy or a disrupted globular cluster. The [Ni/Fe]-[Na/Fe] plane provides a good diagnostic: globular cluster stars and dwarf spheroidal galaxy stars are well separated in this plane, and the Aquarius stream stars lie unambiguously in the globular cluster region. The Aquarius stream stars also lie on the distinct [Na/Fe]-[O/Fe] and [Mg/Fe]-[Al/Fe] relations delineated by Galactic globular cluster stars. Spectroscopic parameters for the six Aquarius stars show that they are tightly confined to a 12 Gyr, [Fe/H] =-1.0, {alpha}-enhanced isochrone, consistent with their identification as globular cluster debris. We present evidence that the Aquarius stream may continue through the disk and out into the northern halo. Our results indicate a globular cluster origin for the Aquarius stream and demonstrate the potential for chemical tagging to identify the origins of Galactic substructures.

  7. A new application of value-stream mapping in new drug development: a case study within Novartis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzen, Mareike; Mettler, Samuel; Coradi, Annina; Boutellier, Roman

    2015-03-01

    In this case study, we evaluated the effect of colocation on the drug development process using value-stream mapping (VSM) on the Novartis Campus in Basel, Switzerland. We compared a colocated team with a control group that was not colocated. The data showed that colocation was not associated with increased process speed in terms of lead lines. However, the colocated team communicated more and reported beneficial experiences, such as faster working processes or improved mutual understanding. VSM workshops revealed not only performance indicators about colocation, but also enhanced communication and cooperation through the evolving discussion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Relation between Streaming Potential and Streaming Electrification Generated by Streaming of Water through a Sandwich-type Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Kazunori; Nikaido, Mitsuru; Hara, Yoshinori; Tanizaki, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    Both streaming potential and accumulated charge of water flowed out were measured simultaneously using a sandwich-type cell. The voltages generated in divided sections along flow direction satisfied additivity. The sign of streaming potential agreed with that of streaming electrification. The relation between streaming potential and streaming electrification was explained from a viewpoint of electrical double layer in glass-water interface.

  9. ADAPTIVE STREAMING OVER HTTP (DASH UNTUK APLIKASI VIDEO STREAMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Oka Widyantara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze Internet-based streaming video service in the communication media with variable bit rates. The proposed scheme on Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH using the internet network that adapts to the protocol Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP. DASH technology allows a video in the video segmentation into several packages that will distreamingkan. DASH initial stage is to compress the video source to lower the bit rate video codec uses H.26. Video compressed further in the segmentation using MP4Box generates streaming packets with the specified duration. These packages are assembled into packets in a streaming media format Presentation Description (MPD or known as MPEG-DASH. Streaming video format MPEG-DASH run on a platform with the player bitdash teritegrasi bitcoin. With this scheme, the video will have several variants of the bit rates that gave rise to the concept of scalability of streaming video services on the client side. The main target of the mechanism is smooth the MPEG-DASH streaming video display on the client. The simulation results show that the scheme based scalable video streaming MPEG-DASH able to improve the quality of image display on the client side, where the procedure bufering videos can be made constant and fine for the duration of video views

  10. Analyzing indicators of stream health for Minnesota streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, U.; Kocian, M.; Wilson, B.; Bolton, A.; Nieber, J.; Vondracek, B.; Perry, J.; Magner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research has emphasized the importance of using physical, chemical, and biological indicators of stream health for diagnosing impaired watersheds and their receiving water bodies. A multidisciplinary team at the University of Minnesota is carrying out research to develop a stream classification system for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) assessment. Funding for this research is provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. One objective of the research study involves investigating the relationships between indicators of stream health and localized stream characteristics. Measured data from Minnesota streams collected by various government and non-government agencies and research institutions have been obtained for the research study. Innovative Geographic Information Systems tools developed by the Environmental Science Research Institute and the University of Texas are being utilized to combine and organize the data. Simple linear relationships between index of biological integrity (IBI) and channel slope, two-year stream flow, and drainage area are presented for the Redwood River and the Snake River Basins. Results suggest that more rigorous techniques are needed to successfully capture trends in IBI scores. Additional analyses will be done using multiple regression, principal component analysis, and clustering techniques. Uncovering key independent variables and understanding how they fit together to influence stream health are critical in the development of a stream classification for TMDL assessment.

  11. Ultrasonic treatment to improve anaerobic digestibility of dairy waste streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmowski, L; Simons, L; Brooks, R

    2006-01-01

    The dairy-processing industry generates various types of organic wastes, which are utilised as stock feed, for anaerobic digestion, spread on land or alternatively land-filled at high costs. Owing to the generation of renewable energy, anaerobic digestion is an attractive option for many factories. To enhance the biological degradation process, a mechanical disintegration of various waste dairy streams was undertaken. While the successful application of ultrasonic treatment has been reported for various municipal waste streams, limited information was available for dairy industry applications. The results of this study showed that ultrasonic treatment can improve the digestibility of the more problematic dairy waste streams, such as sludges, by breaking down micro-organisms' cell walls and releasing soluble cell compounds. For more soluble streams, such as dairy factory effluent, an increased gas production was observed and attributed to the reduced particle size of the fat globules.

  12. A nematomorph parasite explains variation in terrestrial subsidies to trout streams in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takuya; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Tokuchi, Naoko; Kamauchi, Hiromitsu; Harada, Yasushi; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2011-01-01

    Nematomorph parasites alter the behavior of their orthopteran hosts, driving them to water and creating a source of food for stream salmonids. We investigated whether nematomorphs could explain variation in terrestrial subsidies across several streams. In nine study streams, orthopterans comprise much of the stomach contents of trout (46 +/- 31% on average). Total mass of ingested prey per trout biomass positively correlated with the mass of orthopterans ingested, suggesting that the orthopterans enhanced absolute mass of prey consumption by the trout population. The orthopterans ingested per trout biomass positively correlated with the abundance of nematomorphs in the stream, but not with the abundance of camel crickets (the dominant hosts) around the streams. Streams in conifer plantations had fewer nematomorphs than streams in natural deciduous forests. These results provide the first quantitative evidence that a manipulative parasite can explain variation in the allochthonous energy flow through and across ecosystems.

  13. Shock formation and structure in magnetic reconnection with a streaming flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liangneng; Ma, Zhiwei; Zhang, Haowei

    2017-08-18

    The features of magnetic reconnection with a streaming flow have been investigated on the basis of compressible resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. The super-Alfvenic streaming flow largely enhances magnetic reconnection. The maximum reconnection rate is almost four times larger with super-Alfvenic streaming flow than sub-Alfvénic streaming flow. In the nonlinear stage, it is found that there is a pair of shocks observed in the inflow region, which are manifested to be slow shocks for sub-Alfvénic streaming flow, and fast shocks for super-Alfvénic streaming flow. The quasi-period oscillation of reconnection rates in the decaying phase for super-Alfvénic streaming flow is resulted from the different drifting velocities of the shock and the X point.

  14. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  15. What Can Hierarchies Do for Data Streams?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xuepeng; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    Much effort has been put into building data streams management systems for querying data streams. Here, data streams have been viewed as a flow of low-level data items, e.g., sensor readings or IP packet data. Stream query languages have mostly been SQL-based, with the STREAM and Telegraph...

  16. Save Our Streams and Waterways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    Protection of existing water supplies is critical to ensuring good health for people and animals alike. This program is aligned with the Izaak Walton League of American's Save Our Streams program which is based on the concept that students can greatly improve the quality of a nearby stream, pond, or river by regular visits and monitoring. The…

  17. Pilot-Streaming: Design Considerations for a Stream Processing Framework for High-Performance Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Andre Luckow; Peter Kasson; Shantenu Jha

    2016-01-01

    This White Paper (submitted to STREAM 2016) identifies an approach to integrate streaming data with HPC resources. The paper outlines the design of Pilot-Streaming, which extends the concept of Pilot-abstraction to streaming real-time data.

  18. Session 7: Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, R.; Crockford, G

    2001-07-01

    The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)

  19. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  20. STREAM: A First Programming Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard; Kölling, Michael

    2009-01-01

    to derive a programming process, STREAM, designed specifically for novices. STREAM is a carefully down-scaled version of a full and rich agile software engineering process particularly suited for novices learning object-oriented programming. In using it we hope to achieve two things: to help novice...... programmers learn faster and better while at the same time laying the foundation for a more thorough treatment of more advanced aspects of software engineering. In this article, two examples demonstrate the application of STREAM. The STREAM process has been taught in the introductory programming courses...... at our universities for the past three years and the results are very encouraging. We report on a small, preliminary study evaluating the learning outcome of teaching STREAM. The study indicates a positive effect on the development of students’ process competences....

  1. Quantifying stream thermal regimes at management-pertinent scales: combining thermal infrared and stationary stream temperature data in a novel modeling framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatland, Shane J.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Poole, Geoffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Accurately quantifying stream thermal regimes can be challenging because stream temperatures are often spatially and temporally heterogeneous. In this study, we present a novel modeling framework that combines stream temperature data sets that are continuous in either space or time. Specifically, we merged the fine spatial resolution of thermal infrared (TIR) imagery with hourly data from 10 stationary temperature loggers in a 100 km portion of the Big Hole River, MT, USA. This combination allowed us to estimate summer thermal conditions at a relatively fine spatial resolution (every 100 m of stream length) over a large extent of stream (100 km of stream) during during the warmest part of the summer. Rigorous evaluation, including internal validation, external validation with spatially continuous instream temperature measurements collected from a Langrangian frame of reference, and sensitivity analyses, suggests the model was capable of accurately estimating longitudinal patterns in summer stream temperatures for this system Results revealed considerable spatial and temporal heterogeneity in summer stream temperatures and highlighted the value of assessing thermal regimes at relatively fine spatial and temporal scales. Preserving spatial and temporal variability and structure in abiotic stream data provides a critical foundation for understanding the dynamic, multiscale habitat needs of mobile stream organisms. Similarly, enhanced understanding of spatial and temporal variation in dynamic water quality attributes, including temporal sequence and spatial arrangement, can guide strategic placement of monitoring equipment that will subsequently capture variation in environmental conditions directly pertinent to research and management objectives.

  2. Stream-profile analysis and stream-gradient index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, John T.

    1973-01-01

    The generally regular three-dimensional geometry of drainage networks is the basis for a simple method of terrain analysis providing clues to bedrock conditions and other factors that determine topographic forms. On a reach of any stream, a gradient-index value can be obtained which allows meaningful comparisons of channel slope on streams of different sizes. The index is believed to reflect stream power or competence and is simply the product of the channel slope at a point and channel length measured along the longest stream above the pointwhere the calculation is made. In an adjusted topography, changes in gradient-index values along a stream generally correspond to differences in bedrock or introduced load. In any landscape the gradient index of a stream is related to total relief and stream regimen. Thus, climate, tectonic events, and geomorphic history must be considered in using the gradient index. Gradient-index values can be obtained quickly by simple measurements on topographic maps, or they can be obtained by more sophisticated photogrammetric measurements that involve simple computer calculations from x, y, z coordinates.

  3. Major Kansas Perennial Streams : 1961 and 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map of major perennial streams in Kansas for the years 1961 and 2009. The map shows a decrease in streams regarded as perennial in 1961, compared to stream regarded...

  4. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - NCWAP [ds158

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Stream Habitat - NCWAP - Reach Summary [ds158] shapefile contains in-stream habitat survey data summarized to the stream reach level. It is a derivative of the...

  5. Electronic Eye: Streaming Video On-Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulen, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of on-demand streaming video in school libraries. Explains how streaming works, considers advantages and technical issues, and describes products from three companies that are pioneering streaming in the educational video market. (LRW)

  6. Percent Forest Adjacent to Streams (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  7. Percent Agriculture Adjacent to Streams (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  8. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  9. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    was estimated at $8 billion. Historically, the SPPR hus hd a colorful past. It has experienced management problems, construction delays and been...crude oil for the reserve. 61 The Food Security Act (Public Law 99-198) was signed into law on December 23, 1985 by President Reagan . Public Law 99-198...Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia are good examples. Loans to these countries often have to be , estructured because of the country’s inability to pay their

  10. Streaming patterns in Faraday waves

    CERN Document Server

    Périnet, Nicolas; Urra, Héctor; Mujica, Nicolás; Gordillo, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Waves patterns in the Faraday instability have been studied for decades. Besides the rich dynamics that can be observed on the waves at the interface, Faraday waves hide beneath them an elusive range of flow patterns --or streaming patterns-- which have not been studied in detail until now. The streaming patterns are responsible for a net circulation in the flow which are reminiscent of convection cells. In this article, we analyse these streaming flows by conducting experiments in a Faraday-wave setup. To visualize the flows, tracers are used to generate both trajectory maps and to probe the streaming velocity field via Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). We identify three types of patterns and experimentally show that identical Faraday waves can mask streaming patterns that are qualitatively very different. Next we propose a three-dimensional model that explains streaming flows in quasi-inviscid fluids. We show that the streaming inside the fluid arises from a complex coupling between the bulk and the boundar...

  11. Some Effects of Video Streaming on Educational Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boster, Franklin J.; Meyer, Gary S.; Roberto, Anthony J.; Inge, Carol; Strom, Renee

    2006-01-01

    Although much contemporary thinking leads to the expectation that communication technology, such as video streaming, enhances educational performance on the average, a dearth of strong evidence consistent or inconsistent with this claim precludes a thoughtful evaluation of it. A series of experiments designed to examine this proposition…

  12. Spring 5 & reactive streams

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Clozel, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Spring is a framework widely used by the world-wide Java community, and it is also extensively used at CERN. The accelerator control system is constituted of 10 million lines of Java code, spread across more than 1000 projects (jars) developed by 160 software engineers. Around half of this (all server-side Java code) is based on the Spring framework. Warning: the speakers will assume that people attending the seminar are familiar with Java and Spring’s basic concepts. Spring 5.0 and Spring Boot 2.0 updates (45 min) This talk will cover the big ticket items in the 5.0 release of Spring (including Kotlin support, @Nullable and JDK9) and provide an update on Spring Boot 2.0, which is scheduled for the end of the year. Reactive Spring (1h) Spring Framework 5.0 has been released - and it now supports reactive applications in the Spring ecosystem. During this presentation, we'll talk about the reactive foundations of Spring Framework with the Reactor project and the reactive streams specification. We'll al...

  13. Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 1992 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheeler, Carl A.; Shaw, R.Todd

    1994-01-01

    The Umatilla habitat improvement program targets improvement of water quality and the restoration of riparian areas, holding, spawning and rearing habitats of steelhead, spring and fall Chinook and coho salmon. The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation are responsible for enhancing stream reaches within the Reservation boundaries as guided by an implementation plan developed cooperatively with the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and the U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Umatilla National Forest. Enhancements included the construction of nine boulder deflectors, two boulder weirs with pools, and 4 instream boulder placements. Instream cover was improved through the placement of 38 instream cover trees that were cabled to anchor boulders and four rootwads placed and anchored in pools. High tensile fence was constructed along 1.2 miles of stream bank to exclude livestock from riparian areas.

  14. Knowledge discovery from data streams

    CERN Document Server

    Gama, Joao

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Internet age and the increased use of ubiquitous computing devices, the large volume and continuous flow of distributed data have imposed new constraints on the design of learning algorithms. Exploring how to extract knowledge structures from evolving and time-changing data, Knowledge Discovery from Data Streams presents a coherent overview of state-of-the-art research in learning from data streams.The book covers the fundamentals that are imperative to understanding data streams and describes important applications, such as TCP/IP traffic, GPS data, sensor networks,

  15. Effects of flow intermittency and pharmaceutical exposure on the structure and metabolism of stream biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoll, Natàlia; Casellas, Maria; Huerta, Belinda; Guasch, Helena; Acuña, Vicenç; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Serra-Compte, Albert; Barceló, Damià; Sabater, Sergi

    2015-01-15

    Increasing concentrations of pharmaceutical compounds occur in many rivers, but their environmental risk remains poorly studied in stream biofilms. Flow intermittency shapes the structure and functions of ecosystems, and may enhance their sensitivity to toxicants. This study evaluates the effects of a long-term exposure of biofilm communities to a mixture of pharmaceutical compounds at environmental concentrations on biofilm bioaccumulation capacity, the structure and metabolic processes of algae and bacteria communities, and how their potential effects were enhanced or not by the occurrence of flow intermittency. To assess the interaction between those two stressors, an experiment with artificial streams was performed. Stream biofilms were exposed to a mixture of pharmaceuticals, as well as to a short period of flow intermittency. Results indicate that biofilms were negatively affected by pharmaceuticals. The algal biomass and taxa richness decreased and unicellular green algae relatively increased. The structure of the bacterial (based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes) changed and showed a reduction of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) richness. Exposed biofilms showed higher rates of metabolic processes, such as primary production and community respiration, attributed to pharmaceuticals stimulated an increase of green algae and heterotrophs, respectively. Flow intermittency modulated the effects of chemicals on natural communities. The algal community became more sensitive to short-term exposure of pharmaceuticals (lower EC50 value) when exposed to water intermittency, indicating cumulative effects between the two assessed stressors. In contrast to algae, the bacterial community became less sensitive to short-term exposure of pharmaceuticals (higher EC50) when exposed to water intermittency, indicating co-tolerance phenomena. According to the observed effects, the environmental risk of pharmaceuticals in nature is high

  16. Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI na análise da dinâmica da vegetação da reserva biológica de Sooretama, ES Use of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI in the analysis os vegetation dynamics of the Sooretama biological reservation, ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Quintão de Almeida

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Técnicas de análises de séries temporais são utilizadas para caracterizar o comportamento de fenômenos naturais no domínio do tempo. Neste artigo, segundo a metodologia proposta por Box et al. (1994, 125 observações do Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI foram analisadas. Os valores modelados correspondem às variações temporais ocorridas no dossel florestal da reserva biológica de Sooretama, localizada ao Norte do Estado do Espírito Santo, no Município de Linhares. Os resultados indicaram que a metodologia foi adequada. Os resíduos do modelo ajustado são não correlacionados com distribuição normal, média zero e variância s². Com o menor valor do Critério de Informação de Akaike (AIC -570,51, o modelo ajustado foi o Sazonal Auto-Regressivo Integrado de Médias Móveis (1,0,1(1,0,112.Temporal series analysis techniques are used to characterize the behavior of natural phenomenon in time domain. In this paper, 125 Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI observations were analyzed according to the methodology proposed by Box et al.(1994. The values modeled correspond to the temporal variations that occurred in the forest canopy of the Sooretama Biological Reserve, in northern Espírito Santo, in the district of Linhares. The results indicated that such methodology was adequate. The residues of the adjusted model are not correlated with normal distribution, zero average and s² variance. At the lowest value of the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC -570. 51, the model adjusted was the Mobile Average Integrated Self-Regressive Seasonal model (1, 0, 1 (1, 0, 1-12.

  17. Re-Meandering of Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Klaus Kevin; Friberg, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    and macroinvertebrate communities of restored streams would resemble those of natural streams, while those of the channelized streams would differ from both restored and near-natural streams. Physical habitats were surveyed for substrate composition, depth, width and current velocity. Macroinvertebrates were sampled......We evaluated the restoration of physical habitats and its influence on macroinvertebrate community structure in 18 Danish lowland streams comprising six restored streams, six streams with little physical alteration and six channelized streams. We hypothesized that physical habitats...... along 100 m reaches in each stream, in edge habitats and in riffle/run habitats located in the center of the stream. Restoration significantly altered the physical conditions and affected the interactions between stream habitat heterogeneity and macroinvertebrate diversity. The substrate in the restored...

  18. Metals in New Jersey's Pinelands National Reserve Sediments, Surface Water and Biota: An Emphasis on Mercury

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Technical data on the nature and extent of chemical contaminants in sediments and biota of the streams comprising the Pinelands National Reserve (Pinelands) in New...

  19. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Steven; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at the web portals, using the CERN SSO system.

  20. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfarb, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at th...

  1. Video streaming into the mainstream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, W

    2001-12-01

    Changes in Internet technology are making possible the delivery of a richer mixture of media through data streaming. High-quality, dynamic content, such as video and audio, can be incorporated into Websites simply, flexibly and interactively. Technologies such as G3 mobile communication, ADSL, cable and satellites enable new ways of delivering medical services, information and learning. Systems such as Quicktime, Windows Media and Real Video provide reliable data streams as video-on-demand and users can tailor the experience to their own interests. The Learning Development Centre at the University of Portsmouth have used streaming technologies together with e-learning tools such as dynamic HTML, Flash, 3D objects and online assessment successfully to deliver on-line course content in economics and earth science. The Lifesign project--to develop, catalogue and stream health sciences media for teaching--is described and future medical applications are discussed.

  2. vysmaw: Fast visibility stream muncher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Martin; Law, Casey J.

    2017-10-01

    The vysmaw client library facilitates the development of code for processes to tap into the fast visibility stream on the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Large Array correlator back-end InfiniBand network.

  3. Design Automation for Streaming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-16

    Verilog back-end emits them as black boxes. 3.6 System Composition We synthesize a system as a composition of stream-connected pages, where a page...Figure 6.5 shows a sample state flow graph for clustering. Each node denotes a state and its action. Each black 242 Chapter 6. Streaming Programmable...Bilsen, Marc Engels, Rudy Lauwereins, and Jean Peper - straete. Cyclo-static dataflow. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 44(2):397– 408, February

  4. Miscellaneous streams best management practices (BMP) report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueck, K.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-24

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and U.S. Department of Energy Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 (Consent Order) lists regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site to comply with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-216 (`State Waste Discharge Permit Program`) or WAC 173-218 (`Washington Underground Injection Control Program`) where applicable. Hanford Site liquid effluent streams discharging to the soil column are categorized as Phase I and Phase II Streams, and Miscellaneous Streams. There were originally 33 Phase I and Phase II Streams, however some of these streams have been eliminated. Miscellaneous Streams are those liquid effluent streams discharged to the ground that are not categorized as Phase I or Phase II Streams, and are subject to the requirements of several milestones identified in the Consent Order. The three criteria for identifying streams that are potentially affecting groundwater are: (1) streams discharging to surface contaminated areas (referred to as category `b` streams); (2) potentially contaminated streams (referred to as category `c` streams); and (3) streams discharging within 91 meters (300 feet) of a contaminated crib, ditch, or trench (referred to as category `d` streams). Miscellaneous Streams that meet any of these criteria must be evaluated for application of best management practices (BMP). The purpose of this report is to provide the best management practice preferred alternative. The list of BMP streams has been revised since the original submittal. Several streams from the original list of BMP streams have already been eliminated through facility upgrades, reduction of steam usage, and facility shutdowns. This document contains a description of the changes to the list of BMP streams, applicable definitions and regulatory requirements and possible alternatives, and a schedule for implementing the preferred alternatives.

  5. Coho salmon dependence on intermittent streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.J. Wigington; J.L. Ebersole; M.E. Colvin; S.G. Leibowitz; B. Miller; B. Hansen; H. Lavigne; D. White; J.P. Baker; M.R. Church; J.R. Brooks; M.A. Cairns; J.E. Compton

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we quantify the contributions of intermittent streams to coho salmon production in an Oregon coastal watershed. We provide estimates of (1) proportion of spawning that occurred in intermittent streams, (2) movement of juveniles into intermittent streams, (3) juvenile survival in intermittent and perennial streams during winter, and (4) relative size of...

  6. Jet stream related observations by MST radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, K. S.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of the jet stream and its observation by MST radar is presented. The climatology and synoptic and mesoscale structure of jet streams is briefly reviewed. MST radar observations of jet stream winds, and associated waves and turbulence are then considered. The possibility of using a network of ST radars to track jet stream winds in near real time is explored.

  7. Plato on the Stream. Platonism in the Age of Streaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Bisson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article defends a Platonist view of streaming. It is opposite to the mainstream representation that streaming has “liquidated” the structure both objective and collective of musical experience. On the contrary, streaming is the support of a new kind of musical object, which is distinct both from the allographic notational objects (scores and from the phonographic ones (records. This third kind of object has to be characterized as a flux-object. The way it is diffused and accessible implies a new kind of experience. Cyberspace in which this experience takes place is characterized as an “hyperobjective noosphere”: the relation of streaming with the subjects of musical experience is akin to the relation of atmosphere or biosphere to the living beings. This article invites to an ascetic exercise: the everyday experience of the listener has to become mindful of the “swarm community” in which s/he participates by streaming. Thus it develops a renewed musical Platonism, as a kind of response to “object-oriented ontologies”. According to this renewed Platonism, dispositional properties are essential to the objects. Objects have no sense apart from the relation to individual and collective subjectivations that are potential parts of them.

  8. Duck Valley Habitat Enhancement and Protection, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, Guy; Pero, Vincent (Shoshone-Paiute Nation, Duck Valley Indian Reservation, Owyhee, NV)

    2000-01-01

    The Duck Valley Indian Reservations' Habitat Enhancement project is an ongoing project designed to enhance and protect the critical riparian areas, natural springs, and native fish spawning areas on the Reservation. The project was begun in 1997 with the hiring of a fisheries biologist and the creation of a new department for the Tribes. The project's goals are to protect and enhance the springs, Owyhee River, its tributaries, and to develop a database that can be used by other fisheries professionals which includes information on water quality and fish composition, health, abundance, and genetic makeup. One habitat portion of the project is a focus on protection the numerous springs that provide clean, cool water to the Owyhee River. This will be accomplished through enclosure fences of the spring heads and water troughs to provide clean cool drinking water for wildlife and livestock. Another habitat portion of the project involves protecting headwater areas of streams with native fish populations. This is accomplished through enclosure fencing and riparian plantings on any eroded or degraded banks in the enclosure area. Finally, we monitor and evaluate the areas protected and enhanced. This is accomplished through biological sampling for temperature, Oxygen, sedimentation, and measurements of water depth, bank height and undercut, and width of stream. With the habitat and biological indices we will be able to evaluate how well protective measures are doing, and where to focus future efforts.

  9. Biodiversity, community structure and function of biofilms in stream ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besemer, Katharina

    2015-12-01

    Multi-species, surface-attached biofilms often dominate microbial life in streams and rivers, where they contribute substantially to biogeochemical processes. The microbial diversity of natural biofilms is huge, and may have important implications for the functioning of aquatic environments and the ecosystem services they provide. Yet the causes and consequences of biofilm biodiversity remain insufficiently understood. This review aims to give an overview of current knowledge on the distribution of stream biofilm biodiversity, the mechanisms generating biodiversity patterns and the relationship between biofilm biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Fuel-cell engine stream conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur

    2002-01-01

    A stream conditioning system for a fuel cell gas management system or fuel cell engine. The stream conditioning system manages species potential in at least one fuel cell reactant stream. A species transfer device is located in the path of at least one reactant stream of a fuel cell's inlet or outlet, which transfer device conditions that stream to improve the efficiency of the fuel cell. The species transfer device incorporates an exchange media and a sorbent. The fuel cell gas management system can include a cathode loop with the stream conditioning system transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell related to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  11. Adrenocortical reserves in hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaht, Kemal; Gullu, Sevim

    2014-02-01

    Explicit data regarding the changes in adrenocortical reserves during hyperthyroidism do not exist. We aimed to document the capability (response) of adrenal gland to secrete cortisol and DHEA-S during hyperthyroidism compared to euthyroidism, and to describe factors associated with these responses. A standard-dose (0.25 mg/i.v.) ACTH stimulation test was performed to the same patients before hyperthyroidism treatment, and after attainment of euthyroidism. Baseline cortisol (Cor(0)), DHEA-S (DHEA-S(0)), cortisol binding globulin (CBG), ACTH, calculated free cortisol (by Coolen's equation = CFC), free cortisol index (FCI), 60-min cortisol (Cor(60)), and DHEA-S (DHEA-S(60)), delta cortisol (ΔCor), delta DHEA-S (ΔDHEA-S) responses were evaluated. Forty-one patients [22 females, 49.5 ± 15.2 years old, 32 Graves disease, nine toxic nodular goiter] had similar Cor(0), DHEA-S(0), CFC, FCI, and DHEA-S(60) in hyperthyroid and euthyroid states. Cor(60), ΔCor, and ΔDHEA-S were lower in hyperthyroidism. In four (10 %) patients the peak ACTH-stimulated cortisol values were lower than 18 μg/dL. When the test repeated after attainment of euthyroidism, all of the patients had normal cortisol response. Regression analysis demonstrated an independent association of Cor(60) with free T3 in hyperthyroidism. However, the predictors of CFC, FCI, and DHEA-S levels were serum creatinine levels in hyperthyroidism, and both creatinine and transaminase levels in euthyroidism. ACTH-stimulated peak cortisol, delta cortisol, and delta DHEA-S levels are decreased during hyperthyroidism, probably due to increased turnover. Since about 10 % of the subjects with hyperthyroidism are at risk for adrenal insufficiency, clinicians dealing with Graves' disease should be alert to the possibility of adrenal insufficiency during hyperthyroid stage.

  12. Modeling impact of storage zones on stream dissolved oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapra, S.C.; Runkel, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    The Streeter-Phelps dissolved oxygen model is modified to incorporate storage zones. A dimensionless number reflecting enhanced decomposition caused by the increased residence time of the biochemical oxygen demand in the storage zone parameterizes the impact. This result provides a partial explanation for the high decomposition rates observed in shallow streams. An application suggests that the storage zone increases the critical oxygen deficit and moves it closer to the point source. It also indicates that the storage zone should have lower oxygen concentration than the main channel. An analysis of a dimensionless enhancement factor indicates that the biochemical oxygen demand decomposition in small streams could be up to two to three times more than anticipated based on the standard Streeter-Phelps model without storage zones. For larger rivers, enhancements of up to 1.5 could occur.The Streeter-Phelps dissolved oxygen model is modified to incorporate storage zones. A dimensionless number reflecting enhanced decomposition caused by the increased residence time of the biochemical oxygen demand in the storage zone parameterizes the impact. This result provides a partial explanation for the high decomposition rates observed in shallow streams. An application suggests that the storage zone increases the critical oxygen deficit and moves it closer to the point source. It also indicates that the storage zone should have lower oxygen concentration than the main channel. An analysis of a dimensionless enhancement factor indicates that the biochemical oxygen demand decomposition in small streams could be up to two to three times more than anticipated based on the standard Streeter-Phelps model without storage zones. For larger rivers, enhancements of up to 1.5 could occur.

  13. Mixing and combustion characterization in a high speed subsonic hydrogen/air jet configuration: mixing enhancement by stream-wise vorticity generation; Caracterisation du melange et de la combustion dans une configuration de jet hydrogene/air subsonique a haute vitesse: augmentation du melange par generation de vorticite longitudinale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theron, M.

    2005-04-15

    This study deals with hydrogen/air combustion optimization in the combustion chambers of air-breathing propulsion systems. First, mixing and combustion are characterized experimentally in a hydrogen jet discharged from a slot-injector in a co-flowing air flow (basic configuration). The inert jet behaviour is rather similar to that of strongly advected jets, whereas in reactive conditions, it is characteristic of the transition between weakly and strongly advected jets, because of a strong favorable pressure gradient induced by heat release. Several points indicate that mixing is less efficient than in the inert jet. A coherent longitudinal pulsating movement is also detected in the reactive jet, at a frequency of 700 Hz. Reaction zone topology is studied and combustion efficiency calculation suggests the need for passive mixing enhancement devices for combustion optimization: stream-wise vorticity generators (tilted tabs at the injector trailing edge) are chosen. Results from a numerical study in inert conditions highlight the phenomena inherent to the use of such devices and the influence of tabs angle on the resulting mixture. An experimental study of the reactive case prove that these tabs are rather efficient. Finally, clues for future studies are given; they concern mainly mixing enhancement devices improvement, in order to solve flame stabilization problems encountered. (author)

  14. Solar wind stream interaction regions throughout the heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ian G.

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on the interactions between the fast solar wind from coronal holes and the intervening slower solar wind, leading to the creation of stream interaction regions that corotate with the Sun and may persist for many solar rotations. Stream interaction regions have been observed near 1 AU, in the inner heliosphere (at ˜ 0.3-1 AU) by the Helios spacecraft, in the outer and distant heliosphere by the Pioneer 10 and 11 and Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft, and out of the ecliptic by Ulysses, and these observations are reviewed. Stream interaction regions accelerate energetic particles, modulate the intensity of Galactic cosmic rays and generate enhanced geomagnetic activity. The remote detection of interaction regions using interplanetary scintillation and white-light imaging, and MHD modeling of interaction regions will also be discussed.

  15. Fish populations in Plynlimon streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Crisp

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In Plynlimon streams, brown trout (Salmo trutta L. are widespread in the upper Wye at population densities of 0.03 to 0.32 fish m-2 and show evidence of successful recruitment in most years. In the upper Severn, brown trout are found only in an area of c. 1670 -2 downstream of Blaenhafren Falls at densities of 0.03 to 0.24 fish -2 and the evidence suggests very variable year to year success in recruitment (Crisp & Beaumont, 1996. Analyses of the data show that temperature differences between afforested and unafforested streams may affect the rates of trout incubation and growth but are not likely to influence species survival. Simple analyses of stream discharge data suggest, but do not prove, that good years for recruitment in the Hafren population were years of low stream discharge. This may be linked to groundwater inputs detected in other studies in this stream. More research is needed to explain the survival of the apparently isolated trout population in the Hafren.

  16. Streaming Compression of Hexahedral Meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isenburg, M; Courbet, C

    2010-02-03

    We describe a method for streaming compression of hexahedral meshes. Given an interleaved stream of vertices and hexahedral our coder incrementally compresses the mesh in the presented order. Our coder is extremely memory efficient when the input stream documents when vertices are referenced for the last time (i.e. when it contains topological finalization tags). Our coder then continuously releases and reuses data structures that no longer contribute to compressing the remainder of the stream. This means in practice that our coder has only a small fraction of the whole mesh in memory at any time. We can therefore compress very large meshes - even meshes that do not file in memory. Compared to traditional, non-streaming approaches that load the entire mesh and globally reorder it during compression, our algorithm trades a less compact compressed representation for significant gains in speed, memory, and I/O efficiency. For example, on the 456k hexahedra 'blade' mesh, our coder is twice as fast and uses 88 times less memory (only 3.1 MB) with the compressed file increasing about 3% in size. We also present the first scheme for predictive compression of properties associated with hexahedral cells.

  17. Landscape characteristics of a stream and wetland mitigation banking program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenDor, Todd; Sholtes, Joel; Doyle, Martin W

    2009-12-01

    In the United States, stream restoration is an increasing part of environmental and land management programs, particularly under the auspices of compensatory mitigation regulations. Markets and regulations surrounding stream mitigation are beginning to mirror those of the well-established wetland mitigation industry. Recent studies have shown that wetland mitigation programs commonly shift wetlands across space from urban to rural areas, thereby changing the functional characteristics and benefits of wetlands in the landscape. However, it is not yet known if stream mitigation mirrors this behavior, and if so, what effects this may have on landscape-scale ecological and hydrological processes. This project addresses three primary research questions. (1) What are the spatial relationships between stream and wetland impact and compensation sites as a result of regulations requiring stream and wetland mitigation in the State of North Carolina? (2) How do stream impacts come about due to the actions of different types of developers, and how do the characteristics of impacts sites compare with compensation sites? (3) To what extent does stream compensation relocate high-quality streams within the river network, and how does this affect localized (intrawatershed) loss or gain of aquatic resources? Using geospatial data collected from the North Carolina Division of Water Quality and the Army Corps of Engineers' Wilmington District, we analyzed the behavior of the North Carolina Ecosystem Enhancement Program in providing stream and wetland mitigation for the State of North Carolina. Our results suggest that this program provides mitigation (1) in different ways for different types of permittees; (2) at great distances (both Euclidean and within the stream network) from original impacts; (3) in significantly different places than impacts within watersheds; and (4) in many cases, in different watersheds from original impacts. Our analysis also reveals problems with regulator

  18. Synergistic degradation of chitosan by impinging stream and jet cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongchun; Wang, Pengfei; Yuan, Yuan; Ren, Xian'e; Yang, Feng

    2015-11-01

    Chitosan degradation was investigated using a combination of jet cavitation and impinging stream. Different operating parameters such as the initial concentration (1-5 g L(-1)), initial pH (3.2-4.8), solution temperature (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70°C), inlet pressure (0.1-0.45 MPa), and treatment time (0-120 min) were optimized to achieve the maximum degradation of chitosan. After the optimization of jet cavitation parameters, chitosan degradation was carried out using venturi tubes of different structures (the fluidic generator). The efficiency of the jet cavitation degradation was improved significantly by combining with impinging stream. The structures of the degradation products were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. This study has conclusively established that a combination of jet cavitation and impinging stream can be effectively used for the complete degradation of chitosan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Continuous sampling from distributed streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Cormode; Muthukrishnan, S.; Yi, Ke

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental problem in data management is to draw and maintain a sample of a large data set, for approximate query answering, selectivity estimation, and query planning. With large, streaming data sets, this problem becomes particularly difficult when the data is shared across multiple...... distributed sites. The main challenge is to ensure that a sample is drawn uniformly across the union of the data while minimizing the communication needed to run the protocol on the evolving data. At the same time, it is also necessary to make the protocol lightweight, by keeping the space and time costs low...... for each participant. In this article, we present communication-efficient protocols for continuously maintaining a sample (both with and without replacement) from k distributed streams. These apply to the case when we want a sample from the full streams, and to the sliding window cases of only the W most...

  20. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfarb, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using the SCALA digital signage software system. The system is robust and flexible, allowing for the usage of scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intrascreen divisibility. The video is made available to the collaboration or public through the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video t...

  1. A Robust Streaming Media System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youwei, Zhang

    Presently, application layer multicast protocols (ALM) are proposed as substitute for IP multicast and have made extraordinary achievements. Integrated with Multi-data-stream mode such as Multiple Description Coding (MDC), ALM becomes more scalable and robust in high-dynamic Internet environment compared with single data stream. Although MDC can provide a flexible data transmission style, the synchronization of different descriptions encoded from one video source is proved to be difficult due to different delay on diverse transmission paths. In this paper, an ALM system called HMDC is proposed to improve accepted video quality of streaming media, hosts can join the separate overlay trees in different layers simultaneously, then the maximum synchronized descriptions of the same layer are worked out to acquire the best video quality. Simulations implemented on Internet-like topology indicate that HMDC achieves better video quality, lower link stress, higher robustness and comparable latency compared with traditional ALM protocols.

  2. Streaming Velocities and the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazek, Jonathan A; McEwen, Joseph E; Hirata, Christopher M

    2016-03-25

    At the epoch of decoupling, cosmic baryons had supersonic velocities relative to the dark matter that were coherent on large scales. These velocities subsequently slow the growth of small-scale structure and, via feedback processes, can influence the formation of larger galaxies. We examine the effect of streaming velocities on the galaxy correlation function, including all leading-order contributions for the first time. We find that the impact on the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) peak is dramatically enhanced (by a factor of ∼5) over the results of previous investigations, with the primary new effect due to advection: if a galaxy retains memory of the primordial streaming velocity, it does so at its Lagrangian, rather than Eulerian, position. Since correlations in the streaming velocity change rapidly at the BAO scale, this advection term can cause a significant shift in the observed BAO position. If streaming velocities impact tracer density at the 1% level, compared to the linear bias, the recovered BAO scale is shifted by approximately 0.5%. This new effect, which is required to preserve Galilean invariance, greatly increases the importance of including streaming velocities in the analysis of upcoming BAO measurements and opens a new window to the astrophysics of galaxy formation.

  3. Ecohydrological model parameter selection for stream health evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woznicki, Sean A; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Ross, Dennis M; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Lizhu; Esfahanian, Abdol-Hossein

    2015-04-01

    understanding of watershed scale stream health beyond sparse monitoring points. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A 3-D numerical model of the influence of meanders on groundwater discharge to a gaining stream in an unconfined sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balbarini, Nicola; Boon, Wietse M.; Nicolajsen, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    flow can combine with the effect of stream meanders and can either enhance or smooth the effect of a meander bend, depending on the regional flow direction. Results from the Grindsted site model showed that real meander geometries had similar effects to those observed for the simpler sinuous streams......, and showed that despite large temporal variations in stream discharge, the spatial pattern of flow is almost constant in time for a gaining stream....

  5. Comparison of active and passive stream restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Esben Astrup; Thodsen, Hans; Dehli, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    -stream habitats were compared through analysis of the measured physical parameters and by applying a habitat model. We found that re-meandering is a more effective way of re-creating near-natural physical conditions in small streams compared to passive restoration. This is probably due to the limited energy...... methods are plentiful, it is difficult to determine which one to use to get the anticipated result. The aim of this study was to compare two commonly used methods in small Danish streams to improve the physical condition: re-meandering and passive restoration through cease of maintenance. Our...... investigation included measurement of the physical conditions in 29 stream reaches covering four different groups: (1) re-meandered streams, (2) LDC streams (the least disturbed streams available), (3) passively restored streams (>10 years stop of aintenance) and (4) channelized and non-restored streams. The in...

  6. Stream-processing pipelines: processing of streams on multiprocessor architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavaldjiev, N.K.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Jansen, P.G.

    In this paper we study the timing aspects of the operation of stream-processing applications that run on a multiprocessor architecture. Dependencies are derived for the processing and communication times of the processors in such a system. Three cases of real-time constrained operation and four

  7. Iron supply constrains producer communities in stream ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Chad A; Liu, Hongsheng; Passy, Sophia I

    2015-05-01

    The current paradigm that stream producers are under exclusive macronutrient control was recently challenged by continental studies, demonstrating that iron supply constrained diatom biodiversity and energy flows. Using algal abundance and water chemistry data from the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, we determined for the first time community thresholds along iron gradients in non-acidic running waters, i.e. 30-79.5 μg L(-1) and 70-120 μg L(-1) in oligotrophic and eutrophic streams, respectively. Given that Fe concentrations fell below both thresholds in 50% of US streams, and below the eutrophic threshold in 75% of US streams, we suggest that Fe limitation is potentially widespread and attribute it to the restricted distribution of wetlands. We also report results from the first laboratory experiments on algal-iron interactions in streams, revealing that iron supplementation leads to significant biovolume and biodiversity increase in both nitrogen fixing and non-nitrogen fixing algae. Therefore, the progressive brownification of freshwaters due to rising dissolved organic carbon and iron levels can have a stimulating influence on microbial producers with cascading effects along the trophic hierarchy. Future research in running waters should focus on the role of iron in algal physiology and biofilm functions, including accumulation of biomass, fixing atmospheric nitrogen and improving water quality. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Cytoplasmic streaming velocity as a plant size determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Motoki; Kimura, Atsushi; Yokota, Etsuo; Haraguchi, Takeshi; Shimmen, Teruo; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Nakano, Akihiko; Ito, Kohji

    2013-11-11

    Cytoplasmic streaming is active transport widely occurring in plant cells ranging from algae to angiosperms. Although it has been revealed that cytoplasmic streaming is generated by organelle-associated myosin XI moving along actin bundles, the fundamental function in plants remains unclear. We generated high- and low-speed chimeric myosin XI by replacing the motor domains of Arabidopsis thaliana myosin XI-2 with those of Chara corallina myosin XI and Homo sapiens myosin Vb, respectively. Surprisingly, the plant sizes of the transgenic Arabidopsis expressing high- and low-speed chimeric myosin XI-2 were larger and smaller, respectively, than that of the wild-type plant. This size change correlated with acceleration and deceleration, respectively, of cytoplasmic streaming. Our results strongly suggest that cytoplasmic streaming is a key determinant of plant size. Furthermore, because cytoplasmic streaming is a common system for intracellular transport in plants, our system could have applications in artificial size control in plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Forested headwaters mitigate pesticide effects on macroinvertebrate communities in streams: Mechanisms and quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlinskiy, Polina; Münze, Ronald; Beketov, Mikhail; Gunold, Roman; Paschke, Albrecht; Knillmann, Saskia; Liess, Matthias

    2015-08-15

    Pesticides impact invertebrate communities in freshwater ecosystems, leading to the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem functions. One approach to reduce such effects is to maintain uncontaminated stream reaches that can foster recovery of the impacted populations. We assessed the potential of uncontaminated forested headwaters to mitigate pesticide impact on the downstream macroinvertebrate communities in 37 streams, using the SPEARpesticides index. Pesticide contamination was measured with runoff-triggered techniques and Chemcatcher® passive samplers. The data originated from 3 field studies conducted between 1998 and 2011. The proportion of vulnerable species decreased significantly after pesticide exposure even at low toxicity levels (-4pesticide concentrations down to 3-4 orders of magnitude below the LC50 value for standard test organisms. The toxicity of pesticides and the length of the forested reaches together explained 78% of variation in the community composition (SPEARpesticides). The proportion of vulnerable species doubled within the measured length of the forested stream section (0.2-18 km), whereas other characteristics of the forest or abiotic water parameters did not have an effect within the measured gradients. The presence of forested headwaters was not associated with reduced pesticide exposure 3 km downstream and did not reduce the loss of vulnerable taxa after exposure. Nevertheless, forested headwaters were associated with the absence of long-term pesticide effects on the macroinvertebrate community composition. We conclude that although pesticides can cause the loss of vulnerable aquatic invertebrates even at low toxicity levels, forested headwaters enhance the recovery of vulnerable species in agricultural landscapes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Targeted Enhancement of Glutamate-to-γ-Aminobutyrate Conversion in Arabidopsis Seeds Affects Carbon-Nitrogen Balance and Storage Reserves in a Development-Dependent Manner1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fait, Aaron; Nesi, Adriano Nunes; Angelovici, Ruthie; Lehmann, Martin; Pham, Phuong Anh; Song, Luhua; Haslam, Richard P.; Napier, Johnathan A.; Galili, Gad; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2011-01-01

    In seeds, glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) operates at the metabolic nexus between carbon and nitrogen metabolism by catalyzing the unidirectional decarboxylation of glutamate to form γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). To elucidate the regulatory role of GAD in seed development, we generated Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transgenic plants expressing a truncated GAD from Petunia hybrida missing the carboxyl-terminal regulatory Ca2+-calmodulin-binding domain under the transcriptional regulation of the seed maturation-specific phaseolin promoter. Dry seeds of the transgenic plants accumulated considerable amounts of GABA, and during desiccation the content of several amino acids increased, although not glutamate or proline. Dry transgenic seeds had higher protein content than wild-type seeds but lower amounts of the intermediates of glycolysis, glycerol and malate. The total fatty acid content of the transgenic seeds was 50% lower than in the wild type, while acyl-coenzyme A accumulated in the transgenic seeds. Labeling experiments revealed altered levels of respiration in the transgenic seeds, and fractionation studies indicated reduced incorporation of label in the sugar and lipid fractions extracted from transgenic seeds. Comparative transcript profiling of the dry seeds supported the metabolic data. Cellular processes up-regulated at the transcript level included the tricarboxylic acid cycle, fatty acid elongation, the shikimate pathway, tryptophan metabolism, nitrogen-carbon remobilization, and programmed cell death. Genes involved in the regulation of germination were similarly up-regulated. Taken together, these results indicate that the GAD-mediated conversion of glutamate to GABA during seed development plays an important role in balancing carbon and nitrogen metabolism and in storage reserve accumulation. PMID:21921115

  11. StreamNet; 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission

    2000-01-01

    This report was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), US Department of Energy, as part of BPA's program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The views of this report are the author's and do not necessarily represent the views of BPA. This annual report covers progress made by: Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission Idaho; Department of Fish and Game; Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks; Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife; Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission; Shoshone-Bannock Tribes; US Fish and Wildlife Service; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; and FY1999 StreamNet Quickplan.

  12. Claim reserving with fuzzy regression

    OpenAIRE

    Bahrami, Tahereh; BAHRAMI, Masuod

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Claims reserving plays a key role for the insurance. Therefore, various statistical methods are used to provide for an adequate amount of claim reserves. Since claim reserves are always variable, fuzzy set theory is used to handle this variability. In this paper, non-symmetric fuzzy regression is integrated in the Taylor’s method to develop a new method for claim reserving.

  13. Chronic and episodic acidification of Adirondack streams from acid rain in 2003-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, G.B.; Roy, K.M.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Simonin, H.A.; Capone, S.B.; Sutherland, J.W.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. A.; Boylen, C.W.

    2008-01-01

    Limited information is available on streams in the Adirondack region of New York, although streams are more prone to acidification than the more studied Adirondack lakes. A stream assessment was therefore undertaken in the Oswegatchie and Black River drainages; an area of 4585 km2 in the western part of the Adirondack region. Acidification was evaluated with the newly developed base-cation surplus (BCS) and the conventional acid-neutralizing capacity by Gran titration (ANCG). During the survey when stream water was most acidic (March 2004), 105 of 188 streams (56%) were acidified based on the criterion of BCS acidic (August 2003), 15 of 129 streams (12%) were acidified based on the criterion of BCS acidic deposition to stream acidification was greater than that of strongly acidic organic acids in each of the surveys by factors ranging from approximately 2 to 5, but was greatest during spring snowmelt and least during elevated base flow in August. During snowmelt, the percentage attributable to acidic deposition was 81%, whereas during the October 2003 survey, when dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were highest, this percentage was 66%. The total length of stream reaches estimated to be prone to acidification was 718 km out of a total of 1237 km of stream reaches that were assessed. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  14. A Multiple Streams analysis of the decisions to fund gender-neutral HPV vaccination in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Gilla K; Guichon, Juliet; Prue, Gillian; Perez, Samara; Rosberger, Zeev

    2017-07-01

    In Canada, the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is licensed and recommended for females and males. Although all Canadian jurisdictions fund school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls, only six jurisdictions fund school-based HPV vaccination for boys. The research aimed to analyze the factors that underpin government decisions to fund HPV vaccine for boys using a theoretical policy model, Kingdon's Multiple Streams framework. This approach assesses policy development by examining three concurrent, but independent, streams that guide analysis: Problem Stream, Policy Stream, and Politics Stream. Analysis from the Problem Stream highlights that males are affected by HPV-related diseases and are involved in transmitting HPV infection to their sexual partners. Policy Stream analysis makes clear that while the inclusion of males in HPV vaccine programs is suitable, equitable, and acceptable; there is debate regarding cost-effectiveness. Politics Stream analysis identifies the perspectives of six different stakeholder groups and highlights the contribution of government officials at the provincial and territorial level. Kingdon's Multiple Streams framework helps clarify the opportunities and barriers for HPV vaccine policy change. This analysis identified that the interpretation of cost-effectiveness models and advocacy of stakeholders such as citizen-advocates and HPV-affected politicians have been particularly important in galvanizing policy change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fisheries Habitat Evaluation in Tributaries of the Coeur d`Alene Indian Reservation : Annual Report 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward-Lillengreen, Kelly L.; Skillingstad, Tami; Scholz, Allan T.

    1993-10-01

    In 1987 the Northwest Power Planning Council amended the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, directing the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to fund, ``a baseline stream survey of tributaries located on the Coeur d`Alene Indian Reservation to compile information on improving spawning habitat, rearing habitat, and access to spawning tributaries for bull trout, cutthroat trout, and to evaluate the existing fish stocks. ff justified by the results of the survey, fund the design, construction and operation of a cutthroat and bull trout hatchery on the Coeur d`Alene Indian Reservation; necessary habitat improvement projects; and a three year monitoring program to evaluate the effectiveness of the hatchery and habitat improvement projects. If the baseline survey indicates a better alternative than construction of a fish hatchery, the Coeur d`Alene Tribe will submit an alternative plan for consideration in program amendment proceeding.`` This report contains the results of the third year of the study and the Coeur d`Alene Indian Tribes` preliminary recommendations for enhancing the cutthroat and bull trout fishery on the Coeur d`Alene Indian Reservation. These recommendations are based on study results from year three data and information obtained in the first two years of the study.

  16. ALIENS IN WESTERN STREAM ECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a five year probability sample of permanent mapped streams in 12 western US states. The study design enables us to determine the extent of selected riparian invasive plants, alien aquatic vertebrates, and some ...

  17. Analysis of streaming media systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Multimedia services have been popping up at tremendous speed in recent years. A large number of these multimedia streaming systems are introduced to the consumer market. Internet Service Providers, Telecommunications Operators, Service/Content Providers, and end users are interested in the

  18. Efficient architectures for streaming applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Wolkotte, P.T.; van de Burgwal, M.D.; Heysters, P.M.; Athanas, P.; Becker, J.; Brebner, G.; Teich, J.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation will focus on algorithms and reconfigurable tiled architectures for streaming DSP applications. The tile concept will not only be applied on chip level but also on board-level and system-level. The tile concept has a number of advantages: (1) depending on the requirements more or

  19. Video Streaming in Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsell, Taralynn; Yuen, Steve Chi-Yin

    2006-01-01

    The use of video in teaching and learning is a common practice in education today. As learning online becomes more of a common practice in education, streaming video and audio will play a bigger role in delivering course materials to online learners. This form of technology brings courses alive by allowing online learners to use their visual and…

  20. Estimated Perennial Streams in Idaho

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Perennial streams in Idaho have been modeled using regression equations for 7-day, 2-year low flows (7Q2) described in Wood and others (2009, U.S. Geological Survey...

  1. INFORMATION STREAMS OF LOGISTICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Zhivitskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of formalisation and practical realisation of information streams of logistical systems, as the basic component of a separate kind of systems the logistical information systems having the features and properties that allows to investigate them by means of methods, applicable to information systems is considered.

  2. Data streams models and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Discusses issues related to the mining aspects of data streams. Each chapter in this book contains a survey on the topic, the key ideas in the field for that particular topic, and future research directions. It is intended for a professional audience composed of researchers and practitioners in industry.

  3. Cryptanalysis of chaotic stream cipher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skrobek, Adrian [Szczecin University of Technology, 71-210 Szczecin (Poland)]. E-mail: askrobek@wi.ps.pl

    2007-03-19

    In [N.S. Philip, K.B. Joseph, Chaos for stream cipher, cs.CR/0102012] Philip and Joseph propose their own cipher algorithm. An efficient attack on the values of the key of this cipher is presented in this Letter. Other weaknesses of this cipher are presented, and proposals of algorithm's improvement as well.

  4. Hydrothermal carbonization of pulp mill streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikberg, Hanne; Ohra-Aho, Taina; Honkanen, Mari; Kanerva, Heimo; Harlin, Ali; Vippola, Minnamari; Laine, Christiane

    2016-07-01

    The progress of the conversion, the yield, the structure and the morphology of the produced carbonaceous materials as a function of time were systematically studied with pyrolysis-GC/FID and FESEM microscope. The conversion of galactoglucomannan, bleached kraft pulp and TEMPO oxidized cellulose nanofibrils followed the reaction route of glucose being slower though with fibrous material, higher molar mass and viscosity. The conversion of kraft lignin was minor following completely different reaction route. Carbonaceous particles of different shape and size were produced with yields between 23% and 73% after 4h with being higher for lignin than carbohydrates. According to the results, potential pulp mill streams represent lignocellulosic resources for generation of carbonaceous materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparing stream-specific to generalized temperature models to guide salmonid management in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew K. Carlson,; William W. Taylor,; Hartikainen, Kelsey M.; Dana M. Infante,; Beard, Douglas; Lynch, Abigail

    2017-01-01

    Global climate change is predicted to increase air and stream temperatures and alter thermal habitat suitability for growth and survival of coldwater fishes, including brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis), brown trout (Salmo trutta), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In a changing climate, accurate stream temperature modeling is increasingly important for sustainable salmonid management throughout the world. However, finite resource availability (e.g. funding, personnel) drives a tradeoff between thermal model accuracy and efficiency (i.e. cost-effective applicability at management-relevant spatial extents). Using different projected climate change scenarios, we compared the accuracy and efficiency of stream-specific and generalized (i.e. region-specific) temperature models for coldwater salmonids within and outside the State of Michigan, USA, a region with long-term stream temperature data and productive coldwater fisheries. Projected stream temperature warming between 2016 and 2056 ranged from 0.1 to 3.8 °C in groundwater-dominated streams and 0.2–6.8 °C in surface-runoff dominated systems in the State of Michigan. Despite their generally lower accuracy in predicting exact stream temperatures, generalized models accurately projected salmonid thermal habitat suitability in 82% of groundwater-dominated streams, including those with brook charr (80% accuracy), brown trout (89% accuracy), and rainbow trout (75% accuracy). In contrast, generalized models predicted thermal habitat suitability in runoff-dominated streams with much lower accuracy (54%). These results suggest that, amidst climate change and constraints in resource availability, generalized models are appropriate to forecast thermal conditions in groundwater-dominated streams within and outside Michigan and inform regional-level salmonid management strategies that are practical for coldwater fisheries managers, policy makers, and the public. We recommend fisheries professionals reserve resource

  6. Spatial Stream Segregation by Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier, Lauren K; McGuire, Elizabeth A; Middlebrooks, John C

    2016-06-01

    Listeners can perceive interleaved sequences of sounds from two or more sources as segregated streams. In humans, physical separation of sound sources is a major factor enabling such stream segregation. Here, we examine spatial stream segregation with a psychophysical measure in domestic cats. Cats depressed a pedal to initiate a target sequence of brief sound bursts in a particular rhythm and then released the pedal when the rhythm changed. The target bursts were interleaved with a competing sequence of bursts that could differ in source location but otherwise were identical to the target bursts. This task was possible only when the sources were heard as segregated streams. When the sound bursts had broad spectra, cats could detect the rhythm change when target and competing sources were separated by as little as 9.4°. Essentially equal levels of performance were observed when frequencies were restricted to a high, 4-to-25-kHz, band in which the principal spatial cues presumably were related to sound levels. When the stimulus band was restricted from 0.4 to 1.6 kHz, leaving interaural time differences as the principal spatial cue, performance was severely degraded. The frequency sensitivity of cats in this task contrasts with that of humans, who show better spatial stream segregation with low- than with high-frequency sounds. Possible explanations for the species difference includes the smaller interaural delays available to cats due to smaller sizes of their heads and the potentially greater sound-level cues available due to the cat's frontally directed pinnae and higher audible frequency range.

  7. Streaming Visual Analytics Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Kristin A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burtner, Edwin R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kritzstein, Brian P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brisbois, Brooke R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mitson, Anna E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    How can we best enable users to understand complex emerging events and make appropriate assessments from streaming data? This was the central question addressed at a three-day workshop on streaming visual analytics. This workshop was organized by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for a government sponsor. It brought together forty researchers and subject matter experts from government, industry, and academia. This report summarizes the outcomes from that workshop. It describes elements of the vision for a streaming visual analytic environment and set of important research directions needed to achieve this vision. Streaming data analysis is in many ways the analysis and understanding of change. However, current visual analytics systems usually focus on static data collections, meaning that dynamically changing conditions are not appropriately addressed. The envisioned mixed-initiative streaming visual analytics environment creates a collaboration between the analyst and the system to support the analysis process. It raises the level of discourse from low-level data records to higher-level concepts. The system supports the analyst’s rapid orientation and reorientation as situations change. It provides an environment to support the analyst’s critical thinking. It infers tasks and interests based on the analyst’s interactions. The system works as both an assistant and a devil’s advocate, finding relevant data and alerts as well as considering alternative hypotheses. Finally, the system supports sharing of findings with others. Making such an environment a reality requires research in several areas. The workshop discussions focused on four broad areas: support for critical thinking, visual representation of change, mixed-initiative analysis, and the use of narratives for analysis and communication.

  8. PLASMA EMISSION BY COUNTER-STREAMING ELECTRON BEAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziebell, L. F.; Petruzzellis, L. T.; Gaelzer, R. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Yoon, P. H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Pavan, J., E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br, E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu, E-mail: joel.pavan@ufpel.edu.br [Instituto de Física e Matemática, UFPel, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)

    2016-02-10

    The radiation emission mechanism responsible for both type-II and type-III solar radio bursts is commonly accepted as plasma emission. Recently Ganse et al. suggested that type-II radio bursts may be enhanced when the electron foreshock geometry of a coronal mass ejection contains a double hump structure. They reasoned that the counter-streaming electron beams that exist between the double shocks may enhance the nonlinear coalescence interaction, thereby giving rise to more efficient generation of radiation. Ganse et al. employed a particle-in-cell simulation to study such a scenario. The present paper revisits the same problem with EM weak turbulence theory, and show that the fundamental (F) emission is not greatly affected by the presence of counter-streaming beams, but the harmonic (H) emission becomes somewhat more effective when the two beams are present. The present finding is thus complementary to the work by Ganse et al.

  9. Marine reserves help coastal ecosystems cope with extreme weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Andrew D; Pitt, Kylie A; Maxwell, Paul S; Babcock, Russell C; Rissik, David; Connolly, Rod M

    2014-10-01

    Natural ecosystems have experienced widespread degradation due to human activities. Consequently, enhancing resilience has become a primary objective for conservation. Nature reserves are a favored management tool, but we need clearer empirical tests of whether they can impart resilience. Catastrophic flooding in early 2011 impacted coastal ecosystems across eastern Australia. We demonstrate that marine reserves enhanced the capacity of coral reefs to withstand flood impacts. Reserve reefs resisted the impact of perturbation, whilst fished reefs did not. Changes on fished reefs were correlated with the magnitude of flood impact, whereas variation on reserve reefs was related to ecological variables. Herbivory and coral recruitment are critical ecological processes that underpin reef resilience, and were greater in reserves and further enhanced on reserve reefs near mangroves. The capacity of reserves to mitigate external disturbances and promote ecological resilience will be critical to resisting an increased frequency of climate-related disturbance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. 77 FR 21846 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... may also enter into an agreement with its Reserve Bank under which the institution agrees to maintain... originating service area. The Board also anticipates that Reserves Banks will provide institutions with... agree with a Reserve Bank to maintain a level of balances in excess of the amount necessary to satisfy...

  11. Stream Tables and Watershed Geomorphology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillquist, Karl D.; Kinner, Patricia W.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews copious stream tables and provides a watershed approach to stream table exercises. Results suggest that this approach to learning the concepts of fluvial geomorphology is effective. (Contains 39 references.) (DDR)

  12. Cytoplasmic Streaming in the Drosophila Oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Margot E

    2016-10-06

    Objects are commonly moved within the cell by either passive diffusion or active directed transport. A third possibility is advection, in which objects within the cytoplasm are moved with the flow of the cytoplasm. Bulk movement of the cytoplasm, or streaming, as required for advection, is more common in large cells than in small cells. For example, streaming is observed in elongated plant cells and the oocytes of several species. In the Drosophila oocyte, two stages of streaming are observed: relatively slow streaming during mid-oogenesis and streaming that is approximately ten times faster during late oogenesis. These flows are implicated in two processes: polarity establishment and mixing. In this review, I discuss the underlying mechanism of streaming, how slow and fast streaming are differentiated, and what we know about the physiological roles of the two types of streaming.

  13. A recirculating stream aquarium for ecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon H. Reeves; Fred H. Everest; Carl E. McLemore

    1983-01-01

    Investigations of the ecological behavior of fishes often require studies in both natural and artificial stream environments. We describe a large, recirculating stream aquarium and its controls, constructed for ecological studies at the Forestry Sciences Laboratory in Corvallis.

  14. On the optimal size of marine reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensenane, M; Moussaoui, A; Auger, P

    2013-03-01

    The excessive and unsustainable exploitation of our marine resources has led to the promotion of marine reserves as a fisheries management tool. Marine reserves, areas in which fishing is restricted or prohibited, can offer opportunities for the recovery of exploited stock and fishery enhancement. This study examines the impact of the creation of marine protected areas, from both economic and biological perspectives. The consequences of reserve establishment on the long-run equilibrium fish biomass and fishery catch levels are evaluated. We include reserve size as control variable to maximize catch at equilibrium. A continuous time model is used to simulate the effects of reserve size on fishing catch. Fish movements between the sites is assumed to take place at a faster time scale than the variation of the stock and the change of the fleet size. We take advantage of these two time scales to derive a reduced model governing the dynamics of the total fish stock and the fishing effort. Simulation results suggest that the establishment of a protected marine reserve will always lead to an increase in total fish biomass, an optimal size of a marine reserve can achieve to maximize the catch at equilibrium.

  15. Nitrapyrin in streams: The first study documenting off-field transport of a nitrogen stabilizer compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Emily; Hladik, Michelle; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrapyrin is a bactericide that is co-applied with fertilizer to prevent nitrification and enhance corn yields. While there have been studies of the environmental fate of nitrapyrin, there is no documentation of its off-field transport to streams. In 2016, 59 water samples from 11 streams across Iowa were analyzed for nitrapyrin and its degradate, 6-chloropicolinic acid (6-CPA), along with three widely used herbicides, acetochlor, atrazine, and metolachlor. Nitrapyrin was detected in seven streams (39% of water samples) with concentrations ranging from 12 to 240 ng/L; 6-CPA was never detected. The herbicides were ubiquitously detected (100% of samples, 28–16000 ng/L). Higher nitrapyrin concentrations in streams were associated with rainfall events following spring fertilizer applications. Nitrapyrin persisted in streams for up to 5 weeks. These results highlight the need for more research focused on the environmental fate and transport of nitrapyrin and the potential toxicity this compound could have on nontarget organisms.

  16. Modeling Stream Bank Erosion: Practical Stream Results and Future Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong G. Lai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Coupled two-dimensional (2D morphodynamic and bank erosion models are gaining attentions in recent years. It has been shown that such models have advantages over the one-dimensional (1D modeling approaches. In this paper, a previous 2D bank erosion model with the moving mesh method is extended to include the fixed mesh approach. Further, two practical streams with differing complexity are simulated to demonstrate the extended model. Both the moving mesh and fixed mesh methods are used in the modeling. The model consists of two components: a 2D flow and mobile-bed model for vertical bed changes and hydraulic forces acting on a bank and a lateral bank retreat model. The 2D vertical model and the lateral bank erosion model are coupled together spatially and temporally through a special procedure and a common mesh. With the experiences gained with practical stream modeling, the modeling procedure and key model input parameters are described. The study shows that the moving and fixed mesh methods together make the extended bank erosion model numerically robust and capable of predicting both the vertical bed changes and the lateral stream bank erosion for complex streams. Each individual method, however, has its own limitations in terms of model accuracy and efficiency. The moving mesh works well if bank retreat is relatively small, e.g., less than one channel width, and produces more accurate results than the fixed mesh method. The fixed mesh may be needed for ensuring numerical stability if a bank may be subject to significant retreat (e.g., more than one channel width. The fixed mesh method, however, is less accurate than the moving mesh method and a much refined mesh may be needed. Both methods need future research and improvements in terms of their model accuracy.

  17. Energy from streaming current and potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthuis, Wouter; Schippers, Bob; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert

    2005-01-01

    It is investigated how much energy can be delivered by a streaming current source. A streaming current and subsequent streaming potential originate when double layer charge is transported by hydrodynamic flow. Theory and a network model of such a source is presented and initial experimental results

  18. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  19. Stream dynamics: An overview for land managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard H. Heede

    1980-01-01

    Concepts of stream dynamics are demonstrated through discussion of processes and process indicators; theory is included only where helpful to explain concepts. Present knowledge allows only qualitative prediction of stream behavior. However, such predictions show how management actions will affect the stream and its environment.

  20. Reconfigurable Multicore Architectures for Streaming Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Rauwerda, G.K.; Jacobs, J.W.M.; Nicolescu, G.; Mosterman, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter addresses reconfigurable heterogenous and homogeneous multicore system-on-chip (SoC) platforms for streaming digital signal processing applications, also called DSP applications. In streaming DSP applications, computations can be specified as a data flow graph with streams of data items

  1. The mismatch negativity as a measure of auditory stream segregation in a simulated "cocktail-party" scenario: effect of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzmann, Stephan; Näätänen, Risto

    2015-11-01

    With age the ability to understand speech in multitalker environments usually deteriorates. The central auditory system has to perceptually segregate and group the acoustic input into sequences of distinct auditory objects. The present study used electrophysiological measures to study effects of age on auditory stream segregation in a multitalker scenario. Younger and older adults were presented with streams of short speech stimuli. When a single target stream was presented, the occurrence of a rare (deviant) syllable among a frequent (standard) syllable elicited the mismatch negativity (MMN), an electrophysiological correlate of automatic deviance detection. The presence of a second, concurrent stream consisting of the deviant syllable of the target stream reduced the MMN amplitude, especially when located nearby the target stream. The decrease in MMN amplitude indicates that the rare syllable of the target stream was less perceived as deviant, suggesting reduced stream segregation with decreasing stream distance. Moreover, the presence of a concurrent stream increased the MMN peak latency of the older group but not that of the younger group. The results provide neurophysiological evidence for the effects of concurrent speech on auditory processing in older adults, suggesting that older adults need more time for stream segregation in the presence of concurrent speech. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reservation wages and starting wages

    OpenAIRE

    van Ophem, Hans; Hartog, Joop; Berkhout, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We analyse a unique data set that combines reservation wage and actually paid wage for a large sample of Dutch recent higher education graduates. On average, accepted wages are almost 8% higher than reservation wages, but there is no fixed proportionality. We find that the difference between reservation wage and accepted wage is virtually random, as search theory predicts. We also find that most information contained in the accepted wage is included in the reservation wage, as one would predi...

  3. Reservations to human rights treaties

    OpenAIRE

    McCall-Smith, Kasey Lowe

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines the default application of the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties reservation rules to reservations to human rights treaties. The contemporary practice of formulating reservations allows states to unilaterally modify their treaty obligations following the conclusion of negotiations. Though multilateral treaties address a broad spectrum of subjects and are negotiated using a variety of methods, all treaties are governed by the same residual reserv...

  4. An Improved Resource Reservation Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Desire Oulai; Steven Chamberland; Samuel Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The classical resource reservation protocol (RSVP) is a flow-based signaling protocol used for reserving resources in the network for a given session. RSVP maintains state information for each reservation at every router along the path. Even though this protocol is very popular, he has some weaknesses. Indeed, RSVP does not include a bidirectional reservation process and it requires refresh messages to maintain the soft states in the routers for each session. In this paper, we propose a...

  5. Geosynchronous Relativistic Electron Events Associated with High-Speed Solar Wind Streams in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungeun Lee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent enhancements of relativistic electron events at geosynchronous orbit (GREEs were observed in 2006. These GREE enhancements were associated with high-speed solar wind streams coming from the same coronal hole. For the first six months of 2006, the occurrence of GREEs has 27 day periodicity and the GREEs were enhanced with various flux levels. Several factors have been studied to be related to GREEs: (1 High speed stream, (2 Pc5 ULF wave activity, (3 Southward IMF Bz, (4 substorm occurrence, (5 Whistler mode chorus wave, and (6 Dynamic pressure. In this paper, we have examined the effectiveness about those parameters in selected periods.

  6. Academic Self-Concepts in Ability Streams: Considering Domain Specificity and Same-Stream Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Yeung, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the relations between academic achievement and self-concepts in a sample of 1,067 seventh-grade students from 3 core ability streams in Singapore secondary education. Although between-stream differences in achievement were large, between-stream differences in academic self-concepts were negligible. Within each stream, levels of…

  7. The role of observer variation in determining Rosgen stream types in northeastern Oregon mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett B. Roper; John M. Buffington; Eric Archer; Chris Moyer; Mike Ward

    2008-01-01

    Consistency in determining Rosgen stream types was evaluated in 12 streams within the John Day Basin, northeastern Oregon. The Rosgen classification system is commonly used in the western United States and is based on the measurement of five stream attributes: entrenchment ratio, width-to-depth ratio, sinuosity, slope, and substrate size. Streams were classified from...

  8. The long term response of stream flow to climatic warming in headwater streams of interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy B. Jones; Amanda J. Rinehart

    2010-01-01

    Warming in the boreal forest of interior Alaska will have fundamental impacts on stream ecosystems through changes in stream hydrology resulting from upslope loss of permafrost, alteration of availability of soil moisture, and the distribution of vegetation. We examined stream flow in three headwater streams of the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed (CPCRW) in...

  9. 77 FR 40253 - Reserve Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... Rural Housing Service 7 CFR Part 3560 RIN 0575-AC66 Reserve Account AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA... regulation to change the Reserve Account for new construction for the Sections 514/516 Farm Labor Housing... reserve accounts for existing portfolios. DATES: Effective Date: This rule is effective September 7, 2012...

  10. Performance of MPEG-4 Transmission over SCTP Multi-Streaming in Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Kawanishi, Ken'ichi

    Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a new transport layer protocol for the next generation Internet. SCTP is a connection-oriented protocol that carries over TCP's features but also supports UDP-like message-oriented data transmission. In this paper, we make use of SCTP's multi-streaming feature to transmit MPEG-4 video efficiently, and evaluate its transmission performance under the policy with/without differentiated retransmission. Moreover, to enhance the communication quality, we extend SCTP multi-streaming to realize selective retransmission policy. Our extension utilizes packet-by-packet timestamps to control retransmission of lost packets. By computer simulation, we show that SCTP can (1) improve the video quality by exploiting the multi-streaming and partial reliability features, (2) enhance the video transmission quality by adjusting SCTP fast retransmit threshold, and (3) SCTP with our selective retransmission extension can further improve the whole performance.

  11. Water resources of the Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddow, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Existing data were used in conjunction with onsite measurements to evaluate the water resources on the Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming. The reservation is located mainly in the Wind River drainage basin. Ground water is used for public- supply, domestic, agricultural, and industrial purposes, and potentially for irrigation. Deposits of Quaternary age provide water for domestic and public-supply uses. Median well yields from different types of Quaternary deposits ranged from 6 to 20 gallons per minute. The Wind River Formation of Tertiary age is a major source of water for domestic and public-supply uses; well yields ranged from 0.1 to 350 gallons per minute. For the Tensleep Sandstone and Madison Limestone of Paleozoic age, wells might yield as much as 1,000 gallons per minute. The dissolved-solids concentration of water from the Little Wind River and Popo Agie River flood-plain alluvium near mountains was generally less than 400 mg/L (milligrams per liter), but with increasing distance from mountains, the range was about 600 to about 750 mg/L. Dissolved-solids concentrations of water in the Wind River Formation ranged from 211 to 5,110 mg/L. Streams provide most water used for irrigation. Discharge records from streamflow-gaging stations indicate flow characteristics of streams on the reservation are extremely variable. Average annual runoff was 122 to 1,150 acre-feet per square mile on perennial streams with gaging stations. Near the mountains, most perennial streams had dissolved-solids concentrations less than 200 mg/L, and with increasing distance from the mountains, concentrations were about 400 to 600 mg/L.

  12. The significance of small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-09-01

    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  13. Quality scalable video data stream

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegand, T.; Kirchhoffer, H.; Schwarz, H

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus for generating a quality-scalable video data stream (36) is described which comprises means (42) for coding a video signal (18) using block-wise transformation to obtain transform blocks (146, 148) of transformation coefficient values for a picture (140) of the video signal, a predetermined scan order (154, 156, 164, 166) with possible scan positions being defined among the transformation coefficient values within the transform blocks so that in each transform block, for each pos...

  14. Regional hydrology controls stream microbial biofilms: evidence from a glacial catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battin, T. J.; Wille, A.; Psenner, R.; Richter, A.

    2004-08-01

    Glaciers are highly responsive to global warming and important agents of landscape heterogeneity. While it is well established that glacial ablation and snowmelt regulate stream discharge, linkage among streams and streamwater hydrogeochemistry, the controls of these factors on stream microbial biofilms remain insufficiently understood. We investigated glacial (metakryal, hypokryal), groundwater-fed (krenal) and snow-fed (rhithral) streams - all of them representative for alpine stream networks - and present evidence that these hydrologic and hydrogeochemical factors differentially affect sediment microbial biofilms. Average microbial biomass and bacterial carbon production were low in the glacial streams, whereas bacterial cell size, biomass, and carbon production were higher in the tributaries, most notably in the krenal stream. Whole-cell in situ fluorescence hybridization revealed reduced detection rates of the Eubacteria and higher abundance of α-Proteobacteria in the glacial stream, a pattern that most probably reflects the trophic status of this ecosystem. Our data suggest low flow during the onset of snowmelt and autumn as a short period (hot moment) of favorable environmental conditions with pulsed inputs of allochthonous nitrate and dissolved organic carbon, and with disproportional high microbial growth. Krenal and rhithral streams with more constant and favorable environments serve as possible sources of microbes and organic matter to the main glacial channel during periods (e.g. snowmelt) of elevated hydrologic linkage among streams. Ice and snow dynamics have a crucial impact on microbial biofilms, and we thus need better understanding of the microbial ecology and enhanced consideration of critical hydrological episodes in future models predicting alpine stream communities.

  15. StreamStats, version 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Kernell G.; Newson, Jeremy K.; Smith, Martyn J.; Guthrie, John D.; Steeves, Peter A.; Haluska, Tana L.; Kolb, Katharine R.; Thompson, Ryan F.; Santoro, Richard D.; Vraga, Hans W.

    2017-10-30

    IntroductionStreamStats version 4, available at https://streamstats.usgs.gov, is a map-based web application that provides an assortment of analytical tools that are useful for water-resources planning and management, and engineering purposes. Developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the primary purpose of StreamStats is to provide estimates of streamflow statistics for user-selected ungaged sites on streams and for USGS streamgages, which are locations where streamflow data are collected.Streamflow statistics, such as the 1-percent flood, the mean flow, and the 7-day 10-year low flow, are used by engineers, land managers, biologists, and many others to help guide decisions in their everyday work. For example, estimates of the 1-percent flood (which is exceeded, on average, once in 100 years and has a 1-percent chance of exceedance in any year) are used to create flood-plain maps that form the basis for setting insurance rates and land-use zoning. This and other streamflow statistics also are used for dam, bridge, and culvert design; water-supply planning and management; permitting of water withdrawals and wastewater and industrial discharges; hydropower facility design and regulation; and setting of minimum allowed streamflows to protect freshwater ecosystems. Streamflow statistics can be computed from available data at USGS streamgages depending on the type of data collected at the stations. Most often, however, streamflow statistics are needed at ungaged sites, where no streamflow data are available to determine the statistics.

  16. Streaming potential of superhydrophobic microchannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hung Mok; Kim, Damoa; Kim, Se Young

    2017-03-01

    For the purpose of gaining larger streaming potential, it has been suggested to employ superhydrophobic microchannels with a large velocity slip. There are two kinds of superhydrophobic surfaces, one having a smooth wall with a large Navier slip coefficient caused by the hydrophobicity of the wall material, and the other having a periodic array of no- shear slots of air pockets embedded in a nonslip wall. The electrokinetic flows over these two superhydrophobic surfaces are modelled using the Navier-Stokes equation and convection-diffusion equations of the ionic species. The Navier slip coefficient of the first kind surfaces and the no-shear slot ratio of the second kind surfaces are similar in the sense that the volumetric flow rate increases as these parameter values increase. However, although the streaming potential increases monotonically with respect to the Navier slip coefficient, it reaches a maximum and afterward decreases as the no-shear ratio increases. The results of the present investigation imply that the characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces employing only the measurement of volumetric flow rate against pressure drop is not appropriate and the fine structure of the superhydrophobic surfaces must be verified before predicting the streaming potential and electrokinetic flows accurately. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Benthic biofilm controls on fine particle dynamics in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, K. R.; Drummond, J. D.; Boano, F.; Packman, A. I.; Battin, T. J.; Hunter, W. R.

    2017-01-01

    Benthic (streambed) biofilms metabolize a substantial fraction of particulate organic matter and nutrient inputs to streams. These microbial communities comprise a significant proportion of overall biomass in headwater streams, and they present a primary control on the transformation and export of labile organic carbon. Biofilm growth has been linked to enhanced fine particle deposition and retention, a feedback that confers a distinct advantage for the acquisition and utilization of energy sources. We quantified the influence of biofilm structure on fine particle deposition and resuspension in experimental stream mesocosms. Biofilms were grown in identical 3 m recirculating flumes over periods of 18-47 days to obtain a range of biofilm characteristics. Fluorescent, 8 µm particles were introduced to each flume, and their concentrations in the water column were monitored over a 30 min period. We measured particle concentrations using a flow cytometer and mesoscale (10 µm to 1 cm) biofilm structure using optical coherence tomography. Particle deposition-resuspension dynamics were determined by fitting results to a stochastic mobile-immobile model, which showed that retention timescales for particles within the biofilm-covered streambeds followed a power-law residence time distribution. Particle retention times increased with biofilm areal coverage, biofilm roughness, and mean biofilm height. Our findings suggest that biofilm structural parameters are key predictors of particle retention in streams and rivers.

  18. Global perspectives on the urban stream syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Allison; Booth, Derek B.; Capps, Krista A.; Smith, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Urban streams commonly express degraded physical, chemical, and biological conditions that have been collectively termed the “urban stream syndrome”. The description of the syndrome highlights the broad similarities among these streams relative to their less-impaired counterparts. Awareness of these commonalities has fostered rapid improvements in the management of urban stormwater for the protection of downstream watercourses, but the focus on the similarities among urban streams has obscured meaningful differences among them. Key drivers of stream responses to urbanization can vary greatly among climatological and physiographic regions of the globe, and the differences can be manifested in individual stream channels even through the homogenizing veneer of urban development. We provide examples of differences in natural hydrologic and geologic settings (within similar regions) that can result in different mechanisms of stream ecosystem response to urbanization and, as such, should lead to different management approaches. The idea that all urban streams can be cured using the same treatment is simplistic, but overemphasizing the tremendous differences among natural (or human-altered) systems also can paralyze management. Thoughtful integration of work that recognizes the commonalities of the urban stream syndrome across the globe has benefitted urban stream management. Now we call for a more nuanced understanding of the regional, subregional, and local attributes of any given urban stream and its watershed to advance the physical, chemical, and ecological recovery of these systems.

  19. Enhanced Preliminary Assessment Report: Kapalama Military Reservation, Honolulu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    with polymer-type water repellents; packaging with isocyanate foam; "waste oil" drums (apparently empty) on pallet outside building. " Building 925...collect a sample representative of source contamination. For example, a soil sample collected directly under an area of asphalt paving would be contaminated...by semivolatile compounds present in the asphalt . In regard to persistence, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be present in groundwater but not

  20. Effects of sequential streaming on auditory masking using psychoacoustics and auditory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhey, Jesko L; Ernst, Stephan M A; Yasin, Ifat

    2012-03-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the relationship between the mismatch negativity (MMN) and psychoacoustical effects of sequential streaming on comodulation masking release (CMR). The influence of sequential streaming on CMR was investigated using a psychoacoustical alternative forced-choice procedure and electroencephalography (EEG) for the same group of subjects. The psychoacoustical data showed, that adding precursors comprising of only off-signal-frequency maskers abolished the CMR. Complementary EEG data showed an MMN irrespective of the masker envelope correlation across frequency when only the off-signal-frequency masker components were present. The addition of such precursors promotes a separation of the on- and off-frequency masker components into distinct auditory objects preventing the auditory system from using comodulation as an additional cue. A frequency-specific adaptation changing the representation of the flanking bands in the streaming conditions may also contribute to the reduction of CMR in the stream conditions, however, it is unlikely that adaptation is the primary reason for the streaming effect. A neurophysiological correlate of sequential streaming was found in EEG data using MMN, but the magnitude of the MMN was not correlated with the audibility of the signal in CMR experiments. Dipole source analysis indicated different cortical regions involved in processing auditory streaming and modulation detection. In particular, neural sources for processing auditory streaming include cortical regions involved in decision-making. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Impacts of fish farm pollution on ecosystem structure and function of tropical headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rodrigo dos Santos; Aguiar, Anna Carolina Fornero; Boëchat, Iola Gonçalves; Gücker, Björn

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the impacts of effluent discharge from small flow-through fish farms on stream water characteristics, the benthic invertebrate community, whole-system nitrate uptake, and ecosystem metabolism of three tropical headwater streams in southeastern Brazil. Effluents were moderately, i.e. up to 20-fold enriched in particulate organic matter (POM) and inorganic nutrients in comparison to stream water at reference sites. Due to high dilution with stream water, effluent discharge resulted in up to 2.0-fold increases in stream water POM and up to 1.8-fold increases in inorganic nutrients only. Moderate impacts on the benthic invertebrate community were detected at one stream only. There was no consistent pattern of effluent impact on whole-stream nitrate uptake. Ecosystem metabolism, however, was clearly affected by effluent discharge. Stream reaches impacted by effluents exhibited significantly increased community respiration and primary productivity, stressing the importance of ecologically sound best management practices for small fish farms in the tropics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adaptive Ensemble with Human Memorizing Characteristics for Data Stream Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhuang Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining several classifiers on sequential chunks of training instances is a popular strategy for data stream mining with concept drifts. This paper introduces human recalling and forgetting mechanisms into a data stream mining system and proposes a Memorizing Based Data Stream Mining (MDSM model. In this model, each component classifier is regarded as a piece of knowledge that a human obtains through learning some materials and has a memory retention value reflecting its usefulness in the history. The classifiers with high memory retention values are reserved in a “knowledge repository.” When a new data chunk comes, most useful classifiers will be selected (recalled from the repository and compose the current target ensemble. Based on MDSM, we put forward a new algorithm, MAE (Memorizing Based Adaptive Ensemble, which uses Ebbinghaus forgetting curve as the forgetting mechanism and adopts ensemble pruning as the recalling mechanism. Compared with four popular data stream mining approaches on the datasets with different concept drifts, the experimental results show that MAE achieves high and stable predicting accuracy, especially for the applications with recurring or complex concept drifts. The results also prove the effectiveness of MDSM model.

  3. Diversity of acoustic streaming in a rectangular acoustofluidic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qiang; Hu, Junhui

    2015-04-01

    Diversity of acoustic streaming field in a 2D rectangular chamber with a traveling wave and using water as the acoustic medium is numerically investigated by the finite element method. It is found that the working frequency, the vibration excitation source length, and the distance and phase difference between two separated symmetric vibration excitation sources can cause the diversity in the acoustic streaming pattern. It is also found that a small object in the acoustic field results in an additional eddy, and affects the eddy size in the acoustic streaming field. In addition, the computation results show that with an increase of the acoustic medium's temperature, the speed of the main acoustic streaming decreases first and then increases, and the angular velocity of the corner eddies increases monotonously, which can be clearly explained by the change of the acoustic dissipation factor and shearing viscosity of the acoustic medium with temperature. Commercialized FEM software COMSOL Multiphysics is used to implement the computation tasks, which makes our method very easy to use. And the computation method is partially verified by an established analytical solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Traffic forecaster for MPLS multimedia data streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Barry; Lin, Freddie

    2006-05-01

    Contemporary high performance data networks carry a wide range of multimedia services (voice, video, audio, text, sensor data, etc.) that require an outstanding Quality of Service (QoS) to provide performance guarantees in priority delivery, latency, bandwidth utilization, load balancing, etc. With the advent of recent Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) network standards, the QoS has made significant progress in performance to provide these performance guarantees. Right now, attention has turned to the task of managing these QoS networks more efficiently through the handling of network traffic. We have investigated a novel Network Traffic Forecasting Assisted QoS Planner technology that will provide constantly updated forecasts of data traffic and server loads to any application that needs this information. Using source models of voice, video and data traffic based on empirical studies of TCP/IP data traffic carried out by Paxson and Floyd in the 1990's, our studies have shown that the system may provide up to 43% bandwidth savings for MPLS data streams, by predicting future traffic flows and reserving network resources to accommodate the predicted traffic. The system additionally provides a means to submit bandwidth reservation requests for those applications that need assured service guarantees for data delivery. The technology essentially increases the efficiency and effectiveness of multimedia information and communication network infrastructure that supports multiple or adaptive QoS levels for multimedia data networking and information system applications.

  5. Resource Management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 28, Wetlands on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pounds, Larry [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-01

    A survey of wetlands on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted in 1990. Wetlands occurring on ORR were identified using National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) maps and field surveys. More than 120 sites were visited and 90 wetlands were identified. Wetland types on ORR included emergent communities in shallow embayments on reservoirs, emergent and aquatic communities in ponds, forested wetland on low ground along major creeks, and wet meadows and marshes associated with streams and seeps. Vascular plant species occurring on sites visited were inventoried, and 57 species were added to the checklist of vascular plants on ORR. Three species listed as rare in Tennessee were discovered on ORR during the wetlands survey. The survey provided an intensive ground truth of the wetlands identified by NWI and offered an indication of wetlands that the NWI remote sensing techniques did not detect.

  6. Land-based sources of marine pollution: Pesticides, PAHs and phthalates in coastal stream water, and heavy metals in coastal stream sediments in American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidoro, Beth A; Comeros-Raynal, Mia T; Cahill, Thomas; Clement, Cassandra

    2017-03-15

    The island nations and territories of the South Pacific are facing a number of pressing environmental concerns, including solid waste management and coastal pollution. Here we provide baseline information on the presence and concentration of heavy metals and selected organic contaminants (pesticides, PAHs, phthalates) in 7 coastal streams and in surface waters adjacent to the Futiga landfill in American Samoa. All sampled stream sediments contained high concentrations of lead, and some of mercury. Several coastal stream waters showed relatively high concentrations of diethyl phthalate and of organophosphate pesticides, above chronic toxicity values for fish and other aquatic organisms. Parathion, which has been banned by the US Environmental Protection Agency since 2006, was detected in several stream sites. Increased monitoring and initiatives to limit non-point source land-based pollution will greatly improve the state of freshwater and coastal resources, as well as reduce risks to human health in American Samoa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. STREAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Mikkel

    This paper presents a flexible model, ‘STREAM’, for transforming higher science education into blended and online learning. The model is inspired by ideas of active and collaborative learning and builds on feedback strategies well-known from Just-in-Time Teaching, Flipped Classroom, and Peer...

  8. Microfluidics of cytoplasmic streaming and its implications for intracellular transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.; Tuval, Idan; van de Meent, Jan-Willem

    2008-01-01

    Found in many large eukaryotic cells, particularly in plants, cytoplasmic streaming is the circulation of their contents driven by fluid entrainment from particles carried by molecular motors at the cell periphery. In the more than two centuries since its discovery, streaming has frequently been conjectured to aid in transport and mixing of molecular species in the cytoplasm and, by implication, in cellular homeostasis, yet no theoretical analysis has been presented to quantify these processes. We show by a solution to the coupled dynamics of fluid flow and diffusion appropriate to the archetypal “rotational streaming” of algal species such as Chara and Nitella that internal mixing and the transient dynamical response to changing external conditions can indeed be enhanced by streaming, but to an extent that depends strongly on the pitch of the helical flow. The possibility that this may have a developmental consequence is illustrated by the coincidence of the exponential growth phase of Nitella and the point of maximum enhancement of those processes. PMID:18310326

  9. Layer-based buffer aware rate adaptation design for SHVC video streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudumasu, Srinivas; Hamza, Ahmed; Asbun, Eduardo; He, Yong; Ye, Yan

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a layer based buffer aware rate adaptation design which is able to avoid abrupt video quality fluctuation, reduce re-buffering latency and improve bandwidth utilization when compared to a conventional simulcast based adaptive streaming system. The proposed adaptation design schedules DASH segment requests based on the estimated bandwidth, dependencies among video layers and layer buffer fullness. Scalable HEVC video coding is the latest state-of-art video coding technique that can alleviate various issues caused by simulcast based adaptive video streaming. With scalable coded video streams, the video is encoded once into a number of layers representing different qualities and/or resolutions: a base layer (BL) and one or more enhancement layers (EL), each incrementally enhancing the quality of the lower layers. Such layer based coding structure allows fine granularity rate adaptation for the video streaming applications. Two video streaming use cases are presented in this paper. The first use case is to stream HD SHVC video over a wireless network where available bandwidth varies, and the performance comparison between proposed layer-based streaming approach and conventional simulcast streaming approach is provided. The second use case is to stream 4K/UHD SHVC video over a hybrid access network that consists of a 5G millimeter wave high-speed wireless link and a conventional wired or WiFi network. The simulation results verify that the proposed layer based rate adaptation approach is able to utilize the bandwidth more efficiently. As a result, a more consistent viewing experience with higher quality video content and minimal video quality fluctuations can be presented to the user.

  10. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  11. Reservation wages and starting wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ophem, H.; Hartog, J.; Berkhout, P.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse a unique data set that combines reservation wage and actually paid wage for a large sample of Dutch recent higher education graduates. On average, accepted wages are almost 8% higher than reservation wages, but there is no fixed proportionality. We find that the difference between

  12. Operating Reserves and Variable Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2011-08-01

    This report tries to first generalize the requirements of the power system as it relates to the needs of operating reserves. It also includes a survey of operating reserves and how they are managed internationally in system operations today and then how new studies and research are proposing they may be managed in the future with higher penetrations of variable generation.

  13. Streaming video to enhance students’ reflection in dance education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijen, A.; Lam, I.; Wildschut, L.; Simons, P.R.J.; Admiraal, W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation case study that describes the experiences of 15 students and 2 teachers using a video-based learning environment, DiViDU, to facilitate students’ daily reflection activities in a composition course and a ballet course. To support dance students’ reflection processes

  14. The cascade construction of artificial ponds as a tool for urban stream restoration - The use of benthic diatoms to assess the effects of restoration practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żelazna-Wieczorek, Joanna; Nowicka-Krawczyk, Paulina

    2015-12-15

    A series of cascade artificial ponds were constructed to improve the ecological status of the stream. To evaluate the effects of restoration practices, a bioassessment, based on phytobenthic algae - the diatoms, was made. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of diatom assemblages allowed for evaluating the influence of a series of cascade artificial ponds on stream integrity. To reveal which environmental factors had the greatest influence on shaping diatom assemblages, the BIO-ENV procedure was used, and in order to examine whether these factors had equal influence on diatoms along the stream, Redundancy Analysis (RDA) was used. The analysis of diatom assemblages allowed for the calculation of the diatom indices in order to assess the water quality and the ecological status of the stream. Artificial ponds constructed on the stream had significant effects on the integrity of the stream ecosystem. Diatom assemblages characteristic of stream habitats were disrupted by the species from ponds. HCA and PCA revealed that the stream was clearly divided into three sections: ponds, stream parts under the influence of ponds, and stream parts isolated from ponds. The ponds thus altered stream environmental conditions. Benthic diatom assemblages were affected by a combination of four environmental factors: the concentration of ammonium ions, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, and the amount of total suspended material in the water. These factors, together with water pH, had a diverse influence on diatom assemblages alongside the stream, which was caused by a series of cascade ponds. In theory, this restoration practice should restore the stream close to its natural state, but bioassessment of the stream ecosystem based on diatoms revealed that there was no improvement of the ecological status alongside the stream. The construction of artificial ponds disrupted stream continuity and altered the character of the stream ecosystem. Copyright

  15. Leveraging the Reserve Component: Associating Active and Reserve Aviation Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    conducted by Jennifer Buck again validates the 3:1 ratio while in garrison. Her Active versus Reserve Brigade Combat teams analysis stated the...Aviation Combat Readiness/Safety Center. (email March 20, 2013) 61 2012 Aviation Force Structure Book. (Fort Rucker , Alabama: U.S. Army Aviation Center...Force Reserve squadrons at Pope Field next to Fort Bragg face similar challenges. Fort Rucker , Alabama offers a unique opportunity as the home of

  16. Hydrodynamic enhanced dielectrophoretic particle trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Robin R.

    2003-12-09

    Hydrodynamic enhanced dielectrophoretic particle trapping carried out by introducing a side stream into the main stream to squeeze the fluid containing particles close to the electrodes producing the dielelectrophoretic forces. The region of most effective or the strongest forces in the manipulating fields of the electrodes producing the dielectrophoretic forces is close to the electrodes, within 100 .mu.m from the electrodes. The particle trapping arrangement uses a series of electrodes with an AC field placed between pairs of electrodes, which causes trapping of particles along the edges of the electrodes. By forcing an incoming flow stream containing cells and DNA, for example, close to the electrodes using another flow stream improves the efficiency of the DNA trapping.

  17. Shading and sediment structure effects on stream metabolism resistance and resilience to infrequent droughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatanović, Sanja; Fabian, Jenny; Premke, Katrin; Mutz, Michael

    2017-10-22

    land use to mitigate the future impact of unpredictable infrequent droughts on stream metabolism in temperate ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hierarchical photo stream segmentation using context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Bo; Jain, Ramesh

    2008-01-01

    Photo stream segmentation is to segment photo streams into groups, each of which corresponds to an event. Photo stream segmentation can be done with or without prior knowledge of event structure. In this paper, we study the problem by assuming that there is no a priori event model available. Although both context and content information are important for photo stream segmentation, we focus on investigating the usage of context information in this work. We consider different information components of context such as time, location, and optical setting for inexpensive segmentation of photo streams from common users of modern digital camera. As events are hierarchical, we propose to segment photo stream using hierarchical mixture model. We compare the generated hierarchy with that created by users to see how well results can be obtained without knowing the prior event model. We experimented with about 3000 photos from amateur photographers to study the efficacy of the approach for these context information components.

  19. Water Quality of Emet Stream Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem TOKATLI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Emet Stream Basin is one of Turkey's most important river systems and one of the two most important branches of Uluabat Lake (Ramsar Area. The system is under an intensive pressure of agricultural and industrial activities and domestic wastes. In this study, water samples were collected seasonally from eight stations (one of them is on the Kınık Stream, one of them is on the Dursunbey Stream and six of them on the Emet Stream on the Emet Stream Basin. Some lymnological parameters (nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, sulfate, orthophosphate, and BOD5 were determined to evaluate the water quality. The data obtained were evaluated statistically and compared with the limit values reported by various national and international organizations. It was determined that, Emet Stream Basin is exposed to a significant organic pollution. 

  20. LHCb : The LHCb Turbo stream

    CERN Multimedia

    Puig Navarro, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the "turbo stream" the trigger will write out a compact summary of "physics" objects containing all information necessary for analyses, and this will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during...

  1. Streaming potential measurements of biosurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wagenen, R. A.; Andrade, J. D.; Hibbs, J. B., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A technique based on the measurement of streaming potentials has been developed to evaluate the electrokinetic region of the cell periphery. This approach is feasible for cell lines propagated in in-vitro cell cultures in monolayer form. The advantage of this system is that cells may be evaluated in the living state atttached to a substrate; it is not necessary to subject the cells to enzymatic, chemical, or mechanical trauma required to obtain monodisperse suspensions which are then normally evaluated by microelectrophoresis. In this manner, it should be possible to study the influence of substrate and environmental factors on the charge density and potential at the cell periphery. The apparatus and procedure are described as well as some results concerning the electrokinetic potential of borosilicate capillaries as a function of ionic strength, pH, and temperature. The effect that turbulence and entrance flow conditions have on accurate streaming-potential measurements is discussed. The electrokinetic potential of BALB/c 3T12 fibroblasts has been quantified as a function of pH, ionic strength, glutaraldehyde fixation, and Giemsa staining.

  2. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Togeby, Mikael; Østergaard, Jacob

    This report summaries the research outcomes of the project ‘Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)’, which has received the support from Energinet.dk’s PSO program, Grant no. 2005-2-6380. The objective of this project is to investigate the technology of using electricity demands for providing...... frequency reserve to power systems. The project consists of five work packages, including: Background and perspective Dynamical simulation of chosen concepts Monitoring demand as frequency controlled reserve Strategy and practical implementation Conclusion and evaluation Within the project, the frequency...

  3. A review on data stream classification approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Sajad Homayoun; Marzieh Ahmadzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Stream data is usually in vast volume, changing dynamically, possibly infinite, and containing multi-dimensional features. The attention towards data stream mining is increasing as regards to its presence in wide range of real-world applications, such as e-commerce, banking, sensor data and telecommunication records. Similar to data mining, data stream mining includes classification, clustering, frequent pattern mining etc. techniques; the special focus of this paper is on classification meth...

  4. Apples to Oranges: Comparing Streaming Video Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Milewski, Steven; Threatt, Monique

    2017-01-01

    Librarians rely on an ever-increasing variety of platforms to deliver streaming video content to our patrons. These two presentations will examine different aspects of video streaming platforms to gain guidance from the comparison of platforms. The first will examine the accessibility compliance of the various video streaming platforms for users with disabilities by examining accessibility features of the platforms. The second will be a comparison of subject usage of two of the larger video s...

  5. Smart Streaming for Online Video Services

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Liang; Zhou, Yipeng; Chiu, Dah Ming

    2013-01-01

    Bandwidth consumption is a significant concern for online video service providers. Practical video streaming systems usually use some form of HTTP streaming (progressive download) to let users download the video at a faster rate than the video bitrate. Since users may quit before viewing the complete video, however, much of the downloaded video will be "wasted". To the extent that users' departure behavior can be predicted, we develop smart streaming that can be used to improve user QoE with ...

  6. Information Behavior on Social Live Streaming Services

    OpenAIRE

    Scheibe, Katrin; Fietkiewicz, Kaja J.; Wolfgang G. Stock

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, a new type of synchronous social networking services (SNSs) has emerged—social live streaming services (SLSSs). Studying SLSSs is a new and exciting research field in information science. What information behaviors do users of live streaming platforms exhibit? In our empirical study we analyzed information production behavior (i.e., broadcasting) as well as information reception behavior (watching streams and commenting on them). We conducted two quantitative inv...

  7. Aquatic Natural Areas Analysis and Evaluation: Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranski, Dr. Michael J. [Catawba College

    2011-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of the natural area value of eight Aquatic Natural Areas (ANAs) and seven Aquatic Reference Areas (ARAs) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Anderson and Roane Counties in east Tennessee. It follows a previous study in 2009 that analyzed and evaluated terrestrial natural areas on the Reservation. The purpose of both studies was to evaluate and rank those specially designated areas on the Reservation that contain sensitive species, special habitats, and natural area value. Natural areas receive special protections through established statutes, regulations, and policies. The ORR contains 33,542 acres (13,574 ha) administered by the Department of Energy. The surface waters of the Reservation range from 1st-order to 5th-order streams, but the majority of the streams recognized as ANAs and ARAs are 1st- and 2nd-order streams. East Fork Poplar Creek is a 4th-order stream and the largest watershed that drains Reservation lands. All the waters of the Reservation eventually reach the Clinch River on the southern and western boundaries of the ORR. All available information was collected, synthesized, and evaluated. Field observations were made to support and supplement the available information. Geographic information system mapping techniques were used to develop several quantitative attributes about the study areas. Narrative descriptions of each ANA and ARA and tables of numerical data were prepared. Criteria for assessment and evaluation were developed, and eight categories of factors were devised to produce a ranking system. The evaluation factors used in the ranking system were: (A) size of area, (B) percentage of watershed protected, (C) taxa present with protected status, (D) overall biotic diversity, (E) stream features, (F) water quality and use support ratings, (G) disturbance regime, and (H) other factors. Each factor was evaluated on a 5-point ranking scale (0-4), and each area received a composite score, where 32 was the

  8. Stream hydrology: an introduction for ecologists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    The updated chapters in this book provide information on sampling, field techniques, stream analysis, the hydrodynamics of moving water, channel form, sediment transport and commonly used statistical...

  9. Building a dynamic value stream mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Shafiq, Umer

    2014-01-01

    Value stream mapping (VSM) is a visualization tool helps to understand processes by using of stream lined work process. The importance of this process is to decrease the activity that does not add value to the final product and in order to increase the efficiency and production.   The purpose of this thesis is to create dynamic value stream maps of a process by using simulation. By creating dynamic value stream maps makes it possible to analyze more complex systems than traditional VSM. Simul...

  10. Cognitive Reserve Scale and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene León

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construct of cognitive reserve attempts to explain why some individuals with brain impairment, and some people during normal ageing, can solve cognitive tasks better than expected. This study aimed to estimate cognitive reserve in a healthy sample of people aged 65 years and over, with special attention to its influence on cognitive performance. For this purpose, it used the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS and a neuropsychological battery that included tests of attention and memory. The results revealed that women obtained higher total CRS raw scores than men. Moreover, the CRS predicted the learning curve, short-term and long-term memory, but not attentional and working memory performance. Thus, the CRS offers a new proxy of cognitive reserve based on cognitively stimulating activities performed by healthy elderly people. Following an active lifestyle throughout life was associated with better intellectual performance and positive effects on relevant aspects of quality of life.

  11. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  12. Tracer-based characterization of hyporheic exchange and benthic biolayers in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Julia L.A.; González-Pinzón, Ricardo; Drummond, Jennifer D.; Larsen, Laurel G.; Cirpka, Olaf A.; Harvey, Judson W.

    2017-01-01

    Shallow benthic biolayers at the top of the streambed are believed to be places of enhanced biogeochemical turnover within the hyporheic zone. They can be investigated by reactive stream tracer tests with tracer recordings in the streambed and in the stream channel. Common in-stream measurements of such reactive tracers cannot localize where the processing primarily takes place, whereas isolated vertical depth profiles of solutes within the hyporheic zone are usually not representative of the entire stream. We present results of a tracer test where we injected the conservative tracer bromide together with the reactive tracer resazurin into a third-order stream and combined the recording of in-stream breakthrough curves with multidepth sampling of the hyporheic zone at several locations. The transformation of resazurin was used as an indicator of metabolism, and high-reactivity zones were identified from depth profiles. The results from our subsurface analysis indicate that the potential for tracer transformation (i.e., the reaction rate constant) varied with depth in the hyporheic zone. This highlights the importance of the benthic biolayer, which we found to be on average 2 cm thick in this study, ranging from one third to one half of the full depth of the hyporheic zone. The reach-scale approach integrated the effects of processes along the reach length, isolating hyporheic processes relevant for whole-stream chemistry and estimating effective reaction rates.

  13. A Control Chart Approach for Representing and Mining Data Streams with Shape Based Similarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The mining of data streams for online condition monitoring is a challenging task in several domains including (electric) power grid system, intelligent manufacturing, and consumer science. Considering a power grid application in which thousands of sensors, called the phasor measurement units, are deployed on the power grid network to continuously collect streams of digital data for real-time situational awareness and system management. Depending on design, each sensor could stream between ten and sixty data samples per second. The myriad of sensory data captured could convey deeper insights about sequence of events in real-time and before major damages are done. However, the timely processing and analysis of these high-velocity and high-volume data streams is a challenge. Hence, a new data processing and transformation approach, based on the concept of control charts, for representing sequence of data streams from sensors is proposed. In addition, an application of the proposed approach for enhancing data mining tasks such as clustering using real-world power grid data streams is presented. The results indicate that the proposed approach is very efficient for data streams storage and manipulation.

  14. Study Streams and Student Entrepreneurial Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukuakadibia Eresia-Eke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the levels of entrepreneurial intention among university students is particularly critical in Africa where the scourge of unemployment is profound. Alive to this, governments and well-meaning institutions are investing in entrepreneurship development, the gains of which remain to be seen leading to an ebbing of hope in the youth population. To this end the study investigates the entrepreneurial intention of university students in South Africa with an aim to reveal differences arising from study streams. The study consequently extends knowledge by examining entrepreneurial intention within the context of an unemployment-ridden society while leveraging on the theories of planned behaviour. The study executed from a positivist standpoint surveyed 238 students and quantitatively analysed the data principally to test deductively derived hypothesised relationships. The empirical study concludes that there is indeed a difference in entrepreneurial intention levels between the two groups. Empirical in nature, this quantitative study and concludes that there is indeed a difference in entrepreneurial intention levels between the two groups. Interventions aimed at enhancing entrepreneurship can only generate desirable results if the entrepreneurial intentions of the target population are known. This would ensure that the right type of interventions are created and delivered to specific groups as the ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach continues to fail. Serving a clearly heterogeneous population with seemingly homogenous interventions appears faulty and this reality needs to inform pro-entrepreneurship initiatives in future.

  15. PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This quarterly report describes technical activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under Task 1 of this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This report includes summaries of analyses performed on particulate samples from Sierra Pacific Power Company's Pinon Pine Power Project. This report also reviews the status of the HGCU data bank of ash and char characteristics, and plans for enhancing the data bank with interactive querying of measured particulate properties. Task 1 plans for the remainder of the project include completion and delivery of the HGCU data bank. Task 2 of this project concerns the testing and failure analyses of new and used filter elements and filter materials. Task 2 work during the past quarter included preliminary testing of two materials. One material tested was the soft candle filter manufactured by CGC and supplied by ABB. The other material was N610/mullite manufactured by Albany International (AIT).

  16. Reserve Retirement Equality: Treating Reserves Fairly While Saving Taxpayer Dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    rata .121 For example, a Reserve who performs the equivalent of five years of active duty, will receive one-fourth the retired pay of his active duty...4,225 per month.124 But because reserve-retirement benefits are based on pro rata years of service, this officer’s years of service for retirement...purposes are 3,146 retirement points divided by 360.125 This results in 8.74 years pro rata years of service.126 His retirement benefits thus are

  17. Sequential stream segregation of voiced and unvoiced speech sounds based on fundamental frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Marion; Lavandier, Mathieu; Grimault, Nicolas; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2017-02-01

    Differences in fundamental frequency (F0) between voiced sounds are known to be a strong cue for stream segregation. However, speech consists of both voiced and unvoiced sounds, and less is known about whether and how the unvoiced portions are segregated. This study measured listeners' ability to integrate or segregate sequences of consonant-vowel tokens, comprising a voiceless fricative and a vowel, as a function of the F0 difference between interleaved sequences of tokens. A performance-based measure was used, in which listeners detected the presence of a repeated token either within one sequence or between the two sequences (measures of voluntary and obligatory streaming, respectively). The results showed a systematic increase of voluntary stream segregation as the F0 difference between the two interleaved sequences increased from 0 to 13 semitones, suggesting that F0 differences allowed listeners to segregate speech sounds, including the unvoiced portions. In contrast to the consistent effects of voluntary streaming, the trend towards obligatory stream segregation at large F0 differences failed to reach significance. Listeners were no longer able to perform the voluntary-streaming task reliably when the unvoiced portions were removed from the stimuli, suggesting that the unvoiced portions were used and correctly segregated in the original task. The results demonstrate that streaming based on F0 differences occurs for natural speech sounds, and that the unvoiced portions are correctly assigned to the corresponding voiced portions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Controlling acoustic streaming in an ultrasonic heptagonal tweezers with application to cell manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernassau, A L; Glynne-Jones, P; Gesellchen, F; Riehle, M; Hill, M; Cumming, D R S

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force has been demonstrated as a method for manipulating micron-scale particles, but is frequently affected by unwanted streaming. In this paper the streaming in a multi-transducer quasi-standing wave acoustic particle manipulation device is assessed, and found to be dominated by a form of Eckart streaming. The experimentally observed streaming takes the form of two main vortices that have their highest velocity in the region where the standing wave is established. A finite element model is developed that agrees well with experimental results, and shows that the Reynolds stresses that give rise to the fluid motion are strongest in the high velocity region. A technical solution to reduce the streaming is explored that entails the introduction of a biocompatible agar gel layer at the bottom of the chamber so as to reduce the fluid depth and volume. By this means, we reduce the region of fluid that experiences the Reynolds stresses; the viscous drag per unit volume of fluid is also increased. Particle Image Velocimetry data is used to observe the streaming as a function of agar-modified cavity depth. It was found that, in an optimised structure, Eckart streaming could be reduced to negligible levels so that we could make a sonotweezers device with a large working area of up to 13 mm × 13 mm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. InSTREAM: the individual-based stream trout research and environmental assessment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven F. Railsback; Bret C. Harvey; Stephen K. Jackson; Roland H. Lamberson

    2009-01-01

    This report documents Version 4.2 of InSTREAM, including its formulation, software, and application to research and management problems. InSTREAM is a simulation model designed to understand how stream and river salmonid populations respond to habitat alteration, including altered flow, temperature, and turbidity regimes and changes in channel morphology. The model...

  20. Stream invertebrate productivity linked to forest subsidies: 37 stream-years of reference and experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Bruce Wallace; Susan L Eggert; Judy L. Meyer; Jackson R. Webster

    2015-01-01

    Riparian habitats provide detrital subsidies of varying quantities and qualities to recipient ecosystems. We used long-term data from three reference streams (covering 24 stream-years) and 13-year whole-stream organic matter manipulations to investigate the influence of terrestrial detrital quantity and quality on benthic invertebrate community structure, abundance,...

  1. The ventral stream offers more affordance and the dorsal stream more memory than believed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Albert; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Zuidhoek, Sander

    2002-01-01

    Opposed to Norman's proposal, processing of affordance is likely to occur not solely in the dorsal stream but also in the ventral stream. Moreover, the dorsal stream might do more than just serve an important role in motor actions. It supports egocentric location coding as well. As such, it would

  2. Incremental learning from stream data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haibo; Chen, Sheng; Li, Kang; Xu, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Recent years have witnessed an incredibly increasing interest in the topic of incremental learning. Unlike conventional machine learning situations, data flow targeted by incremental learning becomes available continuously over time. Accordingly, it is desirable to be able to abandon the traditional assumption of the availability of representative training data during the training period to develop decision boundaries. Under scenarios of continuous data flow, the challenge is how to transform the vast amount of stream raw data into information and knowledge representation, and accumulate experience over time to support future decision-making process. In this paper, we propose a general adaptive incremental learning framework named ADAIN that is capable of learning from continuous raw data, accumulating experience over time, and using such knowledge to improve future learning and prediction performance. Detailed system level architecture and design strategies are presented in this paper. Simulation results over several real-world data sets are used to validate the effectiveness of this method.

  3. Robust Watermarking of Video Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Polyák

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years there has been an explosion in the use of digital video data. Many people have personal computers at home, and with the help of the Internet users can easily share video files on their computer. This makes possible the unauthorized use of digital media, and without adequate protection systems the authors and distributors have no means to prevent it.Digital watermarking techniques can help these systems to be more effective by embedding secret data right into the video stream. This makes minor changes in the frames of the video, but these changes are almost imperceptible to the human visual system. The embedded information can involve copyright data, access control etc. A robust watermark is resistant to various distortions of the video, so it cannot be removed without affecting the quality of the host medium. In this paper I propose a video watermarking scheme that fulfills the requirements of a robust watermark. 

  4. Hierarchical multi-taxa models inform riparian vs. hydrologic restoration of urban streams in a permeable landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinn, Daniel C; Middleton, Jen A; Beesley, Leah; Close, Paul; Quinton, Belinda; Storer, Tim; Davies, Peter M

    2018-03-01

    The degradation of streams caused by urbanization tends to follow predictable patterns; however, there is a growing appreciation for heterogeneity in stream response to urbanization due to the local geoclimatic context. Furthermore, there is building evidence that streams in mildly sloped, permeable landscapes respond uncharacteristically to urban stress calling for a more nuanced approach to restoration. We evaluated the relative influence of local-scale riparian characteristics and catchment-scale imperviousness on the macroinvertebrate assemblages of streams in the flat, permeable urban landscape of Perth, Western Australia. Using a hierarchical multi-taxa model, we predicted the outcomes of stylized stream restoration strategies to increase the riparian integrity at the local scale or decrease the influences of imperviousness at the catchment scale. In the urban streams of Perth, we show that local-scale riparian restoration can influence the structure of macroinvertebrate assemblages to a greater degree than managing the influences of catchment-scale imperviousness. We also observed an interaction between the effect of riparian integrity and imperviousness such that the effect of increased riparian integrity was enhanced at lower levels of catchment imperviousness. This study represents one of few conducted in flat, permeable landscapes and the first aimed at informing urban stream restoration in Perth, adding to the growing appreciation for heterogeneity of the Urban Stream Syndrome and its importance for urban stream restoration. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  5. Forest clearfelling effects on dissolved oxygen and metabolism in peatland streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Connie; O'Connor, Mark; Asam, Zaki-Ul-Zaman; de Eyto, Elvira; Brown, Lee E; Xiao, Liwen

    2016-01-15

    Peatlands cover ∼3% of the world's landmass and large expanses have been altered significantly as a consequence of land use change. Forestry activities are a key pressure on these catchments increasing suspended sediment and nutrient export to receiving waters. The aim of this study was to investigate stream dissolved oxygen (DO) and metabolic activity response following clearfelling of a 39-year-old lodgepole pine and Sitka spruce forestry in an upland peat catchment. Significant effects of clearfelling on water temperature, flows, DO and stream metabolic (photosynthesis, respiration) rates were revealed. Stream temperature and discharge significantly increased in the study stream following clearfelling. Instream ecosystem respiration increased significantly following clearfelling, indicating an increase in the net consumption of organic carbon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  7. Federal Reserve policy since 1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. HAMBERG

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the change in the federal reserve instruments that occurred since October 1979. Before then, the FED used bank reserves to establish an interest rate that would result in the desired level of the money stock. After 1979 the FED replaced the federal funds rate as its control variable with the volume of bank reserves. In principal, provided the will to adjust interest rates when the money stock is off target exists, two policies show little difference. Critics of the Fed’s policy prior to 1979 often confuse principal with practice. Then, Fed policy was closer to pegging the federal funds rate than to using it as a control over the quantity of money.  

  8. Coal Reserves Data Base report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.W.; Glass, G.B.

    1991-12-05

    The Coal Reserves Data Base (CRDB) Program is a cooperative data base development program sponsored by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The objective of the CRDB Program is to involve knowledgeable coal resource authorities from the major coal-bearing regions in EIA's effort to update the Nation's coal reserves data. This report describes one of two prototype studies to update State-level reserve estimates. The CRDB data are intended for use in coal supply analyses and to support analyses of policy and legislative issues. They will be available to both Government and non-Government analysts. The data also will be part of the information used to supply United States energy data for international data bases and for inquiries from private industry and the public. (VC)

  9. A stream-gaging network analysis for the 7-day, 10-year annual low flow in New Hampshire streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    network by application of GLS regression between streamflow and the climatic and basin characteristics of the drainage basin upstream from each stream-gaging station. Improvement to the predictive ability of the regression equations developed for the network analyses is measured by the reduction in the average sampling-error variance, and can be achieved by collecting additional streamflow data at existing stations. The predictive ability of the regression equations is enhanced even further with the addition of new stations to the network. Continued data collection at unregulated stream-gaging stations with less than 14 years of record resulted in the greatest cost-weighted reduction to the average sampling-error variance of the annual 7Q10 regional regression equation. The addition of new stations in basins with underrepresented values for the independent variables of the total drainage area, average mean annual basinwide temperature, or mean summer stream-gaging station precipitation in the annual 7Q10 regression equation yielded a much greater cost-weighted reduction to the average sampling-error variance than when more data were collected at existing unregulated stations. To maximize the regional information obtained from the stream-gaging network for the annual 7Q10, ranking of the streamflow data can be used to determine whether an active station should be continued or if a new or discontinued station should be activated for streamflow data collection. Thus, this network analysis can help determine the costs and benefits of continuing the operation of a particular station or activating a new station at another location to predict the 7Q10 at ungaged stream reaches. The decision to discontinue an existing station or activate a new station, however, must also consider its contribution to other water-resource analyses such as flood management, water quality, or trends in land use or climatic change.

  10. Introduction to stream network habitat analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, John M.; Waddle, Terry J.

    1986-01-01

    Increasing demands on stream resources by a variety of users have resulted in an increased emphasis on studies that evaluate the cumulative effects of basinwide water management programs. Network habitat analysis refers to the evaluation of an entire river basin (or network) by predicting its habitat response to alternative management regimes. The analysis principally focuses on the biological and hydrological components of the riv er basin, which include both micro- and macrohabitat. (The terms micro- and macrohabitat are further defined and discussed later in this document.) Both conceptual and analytic models are frequently used for simplifying and integrating the various components of the basin. The model predictions can be used in developing management recommendations to preserve, restore, or enhance instream fish habitat. A network habitat analysis should begin with a clear and concise statement of the study objectives and a thorough understanding of the institutional setting in which the study results will be applied. This includes the legal, social, and political considerations inherent in any water management setting. The institutional environment may dictate the focus and level of detail required of the study to a far greater extent than the technical considerations. After the study objectives, including species on interest, and institutional setting are collectively defined, the technical aspects should be scoped to determine the spatial and temporal requirements of the analysis. A macro level approach should be taken first to identify critical biological elements and requirements. Next, habitat availability is quantified much as in a "standard" river segment analysis, with the likely incorporation of some macrohabitat components, such as stream temperature. Individual river segments may be aggregated to represent the networkwide habitat response of alternative water management schemes. Things learned about problems caused or opportunities generated may

  11. What Can Hierarchies Do for Data Streams?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xuepeng; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. Much effort has been put into building data streams management systems for querying data streams. However, the query languages have mostly been SQL-based and aimed for low-level analysis of base data; therefore, there has been little work on supporting OLAP-like queries that provide real...

  12. Flooding in ephemeral streams: incorporating transmission losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stream flow in semiarid lands commonly occurs as a form of flash floods in dry ephemeral stream beds. The goal of this research is to couple hydrological and hydraulic models treats channel transmission losses and test the methodology in the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW). For h...

  13. Streaming for Mathematics in Victorian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgasz, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Streaming (or ability grouping) for mathematics learning is a contentious issue. It can also be considered an issue of equity or social justice as some students may be adversely affected by the practice. Currently, the Victorian Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (DEECD) does not appear to have clear guidelines on streaming.…

  14. Coldwater fish in wadeable streams [Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason B. Dunham; Amanda E. Rosenberger; Russell F. Thurow; C. Andrew Dolloff; Philip J. Howell

    2009-01-01

    Small, wadeable streams comprise the majority of habitats available to fishes in fluvial networks. Wadeable streams are generally less than 1 m deep, and fish can be sampled without the use of water craft. Cold waters are defined as having mean 7-d summer maximum water temperatures of less than 20°C and providing habitat for coldwater fishes.

  15. Effects of Context on Auditory Stream Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Joel S.; Carter, Olivia L.; Lee, Suh-Kyung; Hannon, Erin E.; Alain, Claude

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of preceding context on auditory stream segregation. Low tones (A), high tones (B), and silences (-) were presented in an ABA-pattern. Participants indicated whether they perceived 1 or 2 streams of tones. The A tone frequency was fixed, and the B tone was the same as the A tone or had 1 of 3 higher frequencies.…

  16. Organism-substrate relationships in lowland streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolkamp, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    A field and laboratory study on the microdistribution of bottom dwelling macroinvertebrates to investigate the role of the stream substrate In the development and preservation of the macroinvertebrate communities in natural, undisturbed lowland streams is described. Field data on bottom substrates

  17. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...... balancing measure, which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the electricity demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR...

  18. Combined effects of hydrologic alteration and cyprinid fish in mediating biogeochemical processes in a Mediterranean stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Gracia, Francesc; Almeida, David; Bonet, Berta; Casals, Frederic; Espinosa, Carmen; Flecker, Alexander S; García-Berthou, Emili; Martí, Eugènia; Tuulaikhuu, Baigal-Amar; Vila-Gispert, Anna; Zamora, Lluis; Guasch, Helena

    2017-12-01

    Flow regimes are important drivers of both stream community and biogeochemical processes. However, the interplay between community and biogeochemical responses under different flow regimes in streams is less understood. In this study, we investigated the structural and functional responses of periphyton and macroinvertebrates to different densities of the Mediterranean barbel (Barbus meridionalis, Cyprinidae) in two stream reaches differing in flow regime. The study was conducted in Llémena Stream, a small calcareous Mediterranean stream with high nutrient levels. We selected a reach with permanent flow (permanent reach) and another subjected to flow regulation (regulated reach) with periods of flow intermittency. At each reach, we used in situ cages to generate 3 levels of fish density. Cages with 10 barbels were used to simulate high fish density (>7indm-2); cages with open sides were used as controls (i.e. exposed to actual fish densities of each stream reach) thus having low fish density; and those with no fish were used to simulate the disappearance of fish that occurs with stream drying. Differences in fish density did not cause significant changes in periphyton biomass and macroinvertebrate density. However, phosphate uptake by periphyton was enhanced in treatments lacking fish in the regulated reach with intermittent flow but not in the permanent reach, suggesting that hydrologic alteration hampers the ability of biotic communities to compensate for the absence of fish. This study indicates that fish density can mediate the effects of anthropogenic alterations such as flow intermittence derived from hydrologic regulation on stream benthic communities and associated biogeochemical processes, at least in eutrophic streams. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Hydrologic connectivity and the contribution of stream headwaters to ecological integrity at regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Mary C.; Pringle, C.M.; Jackson, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    Cumulatively, headwater streams contribute to maintaining hydrologic connectivity and ecosystem integrity at regional scales. Hydrologic connectivity is the water-mediated transport of matter, energy and organisms within or between elements of the hydrologic cycle. Headwater streams compose over two-thirds of total stream length in a typical river drainage and directly connect the upland and riparian landscape to the rest of the stream ecosystem. Altering headwater streams, e.g., by channelization, diversion through pipes, impoundment and burial, modifies fluxes between uplands and downstream river segments and eliminates distinctive habitats. The large-scale ecological effects of altering headwaters are amplified by land uses that alter runoff and nutrient loads to streams, and by widespread dam construction on larger rivers (which frequently leaves free-flowing upstream portions of river systems essential to sustaining aquatic biodiversity). We discuss three examples of large-scale consequences of cumulative headwater alteration. Downstream eutrophication and coastal hypoxia result, in part, from agricultural practices that alter headwaters and wetlands while increasing nutrient runoff. Extensive headwater alteration is also expected to lower secondary productivity of river systems by reducing stream-system length and trophic subsidies to downstream river segments, affecting aquatic communities and terrestrial wildlife that utilize aquatic resources. Reduced viability of freshwater biota may occur with cumulative headwater alteration, including for species that occupy a range of stream sizes but for which headwater streams diversify the network of interconnected populations or enhance survival for particular life stages. Developing a more predictive understanding of ecological patterns that may emerge on regional scales as a result of headwater alterations will require studies focused on components and pathways that connect headwaters to river, coastal and

  20. StreamExplorer: A Multi-Stage System for Visually Exploring Events in Social Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingcai; Chen, Zhutian; Sun, Guodao; Xie, Xiao; Cao, Nan; Liu, Shixia; Cui, Weiwei

    2017-10-18

    Analyzing social streams is important for many applications, such as crisis management. However, the considerable diversity, increasing volume, and high dynamics of social streams of large events continue to be significant challenges that must be overcome to ensure effective exploration. We propose a novel framework by which to handle complex social streams on a budget PC. This framework features two components: 1) an online method to detect important time periods (i.e., subevents), and 2) a tailored GPU-assisted Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method, which clusters the tweets of subevents stably and efficiently. Based on the framework, we present StreamExplorer to facilitate the visual analysis, tracking, and comparison of a social stream at three levels. At a macroscopic level, StreamExplorer uses a new glyph-based timeline visualization, which presents a quick multi-faceted overview of the ebb and flow of a social stream. At a mesoscopic level, a map visualization is employed to visually summarize the social stream from either a topical or geographical aspect. At a microscopic level, users can employ interactive lenses to visually examine and explore the social stream from different perspectives. Two case studies and a task-based evaluation are used to demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of StreamExplorer.Analyzing social streams is important for many applications, such as crisis management. However, the considerable diversity, increasing volume, and high dynamics of social streams of large events continue to be significant challenges that must be overcome to ensure effective exploration. We propose a novel framework by which to handle complex social streams on a budget PC. This framework features two components: 1) an online method to detect important time periods (i.e., subevents), and 2) a tailored GPU-assisted Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method, which clusters the tweets of subevents stably and efficiently. Based on the framework, we present Stream

  1. The ecology and biogeochemistry of stream biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battin, Tom J; Besemer, Katharina; Bengtsson, Mia M; Romani, Anna M; Packmann, Aaron I

    2016-04-01

    Streams and rivers form dense networks, shape the Earth's surface and, in their sediments, provide an immensely large surface area for microbial growth. Biofilms dominate microbial life in streams and rivers, drive crucial ecosystem processes and contribute substantially to global biogeochemical fluxes. In turn, water flow and related deliveries of nutrients and organic matter to biofilms constitute major constraints on microbial life. In this Review, we describe the ecology and biogeochemistry of stream biofilms and highlight the influence of physical and ecological processes on their structure and function. Recent advances in the study of biofilm ecology may pave the way towards a mechanistic understanding of the effects of climate and environmental change on stream biofilms and the biogeochemistry of stream ecosystems.

  2. Stream biofilm responses to flow intermittency: from cells to ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi eSabater

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Temporary streams are characterized by the alternation of dry and wet hydrological phases, creating both a harsh environment for the biota as well as a high diversity of opportunities for adaptation. These systems are eminently microbial-based during several of these hydrological phases, and those growing on all solid substrata (biofilms accordingly change their physical structure and community composition. Biofilms experience large decreases on cell densities and biomass, both of bacteria and algae, during dryness. Algal and bacterial communities show remarkable decreases in their diversity, at least locally (at the habitat scale. Biofilms also respond with significant physiological plasticity to each of the hydrological changes. The decreasing humidity of the substrata through the drying process, and the changing quantity and quality of organic matter and nutrients available in the stream during that process, causes unequal responses on the biofilm bacteria and algae. Biofilm algae are affected faster than bacteria by the hydric stress, and as a result the ecosystem respiration resists longer than gross primary production to the increasing duration of flow intermittency. This response implies enhancing ecosystem heterotrophy, a pattern that can be exacerbated in temporary streams suffering of longer dry periods under global change.

  3. Streaming current magnetic fields in a charged nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Abraham; Taheri, Peyman; Kostiuk, Larry W.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields induced by currents created in pressure driven flows inside a solid-state charged nanopore were modeled by numerically solving a system of steady state continuum partial differential equations, i.e., Poisson, Nernst-Planck, Ampere and Navier-Stokes equations (PNPANS). This analysis was based on non-dimensional transport governing equations that were scaled using Debye length as the characteristic length scale, and applied to a finite length cylindrical nano-channel. The comparison of numerical and analytical studies shows an excellent agreement and verified the magnetic fields density both inside and outside the nanopore. The radially non-uniform currents resulted in highly non-uniform magnetic fields within the nanopore that decay as 1/r outside the nanopore. It is worth noting that for either streaming currents or streaming potential cases, the maximum magnetic field occurred inside the pore in the vicinity of nanopore wall, as opposed to a cylindrical conductor that carries a steady electric current where the maximum magnetic fields occur at the perimeter of conductor. Based on these results, it is suggested and envisaged that non-invasive external magnetic fields readouts generated by streaming/ionic currents may be viewed as secondary electronic signatures of biomolecules to complement and enhance current DNA nanopore sequencing techniques. PMID:27833119

  4. Flume experiments on scour downstream of wood stream restoration structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliara, Stefano; Kurdistani, Sahameddin Mahmoudi

    2017-02-01

    River restoration aims to improve physical natural form and processes of a river. Techniques to control the riverbed, stabilize channel alignment, protect stream banks, and rebuild the natural habitat are an important part of river restoration projects. Rivers can be stabilized and habitat restored through techniques such as rebuilding meanders and pool-riffle sequences and managing large wood. Structures that limit channel width to accelerate the normal flows through the constricted section are referred to as stream deflectors. Single-wing, double-wing and triangular deflectors are the most commonly used types of this measure. Log-frame deflectors consist of a triangular log frame filled with rock. Deflector constructions singly or in series in low gradient meandering streams, divert base flows toward the center of the channel and, under certain conditions, increase the depth and velocity of flow thereby creating scour pools and enhancing fish habitat. Scour characteristics and morphologies downstream of log-frame deflectors have been analyzed at the hydraulic laboratory of the University of Pisa. All experiments have been carried out in clear water conditions. The results showed that the tailwater depth plays an important role on scour characteristics. In addition, it was experimentally proven that using log-frame deflectors instead of log-deflectors result in a better river bank protection. In this case, for all the tested hydraulic conditions, the scour hole never occurred close to the channel bank. Useful empirical relationships have been proposed in order to evaluate the main features of the scour geometry.

  5. Sustained effects of volcanic ash on biofilm stoichiometry, enzyme activity and community composition in North- Patagonia streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Uara; Díaz-Villanueva, Verónica; Modenutti, Beatriz

    2017-11-25

    Volcanic eruptions are extreme perturbations that affect ecosystems. These events can also produce persistent effects in the environment for several years after the eruption, with increased concentrations of suspended particles and the introduction of elements in the water column. On 4th June 2011, the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Volcanic Complex (40.59°S-72.11°W, 2200m.a.s.l.) erupted explosively in southern Chile. The area affected by the volcano was devastated; a thick layer of volcanic ash (up to 30cm) was deposited in areas 50 km east of the volcano towards Argentina. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of volcanic ash deposits on stream ecosystems four years after the eruption, comparing biofilm stoichiometry, alkaline phosphatase activity, and primary producer's assemblage in streams which were severely affected by the volcano with unaffected streams. We confirmed in the laboratory that ash deposited in the catchment of affected streams still leach phosphorus (P) into the water four years after eruption. Results indicate that affected streams still receive volcanic particles and that these particles release P, thus stream water exhibits high P concentration. Biofilm P content was higher and the C:P ratio lower in affected streams compared to unaffected streams. As a consequence of less P in unaffected streams, the alkaline phosphatase activity was higher compared to affected streams. Cyanobacteria increased their abundances (99.9% of total algal biovolume) in the affected streams suggesting that the increase in P may positively affect this group. On the contrary, unaffected streams contained a diatom dominant biofilm. In this way, local heterogeneity was created between sub-catchments located within 30 km of each other. These types of events should be seen as opportunities to gather valuable ecological information about how severe disturbances, like volcanic eruptions, shape landscapes and lotic systems for several years after the event

  6. Reserve Component Soldiers as Peacekeepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    reserve service among these groups or more uncertain civilian economic prospects for African-Americans and less educated people. Phillips, Andrisani ...Meglino, B. M. (1979). Review and conceptual analysis of the employee turnover process. Psychological Bulletin, 36, 493-522. Phillips, R. L., Andrisani

  7. Introduction to stream: An Extensible Framework for Data Stream Clustering Research with R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hahsler

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, data streams have become an increasingly important area of research for the computer science, database and statistics communities. Data streams are ordered and potentially unbounded sequences of data points created by a typically non-stationary data generating process. Common data mining tasks associated with data streams include clustering, classification and frequent pattern mining. New algorithms for these types of data are proposed regularly and it is important to evaluate them thoroughly under standardized conditions. In this paper we introduce stream, a research tool that includes modeling and simulating data streams as well as an extensible framework for implementing, interfacing and experimenting with algorithms for various data stream mining tasks. The main advantage of stream is that it seamlessly integrates with the large existing infrastructure provided by R. In addition to data handling, plotting and easy scripting capabilities, R also provides many existing algorithms and enables users to interface code written in many programming languages popular among data mining researchers (e.g., C/C++, Java and Python. In this paper we describe the architecture of stream and focus on its use for data stream clustering research. stream was implemented with extensibility in mind and will be extended in the future to cover additional data stream mining tasks like classification and frequent pattern mining.

  8. StreamMap: Smooth Dynamic Visualization of High-Density Streaming Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenhui; Baciu, George; Yu, Han

    2017-02-13

    Interactive visualization of streaming points for real-time scatterplots and linear blending of correlation patterns is increasingly becoming the dominant mode of visual analytics for both big data and streaming data from active sensors and broadcasting media. To better visualize and interact with inter-stream patterns, it is generally necessary to smooth out gaps or distortions in the streaming data. Previous approaches either animate the points directly or present a sampled static heatmap. We propose a new approach, called StreamMap, to smoothly blend high-density streaming points and create a visual flow that emphasizes the density pattern distributions. In essence, we present three new contributions for the visualization of high-density streaming points. The first contribution is a density-based method called super kernel density estimation that aggregates streaming points using an adaptive kernel to solve the overlapping problem. The second contribution is a robust density morphing algorithm that generates several smooth intermediate frames for a given pair of frames. The third contribution is a trend representation design that can help convey the flow directions of the streaming points. The experimental results on three datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of StreamMap when dynamic visualization and visual analysis of trend patterns on streaming points are required.

  9. Experimental investigation of acoustic streaming in a cylindrical wave guide up to high streaming Reynolds numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyt, Ida; Bailliet, Hélène; Valière, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of streaming velocity are performed by means of Laser Doppler Velocimetry and Particle Image Velociimetry in an experimental apparatus consisting of a cylindrical waveguide having one loudspeaker at each end for high intensity sound levels. The case of high nonlinear Reynolds number ReNL is particularly investigated. The variation of axial streaming velocity with respect to the axial and to the transverse coordinates are compared to available Rayleigh streaming theory. As expected, the measured streaming velocity agrees well with the Rayleigh streaming theory for small ReNL but deviates significantly from such predictions for high ReNL. When the nonlinear Reynolds number is increased, the outer centerline axial streaming velocity gets distorted towards the acoustic velocity nodes until counter-rotating additional vortices are generated near the acoustic velocity antinodes. This kind of behavior is followed by outer streaming cells only and measurements in the near wall region show that inner streaming vortices are less affected by this substantial evolution of fast streaming pattern. Measurements of the transient evolution of streaming velocity provide an additional insight into the evolution of fast streaming.

  10. Approximate Augmentation of Turbulent Law-of-the-Wall by Periodic Free-Stream Disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechant, Lawrence J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    We examine the role of periodic sinusoidal free-stream disturbances on the inner law law-of-the-wall (log-law) for turbulent boundary layers. This model serves a surrogate for the interaction of flight vehicles with atmospheric disturbances. The approximate skin friction expression that is derived suggests that free-stream disturbances can cause enhancement of the mean skin friction. Considering the influence of grid generated free stream turbulence in the laminar sublayer/log law region (small scale/high frequency) the model recovers the well-known shear layer enhancement suggesting an overall validity for the approach. The effect on the wall shear associated with the lower frequency due to the passage of the vehicle through large (vehicle scale) atmospheric disturbances is likely small i.e. on the order 1% increase for turbulence intensities on the order of 2%. The increase in wall pressure fluctuation which is directly proportional to the wall shear stress is correspondingly small.

  11. Stream of consciousness: Quantum and biochemical assumptions regarding psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonello, Lucio; Cocchi, Massimo; Gabrielli, Fabio; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2017-04-01

    The accepted paradigms of mainstream neuropsychiatry appear to be incompletely adequate and in various cases offer equivocal analyses. However, a growing number of new approaches are being proposed that suggest the emergence of paradigm shifts in this area. In particular, quantum theories of mind, brain and consciousness seem to offer a profound change to the current approaches. Unfortunately these quantum paradigms harbor at least two serious problems. First, they are simply models, theories, and assumptions, with no convincing experiments supporting their claims. Second, they deviate from contemporary mainstream views of psychiatric illness and do so in revolutionary ways. We suggest a possible way to integrate experimental neuroscience with quantum models in order to address outstanding issues in psychopathology. A key role is played by the phenomenon called the "stream of consciousness", which can be linked to the so-called "Gamma Synchrony" (GS), which is clearly demonstrated by EEG data. In our novel proposal, a unipolar depressed patient could be seen as a subject with an altered stream of consciousness. In particular, some clues suggest that depression is linked to an "increased power" stream of consciousness. It is additionally suggested that such an approach to depression might be extended to psychopathology in general with potential benefits to diagnostics and therapeutics in neuropsychiatry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A 3-D numerical model of the influence of meanders on groundwater discharge to a gaining stream in an unconfined sandy aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbarini, Nicola; Boon, Wietse M.; Nicolajsen, Ellen; Nordbotten, Jan M.; Bjerg, Poul L.; Binning, Philip J.

    2017-09-01

    Groundwater discharge to streams depends on stream morphology and groundwater flow direction, but are not always well understood. Here a 3-D groundwater flow model is employed to investigate the impact of meandering stream geometries on groundwater discharge to streams in an unconfined and homogenous sandy aquifer at the reach scale (10-200 m). The effect of meander geometry was examined by considering three scenarios with varying stream sinuosity. The interaction with regional groundwater flow was examined for each scenario by considering three groundwater flow directions. The sensitivity of stream morphology and flow direction to other parameters was quantified by varying the stream width, the meander amplitude, the magnitude of the hydraulic gradient, the hydraulic conductivity, and the aquifer thickness. Implications for a real stream were then investigated by simulating groundwater flow to a stream at a field site located in Grindsted, Denmark. The simulation of multiple scenarios was made possible by the employment of a computationally efficient coordinate transform numerical method. Comparison of the scenarios showed that the geometry of meanders greatly affect the spatial distribution of groundwater flow to streams. The shallow part of the aquifer discharges to the outward pointing meanders, while deeper groundwater flows beneath the stream and enters from the opposite side. The balance between these two types of flow depends on the aquifer thickness and meander geometry. Regional groundwater flow can combine with the effect of stream meanders and can either enhance or smooth the effect of a meander bend, depending on the regional flow direction. Results from the Grindsted site model showed that real meander geometries had similar effects to those observed for the simpler sinuous streams, and showed that despite large temporal variations in stream discharge, the spatial pattern of flow is almost constant in time for a gaining stream.

  13. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - North Coast [ds63

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The shapefile is based on habitat unit level data summarized at the stream reach level. The database represents salmonid stream habitat surveys from 645 streams of...

  14. Rapid effects of marine reserves via larval dispersal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Cudney-Bueno

    Full Text Available Marine reserves have been advocated worldwide as conservation and fishery management tools. It is argued that they can protect ecosystems and also benefit fisheries via density-dependent spillover of adults and enhanced larval dispersal into fishing areas. However, while evidence has shown that marine reserves can meet conservation targets, their effects on fisheries are less understood. In particular, the basic question of if and over what temporal and spatial scales reserves can benefit fished populations via larval dispersal remains unanswered. We tested predictions of a larval transport model for a marine reserve network in the Gulf of California, Mexico, via field oceanography and repeated density counts of recently settled juvenile commercial mollusks before and after reserve establishment. We show that local retention of larvae within a reserve network can take place with enhanced, but spatially-explicit, recruitment to local fisheries. Enhancement occurred rapidly (2 yrs, with up to a three-fold increase in density of juveniles found in fished areas at the downstream edge of the reserve network, but other fishing areas within the network were unaffected. These findings were consistent with our model predictions. Our findings underscore the potential benefits of protecting larval sources and show that enhancement in recruitment can be manifested rapidly. However, benefits can be markedly variable within a local seascape. Hence, effects of marine reserve networks, positive or negative, may be overlooked when only focusing on overall responses and not considering finer spatially-explicit responses within a reserve network and its adjacent fishing grounds. Our results therefore call for future research on marine reserves that addresses this variability in order to help frame appropriate scenarios for the spatial management scales of interest.

  15. Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, R. Todd; Sexton, Amy D.

    2003-02-01

    development of a 105-foot well for off-stream livestock watering at approximately River Mile 12.0 Wildhorse Creek and construction of an engineered stream ford at approximately River Mile 3.0 Mission Creek. A total of $277,848 in financial cost share assistance was provided by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Workforce Investment Act, Oregon Watershed Enhancement Board, Umatilla County and Pheasants Forever for planning efforts and habitat enhancements. Monitoring continued to quantify baseline conditions and the effects of habitat enhancements in the upper basin. Daily stream temperatures were collected from June through September at 22 sites. Suspended sediment samples were obtained at three gage stations to arrive at daily sediment load estimates. Photographs were taken at 96 existing and three newly established photo points to document habitat recovery and pre-project conditions. Transects were measured at three stream channel cross sections to assist with engineering and design and to obtain baseline data regarding channel morphology. Biological inventories were conducted at River Mile 3.0 Mission Creek to determine pre-project fish utilization above and below the passage barrier. Post-project inventories were also conducted at River Mile 85.0 of the Umatilla River at a project site completed in 1999. Umatilla Subbasin Watershed Assessment efforts were continued under a subcontract with Eco-Pacific. This watershed assessment document and working databases will be completed in fiscal year 2002 and made available to assist project personnel with sub-watershed prioritization of habitat needs. Water Works Consulting, Duck Creek Associates and Ed Salminen Consulting were subcontracted for watershed assessment and restoration planning in the Meacham Creek Subwatershed. A document detailing current

  16. Communications in the Reserve Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-15

    PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ICCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Communications in the Reserve Component 12. PERSONAL...this paper are those of the Suthor and do not necessarily reflect the views of the nepartment of Defense or any of its agencies. ’ - doc ,ient may...mission is to provide planning, network and system control, and frequency and COMSEC management from the Corps rear area into the strategic

  17. Gas reserves, discoveries and production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saniere, A

    2006-07-01

    Between 2000 and 2004, new discoveries, located mostly in the Asia/Pacific region, permitted a 71% produced reserve replacement rate. The Middle East and the offshore sector represent a growing proportion of world gas production Non-conventional gas resources are substantial but are not exploited to any significant extent, except in the United States, where they account for 30% of U.S. gas production. (author)

  18. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  19. High Definition Video Streaming Using H.264 Video Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Bechqito, Yassine

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents high definition video streaming using H.264 codec implementation. The experiment carried out in this study was done for an offline streaming video but a model for live high definition streaming is introduced, as well. Prior to the actual experiment, this study describes digital media streaming. Also, the different technologies involved in video streaming are covered. These include streaming architecture and a brief overview on H.264 codec as well as high definition t...

  20. Acoustofluidics 14: Applications of acoustic streaming in microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, Martin; Green, Roy; Ohlin, Mathias

    2012-07-21

    In part 14 of the tutorial series "Acoustofluidics--exploiting ultrasonic standing wave forces and acoustic streaming in microfluidic systems for cell and particle manipulation", we provide a qualitative description of acoustic streaming and review its applications in lab-on-a-chip devices. The paper covers boundary layer driven streaming, including Schlichting and Rayleigh streaming, Eckart streaming in the bulk fluid, cavitation microstreaming and surface-acoustic-wave-driven streaming.

  1. Phosphate binding by natural iron-rich colloids in streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baken, Stijn; Moens, Claudia; van der Grift, Bas; Smolders, Erik

    2016-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) in natural waters may be bound to iron (Fe) bearing colloids. However, the natural variation in composition and P binding strength of these colloids remain unclear. We related the composition of "coarse colloids" (colloids in the 0.1-1.2 μm size range) in 47 Belgian streams to the chemical properties of the streamwater. On average, 29% of the P in filtered (colloids. The concentration of Fe-rich colloids in streams decreases with increasing water hardness and pH. The P bearing colloids in these streams mostly consist of Fe hydroxyphosphates and of Fe oxyhydroxides with surface adsorbed P, which is underpinned by geochemical speciation calculations. In waters with molar P:Fe ratios above 0.5, only a minor part of the P is bound to coarse colloids. In such waters, the colloids have molar P:Fe ratios between 0.2 and 1 and are, therefore, nearly saturated with P. Conversely, in streams with molar P:Fe ratios below 0.1, most of the P is bound to Fe-rich colloids. Equilibration of synthetic and natural Fe and P bearing colloids with a zero sink reveals that colloids with low molar P:Fe ratios contain mostly nonlabile P, whereas P-saturated colloids contain mostly labile P which can be released within 7 days. Equilibration at a fixed free orthophosphate activity shows that the Fe-rich colloids may bind only limited P through surface adsorption, in the range of 0.02-0.04 mol P (mol Fe)(-1). The P:Fe ratios measured in naturally occurring Fe and P bearing colloids is clearly higher (between 0.05 and 1). These colloids are therefore likely formed by coprecipitation of P during oxidation of Fe(II), which leads to the formation of Fe hydroxyphosphate minerals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Acoustic streaming of a sharp edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Zhou, Jianbo; Yalamanchili, Satish

    2014-07-01

    Anomalous acoustic streaming is observed emanating from sharp edges of solid bodies that are vibrating in fluids. The streaming velocities can be orders of magnitude higher than expected from the Rayleigh streaming at similar amplitudes of vibration. Acoustic velocity of fluid relative to a solid body diverges at a sharp edge, giving rise to a localized time-independent body force acting on the fluid. This force results in a formation of a localized jet. Two-dimensional numerical simulations are performed to predict acoustic streaming for low amplitude vibration using two methods: (1) Steady-state solution utilizing perturbation theory and (2) direct transient solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Both analyses agree with each other and correctly predict the streaming of a sharp-edged vibrating blade measured experimentally. The origin of the streaming can be attributed to the centrifugal force of the acoustic fluid flow around a sharp edge. The dependence of this acoustic streaming on frequency and velocity is examined using dimensional analysis. The dependence law is devised and confirmed by numerical simulations.

  3. Network Monitoring as a Streaming Analytics Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Gupta, Arpit

    2016-11-02

    Programmable switches make it easier to perform flexible network monitoring queries at line rate, and scalable stream processors make it possible to fuse data streams to answer more sophisticated queries about the network in real-time. Unfortunately, processing such network monitoring queries at high traffic rates requires both the switches and the stream processors to filter the traffic iteratively and adaptively so as to extract only that traffic that is of interest to the query at hand. Others have network monitoring in the context of streaming; yet, previous work has not closed the loop in a way that allows network operators to perform streaming analytics for network monitoring applications at scale. To achieve this objective, Sonata allows operators to express a network monitoring query by considering each packet as a tuple and efficiently partitioning each query between the switches and the stream processor through iterative refinement. Sonata extracts only the traffic that pertains to each query, ensuring that the stream processor can scale traffic rates of several terabits per second. We show with a simple example query involving DNS reflection attacks and traffic traces from one of the world\\'s largest IXPs that Sonata can capture 95% of all traffic pertaining to the query, while reducing the overall data rate by a factor of about 400 and the number of required counters by four orders of magnitude. Copyright 2016 ACM.

  4. The EduPop: Improving Streaming Video for an Electronic Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Hubert; Cohn, Julie; Gorry, G. Anthony

    2003-01-01

    Provides examples of the need for enhanced streaming video in the greater Houston area, discussing how the EduPop router architecture meets this need by acting as a bridge for academic and commercial entities in the area. Catalogues the technological, organizational, and political challenges faced in implementing this architecture, offering a…

  5. Acceleration of fibrinolysis by high-frequency ultrasound: The contribution of acoustic streaming and temperature rise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakharov, D.V.; Hekkenberg, R.T.; Rijken, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    High-frequency ultrasound has been shown to accelerate enzymatic fibrinolysis. One of the supposed mechanisms of this effect is the enhancement of mass transport by acoustic streaming, i.e., ultrasound-induced macroscopic flow around the clot. In this study, which is aimed at further elucidating the

  6. Visual analysis of stream data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Michael; Livny, Miron; Ramakrishnan, Raghu

    1995-04-01

    We present the DEVise (data exploration via visualization environment) toolkit designed for visual exploration of stream data. Data of this type are collected continuously from sources such as remote sensors, program traces, and the stock market. A typical application involves looking for correlations, which may not be precisely defined, by experimenting with graphical representations. This includes selectively comparing data from multiple sources, selective viewing by zooming and scrolling at various resolutions, and querying the underlying data from the graphics. DEVise is designed to provide greater support than packages such as AVS or Khoros for this type of application. First, by abandoning the network flow model of AVS and Khoros in favor of a database query model, we are able to incorporate many performance improvements for visualizing large amounts of data. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to eliminate data size limitations in a visualization package. Second, by structuring the stand-alone graphics module of most existing tools into user accessible components, users can quickly create, destroy, or interconnect the components to generate new visualizations. This flexibility greatly increases the ease with which users can browse their data. Finally, through limited programming, users can query the underlying data through the graphical representation for more information about the records used to generate the graphical representation.

  7. Reserve a seat! Intelligent transportation reservation system for tourists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Conley, T. [GTE Wireless, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Providing safe, predictable, and efficient transportation for tourists to and from various venues presents a major challenge. Special-event transportation is notoriously unreliable and usually congested at peak times. The rural nature of certain tourist locations (e.g., the Grand Canyon) further complicates the problem. The proposed Intelligent Transportation Reservation System will have three components, each of which performs different functions. On-vehicle component: this component has three purposes: (1) to keep a running count of the passengers on the bus in order to determine how many additional passengers can be accommodated based on the total capacity of the vehicle; (2) through use of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology, to be able to determine the location of the bus at all times; (3) to transmit information to a central data facility. Together these three features provide location, available-space, and condition information to controllers at a central data facility and to prospective riders of the bus. Kiosk component: located at every loading/unloading point, the purpose is to allow passengers-to-be to determine when the next bus (or buses) will arrive and the availability of seating. Individuals can make a reservation for the next bus with sufficient seating and will know when that bus will arrive at the kiosk. Information component: located within hotels and at venue sites, this component will provide information on the buses in the system (e.g. route and current capacity), and loading/unloading locations throughout the network at any point in time.

  8. Societal dimensions of biosphere reserves - biosphere reserves for people. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse-Graumann, L. [ed.] [Fernuniversitaet (Gesamthochschule) Hagen (Germany). Lehrgebiet Oekologische Psychologie

    1995-12-31

    The overall purpose of the Koenigswinter workshop from January 23 to 25, 1995, was to bring together social science experts and MAB representatives interested in promoting the idea that MAB should strengthen the social science perspective in all its project areas and, in particular, with respect to biosphere revers. It was decided to concentrate on (1) content related and on (2) strategic goals. Content related goals include the identification of problems and topics relevant for the functioning of biosphere reserves (e.g. acceptance of biosphere reserves by the local population; problems of management; advantages and disadvantages of tourist activities). Another area of discussion centers on research strategies that call for cooperation with the natural sciences. Strategic goals include the discussion of appropriate formats of an EUROMAB network on Societal Dimensions, on objectives and concrete future activities in order to establish contacts among researchers and practitioners, to organize workshops on special topics, to develop interdisciplinary and crosscultural research projects. It should also be considered if the impact of social science approaches can be promoted by Advisory Councils for Social Science Research, e.g., for environmental education, for social monitoring or other relevant social issues of Man and the Biosphere. The abstracts contain the presentations of the Koenigswinter Workshop and present the final recommendations from the participants and EUROMAB representatives for further discussion. (orig./MG)

  9. Value Stream Mapping of Rope Manufacturing: A Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuvamitra, Korakot; Lee, Jim; Dong, Kanjicai

    2017-01-01

    .... One way of achieving constant process improvement is through value stream mapping. Value stream mapping is used to visualize the current processes for easier understanding and problem identification...

  10. Time-Based Data Streams: Fundamental Concepts for a Data Resource for Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beth A. Plale

    2009-10-10

    Real time data, which we call data streams, are readings from instruments, environmental, bodily or building sensors that are generated at regular intervals and often, due to their volume, need to be processed in real time. Often a single pass is all that can be made on the data, and a decision to discard or keep the instance is made on the spot. Too, the stream is for all practical purposes indefinite, so decisions must be made on incomplete knowledge. This notion of data streams has a different set of issues from a file, for instance, that is byte streamed to a reader. The file is finite, so the byte stream is becomes a processing convenience more than a fundamentally different kind of data. Through the duration of the project we examined three aspects of streaming data: the first, techniques to handle streaming data in a distributed system organized as a collection of web services, the second, the notion of the dashboard and real time controllable analysis constructs in the context of the Fermi Tevatron Beam Position Monitor, and third and finally, we examined provenance collection of stream processing such as might occur as raw observational data flows from the source and undergoes correction, cleaning, and quality control. The impact of this work is severalfold. We were one of the first to advocate that streams had little value unless aggregated, and that notion is now gaining general acceptance. We were one of the first groups to grapple with the notion of provenance of stream data also.

  11. Events and Trends in Text Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, David W.; Whitney, Paul D.; Cramer, Nicholas O.

    2010-03-04

    "Text streams--collections of documents or messages that are generated and observed over time--are ubiquitous. Our research and development are targeted at developing algorithms to find and characterize changes in topic within text streams. To date, this research has demonstrated the ability to detect and describe 1) short duration, atypical events and 2) the emergence of longer-term shifts in topical content. This technology has been applied to predefined temporally ordered document collections but is also suitable for application to near-real-time textual data streams."

  12. Two stream instabilities in degenerate quantum plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Son, S

    2013-01-01

    The quantum mechanical effect on the plasma two-stream instability is studied based on the dielectric function approach. The analysis suggests that the degenerate plasma relevant to the inertial confinement fusion behaves differently from classical plasmas when the electron drift velocity is comparable to the Fermi velocity. For high wave vector comparable to the Fermi wave vector, the degenerate quantum plasma has larger regime of the two-stream instabilities than the classical plasma. A regime, where the plasma waves with the frequency larger than 1.5 times of the Langmuir wave frequency become unstable to the two-stream instabilities, is identified.

  13. EPHEMEROPTERA (INSECTA LIMNOFAUNA OF SULTANSUYU STREAM (MALATYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner AYDINLI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1838 nymph samples from 7 localities in Sultansuyu Stream (Malatya were collectedbetween July-2006 and August-2007 and investigated to determine Ephemeroptera (Insectalimnofauna of the stream. 10 taxa in the species level and 4 taxa in the genus level belonging to 10genera in 6 families were determined (Baetis buceratus, B. lutheri, B. rhodani, B. vernus, Caenismacrura, Cloeon dipterum, C. simile, Ecdyonurus sp., Electrogena sp., Epeorus sp., Ephemera vulgata,Ephemerella ignita, Potamanthus luteus and Rhitrogena sp.. All determined taxa in the genus andspecies level has been new record for Sultansuyu Stream.

  14. Video streaming in the Wild West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Gail Prosser

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Northern Lakes College in north-central Alberta is the first post-secondary institution in Canada to use the Media on Demand digital video system to stream large video files between dispersed locations (Karlsen. Staff and students at distant locations of Northern Lakes College are now viewing more than 350 videos using video streaming technology. This has been made possible by SuperNet, a high capacity broadband network that connects schools, hospitals, libraries and government offices throughout the province of Alberta (Alberta SuperNet. This article describes the technical process of implementing video streaming at Northern Lakes College from March 2005 until March 2006.

  15. Self-adaptive change detection in streaming data with non-stationary distribution

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiangliang

    2010-01-01

    Non-stationary distribution, in which the data distribution evolves over time, is a common issue in many application fields, e.g., intrusion detection and grid computing. Detecting the changes in massive streaming data with a non-stationary distribution helps to alarm the anomalies, to clean the noises, and to report the new patterns. In this paper, we employ a novel approach for detecting changes in streaming data with the purpose of improving the quality of modeling the data streams. Through observing the outliers, this approach of change detection uses a weighted standard deviation to monitor the evolution of the distribution of data streams. A cumulative statistical test, Page-Hinkley, is employed to collect the evidence of changes in distribution. The parameter used for reporting the changes is self-adaptively adjusted according to the distribution of data streams, rather than set by a fixed empirical value. The self-adaptability of the novel approach enhances the effectiveness of modeling data streams by timely catching the changes of distributions. We validated the approach on an online clustering framework with a benchmark KDDcup 1999 intrusion detection data set as well as with a real-world grid data set. The validation results demonstrate its better performance on achieving higher accuracy and lower percentage of outliers comparing to the other change detection approaches. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Quantifying collective attention from tweet stream.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoshi Sasahara

    Full Text Available Online social media are increasingly facilitating our social interactions, thereby making available a massive "digital fossil" of human behavior. Discovering and quantifying distinct patterns using these data is important for studying social behavior, although the rapid time-variant nature and large volumes of these data make this task difficult and challenging. In this study, we focused on the emergence of "collective attention" on Twitter, a popular social networking service. We propose a simple method for detecting and measuring the collective attention evoked by various types of events. This method exploits the fact that tweeting activity exhibits a burst-like increase and an irregular oscillation when a particular real-world event occurs; otherwise, it follows regular circadian rhythms. The difference between regular and irregular states in the tweet stream was measured using the Jensen-Shannon divergence, which corresponds to the intensity of collective attention. We then associated irregular incidents with their corresponding events that attracted the attention and elicited responses from large numbers of people, based on the popularity and the enhancement of key terms in posted messages or "tweets." Next, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this method using a large dataset that contained approximately 490 million Japanese tweets by over 400,000 users, in which we identified 60 cases of collective attentions, including one related to the Tohoku-oki earthquake. "Retweet" networks were also investigated to understand collective attention in terms of social interactions. This simple method provides a retrospective summary of collective attention, thereby contributing to the fundamental understanding of social behavior in the digital era.

  17. Quantifying collective attention from tweet stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahara, Kazutoshi; Hirata, Yoshito; Toyoda, Masashi; Kitsuregawa, Masaru; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Online social media are increasingly facilitating our social interactions, thereby making available a massive "digital fossil" of human behavior. Discovering and quantifying distinct patterns using these data is important for studying social behavior, although the rapid time-variant nature and large volumes of these data make this task difficult and challenging. In this study, we focused on the emergence of "collective attention" on Twitter, a popular social networking service. We propose a simple method for detecting and measuring the collective attention evoked by various types of events. This method exploits the fact that tweeting activity exhibits a burst-like increase and an irregular oscillation when a particular real-world event occurs; otherwise, it follows regular circadian rhythms. The difference between regular and irregular states in the tweet stream was measured using the Jensen-Shannon divergence, which corresponds to the intensity of collective attention. We then associated irregular incidents with their corresponding events that attracted the attention and elicited responses from large numbers of people, based on the popularity and the enhancement of key terms in posted messages or "tweets." Next, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this method using a large dataset that contained approximately 490 million Japanese tweets by over 400,000 users, in which we identified 60 cases of collective attentions, including one related to the Tohoku-oki earthquake. "Retweet" networks were also investigated to understand collective attention in terms of social interactions. This simple method provides a retrospective summary of collective attention, thereby contributing to the fundamental understanding of social behavior in the digital era.

  18. Effect of planning for connectivity on linear reserve networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentini, Pia E; Gibbons, Philip; Carwardine, Josie; Fischer, Joern; Drielsma, Michael; Martin, Tara G

    2013-08-01

    Although the concept of connectivity is decades old, it remains poorly understood and defined, and some argue that habitat quality and area should take precedence in conservation planning instead. However, fragmented landscapes are often characterized by linear features that are inherently connected, such as streams and hedgerows. For these, both representation and connectivity targets may be met with little effect on the cost, area, or quality of the reserve network. We assessed how connectivity approaches affect planning outcomes for linear habitat networks by using the stock-route network of Australia as a case study. With the objective of representing vegetation communities across the network at a minimal cost, we ran scenarios with a range of representation targets (10%, 30%, 50%, and 70%) and used 3 approaches to account for connectivity (boundary length modifier, Euclidean distance, and landscape-value [LV]). We found that decisions regarding the target and connectivity approach used affected the spatial allocation of reserve systems. At targets ≥50%, networks designed with the Euclidean distance and LV approaches consisted of a greater number of small reserves. Hence, by maximizing both representation and connectivity, these networks compromised on larger contiguous areas. However, targets this high are rarely used in real-world conservation planning. Approaches for incorporating connectivity into the planning of linear reserve networks that account for both the spatial arrangement of reserves and the characteristics of the intervening matrix highlight important sections that link the landscape and that may otherwise be overlooked. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  20. Sources of coal reserve data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skolits, D.; Lee, R.

    1982-11-01

    This report is a partially annotated bibliography of sources of coal reserve data and information for the United States. The references are divided into General Sources, including those containing data for all or large portions of the United States, and into individual sections for each state. Items that are parts of recurring series are identified by an asterick. In addition to the bibliographies, the authors conducted an independent survey of appropriate data sources. Attention was given primarily to those data sources having estimates of the quantity and geographical location of coal resources. Studies that report only on carbonizing properties, preparation characteristics, sulfur content or other analyses were not included.

  1. Influence of Ion Streaming Instabilities on Transport Near Plasma Boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Baalrud, Scott D

    2015-01-01

    Plasma boundary layers are susceptible to electrostatic instabilities driven by ion flows in presheaths and, when present, these instabilities can influence transport. In plasmas with a single species of positive ion, ion-acoustic instabilities are expected under conditions of low pressure and large electron-to-ion temperature ratio ($T_e/T_i \\gg 1$). In plasmas with two species of positive ions, ion-ion two-stream instabilities can also be excited. The stability phase-space is characterized using the Penrose criterion and approximate linear dispersion relations. Predictions for how these instabilities affect ion and electron transport in presheaths, including rapid thermalization due to instability-enhanced collisions and an instability-enhanced ion-ion friction force, are also briefly reviewed. Recent experimental tests of these predictions are discussed along with research needs required for further validation. The calculated stability boundaries provide a guide to determine the experimental conditions at ...

  2. A framework to preserve the privacy of electronic health data streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soohyung; Sung, Min Kyoung; Chung, Yon Dohn

    2014-08-01

    The anonymization of health data streams is important to protect these data against potential privacy breaches. A large number of research studies aiming at offering privacy in the context of data streams has been recently conducted. However, the techniques that have been proposed in these studies generate a significant delay during the anonymization process, since they concentrate on applying existing privacy models (e.g., k-anonymity and l-diversity) to batches of data extracted from data streams in a period of time. In this paper, we present delay-free anonymization, a framework for preserving the privacy of electronic health data streams. Unlike existing works, our method does not generate an accumulation delay, since input streams are anonymized immediately with counterfeit values. We further devise late validation for increasing the data utility of the anonymization results and managing the counterfeit values. Through experiments, we show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method for the real-time release of data streams. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Applying Value Stream Mapping to reduce food losses and wastes in supply chains: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Steur, Hans; Wesana, Joshua; Dora, Manoj K; Pearce, Darian; Gellynck, Xavier

    2016-12-01

    The interest to reduce food losses and wastes has grown considerably in order to guarantee adequate food for the fast growing population. A systematic review was used to show the potential of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) not only to identify and reduce food losses and wastes, but also as a way to establish links with nutrient retention in supply chains. The review compiled literature from 24 studies that applied VSM in the agri-food industry. Primary production, processing, storage, food service and/or consumption were identified as susceptible hotspots for losses and wastes. Results further revealed discarding and nutrient loss, most especially at the processing level, as the main forms of loss/waste in food, which were adapted to four out of seven lean manufacturing wastes (i.e. defect, unnecessary inventory, overproduction and inappropriate processing). This paper presents the state of the art of applying lean manufacturing practices in the agri-food industry by identifying lead time as the most applicable performance indicator. VSM was also found to be compatible with other lean tools such as Just-In-Time and 5S which are continuous improvement strategies, as well as simulation modelling that enhances adoption. In order to ensure successful application of lean practices aimed at minimizing food or nutrient losses and wastes, multi-stakeholder collaboration along the entire food supply chain is indispensable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Feruloyl esterases from Schizophyllum commune to treat food industry side-streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieter, Annabel; Kelle, Sebastian; Linke, Diana; Berger, Ralf G

    2016-11-01

    Agro-industrial side-streams are abundant and renewable resources of hydroxycinnamic acids with potential applications as antioxidants and preservatives in the food, health, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. Feruloyl esterases (FAEs) from Schizophyllum commune were functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris with extracellular activities of 6000UL(-1). The recombinant enzymes, ScFaeD1 and ScFaeD2, released ferulic acid from destarched wheat bran and sugar beet pectin. Overnight incubation of coffee pulp released caffeic (>60%), ferulic (>80%) and p-coumaric acid (100%) indicating applicability for the valorization of food processing wastes and enhanced biomass degradation. Based on substrate specificity profiling and the release of diferulates from destarched wheat bran, the recombinant FAEs were characterized as type D FAEs. ScFaeD1 and ScFaeD2 preferably hydrolyzed feruloylated saccharides with ferulic acid esterified to the O-5 position of arabinose residues and showed an unprecedented ability to hydrolyze benzoic acid esters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Climate-driven terrestrial inputs in ultraoligotrophic mountain streams of Andean Patagonia revealed through chromophoric and fluorescent dissolved organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Roberto D; Reissig, Mariana; Queimaliños, Claudia P; Garcia, Patricia E; Dieguez, Maria C

    2015-07-15

    Fluvial networks transport a substantial fraction of the terrestrial production, contributing to the global carbon cycle and being shaped by hydrologic, natural and anthropogenic factors. In this investigation, four Andean Patagonian oligotrophic streams connecting a forested catchment (~125km(2)) and draining to a double-basin large and deep lake (Lake Moreno complex, Northwestern Patagonia), were surveyed to analyze the dynamics of the allochthonous subsidy. The results of a 30month survey showed that the catchment supplies nutrients and dissolved organic matter (DOM) to the streams. The eruption of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle at the beginning of the study overlapped with seasonal precipitation events. The largest terrestrial input was timed with precipitation which increased particulate materials, nutrients and DOM through enhanced runoff. Baseline suspended solids and nutrients were very low in all the streams (suspended solids: ~1mg/L; total nitrogen: ~0.02mg/L; total phosphorus: ~5μg/L), increasing several fold with runoff. Baseline dissolved organic carbon concentrations (DOC) ranged between 0.15 and 1mg/L peaking up to three-fold. Chromophoric and fluorescent analyses characterized the DOM as of large molecular weight and high aromaticity. Parallel factor modeling (PARAFAC) of DOM fluorescence matrices revealed three components of terrestrial origin, with certain degree of microbial processing: C1 and C2 (terrestrial humic-like compounds) and C3 (protein-like and pigment derived compounds). Seasonal changes in MOD quality represent different breakdown stages of the allochthonous DOM. Our survey allowed us to record and discuss the effects of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle eruption, showing that due to the high slopes, high current and discharge of the streams the volcanic material was rapidly exported to the Moreno Lake complex. Overall, this survey underscores the magnitude and timing of the allochthonous input revealing the terrestrial subsidy to food webs in

  6. Investigation of stream temperature response to non-uniform groundwater discharge in a Danish lowland stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karthikeyan, Matheswaran; Kastrup Blemmer, Morten; Thorn, P.

    2015-01-01

    Non-uniform groundwater discharge into streams influences temperature, a vital stream physical property recognized for its dominant controls on biological processes in lotic habitats at multiple scales. Understanding such spatially heterogeneous processes and their effects is difficult on the basis...... of stream temperature models often calibrated with discrete temperature measurements. This study focused on examining the effect of groundwater discharge on stream temperature using a physically based stream temperature model calibrated on spatially rich high-resolution temperature measurements....... A distributed temperature sensing (DTS) system with a 1.8-km fibre optic cable was used to collect temperature measurements for every 1m of the reach length at 3-min temporal resolution in the stream Elverdamsåen. The groundwater inflow locations identified using DTS data and 24-h temperature measurements (14...

  7. Watershed impervious cover relative to stream location

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Estimates of watershed (12-digit huc) impervious cover and impervious cover near streams and water body shorelines for three dates (2001, 2006, 2011) using NLCD...

  8. Active learning with drifting streaming data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zliobaite, Indre; Bifet, Albert; Pfahringer, Bernhard; Holmes, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    In learning to classify streaming data, obtaining true labels may require major effort and may incur excessive cost. Active learning focuses on carefully selecting as few labeled instances as possible for learning an accurate predictive model. Streaming data poses additional challenges for active learning, since the data distribution may change over time (concept drift) and models need to adapt. Conventional active learning strategies concentrate on querying the most uncertain instances, which are typically concentrated around the decision boundary. Changes occurring further from the boundary may be missed, and models may fail to adapt. This paper presents a theoretically supported framework for active learning from drifting data streams and develops three active learning strategies for streaming data that explicitly handle concept drift. They are based on uncertainty, dynamic allocation of labeling efforts over time, and randomization of the search space. We empirically demonstrate that these strategies react well to changes that can occur anywhere in the instance space and unexpectedly.

  9. Web Audio/Video Streaming Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruvadoo, Eranna K.

    2003-01-01

    In order to promote NASA-wide educational outreach program to educate and inform the public of space exploration, NASA, at Kennedy Space Center, is seeking efficient ways to add more contents to the web by streaming audio/video files. This project proposes a high level overview of a framework for the creation, management, and scheduling of audio/video assets over the web. To support short-term goals, the prototype of a web-based tool is designed and demonstrated to automate the process of streaming audio/video files. The tool provides web-enabled users interfaces to manage video assets, create publishable schedules of video assets for streaming, and schedule the streaming events. These operations are performed on user-defined and system-derived metadata of audio/video assets stored in a relational database while the assets reside on separate repository. The prototype tool is designed using ColdFusion 5.0.

  10. TARDEC 30-Year Strategy Value Stream Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Management Framework( RMF ) documentation for PMs d. Field Service Reps both CONUS and OCONUS e. Perform Army Interoperability Test Certification...Test Engineers# - Product & Process Quality Assessment and Authorization/Risk Management Framework ( RMF ) TARDEC 30-YEAR STRATEGY VALUE STREAM

  11. Climate change and alpine stream biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hotaling, Scott; Finn, Debra S.; Joseph Giersch, J.

    2017-01-01

    In alpine regions worldwide, climate change is dramatically altering ecosystems and affecting biodiversity in many ways. For streams, receding alpine glaciers and snowfields, paired with altered precipitation regimes, are driving shifts in hydrology, species distributions, basal resources, and th...

  12. Salt vulnerability assessment methodology for urban streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, A. R.; Gharabaghi, B.; McBean, E. A.

    2014-09-01

    De-icing agents such as road salts while used for winter road maintenance can cause negative effects on urban stream water quality and drinking water supplies. A new methodology using readily available spatial data to identify Salt Vulnerable Areas (SVAs) for urban streams is used to prioritize implementation of best management practices. The methodology calculates the probable chloride concentration statistics at specified points in the urban stream network and compares the results with known aquatic species exposure tolerance limits to characterize the vulnerability scores. The approach prioritizes implementation of best management practices to areas identified as vulnerable to road salt. The vulnerability assessment is performed on seven sites in four watersheds in the Greater Toronto Area and validated using the Hanlon Creek watershed in Guelph. The mean annual in-stream chloride concentration equation uses readily available spatial data - with province-wide coverage - that can be easily used in any urban watershed.

  13. He'eia Stream Contaminants Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Potential risk to ecological receptors in He’eia Stream and Wetland was characterized through the use of a food-web model to predict effects to the Hawaiian stilt,...

  14. Authentication for Propulsion Test Streaming Video Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An application was developed that could enforce two-factor authentication for NASA access to the Propulsion Test Streaming Video System.  To gain access to the...

  15. Window Update Patterns in Stream Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patroumpas, Kostas; Sellis, Timos

    Continuous queries applied over nonterminating data streams usually specify windows in order to obtain an evolving -yet restricted- set of tuples and thus provide timely results. Among other typical variants, sliding windows are mostly employed in stream processing engines and several advanced techniques have been suggested for their incremental evaluation. In this paper, we set out to study the existence of monotonic-related semantics in windowing constructs towards a more efficient maintenance of their changing contents. We investigate update patterns observed in common window variants as well as their impact on windowed adaptations of typical operators (like selection, join or aggregation), offering more insight towards design and implementation of stream processing mechanisms. Finally, to demonstrate its significance, this framework is validated for several windowed operations against streaming datasets with simulations at diverse arrival rates and window sizes.

  16. Stream biomonitoring using macroinvertebrates around the globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buss, Daniel F.; Carlisle, Daren M.; Chon, Tae Soo; Culp, Joseph; Harding, Jon S.; Keizer-Vlek, H.E.; Robinson, Wayne A.; Strachan, Stephanie; Thirion, Christa; Hughes, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Water quality agencies and scientists are increasingly adopting standardized sampling methodologies because of the challenges associated with interpreting data derived from dissimilar protocols. Here, we compare 13 protocols for monitoring streams from different regions and countries around the

  17. Diversity and distribution of oligochaetes in tropical forested streams, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Falci Theza Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and beta diversity of oligochaete assemblages were investigated in different spatial scales to verify the influence of environmental factors and geographic distance on their structure. Two types of mesohabitats (riffles and pools were sampled in eight first-order streams located in four preservation areas (Poço D’Anta Municipal Biological Reserve, Santa Cândida Municipal Biological Reserve, Ibitipoca State Park and a private farm called Fazenda Floresta and two Atlantic Forest phytophysiognomies (Seasonal Semideciduous Forest and Rocky Field. Variations in the taxon richness, abundance and composition of the oligochaete assemblages occurred between streams and phytophysiognomies, but not between riffles and pools in the same stream. Low beta diversity values were found and both turnover and nestedness contributed similarly in the environments studied, which could have occurred because of the high capability of oligochaetes to adapt to different environmental conditions. Although the canonical correspondence analysis explained 85.5% of the data (first three axes, the partial Mantel test showed greater influence of geographic distance on the faunal composition than the environmental variables measured. Simple linear regression confirmed this result and showed that the decay of similarity increased with distance between streams. The information from this study sheds light on how environmental and spatial factors determine the variation in the distribution and diversity of oligochaetes in forested low-order streams.

  18. Exploring new scaling regimes for streaming potential and electroviscous effects in a nanocapillary with overlapping electric double layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Siddhartha; Guha, Arnab; Mitra, Sushanta K

    2013-12-04

    In this paper, we unravel new scaling regimes for streaming potential and electroviscous effects in a nanocapillary with thick overlapping Electric Double Layers (EDLs). We observe that the streaming potential, for a given value of the capillary zeta (ζ) potential, varies with the EDL thickness and a dimensionless parameter R, quantifying the conduction current. Depending on the value of R, variation of the streaming potential with the EDL thickness demonstrates distinct scaling regimes: one can witness a Quadratic Regime where the streaming potential varies as the square of the EDL thickness, a Weak Regime where the streaming potential shows a weaker variation with the EDL thickness, and a Saturation Regime where the streaming potential ceases to vary with the EDL thickness. Effective viscosity, characterizing the electroviscous effect, obeys the variation of the streaming potential for smaller EDL thickness values; however, for larger EDL thickness the electroosmotic flow profile dictates the electroviscous effect, with insignificant contribution of the streaming potential. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydraulic Aspects of Vegetation Maintanence in Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Vestergaard, Kristian

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of the underwater vegetation on Danish streams and some of the consequences of vegetation maintenance. the influence of the weed on the hydraulic conditions is studied through experiments in a smaller stream and the effect of cutting channels through the weed...... is measured. A method for predicting the Manning's n as a function of the discharge conditions is suggested, and also a working hypothesis for predictions of the effect of channel cutting is presented....

  20. Rapid Hydraulic Assessment for Stream Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    governing equations are often used in conjunction with each other to define the flow characteristics of a given hydraulic phenomenon. The energy equation...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC TN-EMRRP-SR-48 February 2016 Rapid Hydraulic Assessment for Stream Restoration...account the hydraulic conditions of the stream being restored. This is true whether the project involves a few feet of bank stabilization or several

  1. Brugeroplevelse af streaming-tjenesten Netflix

    OpenAIRE

    Leifer, Anders; Frydendahl, Erik Pouret; Nedergaard, Mads Kresten

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to describe and understand the use of the video streaming service Netflix among younger single females, with the further aim to understand the success of streaming in general and Netflix’s offer as an experience economy based offering in particular. After introducing Netflix through a review of its history and its competitive environment, and establishing the epistemological and methodological framework, the paper presents its empiric part, a qualitative semi-structured int...

  2. Streaming Gibbs Sampling for LDA Model

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yang; Chen, Jianfei; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Streaming variational Bayes (SVB) is successful in learning LDA models in an online manner. However previous attempts toward developing online Monte-Carlo methods for LDA have little success, often by having much worse perplexity than their batch counterparts. We present a streaming Gibbs sampling (SGS) method, an online extension of the collapsed Gibbs sampling (CGS). Our empirical study shows that SGS can reach similar perplexity as CGS, much better than SVB. Our distributed version of SGS,...

  3. LOFS: Library of Online Streaming Feature Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Kui; Ding, Wei; Wu, Xindong

    2016-01-01

    As an emerging research direction, online streaming feature selection deals with sequentially added dimensions in a feature space while the number of data instances is fixed. Online streaming feature selection provides a new, complementary algorithmic methodology to enrich online feature selection, especially targets to high dimensionality in big data analytics. This paper introduces the first comprehensive open-source library for use in MATLAB that implements the state-of-the-art algorithms ...

  4. From multimedia stream models to GUI generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bescos, Jesus; Martinez, Jose M.; Cisneros, Guillermo

    1997-01-01

    This paper is centered on the description of a model that generalizes multimedia data flows handling including complete behavior and interaction mechanisms, hence allowing full integration of GUIs generation -- GUI components are upgraded to interactive media items -- into the same unified model. It aims to reinforce portability, reusability, and quick development of multimedia applications. A picture of previous and of current state-of-art in multimedia application development clearly shows the need for standard abstractions in this field. Current work in this direction leads to a discussion on generic application structure (objects, semantics, etc.) and on different approaches to reach platform independence and efficient object sharing (formal representation languages, interpreted programming languages, distributed environments, etc.). At this point, we present a basic model based on several stream-based models and implementations on multimedia data flows, and built on the basis of the source-stream-sink paradigm. It follows with a detailed explanation of the unified (common to all media) abstract basic stream from which all monomedia flows (including GUI elements) are derived: stream setting- up (source-sink adaptation, and negotiation), flow control procedure, stream sensibility, behavior pattern, etc. The model presentation ends up with the introduction of the multimedia stream that performs synchronization and inter- stream communication tasks, and channels all sensibility, from/towards its managed streams, and allows for the design of an application generator. Then it deeps into the definition of the abstract class hierarchy that guides the model implementation. Finally, several implementation issues are addressed and some practical achievements are described.

  5. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-20

    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.

  6. Neutron streaming studies along JET shielding penetrations

    OpenAIRE

    Stamatelatos Ion E.; Vasilopoulou Theodora; Batistoni Paola; Obryk Barbara; Popovichev Sergey; Naish Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Neutronic benchmark experiments are carried out at JET aiming to assess the neutronic codes and data used in ITER analysis. Among other activities, experiments are performed in order to validate neutron streaming simulations along long penetrations in the JET shielding configuration. In this work, neutron streaming calculations along the JET personnel entrance maze are presented. Simulations were performed using the MCNP code for Deuterium-Deuterium and Deuterium- Tritium plasma sources. The ...

  7. Video Streaming in the Wild West

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Gail Prosser

    2006-01-01

    Northern Lakes College in north-central Alberta is the first post-secondary institution in Canada to use the Media on Demand digital video system to stream large video files between dispersed locations (Karlsen). Staff and students at distant locations of Northern Lakes College are now viewing more than 350 videos using video streaming technology. This has been made possible by SuperNet, a high capacity broadband network that connects schools, hospitals, libraries and government offices thr...

  8. Effects of unsteady free stream velocity and free stream turbulence on stagnation point heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorla, R. S. R.

    1984-01-01

    The combined effects of transient free stream velocity and free stream turbulence on heat transfer at a stagnation point over a cylinder situated in a crossflow are studied. An eddy diffusivity model was formulated and the governing momentum and energy equations are integrated by means of the steepest descent method. The numerical results for the wall shear stress and heat transfer rate are correlated by a turbulence parameter. The wall friction and heat transfer rate increase with increasing free stream turbulence intensity.

  9. Information Behavior on Social Live Streaming Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheibe, Katrin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, a new type of synchronous social networking services (SNSs has emerged—social live streaming services (SLSSs. Studying SLSSs is a new and exciting research field in information science. What information behaviors do users of live streaming platforms exhibit? In our empirical study we analyzed information production behavior (i.e., broadcasting as well as information reception behavior (watching streams and commenting on them. We conducted two quantitative investigations, namely an online survey with YouNow users (N = 123 and observations of live streams on YouNow (N = 434. YouNow is a service with video streams mostly made by adolescents for adolescents. YouNow users like to watch streams, to chat while watching, and to reward performers by using emoticons. While broadcasting, there is no anonymity (as in nearly all other WWW services. Synchronous SNSs remind us of the film The Truman Show, as anyone has the chance to consciously broadcast his or her own life real-time.

  10. Multimedia streaming gateway with jitter detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu-Ping; Kok, Chi-Wah; Wong, Albert K.

    2003-06-01

    This paper investigates a novel active buffer management scheme, "Jitter Detection" (JD) for gateway-based congestion control to stream multimedia traffics in packet-switched networks. The quality of multimedia presentation can be greatly degraded due to network delay variation or jitter when transported over packet-switched network. Jitter degrades the timing relationship among packets in a single media stream and between packets from different media streams and hence creates multimedia synchronization problems. Moreover, too much jitter will also degrade the performance of the streaming buffer in the client. Packets received by client will render useless if they have accumulated a large enough jitter. The proposed active buffer management scheme will improve the quality of service in multimedia networking by detecting and discarding useless packets that accumulated large enough jitter. Such as to maintain a high bandwidth for packets within the multimedia stream's jitter tolerance. Simulation results have shown that the proposed scheme can effectively lower the average received packet jitter and increase the goodput of the received packets when compared to random early detection (RED), and Droptail used in gateway-based congestion control. Furthermore, simulation results have also revealed that the proposed scheme can maintain the same TCP-friendliness when compared to that of RED and Droptail used for multimedia streams.

  11. Prediction of pesticide toxicity in Midwest streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoda, Megan E.; Stone, Wesley W.; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of pesticide mixtures is common in stream waters of the United States, and the impact of multiple compounds on aquatic organisms is not well understood. Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models were developed to predict Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) values in unmonitored streams in the Midwest and are referred to as WARP-PTI models. The PTI is a tool for assessing the relative toxicity of pesticide mixtures to fish, benthic invertebrates, and cladocera in stream water. One hundred stream sites in the Midwest were sampled weekly in May through August 2013, and the highest calculated PTI for each site was used as the WARP-PTI model response variable. Watershed characteristics that represent pesticide sources and transport were used as the WARP-PTI model explanatory variables. Three WARP-PTI models—fish, benthic invertebrates, and cladocera—were developed that include watershed characteristics describing toxicity-weighted agricultural use intensity, land use, agricultural management practices, soil properties, precipitation, and hydrologic properties. The models explained between 41 and 48% of the variability in the measured PTI values. WARP-PTI model evaluation with independent data showed reasonable performance with no clear bias. The models were applied to streams in the Midwest to demonstrate extrapolation for a regional assessment to indicate vulnerable streams and to guide more intensive monitoring.

  12. Online feature selection with streaming features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xindong; Yu, Kui; Ding, Wei; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Xingquan

    2013-05-01

    We propose a new online feature selection framework for applications with streaming features where the knowledge of the full feature space is unknown in advance. We define streaming features as features that flow in one by one over time whereas the number of training examples remains fixed. This is in contrast with traditional online learning methods that only deal with sequentially added observations, with little attention being paid to streaming features. The critical challenges for Online Streaming Feature Selection (OSFS) include 1) the continuous growth of feature volumes over time, 2) a large feature space, possibly of unknown or infinite size, and 3) the unavailability of the entire feature set before learning starts. In the paper, we present a novel Online Streaming Feature Selection method to select strongly relevant and nonredundant features on the fly. An efficient Fast-OSFS algorithm is proposed to improve feature selection performance. The proposed algorithms are evaluated extensively on high-dimensional datasets and also with a real-world case study on impact crater detection. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithms achieve better compactness and higher prediction accuracy than existing streaming feature selection algorithms.

  13. South Stream Project and the Ukrainian Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Ioana Banciu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper seeks to develop an analysis of the South Stream project in view of the Ukrainian crisis. We cannot put aside the internal factor as Ukraine is facing serious internal issues such as corruption and instability, therefore Russia’s invasion of Ukraine can not be simply ignored in this pipeline project. The article uses mostly facts that happened throughout last years, as well as for and against declarations in the case of the South Stream project and its mother Russia. When we hear about South Stream, we think of Russia and since 2007, this pipeline has encouraged Putin’s faith in energy superpower. A good point to start with was to gather all declarations since then and cover all actions that regard the South Stream game. In Russian foreign policy for the South Stream race, Soft Power was used more than enough and it has recently made room for Hard Power, which is the Ukraine never ending episode. Insights of the South Stream story have been lately related both softly and hardly, this is the reason why I have chosen to analyse both sides in order to complete the energy landscape.

  14. Effects of unsteady free-stream velocity and free-stream turbulence at a stagnation point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorla, R. S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The combined effects of transient free stream velocity and turbulence at a stagnation point on a cylinder situated in a crossflow is investigated analytically, and a model is formulated for the eddy diffusivity induced by free-stream turbulence. The steepest descent method is used to integrate the governing momentum expression, and numerical solutions are given for the unsteady wall shear stress function for specific free-stream transients. It is found after correlation of the results by means of a new turbulence parameter that wall friction increases with increasing free-stream turbulence intensity, and that the friction factor increases with increasing reduced frequency of oscillation values.

  15. Designing Tone Reservation PAR Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Albin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tone reservation peak-to-average (PAR ratio reduction is an established area when it comes to bringing down signal peaks in multicarrier (DMT or OFDM systems. When designing such a system, some questions often arise about PAR reduction. Is it worth the effort? How much can it give? How much does it give depending on the parameter choices? With this paper, we attempt to answer these questions without resolving to extensive simulations for every system and every parameter choice. From a specification of the allowed spectrum, for instance prescribed by a standard, including a PSD-mask and a number of tones, we analytically predict achievable PAR levels, and thus implicitly suggest parameter choices. We use the ADSL2 and ADSL2+ systems as design examples.

  16. MICROTURBULENCE IN GRAVEL BED STREAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanicolaou, T.; Tsakiris, A. G.; Kramer, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    The overarching objective of this investigation was to evaluate the role of relative submergence on the formation and evolution of cluster microforms in gravel bed streams and its implications to bedload transport. Secondary objectives of this research included (1) a detailed analysis of mean flow measurements around a clast; and (2) a selected number of experimental runs where the mean flow characteristics are linked together with the bed micro-topography observations around a clast. It is hypothesized that the relative submergence is an important parameter in defining the feedback processes between the flow and clasts, which governs the flow patterns around the clasts, thus directly affecting the depositional patterns of the incoming sediments. To examine the validity of the hypothesis and meet the objectives of this research, 19 detailed experimental runs were conducted in a tilting, water recirculating laboratory flume under well-controlled conditions. A fixed array of clast-obstacles were placed atop a well-packed bed with uniform size glass beads. During the runs, multifractional spherical particles were fed upstream of the clast section at a predetermined rate. State-of-the-art techniques/instruments, such as imaging analysis software, Large Scale Particle Velocimeter (LSPIV) and an Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV) were employed to provide unique quantitative measurements for bedload fluxes, clast/clusters geomorphic patterns, and mean flow characteristics in the vicinity of the clusters. Different flow patterns were recorded for the high relative submergence (HRS) and low relative submergence (LRS) experimental runs. The ADV measurements provided improved insight about the governing flow mechanisms for the HRS runs. These mechanisms were described with flow upwelling at the center of the flume and downwelling occurring along the flume walls. Flow downwelling corresponded to an increase in the free surface velocity. Additionally, the visual observations

  17. Integrated assessment of sources, chemical stressors and stream quality along a groundwater fed stream system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løgstrup Bjerg, Poul; Sonne, Anne T.; Rønde, Vinni; McKnight, Ursula S.

    2016-04-01

    Streams are impacted by significant contamination at the catchment scale, as they are often locations of multiple chemical stressor inputs. The European Water Framework Directive requires EU member states to ensure good chemical and ecological status of surface water bodies by 2027. This requires monitoring of stream water quality, comparison with environmental quality standards (EQS) and assessment of ecological status. However, the achievement of good status of stream water also requires a strong focus on contaminant sources, pathways and links to stream water impacts, so source management and remedial measures can be implemented. Fate and impacts of different contaminant groups are governed by different processes and are dependent on the origin (geogenic, anthropogenic), source type (point or diffuse) and pathway of the contaminant. To address this issue, we identified contaminant sources and chemical stressors on a groundwater-fed stream to quantify the contaminant discharges, link the chemical impact and stream water quality and assess the main chemical risk drivers in the stream system potentially driving ecological impact. The study was conducted in the 8 m wide Grindsted stream (Denmark) along a 16 km stream stretch that is potentially impacted by two contaminated sites (Grindsted Factory site, Grindsted Landfill), fish farms, waste water discharges, and diffuse sources from agriculture and urban areas. Water samples from the stream and the hyporheic zone as well as bed sediment samples were collected during three campaigns in 2012 and 2014. Data for xenobiotic organic groundwater contaminants, pesticides, heavy metals, general water chemistry, physical conditions and stream flow were collected. The measured chemical concentrations were converted to toxic units (TU) based on the 48h acute toxicity tests with D. magna. The results show a substantial impact of the Grindsted Factory site at a specific stretch of the stream. The groundwater plume caused

  18. Some security results of the RC4+ stream cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Jha, Sonu

    2015-01-01

    The RC4+ stream cipher was proposed as an alternative to the well known RC4 stream cipher. It was claimed by the authors that this new stream cipher was designed to overcome all the weaknesses reported against the alleged RC4 stream cipher. In the design specifications of RC4+, the authors make u...

  19. Slope failure as an upslope source of stream wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel. Miller

    2013-01-01

    Large woody debris is recognized as an important component of stream geomorphology and stream ecosystem function, and forest-land management is recognized as an important control on the quantity (and size and species distributions) of wood available for recruitment to streams. Much of the wood present in streams comes from adjacent forests, and riparian management...

  20. RStorm: Developing and Testing Streaming Algorithms in R

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Streaming data, consisting of indefinitely evolving sequences, are becoming ubiquitous in many branches of science and in various applications. Computer scientists have developed streaming applications such as Storm and the S4 distributed stream computing platform1 to deal with data streams.

  1. RStorm : Developing and testing streaming algorithms in R

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Streaming data, consisting of indefinitely evolving sequences, are becoming ubiquitous in many branches of science and in various applications. Computer scientists have developed streaming applications such as Storm and the S4 distributed stream computing platform1 to deal with data streams.

  2. The Dawning of the Stream of Aquarius in RAVE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, M. E. K.; Steinmetz, M.; Sharma, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; de Jong, R. S.; Seabroke, G. M.; Helmi, A.; Freeman, K. C.; Binney, J.; Minchev, I.; Bienayme, O.; Campbell, R.; Fulbright, J. P.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G. F.; Grebel, E. K.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Watson, F. G.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.

    2011-01-01

    We identify a new, nearby (0.5 kpc less than or similar to d less than or similar to 10 kpc) stream in data from the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE). As the majority of stars in the stream lie in the constellation of Aquarius, we name it the Aquarius Stream. We identify 15 members of the stream

  3. THE DAWNING OF THE STREAM OF AQUARIUS IN RAVE

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, M. E. K.; Steinmetz, M.; Sharma, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; de Jong, R. S.; Seabroke, G. M.; Helmi, A.; Freeman, K. C.; Binney, J.; Minchev, I.; Bienayme, O.; Campbell, R.; Fulbright, J. P.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G. F.

    2011-01-01

    We identify a new, nearby (0.5 < d < 10 kpc) stream in data from the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE). As the majority of stars in the stream lie in the constellation of Aquarius we name it the Aquarius Stream. We identify 15 members of the stream lying between 30 < l < 75 and -70< b

  4. Managed forest reserves: preserving diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappeiner, John; Poage, Nathan; Erickson, Janet L.

    2003-01-01

    Background As part of the Northwest Forest Plan, large areas have been designated on many federal forests in western Oregon to provide critical habitat for plants and animals that are associated with old-growth habitat. Some of the structural characteristics often considered typical of old forests include large-diameter overstory trees, large standing and fallen dead trees, and one or more understory layers (Figure 1). However, not all of these areas are currently in old-growth conditions. Many of them contain young (regenerated after timber harvest. The original management goal for these stands was to produce high yields of timber and associated wood products. With implementation of the Northwest Forest Plan in 1994, the management objective shifted to accelerating development of old-growth characteristics by enhancing structural and biological diversity of these areas. A major challenge today is how to promote these structural characteristics in younger stands. Researchers have been asking if lessons can be learned from the development of our current old growth and applied to management of younger stands. Dr. John Tappeiner and his university and agency research partners are helping to answer this question by examining the differences in development between old-growth and young stands in western Oregon. Understanding how the structure of these old forests developed may provide a model for management of young stands, especially when the management goal is to provide habitat for species associated with older forests.

  5. POLA RASIO KEUANGAN PADA SAAT UP STREAM DAN DOWN STREAM DI INDUSTRI REALESTAT YANG GO PUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sukardi Kodrat

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has purpose to explain differences on indicator financial ratio in up and down stream condition. This research uses real estate industries listed on Jakarta Stock Exchange as a sample. Sample selection is performed based on purposive sampling method with object to gain sample according to the research aim. Based on those criteria, there are 18 companies, which have fulfilling the conditions needed, starting from 1994 until 2002. The classification of business cycle on up and down stream conditions to used stock pricing indexes of property and real estate which calculated by arithmatic mean method. Based on those criteria, the classifications from 1994 until 1997 are represented by up stream condition and from 1998 until 2002 are represented by down stream condition. The result shows indicators: profitability ratios, gross margin ratios, capital turnover ratios, asset to equity ratios, growth ratios, liquidity ratios, leverage ratios, and cash flow ratios are different in up and down stream conditions, both simultaneously and partially. Simultaneously, there is a significant difference between up and down stream condition with wilks lambda of 0,346 and p value of 0,000. This research shows financial ratio indicator has differences on business cycle. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penelitan ini mempunyai tujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan indikator rasio keuangan pada kondisi up stream dan down stream. Penelitian ini menggunakan sampel pada industri di sektor properti yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Jakarta. Pemilihan sampel dalam penelitian ini menggunakan Purposive Sampling yaitu sampel diambil berdasarkan kriteria-kriteria tertentu yang sesuai dengan tujuan penelitian ini. Berdasarkan kriteria tersebut, terdapat 18 perusahaan yang dapat dijadikan sampel mulai tahun 1994 sampai dengan 2002. Untuk menentukan perubahan business cycle pada kondisi up stream dan down stream dilakukan dengan menggunakan indeks harga saham di sektor properti

  6. Oak Ridge Reservation, annual site environmental report for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    The US DOE currently oversees activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation, a government-owned, contractor-operated facility. Three sites compose the reservation; Y-12, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and K-25. This document contains a summary of environmental monitoring activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and its surroundings. The results summarized in this report are based on the data collected during calendar year (CY) 1993 and compiled in; Environmental Monitoring in the Oak Ridge Reservation: CY 1993 Results. Annual environmental monitoring on the ORR consists of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is the collection and analysis of samples or measurements of liquid, gaseous, or airborne effluents for the purpose of characterizing and quantifying contaminants and process stream characteristics, assessing radiation and chemical exposures to members of the public, and demonstrating compliance with applicable standards. Environmental surveillance is the collection and analysis of samples of air, water, soil, foodstuffs, biota, and other media from DOE sites and their environs and the measurement of external radiation for purposes of demonstrating compliance with applicable standards, assessing radiation and chemical exposures to members of the public, and assessing effects, if any, on the local environment.

  7. Potential interaction between transport and stream networks over the lowland rivers in Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Suvendu; Sahu, Abhay Sankar

    2017-07-15

    Extension of transport networks supports good accessibility and associated with the development of a region. However, transport lines have fragmented the regional landscape and disturbed the natural interplay between rivers and their floodplains. Spatial analysis using multiple buffers provides information about the potential interaction between road and stream networks and their impact on channel morphology of a small watershed in the Lower Gangetic Plain. Present study is tried to understand the lateral and longitudinal disconnection in headwater stream by rural roads with the integration of geoinformatics and field survey. Significant (p managing river geomorphology and riverine landscape. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. MEKANISME SEGMENTASI LAJU BIT PADA DYNAMIC ADAPTIVE STREAMING OVER HTTP (DASH UNTUK APLIKASI VIDEO STREAMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Audy Bazly

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze Internet-based streaming video service in the communication media with variable bit rates. The proposed scheme on Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH using the internet network that adapts to the protocol Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP. DASH technology allows a video in the video segmentation into several packages that will distreamingkan. DASH initial stage is to compress the video source to lower the bit rate video codec uses H.26. Video compressed further in the segmentation using MP4Box generates streaming packets with the specified duration. These packages are assembled into packets in a streaming media format Presentation Description (MPD or known as MPEG-DASH. Streaming video format MPEG-DASH run on a platform with the player bitdash teritegrasi bitcoin. With this scheme, the video will have several variants of the bit rates that gave rise to the concept of scalability of streaming video services on the client side. The main target of the mechanism is smooth the MPEG-DASH streaming video display on the client. The simulation results show that the scheme based scalable video streaming MPEG- DASH able to improve the quality of image display on the client side, where the procedure bufering videos can be made constant and fine for the duration of video views

  9. Comparing Streaming Video and Videotapes: Can Streaming Video Convey Affective Meaning as Well as Videotape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofield, Jay L.

    This study investigated whether or not low-bandwidth streaming video could be useful for affective purposes. A group of 30 students in a cinema course at a public, liberal arts university viewed a 10-minute dramatic video scene by either videotape or low-bandwidth streaming video. They also took a survey to determine their affective responses and…

  10. Negligible in-stream processing of dissolved organic matter in low order boreal streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothawala, Dolly; Ji, Xing; Laudon, Hjalmar; Ågren, Anneli; Futter, Martyn; Köhler, Stephan; Tranvik, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Low order boreal streams have been considered to be reactive interfaces where dissolved organic matter (DOM) enters inland waters from the surrounding catchment soils. Disentangling the relative influence of key environmental factors suspected to influence stream water DOM composition is highly relevant for predicting the reactivity, and fate of terrestrial DOM. Here, we examined changes to DOM composition using optical approaches from 17 boreal streams, ranging from first to fourth order, over 14 months. We identified two specific fluorescing components, which expressed either a clear mire-wetland or forest signature, providing distinct molecular markers of land cover that is typical of the boreal ecozone. In fact, land cover alone explained 49% of the variability in stream DOM composition. In contrast, seasonal fluctuations in hydrology only contributed to minor shifts (8%) in DOM composition. Perhaps most intriguingly, in-stream transformations to DOM composition were undetectable, suggesting that the extent of in-stream processing was negligible. These findings suggest that low order boreal streams act as passive pipes rather than active reactors. Ultimately, we find that that in-stream processing of DOM was restricted by water residence times (less than 2 days). In summary, these results now leave us better equipped to predict where in the landscape, and when during the year, key DOM transformations may occur within the aquatic conduit.

  11. Streaming in Flemish Secondary Schools: Exploring Teachers' Perceptions of and Adaptations to Students in Different Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Peter A. J.; Vermeersch, Hans

    2010-01-01

    A rich body of research on streaming or tracking conducted mainly in the USA and UK suggests that teachers have lower expectations of students in lower education streams and adapt their curriculum and pedagogy in line with such expectations. Recent large-scale quantitative research conducted in Flanders (Belgium) shows that teachers teaching in…

  12. Net currents in the wave bottom boundary layer: on waveshape streaming and progressive wave streaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, Wouter; Ribberink, Jan S.; Uittenbogaard, R.E.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The net current (streaming) in a turbulent bottom boundary layer under waves above a flat bed, identified as potentially relevant for sediment transport, is mainly determined by two competing mechanisms: an onshore streaming resulting from the horizontal non-uniformity of the velocity field under

  13. Remote monitoring of fish in small streams: A unified approach using PIT tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydlewski, G.B.; Horton, G.; Dubreuil, T.; Letcher, B.; Casey, S.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate assessments of fish populations are often limited by re-observation or recapture events. Since the early 1990s, passive integrated transponders (PIT tags) have been used to understand the biology of many fish species. Until recently, PIT applications in small streams have been limited to physical recapture events. To maximize recapture probability, we constructed PIT antenna arrays in small streams to remotely detect individual fish. Experiences from two different laboratories (three case studies) allowed us to develop a unified approach to applying PIT technology for enhancing data assessments. Information on equipment, its installation, tag considerations, and array construction is provided. Theoretical and practical definitions are introduced to standardize metrics for assessing detection efficiency. We demonstrate how certain conditions (stream discharge, vibration, and ambient radio frequency noise) affect the detection efficiency and suggest that by monitoring these conditions, expectations of efficiency can be modified. We emphasize the importance of consistently estimating detection efficiency for fisheries applications.

  14. Two-dimensional physical habitat modeling of effects of habitat structures on urban stream restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongkyun IM

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available River corridors, even if highly modified or degraded, still provide important habitats for numerous biological species, and carry high aesthetic and economic values. One of the keys to urban stream restoration is recovery and maintenance of ecological flows sufficient to sustain aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the Hongje Stream in the Seoul metropolitan area of Korea was selected for evaluating a physically-based habitat with and without habitat structures. The potential value of the aquatic habitat was evaluated by a weighted usable area (WUA using River2D, a two-dimensional hydraulic model. The habitat suitability for Zacco platypus in the Hongje Stream was simulated with and without habitat structures. The computed WUA values for the boulder, spur dike, and riffle increased by about 2%, 7%, and 131%, respectively, after their construction. Also, the three habitat structures, especially the riffle, can contribute to increasing hydraulic heterogeneity and enhancing habitat diversity.

  15. ARABIC PROGRAM ON COT KALA LANGSA STREAMING RADIO SEBAGAI STRATEGI BARU PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA ARAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiauddin Dhiauddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning a language means learn to communicate. The goal of learning Arabic by using communicative approach is to stimulate the student to be able to master both receptive and productive skill. Receptive skills includes listening and reading skill, while productive skills includes speaking and writing skills. The objective of this study is to describe the streaming radio as a strategy in Arabic learning for the student of Arabic Department at Cot Kala Langsa State Islamic Institute. The result at the study shows that the streaming radio strategy gives a good response in conducting the Arabic class. Means that streaming radio can enhance the quality of teaching and learning Arabic at this institute.DOI: 10.15408/a.v2i1.1480

  16. The new era of the livestock production in Mongolia: Consequences on streams of the Great Lakes Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasri, Alain; Gelhaus, Jon

    2011-10-15

    Mongolia, a landlocked country of the Central Asian plateau, is experiencing a significant modification of herding practices coupled with an increase in livestock numbers. These modifications lead to increasing impacts of grazing on the Mongolian steppes with major consequences on the waterbodies. We researched the impacts of grazing intensity on the streams of the Great Lakes Depression in northwestern Mongolia. We assessed the level of watershed and stream bank erosion and the type of vegetation structure. We calculated the livestock densities per watershed and linked them to the stream water discharge through a new metric (I(CU)). I(CU) was created as a function of cattle unit density and water discharge, having water discharge at a stream section reflecting its location in the drainage and therefore accounting for the surface area drained upstream. We measured also the major nutrients in the stream water and researched the causalities between the grazing and the impairment of watersheds and streams. Our results suggest that the increase of livestock numbers is reaching beyond the grassland and affecting the stream ecosystem. Two major impacts were highlighted by this study, 1) the extensive watershed and stream bank erosion and 2) the increase in concentration of suspended particles and orthophosphate in stream systems. When compared with past values from literature, our results show recent eutrophication of the streams compared to the pre-liberalization of the herding activity in Mongolia (before 1991). Consequently the continued uncontrolled increase of livestock numbers could threaten the conservation of the Mongolian waterbodies, with notable consequences on the life of the nomadic population of the Central Asian Plateau. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, R.Todd

    1996-05-01

    During the 1995 - 96 project period, four new habitat enhancement projects were implemented under the Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) in the upper Umatilla River Basin. A total of 38,644 feet of high tensile smooth wire fencing was constructed along 3.6 miles of riparian corridor in the Meacham Creek, Wildhorse Creek, Greasewood Creek, West Fork of Greasewood Creek and Mission Creek watersheds. Additional enhancements on Wildhorse Creek and the lower Greasewood Creek System included: (1) installation of 0.43 miles of smooth wire between river mile (RM) 10.25 and RM 10.5 Wildhorse Creek (fence posts and structures had been previously placed on this property during the 1994 - 95 project period), (2) construction of 46 sediment retention structures in stream channels and maintenance to 18 existing sediment retention structures between RM 9.5 and RM 10.25 Wildhorse Creek, and (3) revegetation of stream corridor areas and adjacent terraces with 500 pounds of native grass seed or close species equivalents and 5,000 native riparian shrub/tree species to assist in floodplain recovery, stream channel stability and filtering of sediments during high flow periods. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funds were cost shared with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funds, provided under this project, to accomplish habitat enhancements. Water quality monitoring continued and was expanded for temperature and turbidity throughout the upper Umatilla River Watershed. Physical habitat surveys were conducted on the lower 13 river miles of Wildhorse Creek and within the Greasewood Creek Project Area to characterize habitat quality and to quantify various habitat types by area.

  18. StreamThermal: A software package for calculating thermal metrics from stream temperature data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Yin-Phan; Infante, Dana M.; Stewart, Jana S.; Wang, Lizhu; Tingly, Ralph; Thornbrugh, Darren; Cooper, Arthur; Wesley, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Improving quality and better availability of continuous stream temperature data allows natural resource managers, particularly in fisheries, to understand associations between different characteristics of stream thermal regimes and stream fishes. However, there is no convenient tool to efficiently characterize multiple metrics reflecting stream thermal regimes with the increasing amount of data. This article describes a software program packaged as a library in R to facilitate this process. With this freely-available package, users will be able to quickly summarize metrics that describe five categories of stream thermal regimes: magnitude, variability, frequency, timing, and rate of change. The installation and usage instruction of this package, the definition of calculated thermal metrics, as well as the output format from the package are described, along with an application showing the utility for multiple metrics. We believe this package can be widely utilized by interested stakeholders and greatly assist more studies in fisheries.

  19. Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Stream Bedforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmsten, M. L.; Kozarek, J. L.; Calantoni, J.; Kooney, T.; Holland, K.

    2011-12-01

    Streams are complex, dynamic environments that experience significant changes to the bathymetry over the course of hours when sediments are mobilized. Understanding the evolution of stream bed morphology is essential for a broad range of practical purposes including: assessing habitat for fish and forecasting the transport of sediments, nutrients, and pollutants. The objective of this work is to quantify bedform migration at a meander bend in a near-prototype scale laboratory stream and ultimately develop a dataset for comparison with sediment transport models. The spatial and temporal evolution of bedforms was observed at the University of Minnesota's St. Anthony Falls Stream Laboratory. The Outdoor Stream Lab (OSL) is a sandy (D50 = 0.7 mm) , meandering channel approximately 40 m in length 2.7 m in width, and 0.3 m in depth. Observations were made at overbank flow of 284 L/s. Color cameras were positioned at 5 m and 2 m above a meander bend and images were collected at a rate of 7.5 Hz as bedforms migrated through the field of view. Upstream of the meander bend, bedforms were nearly linear and migrated at 0.5 cm/s, while downstream of the bend, bedforms became extremely nonlinear in form and appeared nearly stationary. Images were rectified and post-processed to extract bedform dimensions as well as migration rate. The remotely sensed migration rates were compared with in situ measurements collected using sonar to map bedforms during the experiment.

  20. 7Q10 flows for SRS streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, K.F.

    1996-10-01

    The Environmental Transport Group of the Environmental Technology Section was requested to predict the seven-day ten-year low flow (7Q10 flow) for the SRS streams based on historical stream flow records. Most of the historical flow records for the SRS streams include reactor coolant water discharged from the reactors and process water released from the process facilities. The most straight forward way to estimate the stream daily natural flow is to subtract the measured upstream reactor and/or facility daily effluents from the measured downstream daily flow. Unfortunately, this method does not always work, as indicated by the fact that sometimes the measured downstream volumetric flow rates are lower than the reactor effluent volumetric flow rates. For those cases that cannot be analyzed with the simple subtracting method, an alternative method was used to estimate the stream natural flows by statistically separating reactor coolant and process water flow data. The correlation between the calculated 7Q10 flows and the watershed areas for Four Mile Branch and Pen Branch agrees with that calculated by the USGS for Upper Three Runs and Lower Three Runs Creeks. The agreement between these two independent calculations lends confidence to the 7Q10 flow calculations presented in this report.

  1. Microbial biodiversity in glacier-fed streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Linda; Singer, Gabriel A; Fasching, Christina; Battin, Tom J; Besemer, Katharina

    2013-08-01

    While glaciers become increasingly recognised as a habitat for diverse and active microbial communities, effects of their climate change-induced retreat on the microbial ecology of glacier-fed streams remain elusive. Understanding the effect of climate change on microorganisms in these ecosystems is crucial given that microbial biofilms control numerous stream ecosystem processes with potential implications for downstream biodiversity and biogeochemistry. Here, using a space-for-time substitution approach across 26 Alpine glaciers, we show how microbial community composition and diversity, based on 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, in biofilms of glacier-fed streams may change as glaciers recede. Variations in streamwater geochemistry correlated with biofilm community composition, even at the phylum level. The most dominant phyla detected in glacial habitats were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria/chloroplasts. Microorganisms from ice had the lowest α diversity and contributed marginally to biofilm and streamwater community composition. Rather, streamwater apparently collected microorganisms from various glacial and non-glacial sources forming the upstream metacommunity, thereby achieving the highest α diversity. Biofilms in the glacier-fed streams had intermediate α diversity and species sorting by local environmental conditions likely shaped their community composition. α diversity of streamwater and biofilm communities decreased with elevation, possibly reflecting less diverse sources of microorganisms upstream in the catchment. In contrast, β diversity of biofilms decreased with increasing streamwater temperature, suggesting that glacier retreat may contribute to the homogenisation of microbial communities among glacier-fed streams.

  2. Streaming potential near a rotating porous disk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieve, Dennis C; Sides, Paul J

    2014-09-23

    Theory and experimental results for the streaming potential measured in the vicinity of a rotating porous disk-shaped sample are described. Rotation of the sample on its axis draws liquid into its face and casts it from the periphery. Advection within the sample engenders streaming current and streaming potential that are proportional to the zeta potential and the disk's major dimensions. When Darcy's law applies, the streaming potential is proportional to the square of the rotation at low rate but becomes invariant with rotation at high rate. The streaming potential is invariant with the sample's permeability at low rate and is proportional to the inverse square of the permeability at high rate. These predictions were tested by determining the zeta potential and permeability of the loop side of Velcro, a sample otherwise difficult to characterize; reasonable values of -56 mV for zeta and 8.7 × 10(-9) m(2) for the permeability were obtained. This approach offers the ability to determine both the zeta potential and the permeability of materials having open structures. Compressing them into a porous plug is unnecessary. As part of the development of the theory, a convenient formula for a flow-weighted volume-averaged space-charge density of the porous medium, -εζ/k, was obtained, where ε is the permittivity, ζ is the zeta potential, and k is the Darcy permeability. The formula is correct when Smoluchowski's equation and Darcy's law are both valid.

  3. Are Urban Stream Restoration Plans Worth Implementing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvilinna, Auri; Lehtoranta, Virpi; Hjerppe, Turo

    2017-01-01

    To manage and conserve ecosystems in a more sustainable way, it is important to identify the importance of the ecosystem services they provide and understand the connection between natural and socio-economic systems. Historically, streams have been an underrated part of the urban environment. Many of them have been straightened and often channelized under pressure of urbanization. However, little knowledge exists concerning the economic value of stream restoration or the value of the improved ecosystem services. We used the contingent valuation method to assess the social acceptability of a policy-level water management plan in the city of Helsinki, Finland, and the values placed on improvements in a set of ecosystem services, accounting for preference uncertainty. According to our study, the action plan would provide high returns on restoration investments, since the benefit-cost ratio was 15-37. Moreover, seventy-two percent of the respondents willing to pay for stream restoration chose "I want to conserve streams as a part of urban nature for future generations" as the most motivating reason. Our study indicates that the water management plan for urban streams in Helsinki has strong public support. If better marketed to the population within the watershed, the future projects could be partly funded by the local residents, making the projects easier to accomplish. The results of this study can be used in planning, management and decision making related to small urban watercourses.

  4. Perturbing Streaming in Dictyostelium discoidium Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rericha, Erin; Garcia, Gene; Parent, Carole; Losert, Wolfgang

    2009-03-01

    The ability of cells to move towards environmental cues is a critical process allowing the destruction of intruders by the immune system, the formation of the vascular system and the whole scale remodeling of tissues during embryo development. We examine the initial transition from single cell to group migration in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoidium. Upon starvation, D. discoidium cells enter into a developmental program that triggers solitary cells to aggregate into a multicellular structure. The aggregation is mediated by the small molecule, cyclic-AMP, that cells sense, synthesize, secrete and migrate towards often in a head-to-tail fashion called a stream. Using experiment and numerical simulation, we study the sensitivity of streams to perturbations in the cyclic-AMP concentration field. We find the stability of the streams requires cells to shape the cyclic-AMP field through localized secretion and degradation. In addition, we find the streaming phenotype is sensitive to changes in the substrate properties, with slicker surfaces leading to longer more branched streams that yield large initial aggregates.

  5. Hydraulic response in flooded stream networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkesson, Anna; Wörman, Anders; Bottacin-Busolin, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Average water travel times through a stream network were determined as a function of stage (discharge) and stream network properties. Contrary to most previous studies on the topic, the present work allowed for streamflow velocities to vary spatially (for most of the analyses) as well as temporally. The results show that different stream network mechanisms and properties interact in a complex and stage-dependent manner, implying that the relative importance of the different hydraulic properties varies in space and over time. Theoretical reasoning, based on the central temporal moments derived from the kinematic-diffusive wave equation in a semi-2-D formulation including the effects of flooded cross sections, shows that the hydraulic properties in contrast to the geomorphological properties will become increasingly important as the discharge increases, stressing the importance of accurately describing the hydraulic mechanisms within stream networks. Using the physically based, stage-dependent response function as a parameterization basis for the streamflow routing routine (a linear reservoir) of a hydrological model, discharge predictions were shown to improve in two Swedish catchments, compared with a conventional, statistically based parameterization scheme. Predictions improved for a wide range of modeled scenarios, for the entire discharge series as well as for peak flow conditions. The foremost novelty of the study lies in that the physically based response function for a streamflow routing routine has successfully been determined independent of calibration, i.e., entirely through process-based hydraulic stream network modeling.

  6. Riparian forestry management and adult stream insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Briers

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of coniferous plantation forestry on the biology of upland streams in the UK are firmly established. Whilst benthic communities have been well studied, very little research has considered the impacts of riparian forestry management on adult stream insects, yet the essentially terrestrial adult (reproductive phase may be important in determining the abundance and distribution of larval stages. Riparian vegetation has a potentially strong impact on survival and success of adult stages through alteration of microclimate, habitat structure and potential food sources, in addition to effects carried over from larval stages. Here, current riparian management strategies are analysed in the light of available information on the ecology of adult stream insects. On the whole, management practices appear to favour adult stream insects, although an increase in tree cover in riparian areas could be beneficial, by providing more favourable microclimatic conditions for adults. This conclusion is drawn based on rather limited information, and the need for further research into the effects of riparian forestry management on adult stream insects is highlighted. Keywords: microclimate, plantation, life history, riparian vegetation

  7. Evaluating Stream Restoration Projects: What Do We Learn from Monitoring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zan Rubin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Two decades since calls for stream restoration projects to be scientifically assessed, most projects are still unevaluated, and conducted evaluations yield ambiguous results. Even after these decades of investigation, do we know how to define and measure success? We systematically reviewed 26 studies of stream restoration projects that used macroinvertebrate indicators to assess the success of habitat heterogeneity restoration projects. All 26 studies were previously included in two meta-analyses that sought to assess whether restoration programs were succeeding. By contrast, our review focuses on the evaluations themselves, and asks what exactly we are measuring and learning from these evaluations. All 26 studies used taxonomic diversity, richness, or abundance of invertebrates as biological measures of success, but none presented explicit arguments why those metrics were relevant measures of success for the restoration projects. Although changes in biodiversity may reflect overall ecological condition at the regional or global scale, in the context of reach-scale habitat restoration, more abundance and diversity may not necessarily be better. While all 26 studies sought to evaluate the biotic response to habitat heterogeneity enhancement projects, about half of the studies (46% explicitly measured habitat alteration, and 31% used visual estimates of grain size or subjectively judged ‘habitat quality’ from protocols ill-suited for the purpose. Although the goal of all 26 projects was to increase habitat heterogeneity, 31% of the studies either sampled only riffles or did not specify the habitats sampled. One-third of the studies (35% used reference ecosystems to define target conditions. After 20 years of stream restoration evaluation, more work remains for the restoration community to identify appropriate measures of success and to coordinate monitoring so that evaluations are at a scale capable of detecting ecosystem change.

  8. Multi-threaded Object Streaming

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, Andreas; Govi, Giacomo; Ojeda, Miguel; Sipos, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The CMS experiment at CERNs Large Hadron Collider in Geneva redesigned the code handling the conditions data during the last years, aiming to increase performance and enhance maintainability. The new design includes a move to serialise all payloads before storing them into the database, allowing the handling of the payloads in external tools independent of a given software release. In this talk we present the results of performance studies done using the serialisation package from the Boost suite as well as serialisation done with the ROOT (v5) tools. Furthermore, as the Boost tools allow parallel (de-)serialisation, we show the performance gains achieved with parallel threads when de-serialising a realistic set of conditions in CMS. Without specific optimisations an overall speed up of a factor of 3-4 was achieved using multi-threaded loading and de-serialisation of our conditions.

  9. Use of watershed characteristics to select control streams for estimating effects of metal mining wastes on extensively disturbed streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Impacts of sediments and heavy metals on the biota of streams in the copper-mining district of southwestern Montana were examined by comparing aquatic communities of impacted streams with those of control streams. Control streams were chosen through the use of a technique that identifies similar streams based on similarities in their watershed characteristics. Significant differences between impacted and control sites existed for surface substrate, riparian vegetation, and the number of macro-invertebrate taxa.

  10. Hyporheic zone denitrification: controls on effective reaction depth and contribution to whole-stream mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Böhlke, John Karl; Voytek, Mary A.; Scott, Durelle; Tobias, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Stream denitrification is thought to be enhanced by hyporheic transport but there is little direct evidence from the field. To demonstrate at a field site, we injected 15NO3−, Br (conservative tracer), and SF6 (gas exchange tracer) and compared measured whole-stream denitrification with in situ hyporheic denitrification in shallow and deeper flow paths of contrasting geomorphic units. Hyporheic denitrification accounted for between 1 and 200% of whole-stream denitrification. The reaction rate constant was positively related to hyporheic exchange rate (greater substrate delivery), concentrations of substrates DOC and nitrate, microbial denitrifier abundance (nirS), and measures of granular surface area and presence of anoxic microzones. The dimensionless product of the reaction rate constant and hyporheic residence time, λhzτhz define a Damköhler number, Daden-hz that was optimal in the subset of hyporheic flow paths where Daden-hz ≈ 1. Optimal conditions exclude inefficient deep pathways transport where substrates are used up and also exclude inefficient shallow pathways that require repeated hyporheic entries and exits to complete the reaction. The whole-stream reaction significance, Rs (dimensionless), was quantified by multiplying Daden-hz by the proportion of stream discharge passing through the hyporheic zone. Together these two dimensionless metrics, one flow-path scale and the other reach-scale, quantify the whole-stream significance of hyporheic denitrification. One consequence is that the effective zone of significant denitrification often differs from the full depth of the hyporheic zone, which is one reason why whole-stream denitrification rates have not previously been explained based on total hyporheic-zone metrics such as hyporheic-zone size or residence time.

  11. Heavy metal contamination in an urban stream fed by contaminated air-conditioning and stormwater discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Aisling; Wicke, Daniel; Cochrane, Tom

    2012-03-01

    Urban waterways are impacted by diffuse stormwater runoff, yet other discharges can unintentionally contaminate them. The Okeover stream in Christchurch, New Zealand, receives air-conditioning discharge, while its ephemeral reach relies on untreated stormwater flow. Despite rehabilitation efforts, the ecosystem is still highly disturbed. It was assumed that stormwater was the sole contamination source to the stream although water quality data were sparse. We therefore investigated its water and sediment quality and compared the data with appropriate ecotoxicological thresholds from all water sources. Concentrations of metals (Zn, Cu and Pb) in stream baseflow, stormwater runoff, air-conditioning discharge and stream-bed sediments were quantified along with flow regimes to ascertain annual contaminant loads. Metals were analysed by ICP-MS following accredited techniques. Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations from stormflow exceeded relevant guidelines for the protection of 90% of aquatic species by 18-, 9- and 5-fold, respectively, suggesting substantial ecotoxicity potential. Sporadic copper (Cu) inputs from roof runoff exceeded these levels up to 3,200-fold at >4,000 μg L⁻¹ while Cu in baseflow from air-conditioning inputs exceeded them 5.4-fold. There was an 11-fold greater annual Cu load to the stream from air-conditioning discharge compared to stormwater runoff. Most Zn and Cu were dissolved species possibly enhancing metal bioavailability. Elevated metal concentrations were also found throughout the stream sediments. Environmental investigations revealed unsuspected contamination from air-conditioning discharge that contributed greater Cu annual loads to an urban stream compared to stormwater inputs. This discovery helped reassess treatment strategies for regaining ecological integrity in the ecosystem.

  12. Stream power framework for predicting geomorphic change: The 2013 Colorado Front Range flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yochum, Steven E.; Sholtes, Joel S.; Scott, Julian A.; Bledsoe, Brian P.

    2017-09-01

    The Colorado Front Range flood of September 2013 induced a diverse range of geomorphic changes along numerous stream corridors, providing an opportunity to assess responses to a large flood in a semiarid landscape. We defined six classes of geomorphic change related to peak unit stream power and valley confinement for 531 stream reaches over 226 km, spanning a gradient of channel scales and slope. Geomorphic change was generally driven by erosion of channel margins in confined reaches and by a combination of deposition and erosion in unconfined reaches. The magnitude of geomorphic change typically increased with unit stream power (ω), with greater responses observed in unconfined channels. Cumulative logit modeling indicated that total stream power or unit stream power, unit stream power gradient, and valley confinement are significant predictors of geomorphic response for this flood event. Based on this dataset, thresholds for geomorphic adjustment were defined. For channel slopes 230 W/m2 (16 lb/ft-s; at least 10% of the investigated sites experienced substantial channel widening) and a credible potential for avulsions, braiding, and loss of adjacent road embankments associated with ω > 480 W/m2 (33 lb/ft-s; at least 10% of the investigated sites experienced such geomorphic change). Infrequent to numerous eroded banks were very likely with ω > 700 W/m2 (48 lb/ft-s), with substantial channel widening or major geomorphic change shifting from credible to likely. Importantly, in reaches where there were large reductions in ω as the valley form shifted from confined to relatively unconfined, large amounts of deposition-induced, reach-scale geomorphic change occurred in some locations at relatively low ω. Additionally, alluvial channels with slopes > 3% had greater resistance to geomorphic change, likely caused by armoring by larger bed material and increased flow resistance from enhanced bedforms. Finally, we describe how these results can potentially be used by

  13. Responses of primary production, leaf litter decomposition and associated communities to stream eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunck, Bárbara; Lima-Fernandes, Eva; Cássio, Fernanda; Cunha, Ana; Rodrigues, Liliana; Pascoal, Cláudia

    2015-07-01

    We assessed the eutrophication effects on leaf litter decomposition and primary production, and on periphytic algae, fungi and invertebrates. According to the subsidy-stress model, we expected that when algae and decomposers were nutrient limited, their activity and diversity would increase at moderate levels of nutrient enrichment, but decrease at high levels of nutrients, because eutrophication would lead to the presence of other stressors and overwhelm the subsidy effect. Chestnut leaves (Castanea sativa Mill) were enclosed in mesh bags and immersed in five streams of the Ave River basin (northwest Portugal) to assess leaf decomposition and colonization by invertebrates and fungi. In parallel, polyethylene slides were attached to the mesh bags to allow colonization by algae and to assess primary production. Communities of periphytic algae and decomposers discriminated the streams according to the trophic state. Primary production decomposition and biodiversity were lower in streams at both ends of the trophic gradient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Auditory-prefrontal axonal connectivity in the macaque cortex: quantitative assessment of processing streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezgin, Gleb; Rybacki, Konrad; van Opstal, A John; Bakker, Rembrandt; Shen, Kelly; Vakorin, Vasily A; McIntosh, Anthony R; Kötter, Rolf

    2014-08-01

    Primate sensory systems subserve complex neurocomputational functions. Consequently, these systems are organised anatomically in a distributed fashion, commonly linking areas to form specialised processing streams. Each stream is related to a specific function, as evidenced from studies of the visual cortex, which features rather prominent segregation into spatial and non-spatial domains. It has been hypothesised that other sensory systems, including auditory, are organised in a similar way on the cortical level. Recent studies offer rich qualitative evidence for the dual stream hypothesis. Here we provide a new paradigm to quantitatively uncover these patterns in the auditory system, based on an analysis of multiple anatomical studies using multivariate techniques. As a test case, we also apply our assessment techniques to more ubiquitously-explored visual system. Importantly, the introduced framework opens the possibility for these techniques to be applied to other neural systems featuring a dichotomised organisation, such as language or music perception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chlorinated pesticides in stream sediments from organic, integrated and conventional farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahpoury, Pourya; Hageman, Kimberly J; Matthaei, Christoph D; Magbanua, Francis S

    2013-10-01

    To determine if current sheep/beef farming practices affect pesticide residues in streams, current-use and legacy chlorinated pesticides were quantified in 100 sediment samples from 15 streams on the South Island of New Zealand. The study involved five blocks of three neighboring farms, with each block containing farms managed by organic, integrated and conventional farming practices. Significantly higher concentrations of dieldrin, ∑ endosulfans, ∑ current-use pesticides, and ∑ chlorinated pesticides were measured in sediments from conventional farms compared to organic and integrated farms. However, streams in the latter two farming categories were not pesticide-free and sometimes contained relatively high concentrations of legacy pesticides. Comparison of measured pesticide concentrations with sediment quality guidelines showed that, regardless of farming practice, mean pesticide concentrations were below the recommended toxicity thresholds. However, up to 23% of individual samples contained chlorpyrifos, endosulfan sulfate, ∑ DDT, dieldrin, or ∑ chlordane concentrations above these thresholds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stream-fed accretion in intermediate polars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, C.

    2002-01-01

    I review the observational evidence for stream-fed accretion in intermediate polars. Recent work on the discless system V2400 Oph confirms the pole-flipping model of stream-fed accretion, but this applies only to a minority of the flow. The bulk of the flow is in the form of blobs circling the white dwarf, a state which might have been a precursor to disc formation in other IPs. I also discuss work on the systems with anomalously long spin periods, V1025 Cen and EX Hya. There are arguments both for and against stream-fed accretion in V1025 Cen, and further work is necessary before reaching a conclusion about this system.

  17. Data Stream Clustering With Affinity Propagation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiangliang

    2014-07-09

    Data stream clustering provides insights into the underlying patterns of data flows. This paper focuses on selecting the best representatives from clusters of streaming data. There are two main challenges: how to cluster with the best representatives and how to handle the evolving patterns that are important characteristics of streaming data with dynamic distributions. We employ the Affinity Propagation (AP) algorithm presented in 2007 by Frey and Dueck for the first challenge, as it offers good guarantees of clustering optimality for selecting exemplars. The second challenging problem is solved by change detection. The presented StrAP algorithm combines AP with a statistical change point detection test; the clustering model is rebuilt whenever the test detects a change in the underlying data distribution. Besides the validation on two benchmark data sets, the presented algorithm is validated on a real-world application, monitoring the data flow of jobs submitted to the EGEE grid.

  18. Stream Processing Using Grammars and Regular Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ulrik Terp

    In this dissertation we study regular expression based parsing and the use of grammatical specifications for the synthesis of fast, streaming string-processing programs. In the first part we develop two linear-time algorithms for regular expression based parsing with Perl-style greedy...... disambiguation. The first algorithm operates in two passes in a semi-streaming fashion, using a constant amount of working memory and an auxiliary tape storage which is written in the first pass and consumed by the second. The second algorithm is a single-pass and optimally streaming algorithm which outputs...... as much of the parse tree as is semantically possible based on the input prefix read so far, and resorts to buffering as many symbols as is required to resolve the next choice. Optimality is obtained by performing a PSPACE-complete pre-analysis on the regular expression. In the second part we present...

  19. Waste streams in a crewed space habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wydeven, T.; Golub, M. A.

    1991-01-01

    A judicious compilation of generation rates and chemical compositions of potential waste feed streams in a typical crewed space habitat was made in connection with the waste-management aspect of NASA's Physical/Chemical Closed-Loop Life Support Program. Waste composition definitions are needed for the design of waste-processing technologies involved in closing major life support functions in future long-duration human space missions. Tables of data for the constituents and chemical formulas of the following waste streams are presented and discussed: human urine, feces, hygiene (laundry and shower) water, cleansing agents, trash, humidity condensate, dried sweat, and trace contaminants. Tables of data on dust generation and pH values of the different waste streams are also presented and discussed.

  20. Online Visual Analytics of Text Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shixia; Yin, Jialun; Wang, Xiting; Cui, Weiwei; Cao, Kelei; Pei, Jian

    2016-11-01

    We present an online visual analytics approach to helping users explore and understand hierarchical topic evolution in high-volume text streams. The key idea behind this approach is to identify representative topics in incoming documents and align them with the existing representative topics that they immediately follow (in time). To this end, we learn a set of streaming tree cuts from topic trees based on user-selected focus nodes. A dynamic Bayesian network model has been developed to derive the tree cuts in the incoming topic trees to balance the fitness of each tree cut and the smoothness between adjacent tree cuts. By connecting the corresponding topics at different times, we are able to provide an overview of the evolving hierarchical topics. A sedimentation-based visualization has been designed to enable the interactive analysis of streaming text data from global patterns to local details. We evaluated our method on real-world datasets and the results are generally favorable.

  1. Mining Building Metadata by Data Stream Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Emil; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2016-01-01

    to handle data streams with only slightly similar patterns. We have evaluated Metafier with points and data from one building located in Denmark. We have evaluated Metafier with 903 points, and the overall accuracy, with only 3 known examples, was 94.71%. Furthermore we found that using DTW for mining...... ways to annotate sensor and actuation points. This makes it difficult to create intuitive queries for retrieving data streams from points. Another problem is the amount of insufficient or missing metadata. We introduce Metafier, a tool for extracting metadata from comparing data streams. Metafier...... enables a semi-automatic labeling of metadata to building instrumentation. Metafier annotates points with metadata by comparing the data from a set of validated points with unvalidated points. Metafier has three different algorithms to compare points with based on their data. The three algorithms...

  2. Advanced content delivery, streaming, and cloud services

    CERN Document Server

    Sitaraman, Ramesh Kumar; Robinson, Dom

    2014-01-01

    While other books on the market provide limited coverage of advanced CDNs and streaming technologies, concentrating solely on the fundamentals, this book provides an up-to-date comprehensive coverage of the state-of-the-art advancements in CDNs, with a special focus on Cloud-based CDNs. The book includes CDN and media streaming basics, performance models, practical applications, and business analysis. It features industry case studies, CDN applications, and open research issues to aid practitioners and researchers, and a market analysis to provide a reference point for commercial entities. The book covers Adaptive Bitrate Streaming (ABR), Content Delivery Cloud (CDC), Web Acceleration, Front End Optimization (FEO), Transparent Caching, Next Generation CDNs, CDN Business Intelligence and more.

  3. Triangle Counting in Dynamic Graph Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulteau, Laurent; Froese, Vincent; Pagh, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the number of triangles in graph streams using a limited amount of memory has become a popular topic in the last decade. Different variations of the problem have been studied, depending on whether the graph edges are provided in an arbitrary order or as incidence lists. However......, with a few exceptions, the algorithms have considered insert-only streams. We present a new algorithm estimating the number of triangles in dynamic graph streams where edges can be both inserted and deleted. We show that our algorithm achieves better time and space complexity than previous solutions...... for various graph classes, for example sparse graphs with a relatively small number of triangles. Also, for graphs with constant transitivity coefficient, a common situation in real graphs, this is the first algorithm achieving constant processing time per edge. The result is achieved by a novel approach...

  4. Temporal Segmentation of MPEG Video Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janko Calic

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Many algorithms for temporal video partitioning rely on the analysis of uncompressed video features. Since the information relevant to the partitioning process can be extracted directly from the MPEG compressed stream, higher efficiency can be achieved utilizing information from the MPEG compressed domain. This paper introduces a real-time algorithm for scene change detection that analyses the statistics of the macroblock features extracted directly from the MPEG stream. A method for extraction of the continuous frame difference that transforms the 3D video stream into a 1D curve is presented. This transform is then further employed to extract temporal units within the analysed video sequence. Results of computer simulations are reported.

  5. Giant Intergalactic Gas Stream Longer Than Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A giant stream of gas flowing from neighbor galaxies around our own Milky Way is much longer and older than previously thought, astronomers have discovered. The new revelations provide a fresh insight on what started the gaseous intergalactic streamer. The astronomers used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to fill important gaps in the picture of gas streaming outward from the Magellanic Clouds. The first evidence of such a flow, named the Magellanic Stream, was discovered more than 30 years ago, and subsequent observations added tantalizing suggestions that there was more. However, the earlier picture showed gaps that left unanswered whether this other gas was part of the same system. "We now have answered that question. The stream is continuous," said David Nidever, of the University of Virginia. "We now have a much more complete map of the Magellanic Stream," he added. The astronomers presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Washington, DC. The Magellanic Clouds are the Milky Way's two nearest neighbor galaxies, about 150,000 to 200,000 light-years distant from the Milky Way. Visible in the Southern Hemisphere, they are much smaller than our Galaxy and may have been distorted by its gravity. Nidever and his colleagues observed the Magellanic Stream for more than 100 hours with the GBT. They then combined their GBT data with that from earlier studies with other radio telescopes, including the Arecibo telescope in Puerto Rico, the Parkes telescope in Australia, and the Westerbork telescope in the Netherlands. The result shows that the stream is more than 40 percent longer than previously known with certainty. One consequence of the added length of the gas stream is that it must be older, the astronomers say. They now estimate the age of the stream at 2.5 billion years. The revised size and age of the Magellanic Stream also provides a new potential explanation for how the flow got started

  6. Self-Adaptive Anytime Stream Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranen, Philipp; Assent, Ira; Baldauf, Corinna

    2009-01-01

    Clustering streaming data requires algorithms which are capable of updating clustering results for the incoming data. As data is constantly arriving, time for processing is limited. Clustering has to be performed in a single pass over the incoming data and within the possibly varying inter......-arrival times of the stream. Likewise, memory is limited, making it impossible to store all data. For clustering, we are faced with the challenge of maintaining a current result that can be presented to the user at any given time. In this work, we propose a parameter free algorithm that automatically adapts...... to the speed of the data stream. It makes best use of the time available under the current constraints to provide a clustering of the objects seen up to that point. Our approach incorporates the age of the objects to reflect the greater importance of more recent data. Moreover, we are capable of detecting...

  7. Programmable stream prefetch with resource optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Peter; Christ, Norman; Gara, Alan; Mawhinney, Robert; Ohmacht, Martin; Sugavanam, Krishnan

    2013-01-08

    A stream prefetch engine performs data retrieval in a parallel computing system. The engine receives a load request from at least one processor. The engine evaluates whether a first memory address requested in the load request is present and valid in a table. The engine checks whether there exists valid data corresponding to the first memory address in an array if the first memory address is present and valid in the table. The engine increments a prefetching depth of a first stream that the first memory address belongs to and fetching a cache line associated with the first memory address from the at least one cache memory device if there is not yet valid data corresponding to the first memory address in the array. The engine determines whether prefetching of additional data is needed for the first stream within its prefetching depth. The engine prefetches the additional data if the prefetching is needed.

  8. Cosmic Ray Streaming in Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Joshua; Gould Zweibel, Ellen; Oh, Siang P.

    2017-08-01

    The origin of diffuse radio emission in galaxy clusters remains an open question in astrophysics. This emission indicates the presence of cluster-wide magnetic fields and high energy cosmic ray (CR) electrons. I will discuss how the properties of the observed radio emission in clusters are shaped by different CR transport processes, namely CR streaming. Recent work has shown that fast streaming may turn off radio emission on relatively short time scales - a full treatment of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave damping shows that streaming may be even faster than previously thought in high β environments. I will briefly introduce the physics behind CR transport, and present simple numerical simulations of the Coma cluster that predict radio emission, as well as other observable signatures such as gamma radiation that can differentiate between models for the source of the CR electrons.

  9. Model simulations of particle aggregation effect on colloid exchange between streams and streambeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepitak, Trachu; Ren, Jianhong

    2011-07-01

    Colloids found in natural streams have large reactive surface areas, which makes them significant absorbents and carriers for pollutants. Stream-subsurface exchange plays a critical role in regulating the transport of colloids and contaminants in natural streams. Previous process-based multiphase exchange models were developed without consideration of colloid-colloid interaction. However, many studies have indicated that aggregation is a significant process and needs to be considered in stream process analysis. Herein, a new colloid exchange model was developed by including particle aggregation in addition to colloid settling and filtration. Self-preserving size distribution concepts and classical aggregation theory were employed to model the aggregation process. Model simulations indicate that under conditions of low filtration and high degree of particle-particle interaction, aggregation could either decrease or increase the amount of colloids retained in streambeds, depending on the initial particle size. Thus, two possible cases may occur including enhanced colloid deposition and facilitated colloid transport. Also, when the aggregation rate is high and filtration increases, more particles are retained by bed sediments due to filtration, and fewer are aggregated, which reduces the extent of aggregation effect on colloid deposition. The work presented here will contribute to a better understanding and prediction of colloid transport phenomena in natural streams.

  10. Proxy-assisted multicasting of video streams over mobile wireless networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Maggie; Pezeshkmehr, Layla; Moh, Melody

    2005-03-01

    This work addresses the challenge of providing seamless multimedia services to mobile users by proposing a proxy-assisted multicast architecture for delivery of video streams. We propose a hybrid system of streaming proxies, interconnected by an application-layer multicast tree, where each proxy acts as a cluster head to stream out content to its stationary and mobile users. The architecture is based on our previously proposed Enhanced-NICE protocol, which uses an application-layer multicast tree to deliver layered video streams to multiple heterogeneous receivers. We targeted the study on placements of streaming proxies to enable efficient delivery of live and on-demand video, supporting both stationary and mobile users. The simulation results are evaluated and compared with two other baseline scenarios: one with a centralized proxy system serving the entire population and one with mini-proxies each to serve its local users. The simulations are implemented using the J-SIM simulator. The results show that even though proxies in the hybrid scenario experienced a slightly longer delay, they had the lowest drop rate of video content. This finding illustrates the significance of task sharing in multiple proxies. The resulted load balancing among proxies has provided a better video quality delivered to a larger audience.

  11. Membrane potential dynamics of populations of cortical neurons during auditory streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Brandon J.

    2015-01-01

    How a mixture of acoustic sources is perceptually organized into discrete auditory objects remains unclear. One current hypothesis postulates that perceptual segregation of different sources is related to the spatiotemporal separation of cortical responses induced by each acoustic source or stream. In the present study, the dynamics of subthreshold membrane potential activity were measured across the entire tonotopic axis of the rodent primary auditory cortex during the auditory streaming paradigm using voltage-sensitive dye imaging. Consistent with the proposed hypothesis, we observed enhanced spatiotemporal segregation of cortical responses to alternating tone sequences as their frequency separation or presentation rate was increased, both manipulations known to promote stream segregation. However, across most streaming paradigm conditions tested, a substantial cortical region maintaining a response to both tones coexisted with more peripheral cortical regions responding more selectively to one of them. We propose that these coexisting subthreshold representation types could provide neural substrates to support the flexible switching between the integrated and segregated streaming percepts. PMID:26269558

  12. Pool-type fishways: two different morpho-ecological cyprinid species facing plunging and streaming flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Paulo; Santos, José M; Katopodis, Christos; Pinheiro, António; Ferreira, Maria T

    2013-01-01

    Fish are particularly sensitive to connectivity loss as their ability to reach spawning grounds is seriously affected. The most common way to circumvent a barrier to longitudinal connectivity, and to mitigate its impacts, is to implement a fish passage device. However, these structures are often non-effective for species with different morphological and ecological characteristics so there is a need to determine optimum dimensioning values and hydraulic parameters. The aim of this work is to study the behaviour and performance of two species with different ecological characteristics (Iberian barbel Luciobarbus bocagei-bottom oriented, and Iberian chub Squalius pyrenaicus-water column) in a full-scale experimental pool-type fishway that offers two different flow regimes-plunging and streaming. Results showed that both species passed through the surface notch more readily during streaming flow than during plunging flow. The surface oriented species used the surface notch more readily in streaming flow, and both species were more successful in moving upstream in streaming flow than in plunging flow. Streaming flow enhances upstream movement of both species, and seems the most suitable for fishways in river systems where a wide range of fish morpho-ecological traits are found.

  13. Forensics of subhalo-stream encounters: the three phases of gap growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkal, Denis; Belokurov, Vasily

    2015-06-01

    There is hope to discover dark matter subhaloes free of stars (predicted by the current theory of structure formation) by observing gaps they produce in tidal streams. In fact, this is the most promising technique for dark substructure detection and characterization as such gaps grow with time, magnifying small perturbations into clear signatures observable by ongoing and planned Galaxy surveys. To facilitate such future inference, we develop a comprehensive framework for studies of the growth of the stream density perturbations. Starting with simple assumptions and restricting to streams on circular orbits, we derive analytic formulae that describe the evolution of all gap properties (size, density contrast, etc.) at all times. We uncover complex, previously unnoticed behaviour, with the stream initially forming a density enhancement near the subhalo impact point. Shortly after, a gap forms due to the relative change in period induced by the subhalo's passage. There is an intermediate regime where the gap grows linearly in time. At late times, the particles in the stream overtake each other, forming caustics, and the gap grows like √{t}. In addition to the secular growth, we find that the gap oscillates as it grows due to epicyclic motion. We compare this analytic model to N-body simulations and find an impressive level of agreement. Importantly, when analysing the observation of a single gap we find a large degeneracy between the subhalo mass, the impact geometry and kinematics, the host potential, and the time since flyby.

  14. A MULTICORE COMPUTER SYSTEM FOR DESIGN OF STREAM CIPHERS BASED ON RANDOM FEEDBACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borislav BEDZHEV

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The stream ciphers are an important tool for providing information security in the present communication and computer networks. Due to this reason our paper describes a multicore computer system for design of stream ciphers based on the so - named random feedback shift registers (RFSRs. The interest to this theme is inspired by the following facts. First, the RFSRs are a relatively new type of stream ciphers which demonstrate a significant enhancement of the crypto - resistance in a comparison with the classical stream ciphers. Second, the studding of the features of the RFSRs is in very initial stage. Third, the theory of the RFSRs seems to be very hard, which leads to the necessity RFSRs to be explored mainly by the means of computer models. The paper is organized as follows. First, the basics of the RFSRs are recalled. After that, our multicore computer system for design of stream ciphers based on RFSRs is presented. Finally, the advantages and possible areas of application of the computer system are discussed.

  15. Functional trait composition of aquatic plants can serve to disentangle multiple interacting stressors in lowland streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Göthe, Emma; Riis, Tenna; O'Hare, Matthew T

    2016-02-01

    stress. The ability to disentangle several stressors is particularly important in lowland stream environments where several stressors act in concert since the impact of the most important stressor can be targeted first, which is essential to improve the ecological status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Stream macroinvertebrate communities across a gradient of natural gas development in the Fayetteville Shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erica; Austin, Bradley J; Inlander, Ethan; Gallipeau, Cory; Evans-White, Michelle A; Entrekin, Sally

    2015-10-15

    Oil and gas extraction in shale plays expanded rapidly in the U.S. and is projected to expand globally in the coming decades. Arkansas has doubled the number of gas wells in the state since 2005 mostly by extracting gas from the Fayetteville Shale with activity concentrated in mixed pasture-deciduous forests. Concentrated well pads in close proximity to streams could have adverse effects on stream water quality and biota if sedimentation associated with developing infrastructure or contamination from fracturing fluid and waste occurs. Cumulative effects of gas activity and local habitat conditions on macroinvertebrate communities were investigated across a gradient of gas well activity (0.2-3.6 wells per km(2)) in ten stream catchments in spring 2010 and 2011. In 2010, macroinvertebrate density was positively related to well pad inverse flowpath distance from streams (r=0.84, pgas activity close to streams. However, stream water turbidity (r=0.69, p=0.02) and chlorophyll a (r=0.89, pgas well activities. In 2011, a year with record spring flooding, a different pattern emerged where mayfly density (p=0.74, p=0.01) and mayfly, stonefly, and caddisfly richness (r=0.78, p=0.008) increased in streams with greater well density and less silt cover. Hydrology and well pad placement in a catchment may interact to result in different relationships between biota and catchment activity between the two sample years. Our data show evidence of different macroinvertebrate communities expressed in catchments with different levels of gas activity that reinforce the need for more quantitative analyses of cumulative freshwater-effects from oil and gas development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of water salinity on wood breakdown in semiarid Mediterranean streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Rosa; Asencio, Antonia Dolores; Picón, José María; Del Campo, Rubén; Arce, María Isabel; Del Mar Sánchez-Montoya, María; Suárez, María Luisa; Vidal-Abarca, María Rosario

    2016-01-15

    Saline streams occur naturally and they are distributed worldwide, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, but human activities have also increased their number in many parts of the world. Little attention has been paid to assess increasing salt effects on organic matter decomposition. The objectives of this study were to analyse wood breakdown rates and how salinity affects them in 14 streams that exemplify a natural salinity gradient. We also analysed the effect of this gradient on changes in wood chemical composition, fungal biomass and microbial activity. Our results showed low breakdown rates (0.0010-0.0032 d(-1)), but they fell within the same range as those reported in freshwater streams when a similar woody substrate was used. However, salinity had a negative effect on the breakdown rates and fungal biomass along the salinity gradient, and led to noticeable changes in wood composition. Water salinity did not affect microbial activity estimated using hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate. Variation in breakdown rates and fungal biomass across streams was mediated mainly by salinity, and later by stream discharge. Despite the role of fungi in stick breakdown, the potential wood abrasion by salts must be analysed in detail to accurately understand the effect of increasing salinity on organic matter breakdown. Finally, our results indicate that increased salinity worldwide by human activities or by the global warming would imply organic matter breakdown and mineralisation slowing down, even in natural saline streams. However, because many variables are implicated, the final effect of climatic change on organic matter decomposition in streams is difficult to predict. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. High β effects on cosmic ray streaming in galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Joshua; Zweibel, Ellen G.; Oh, S. Peng

    2018-01-01

    Diffuse, extended radio emission in galaxy clusters, commonly referred to as radio haloes, indicate the presence of high energy cosmic ray (CR) electrons and cluster-wide magnetic fields. We can predict from theory the expected surface brightness of a radio halo, given magnetic field and CR density profiles. Previous studies have shown that the nature of CR transport can radically effect the expected radio halo emission from clusters (Wiener, Oh & Guo 2013). Reasonable levels of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave damping can lead to significant CR streaming speeds. But a careful treatment of MHD waves in a high β plasma, as expected in cluster environments, reveals damping rates may be enhanced by a factor of β1/2. This leads to faster CR streaming and lower surface brightnesses than without this effect. In this work, we re-examine the simplified, 1D Coma cluster simulations (with radial magnetic fields) of Wiener et al. (2013) and discuss observable consequences of this high β damping. Future work is required to study this effect in more realistic simulations.

  19. Features of Impinging Streams Intensifying Processes and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Impinging streams (IS are classified into gas-continuous and liquid-continuous ones (GIS and LIS. Large number of experimental data has shown GIS promotes transfer very efficiently; while it has the intrinsic faultiness of very short residence time, and its flow configuration is relatively complex, resulting in difficulty in arranging multistage process. Essentially, GIS is applicable only for rapid processes controlled by gas film diffusion. The effect of LIS enhancing transfer is negligible; while it has the features of efficient micromixing and strong pressure fluctuation both which are resulted from the intensive interaction between the opposing streams and can promote process kinetics. All the features of IS, including GIS and LIS, have great potential of application. Reviewing the results of number investigations, mostly worked by the authors, a somewhat detailed introduction to the features of IS and several cases of its successful applications, such as wet FGD, preparation of ultrafine or nano powders, successful industrial application of large scale LIS reactors and crystallizers, etc, are described.

  20. Faster Sound Stream Segmentation in Musicians than in Nonmusicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Clément; Jaillet, Florent; Takerkart, Sylvain; Schön, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The musician's brain is considered as a good model of brain plasticity as musical training is known to modify auditory perception and related cortical organization. Here, we show that music-related modifications can also extend beyond motor and auditory processing and generalize (transfer) to speech processing. Previous studies have shown that adults and newborns can segment a continuous stream of linguistic and non-linguistic stimuli based only on probabilities of occurrence between adjacent syllables, tones or timbres. The paradigm classically used in these studies consists of a passive exposure phase followed by a testing phase. By using both behavioural and electrophysiological measures, we recently showed that adult musicians and musically trained children outperform nonmusicians in the test following brief exposure to an artificial sung language. However, the behavioural test does not allow for studying the learning process per se but rather the result of the learning. In the present study, we analyze the electrophysiological learning curves that are the ongoing brain dynamics recorded as the learning is taking place. While musicians show an inverted U shaped learning curve, nonmusicians show a linear learning curve. Analyses of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) allow for a greater understanding of how and when musical training can improve speech segmentation. These results bring evidence of enhanced neural sensitivity to statistical regularities in musicians and support the hypothesis of positive transfer of training effect from music to sound stream segmentation in general. PMID:25014068