WorldWideScience

Sample records for reservation south dakota

  1. Population Growth and Sprawl on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R. L.

    2006-05-01

    The most important impact on global land cover is human use and development. With the recent population growth occurring on the reservations in South Dakota, especially Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, the towns and agricultural areas of the reservation are undergoing a change. Although urban sprawl certainly is not a consideration on the reservations, the population explosion currently underway has seen a subsequent increase in rural sprawl. In this case, rural sprawl is defined as exponential population growth and geographic expansion of remote reservation communities. Using satellite imagery and software to render these images is a cost effective way to investigate this growth. Also, using remotely sensed data and a GIS (geographic information system) package can address different issues that concern people and communities in and around the Pine Ridge area. The objective of my project is to observe land use change on the Pine Ridge Indian reservation using Geographic Information Systems such as; ARCGis 9, ENVI, and Multispec, along with Landsat 4, 5, and 7 imagery over the past 20 years.

  2. Pesticide concentrations in wetlands on the Lake Traverse Indian Reservation, South and North Dakota, July 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Thompson, Ryan F.

    2016-05-04

    During July 2015, water samples were collected from 18 wetlands on the Lake Traverse Indian Reservation in northeastern South Dakota and southeastern North Dakota and analyzed for physical properties and 54 pesticides. This study by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Sisseton-Wahpeton Oyate was designed to provide an update on pesticide concentrations of the same 18 wetlands that were sampled for a reconnaissance-level assessment during July 2006. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the assessment of pesticide concentrations in selected Lake Traverse Indian Reservation wetlands during July 2015 and provide a comparison of pesticide concentrations between 2006 and 2015.Of the 54 pesticides that were analyzed for in the samples collected during July 2015, 47 pesticides were not detected in any samples. Seven pesticides—2-chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine (CIAT); 2,4–D; acetachlor; atrazine; glyphosate; metolachlor; and prometon—were detected in the 2015 samples with estimated concentrations or concentrations greater than the laboratory reporting level, and most pesticides were detected at low concentrations in only a few samples. Samples from all wetlands contained at least one detected pesticide. The maximum number of pesticides detected in a wetland sample was six, and the median number of pesticides detected was three.The most commonly detected pesticides in the 2015 samples were atrazine and the atrazine degradate CIAT (also known as deethylatrazine), which were detected in 14 and 13 of the wetlands sampled, respectively. Glyphosate was detected in samples from 11 wetlands, and metolachlor was detected in samples from 10 wetlands. The other detected pesticides were 2,4–D (4 wetlands), acetochlor (3 wetlands), and prometon (1 wetland).The same pesticides that were detected in the 2006 samples were detected in the 2015 samples, with the exception of simazine, which was detected only in one sample in 2006

  3. South Dakota's forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; W. Keith Moser; Douglas D. Haugan; Gregory J. Josten; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Mark H. Hansen; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall

    2009-01-01

    The first completed annual inventory of South Dakota's forests reports almost 1.7 million acres of forest land. Softwood forests make up 74 percent of the total forest land area; the ponderosa pine forest type by itself accounts for 69 percent of the total.

  4. Rural Sprawl and the Impact of Human Land Use on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R.; Bennett, T.

    2005-12-01

    The most important impact on global land cover is human use and development. With the recent population growth occurring on the reservations in South Dakota, specifically Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, the towns and communities of the reservation are undergoing change. Although urban sprawl certainly is not a consideration on the reservations, the population explosion currently underway has seen a subsequent increase in rural sprawl. In this case, rural sprawl is defined as exponential population growth and geographic expansion of remote reservation communities. The capacity of satellite imagery to encompass large land tracts make the use of this technology a cost effective way to visualize and investigate population growth in rural communities. Likewise, integrating remotely sensed data into a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be a powerful tool to identify environmental and other land use issues that impact the people and communities in and around the Pine Ridge area. The objective of this research is to (1) observe and calculate land cover change around three communities on the Pine Ridge Indian reservation using remotely sensed data (Landsat MSS, TM and ETM+) and Geographic Information Systems over a 20 year span, and (2) to discuss the potential impacts of rural sprawl on the Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Preliminary results indicate that land cover has changed in relationship to increased population growth within three communities on the reservation. New housing developments, roads and buildings have appeared and these changes were detectable using Landsat imagery. These results will be discussed along with the experiences and education through the NASA Goddard Internship sponsored by the North Dakota Association of Tribal Colleges.

  5. South Dakota geothermal handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are described. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resource are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized. (MHR)

  6. Forests of South Dakota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in South Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station (NRS) in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Agriculture, Resource Conservation and Forestry Division. Estimates are based on field data...

  7. Forests of South Dakota, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in South Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station (NRS) in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Agriculture, Resource Conservation and Forestry Division. Estimates are based on field data...

  8. Forests of South Dakota, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in South Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Agriculture, Resource Conservation and Forestry Division. Estimates are based on field data collected...

  9. Seasonal use of conservation reserve program lands by white-tailed deer in east-central South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Jeffrey H.; Jenkins, Kurt J.

    1993-01-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP_, a provision of the 1985 Food Security Act, subsidizes landowners to take highly erodible lands out of cultivation and seed them to perennial cover for 10years. In eastern South Dakota, 0.5 million ha were enrolled in the CRP from 1985 to 1990 (Agric. Stabilization and Conserv. Serv., Brookings, S.D., unpubl. Data), which represents the largest change in conservation land-use practices in the region since the 1956 Soil Bank Program (Goetz 1987).Although the CRP is anticipated to produce substantial benefits for some wildlife species, particularly ground-nesting birds, its significance to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the northern Great Plains agricultural region is poorly understood. Higgins et al. (1987) speculated that proliferation of CRP grasslands may provide a missing habitat component in intensively managed farmland, thereby enhancing several species of wildlife, including white-tailed deer. Deer managers in the region have expressed concerns that improved cover associated with DRP plantings on private land could attract deer and reduce hunter success rates or lead to increased depredation of adjacent croplands or stored winter forages (L. Rice, S.D. Dep. Game, Fish, and Parks, Rapid City, pers. comm., 1989). Our objectives were to describe variation in deer use of CRP lands by season, diel period, and deer activity class as a means of assessing seasonal importance of CRP fields to white-tailed deer in agricultural Midwest.

  10. Environmental Info for South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains information about air and water in South Dakota, including state implementation programs (SIPs), air permitting, underground injection control (UIC) and National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES).

  11. Angler satisfaction in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Kjetil R.; Gigliotti, Larry M.

    2015-01-01

    Many industries use satisfaction measures to evaluate performance. The South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks identified satisfaction as one of their performance measures for evaluating fishing in South Dakota. In fisheries management, the perspectives’ of license buyers are valuable to determine if management activities are providing the benefits anticipated by biologists. Surveys of South Dakota anglers are conducted to better understand licensees in order to promote satisfying angling experiences. Internet surveys were distributed to all license buyers providing email addresses in 2011 and 2012. Angler satisfaction was analyzed by angler type (demographics and fishing characteristics) to further clarify performance measures. Most anglers (> 70%) were satisfied with their angling experiences. Nonresidents expressed higher levels of satisfaction with fishing in South Dakota in 2011 and 2012 than residents. Anglers’ rating of fishing quality was more strongly correlated with satisfaction than their reported number of fish harvested, which suggests that strategies to influence angler perceptions and expectations can also be employed to influence satisfaction (in addition to techniques influencing fish populations). This research further integrates sociological data into South Dakota fisheries management processes.

  12. South Dakota's forest resources, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with Web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  13. South Dakota's forest resources, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  14. South Dakota's forest resources, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  15. South Dakota's forest resources, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters; Ronald J. Piva

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  16. South Dakota's Forest Resources, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Andrew J. Lister; Douglas Haugan

    2009-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  17. South Dakota's forest resources, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  18. 40 CFR 81.427 - South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Dakota. 81.427 Section 81.427 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.427 South Dakota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  19. South Dakota Student Learning Objectives Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Matt; Outka, Janeen; McCorkle, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Student growth is one of two essential components of South Dakota's Teacher and Principal Effectiveness Systems. In the state systems, student growth is defined as a positive change in student achievement between two or more points in time. "The South Dakota SLO Handbook" provides support and guidance to public schools and school…

  20. South Dakota ITS/CVO business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report defines an ITS/CVO program for the State of South Dakota. It is a Business Plan to guide the deployment of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) technology for improving commercial vehicle operations (CVO) in South Dakota. This ITS/CVO...

  1. Disparities in Alcohol, Drug Use, and Mental Health Condition Prevalence and Access to Care in Rural, Isolated, and Reservation Areas: Findings From the South Dakota Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melinda M; Spurlock, Margaret; Dulacki, Kristen; Meath, Thomas; Li, Hsin-Fang Grace; McCarty, Dennis; Warne, Donald; Wright, Bill; McConnell, K John

    2016-06-01

    Research on urban/rural disparities in alcohol, drug use, and mental health (ADM) conditions is inconsistent. This study describes ADM condition prevalence and access to care across diverse geographies in a predominantly rural state. Multimodal cross-sectional survey in South Dakota from November 2013 to October 2014, with oversampling in rural areas and American Indian reservations. Measures assessed demographic characteristics, ADM condition prevalence using clinical screenings and participant self-report, perceived need for treatment, health service usage, and barriers to obtaining care. We tested for differences among urban, rural, isolated, and reservation geographic areas, controlling for participant age and gender. We analyzed 7,675 surveys (48% response rate). Generally, ADM condition prevalence rates were not significantly different across geographies. However, respondents in isolated and reservation areas were significantly less likely to have access to primary care. Knowledge of treatment options was significantly lower in isolated regions and individuals in reservation areas had significantly lower odds of reporting receipt of all needed care. Across the sample there was substantial discordance between ADM clinical screenings and participant self-reported need; 98.1% of respondents who screened positive for alcohol or drug misuse and 63.8% of respondents who screened positive for a mental health condition did not perceive a need for care. In a predominantly rural state, geographic disparities in ADM conditions are related to differences in access as opposed to prevalence, particularly for individuals in isolated and reservation areas. Educational interventions about ADM condition characteristics may be as important as improving access to care. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  2. Asthma triggers on the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation in western South Dakota: the Breathing Relief Education and Tribal Health Empowerment (BREATHE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Rae; Wallace, James

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to better understand asthma triggers and possible causes of exacerbations among BREATHE participants on the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation in western South Dakota. To qualify for enrollment, participants had to have physician-diagnosed asthma, be uncontrolled and have persistent symptoms. Participants were asked to identify their top two asthma triggers throughout their one-year enrollment during initial visits and subsequent phone follow-ups. In addition, participant's medical records were reviewed for visits to the emergency department (ED) to demonstrate asthma exacerbations. In 2008, 127 interviews were conducted with 45 enrolled participants for a total of 254 results. Overall, the three most common self reported triggers were cold air, dust and smoke and these comprised nearly half (48.4 percent) of all reports. Dust was reported in 16.5 percent of interviews and ranked among the top four for every season. Smoke (12.6 percent) and cold air (19.3 percent) were leaders in all seasons except summer, but humid air, pollens and strong odors were unique to summer. Exercise/activity ranked high during the winter and spring, but was reported less in summer and fall. There was no identifiable trend in ER visits by season. People with asthma living on the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation or other locations with similar community and geographic demographics are most likely to suffer an asthma exacerbation from exposure to cold air, dust, smoke and exercise/activity. Asthma education is necessary on all levels, but information on avoidance and control of these most common reported triggers is especially important.

  3. 75 FR 62135 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    .... FEMA-1938-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1938-DR), dated September 23... South Dakota resulting from severe storms and flooding during the period of July 21-30, 2010, is of...

  4. 75 FR 30418 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    .... FEMA-1914-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1914-DR), dated May 13, 2010, and related... in certain areas of the State of South Dakota resulting from a severe winter storm on April 2, 2010...

  5. 75 FR 30420 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    .... FEMA-1915-DR;Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1915-DR), dated May 13, 2010, and related... in certain areas of the State of South Dakota resulting from flooding beginning on March 10, 2010...

  6. 75 FR 47612 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    .... FEMA-1929-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1929-DR), dated July 29, 2010... follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of South Dakota resulting from...

  7. 75 FR 71453 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    .... FEMA-1947-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1947-DR), dated November 2, 2010, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of South Dakota...

  8. 76 FR 36140 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    .... FEMA-1984-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1984-DR), dated May 13, 2011, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of South Dakota resulting from flooding beginning on...

  9. 78 FR 72093 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    .... FEMA-4155-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-4155-DR), dated November 8, 2013, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of South Dakota...

  10. A Profile of Homeschooling in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschee, Bonni F.; Boschee, Floyd

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a statewide study to determine which factors influenced parents' decision making in electing to homeschool their children rather than send them to public school education in South Dakota. Analysis of data, using frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations revealed that the most prevalent reasons for homeschooling…

  11. 40 CFR 81.342 - South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.342 South Dakota... McCook County McPherson County Meade County Mellette County Miner County Minnehaha County Moody County... Lyman County Marshall County McCook County McPherson County Meade County Mellette County Miner County...

  12. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by South Dakota single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  13. Epidemiology of diphtheria in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golaz, A; Lance-Parker, S; Welty, T; Schaefer, L; Volmer, L; LaFromboise, C; Dixon, J; Haase, T; Kim, C; Popovic, T; Bisgard, K; Strebel, P; Wharton, M

    2000-07-01

    Respiratory diphtheria was one of the most common causes of death among children in the pre-vaccine era. Since the introduction of diphtheria toxoid vaccine in 1920s, and its widespread use by the late 1940s, diphtheria became increasingly rare in the United States. However, through the 1970s diphtheria remained endemic in some states, with reported incidence rates > 1.0 per million population in six states (Alaska, Arizona, Montana, New Mexico, South Dakota, and Washington). Starting in 1980, less than five cases have been reported each year in the United States. The majority of culture-confirmed cases have been associated with importation from other countries. Toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the organism causing diphtheria, was thought to have become rare or even have disappeared from previously endemic areas such as South Dakota. However, during four months in 1996, 11 persons (one index case, six patients and four household contacts) in an American Indian community in South Dakota were found to be infected by C. diphtheriae; six of these isolates were toxigenic. The findings in this report indicate that despite 20 years without reported respiratory diphtheria cases, toxigenic C. diphtheriae is still present in South Dakota. The continuous circulation of toxigenic strains of C. diphtheriae emphasizes the need for health care providers throughout South Dakota to promote timely vaccination against diphtheria among persons of all ages and ethnic groups, to be aware of the clinical signs and symptoms of diphtheria so that cases can be promptly diagnosed and treated, and further public health measures can be taken to contain this serious disease.

  14. The Impact of Employment Nondiscrimination Legislation in South Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Naomi G; Badgett, M V Lee; Ramos, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This report explores the issue of employment discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) citizens of South Dakota. We used the best available data from government sources and from recent research to examine the impact of employment discrimination on LGBT people and on South Dakota businesses. Specifically this report concludes that as many as 12,400 gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals live in South Dakota, and estimates suggest that 2,000 transgender individuals l...

  15. Healthy people, malaria and South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Mark K

    2012-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Healthy People 2020 goals call for a reduction in the number of cases of malaria in the United States. Historically, South Dakota has had a low incidence of this infection, but a demographic shift has poised the state for a potential increase in the number of cases. The reasons for this are reviewed, and proactive steps that can be taken to avoid this rise are presented.

  16. State of South Dakota's child: 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A L

    2000-01-01

    The Surgeon General's Year 2000 health goals for the nation are presented and data from South Dakota and the United States that measure progress toward achieving them are discussed. The percentage of low-birth weight babies (LBW) in South Dakota is lower than observed nationally, but, similar to the national trend, has increased in the past few years. Between 1996-1998, 1.1% of all newborns in the state weighed less than 1500 grams, and 5.7% weighed less than 2500 grams. There has been continuing progress observed in the survival rate of the very low birth weight infant. In 1996 the state experienced a precipitous drop in its infant mortality rate (IMR) that has not been sustained in the past two years. The state's 1998 IMR of 9.0 per 1000 live births, however, is less than the mean rate of 10 that persisted over the previous decade. The IMR for white babies (5.7) has achieved the Year 2000 Goal. The rate of Sudden Infant Death in South Dakota is significantly higher (p feeding. The benefits of breast-feeding to babies and mothers are described, as well as the need for it to be advocated by the health care community. This advocacy must emphasize breast-feeding's importance, how women can be assisted as they begin to nurse, and how community efforts can be taken to enable breast-feeding continuation when women return to work following delivery.

  17. A Critical Look At South Dakota Cable TV Franchising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Rick P.

    An examination of the present status and future potential of cable television (CATV) in South Dakota is conducted. Chapter 1 offers a brief introduction to cable in the State and Chapter 2 discusses the value of CATV to South Dakota. The next Chapter presents a State plan for communications and the fourth deals with the subject of franchising. The…

  18. South Dakota ITS/CVO business plan : executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-19

    This report defines an ITS/CVO program for the State of South Dakota. It is a Business Plan to guide the deployment of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) technology for improving commercial vehicle operations (CVO) in South Dakota. This ITS/CVO...

  19. South Dakota's forests, 2005: statistics, methods, and quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Miles; Ronald J. Piva; Charles J. Barnett

    2011-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of South Dakota's forests was completed in 2005 after 8,302 plots were selected and 325 forested plots were visited and measured. This report includes detailed information on forest inventory methods and data quality estimates. Important resource statistics are included in the tables. A detailed analysis of the South Dakota...

  20. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Milbank NTMS Quadrangle, Minnesota; North Dakota; South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey are reported for the Milbank Quadrangle, Minnesota; North Dakota; South Dakota. Statistical data and areal distributions for uranium and uranium-related variables are presented for 662 groundwater and 319 stream sediment samples. Also included is a brief discussion on location and geologic setting

  1. Low-level siting, Edgemont, South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The siting of a low-level radwaste disposal facility and characterization activities to date in Edgemont, South Dakota are discussed. By using past and present experience the author sets forth the major problem, the social and political considerations, community acceptance, media and public officials' attitudes, criteria for acceptance and significance of countywide vote in support of facility. Characterization activities, site selection planning and criteria, above-grade and below-grade technical evaluation, NRC interface, 10 CFR Part 61 related to technical work, as well as community acceptance and license application are covered. The paper deals with specific problems, solutions and ongoing activities

  2. Low-level siting, Edgemont, South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The siting of a low-level radwaste disposal facility and characterization activities to date, at Edgemont, South Dakota are given. Using past and present experience setting forth the major problem as viewed by the author, the social and political considerations, community acceptance, media and public officials' attitudes, criteria for acceptance and significance of countywide vote in support of facility are presented. Characterization activities, site selection planning and criteria, above-grade and below-grade technical evaluation, NRC interface, 10 CFR Part 61 related to technical work, as well as community acceptance and license application are included. The paper deals with specific problems, solutions and ongoing activities

  3. Premature mortality patterns among American Indians in South Dakota, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Mathew; Kightlinger, Lon

    2013-05-01

    American Indians in South Dakota have the highest mortality rates in the nation compared to other racial and ethnic groups and American Indians in other states. Cause-related and age-specific mortality patterns among American Indians in South Dakota are identified to guide prevention planning and policy efforts designed to reduce mortality within this population, in both South Dakota and other parts of the U.S. Death certificate data from South Dakota (2000-2010), on 5738 American Indians and 70,580 whites, were used to calculate age-specific mortality rates and rate ratios. These values were examined in order to identify patterns among the leading causes of death. Analyses were completed in 2011 and 2012. Within the South Dakota population, 70% of American Indians died before reaching age 70 years, compared to 25% of whites. Fatal injuries and chronic diseases were the leading causes of premature mortality. Nine leading causes of death showed consistent patterns of mortality disparity between American Indians and whites, with American Indians having significantly higher rates of mortality at lower ages. Premature mortality among American Indians in South Dakota is a serious public health problem. Unified efforts at the federal, tribal, state, and local levels are needed to reduce premature death within this population. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Tick Talk: Tick-borne Diseases of South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Mark K; Allison, Jay

    2017-09-01

    In addition to being a nuisance, ticks can carry disease. This article presents a brief review of ticks and associated tick-borne disease relevant to South Dakota and surrounding regions. Tick-borne diseases of special relevance in South Dakota include tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and Lyme disease. A number of others may also be encountered in the state as well. Prompt treatment of suspected cases is important to ensure a successful recovery, and tick-avoidance measures can reduce the risks of acquiring them. Most of these conditions are nationally reportable infectious diseases. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  5. Implementation guidance for accelerated bridge construction in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    A study was conducted to investigate implementation of accelerated bridge construction (ABC) in South Dakota. Accelerated bridge construction is defined as construction practices that employ innovative techniques to reduce on-site construction time a...

  6. South Dakota ITS/CVO business plan : final business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-18

    This report defines an Intelligent Transportation Systems/Commercial Vehicle Operations (ITS/CVO) program for the State of South Dakota. Structured as a business plan, the document includes the following components: 1) description of the current CVO ...

  7. 77 FR 47302 - South Dakota: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... EPA proposed to authorize South Dakota's State Hazardous waste management Program revisions published... to the hazardous waste program revisions submitted by South Dakota. The Agency published a Proposed...

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in South Dakota. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in South Dakota.

  9. NPDES Permit for Rosebud Casino and Hotel Wastewater Treatment Facility in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit SD-0034584, Rosebud Casino and Hotel, South Dakota, is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Todd County, South Dakota to an unnamed drainageway(s) tributary to Rock Creek.

  10. Medicare charge-receipt data: results for South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamfers, Randall; Miller, Nathan; Nettleman, Mary D

    2013-10-01

    The 2013 release of 2011 financial information by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) caused concern because some hospitals had charges that appeared to be exorbitantly high compared to reimbursement rates. Charges and receipts for South Dakota were compared to national data. The study was restricted to nine discharge codes likely to be seen by an adult hospitalist service. South Dakota hospitals had a lower charge-to-receipt ratio than the national average (p Dakota was 2.74 compared to 3.75 nationally. South Dakota charged 29 percent less for these discharge codes and received 3 percent lower reimbursement than the national average. The relatively low charge-to-receipt ratio and low charges in South Dakota are encouraging. Unfortunately, the only South Dakotans likely to be asked to pay full charges are the uninsured, who thus face bills that are much higher than insurance companies pay for the insured population. This leaves uninsured patients and hospitals with trying to negotiate discounts or waivers on an individual basis, which is an inefficient and problematic approach for both parties.

  11. CUBED: South Dakota 2010 Research Center For Dusel Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Christina; Alton, Drew; Bai Xinhau; Durben, Dan; Heise, Jaret; Hong Haiping; Howard, Stan; Jiang Chaoyang; Keeter, Kara; McTaggart, Robert; Medlin, Dana; Mei Dongming; Petukhov, Andre; Rauber, Joel; Roggenthen, Bill; Spaans, Jason; Sun Yongchen; Szczerbinska, Barbara; Thomas, Keenan; Zehfus, Michael

    2010-01-01

    With the selection of the Homestake Mine in western South Dakota by the National Science Foundation (NSF) as the site for a national Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), the state of South Dakota has sought ways to engage its faculty and students in activities planned for DUSEL. One such effort is the creation of a 2010 Research Center focused on ultra-low background experiments or a Center for Ultra-low Background Experiments at DUSEL (CUBED). The goals of this center include to 1) bring together the current South Dakota faculty so that one may begin to develop a critical mass of expertise necessary for South Dakota's full participation in large-scale collaborations planned for DUSEL; 2) to increase the number of research faculty and other research personnel in South Dakota to complement and supplement existing expertise in nuclear physics and materials sciences; 3) to be competitive in pursuit of external funding through the creation of a center which focuses on areas of interest to experiments planned for DUSEL such as an underground crystal growth lab, a low background counting facility, a purification/depletion facility for noble liquids, and an electroforming copper facility underground; and 4) to train and educate graduate and undergraduate students as a way to develop the scientific workforce of the state. We will provide an update on the activities of the center and describe in more detail the scientific foci of the center.

  12. 76 FR 70481 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ...] Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; South Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. [[Page...: 5th Principal Meridian, South Dakota T. 124 N., R. 53 W. The plat, in two sheets, representing the... Principal Meridian, South Dakota, was accepted October 28, 2011. We will place a copy of the plat, in two...

  13. 77 FR 22610 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ...] Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; South Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION..., Great Plains Region, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Aberdeen, South Dakota, and was necessary to determine individual and tribal trust lands. The lands we surveyed are: 5th Principal Meridian, South Dakota T. 124 N...

  14. 77 FR 38321 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ...] Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; South Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION... Director, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Great Plains Region, Aberdeen, South Dakota, and was necessary to determine tribal and trust lands. The lands we surveyed are: Sixth Principal Meridian, South Dakota T. 38 N...

  15. 78 FR 25464 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Filing of Plats of Survey; South Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of..., Bureau of Indian Affairs, Great Plains Region, Aberdeen, South Dakota and was necessary to determine trust and tribal lands. The lands we surveyed are: Sixth Principal Meridian, South Dakota T. 45 N., R...

  16. Bringing the waste back home: a decision for South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrier, J.

    1984-01-01

    This article describes the controversy in South Dakota over the plans of Chem-Nuclear of Barnwell, SC to develop a shallow-trench dump in an abandoned Army weapons depot near Edgement capable of storing at least one-third of the nation's nuclear waste. Edgemont welcomed the project because of serious economic depression and because they were the site of uranium mining and milling before the market for nuclear fuel collapsed. In spite of this and in spite of Chem-Nuclear's educational program, there were many serious reservations voiced by citizens in the state. Many objected to the idea of a shallow landfill. The Sierra Club voiced a concern that too much material, including used reactor parts, is classified as low-level waste. They felt that a shallow dump such as the one proposed at Edgemont would seriously damage any chance of reforming national regulations

  17. Vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccination rates in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kightlinger, Lon

    2013-01-01

    Vaccine-preventable diseases have historically caused much illness and death in South Dakota. Sixty-seven diphtheria deaths were reported in 1892 and 1,017 polio cases were reported at the peak of the polio epidemic in 1952. As vaccines have been developed, licensed and put into wide use, the rates of diphtheria, polio, measles, smallpox and other diseases have successfully decreased leading to control, statewide elimination or eradication. Other diseases, such as pertussis, have been more difficult to control by vaccination alone. Although current vaccination coverage rates for South Dakota's kindergarten children surpass the Healthy People 2020 targets of 95 percent, the coverage rates for 2-year-old children and teenagers are below the target rates. Until vaccine-preventable diseases are eradicated globally, we must vigilantly maintain high vaccination coverage rates and aggressively apply control measures to limit transmission when diseases do occur in South Dakota.

  18. Ground-survey and water-quality data for selected wetlands on or near the Lower Brule Indian Reservation in South Dakota, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzert, Kathleen M.; Thompson, Ryan F.

    2015-08-20

    Numerous lakes, ponds, and wetlands are located within the Lower Brule Indian Reservation. Wetlands are an important resource providing aquatic habitat for plants and animals, and acting as a natural water filtration system. Several of the wetlands on or near the reservation are of particular interest, but information on the physical and biological integrity of these wetlands was needed to provide a base-line reference when planning for future water management needs. A reconnaissance-level study of selected wetlands on and near the Lower Brule Indian Reservation was completed in 2012–13 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Lower Brule Sioux Tribe using ground surveys and water-quality analyses. Ground surveys of six wetland areas (Dorman Slough, Little Bend Wetlands, Miller Pond, Potter Slough, an unnamed slough, and West Brule Community wetlands) were completed to map land, water, vegetation, and man-made features of the selected wetland areas using real-time kinematic global navigation satellite systems equipment. Water samples were collected from four of the selected wetlands. Two separate waterbodies were sampled at one of the wetlands for a total of five sampling locations. Water samples were analyzed for physical properties, selected inorganics, metals, nutrients, and suspended sediment. Concentrations of calcium, sodium, and sulfate were greater at the two wetland sites fed by ground water, compared to the wetland sites fed by surface runoff.

  19. Simulated groundwater flow in the Ogallala and Arikaree aquifers, Rosebud Indian Reservation area, South Dakota - Revisions with data through water year 2008 and simulations of potential future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Andrew J.; Putnam, Larry D.

    2010-01-01

    The Ogallala and Arikaree aquifers are important water resources in the Rosebud Indian Reservation area and are used extensively for irrigation, municipal, and domestic water supplies. Drought or increased withdrawals from the Ogallala and Arikaree aquifers in the Rosebud Indian Reservation area have the potential to affect water levels in these aquifers. This report documents revisions and recalibration of a previously published three-dimensional, numerical groundwater-flow model for this area. Data for a 30-year period (water years 1979 through 2008) were used in steady-state and transient numerical simulations of groundwater flow. In the revised model, revisions include (1) extension of the transient calibration period by 10 years, (2) the use of inverse modeling for steady-state calibration, (3) model calibration to base flow for an additional four surface-water drainage basins, (4) improved estimation of transient aquifer recharge, (5) improved delineation of vegetation types, and (6) reduced cell size near large capacity water-supply wells. In addition, potential future scenarios were simulated to assess the potential effects of drought and increased groundwater withdrawals.The model comprised two layers: the upper layer represented the Ogallala aquifer and the lower layer represented the Arikaree aquifer. The model’s grid had 168 rows and 202 columns, most of which were 1,640 feet (500 meters) wide, with narrower rows and columns near large water-supply wells. Recharge to the Ogallala and Arikaree aquifers occurs from precipitation on the outcrop areas. The average recharge rates used for the steady-state simulation were 2.91 and 1.45 inches per year for the Ogallala aquifer and Arikaree aquifer, respectively, for a total rate of 255.4 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). Discharge from the aquifers occurs through evapotranspiration, discharge to streams as base flow and spring flow, and well withdrawals. Discharge rates for the steady-state simulation were 171

  20. Selected Hydrologic Data, Through Water Year 1998, Black Hills Hydrology Study, South Dakota

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Driscoll, Daniel G; Bradford, Wendell L; Moran, Michael J

    2000-01-01

    .... This study is a long-term cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District...

  1. South Dakota Department of Education 2010 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    South Dakota has many things to be proud of: Its students consistently outperform their peers on national assessments. The state has a high graduation rate, and it ranks among the top states in the nation for students going on to postsecondary. Credit for these achievements goes to the state's local school districts. This annual report covers key…

  2. South Dakota Department of Education Data Access Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The South Dakota Department of Education (DOE) collects education records from local schools and districts in accordance with federal and state laws and regulations. This policy document establishes the procedures and protocols for accessing, maintaining, disclosing, and disposing of confidential data records, including data records containing…

  3. South Dakota's 1996 Homeless Report. Homeless, Not Hopeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

    To study the number and status of homeless people in South Dakota, a questionnaire was mailed to approximately 701 persons who were likely to have knowledge of homeless people. Responses were received from 349 people. Estimated numbers of homeless people include those who live with others because they lack adequate resources to maintain a fixed,…

  4. Accelerating the College and Career Readiness of South Dakota's Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    South Dakota is in the process of transitioning to new English language arts and mathematics standards that will better prepare students to be successful in college and their careers. Time, effort, and resources must be dedicated to effective implementation in order to realize the promise of these new common core state standards. This paper…

  5. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of South Dakota. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  6. Microhabitats of Merriam's turkeys in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson

    1996-01-01

    Merriam’s Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) are associated with ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in the western United States, but are not native to the ponderosa pine forest of the Black Hills, South Dakota. The Black Hills population was established by transplanting birds from New Mexico and Colorado between 1948 and...

  7. Urban and community forests of the North Central West region: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community...

  8. Assisted reproductive technologies in South Dakota: the first ten years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannian, John; Hansen, Keith

    2006-07-01

    One in six couples experience infertility. New assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) have helped thousands of couples worldwide to have a family. IVF has been available in South Dakota for the past ten years. Improvements in the clinic and laboratory have led to better live birth rates and lower incidences of multiple pregnancies. Advances in technology will help even more people overcome fertility problems in the near future.

  9. Trends in Substance Use Across the Nation and South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Jeremy; Owen, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    With the discovery of morphine in the early 1800s, substance abuse quickly followed. Next came the production of heroin and other synthetic opioids, along with increases in nonmedical use of prescription medications. In the 21st century, drug abuse and addiction continues to rise nationwide with the three most common drugs abused in adolescents being marijuana, synthetic marijuana, and hallucinogens. Among adolescents and adults nationwide, rates of alcohol, opioids, and amphetamine use have increased over the last decade. In South Dakota, the most prevalent drugs consist of alcohol, methamphetamine, heroin, and prescription opioids. Through the implementation and use of the Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) by the South Dakota Board of Pharmacy (SDBOP), hydrocodone/acetaminophen has been identified as the most dispensed controlled substance in the state with roughly 21,000 prescriptions dispensed last November alone. While the PDMP does not necessarily encompass all controlled substances used by the patient (e.g., those purchased from illicit sources), the generation of PDMP reports by physicians and pharmacists is still beneficial. With increased use of the PDMP along with urine drug screens and patient interviews, health care professionals can continue to work collaboratively to help curb the growing epidemic of substance use. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  10. South Dakota State University's Library: A History. Hilton M. Briggs Library Occasional Paper Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip

    Tracing the history of South Dakota State University's Hilton M. Briggs Library over the past 102 years, this occasional paper describes the development of what is now the largest library (over 1.1 million total pieces) in the South Dakota Library Network from its inception as part of a small land grant college. Administrative eras are reviewed,…

  11. Bird species associated with green ash woodlands in the Slim Buttes, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Hodorff; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1986-01-01

    In western South Dakota, native deciduous woodlands are uncommon, constituting less than 1% of the total land area (Boldt et al. 1978). The Green Ash/Common Chokecherry (Fraxinus pennsylvanica/Prunus virginiana) habitat type is the major deciduous habitat type in northwestern South Dakota (Hansen and Hoffman 1985). This type occurs in depressions,...

  12. LEAVE OF ABSENCE PRACTICES IN SOUTH DAKOTA SCHOOLS--SCHOOL YEAR 1964-65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Education Association, Pierre.

    IN ADDITION TO SCHOOL POLICIES RELATING TO TEACHER LEAVES OF ABSENCE IN SOUTH DAKOTA, STATE BY STATE SUMMARIES OF EDUCATIONAL LEGISLATION REGARDING SICK LEAVE, MATERNITY LEAVE, AND SABBATICAL LEAVE ARE PRESENTED IN THIS DOCUMENT. OF THE 228 RESPONDING SCHOOLS IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 215 REPORTED EXISTING SICK LEAVE POLICIES. THE MAJORITY OF RESPONDING…

  13. Perceptions of Equid Well Being Well-Being in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Lindsey R; Bott, Rebecca C; Mastellar, Sara L; Djira, Gemechis; Carroll, Heidi K

    2018-01-01

    In South Dakota, the status of equid well being is relatively unknown. This study sought to (a) gain understanding about the current perceptions of nonhuman animal well being in South Dakota, with an emphasis on horses and other equids; (b) determine the level of care equids are reportedly receiving and the perceived challenges to equine well being in South Dakota, and (c) determine if people from diverse geographical locations (east or west of the Missouri River) have similar views on the well being of equids in South Dakota. Respondents indicated the current level of equid well being in South Dakota is sufficient, but there is room for improvement. Current challenges for the equid population of South Dakota were the high annual cost of horse care, poor horsemanship, dental problems, and whether caregivers understand basic equine care. Several significant associations arose between where a respondent lives (Western or Eastern South Dakota) and their level of agreement with various statements. The results provide a benchmark to gauge well being and help give direction for future educational needs that can continue to improve equid care.

  14. South Dakota School of Mines, Keystone, South Dakota: solar energy system performance evaluation, December 1979-May 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Performance of the South Dakota School of Mines solar energy system from December 1979 to May 1980 is described. The system is installed in the Mt. Rushmore National Memorial Visitors' Center near Keystone, South Dakota. The site is located at 44/sup 0/N latitude and 1600 m elevation. The building has 540 m/sup 2/ of conditioned space and a design overall thermal transfer coefficient (UA) of 0.22 GJ(/sup 0/C/sub <21/ d)/sup -1/. The solar energy system is of liquid-based active type, with 187 m/sup 2/ of flat-plate collector area and 11.4 m/sup 3/ of water thermal storage. The site experienced average irradiance of 155 WM/sup -2/ and average ambient temperature of 2/sup 0/C during the period described. Under these conditions, the solar energy system supplied 43% of the energy required for space heating, saving 3790 liters of fuel oil that would otherwise have been burned. Storage temperature set points for energy supply to space heating were investigated during the season, and results of the investigation are described. The regime of 38/sup 0/C threshold and 32/sup 0/C cutoff temperature was found to be optimal.

  15. Phonological individuation in a former Danish settlement in South Dakota, USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegård, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The article describes the manifestation and distribution of 15 phonological variables in a rural heritage language community in South Dakota, USA. I discuss to what extent dialect convergence has occurred in this former Danish settlement. The data sample encompasses speakers born in Northwest...... Jutland in Denmark, as well as speakers born in South Dakota to parents who emigrated from Northwest Jutland. The analysis shows that dialectal convergence has not occurred to any significant degree, in spite of what may be expected; speakers born in South Dakota have significantly more dialectal features...

  16. Development of a New South Dakota Rural Family Medicine Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Jean; Huber, Thomas; Huntington, Mark K

    2017-11-01

    The healthcare workforce is a priority in South Dakota. It has been estimated that 8,000 additional healthcare workers beyond those in practice in 2010 will be needed by 2020. In 2016, the South Dakota Department of Health included in its budget funds for the development of a new Rural Family Medicine Residency Training Program as one of the steps toward addressing the physician component of these workforce needs. This new program has just received its accreditation and is recruiting the inaugural class of resident physicians for the spring of 2018. This article provides a concise overview of the program's initial development. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  17. National uranium resource evaluation, Rapid City Quadrangle, South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanna, R.F.; Milton, E.J.

    1982-04-01

    The Rapid City (1 0 x 2 0 ) Quadrangle, South Dakota, was evaluated for environments favorble for uranium deposits to a depth of 1500 m. Criteria used were those of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Field reconnaissance involved the use of hand-held scintillometers to investigate uranium occurrences reported in the literature and anomalies in aerial radiometric surveys, and geochemical samples of stream sediments and well waters. Gamma-ray logs were used to define the favorable environments in the subsurface. Environments favorable for sandstone-type uranium deposits occur in the Inyan Kara Group, the Fox Hills Sandstone, and the Hell Creek Formation. Environments considered unfavorable for uranium deposits include all Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Tertiary rocks other than those identified as favorable

  18. Small Wind Electric Systems: A South Dakota Consumer's Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dell, K.

    2001-01-01

    The South Dakota Consumer's Guide for Small Wind Electric Systems provides consumers with enough information to help them determine if a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include: how to make your home more energy efficient, how to choose the right size turbine, the parts of a wind electric system, determining if there is enough wind resource on your site, choosing the best site for your turbine, connecting your system to the utility grid, and if it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a state wind resource map and a list of state incentives and state contacts for more information

  19. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of South Dakota, elevation data are critical for agriculture and precision farming, natural resources conservation, water supply and quality, infrastructure and construction management, flood risk management, geologic resource assessment and hazard mitigation, and other business uses. Today, high-density light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the primary sources for deriving elevation models and other datasets. Federal, State, tribal, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data that are older and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data.

  20. South Dakota Geothermal Commercialization Project. Final report, July 1979-October 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegman, S.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the South Dakota Energy Office in providing technical assistance, planning, and commercialization projects for geothermal energy. Projects included geothermal prospect identification, area development plans, and active demonstration/commercialization projects. (ACR)

  1. A Tribute to Weatherization Solutions in South Dakota: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    South Dakota demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes

  2. South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT) regional traveler information system for weather responsive traffic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    FHWAs Road Weather Management Program partnered : with the South Dakota DOT to develop and implement a : Weather Responsive Traffic Management (WRTM) : strategy that involves mobile data collection and traveler : information dissemination during w...

  3. South Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The South Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Dakota

  4. Palliative and end-of-life care in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, Mary E; Kerkvliet, Jennifer L; Mitchell, Amanda; Fahrenwald, Nancy L

    2014-05-01

    Geographical disparities play a significant role in palliative and end-of-life care access. This study assessed availability of palliative and end of life (hospice) care in South Dakota. Grounded in a conceptual model of advance care planning, this assessment explored whether South Dakota health care facilities had contact persons for palliative care, hospice services, and advance directives; health care providers with specialized training in palliative and hospice care; and a process for advance directives and advance care planning. Trained research assistants conducted a brief telephone survey. Of 668 health care eligible facilities, 455 completed the survey for a response rate of 68 percent (455 out of 668). Over one-half of facilities had no specific contact person for palliative care, hospice services and advance directives. Nursing homes reported the highest percentage of contacts for palliative care, hospice services and advance directives. Despite a lack of a specific contact person, nearly 75 percent of facilities reported having a process in place for addressing advance directives with patients; slightly over one-half (53 percent) reported having a process in place for advance care planning. Of participating facilities, 80 percent had no staff members with palliative care training, and 73 percent identified lack of staff members with end-of-life care training. Palliative care training was most commonly reported among hospice/home health facilities (45 percent). The results of this study demonstrate a clear need for a health care and allied health care workforce with specialized training in palliative and end-of-life care.

  5. American Indian Parents’ Assessment of and Concern About Their Kindergarten Child’s Weight Status, South Dakota, 2005-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Arcan, Chrisa; Hannan, Peter J.; Himes, John H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Holy Rock, Bonnie; Smyth, Mary; Story, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is highly prevalent among American Indians, and effective prevention efforts require caregiver involvement. We examined American Indian (AI) parents' assessment of and level of concern about their kindergarten child's weight status. Methods We collected baseline data (fall of 2005 and fall of 2006) on children and their parents or caregivers for a school-based obesity prevention trial (Bright Start) on an AI reservation in South Dakota. The current study uses 413 parent-c...

  6. Estimated use of water in South Dakota, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Neitzert, Kathleen M.

    2008-01-01

    During 2005, withdrawals from ground-water and surface-water sources in South Dakota for the eight categories of offstream use totaled about 500 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Of total withdrawals, about 271 Mgal/d was withdrawn from ground water and about 230 Mgal/d was withdrawn from surface water. The largest use of water in South Dakota during 2005 was irrigation, which accounted for about 58 percent of the total water withdrawn, followed by public supply, which accounted for about 20 percent of withdrawals. Public-supply systems served about 666,210 people, or about 86 percent of South Dakota's population in 2005. Public-supply systems withdrew about 100 Mgal/d in 2005. Ground-water withdrawals accounted for about 66 percent of the total withdrawals (66 Mgal/d), and surface-water withdrawals accounted for about 34 percent of total withdrawals (35 Mgal/d). Total public-supply withdrawals averaged about 151 gallons per day (gal/d) per capita. About 65 percent of the public-supply water was used for domestic purposes, and the average per capita domestic use was 99 gal/d. Self-supplied domestic withdrawals were about 8 Mgal/d, all of which was from ground water. About 109,750 people obtained household water from private wells in 2005, and per capita use was about 70 gal/d. Industrial self-supplied water use during 2005 was about 4 Mgal/d, of which about 98 percent was from ground water and about 2 percent was from surface water. Total withdrawals for thermoelectric use were about 5 Mgal/d, of which about 1 Mgal/d was from ground water and about 4 Mgal/d was from surface water. Total mining water use was about 10 Mgal/d, of which about 5 Mgal/d came from ground water and about 6 Mgal/d came from surface water. Total livestock water use was about 48 Mgal/d, of which about 19 Mgal/d came from ground water and about 28 Mgal/d came from surface water. Total aquaculture use was about 33 Mgal/d, of which about 19 Mgal/d came from ground water and about 14 Mgal/d came

  7. Geographic Variability in Geocoding Success for West Nile Virus Cases in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Christine L.; Griesse, Jennifer; Kightlinger, Lon; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Geocoding, the process of assigning each case a set of coordinates that closely approximates its true location, is an important component of spatial epidemiological studies. The failure to accurately geocode cases adversely affects the validity and strength of conclusions drawn from the analysis. We investigated whether there were differences among geographic locations and demographic classes in the ability to successfully geocode West Nile virus (WNV) cases in South Dakota. We successfully geocoded 1,354 cases (80.8%) to their street address locations and assigned all 1,676 cases to ZIP code tabulation areas (ZCTAs). Using spatial scan statistics, significant clusters of non-geocoded cases were identified in central and western South Dakota. Geocoding success rates were lower in areas of low population density and on Indian reservations than in other portions of the state. Geocoding success rates were lower for Native Americans than for other races. Spatial epidemiological studies should consider the potential biases that may result from excluding non-geocoded cases, particularly in rural portions of the Great Plains that contain large Native American populations. PMID:19577505

  8. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Newcastle Quadrangle, Wyoming and South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, E.S.; Robinson, K.; Geer, K.A.; Blattspieler, J.G.

    1982-09-01

    Uranium resources of the Newcastle 1 0 x2 0 Quadrangle, Wyoming and South Dakota were evaluated to a depth of 1500 m (5000 ft) using available surface and subsurface geologic information. Many of the uranium occurrences reported in the literature and in reports of the US Atomic Energy Commission were located, sampled and described. Areas of anomalous radioactivity, interpreted from an aerial radiometric survey, were outlined. Areas favorable for uranium deposits in the subsurface were evaluated using gamma-ray logs. Based on surface and subsurface data, two areas have been delineated which are underlain by rocks deemed favorable as hosts for uranium deposits. One of these is underlain by rocks that contain fluvial arkosic facies in the Wasatch and Fort Union Formations of Tertiary age; the other is underlain by rocks containing fluvial quartzose sandstone facies of the Inyan Kara Group of Early Cretaceous age. Unfavorable environments characterize all rock units of Tertiary age above the Wasatch Formation, all rock units of Cretaceous age above the Inyan Kara Group, and most rock units of Mesozoic and Paleozoic age below the Inyan Kara Group. Unfavorable environments characterize all rock units of Cretaceous age above the Inyan Kara Group, and all rock units of Mesozoic and Paleozoic age below the Inyan Kara Group

  9. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Newcastle Quadrangle, Wyoming and South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, E S; Robinson, K; Geer, K A; Blattspieler, J G

    1982-09-01

    Uranium resources of the Newcastle 1/sup 0/x2/sup 0/ Quadrangle, Wyoming and South Dakota were evaluated to a depth of 1500 m (5000 ft) using available surface and subsurface geologic information. Many of the uranium occurrences reported in the literature and in reports of the US Atomic Energy Commission were located, sampled and described. Areas of anomalous radioactivity, interpreted from an aerial radiometric survey, were outlined. Areas favorable for uranium deposits in the subsurface were evaluated using gamma-ray logs. Based on surface and subsurface data, two areas have been delineated which are underlain by rocks deemed favorable as hosts for uranium deposits. One of these is underlain by rocks that contain fluvial arkosic facies in the Wasatch and Fort Union Formations of Tertiary age; the other is underlain by rocks containing fluvial quartzose sandstone facies of the Inyan Kara Group of Early Cretaceous age. Unfavorable environments characterize all rock units of Tertiary age above the Wasatch Formation, all rock units of Cretaceous age above the Inyan Kara Group, and most rock units of Mesozoic and Paleozoic age below the Inyan Kara Group. Unfavorable environments characterize all rock units of Cretaceous age above the Inyan Kara Group, and all rock units of Mesozoic and Paleozoic age below the Inyan Kara Group.

  10. West Nile Review: 15 Years of Human Disease in South Dakota, 2002-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kightlinger, Lon

    2017-08-01

    During the past 15 years, 2002-2016, West Nile virus (WNV) has emerged in South Dakota resulting in 509 neuroinvasive disease (NID) cases, 745 hospitalizations and 38 deaths. Culex tarsalis is the state's primary mosquito vector. South Dakota's average annual incidence of WNV-NID and death rate are the highest of any state in the U.S. WNV cases have been reported from all counties in the state. All age groups have been infected with cases peaking in the 40-44 year age group, but deaths peaking in cases 70 years and older. Although South Dakota's WNV season lasts six months, May-October, the first week of August has been the peak week of WNV disease onsets. West Nile is now enzootic in South Dakota. Every citizen, local mosquito control programs, medical and public health infrastructures must continue to prevent and respond to annual WNV outbreaks, and prepare for the next arboviral disease to emerge. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  11. South Dakota accidental childhood deaths, 2000-2007: what can we do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svien, Lana R; Senne, Svien A; Rasmussen, Carl

    2010-05-01

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death in children around the world and are an under-recognized public health problem in the United States. The purpose of this study was to highlight the nature of the problem in South Dakota and outline interventions that have been successful in reducing childhood injuries in other states. This quantitative retrospective study examined mortality files in South Dakota for children birth to 19 years of age who died between January 1, 2000 to December 28, 2007. Although the number of deaths declined considerably from 2006 to 2007, South Dakota had the second-highest rate in the nation of childhood unintentional injury deaths from all causes between 2000-2005. The majority of deaths occurred in males and were associated with transportation-related deaths. Suffocation was the leading cause of death for newborns to age 1 year. Childhood accidental death in South Dakota is clearly a critical public health problem. Intervention efforts to reduce deaths from unintentional injuries amongst children should be targeted as the leading causes of accidental death for specific age groups and American Indian youth. Physicians, health educators and policymakers must play a role in prevention targeting the high-risk groups in addition to advocating for policy changes to protect childhood safety. More stringent child restraint laws, graduated driving laws, smoking cessation programs for parents, creation of safer sleep environments and further investigation of why a high proportion of American Indian children die accidentally in South Dakota are all warranted.

  12. The Relationship of State Funding of Education to Student Performance on State Mandated Assessments in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Joel Philip

    2012-01-01

    This study determined the relationship of state funding to student performance on state mandated assessments in South Dakota between the years of 2003-2009. A cohort group of 40 school districts between 200 ADM and 600 ADM who had not reorganized were selected. Data was collected using the Dakota STEP assessment portal on the South Dakota…

  13. 75 FR 70021 - South Dakota Prairie Winds Project; Partial Term Relinquishment and Release of Easement for Wind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... requested financing for the project from the RUS. PW SD1 has also submitted an application to the Service to...] South Dakota Prairie Winds Project; Partial Term Relinquishment and Release of Easement for Wind Energy... impact statement (FEIS) on the South Dakota Prairie Winds Project issued by the Department of Energy's...

  14. South Dakota Space Grant Consortium: Balancing Indigenous Earth System and Space Science with Western/Contemporary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J.; Nall, J.

    2005-05-01

    The South Dakota Space Grant Consortium (SDSGC) was established March 1, 1991 by a NASA Capability Enhancement Grant. Since that time SDSGC has worked to provide earth system and space science education, outreach and services to all students across South Dakota. South Dakota has nine tribes and five Tribal Colleges. This has presented a tremendous opportunity to develop sustainable equitable partnerships and collaborations. SDSGC believes strongly in developing programs and activities that highlight and reinforce the balance of Indigenous science and ways of knowing with current findings in Western/Contemporary Science. This blending of science and culture creates a learning community where individuals especially students, can gain confidence and pride in their unique skills and abilities. Universities are also witnessing the accomplishments and achievements of students who are able to experience a tribal environment and then carry that experience to a college/university/workplace and significantly increase the learning achievement of all. The presentation will highlight current Tribal College and Tribal Community partnerships with the Rosebud Sioux Reservation (Sinte Gleska University), Pine Ridge Indian Reservation (Oglala Lakota College), Standing Rock Sioux Reservation (Sitting Bull College) and Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation (Si Tanka) amongst others. Programs and activities to be explained during the presentation include but not limited to: NASA Workforce Native Connections, Scientific Knowledge for Indian Learning and Leadership (SKILL), NSF "Bridges to Success" Summer Research Program, NSF "Fire Ecology" Summer Research Experience, as well as geospatial and space science programs for students and general community members. The presentation will also cover the current initiatives underway through NASA Workforce Development. These include: partnering with the Annual He Sapa Wacipi (Black Hills Pow Wow - attendance of 14,000 Natives) to host Native Space

  15. Statistical summaries of water-quality data for selected streamflow-gaging stations in the Red River of the North basin, North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Dressler, Valerie M.

    2002-01-01

    The quantity and quality of current and future water resources in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota are concerns of people who reside within the basin. Additional water resources are needed because of recent growth in population, industry, and agriculture. How the management of current and future water-resources will impact water quality within the basin is a critical issue. Water-quality data, particularly for surface-water sources, will help water-resources managers make decisions about current and future water resources in the Red River of the North Basin. Statistical summaries of water-quality data for 43 streamflow-gaging stations in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota are presented in this report. Statistical summaries include sample size, maximum, minimum, mean, and values for the 95th, 75th, 50th, 25th, and 5th percentiles.

  16. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Aberdeen quadrangle, South Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    During the months of June through October, 1980, Aero Service Division Western Geophysical Company of America conducted an airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey over eleven (11) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles located in the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin and seven (7) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles in North and South Dakota. This report discusses the results obtained over the Aberdeen, South Dakota map area. The final data are presented in four different forms: on magnetic tape; on microfiche; in graphic form as profiles and histograms; and in map form as anomaly maps, flight path maps, and computer printer maps

  17. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in South Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad

    2015-01-01

    About 19,900 LGBT workers in South Dakota are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Many corporate employers and public opinion in the state support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, nine more complaints would be filed in South Dakota each year. The cost of enforcing those complaints would be negligible, and would not require additional court or a...

  18. Final Oahe Dam/Lake Oahe Master Plan Missouri River, South Dakota and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    silty loams with moderate erosion and poor permeability. Normally used for pastureland. Sansarc- Opal : clays with minor erosion and permeability...One active sand and gravel mining area is located on Oahe project lands at Fort Yates, North Dakota. There is also a small amount of sand and...consist of sand and gravel deposits and Pierre Shale. The sand and gravel deposits are mined for road construction materials and concrete aggregate

  19. Conservation assessment for the autumn willow in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Hope Hornbeck; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Deanna J. Reyher

    2003-01-01

    Autumn willow, Salix serissima (Bailey) Fern., is an obligate wetland shrub that occurs in fens and bogs in the northeastern United States and eastern Canada. Disjunct populations of autumn willow occur in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Only two populations occur on Black Hills National Forest lands: a large population at McIntosh Fen and a small...

  20. Where We'Re At . . . Statistical Report on Status of Minorities and Women in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEldowney, Mary Ellen

    The Commission on Human Rights enforces the South Dakota Human Relations Act of 1972 which prohibits discrimination because of race, color, creed, religion, sex, national origin or ancestry in employment, labor unions, housing, property rights, education, public accomodations and public services in the state. The purpose of this paper was to draw…

  1. Biology and ecology of sickleweed (Falcaria vulgaris) in the Fort Pierre National Grassland of South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian L. Korman

    2011-01-01

    In the last two decades the exotic plant sickleweed (Falcaria vulgaris Bernh., Apiaceae) has invaded, and come to dominate, large areas of the Fort Pierre National Grassland (FPNG) in central South Dakota, USA. Currently sickleweed is estimated to infest over 3200 ha of FPNG. The purpose of this study was to examine several of the biological and ecological traits that...

  2. South Dakota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Gregory J. Josten

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent South Dakota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  3. Epidemiologic Study of Bacteria Zoonotic Diseases in South Dakota: 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvik, Jessica L; Anderson, Susan M; Huntington, Mark K

    2017-06-01

    Although the burden of infectious diseases has decreased dramatically due to advances in health care, disease prevention and numerous public health efforts and innovations, zoonotic diseases continue to pose a problem in terms of both existing and emerging diseases. These risks are of particular concern in rural areas, in which there is more contact with animals for occupational and recreational purposes. As a rural and agricultural state, South Dakota has a large percentage of its population at risk of exposure to zoonotic diseases through their substantial contact time with animals. De-identified data from the South Dakota Department of Health containing the variables and diseases of interest from the time period of 2010-2014 was obtained. From this data were calculated the incidence rates by county, and seasonal and demographic patterns of the diseases were plotted. The incidence of disease in South Dakota were higher than the national rates for campylobacteriosis (threefold), cryptosporidiosis (sixfold), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (fourfold), Q fever (tenfold), salmonellosis (1.2-fold), and tularemia (14-fold). Only listeriosis had a lower incidence than the national rate among zoonoses included in this study. Seasonality of campylobacteriosis in the state was earlier in the year than is reported for the disease nationally. Zoonotic infections are a substantial threat to health in South Dakota. There is a need to develop collaboration between healthcare providers, public health professionals, livestock producers, veterinarians, and sportsmen to develop a strategy to address this issue.

  4. South Dakota Governor pushes for underground lab as homestake water rises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, Jim

    2003-01-01

    NSF officials say approval of a science laboratory in the Homestake mine can come only after a multistep review process that takes 'many months to many years'. But a determined Republican governor and South Dakota's congressional delegation may bring politics to the science

  5. Faculty Internationalization: Experiences, Attitudes, and Involvement of Faculty at Public Universities in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Internationalization in higher education is an issue of growing importance as the forces of globalism continue to push both social and economic connections from local to global. While this topic is becoming increasingly vital to the health and influence of educational institutions, many, including those within South Dakota, are unaware of the…

  6. South Dakota Middle School Mathematics Teachers' Perceptions of Teaching Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleecker, Heather A.

    2017-01-01

    This quantitative research study investigates South Dakota middle school (grades 5-8) mathematics teachers' perceptions of teaching competencies including general pedagogical knowledge (GPK) and mathematical pedagogical content knowledge (MPCK). The study also considered how teacher characteristics relate to teacher competencies. The study…

  7. Administrative Guidelines: Education of Gifted Students [and] Plan for Education of the Gifted in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

    This document is intended to assist South Dakota schools in the development and implementation of Gifted Education Plans, and includes state laws and rules pertaining to gifted education, guidelines for reporting, and explanations of the necessary components of a district's written plan. A brief statement of philosophy addresses characteristics of…

  8. Landscape scale attributes of elk centers of activity in the central Black Hills of South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia H. Stubblefield; Kerri T. Vierling; Mark A. Rumble

    2006-01-01

    We researched the environmental attributes (n = 28) associated with elk (n = 50) summer range (1 May ­30 Sep) in the central Black Hills of South Dakota, USA, during 1998-­2001. We defined high-use areas or centers of activity as landscapes underlying large concentrations of elk locations resulting from the shared fidelity of...

  9. Trembling aspen response to a mixed-severity wildfire in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara L. Keyser; Frederick W. Smith; Wayne D. Shepperd

    2005-01-01

    Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) regeneration dynamics including sprout production, growth, and clone size were measured to determine the effects of fire on small aspen clone persistence following a mixedseverity wildfire in the Black Hills, South Dakota. Four years postfire, 10 small, isolated aspen clones per low and high fire severity...

  10. South Dakota School Principals' Preferred Leadership Styles for Leading Change to Face Poverty and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soka, John Alex

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative research study identified perceptions regarding leadership styles of a sample of high school, middle school, and elementary school principals serving in South Dakota public and tribal/BIE (Bureau of Indian Education) schools in 2011. From 152 public school districts and 20 tribal/BIE schools, a sample of 148 school principals was…

  11. Macrohabitat associations of Merriam's turkeys in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson

    1993-01-01

    Merriam's turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) were introduced into South Dakota in the late 1940's and have since expanded to occupy the entire Black Hills. Because little is known of their habitat requirements and the effects of forest management practices on this important game species, macrohabitat selections patterns of Merriam'...

  12. Feeding ecology of Merriam's turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson

    1996-01-01

    W e studied the feeding ecology of Merriam’s turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) in the Black Hills, South Dakota, between 1986 and 1989. Adult birds consumed 78 kinds of food, of which four food categories constituted >79% of winter diets and six food categories constituted >75% of summer diets. Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seeds were...

  13. 76 FR 3926 - Notice and Request for Comments: LSC Elimination of the Nevada, South Dakota, and Wyoming Migrant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... Dakota, and Wyoming Migrant Service Areas Beginning April 1, 2011 AGENCY: Legal Services Corporation. ACTION: Notice and Request for Comments--LSC Elimination of the Nevada, South Dakota, and Wyoming Migrant... Wyoming migrant service areas: MNV, MSD, and MWY, effective April 1, 2011, because any eligible migrant...

  14. Potential effects of energy development on environmental resources of the Williston Basin in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post van der Burg, Max; Vining, Kevin C.; Frankforter, Jill D.

    2017-09-28

    The Williston Basin, which includes parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States, has been a leading domestic oil and gas producing area. To better understand the potential effects of energy development on environmental resources in the Williston Basin, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, and in support of the needs identified by the Bakken Federal Executive Group (consisting of representatives from 13 Federal agencies and Tribal groups), began work to synthesize existing information on science topics to support management decisions related to energy development. This report is divided into four chapters (A–D). Chapter A provides an executive summary of the report and principal findings from chapters B–D. Chapter B provides a brief compilation of information regarding the history of energy development, physiography, climate, land use, demographics, and related studies in the Williston Basin. Chapter C synthesizes current information about water resources, identifies potential effects from energy development, and summarizes water resources research and information needs in the Williston Basin. Chapter D summarizes information about ecosystems, species of conservation concern, and potential effects to those species from energy development in the Williston Basin.

  15. Geothermal applications on the Madison (Pahasapa) aquifer system in South Dakota. Final report, October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gries, J.P.

    1977-09-01

    Pertinent geologic, hydrologic, and chemical data for the Madison Formation underlying western South Dakota are presented in text and in graphic form. A temperature anomaly in west central South Dakota makes 130 to 160/sup 0/F water available at depths of less than 3500 ft. A central geothermal space heating system designed for Midland, South Dakota indicates that by 1980 geothermal heat will be competitive with existing energy sources. Preliminary tests indicate the superiority of 304 or 316 stainless steel for fabrication of equipment to utilize the warm, corrosive Madison water. South Dakota has no statutes governing geothermal resources; under existing water law, geothermal water would be classified as a top priority domestic use. Suggestions are made for state legislation pertaining to the development of geothermal energy.

  16. Defining Economic Success as It Pertains to Native American Owned Businesses Located on/or Adjacent to North Dakota Reservations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Barbara Elise

    2013-01-01

    Successful economic development is essential in building and sustaining a healthy community. The purpose of this study was to identify indicators of successful economic development as it pertained to Native American owned businesses located on/or adjacent to North Dakota reservations. More specifically this study sought to explore specific…

  17. South Dakota NASA Space Grant Consortium Creating Bridges in Indian Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.

    2004-12-01

    The South Dakota Space Grant Consortium (SDSGC) was established March 1, 1991 by a NASA Capability Enhancement Grant. Since that time SDSGC has worked to provide earth and space science educational outreach to all students across South Dakota. South Dakota has nine tribes and five tribal colleges. This has presented a tremendous opportunity to develop sustainable equitable partnerships and collaborations. SDSGC believes strongly in developing programs and activities that highlight the balance of indigenous science and ways of knowing with current findings in contemporary science. This blending of science and culture creates a learning community where individuals, especially students, can gain confidence and pride in their unique skills and abilities. Universities are also witnessing the accomplishments and achievements of students who are able to experience a tribal college environment and then carry that experience to a college/university/workplace and significantly increase the learning achievement of all. The presentation will highlight current Tribal College partnerships with Sinte Gleska University and Oglala Lakota College amongst others. Programs and activities to be explained during the presentation include: Native Connections, Scientific Knowledge for Indian Learning and Leadership (SKILL), Bridges to Success Summer Research Program, Fire Ecology Summer Experience, and dual enrolled/college bridge programs. The presentation will also cover the current initiatives underway through NASA Workforce Development. These include: partnering program with the Annual He Sapa Wacipi, American Indian Space Days 2005, NASA research/internship programs and NASA Fellow Summit. An overview of recent American Indian student success will conclude the presentation. The South Dakota School of Mines and Technology has struggled over many years to develop and implement sustainable successful initiatives with Tribal Colleges and Communities. The motivating philosophy is the

  18. The State of stress in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Moo Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    As a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SubTER (Subsurface Technology and Engineering Research, Development and Demonstration) initiative, University of Wisconsin- Madison, Sandia National Laboratories, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory conducted the Permeability (k) and Induced Seismicity Management for Energy Technologies (kISMET) project. The objectives of the project are to define the in situ status of stress in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota and to establish the relations between in situ stress and induced fracture through hydraulically stimulating the fracture. (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota. In situ tests are conducted in a 7.6 cm diameter and 100 long vertical borehole located in the 4850 Level West Access Drift near Davies Campus of SURF (Figure 1). The borehole is located in the zone of Precambrian Metamorphic Schist.

  19. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting a Commercial Building Energy Standard in South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.

    2005-03-04

    The state of South Dakota is considering adopting a commercial building energy standard. This report evaluates the potential costs and benefits to South Dakota residents from requiring compliance with the most recent edition of the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2001 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. These standards were developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. The quantitative benefits and costs of adopting a commercial building energy code are modeled by comparing the characteristics of assumed current building practices with the most recent edition of the ASHRAE Standard, 90.1-2001. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed in this analysis. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using results from a detailed building simulation tool (Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics [BLAST] model) combined with a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits.

  20. Results of a pediatric vision screening program in western South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terveen, Daniel C; Moser, Jess M; Spencer, Terrence S

    2015-03-01

    South Dakota is one of eight states that do not require any vision screening for children. This study describes the results of the first children's vision screening program in the state. Children ages 6 months to 12 years were screened using the SPOT photoscreener by lay volunteers as part of the Northern Plains Eye Foundation's Western South Dakota Children's Vision Screening Initiative (CVSI). Referral criteria were based on the recommendations of the manufacturer. Data was stratified by age group, sex, and percentage of children referred for hyperopia, myopia, astigmatism, anisocoria, anisometropia, and ocular misalignment. The cost benefit of amblyopia treatment in South Dakota was also calculated. Screenings were completed on 4,784 children from August 2012 to May 2014 with 62 excluded due to age. Mean age of the 4,722 (2,373 females) subjects was 6 years 7 months. Overall, the SPOT device referred 563 (11.9 percent) children. There was no significant difference in referral rate based on sex (p = 0.598). Children aged 73-144 months had the highest referral rate (12.2 percent) and children aged 12-30 months had the lowest referral rate (7.9 percent). The suspected reasons for referral based upon the screenings were as follows: 371 (7.9 percent) astigmatism, 24 (0.5 percent) ocular misalignment, 101 (2.1 percent) anisometropia, 135 (2.9 percent) myopia, 36 (0.8 percent) hyperopia, and 16 (0.3 percent) anisocoria. The SPOT photoscreener yielded an acceptable referral rate of 11.9 percent. This study represents an effective model for pediatric vision screening in South Dakota.

  1. Land use effects on pesticides in sediments of prairie pothole wetlands in North and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Scott T.; Belden, Jason B.; Smith, Loren M.; Morrison, Shane A.; Daniel, Dale W.; Euliss, Betty R.; Euliss, Ned H. Jr.; Kensinger, Bart J.; Tangen, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Prairie potholes are the dominant wetland type in the intensively cultivated northern Great Plains of North America, and thus have the potential to receive pesticide runoff and drift. We examined the presence of pesticides in sediments of 151 wetlands split among the three dominant land use types, Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), cropland, and native prairie, in North and South Dakota in 2011. Herbicides (glyphosate and atrazine) and fungicides were detected regularly, with no insecticide detections. Glyphosate was the most detected pesticide, occurring in 61% of all wetlands, with atrazine in only 8% of wetlands. Pyraclostrobin was one of five fungicides detected, but the only one of significance, being detected in 31% of wetlands. Glyphosate was the only pesticide that differed by land use, with concentrations in cropland over four-times that in either native prairie or CRP, which were equal in concentration and frequency of detection. Despite examining several landscape variables, such as wetland proximity to specific crop types, watershed size, and others, land use was the best variable explaining pesticide concentrations in potholes. CRP ameliorated glyphosate in wetlands at concentrations comparable to native prairie and thereby provides another ecosystem service from this expansive program.

  2. Stratigraphy and structure of the northern and western flanks of the Black Hills Uplift, Wyoming, Montana, and South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, C.S.; Mapel, W.J.; Bergendahl, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the stratigraphy and structure of an area of about 5000 square miles in northeastern Wyoming and adjacent parts of Montana and South Dakota. The area includes the northern end and part of the western side of the Black Hills Uplift and the adjoining part of the Powder River Basin. About 11,000 ft of sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Mississippian to Early Tertiary are exposed in the area, not including surficial deposits of Tertiary (.) and Quaternary age. Oil is produced from several fields on the wet side of the Black Hills Uplift in Wyoming. Bentonite is mined at many places. The Fort Union and Wasatch Formations contain large reserves of sub-bituminous coal, and Lakota Formation contains some bituminous coal

  3. Impact of the Hydrocodone Schedule Change on Opioid Prescription Patterns in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschel, Lauren M; Mort, Jane M

    2017-10-01

    Prescription opioid use is becoming increasingly common; consequently, opioid overdose deaths are increasing at an alarming rate. Hydrocodone, one of the most commonly abused opioids, was changed from a schedule III controlled substance to the more stringent schedule II to decrease abuse and diversion, effective Oct. 6, 2014. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of the hydrocodone schedule change on opioid prescribing in South Dakota. Opioid prescription patterns were examined in the following six-month phases: the baseline phase before the change, the transition phase when existing hydrocodone prescriptions could still be refilled, and the final phase. The South Dakota Board of Pharmacy Prescription Drug Monitoring Program provided aggregate monthly data for South Dakota opioid prescriptions (i.e., total number of prescriptions and days supplied), including urban and rural stratification. T-tests were performed on the monthly values for each phase to determine the significance of differences in prescription features between phases. The number of hydrocodone prescriptions significantly decreased 14 percent from baseline to final phase, while the days supplied per prescription significantly increased 7.4 percent. These changes were greater in rural areas than in urban areas. Conversely, the number of other opioid prescriptions significantly increased by 6.5 percent over this timeframe. The number of hydrocodone prescriptions decreased, while the days supplied per prescription increased. These changes were greater in rural areas than in urban areas. In addition, the number of other opioid prescriptions increased. These trends may reflect some unintended effects of the schedule change.

  4. National environmental/energy workforce assessment. South Dakota. Final report on phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    This study is one of 70 volumes assessing the workforce needs (manpower needs) for pollution control and abatement in the United States for the five-year period of 1976 through 1981. Seven fields for pollution control -- air, noise, pesticides, potable water, radiation, solid waste, and wastewater -- are analyzed, together with energy-related programs currently accentuated by the national effort to solve energy supply problems. The report identifies existing workforce levels, training programs, career opportunities, and future staffing level projections (1976 to 1982) based on the information available for the state of South Dakota

  5. Identifying environmental risk factors and mapping the risk of human West Nile virus in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, A.; Davis, J. K.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Human West Nile virus (WNV) first arrived in the USA in 1999 and has since then spread across the country. Today, the highest incidence rates are found in the state of South Dakota. The disease occurrence depends on the complex interaction between the mosquito vector, the bird host and the dead-end human host. Understanding the spatial domain of this interaction and being able to identify disease transmission hotspots is crucial for effective disease prevention and mosquito control. In this study we use geospatial environmental information to understand what drives the spatial distribution of cases of human West Nile virus in South Dakota and to map relative infection risk across the state. To map the risk of human West Nile virus in South Dakota, we used geocoded human case data from the years 2004-2016. Satellite data from the Landsat ETM+ and MODIS for the years 2003 to 2016 were used to characterize environmental patterns. From these datasets we calculated indices, such as the normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) and the normalized differenced water index (NDWI). In addition, datasets such as the National Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS), National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD), National Wetland inventory (NWI), National Elevation Dataset (NED) and Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO) were utilized. Environmental variables were summarized for a buffer zone around the case and control points. We used a boosted regression tree model to identify the most important variables describing the risk of WNV infection. We generated a risk map by applying this model across the entire state. We found that the highest relative risk is present in the James River valley in northeastern South Dakota. Factors that were identified as influencing the transmission risk include inter-annual variability of vegetation cover, water availability and temperature. Land covers such as grasslands, low developed areas and wetlands were also found to be good predictors for human

  6. Geothermal heating project at St. Mary's Hospital, Pierre, South Dakota. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-12-01

    St. Mary's Hospital, Pierre, South Dakota, with the assistance of the US Department of Energy, drilled a 2176 ft well into the Madison Aquifer ot secure 108/sup 0/F artesian flow water at 385 gpm (475 psig shut-in pressure). The objective was to provide heat for domestic hot water and to space heat 163,768 sq. ft. Cost savings for the first three years were significant and, with the exception of a shutdown to replace some corroded pipe, the system has operated reliably and continuously for the last four years.

  7. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Mitchell Quadrangle, South Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    An airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey was conducted over eleven (11) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles located in the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin and seven (7) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles in North and South Dakota. The quadrangles located within the North and South Dakota survey area include Devil's Lake, New Rockford, Jamestown, Aberdeen, Huron, Mitchell, and Sioux Falls. This report discusses the results obtained over the Mitchell map area. The purpose of this program is to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States. Traverse lines were flown in an east-west direction at a line spacing of six (6) miles. Tie lines were flown north-south approximately twenty-four (24) miles apart. A total of 21,481 line miles of geophysical data were acquired, compiled, and interpreted during the survey, of which 1479 line miles are in this quadrangle

  8. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Huron quadrangle, South Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    An airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey was conducted over eleven (11) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles located in the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin and seven (7) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles in North and South Dakota. The quadrangles located within the North and South Dakota survey area include Devil's Lake, New Rockford, Jamestown, Aberdeen, Huron, Mitchell, and Sioux Falls. This report discusses the results obtained over the Huron map area. Traverse lines were flown in an east-west direction at a line spacing of six (6) miles. Tie lines were flown north-south approximately twenty-four (24) miles apart. A total of 21,481 line miles of geophysical data were acquired, compiled, and interpreted during the survey, of which 1459 line miles are in this quadrangle. The purpose of this study is to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States

  9. Spatio-temporal epidemiology of human West Nile virus disease in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, Michael C; Giacomo, Paolla; Kightlinger, Lon; Hildreth, Michael B

    2013-10-29

    Despite a cold temperate climate and low human population density, the Northern Great Plains has become a persistent hot spot for human West Nile virus (WNV) disease in North America. Understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of WNV can provide insights into the epidemiological and ecological factors that influence disease emergence and persistence. We analyzed the 1,962 cases of human WNV disease that occurred in South Dakota from 2002-2012 to identify the geographic distribution, seasonal cycles, and interannual variability of disease risk. The geographic and seasonal patterns of WNV have changed since the invasion and initial epidemic in 2002-2003, with cases shifting toward the eastern portion of South Dakota and occurring earlier in the transmission season in more recent years. WNV cases were temporally autocorrelated at lags of up to six weeks and early season cumulative case numbers were correlated with seasonal totals, indicating the possibility of using these data for short-term early detection of outbreaks. Epidemiological data are likely to be most effective for early warning of WNV virus outbreaks if they are integrated with entomological surveillance and environmental monitoring to leverage the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of each information source.

  10. Use and perception of herbal and dietary supplements in the Hutterites of South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stacy; Shiyanbola, Olayinka

    2013-12-01

    South Dakota is home to 6,000 Hutterites, the largest population of Hutterites in the United States. Observation of frequent supplement use by this population prompted the current survey based study. Use of supplements is on the rise with around 53 percent of Americans reporting at least one herbal and dietary supplement (HDS). Use and perception of HDS has not previously been evaluated in the Hutterite population. Participants were 18 years of age and older and had to be present at the time of survey administration. Surveys were administered before and after an educational presentation at five colonies to volunteer participants. Survey data was analyzed using descriptive analysis and chi-square tests. One-hundred and six surveys were completed with 81.1 percent being female. Approximately 78 percent reported using at least one type of HDS, with an average of 2.7 (SD = 1.4) supplements per person. Women were more likely to report supplement use than men. Hutterites reported they felt HDS were safer than prescription medications. Education was effective on some aspects such as telling their doctor if they are taking HDS. Some study limitations included small sample size, possible lack of survey understanding, and the limited number of male participants. The frequency of HDS use in South Dakota Hutterites appears to be very high. Baseline knowledge on the safety and regulation of HDS reveals that education of this population is needed. Further investigation of HDS use in Hutterites is warranted.

  11. Use of a geographic information system (GIS) for targeting radon screening programs in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearfott, Kimberlee J; Whetstone, Zachary D; Rafique Mir, Khwaja M

    2016-01-01

    Because (222)Rn is a progeny of (238)U, the relative abundance of uranium may be used to predict the areas that have the potential for high indoor radon concentration and therefore determine the best areas to conduct future surveys. Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping software was used to construct maps of South Dakota that included levels of uranium concentrations in soil and stream water and uranium deposits. Maps of existing populations and the types of land were also generated. Existing data about average indoor radon levels by county taken from a databank were included for consideration. Although the soil and stream data and existing recorded average indoor radon levels were sparse, it was determined that the most likely locations of elevated indoor radon would be in the northwest and southwest corners of the state. Indoor radon levels were only available for 9 out of 66 counties in South Dakota. This sparcity of data precluded a study of correlation of radon to geological features, but further motivates the need for more testing in the state. Only actual measurements should be used to determine levels of indoor radon because of the strong roles home construction and localized geology play in radon concentration. However, the data visualization method demonstrated here is potentially useful for directing resources relating to radon screening campaigns. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  12. Use of a geographic information system (GIS) for targeting radon screening programs in South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearfott, Kimberlee J.; Whetstone, Zachary D.; Mir, Khwaja M. Rafique

    2016-01-01

    Because 222 Rn is a progeny of 238 U, the relative abundance of uranium may be used to predict the areas that have the potential for high indoor radon concentration and therefore determine the best areas to conduct future surveys. Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping software was used to construct maps of South Dakota that included levels of uranium concentrations in soil and stream water and uranium deposits. Maps of existing populations and the types of land were also generated. Existing data about average indoor radon levels by county taken from a databank were included for consideration. Although the soil and stream data and existing recorded average indoor radon levels were sparse, it was determined that the most likely locations of elevated indoor radon would be in the northwest and southwest corners of the state. Indoor radon levels were only available for 9 out of 66 counties in South Dakota. This sparcity of data precluded a study of correlation of radon to geological features, but further motivates the need for more testing in the state. Only actual measurements should be used to determine levels of indoor radon because of the strong roles home construction and localized geology play in radon concentration. However, the data visualization method demonstrated here is potentially useful for directing resources relating to radon screening campaigns. (author)

  13. Flora and fauna associated with prairie dog colonies and adjacent ungrazed mixed-grass prairie in western South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Agnew; Daniel W. Uresk; Richard M. Hansen

    1986-01-01

    Vegetation, small rodents, and birds were sampled during the growing seasons of 2 years on prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies and adjacent mixed-grass prairie in western South Dakota. Prairie dog grazing decreased mulch cover, maximum height of vegetation, plant species richness, and tended to decrease live plant canopy cover compared to...

  14. Analysis of Costs of Services/Supports for People with Developmental Disabilities for Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Edward M.; Fortune, Jon; Severance, Donald; Holderegger, John; Fortune, Barbara

    A database was assembled from data collected on all people served by the Developmental Disabilities divisions of Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming, including state institutions and state-funded programs (n=5,928). Information included provider expenditures associated with each individual, allocations made by individual reimbursement rates,…

  15. Multiple-scale roost habitat comparisons of female Merriam's wild turkeys in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Thompson; Mark A. Rumble; Lester D. Flake; Chad P. Lehman

    2009-01-01

    Because quantity and quality of roosting habitat can affect Merriam's Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) distribution, we described habitat characteristics of Merriam's turkey roost sites in the southern Black Hills of South Dakota. Varying proportions of Merriam's turkeys in the southern Black Hills depended on supplemental feed from livestock...

  16. Geochemical data from groundwater at the proposed Dewey Burdock uranium in-situ recovery mine, Edgemont, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Raymond H.

    2012-01-01

    This report releases groundwater geochemistry data from samples that were collected in June 2011 at the Dewey Burdock proposed uranium in-situ recovery site near Edgemont, South Dakota. The sampling and analytical methods are summarized, and all of the data, including quality assurance/quality control information are provided in data tables.

  17. Resource selection for foraging by female Merriam's wild turkeys with poults in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad P. Lehman; Mark A. Rumble; Lester D. Flake; Daniel J. Thompson

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of Merriam's wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) resource selection in the context of landscape attributes is an important asset for managing resources on multiple-use public lands. We investigated resource selection for foraging by Merriam's wild turkey broods in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota. We collected macro- and microhabitat...

  18. The Development of a Survey Instrument on South Dakota's School District Leadership Climate as Related to Deming's Fourteen Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Lawrence W. O.; And Others

    Development of an instrument to measure baseline levels of applied Total Quality Management (TQM) practices in South Dakota before the introduction and dissemination of TQM theory to the state's educational leaders is described. Using the interpretation of Deming's 14 points that was developed by J. J. Bonstigl, a 115-item initial item pool was…

  19. Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesler, Louis S

    2014-06-01

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is critical for developing biological control as a management tool. Soybean is a major field crop in South Dakota, but information about its natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is lacking. Thus, this study was conducted in field plots in eastern South Dakota during July and August of 2004 and 2005 to characterize foliar-dwelling, arthropod natural enemies of soybean aphid, and it used exclusion techniques to determine impact of natural enemies and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on soybean aphid densities. In open field plots, weekly soybean aphid densities reached a plateau of several hundred aphids per plant in 2004, and peaked at roughly 400 aphids per plant in 2005. Despite these densities, a relatively high frequency of aphid-infested plants lacked arthropod natural enemies. Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were most abundant, peaking at 90 and 52% of all natural enemies sampled in respective years, and Harmonia axyridis Pallas was the most abundant lady beetle. Green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were abundant in 2005, due mainly to large numbers of their eggs. Abundances of arachnids and coccinellid larvae correlated with soybean aphid densities each year, and chrysopid egg abundance was correlated with aphid density in 2005. Three-week cage treatments of artificially infested soybean plants in 2004 showed that noncaged plants had fewer soybean aphids than caged plants, but abundance of soybean aphid did not differ among open cages and ones that provided partial or total exclusion of natural enemies. In 2005, plants within open cages had fewer soybean aphids than those within cages that excluded natural enemies, and aphid

  20. Power in the pasture: Energy and the history of ranching in western South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Jenika

    Transitions in the use of energy transformed the landscape, labor, and domestic life of cattle ranching in western South Dakota from the late-nineteenth to the middle of the twentieth centuries. The introduction of new energy sources to the Black Hills spurred the expansion of European Americans into the region, while helping to displace native peoples like the Lakotas. Changing energy use also intensified ranch labor in the pastures and in the household, drawing individual ranches into new connections with their surroundings. Examining cattle ranching through the lens of energy provides new insights into the momentum of energetic systems in societies, affording historians a way to understand past energy use as they consider present and future environmental concerns.

  1. National uranium resource evaluation, Hot Springs Quadrangle, South Dakota and Nebraska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truesdell, D.B.; Daddazio, P.L.; Martin, T.S.

    1982-06-01

    The Hot Springs Quadrangle, South Dakota and Nebraska, was evaluated to a depth of 1500 m to identify environments and delineate areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits. The evaluation used criteria developed by the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Surface reconnaissance was conducted using a portable scintillometer and a gamma spectrometer. Geochemical sampling was carried out in all geologic environments accessible within the quadrangle. Additional investigations included the followup of aerial radiometric and hydrogeochemical anomalies and a subsurface study. Environments favorable for sandstone-type deposits occur in the Inyan Kara Group and Chadron Member of the White River Group. Environments favorable for marine black-shale deposits occur in the Hayden Member of the Minnelusa Formation. A small area of the Harney Peak Granite is favorable for authigenic deposits. Environments considered unfavorable for uranium deposits are the Precambrian granitic and metasedimentary rocks and Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Tertiary sedimentary rocks other than those previously mentioned

  2. Characterization of the seismic environment at the Sanford Underground Laboratory, South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harms, J; Dorsher, S; Kandhasamy, S; Mandic, V [University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Acernese, F; Barone, F [Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Fisciano (Saudi Arabia) (Italy); Bartos, I; Marka, S [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Beker, M; Van den Brand, J F J; Rabeling, D S [Nikhef, National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Christensen, N; Coughlin, M [Carleton College, Northfield, MN 55057 (United States); DeSalvo, R [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Heise, J; Trancynger, T [Sanford Underground Laboratory, 630 East Summit Street, Lead, SD 57754 (United States); Mueller, G [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Naticchioni, L [Department of Physics, University of Rome ' Sapienza' , P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); O' Keefe, T [Saint Louis University, 3450 Lindell Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63103 (United States); Sajeva, A, E-mail: janosch@caltech.ed [Dipartimento di Fisica ' Enrico Fermi' , Universita di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo, Pisa (Italy)

    2010-11-21

    An array of seismometers is being developed at the Sanford Underground Laboratory, the former Homestake mine, in South Dakota to study the properties of underground seismic fields and Newtonian noise, and to investigate the possible advantages of constructing a third-generation gravitational-wave detector underground. Seismic data were analyzed to characterize seismic noise and disturbances. External databases were used to identify sources of seismic waves: ocean-wave data to identify sources of oceanic microseisms and surface wind-speed data to investigate correlations with seismic motion as a function of depth. In addition, sources of events contributing to the spectrum at higher frequencies are characterized by studying the variation of event rates over the course of a day. Long-term observations of spectral variations provide further insight into the nature of seismic sources. Seismic spectra at three different depths are compared, establishing the 4100 ft level as a world-class low seismic-noise environment.

  3. Community fisheries in eastern South Dakota: Angler demographics, use, and factors influencing satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Michael J.; Lucchesi, David O.; Chipps, Steven R.; Gigliotti, Larry M.

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed anglers on five community fishing lakes near Brookings, South Dakota to assess angler use and satisfaction. The community lakes attracted younger anglers when compared to statewide and national averages. Overall, satisfaction was generally high (74%) among anglers fishing community lakes. Logistic regression analysis showed that harvest rate, anglers targeting trout, familiarity with the lake, adults fishing with children, and fishing during open water periods were significantly related to angler satisfaction. Angler parties consisting of adults fishing with children were 1.7 times more likely to respond as “satisfied” compared with adults-only angler groups. Fishing opportunities provided by community lakes can enhance participation by younger anglers while simultaneously providing family-oriented recreation (i.e., adults fishing with children) that enhances trip satisfaction.

  4. Use of remote sensing techniques for inventorying and planning utilization of land resources in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, V. I.; Frazee, C. J.; Rusche, A. E.; Moore, D. G.; Nelson, G. D.; Westin, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    The basic procedures for interpreting remote sensing imagery to rapidly develop general soils and land use inventories were developed and utilized in Pennington County, South Dakota. These procedures and remote sensing data products were illustrated and explained to many user groups, some of whom are interested in obtaining similar data. The general soils data were integrated with land soils data supplied by the county director of equalization to prepare a land value map. A computer print-out of this map indicating a land value for each quarter section is being used in tax reappraisal of Pennington County. The land use data provided the land use planners with the present use of land in Pennington County. Additional uses of remote sensing applications are also discussed including tornado damage assessment, hail damage evaluation, and presentation of soil and land value information on base maps assembled from ERTS-1 imagery.

  5. The South Dakota Model: Health Care Professions Student Disaster Preparedness and Deployment Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Matt P; Buffington, Cheri; Frost, Michael P; Waldner, Randall J

    2017-12-01

    The Association of American Medical Colleges recommended an increase in medical education for public health emergencies, bioterrorism, and weapons of mass destruction in 2003. The University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine (USD SSOM) implemented a 1-day training event to provide disaster preparedness training and deployment organization for health professions students called Disaster Training Day (DTD). Hospital staff and emergency medical services personnel provided the lecture portion of DTD using Core Disaster Life Support (CDLS; National Disaster Life Support Foundation) as the framework. Pre-test and post-test analyses were presented to the students. Small group activities covered leadership, anaphylaxis, mass fatality, points of dispensing deployment training, psychological first aid, triage, and personal protective equipment. Students were given the option to sign up for statewide deployment through the South Dakota Statewide Emergency Registry of Volunteers (SERV SD). DTD data and student satisfaction surveys from 2009 to 2016 were reviewed. Since 2004, DTD has provided disaster preparedness training to 2246 students across 13 health professions. Significant improvement was shown on CDLS post-test performance with a t-score of -14.24 and a resulting P value of training, small group sessions, and perceived self-competency relating to disaster response. SERV SD registration increased in 2015, and 77.5% of the participants registered in 2016. DTD at the USD SSOM provides for an effective 1-day disaster training course for health professions students. Resources from around the state were coordinated to provide training, liability coverage, and deployment organization for hundreds of students representing multiple health professions. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:735-740).

  6. Nursing home case-mix reimbursement in Mississippi and South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arling, Greg; Daneman, Barry

    2002-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of nursing home case-mix reimbursement on facility case mix and costs in Mississippi and South Dakota. Secondary data from resident assessments and Medicaid cost reports from 154 Mississippi and 107 South Dakota nursing facilities in 1992 and 1994, before and after implementation of new case-mix reimbursement systems. The study relied on a two-wave panel design to examine case mix (resident acuity) and direct care costs in 1-year periods before and after implementation of a nursing home case-mix reimbursement system. Cross-lagged regression models were used to assess change in case mix and costs between periods while taking into account facility characteristics. Facility-level measures were constructed from Medicaid cost reports and Minimum Data Set-Plus assessment records supplied by each state. Resident case mix was based on the RUG-III classification system. Facility case-mix scores and direct care costs increased significantly between periods in both states. Changes in facility costs and case mix were significantly related in a positive direction. Medicare utilization and the rate of hospitalizations from the nursing facility also increased significantly between periods, particularly in Mississippi. The case-mix reimbursement systems appeared to achieve their intended goals: improved access for heavy-care residents and increased direct care expenditures in facilities with higher acuity residents. However, increases in Medicare utilization may have influenced facility case mix or costs, and some facilities may have been unprepared to care for higher acuity residents, as indicated by increased rates of hospitalization.

  7. School illness absenteeism during 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic--South Dakota, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kightlinger, Lon; Horan, Vickie

    2013-05-01

    Schools are important amplification settings of influenza virus transmission. We demonstrated correlation of school absenteeism (due to any illness) with other influenza A (H1N1) activity surveillance data during the 2009 pandemic. We collected nonspecific illness student absenteeism data from August 17, 2009 through April 3, 2010 from 187 voluntarily participating South Dakota schools using weekly online surveys. Relative risks (RR) were calculated as the ratio of the probability of absenteeism during elevated weeks versus the probability of absenteeism during the baseline weeks (RR = 1.89). We used Pearson correlation to associate absenteeism with laboratory-confirmed influenza cases, influenza cases diagnosed by rapid tests, influenza-associated hospitalizations and deaths reported in South Dakota during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic period. School-absenteeism data correlated strongly with data from these other influenza surveillance sources.

  8. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Minnesota Project, Watertown quadrangle of South Dakota/Minnesota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The Watertown 1:250,000 scale quadrangle of South Dakota/Minnesota is everywhere covered by variable thicknesses of Wisconsin age glacial deposits (drift). Bedrock is nowhere exposed, but is thought to be composed of primarily Cretaceous sediments. There are no known uranium deposits (or occurrences) within the quadrangle. Sixty-seven (67) groups of uranium samples were defined as anomalies and are discussed in the report. None of them are considered significant

  9. Karst and Caves of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA; Karst y cuevas de las Black Hills, Dakota del Sur, EE.UU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    The caves of the Black Hills are located in Carboniferous limestone and dolomite of the Madison Formation in western South Dakota. The climate is semi-arid, and surface karst features are few. Entrances to known caves are rather small, and the two largest caves, Wind Cave and Jewel Cave, were discovered only in the late 1880s and in 1900, respectively. Intermittent exploration and mapping have been conducted by local volunteers, National Park Service staff, and the National Speleological Society. Jewel Cave, in Jewel Cave National Monument, contains 290 km of mapped passages; and Wind Cave, in Wind Cave National Park, contains 230 km. They are the third and sixth longest known caves in the world. (Author)

  10. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvoyiannis, Miltiadis; Khromachou, Tamim; Byers, Norman; Hargreaves, James; Murray, Henry W

    2014-09-01

    In the United States, autochthonous cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by infection with Leishmania mexicana has been reported from Texas and Oklahoma. Here, we describe a child with 2 new features: cutaneous infection acquired outside of the south-central United States (in North Dakota) and infection caused by Leishmania donovani species complex. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. 75 FR 30850 - Final Supplementary Rules for Camping on Undeveloped Public Lands in Montana, North Dakota, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Supplementary Rules for Camping on Undeveloped Public Lands in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota AGENCY... personal property on undeveloped public lands managed by the BLM in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota... public lands throughout Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota. These final supplementary rules will...

  12. Knowledge and screening of head and neck cancer among American Indians in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwojak, Sunshine; Deschler, Daniel; Sargent, Michele; Emerick, Kevin; Guadagnolo, B Ashleigh; Petereit, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    We established the level of awareness of risk factors and early symptoms of head and neck cancer among American Indians in South Dakota and determined whether head and neck cancer screening detected clinical findings in this population. We used the European About Face survey. We added questions about human papillomavirus, a risk factor for head and neck cancer, and demographics. Surveys were administered at 2 public events in 2011. Participants could partake in a head and neck cancer screening at the time of survey administration. Of the 205 American Indians who completed the survey, 114 participated in the screening. Mean head and neck cancer knowledge scores were 26 out of 44. Level of education was the only factor that predicted higher head and neck cancer knowledge (b = 0.90; P = .01). Nine (8%) people had positive head and neck cancer screening examination results. All abnormal clinical findings were in current or past smokers (P = .06). There are gaps in American Indian knowledge of head and neck cancer risk factors and symptoms. Community-based head and neck cancer screening in this population is feasible and may be a way to identify early abnormal clinical findings in smokers.

  13. The decision to receive influenza vaccination among nurses in North and South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Laurie Jo; Stenvig, Thomas; Wey, Howard

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationships between factors (intention, habit, facilitating conditions, and social, cognitive, and affective factors) and nurses' decisions about influenza vaccinations to understand why some get vaccinated while others do not. In a descriptive correlational design, the Triandis model of interpersonal behavior was used to examine the decision of nurses to receive influenza vaccinations. Participants were a random sample (N=193) of registered nurses in North and South Dakota drawn from the respective state nursing licensing board lists. Instrument construction and mail survey procedures followed Dillman's tailored design method. The response rate exceeded 80%. The findings revealed significant, positive correlations among all model variables. Item analysis showed that false beliefs about influenza disease and vaccinations were prevalent and that there was a wide variation in employer support for nurses getting vaccinated. Educational and social marketing strategies may improve nurse's knowledge about influenza disease and vaccine and increase vaccine uptake. Employers should be encouraged to promote and improve influenza vaccine accessibility in the workplace. Additional study is needed to understand how best to strengthen the influence of intention and habit on the decision of nurses to receive influenza vaccinations. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Idaho Project, Nemo Detail Area, South Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    During the month of August, 1979, EG and G geoMetrics collected 148 miles of high sensitivity airborne radiometric and magnetic data in western South Dakota. Data were collected on tranverse lines 1/4 mile apart and on two tie lines approximately 2 miles apart in one detail area within the Rapid City 1 0 x 2 0 sheet. All data were fully reduced and interpretated by geoMetrics and presented in two volumes. A relative dearth of geologic information seems to exist in this area. Paleozoic and Precambrian sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks appear to cover most of the region of study. Paleozoic rocks are primarily confined to the eastern side. A wide variety of Precambrian rocks are present as mapped. In addition to the standard data presentations and processing procedures, the data were examined for anomalous uranium valves and mappable geochemical subunits using the radiometric and magnetic data. Principal component analysis was performed on the radiometric data using standard deviation subunits defined by BFEC

  15. Hepatic minerals of white-tailed and mule deer in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Teresa J; Jenks, Jonathan A; Leslie, David M; Neiger, Regg D

    2008-04-01

    Because there is a paucity of information on the mineral requirements of free-ranging deer, data are needed from clinically healthy deer to provide a basis for the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies. To our knowledge, no reports are available on baseline hepatic mineral concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using different habitats in the Northern Great Plains. We assessed variation in hepatic minerals of female white-tailed deer (n = 42) and mule deer (n = 41). Deer were collected in February and August 2002 and 2003 from study areas in Custer and Pennington Counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent to a wildfire burn. Hepatic samples were tested for levels (parts per million; ppm) of aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (Tl), and zinc (Zn). We predicted that variability in element concentrations would occur between burned and unburned habitat due to changes in plant communities and thereby forage availability. We determined that Zn, Cu, and Ba values differed (P feeding strategies and morphology between deer species, hepatic elemental concentrations would reflect dietary differences; Ca, Cu, K, Co, Mo, Se, and Zn differed (P

  16. Arsenic and uranium transport in sediments near abandoned uranium mines in Harding County, South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipp, Gregory G.; Stone, James J.; Stetler, Larry D.

    2009-01-01

    Sediment samples were analyzed as part of ongoing environmental investigations of historical U mining impacts within Custer National Forest in Harding County, South Dakota. Correlations between As and U content, grain size and soil mineralogy were determined to identify contaminant fate and transport mechanisms. Soil samples collected near the mining source zone and up to 61 km downgradient of the minesites were analyzed. Samples were homogenized and wet sieved through polymer screens, and metal(loid) concentrations were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis identified quartz as the primary mineral for all size fractions, with varying amounts of analcime, indicative of volcanic origin. Selected samples were examined for trace mineral composition using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of Fe sulfides and Fe (hydr)oxides indicate heterogeneity in redox potentials on a microscopic scale. Elevated metal(loid) concentrations were associated with trace concentrations of Fe sulfide, indicating an influence on metal transport during weathering. Sequential chemical extractions (SCE) performed on source sediment fractions demonstrated that most As and U was adsorbed to Fe- and Mn-oxides and carbonates with lesser amounts bound by ion exchange, organics and Fe sulfides. Large changes in U/Th and As/Th ratios were observed to coincide with geochemical changes in the watershed, suggesting that metal(loid)-Th ratios may be used in environmental investigations to identify geochemically-significant watershed conditions.

  17. Spearfish High School, Sparfish, South Dakota solar energy system performance evaluation, September 1980-June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, B.D.

    1981-01-01

    Spearfish High School in South Dakota contains 43,000 square feet of conditioned space. Its active solar energy system is designed to supply 57% of the space heating and 50% of the hot water demand. The system is equipped with 8034 square feet of flat plate collectors, 4017 cubic feet of rock bin sensible heat storage, and auxiliary equipment including 8 heat pumps, 6 of which are solar supplied and instrumented, air conditioning units, and natural-gas-fired boilers. Performance data are given for the system including the solar fraction, solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor and solar system coefficient of performance. Insolation, solar energy utilization and operation data are also given. The performance of the collector, storage, domestic hot water and space heating subsystems, the operating energy, energy savings, and weather conditions are also evaluated. Appended are a system description, performance evaluation techniques and equations, site history, long-term weather data, sensor technology, and typical monthly data. (LEW)

  18. Physical Processes Affecting the Distribution of Diydymosphenia Geminata Biomass Bloom in Rapid Creek, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abessa, M. B.; Sundareshwar, P. V.; Updhayay, S.

    2010-12-01

    Didymosphenia geminata is a freshwater diatom that has invaded and colonized many of the world’s oligotrophic streams and rivers, including Rapid Creek in Western South Dakota - a perennial oligotrophic stream that emerges from the Black Hills and is fed by cold water release from the Pactola Reservoir. Since 2002, D. geminata blooms have been observed in certain stretches of the Rapid Creek. These massive blooms are localized to certain segments of the Creek where the flow is mainly slow, stable and shallow dominated by boulder type bed material and submerged large woody debris. Water chemistry data from this Creek showed the variability of major nutrients such as phosphate, nitrates/nitrites and ammonium are insignificant across our study sites while the nature of the stream flow is quite irregular. We measured flow rates, depth, temperature, stream bed characteristics, water chemistry, and D. geminata biomass in regions with and without blooms. The presentation will discuss how changes in physical parameters along the various reaches of the Creek impact the biomass distribution of this invasive alga.

  19. Greenhouse gas fluxes of a shallow lake in south-central North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Brian; Finocchiaro, Raymond; Gleason, Robert A.; Dahl, Charles F.

    2016-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes of aquatic ecosystems in the northern Great Plains of the U.S. represent a significant data gap. Consequently, a 3-year study was conducted in south-central North Dakota, USA, to provide an initial estimate of GHG fluxes from a large, shallow lake. Mean GHG fluxes were 0.02 g carbon dioxide (CO2) m−2 h−1, 0.0009 g methane (CH4) m−2 h−1, and 0.0005 mg nitrous oxide (N2O) m−2 h−1. Fluxes of CO2 and CH4 displayed temporal and spatial variability which is characteristic of aquatic ecosystems, while fluxes of N2O were consistently low throughout the study. Comparisons between results of this study and published values suggest that mean daily fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O fromLong Lakewere low, particularly when compared to the well-studied prairie pothole wetlands of the region. Similarly, cumulative seasonal CH4 fluxes, which ranged from 2.68–7.58 g CH4 m−2, were relatively low compared to other wetland systems of North America. The observed variability among aquatic ecosystems underscores the need for further research.

  20. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of South Dakota. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  1. Habitat preferences of ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) species in the northern Black Hills of South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, David J; Brandenburg, Dylan; Petit, Samantha; Gabel, Mark

    2012-10-01

    Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are a major component of terrestrial invertebrate communities and have been used as bioindicators of habitat change and disturbance. The Black Hills of South Dakota is a small area with a high biodiversity, but the ground beetles of this region are little studied. The habitat preferences of ground beetles in the Black Hills are unknown, and baseline data must be collected if these beetles are to be used in the future as bioindicators. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were collected from pitfall traps at two sites in each of five kinds of habitats (grassland, bur oak-ironwood forests, ponderosa pine-common juniper forests, aspen-pine forests, and a spruce forest) from which habitat structure characteristics and plant abundance data also were collected. In total, 27 species of ground beetles were identified. Although some species, such as Dicaelus sculptilis Say were found in most habitats, other species showed distinct habitat preferences: Poecilus lucublandus (Say) preferred oak forests, Pasimachus elongatus LeConte preferred grasslands, and Calathus ingratus Dejean preferred high-elevation aspen-pine forests. Pterostichus adstrictus Escholtz was found only in woodlands, and Carabus taedatus Say strictly in higher elevation (over 1,500 m) aspen or coniferous woods, and may represent relict populations of boreal species. Elevation, exposure to sunlight, and cover of woody plants strongly influence the structure of carabid communities in the Black Hills.

  2. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-three. South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of South Dakota governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  3. Estimation of potential scour at bridges on local government roads in South Dakota, 2009-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ryan F.; Wattier, Chelsea M.; Liggett, Richard R.; Truax, Ryan A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey and South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT) began a study to estimate potential scour at selected bridges on local government (county, township, and municipal) roads in South Dakota. A rapid scour-estimation method (level-1.5) and a more detailed method (level-2) were used to develop estimates of contraction, abutment, and pier scour. Data from 41 level-2 analyses completed for this study were combined with data from level-2 analyses completed in previous studies to develop new South Dakota-specific regression equations: four regional equations for main-channel velocity at the bridge contraction to account for the widely varying stream conditions within South Dakota, and one equation for head change. Velocity data from streamgages also were used in the regression for average velocity through the bridge contraction. Using these new regression equations, scour analyses were completed using the level-1.5 method on 361 bridges on local government roads. Typically, level-1.5 analyses are completed at flows estimated to have annual exceedance probabilities of 1 percent (100-year flood) and 0.2 percent (500-year flood); however, at some sites the bridge would not pass these flows. A level-1.5 analysis was then completed at the flow expected to produce the maximum scour. Data presented for level-1.5 scour analyses at the 361 bridges include contraction, abutment, and pier scour. Estimates of potential contraction scour ranged from 0 to 32.5 feet for the various flows evaluated. Estimated potential abutment scour ranged from 0 to 40.9 feet for left abutments, and from 0 to 37.7 feet for right abutments. Pier scour values ranged from 2.7 to 31.6 feet. The scour depth estimates provided in this report can be used by the SDDOT to compare with foundation depths at each bridge to determine if abutments or piers are at risk of being undermined by scour at the flows evaluated. Replicate analyses were completed at 24 of the 361 bridges

  4. Spatial analysis of Northern Goshawk Territories in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, Robert W.; Backlund, Douglas; Bartelt, Paul E.; Erickson, Michael G.; Knowles, Craig J.; Knowles, Pamela R.; Wimberly, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) is the largest of the three North American species ofAccipiter and is more closely associated with older forests than are the other species. Its reliance on older forests has resulted in concerns about its status, extensive research into its habitat relationships, and litigation. Our objective was to model the spatial patterns of goshawk territories in the Black Hills, South Dakota, to make inferences about the underlying processes. We used a modification of Ripley's K function that accounts for inhomogeneous intensity to determine whether territoriality or habitat determined the spacing of goshawks in the Black Hills, finding that habitat conditions rather than territoriality were the determining factor. A spatial model incorporating basal area of trees in a stand of forest, canopy cover, age of trees >23 cm in diameter, number of trees per hectare, and geographic coordinates provided good fit to the spatial patterns of territories. There was no indication of repulsion at close distances that would imply spacing was determined by territoriality. These findings contrast with those for the Kaibab Plateau, Arizona, where territoriality is an important limiting factor. Forest stands where the goshawk nested historically are now younger and have trees of smaller diameter, probably having been modified by logging, fire, and insects. These results have important implications for the goshawk's ecology in the Black Hills with respect to mortality, competition, forest fragmentation, and nest-territory protection.

  5. Summary of Surface-Water Quality, Ground-Water Quality, and Water Withdrawals for the Spirit Lake Reservation, North Dakota

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vinning, Kevin C; Cates, Steven W

    2006-01-01

    .... The data were collected intermittently from 1948 through 2004 and were compiled from U.S. Geological Survey databases, North Dakota State Water Commission databases, and Spirit Lake Nation tribal agencies...

  6. Linking phenology and biomass productivity in South Dakota mixed-grass prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigge, Matthew; Smart, Alexander; Wylie, Bruce; Gilmanov, Tagir; Johnson, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the health of rangeland ecosystems based solely on annual biomass production does not fully describe plant community condition; the phenology of production can provide inferences on species composition, successional stage, and grazing impacts. We evaluate the productivity and phenology of western South Dakota mixed-grass prairie using 2000 to 2008 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) satellite imagery at 250 m spatial resolution. Growing season NDVI images were integrated weekly to produce time-integrated NDVI (TIN), a proxy of total annual biomass production, and integrated seasonally to represent annual production by cool (C3) and warm (C4) season species. Additionally, a variety of phenological indicators including cool season percentage of TIN were derived from the seasonal profiles of NDVI. Cool season percentage and TIN were combined to generate vegetation classes, which served as proxies of plant community condition. TIN decreased with precipitation from east to west across the study area. Alternatively, cool season percentage increased from east to west, following patterns related to the reliability (interannual coefficient of variation [CV]) and quantity of mid-summer precipitation. Cool season TIN averaged 76.8% of total. Seasonal accumulation of TIN corresponded closely (R2 > 0.90) to that of gross photosynthesis data from a carbon flux tower. Field-collected biomass and community composition data were strongly related to the TIN and cool season percentage products. The patterns of vegetation classes were responsive to topographic, edaphic, and land management influences on plant communities. Accurate maps of biomass production, cool/warm season composition, and vegetation classes can improve the efficiency of land management by adjusting stocking rates and season of use to maximize rangeland productivity and achieve conservation objectives. Further, our results clarify the spatial and

  7. Effectiveness of corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) areawide pest management in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, B Wade; Chandler, Laurence D; Riedell, Walter E

    2007-10-01

    Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence and Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are serious pests of maize, Zea mays L. To reduce the amount of toxicants released into the environment, the Agricultural Research Service implemented a 5-yr (1997-2001) areawide pest management program in five geographic locations, including one in South Dakota. The objective was to use integrated pest management tactics to suppress adult Diabrotica populations over a broad geographic area by using aerially applied semiochemical-baited insecticides. Suppressed populations theoretically should reduce oviposition, limit larval feeding damage to maize roots, and result in fewer beetles emerging in subsequent years. We used emergence cages, sticky traps, and CRW lure traps to monitor adult D. barberi and D. v. virgifera populations. We sampled for Diabrotica eggs, and we determined damage to maize roots. We sampled in several maize fields (control) located near the areawide site. The baited insecticides were effective in reducing adult populations 1 and 2 wk after application, and most remained low for the duration of the maize growing season. Fewer beetles were captured in both sticky and lure traps in the areawide site than in the control site. With a few exceptions, egg counts, adult emergence, and maize root damage were similar between the areawide and control sites; however, maize roots had greater fresh weight in the control site. Although not all goals were accomplished, when considering the amount of toxicant released into the environment, using semiochemical-baited insecticides to suppress adult pest Diabrotica populations seems to be an effective areawide management tool.

  8. Streamflow Trends and Responses to Climate Variability and Land Cover Change in South Dakota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karishma Niloy Kibria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trends in high, moderate, and low streamflow conditions from United States Geological Survey (USGS gauging stations were evaluated for a period of 1951–2013 for 18 selected watersheds in South Dakota (SD using a modified Mann-Kendall test. Rainfall trends from 21 rainfall observation stations located within 20-km of the streamflow gauging stations were also evaluated for the same study period. The concept of elasticity was used to examine sensitivity of streamflow to variation in rainfall and land cover (i.e., grassland in the study watersheds. Results indicated significant increasing trends in seven of the studied streams (of which five are in the east and two are located in the west, nine with slight increasing trends, and two with decreasing trends for annual streamflow. About half of the streams exhibited significant increasing trends in low and moderate flow conditions compared to high flow conditions. Ten rainfall stations showed slight increasing trends and seven showed decreasing trends for annual rainfall. Streamflow elasticity analysis revealed that streamflow was highly influenced by rainfall across the state (five of eastern streams and seven of western streams. Based on this analysis, a 10% increase in annual rainfall would result in 11%–30% increase in annual streamflow in more than 60% of SD streams. While streamflow appears to be more sensitive to rainfall across the state, high sensitivity of streamflow to rapid decrease in grassland area was detected in two western watersheds. This study provides valuable insight into of the relationship between streamflow, climate, and grassland cover in SD and would support further research and stakeholder decision making about water resources.

  9. Co-producing simulation models to inform resource management: a case study from southwest South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian W.; Symstad, Amy J.; Frid, Leonardo; Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Schuurman, Gregor W.

    2017-01-01

    Simulation models can represent complexities of the real world and serve as virtual laboratories for asking “what if…?” questions about how systems might respond to different scenarios. However, simulation models have limited relevance to real-world applications when designed without input from people who could use the simulated scenarios to inform their decisions. Here, we report on a state-and-transition simulation model of vegetation dynamics that was coupled to a scenario planning process and co-produced by researchers, resource managers, local subject-matter experts, and climate change adaptation specialists to explore potential effects of climate scenarios and management alternatives on key resources in southwest South Dakota. Input from management partners and local experts was critical for representing key vegetation types, bison and cattle grazing, exotic plants, fire, and the effects of climate change and management on rangeland productivity and composition given the paucity of published data on many of these topics. By simulating multiple land management jurisdictions, climate scenarios, and management alternatives, the model highlighted important tradeoffs between grazer density and vegetation composition, as well as between the short- and long-term costs of invasive species management. It also pointed to impactful uncertainties related to the effects of fire and grazing on vegetation. More broadly, a scenario-based approach to model co-production bracketed the uncertainty associated with climate change and ensured that the most important (and impactful) uncertainties related to resource management were addressed. This cooperative study demonstrates six opportunities for scientists to engage users throughout the modeling process to improve model utility and relevance: (1) identifying focal dynamics and variables, (2) developing conceptual model(s), (3) parameterizing the simulation, (4) identifying relevant climate scenarios and management

  10. Postbreeding resource selection by adult black-footed ferrets in the Conata Basin, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, D.A.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Biggins, D.E.; Livieri, T.M.; Jachowski, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated postbreeding resource selection by adult black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) on a 452-ha black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colony in the Conata Basin of South Dakota during 20072008. We used resource selection functions (RSFs) to evaluate relationships between numbers of ferret locations and numbers of prairie dog burrow openings (total or active), distances to colony edges, and connectivity of patches of burrow openings. In both years ferrets selected areas near edges of the prairie dog colony where active burrow openings were abundant. In the interior of the colony ferrets selected areas with low abundance of active burrow openings. At times, prairie dog productivity (i.e., pup abundance) might be greatest at colony edges often characterized by grasses; ferrets are likely to select areas where refuge and vulnerable prey are abundant. Ferrets could have used interior areas with few active burrow openings as corridors between edge areas with many active burrow openings. Also, in areas with few active burrow openings ferrets spend more time aboveground during movements and, thus, are likely to be more easily detected. These results complement previous studies demonstrating importance of refuge and prey in fine-scale resource selection by ferrets and provide insight into factors that might influence edge effects on ferret space use. Conservation and restoration of colonies with areas with high densities of burrow openings and prairie dogs, and corridors between such areas, are needed for continued recovery of the black-footed ferret. RSFs could complement coarse-scale habitat evaluations by providing finer-scale assessments of habitat for the black-footed ferret. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  11. Impacts of Northern Pike on stocked Rainbow Trout in Pactola Reservoir, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibel, Natalie C.; Dembkowski, Daniel J.; Davis, Jacob L.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of nonnative Northern Pike Esox lucius in Pactola Reservoir, South Dakota, has prompted concern among biologists about the influence of this species on the lake’s intensively managed salmonid fisheries. Ancedotal information suggests that catch rates of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss have declined while mean size and abundance of Northern Pike has increased, although quantitative information on diet and growth of the Northern Pike population is lacking. To address potential interactions between Northern Pike and Rainbow Trout, we assessed size-dependent predation by Northern Pike on Rainbow Trout and determined the relative energetic contribution of stocked Rainbow Trout to Northern Pike growth using bioenergetics modeling. Stable isotopes combined with traditional diet analyses revealed that smaller Northern Pike (Trout contributed less than 10% to their annual energy consumption. In contrast, larger Northern Pike (≥600 mm TL) consumed primarily Rainbow Trout, which accounted for 56% of their annual energy consumption. Combining estimates of Northern Pike predation with production costs of catchable-size Rainbow Trout revealed that annual economic losses ranged from US$15,259 to $24,801 per year. Over its lifespan, an age-10 Northern Pike was estimated to consume ~117 Rainbow Trout worth approximately $340. Thus, Northern Pike predation substantially influences salmonid management initiatives and is likely a primary factor contributing to reduced Rainbow Trout abundance and return to anglers in Pactola Reservoir. Strategies for reducing Northern Pike predation on Rainbow Trout include increasing the size of stocked fish or altering the timing and spatial distribution of stocking events.

  12. National environmental/energy workforce assessment. national summary. Volume Four: South Dakota-Virgin Islands. Final report on phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    This study is one of 70 volumes assessing the workforce needs (manpower needs) for pollution control and abatement in the United States for the five-year period of 1976 through 1981. Seven fields for pollution control -- air, noise, pesticides, potable water, radiation, solid waste, and wastewater -- are analyzed, together with energy-related programs currently accentuated by the national effort to solve energy supply problems. The report identifies existing workforce levels, training programs, career opportunities, and future staffing level projections (1976 to 1982) based on the information available for the states of South Dakota through Wyoming and also the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands

  13. The vegetation of Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve, south-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vegetation of Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve, south-eastern Zimbabwe. ... African Journal of Range and Forage Science ... Comparisons with other southern African savannas are made, and similarities and differences are discussed.

  14. The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary interval in Badlands National Park, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.; Messina, Paula; Chamberlain, John A.; Terry, Dennis O.

    2001-01-01

    A marine K-T boundary interval has been identified throughout the Badlands National Park region of South Dakota. Data from marine sediments suggest that deposits from two asteroid impacts (one close, one far away) may be preserved in the Badlands. These impact-generated deposits may represent late Maestrichtian events or possibly the terminal K-T event. Interpretation is supported by paleontological correlation, sequence stratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, and strontium isotope geochronology. This research is founded on nearly a decade of NPS approved field work in Badlands National Park and a foundation of previously published data and interpretations. The K-T boundary occurs within or near the base of a stratigraphic interval referred to as the "Interior Zone." We interpret the stratigraphy of the Interior Zone as a series of distinct, recognizable lithologic members and units from oldest to youngest, an upper weathered interval of the Elk Butte Member of the Pierre Shale (early late Maestrichtian), a complete (albeit condensed) interval of Fox Hill Formation, a pedogenically altered K-T Boundary "Disturbed Zone," and a generally unresolved sequence of marine to marginal marine units ranging in age from possibly latest Maestrichtian to late Paleocene (the "Yellow Mounds"), that underlie a basal red clay unit (the late Eocene overbank channel facies of the Chamberlain Pass Formation at the base of the White River Group). Within this sequence is a series of unconformities that all display some degree of subaerial weathering and erosion. The dating of marine fossils above and below these unconformities are in line with generally accepted global sea-level changes recognized for the late Campanian through early Eocene. Within the greater framework of regional geology, these findings support that the Western Interior Seaway and subsequent Cannonball Seaway were dependently linked to the changing base-level controlled by sea-level of the global ocean through the Gulf of

  15. Hieracium caespitosum and Hieracium piloselloides (Asteraceae) in the Black Hills National Forest: New state records for South Dakota, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian E. Dickerson; Cheryl Mayer; Justin Ramsey; Zach Mergen; Mark Gabel

    2016-01-01

    Hieracium spp. (Asteraceae) are noted for their taxonomic complexity, frequent incidence of apomixis and polyploidy, and invasive tendencies. Here we report the Eurasian taxa, Hieracium caespitosum Dumort. and Hieracium piloselloides Vill., as recent additions to the flora of South Dakota. Plants were collected at three locations in the Black Hills during 2014 and 2015...

  16. A Cultural Resource Inventory of Portions of Lake Oahe, Corson County, South Dakota. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    Dakota Twilight. Exposition Press, Hicksville, New York. Moran, S. R., M. Arndt, J. P. Bluemle, M. Camara, L. Clayton, M. M. Fenton , K. L. Harris, H. C...89 35 116 89 *Piscellaneous, a - smoking material. b - gum, c - sap. d - ceremonial or play. a - cosmetic . References: 6 - Gilmore 1919. 6 - Grinnell

  17. Non-Type b Haemophilus influenzae Invasive Infections in North Dakota and South Dakota, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Stephanie; Kaushik, Ashlesha; Mauriello, Clifford; Chatterjee, Archana

    2017-09-01

    Reports of children with non-type b Haemophilus influenzae infection in the United States in recent years have been limited. Here, we report the spectrum and severity of disease associated with invasive non-type b H influenzae infection in 17 patients at 2 tertiary-care children's hospitals over a 2-year period. Meningitis was the most common diagnosis. The majority of the patients had neurologic sequelae, and 1 patient died. The high proportions of hospitalization, intensive care utilization, and neurologic complications reveal that non-type b H influenzae infection was associated with significant morbidity in this pediatric population. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Assessment of the feeding value of South Dakota-grown field peas (Pisum sativum l.) for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, H H; Benzoni, G; Bohlke, R A; Peters, D N

    2004-09-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the feeding value of South Dakota-grown field peas (Pisum sativum L.) for growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 96 pigs (initial BW = 22 +/- 3.35 kg) were allotted to four treatment groups (four pigs per pen, six replicate pens per treatment) and fed growing (0.95% Lys) and finishing (0.68% Lys) diets containing 0, 12, 24, or 36% field peas (as-fed basis). There were no differences among the treatment groups in ADG, ADFI, or G:F. Likewise, there were no differences in backfat thickness or lean meat percent among treatment groups, but pigs fed diets containing 12, 24, or 36% field peas had greater (P feed ingredients. Experiment 4 was an energy balance experiment conducted to measure the DE and ME concentrations in field peas and corn. Six growing pigs (initial BW = 85.5 +/- 6.5 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and fed diets based on field peas or corn and arranged in a two-period switch-back design. The DE values for field peas and corn (3,864 and 3,879 kcal/kg DM, respectively) were similar, but the ME of corn was higher (P Dakota-grown field peas are highly digestible by growing pigs. Therefore, such field peas may be included in diets for nursery pigs and growing-finishing pigs in amounts of at least 18 and 36%, respectively, without negatively affecting pig performance.

  19. Resource management and operations in southwest South Dakota: Climate change scenario planning workshop summary January 20-21, 2016, Rapid City, SD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Schuurman, Gregor W.; Symstad, Amy J.; Ray, Andrea; Miller, Brian; Cross, Molly; Rowland, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The Scaling Climate Change Adaptation in the Northern Great Plains through Regional Climate Summaries and Local Qualitative-Quantitative Scenario Planning Workshops project synthesizes climate data into 3-5 distinct but plausible climate summaries for the northern Great Plains region; crafts quantitative summaries of these climate futures for two focal areas; and applies these local summaries by developing climate-resource-management scenarios through participatory workshops and, where possible, simulation models. The two focal areas are central North Dakota and southwest South Dakota (Figure 1). The primary objective of this project is to help resource managers and scientists in a focal area use scenario planning to make management and planning decisions based on assessments of critical future uncertainties.This report summarizes project work for public and tribal lands in the southwest South Dakota grasslands focal area, with an emphasis on Badlands National Park and Buffalo Gap National Grassland. The report explains scenario planning as an adaptation tool in general, then describes how it was applied to the focal area in three phases. Priority resource management and climate uncertainties were identified in the orientation phase. Local climate summaries for relevant, divergent, and challenging climate scenarios were developed in the second phase. In the final phase, a two-day scenario planning workshop held January 20-21, 2016 in Rapid City, South Dakota, featured scenario development and implications, testing management decisions, and methods for operationalizing scenario planning outcomes.

  20. Wind power variability and power system reserves in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2017-01-01

    Variable renewable generation, primarily from wind and solar, introduces new uncertainties in the operation of power systems. This paper describes and applies a method to quantify how wind power development will affect the use of short-term automatic reserves in the future South African power sys...

  1. Water quality of streams in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 1970-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornes, Lan H.

    2005-01-01

    Data for the Red River of the North (Red River) Basin in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota were analyzed to determine whether the water quality of streams in the basin is adequate to meet future needs. For the Red River at Emerson, Manitoba, site, pH values, water temperatures, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations generally were within the criteria established for the protection of aquatic life. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 245 to 1,100 milligrams per liter. Maximum sulfate and chloride concentrations were near, but did not exceed, the established secondary maximum contaminant level. The trace elements considered potentially harmful generally were at concentrations that were less than the established guidelines, standards, and criteria. The concentrations of lead that were detected may have occurred as a result of sample contamination.  For the Red River upstream from Emerson, Manitoba, sites, pH and other field values rarely exceeded the criteria established for the protection of aquatic life. Many constituent concentrations for the Red River below Fargo, N. site exceeded water-quality guidelines, standards, and criteria. However, the trace-element exceedances could be natural or could be related to pollution or sample contamination. Many of the tributaries in the western part of the Red River Basin had median specific-conductance values that were greater than 1,000 microsiemens per centimeter. Sulfate concentrations occasionally exceeded the established drinking-water standard. Median arsenic concentrations were 6 micrograms per liter or less, and maximum concentrations rarely exceeded the 10-microgram-per-liter drinking-water standard that is scheduled to take effect in 2006. The small concentrations of lead, mercury, and selenium that occasionally were detected may have been a result of sample contamination or other factors. The tributaries in the eastern part of the Red River Basin had median specific-conductance values that were less

  2. Hydrologic Effects of the 1988 Galena Fire, Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Carter, Janet M.; Ohlen, Donald O.

    2004-01-01

    The Galena Fire burned about 16,788 acres of primarily ponderosa pine forest during July 5-8, 1988, in the Black Hills area of South Dakota. The fire burned primarily within the Grace Coolidge Creek drainage basin and almost entirely within the boundaries of Custer State Park. A U.S. Geological Survey gaging station with streamflow records dating back to 1977 was located along Grace Coolidge Creek within the burned area. About one-half of the gaging station's 26.8-square-mile drainage area was burned. The drainage basin for Bear Gulch, which is tributary to Grace Coolidge Creek, was burned particularly severely, with complete deforestation occurring in nearly the entirety of the area upstream from a gaging station that was installed in 1989. A study to evaluate effects of the Galena Fire on streamflow, geomorphology, and water quality was initiated in 1988. The geomorphologic and water-quality components of the study were completed by 1990 and are summarized in this report. A data-collection network consisting of streamflow- and precipitation-gaging stations was operated through water year 1998 for evaluation of effects on streamflow characteristics, including both annual-yield and peak-flow characteristics, which are the main focus of this report. Moderately burned areas did not experience a substantial increase in the rate of surface erosion; however, severely burned areas underwent surficial erosion nearly twice that of the unburned areas. The sediment production rate of Bear Gulch estimated 8 to 14 months after the fire was 870 ft3/acre (44 tons/acre). Substantial degradation of stream channels within the severely burned headwater areas of Bear Gulch was documented. Farther downstream, channel aggradation resulted from deposition of sediments transported from the headwater areas. The most notable water-quality effect was on concentrations of suspended sediment, which were orders of magnitude higher for Bear Gulch than for the unburned control area. Effects on

  3. Late Holocene flood probabilities in the Black Hills, South Dakota with emphasis on the Medieval Climate Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Tessa M.; O'Connor, James E.; Driscoll, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    A stratigraphic record of 35 large paleofloods and four large historical floods during the last 2000 years for four basins in the Black Hills of South Dakota reveals three long-term flooding episodes, identified using probability distributions, at A.D.: 120–395, 900–1290, and 1410 to present. During the Medieval Climate Anomaly (~ A.D. 900–1300) the four basins collectively experienced 13 large floods compared to nine large floods in the previous 800 years, including the largest floods of the last 2000 years for two of the four basins. This high concentration of extreme floods is likely caused by one or more of the following: 1) instability of air masses caused by stronger than normal westerlies; 2) larger or more frequent hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean; and/or 3) reduced land covering vegetation or increased forest fires caused by persistent regional drought.

  4. Selected Data for Wells and Test Holes Used in Structure-Contour Maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, Janet M

    1999-01-01

    This report presents selected data on wells and test holes that were used in the construction of structure-contour maps of selected formations that contain major aquifers in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota...

  5. Attitudes and gender differences of high school seniors within one-to-one computing environments in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mathew

    In today's age of exponential change and technological advancement, awareness of any gender gap in technology and computer science-related fields is crucial, but further research must be done in an effort to better understand the complex interacting factors contributing to the gender gap. This study utilized a survey to investigate specific gender differences relating to computing self-efficacy, computer usage, and environmental factors of exposure, personal interests, and parental influence that impact gender differences of high school students within a one-to-one computing environment in South Dakota. The population who completed the One-to-One High School Computing Survey for this study consisted of South Dakota high school seniors who had been involved in a one-to-one computing environment for two or more years. The data from the survey were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics for the determined variables. From the review of literature and data analysis several conclusions were drawn from the findings. Among them are that overall, there was very little difference in perceived computing self-efficacy and computing anxiety between male and female students within the one-to-one computing initiative. The study supported the current research that males and females utilized computers similarly, but males spent more time using their computers to play online games. Early exposure to computers, or the age at which the student was first exposed to a computer, and the number of computers present in the home (computer ownership) impacted computing self-efficacy. The results also indicated parental encouragement to work with computers also contributed positively to both male and female students' computing self-efficacy. Finally the study also found that both mothers and fathers encouraged their male children more than their female children to work with computing and pursue careers in computing science fields.

  6. Exploring the Uptake of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception in South Dakota Women and the Importance of Provider Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Tess L; Briggs, Ashley; Hanson, Jessica D

    2017-11-01

    Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) methods, including the intrauterine device (IUD) and the birth control implant, are the most effective form of prescribed birth control for pregnancy prevention. However, uptake of this highly effective form of birth control is slow. The purpose of this study was to explore use of the LARC methods in South Dakota women prescribed contraception and the importance of the provider in promoting this type of contraception. This was a cross-sectional study of female patients who had been prescribed contraception at one of five locations in a South Dakota hospital system. Records were obtained through electronic health records for a six-month period. Descriptive analysis was performed using chi-square with counts and percentages. Logistic regression was used to determine differences in LARC prescriptions by patient age and provider title. A total of 2,174 individual patients were included in analysis. Of the 378 (17.4 percent) who were prescribed LARC methods, most (78.6 percent) were prescribed an IUD. Younger women (aged 11-19) were less likely to be prescribed LARCs compared to women aged 30-34. There were also significant differences in LARC prescriptions by provider type. Futhermore, we noted differences in LARC prescriptions for a provider who received a specific education and training on LARC from the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. There are many important factors to consider by the patient when choosing the most appropriate contraceptive method, including safety, effectiveness, accessibility, and affordability. Provider education may play an important role in promoting LARC methods.

  7. Conceptual and numerical models of the glacial aquifer system north of Aberdeen, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Katrina A.; Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Aurand, Katherine R.; Putnam, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey report documents a conceptual and numerical model of the glacial aquifer system north of Aberdeen, South Dakota, that can be used to evaluate and manage the city of Aberdeen's water resources. The glacial aquifer system in the model area includes the Elm, Middle James, and Deep James aquifers, with intervening confining units composed of glacial till. The Elm aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to about 95 feet (ft), with an average thickness of about 24 ft; the Middle James aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to 91 ft, with an average thickness of 13 ft; and the Deep James aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to 165 ft, with an average thickness of 23 ft. The confining units between the aquifers consisted of glacial till and ranged in thickness from 0 to 280 ft. The general direction of groundwater flow in the Elm aquifer in the model area was from northwest to southeast following the topography. Groundwater flow in the Middle James aquifer was to the southeast. Sparse data indicated a fairly flat potentiometric surface for the Deep James aquifer. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity for the Elm aquifer determined from aquifer tests ranged from 97 to 418 feet per day (ft/d), and a confined storage coefficient was determined to be 2.4x10-5. Estimates of the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments separating the Elm River from the Elm aquifer, determined from the analysis of temperature gradients, ranged from 0.14 to 2.48 ft/d. Average annual precipitation in the model area was 19.6 inches per year (in/yr), and agriculture was the primary land use. Recharge to the Elm aquifer was by infiltration of precipitation through overlying outwash, lake sediments, and glacial till. The annual recharge for the model area, calculated by using a soil-water-balance method for water year (WY) 1975-2009, ranged from 0.028 inch in WY 1980 to 4.52 inches in WY 1986, with a mean of 1.56 inches. The annual potential

  8. Aquifer test to determine hydraulic properties of the Elm aquifer near Aberdeen, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    2000-01-01

    The Elm aquifer, which consists of sandy and gravelly glacial-outwash deposits, is present in several counties in northeastern South Dakota. An aquifer test was conducted northeast of Aberdeen during the fall of 1999 to determine the hydraulic properties of the Elm aquifer in that area. An improved understanding of the properties of the aquifer will be useful in the possible development of the aquifer as a water resource. Historical water-level data indicate that the saturated thickness of the Elm aquifer can change considerably over time. From September 1977 through November 1985, water levels at three wells completed in the Elm aquifer near the aquifer test site varied by 5.1 ft, 9.50 ft, and 11.1 ft. From June 1982 through October 1999, water levels at five wells completed in the Elm aquifer near the aquifer test site varied by 8.7 ft, 11.4 ft, 13.2 ft, 13.8 ft, and 19.7 ft. The water levels during the fall of 1999 were among the highest on record, so the aquifer test was affected by portions of the aquifer being saturated that might not be saturated during drier times. The aquifer test was conducted using five existing wells that had been installed prior to this study. Well A, the pumped well, has an operating irrigation pump and is centrally located among the wells. Wells B, C, D, and E are about 70 ft, 1,390 ft, 2,200 ft, and 3,100 ft, respectively, in different directions from Well A. Using vented pressure transducers and programmable data loggers, water-level data were collected at the five wells prior to, during, and after the pumping, which started on November 19, 1999, and continued a little over 72 hours. Based on available drilling logs, the Elm aquifer near the test area was assumed to be unconfined. The Neuman (1974) method theoretical response curves that most closely match the observed water-level changes at Wells A and B were calculated using software (AQTESOLV for Windows Version 2.13-Professional) developed by Glenn M. Duffield of Hydro

  9. Assessment of Gas Potential in the Niobrara Formation, Rosebud Reservation, South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Aubrey E. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hopkinson, Leslie [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Soeder, Daniel [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-01-23

    Surface water and groundwater risks associated with unconventional oil and gas development result from potential spills of the large volumes of chemicals stored on-site during drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations, and the return to the surface of significant quantities of saline water produced during oil or gas well production. To better identify and mitigate risks, watershed models and tools are needed to evaluate the dispersion of pollutants in possible spill scenarios. This information may be used to determine the placement of in-stream water-quality monitoring instruments and to develop early-warning systems and emergency plans. A chemical dispersion model has been used to estimate the contaminant signal for in-stream measurements. Spills associated with oil and gas operations were identified within the Susquehanna River Basin Commission’s Remote Water Quality Monitoring Network. The volume of some contaminants was found to be sufficient to affect the water quality of certain drainage areas. The most commonly spilled compounds and expected peak concentrations at monitoring stations were used in laboratory experiments to determine if a signal could be detected and positively identified using standard water-quality monitoring equipment. The results were compared to historical data and baseline observations of water quality parameters, and showed that the chemicals tested do commonly affect water quality parameters. This work is an effort to demonstrate that hydrologic and water quality models may be applied to improve the placement of in-stream water quality monitoring devices. This information may increase the capability of early-warning systems to alert community health and environmental agencies of surface water spills associated with unconventional oil and gas operations.

  10. Suitability of river delta sediment as proppant, Missouri and Niobrara Rivers, Nebraska and South Dakota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelt, Ronald B.; Hobza, Christopher M.; Burton, Bethany L.; Schaepe, Nathaniel J.; Piatak, Nadine

    2017-11-16

    Sediment management is a challenge faced by reservoir managers who have several potential options, including dredging, for mitigation of storage capacity lost to sedimentation. As sediment is removed from reservoir storage, potential use of the sediment for socioeconomic or ecological benefit could potentially defray some costs of its removal. Rivers that transport a sandy sediment load will deposit the sand load along a reservoir-headwaters reach where the current of the river slackens progressively as its bed approaches and then descends below the reservoir water level. Given a rare combination of factors, a reservoir deposit of alluvial sand has potential to be suitable for use as proppant for hydraulic fracturing in unconventional oil and gas development. In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey began a program of researching potential sources of proppant sand from reservoirs, with an initial focus on the Missouri River subbasins that receive sand loads from the Nebraska Sand Hills. This report documents the methods and results of assessments of the suitability of river delta sediment as proppant for a pilot study area in the delta headwaters of Lewis and Clark Lake, Nebraska and South Dakota. Results from surface-geophysical surveys of electrical resistivity guided borings to collect 3.7-meter long cores at 25 sites on delta sandbars using the direct-push method to recover duplicate, 3.8-centimeter-diameter cores in April 2015. In addition, the U.S. Geological Survey collected samples of upstream sand sources in the lower Niobrara River valley.At the laboratory, samples were dried, weighed, washed, dried, and weighed again. Exploratory analysis of natural sand for determining its suitability as a proppant involved application of a modified subset of the standard protocols known as American Petroleum Institute (API) Recommended Practice (RP) 19C. The RP19C methods were not intended for exploration-stage evaluation of raw materials. Results for the washed samples are

  11. Spatial Epidemiology of Alcohol- and Drug-Related Health Problems Among Northern Plains American Indians: Nebraska and South Dakota, 2007 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponicki, William R; Henderson, Jeffrey A; Gaidus, Andrew; Gruenewald, Paul J; Lee, Juliet P; Moore, Roland S; Davids, Sharice; Tilsen, Nick

    2018-03-01

    Despite high abstinence rates, American Indians experience elevated rates of many alcohol and other drug problems. American Indians also predominantly reside in poor and rural areas, which may explain some observed health disparities. We investigated whether geographic areas including reservations or large American Indian populations exhibited greater incidence of alcohol- and drug-related hospitalizations. We obtained inpatient hospitalization records for 2 Northern Plain states (Nebraska and South Dakota) for the years 2007 to 2012. We constructed zip code counts for 10 categories of hospitalization with diagnoses or injury causation commonly associated with alcohol or drug use. We related these to community sociodemographic characteristics using Bayesian Poisson space-time regression models and examined associations with and without controls for whether each zip code was located within an American Indian reservation. Controlling for other demographic and economic characteristics, zip codes with greater percentage of American Indians exhibited greater incidence for all 10 substance abuse-related health outcomes (9 of 10 well supported); zip code areas within American Indian reservations had greater incidence of self-inflicted injury and drug dependence and abuse, and reduced incidence of alcohol cirrhosis and prescription opioid poisoning. However, the analyses generally demonstrated no well-supported differences in incidence associated with local residence percentages of American Indian versus African American. In our analyses, ethnicity or heredity alone did not account for alcohol- and drug-related hospitalizations among Native populations. Aspects of social, economic, and political dimensions of Native lives must be considered in the etiology of alcohol- and drug-related problems for rural-dwelling indigenous peoples. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  12. Larval gizzard shad characteristics in Lake Oahe, South Dakota: A species at the northern edge of its range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincel, Mark J.; Chipps, Steven R.; Graeb, Brian D. S.; Edwards, Kris R.

    2013-01-01

    Gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum, have generally been restricted to the lower Missouri River impoundments in South Dakota. In recent years, gizzard shad numbers have increased in Lake Oahe, marking the northern-most natural population. These increases could potentially affect recreational fishes. Specifically, questions arise about larval gizzard shad growth dynamics and if age-0 gizzard shad in Lake Oahe will exhibit fast or slow growth, both of which can have profound effects on piscivore populations in this reservoir. In this study, we evaluated larval gizzard shad hatch timing, growth, and density in Lake Oahe. We collected larval gizzard shad from six sites from May to July 2008 and used sagittal otoliths to estimate the growth and back-calculate the hatch date. We found that larval gizzard shad hatched earlier in the upper part of the reservoir compared to the lower portion and that hatch date appeared to correspond to warming water temperatures. The peak larval gizzard shad density ranged from 0.6 to 33.6 (#/100 m3) and varied significantly among reservoir sites. Larval gizzard shad growth ranged from 0.24 to 0.57 (mm/d) and differed spatially within the reservoir. We found no relationship between the larval gizzard shad growth or density and small- or large-bodied zooplankton density (p > 0.05). As this population exhibits slow growth and low densities, gizzard shad should remain a suitable forage option for recreational fishes in Lake Oahe.

  13. Thermostable hemicellulases of a bacterium, Geobacillus sp. DC3, isolated from the former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergdale, Terran E; Hughes, Stephen R; Bang, Sookie S

    2014-04-01

    A thermophilic strain, Geobacillus sp. DC3, capable of producing hemicellulolytic enzymes was isolated from the 1.5-km depth of the former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota. The DC3 strain expressed a high level of extracellular endoxylanase at 39.5 U/mg protein with additional hemicellulases including β-xylosidase (0.209 U/mg) and arabinofuranosidase (0.230 U/mg), after the bacterium was grown in xylan for 24 h. Partially purified DC3 endoxylanase exhibited a molecular mass of approximately 43 kDa according to zymography with an optimal pH of 7 and optimal temperature of 70 °C. The kinetic constants, K m and V max, were 13.8 mg/mL and 77.5 μmol xylose/min·mg xylan, respectively. The endoxylanase was highly stable and maintained 70 % of its original activity after 16 h incubation at 70 °C. The thermostable properties and presence of three different hemicellulases of Geobacillus sp. DC3 strain support its potential application for industrial hydrolysis of renewable biomass such as lignocelluloses.

  14. Phylogenetic evidence of noteworthy microflora from the subsurface of the former Homestake gold mine, Lead, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Evan J.; Elliott, Terran J.; Sani, Rajesh K.; Vahrenkamp, Jefferey M.; Roggenthen, William M.; Anderson, Cynthia M.; Bang, Sookie S.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular characterization of subsurface microbial communities in the former Homestake gold mine, South Dakota, was carried out by 16S rDNA sequence analysis using a water sample and a weathered soil–like sample. Geochemical analyses indicated that both samples were high in sulfur, rich in nitrogen and salt, but with significantly different metal concentrations. Microbial diversity comparisons unexpectedly revealed three distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the archaeal phylum Thaumarchaeota typically identified from marine environments, and one OTU to a potentially novel phylum that falls sister to Thaumarchaeota. To our knowledge this is only the second report of Thaumarchaeota in a terrestrial environment. The majority of the clones from Archaea sequence libraries fell into two closely related OTUs and grouped most closely to an ammonia–oxidizing, carbon–fixing and halophilic thaumarchaeote genus, Nitrosopumilus. The two samples showed neither Euryarchaeota nor Crenarchaeota members that were often identified from other subsurface terrestrial ecosystems. Bacteria OTUs containing the highest percentage of sequences were related to sulfur-oxidizing bacteria of the orders Chromatiales and Thiotrichales. Community members of Bacteria from individual Homestake ecosystems were heterogeneous and distinctive to each community with unique phylotypes identified within each sample. PMID:20662386

  15. Walleye consumption and long-term population trends following gizzard shad introduction into a Western South Dakota reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M.J.; Willis, D.W.; Miller, B.H.; Chipps, S.R.

    2007-01-01

    The gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) was introduced into 1,955-ha Angostura Reservoir, South Dakota to provide increased prey resources for walleye (Sander vitreus). Linear correlation analysis indicated that following gizzard shad introduction, walleye catch-per-unit-effort and mean length at age have increased over time (r = 0.68 to 0.85, P = 0.02 to 0.001). Walleye stomach contents were collected monthly from April through September, 2004 to determine the extent to which age-0 gizzard shad were being utilized as prey during the growing season. Age-0 gizzard shad were absent from walleye diets from April to mid-July (pre-shad-available period); however, from mid-July through early September (shad-available period), age-0 gizzard shad were an important prey item in all walleye diets. Mean weight decreased for walleyes of ages 2-5 during the spring, before age-0 gizzard shad became available; however, growth rate of walleyes increased appreciably during the shad-available period and was attributable to consumption of age-0 shad prey. In Angostura Reservoir, which lies at the northwestern edge of the gizzard shad range, walleye population characteristics have improved following shad introduction and during 2004, age-0 shad directly affected walleye feeding and growth.

  16. Review of Fruit & Vegetable Food System in South Dakota: Application and Policy Suggestions for Other Rural States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Stluka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient intake of fruits and vegetables has been recognized as a possible reason for dietary deficiencies that contribute to rising chronic health issues and medical costs. Based on data generated by the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS, South Dakota was listed as one of five states with the lowest daily adult vegetable intake (1.5 times per day. To continue the effort to promote a healthy diet, three independent surveys were developed and distributed to consumers, grocers, and growers (producers to investigate factors that affected low consumption of fruits and vegetables and to identify opportunities to increase future consumption. To highlight the influences of geographic and socioeconomic disadvantages on fruit and vegetable consumption, the surveys specifically included the consideration of consumers’ income; access and preparation of available fruits and vegetables; preparation skills and available time; perceptions of fresh, canned, and frozen products; and knowledge and role fruits and vegetables play in prevention of chronic disease in the sample selection and data analysis. Survey respondents were divided into two regions: non-food desert (Region 1 and food desert (Region 2. This paper provides a summary of the survey results and policy suggestions generated based on our findings.

  17. Construction of a groundwater-flow model for the Big Sioux Aquifer using airborne electromagnetic methods, Sioux Falls, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valder, Joshua F.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Carter, Janet M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Smith, David V.

    2016-09-28

    The city of Sioux Falls is the fastest growing community in South Dakota. In response to this continued growth and planning for future development, Sioux Falls requires a sustainable supply of municipal water. Planning and managing sustainable groundwater supplies requires a thorough understanding of local groundwater resources. The Big Sioux aquifer consists of glacial outwash sands and gravels and is hydraulically connected to the Big Sioux River, which provided about 90 percent of the city’s source-water production in 2015. Managing sustainable groundwater supplies also requires an understanding of groundwater availability. An effective mechanism to inform water management decisions is the development and utilization of a groundwater-flow model. A groundwater-flow model provides a quantitative framework for synthesizing field information and conceptualizing hydrogeologic processes. These groundwater-flow models can support decision making processes by mapping and characterizing the aquifer. Accordingly, the city of Sioux Falls partnered with the U.S. Geological Survey to construct a groundwater-flow model. Model inputs will include data from advanced geophysical techniques, specifically airborne electromagnetic methods.

  18. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Watertown NTMS Quadrangle, South Dakota; Minnesota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Watertown Quadrangle are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 711 groundwater and 603 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwater data indicate that high uranium concentrations are derived predominantly from glacial aquifers of variable water composition located on the Coteau des Prairies. Elements associated with high uranium values in these waters include barium, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, selenium, sulfate, and total alkalinity. Low uranium values were observed in waters originating from the Cretaceous Dakota sandstone whose water chemistry is characterized by high concentrations of boron, sodium, and chloride. Stream sediment data indicate that high uranium concentrations are scattered across the glacial deposits of the Coteau des Prairies. A major clustering of high uranium values occurs in the eastern portion of the glaciated quadrangle and is associated with high concentrations of selenium, lithium, iron, arsenic, chromium, and vanadium. The sediment data suggest that the drift covering the Watertown Quadrangle is compositionally homogeneous, although subtle geochemical differences were observed as a result of localized contrasts in drift source-rock mineralogy and modification of elemental distributions by contemporaneous and postglacial hydrologic processes

  19. Effects of projected climate (2011–50) on karst hydrology and species vulnerability—Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, and Madison aquifer, western South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Stamm, John F.; Poteet, Mary F.; Symstad, Amy J.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Long, Andrew J.; Norton, Parker A.

    2015-12-22

    Karst aquifers—formed by the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone—are critical groundwater resources in North America, and karst springs, caves, and streams provide habitat for unique flora and fauna. Springflow and groundwater levels in karst terrane can change greatly over short time scales, and therefore are likely to respond rapidly to climate change. How might the biological communities and ecosystems associated with karst respond to climate change and accompanying changes in groundwater levels and springflow? Sites in two central U.S. regions—the Balcones Escarpment of south-central Texas and the Black Hills of western South Dakota (fig. 1)—were selected to study climate change and its potential effects on the local karst hydrology and ecosystem. The ecosystems associated with the Edwards aquifer (Balcones Escarpment region) and Madison aquifer (Black Hills region) support federally listed endangered and threatened species and numerous State-listed species of concern, including amphibians, birds, insects, and plants. Full results are provided in Stamm and others (2014), and are summarized in this fact sheet.

  20. Reaction of Global Collection of Rye (Secale cereale L. to Tan Spot and Pyrenophora tritici-repentis Races in South Dakota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidrat Abdullah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rye (Secale cereale L. serves as an alternative host of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (PTR the cause of tan spot on wheat. Rye is cultivated as a forage or cover crop and overlaps with a significant portion of wheat acreage in the U.S. northern Great Plains; however, it is not known whether the rye crop influences the evolution of PTR races. We evaluated a global collection of 211 rye accessions against tan spot and assessed the diversity in PTR population on rye in South Dakota. All the rye genotypes were inoculated with PTR races 1 and 5, and infiltrated with Ptr ToxA and Ptr ToxB, at seedling stage. We observed 21% of the genotypes exhibited susceptibility to race 1, whereas, 39% were susceptible to race 5. All 211 accessions were insensitive to both the Ptr toxins. It indicates that though rye exhibits diversity in reaction to tan spot, it lacks Ptr ToxA and ToxB sensitivity genes. This suggests that unknown toxins or other factors can lead to PTR establishment in rye. We characterized the race structure of 103 PTR isolates recovered from rye in South Dakota. Only 22% of the isolates amplified Ptr ToxA gene and were identified as race 1 based on their phenotypic reaction on the differential set. The remaining 80 isolates were noted to be race 4. Our results show that races 1 and 4 are prevalent on rye in South Dakota with a higher frequency of race 4, suggesting a minimal role of rye in the disease epidemiology.

  1. Reaction of Global Collection of Rye (Secale cereale L.) to Tan Spot and Pyrenophora tritici-repentis Races in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Sidrat; Sehgal, Sunish K; Glover, Karl D; Ali, Shaukat

    2017-06-01

    Rye ( Secale cereale L.) serves as an alternative host of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis ( PTR ) the cause of tan spot on wheat. Rye is cultivated as a forage or cover crop and overlaps with a significant portion of wheat acreage in the U.S. northern Great Plains; however, it is not known whether the rye crop influences the evolution of PTR races. We evaluated a global collection of 211 rye accessions against tan spot and assessed the diversity in PTR population on rye in South Dakota. All the rye genotypes were inoculated with PTR races 1 and 5, and infiltrated with Ptr ToxA and Ptr ToxB, at seedling stage. We observed 21% of the genotypes exhibited susceptibility to race 1, whereas, 39% were susceptible to race 5. All 211 accessions were insensitive to both the Ptr toxins. It indicates that though rye exhibits diversity in reaction to tan spot, it lacks Ptr ToxA and ToxB sensitivity genes. This suggests that unknown toxins or other factors can lead to PTR establishment in rye. We characterized the race structure of 103 PTR isolates recovered from rye in South Dakota. Only 22% of the isolates amplified Ptr ToxA gene and were identified as race 1 based on their phenotypic reaction on the differential set. The remaining 80 isolates were noted to be race 4. Our results show that races 1 and 4 are prevalent on rye in South Dakota with a higher frequency of race 4, suggesting a minimal role of rye in the disease epidemiology.

  2. Impacts of Alterations of Organic Inputs on the Bacterial Community within the sediments of Wind Cave, South Dakota, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelius Marisa K.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind Cave (WICA in the Black Hills of South Dakota, like many mostly dry caves in temperate regions is an energy-starved system.The biotic communities that reside in these systems are low in diversity and simple in structure, and sensitive to changes in externalinputs of organic matter. Caves open to tourist traffic offer an opportunity to study the impacts of organic matter amendments in theform of human and rodent hair and dander, clothing lint, material from rodent activity (nesting materials and feces, and algal growthin and around artificial lighting. This study reports on the impacts of carbon amendments from humans and rodents on the bacterialand archaeal communities within the sediments of WICA from annual surveys and from a manipulative study that added lint (‘L’;cellulose plus rodent dander and rodent hair, rodent feces (‘F’, and a combination of both (‘LF’. The survey confirmed that bacterialbiomass was higher in regions of the cave with the highest rates of lint (hair and natural clothing fibers input. The manipulative studyfound that organic amendments in the forms of lint (L and rodent feces (F altered the WICA bacterial community structure in bothabundance and diversity, with the combined lint and feces (LF amendment having the most significant response. The high similarityof the LF and L communities suggests that the cave bacterial community is more carbon than nitrogen limited. The implication ofcave development to management practices is immediate and practical. Even small amounts of lint and organic matter foreign tocave bacteria significantly compromise the integrity of the endemic community resulting in the replacement of undescribed speciesby assemblages with at best, unknown impacts to natural cave features.

  3. Use of geochemical tracers for estimating groundwater influxes to the Big Sioux River, eastern South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Ram P.; Mehan, Sushant; Kumar, Sandeep

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the spatial distribution and variability of geochemical tracers is crucial for estimating groundwater influxes into a river and can contribute to better future water management strategies. Because of the much higher radon (222Rn) activities in groundwater compared to river water, 222Rn was used as the main tracer to estimate groundwater influxes to river discharge over a 323-km distance of the Big Sioux River, eastern South Dakota, USA; these influx estimates were compared to the estimates using Cl- concentrations. In the reaches overall, groundwater influxes using the 222Rn activity approach ranged between 0.3 and 6.4 m3/m/day (mean 1.8 m3/m/day) and the cumulative groundwater influx estimated during the study period was 3,982-146,594 m3/day (mean 40,568 m3/day), accounting for 0.2-41.9% (mean 12.5%) of the total river flow rate. The mean groundwater influx derived using the 222Rn activity approach was lower than that calculated based on Cl- concentration (35.6 m3/m/day) for most of the reaches. Based on the Cl- approach, groundwater accounted for 37.3% of the total river flow rate. The difference between the method estimates may be associated with minimal differences between groundwater and river Cl- concentrations. These assessments will provide a better understanding of estimates used for the allocation of water resources to sustain agricultural productivity in the basin. However, a more detailed sampling program is necessary for accurate influx estimation, and also to understand the influence of seasonal variation on groundwater influxes into the basin.

  4. Comparison of HSPF and PRMS model simulated flows using different temporal and spatial scales in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalise, D. R.; Haj, Adel E.; Fontaine, T.A.

    2018-01-01

    The hydrological simulation program Fortran (HSPF) [Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran version 12.2 (Computer software). USEPA, Washington, DC] and the precipitation runoff modeling system (PRMS) [Precipitation Runoff Modeling System version 4.0 (Computer software). USGS, Reston, VA] models are semidistributed, deterministic hydrological tools for simulating the impacts of precipitation, land use, and climate on basin hydrology and streamflow. Both models have been applied independently to many watersheds across the United States. This paper reports the statistical results assessing various temporal (daily, monthly, and annual) and spatial (small versus large watershed) scale biases in HSPF and PRMS simulations using two watersheds in the Black Hills, South Dakota. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), Pearson correlation coefficient (r">rr), and coefficient of determination (R2">R2R2) statistics for the daily, monthly, and annual flows were used to evaluate the models’ performance. Results from the HSPF models showed that the HSPF consistently simulated the annual flows for both large and small basins better than the monthly and daily flows, and the simulated flows for the small watershed better than flows for the large watershed. In comparison, the PRMS model results show that the PRMS simulated the monthly flows for both the large and small watersheds better than the daily and annual flows, and the range of statistical error in the PRMS models was greater than that in the HSPF models. Moreover, it can be concluded that the statistical error in the HSPF and the PRMSdaily, monthly, and annual flow estimates for watersheds in the Black Hills was influenced by both temporal and spatial scale variability.

  5. Solid-phase data from cores at the proposed Dewey Burdock uranium in-situ recovery mine, near Edgemont, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Benzel, William M.

    2013-01-01

    This report releases solid-phase data from cores at the proposed Dewey Burdock uranium in-situ recovery site near Edgemont, South Dakota. These cores were collected by Powertech Uranium Corporation, and material not used for their analyses were given to the U.S. Geological Survey for additional sampling and analyses. These additional analyses included total carbon and sulfur, whole rock acid digestion for major and trace elements, 234U/238U activity ratios, X-ray diffraction, thin sections, scanning electron microscopy analyses, and cathodoluminescence. This report provides the methods and data results from these analyses along with a short summary of observations.

  6. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment detailed geochemical survey for Edgemont, South Dakota; Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butz, T.R.; Dean, N.E.; Bard, C.S.; Helgerson, R.N.; Grimes, J.G.; Pritz, P.M.

    1980-05-31

    Results of the Edgemont detailed geochemical survey are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 109 groundwater and 419 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are given. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwaters containing greater than or equal to 7.35 ppB uranium are present in scattered clusters throughout the area sampled. Most of these groundwaters are from wells drilled where the Inyan Kara Group is exposed at the surface. The exceptions are a group of samples in the northwestern part of the area sampled and south of the Dewey Terrace. These groundwaters are also produced from the Inyan Kara Group where it is overlain by the Graneros Group and alluvium. The high uranium groundwaters along and to the south of the terrace are characterized by high molybdenum, uranium/specific conductance, and uranium/sulfate values. Many of the groundwaters sampled along the outcrop of the Inyan Kara Group are near uranium mines. Groundwaters have high amounts of uranium and molybdenum. Samples taken downdip are sulfide waters with low values of uranium and high values of arsenic, molybdenum, selenium, and vanadium. Stream sediments containing greater than or equal to 5.50 ppM soluble uranium are concentrated in basins draining the Graneros and Inyan Kara Groups. These values are associated with high values for arsenic, selenium, and vanadium in samples from both groups. Anomalous values for these elements in the Graneros Group may be caused by bentonite beds contained in the rock units. As shown on the geochemical distribution plot, high uranium values that are located in the Inyan Kara Group are almost exclusively draining open-pit uranium mines.

  7. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment detailed geochemical survey for Edgemont, South Dakota; Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, T.R.; Dean, N.E.; Bard, C.S.; Helgerson, R.N.; Grimes, J.G.; Pritz, P.M.

    1980-01-01

    Results of the Edgemont detailed geochemical survey are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 109 groundwater and 419 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are given. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwaters containing greater than or equal to 7.35 ppB uranium are present in scattered clusters throughout the area sampled. Most of these groundwaters are from wells drilled where the Inyan Kara Group is exposed at the surface. The exceptions are a group of samples in the northwestern part of the area sampled and south of the Dewey Terrace. These groundwaters are also produced from the Inyan Kara Group where it is overlain by the Graneros Group and alluvium. The high uranium groundwaters along and to the south of the terrace are characterized by high molybdenum, uranium/specific conductance, and uranium/sulfate values. Many of the groundwaters sampled along the outcrop of the Inyan Kara Group are near uranium mines. Groundwaters have high amounts of uranium and molybdenum. Samples taken downdip are sulfide waters with low values of uranium and high values of arsenic, molybdenum, selenium, and vanadium. Stream sediments containing greater than or equal to 5.50 ppM soluble uranium are concentrated in basins draining the Graneros and Inyan Kara Groups. These values are associated with high values for arsenic, selenium, and vanadium in samples from both groups. Anomalous values for these elements in the Graneros Group may be caused by bentonite beds contained in the rock units. As shown on the geochemical distribution plot, high uranium values that are located in the Inyan Kara Group are almost exclusively draining open-pit uranium mines

  8. Influence of drought conditions on brown trout biomass and size structure in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel A.; Wilhite, Jerry W.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of drought conditions on the biomass of brown trout Salmo trutta in Spearfish Creek, upper Rapid Creek, and lower Rapid Creek in the Black Hills of western South Dakota. Stream discharge, mean summer water temperature, the biomass of juvenile and adult brown trout, and brown trout size structure were compared between two time periods: early (2000–2002) and late drought (2005–2007). Mean summer water temperatures were similar between the early- and late-drought periods in Spearfish Creek (12.4°C versus 11.5°C), lower Rapid Creek (19.2°C versus 19.3°C), and upper Rapid Creek (9.8°C in both periods). In contrast, mean annual discharge differed significantly between the two time periods in Spearfish Creek (1.95 versus 1.50 m3/s), lower Rapid Creek (2.01 versus 0.94 m3/s), and upper Rapid Creek (1.41 versus 0.84 m3/s). The mean biomass of adult brown trout in all three stream sections was significantly higher in the early-drought than in the late-drought period (238 versus 69 kg/ha in Spearfish Creek, 272 versus 91 kg/ha in lower Rapid Creek, and 159 versus 32 kg/ha in upper Rapid Creek). The biomass of juvenile brown trout was similar (43 versus 23 kg/ha) in Spearfish Creek in the two periods, declined from 136 to 45 kg/ha in lower Rapid Creek, and increased from 14 to 73 kg/ha in upper Rapid Creek. Size structure did not differ between the early- and late-drought periods in lower Rapid and Spearfish creeks, but it did in upper Rapid Creek. In addition to drought conditions, factors such as angler harvest, fish movements, and the nuisance algal species Didymosphenia geminata are discussed as possible contributors to the observed changes in brown trout biomass and size structure in Black Hills streams.

  9. Susceptibility of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa (Dougl. Ex Laws.), to mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, attack in uneven-aged stands in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Kurt Allen; Blaine Cook; John R. Withrow

    2008-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins can cause extensive tree mortality in ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forests in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. Most studies that have examined stand susceptibility to mountain pine beetle have been conducted in even-aged stands. Land managers...

  10. Reserve bank independence | Turok | New Agenda: South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 66 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Where to with reserve selection and conservation planning in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    minimal set' approach to designing an optimal reserve network tor vertebrate species is offered. Strengths are the rational and efficient manner in which full species representation is achieved, and the planning benefits that can be gained through its ...

  12. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Minnesota Project, Thief River Falls, Grand Forks, Fargo, Milbank, Watertown, New Ulm and St. Cloud quadrangles of North Dakota, South Dakota and Minnesota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    During the months of August and September 1979, geoMetrics, Inc., collected 12,415 line miles of high sensitivity airborne radiometric and magnetic data in adjoining portions of South Dakota and Minnesota over seven 1 by 2 degree NTMS quadrangles (Thief River Falls, Grand Forks, Fargo, Milbank, Watertown, New Ulm, and St. Cloud) as part of the Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. All radiometric and magnetic data were fully corrected and interpreted by geoMetrics and are presented as eight volumes (one Volume I and seven Volume II's). Regional geology for these seven quadrangles can be divided into two logical sections. The first comprises the surficial glacial deposits, which mantle most of the area and can be up to hundreds of feet thick. The second section consists of the underlying bedrock which is exposed in small scattered outcrops, generally along major drainages. No sedimentary structures exist within the quadrangles. As of this writing, no known uranium deposits exist within the seven quadrangles

  13. Delineation of the hydrogeologic framework of the Big Sioux aquifer near Sioux Falls, South Dakota, using airborne electromagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valseth, Kristen J.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Price, Curtis V.

    2018-03-21

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Sioux Falls, South Dakota, began developing a groundwater-flow model of the Big Sioux aquifer in 2014 that will enable the City to make more informed water management decisions, such as delineation of areas of the greatest specific yield, which is crucial for locating municipal wells. Innovative tools are being evaluated as part of this study that can improve the delineation of the hydrogeologic framework of the aquifer for use in development of a groundwater-flow model, and the approach could have transfer value for similar hydrogeologic settings. The first step in developing a groundwater-flow model is determining the hydrogeologic framework (vertical and horizontal extents of the aquifer), which typically is determined by interpreting geologic information from drillers’ logs and surficial geology maps. However, well and borehole data only provide hydrogeologic information for a single location; conversely, nearly continuous geophysical data are collected along flight lines using airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys. These electromagnetic data are collected every 3 meters along a flight line (on average) and subsequently can be related to hydrogeologic properties. AEM data, coupled with and constrained by well and borehole data, can substantially improve the accuracy of aquifer hydrogeologic framework delineations and result in better groundwater-flow models. AEM data were acquired using the Resolve frequency-domain AEM system to map the Big Sioux aquifer in the region of the city of Sioux Falls. The survey acquired more than 870 line-kilometers of AEM data over a total area of about 145 square kilometers, primarily over the flood plain of the Big Sioux River between the cities of Dell Rapids and Sioux Falls. The U.S. Geological Survey inverted the survey data to generate resistivity-depth sections that were used in two-dimensional maps and in three-dimensional volumetric visualizations of the Earth

  14. Habitat selection of a declining white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deperno, Christopher Shannon

    Habitat selection, survival rates, the Black Hills National Forest Habitat Capability Model (HABCAP), and the USDA Forest Service Geographic Information System (GIS) data base were evaluated for a declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis) herd in the central Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. From July 1993 through July 1996, 73 adult and yearling female and 12 adult and yearling male white-tailed deer were radiocollared and visually monitored. Habitat information was collected at 4,662 white-tailed deer locations and 1,087 random locations. Natural mortality (71%) was the primary cause of female mortality, followed by harvest (22.5%) and accidental causes (6.5%). More females died in spring (53.2%) than in fall (22.6%), winter (14.5%), or summer (9.7%). Male mortality resulted from hunting in fall (66.7%) and natural causes in spring (33.3%). Survival rates for all deer by year were 62.1% in 1993, 51.1% in 1994, 56.4% in 1995, and 53.9% in 1996 and were similar (P = 0.691) across years. During winter, white-tailed deer selected ponderosa pine- (Pinus ponderosa ) deciduous and burned pine cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/grass-forb, pine/bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), pine/snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), burned pine/grass-forb, and pine/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included sapling-pole pine stands with >70% canopy cover, burned pine sapling-pole and saw-timber stands with 40% canopy cover and all sapling-pole pine structural stages; sapling-pole stands with >70% canopy cover received the greatest use. White-tailed deer primarily fed in pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover. Overall, selected habitats contained lower amounts of grass/forb, shrubs, and litter than random locations. Male and female deer generally bedded in areas that were characterized by greater horizontal cover than feeding and random sites. When feeding and bedding sites were combined

  15. Groundwater-flow model of the northern High Plains aquifer in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Steven M.; Flynn, Amanda T.; Traylor, Jonathan P.

    2016-12-13

    The High Plains aquifer is a nationally important water resource underlying about 175,000 square miles in parts of eight states: Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. Droughts across much of the Northern High Plains from 2001 to 2007 have combined with recent (2004) legislative mandates to elevate concerns regarding future availability of groundwater and the need for additional information to support science-based water-resource management. To address these needs, the U.S. Geological Survey began the High Plains Groundwater Availability Study to provide a tool for water-resource managers and other stakeholders to assess the status and availability of groundwater resources.A transient groundwater-flow model was constructed using the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater-flow model with Newton-Rhapson solver (MODFLOW–NWT). The model uses an orthogonal grid of 565 rows and 795 columns, and each grid cell measures 3,281 feet per side, with one variably thick vertical layer, simulated as unconfined. Groundwater flow was simulated for two distinct periods: (1) the period before substantial groundwater withdrawals, or before about 1940, and (2) the period of increasing groundwater withdrawals from May 1940 through April 2009. A soil-water-balance model was used to estimate recharge from precipitation and groundwater withdrawals for irrigation. The soil-water-balance model uses spatially distributed soil and landscape properties with daily weather data and estimated historical land-cover maps to calculate spatial and temporal variations in potential recharge. Mean annual recharge estimated for 1940–49, early in the history of groundwater development, and 2000–2009, late in the history of groundwater development, was 3.3 and 3.5 inches per year, respectively.Primary model calibration was completed using statistical techniques through parameter estimation using the parameter

  16. Hydrologic budgets for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers, Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, water years 1987-96

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory J.

    2001-01-01

    The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are two of the most important aquifers in the Black Hills area of South Dakota and Wyoming. Quantification and evaluation of various hydrologic budget components are important for managing and understanding these aquifers. Hydrologic budgets are developed for two scenarios, including an overall budget for the entire study area and more detailed budgets for subareas. Budgets generally are combined for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers because most budget components cannot be quantified individually for the aquifers. An average hydrologic budget for the entire study area is computed for water years 1987-96, for which change in storage is approximately equal to zero. Annual estimates of budget components are included in detailed budgets for nine subareas, which consider periods of decreasing storage (1987-92) and increasing storage (1993-96). Inflow components include recharge, leakage from adjacent aquifers, and ground-water inflows across the study area boundary. Outflows include springflow (headwater and artesian), well withdrawals, leakage to adjacent aquifers, and ground-water outflow across the study area boundary. Leakage, ground-water inflows, and ground-water outflows are difficult to quantify and cannot be distinguished from one another. Thus, net ground-water flow, which includes these components, is calculated as a residual, using estimates for the other budget components. For the overall budget for water years 1987-96, net ground-water outflow from the study area is computed as 100 ft3/s (cubic feet per second). Estimates of average combined budget components for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are: 395 ft3/s for recharge, 78 ft3/s for headwater springflow, 189 ft3/s for artesian springflow, and 28 ft3/s for well withdrawals. Hydrologic budgets also are quantified for nine subareas for periods of decreasing storage (1987-92) and increasing storage (1993-96), with changes in storage assumed equal but opposite. Common

  17. Hydrologic characterization for Spring Creek and hydrologic budget and model scenarios for Sheridan Lake, South Dakota, 1962-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Norton, Parker A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey cooperated with South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks to characterize hydrologic information relevant to management of water resources associated with Sheridan Lake, which is formed by a dam on Spring Creek. This effort consisted primarily of characterization of hydrologic data for a base period of 1962 through 2006, development of a hydrologic budget for Sheridan Lake for this timeframe, and development of an associated model for simulation of storage deficits and drawdown in Sheridan Lake for hypothetical release scenarios from the lake. Historically, the dam has been operated primarily as a 'pass-through' system, in which unregulated outflows pass over the spillway; however, the dam recently was retrofitted with an improved control valve system that would allow controlled releases of about 7 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) or less from a fixed depth of about 60 feet (ft). Development of a hydrologic budget for Sheridan Lake involved compilation, estimation, and characterization of data sets for streamflow, precipitation, and evaporation. The most critical data need was for extrapolation of available short-term streamflow records for Spring Creek to be used as the long-term inflow to Sheridan Lake. Available short-term records for water years (WY) 1991-2004 for a gaging station upstream from Sheridan Lake were extrapolated to WY 1962-2006 on the basis of correlations with streamflow records for a downstream station and for stations located along two adjacent streams. Comparisons of data for the two streamflow-gaging stations along Spring Creek indicated that tributary inflow is approximately proportional to the intervening drainage area, which was used as a means of estimating tributary inflow for the hydrologic budget. Analysis of evaporation data shows that sustained daily rates may exceed maximum monthly rates by a factor of about two. A long-term (1962-2006) hydrologic budget was developed for computation of reservoir outflow from

  18. Analysis of the quality of image data acquired by the LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) of the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, R. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    The structure, format, and quality of the LANDSAT-4 TM and MSS photographic and digital products for one scene covering the Black Hills area of South Dakota were assessed and the extent to which major resource categories can be detected and identified on various photographic products generated from a subset of TM spectral bands and from all bands of the MSS was determined. The overall spectral, spatial, and radiometric quality of the TM data was found to be excellent. Agricultural fields of variable shape, size, and orientation were detected with relative ease. The addition of the short-wave infrared band (TM5) has significantly improved the ability to detect and identify crop types on single date imagery.

  19. ERTS-1 MSS imagery: Its use in delineating soil associations and as a base map for publishing soils information. [South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westin, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS 1 imagery is a useful tool in the identification and refinement of soil association areas and an excellent base map upon which soil association information can be published. Prints of bands 5 and 7 were found to be most useful to help delineate major soil and vegetation areas. After delineating major soil areas, over 4800 land sale prices covering a period of 1967-72 were located in the soil areas and averaged. The soil association then were described as soil association value areas and published on a 1:1,000,000 scale ERTS mosaic of South Dakota constructed using negative prints of band 7. The map is intended for use by state and county revenue officers, by individual buyers and sellers of land and lending institutions, and as a reference map by those planning road routes and cable lines and pipelines.

  20. Flora of the Kap River Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Cloete

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis ot the flora of the newly proclaimed Kap River Reserve (600 ha is given. The reserve is adjacent to the Fish River and some 5 km from the Fish River Mouth It consists of a coastal plateau up to 100 m a.s.I. which is steeply dissected by the two rivers that partially form the boundary of the reserve. The flora of the reserve was sampled over a period o f three years and plants were collected in all the vegetation types of grassland, thicket and forest. 488 species were collected with a species to family ratio of 4:4. The majority of the taxa recorded represent the major phytochoria of the region. Nineteen species are endemic to the Eastern Cape, two are classed as vulnerable, five are rare, six are protected and a further seventeen are of uncertain status. The flora of the Kap River has closest affinities to that of the Alexandria Forest.

  1. A new Starlight Reserve for the central South Island of New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearnshaw, John

    2015-03-01

    The Aoraki Mackenzie International Dark Sky Reserve is a new reserve created in 2012 by the International Dark-Sky Association in the central South Island of New Zealand, and covers over 4300 square kilometres around Mt John University Observatory. It is the first such reserve to be recognized at gold tier level and is the largest dark sky reserve in the world. Astro-tourism in the new reserve will be a prominent activity in the coming years.

  2. Habitat characterization of the Tortugas Ecological Reserve south using photographic and quadrat methods

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We supply habitat characterization data along a single randomly oriented transect at each of 16 sampling stations in the Tortugas South Ecological Reserve. This...

  3. Habitat characterization of the Tortugas Ecological Reserve south using photographic and quadrat methods.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We supply habitat characterization data along a single randomly oriented transect at each of 16 sampling stations in the Tortugas South Ecological Reserve. This...

  4. 76 FR 58533 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ...] Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION..., Bureau of Indian Affairs, Great Plains Region, Aberdeen, South Dakota and was necessary to determine... Dakota T. 152 N., R. 65 W. The plat, in two sheets, representing the dependent resurvey of a portion of...

  5. 76 FR 44946 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...] Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION..., Bureau of Indian Affairs, Great Plains Region, Aberdeen, South Dakota and was necessary to determine... Dakota T. 152 N., R. 64 W. The plat, in one sheet, representing the dependent resurvey of a portion of...

  6. Comparison of Surface Flow Features from Lidar-Derived Digital Elevation Models with Historical Elevation and Hydrography Data for Minnehaha County, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppenga, Sandra K.; Worstell, Bruce B.; Stoker, Jason M.; Greenlee, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has taken the lead in the creation of a valuable remote sensing product by incorporating digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) into the National Elevation Dataset (NED), the elevation layer of 'The National Map'. High-resolution lidar-derived DEMs provide the accuracy needed to systematically quantify and fully integrate surface flow including flow direction, flow accumulation, sinks, slope, and a dense drainage network. In 2008, 1-meter resolution lidar data were acquired in Minnehaha County, South Dakota. The acquisition was a collaborative effort between Minnehaha County, the city of Sioux Falls, and the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. With the newly acquired lidar data, USGS scientists generated high-resolution DEMs and surface flow features. This report compares lidar-derived surface flow features in Minnehaha County to 30- and 10-meter elevation data previously incorporated in the NED and ancillary hydrography datasets. Surface flow features generated from lidar-derived DEMs are consistently integrated with elevation and are important in understanding surface-water movement to better detect surface-water runoff, flood inundation, and erosion. Many topographic and hydrologic applications will benefit from the increased availability of accurate, high-quality, and high-resolution surface-water data. The remotely sensed data provide topographic information and data integration capabilities needed for meeting current and future human and environmental needs.

  7. Integrating Environmental and Mosquito Data to Model Disease: Evaluating Alternative Modeling Approaches for Forecasting West Nile Virus in South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. K.; Vincent, G. P.; Hildreth, M.; Kightlinger, L.; Carlson, C.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    South Dakota has the highest annual incidence of human cases of West Nile virus (WNV) in all US states, and human cases can vary wildly among years; predicting WNV risk in advance is a necessary exercise if public health officials are to respond efficiently and effectively to risk. Case counts are associated with environmental factors that affect mosquitoes, avian hosts, and the virus itself. They are also correlated with entomological risk indices obtained by trapping and testing mosquitoes. However, neither weather nor insect data alone provide a sufficient basis to make timely and accurate predictions, and combining them into models of human disease is not necessarily straightforward. Here we present lessons learned in three years of making real-time forecasts of this threat to public health. Various methods of integrating data from NASA's North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) with mosquito surveillance data were explored in a model comparison framework. We found that a model of human disease summarizing weather data (by polynomial distributed lags with seasonally-varying coefficients) and mosquito data (by a mixed-effects model that smooths out these sparse and highly-variable data) made accurate predictions of risk, and was generalizable enough to be recommended in similar applications. A model based on lagged effects of temperature and humidity provided the most accurate predictions. We also found that model accuracy was improved by allowing coefficients to vary smoothly throughout the season, giving different weights to different predictor variables during different parts of the season.

  8. Investigation of remote sensing techniques as inputs to operational resource management. [Butte County, Black Hills, South Dakota, Blackhawk Quadrangle, and Belle Fouche Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmer, F. A. (Principal Investigator); Isakson, R. E.; Eidenshink, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Visual interpretation of 1:125,000 color LANDSAT prints produced timely level 1 maps of accuracies in excess of 80% for agricultural land identification. Accurate classification of agricultural land via digital analysis of LANDSAT CCT's required precise timing of the date of data collection with mid to late June optimum for western South Dakota. The LANDSAT repetitive nine day cycle over the state allowed the surface areas of stockdams and small reservoir systems to be monitored to provide a timely approximation of surface water conditions on the range. Combined use of DIRS, K-class, and LANDSAT CCT's demonstrated the ability to produce aspen maps of greater detail and timeliness than was available using US Forest Service maps. Visual temporal analyses of LANDSAT imagery improved highway map drainage information and were used to prepare a seven county drainage network. An optimum map of flood-prone areas was developed, utilizing high altitude aerial photography and USGS maps.

  9. Ecological Reserve: Towards a common understanding for river management in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, E

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The legal requirement for an Ecological Reserve established in South Africa’s water law is commonly regarded by stakeholders as being in direct competition with the needs of humans. This has resulted in much debate and varying interpretations...

  10. The role of wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations on the population dynamics of black-backed woodpeckers in the black hills, South Dakota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T Rota

    Full Text Available Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic impact of natural disturbances can result in habitat loss for this species. Although black-backed woodpeckers occupy habitats created by wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations, the relative value of these habitats remains unknown. We studied habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probabilities and reproductive rates between April 2008 and August 2012 in the Black Hills, South Dakota. We estimated habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probability with Bayesian multi-state models and habitat-specific reproductive success with Bayesian nest survival models. We calculated asymptotic population growth rates from estimated demographic rates with matrix projection models. Adult and juvenile survival and nest success were highest in habitat created by summer wildfire, intermediate in MPB infestations, and lowest in habitat created by fall prescribed fire. Mean posterior distributions of population growth rates indicated growing populations in habitat created by summer wildfire and declining populations in fall prescribed fire and mountain pine beetle infestations. Our finding that population growth rates were positive only in habitat created by summer wildfire underscores the need to maintain early post-wildfire habitat across the landscape. The lower growth rates in fall prescribed fire and MPB infestations may be attributed to differences in predator communities and food resources relative to summer wildfire.

  11. Impact of tile drainage on evapotranspiration in South Dakota, USA, based on high spatiotemporal resolution evapotranspiration time series from a multi-satellite data fusion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun; Anderson, Martha C.; Gao, Feng; Hain, Christopher; Kustas, William P.; Meyers, Tilden P.; Crow, Wade; Finocchiaro, Raymond G.; Otkin, Jason; Sun, Liang; Yang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Soil drainage is a widely used agricultural practice in the midwest USA to remove excess soil water to potentially improve the crop yield. Research shows an increasing trend in baseflow and streamflow in the midwest over the last 60 years, which may be related to artificial drainage. Subsurface drainage (i.e., tile) in particular may have strongly contributed to the increase in these flows, because of its extensive use and recent gain in the popularity as a yield-enhancement practice. However, how evapotranspiration (ET) is impacted by tile drainage on a regional level is not well-documented. To explore spatial and temporal ET patterns and their relationship to tile drainage, we applied an energy balance-based multisensor data fusion method to estimate daily 30-m ET over an intensively tile-drained area in South Dakota, USA, from 2005 to 2013. Results suggest that tile drainage slightly decreases the annual cumulative ET, particularly during the early growing season. However, higher mid-season crop water use suppresses the extent of the decrease of the annual cumulative ET that might be anticipated from widespread drainage. The regional water balance analysis during the growing season demonstrates good closure, with the average residual from 2005 to 2012 as low as -3 mm. As an independent check of the simulated ET at the regional scale, the water balance analysis lends additional confidence to the study. The results of this study improve our understanding of the influence of agricultural drainage practices on regional ET, and can affect future decision making regarding tile drainage systems.

  12. The role of wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations on the population dynamics of black-backed woodpeckers in the black hills, South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Christopher T; Millspaugh, Joshua J; Rumble, Mark A; Lehman, Chad P; Kesler, Dylan C

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic impact of natural disturbances can result in habitat loss for this species. Although black-backed woodpeckers occupy habitats created by wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations, the relative value of these habitats remains unknown. We studied habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probabilities and reproductive rates between April 2008 and August 2012 in the Black Hills, South Dakota. We estimated habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probability with Bayesian multi-state models and habitat-specific reproductive success with Bayesian nest survival models. We calculated asymptotic population growth rates from estimated demographic rates with matrix projection models. Adult and juvenile survival and nest success were highest in habitat created by summer wildfire, intermediate in MPB infestations, and lowest in habitat created by fall prescribed fire. Mean posterior distributions of population growth rates indicated growing populations in habitat created by summer wildfire and declining populations in fall prescribed fire and mountain pine beetle infestations. Our finding that population growth rates were positive only in habitat created by summer wildfire underscores the need to maintain early post-wildfire habitat across the landscape. The lower growth rates in fall prescribed fire and MPB infestations may be attributed to differences in predator communities and food resources relative to summer wildfire.

  13. Assessing the Control of Preservational Environment on Taphonomic and Ecological Patterns in an Oligocene Mammal Fauna from Badlands National Park, South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Paige K; Moore, Jason R

    2016-01-01

    Comparisons of paleofaunas from different facies are often hampered by the uncertainty in the variation of taphonomic processes biasing the paleoecological parameters of interest. By examining the taphonomic patterns exhibited by different facies in the same stratigraphic interval and area, it is possible to quantify this variation, and assess inter-facies comparability. The fossil assemblages preserved in Badlands National Park (BNP), South Dakota, have long been a rich source for mammalian faunas of the White River Group. To investigate the influence of the variation of taphonomic bias with lithology whilst controlling for the influence of changes in patterns of taphonomic modification with time, taphonomic and paleoecological data were collected from four mammal-dominated fossil assemblages (two siltstone hosted and two sandstone hosted) from a narrow stratigraphic interval within the Oligocene Poleslide Member of the Brule Formation, in the Palmer Creek Unit of BNP. Previous work in the region confirmed that the two major lithologies represent primarily aeolian- and primarily fluvial-dominated depositional environments, respectively. A suite of quantifiable taphonomic and ecological variables was recorded for each of the more than 800 vertebrate specimens studied here (857 specimens were studied in the field, 9 specimens were collected and are reposited at BNP). Distinctly different patterns of taphonomic biasing were observed between the aeolian and fluvial samples, albeit with some variability between all four sites. Fluvial samples were more heavily weathered and abraded, but also contained fewer large taxa and fewer tooth-bearing elements. No quantifiable paleofaunal differences in generic richness or evenness were observed between the respective facies. This suggests that while large vertebrate taxonomic composition in the region did vary with paleodepositional environment, there is no evidence of confounding variation in faunal structure, and therefore

  14. Composition, distribution, and hydrologic effects of contaminated sediments resulting from the discharge of gold milling wastes to Whitewood Creek at Lead and Deadwood, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Whitewood Creek-Belle Fourche-Cheyenne River stream system in western South Dakota has been extensively contaminated by the discharge to Whitewood Creek of about 100 million tons of mill tailings from gold-mining operations. The resulting contaminated sediments contain unusually large concentrations of arsenic, as much as 11,000 micrograms/g, derived from the mineral arsenopyrite, as well as potentially toxic constituents derived from the ore-body minerals or from the milling processes. Because of the anomalous arsenic concentrations associated with the contamination, arsenic was used as an indicator for a geochemically based, random, sediment-sampling program. Arsenic concentrations in shallow, contaminated sediments along the flood plains of the streams were from 1 to 3 orders of magnitude larger than arsenic concentrations in uncontaminated sediments in about 75% of the flood plains of Whitewood Creek and the Belle Fourche River. Appreciable surface-water contamination resulting from the contaminated sediments is confined to Whitewood Creek and a reach of the Belle Fourche River downstream from the mouth of Whitewood Creek. In Whitewood Creek , dissolved-arsenic concentrations vary from about 20 to 80 microgram/L during the year in response to variations in groundwater inflow and dilution, whereas total-recoverable-arsenic concentrations vary from about 20 to 8 ,000 micrograms/L during short periods in response to rapid changes in suspended-sediment concentration. Contamination of the alluvial aquifer along the stream system is limited to areas in direct contact with large deposits of contaminated sediments. Within the aquifer, arsenic concentrations are thought to be controlled by sorption-desorption on metallic hydroxides. (USGS)

  15. The influence of light, stream gradient, and iron on Didymosphenia geminata bloom development in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel A.; Mosel, Kyle; Chipps, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    The aquatic nuisance species Didymosphenia geminata was first documented in Rapid Creek of South Dakota’s Black Hills during 2002. Since then, blooms have occurred primarily in a 39-km section of Rapid Creek while blooms were rarely observed in other Black Hills streams. In this study, we evaluated factors related to the presence and development of visible colonies of D. geminata in four streams of the Black Hills. At the watershed scale, stream gradient was negatively associated with the occurrence of D. geminata whereas stream width was positively related to D. geminata presence. At the stream scale, D. geminata coverage was inversely related to canopy coverage and iron concentration. At the local scale, shading by bridges virtually eliminated growth of D. geminata colonies under bridges. At all three scales, proxy measures of light such as stream width, canopy coverage, and bridge shading revealed that light availability was an important factor influencing the presence and coverage of D. geminata colonies. In general, streams that had relatively wide stream reaches (mean = 9.9 m), shallow gradients (mean = 0.22%), and little canopy cover (mean = 13%) were associated with D. geminata blooms. In addition, iron concentrations in streams with D. geminata colonies were lower than in streams without blooms.

  16. Areas of rural reservation in Bolivar's South: a proposal of rural territorial reordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina Lopez, Luis

    2005-01-01

    The article describes by means of a methodological process and inside an analysis mark that picks up aspects tried from the perspective of agrarian economy and the human geography, the effects of the public politics of the rural reservations in Bolivar's south, as well as its advances and challenges in the territorial reorganization of the territory. In this context, the document evidences the process of the new territorial configurations, in Bolivar's south, result of a social construction exercised by its own rural communities. In a same way the document presents a brief analysis of the agrarian structure of the rural reservations, and it illustrates the new underlying classification, product of the territorial control that develop the illegal armed groups at the moment. The advances, difficulties and challenges of the rural reservations, are the central axis of the present text, since the figure is presents as an interesting project of public politics, not alone of colonization and of agrarian reformation, but of territorial rural ordination, stiller, when in the country it has not been possible to approve an organic law of territorial classification that involves in an integral way the territorial aspects with the agrarian ones, going outside of the conception of the agrarian things of the strictly agricultural thing

  17. Sediment pore-water interactions associated with arsenic and uranium transport from the North Cave Hills mining region, South Dakota, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, Lance N.; Kipp, Gregory G.; Mott, Henry V.; Stone, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The extent of historical U mining impacts is well documented for the North Cave Hills region of Harding County, South Dakota, USA. While previous studies reported watershed sediment and surface water As and U concentrations up to 90× established background concentrations, it was unclear whether or how localized changes in sediment redox behavior may influence contaminant remobilization. Five pore-water equilibration samplers (peepers) were spatially and temporally deployed within the study area to evaluate seasonal solid–liquid As and U distributions as a function of sediment depth. Pore-water and solid phase As and U concentrations, Fe speciation, Eh and pH were measured to ascertain specific geochemical conditions responsible for As and U remobilization and transport behavior. At a mine overburden sedimentation pond adjacent to the mine sites, high total aqueous As and U concentrations (4920 and 674 μg/L, respectively) were found within surface water during summer sampling; however pond dredging prior to autumn sampling resulted in significantly lower aqueous As and U concentrations (579 and 108 μg/L, respectively); however, both As and U still exceeded regional background concentrations (20 and 18 μg/L, respectively). At a wetlands-dominated deposition zone approximately 2 km downstream of the sedimentation pond, pore-water geochemical conditions varied seasonally. Summer conditions promoted reducing conditions in pore water, resulting in active release of As(III) to the water column. Autumn conditions promoted oxidizing conditions, decreasing pore-water As (As pw ) 5× and increasing U pw 10×. Peak U pore-water concentrations (781 μg/L) were 3.5× greater than determined for the surface water (226 μg/L), and approximately 40× background concentrations. At the Bowman–Haley reservoir backwaters 45 km downstream from the mine sites, As and U pore-water concentrations increased significantly between the summer and autumn deployments, attributed to

  18. The influence of local- and landscape-level factors on wetland breeding birds in the Prairie Pothole Region of North and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, Lawrence D.; Shaffer, Jill A.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Buhl, Deborah A.

    2017-08-17

    We examined the relationship between local- (wetland) and landscape-level factors and breeding bird abundances on 1,190 depressional wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North and South Dakota during the breeding seasons in 1995–97. The surveyed wetlands were selected from five wetland classes (alkali, permanent, semipermanent, seasonal, or temporary), two wetland types (natural or restored), and two landowner groups (private or Federal). We recorded 133 species of birds in the surveyed wetlands during the 3 years. We analyzed the nine most common (or focal) species (that is, species that were present in 25 percent or more of the 1,190 wetlands): the Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American Coot (Fulica americana), Gadwall (Anas strepera), Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), Yellow-headed Blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus), Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata), and Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis). Our results emphasize the ecological value of all wetland classes, natural and restored wetlands, and publicly and privately owned wetlands in this region, including wetlands that are generally smaller and shallower (that is, temporary and seasonal wetlands) and thus most vulnerable to drainage. Blue-winged Teal, Northern Shoveler, Gadwall, Common Yellowthroat, and Red-winged Blackbird had higher abundances on Federal than on private wetlands. Abundances differed among wetland classes for seven of the nine focal species: Blue-winged Teal, Northern Shoveler, Mallard, American Coot, Common Yellowthroat, Yellow-headed Blackbird, Red-winged Blackbird. American Coot had higher abundances on restored wetlands than on natural wetlands overall, and Gadwall and Common Yellowthroat had higher abundances on private restored wetlands than on private natural wetlands. The Common Yellowthroat was the only species that had higher abundances on restored private wetlands than on

  19. Toxic substances in surface waters and sediments--A study to assess the effects of arsenic-contaminated alluvial sediment in Whitewood Creek, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, James S.; Fuller, Christopher C.

    2003-01-01

    Field measurements and bioassay experiments were done to investigate the effects of arsenic and phosphorus interactions on sorption of these solutes by the benthic flora (periphyton and submerged macrophytes) in Whitewood Creek, a stream in western South Dakota. Short-term (24-hour) sorption experiments were used to determine arsenic transport characteristics for algae (first-order rate constants for solute sorption, biomass, and accumulation factors) collected in the creek along a transect beginning upstream from a mine discharge point and downgradient through a 57-kilometer reach. Temporal changes in biomass differed significantly between and within sampling sites. Arsenic concentrations in plant tissue increased with distance downstream, but temporal changes in concentrations in tissues differed considerably from site to site. Cultures of Achnanthes minutissima (Bacillariophyceae) and Stichococcus sp. (Chlorophyceae) were isolated from four sites along a longitudinal concentration gradient of dissolved arsenic within the study reach and were maintained at ambient solute concentrations. Arsenic accumulation factors and sorption-rate constants for these isolates were determined as a function of dissolved arsenate and orthophosphate. Cell surfaces of algal isolates exhibited preferential orthophosphate sorption over arsenate. Initial sorption of both arsenate and orthophosphate followed first-order mass transfer for each culturing condition. Although sorption-rate constants increased slightly with increased dissolved-arsenate concentration, algae, isolated from a site with elevated dissolved arsenic in the stream channel, had a significantly slower rate of arsenic sorption compared with the same species isolated from an uncontaminated site upstream. In diel studies, amplitudes of the pH cycles increased with measured biomass except at a site immediately downstream from water-treatment-plant discharge. Inorganic pentavalent arsenic dominated arsenic speciation at

  20. GREYBULL SANDSTONE PETROLEUM POTENTIAL ON THE CROW INDIAN RESERVATION, SOUTH-CENTRAL MONTANA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Lopez

    2000-12-14

    Evaluation of the Lower Cretaceous Greybull Sandstone on the Crow Indian Reservation for potential stratigraphic traps in the valley-fill sandstone was the focus of this project. The Crow Reservation area, located in south-central Montana, is part of the Rocky Mountain Foreland structural province, which is characterized by Laramide uplifts and intervening structural basins. The Pryor and Bighorn mountains, like other foreland uplifts, are characterized by asymmetrical folds associated with basement-involved reverse faults. The reservation area east of the mountains is on the northwestern flank of the Powder River Basin. Therefore, regional dips are eastward and southeastward; however, several prominent structural features interrupt these regional dips. The nearly 4,000 mi{sup 2} reservation is under explored but has strong potential for increased oil and gas development. Oil and gas production is well established in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming to the south as well as in the areas north and west of the reservation. However, only limited petroleum production has been established within the reservation. Geologic relations and trends indicate strong potential for oil and gas accumulations, but drilling has been insufficient for their discovery. The Greybull Sandstone, which is part of the transgressive systems tract that includes the overlying Fall River Sandstone, was deposited on a major regional unconformity. The erosional surface at the base of the Greybull Sandstone is the +100 Ma, late Aptian-Early Albian regional unconformity of Weimer (1984). This lowstand erosional surface was controlled by a basin-wide drop in sea level. In areas where incised Greybull channels are absent, the lowstand erosional unconformity is at the base of the Fall River Sandstone and equivalent formations. During the pre-Greybull lowstand, sediment bypassed this region. In the subsequent marine transgression, streams began to aggrade and deposit sand of the lower Greybull Sandstone

  1. Home range utilisation and territorial behaviour of lions (Panthera leo on Karongwe Game Reserve, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika B Lehmann

    Full Text Available Interventionist conservation management of territorial large carnivores has increased in recent years, especially in South Africa. Understanding of spatial ecology is an important component of predator conservation and management. Spatial patterns are influenced by many, often interacting, factors making elucidation of key drivers difficult. We had the opportunity to study a simplified system, a single pride of lions (Panthera leo after reintroduction onto the 85 km(2 Karongwe Game Reserve, from 1999-2005, using radio-telemetry. In 2002 one male was removed from the paired coalition which had been present for the first three years. A second pride and male were in a fenced reserve adjacent of them to the east. This made it possible to separate social and resource factors in both a coalition and single male scenario, and the driving factors these seem to have on spatial ecology. Male ranging behaviour was not affected by coalition size, being driven more by resource rather than social factors. The females responded to the lions on the adjacent reserve by avoiding the area closest to them, therefore females may be more driven by social factors. Home range size and the resource response to water are important factors to consider when reintroducing lions to a small reserve, and it is hoped that these findings lead to other similar studies which will contribute to sound decisions regarding the management of lions on small reserves.

  2. Analysis of oil-bearing Cretaceous sandstone hydrocarbon reservoirs, exclusive of the Dakota Sandstone, on the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation, New Mexico; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridgley, Jennie; Wright Dunbar, Robyn

    2000-01-01

    This is the Phase One contract report to the United States Department of Energy, United State Geological Survey and the Jicarilla Apache Indian Tribe on the project entitled''Outcrop Analysis of the Cretaceous Mesaverde Group: Jicarilla Apache Reservation, New Mexico.'' Field work for this project was conducted during July and August 1998, at which time fourteen measured sections were described and correlated on or adjacent to Jicarilla Apache Reservation lands. A fifteen section, described east of the main field area, is included in this report, although its distant location precluded use in the correlation's and cross-sections presented herein. Ground-based photo mosaics were shot for much of the exposed Mesaverde outcrop belt and were used to assist in correlation. Outcrop gamma-ray surveys at six of the fifteen measured sections using a GAD-6 scintillometer was conducted. The raw gamma-ray data are included in this report, however, analysis of those data is part of the ongoing Phase Two of this project

  3. Water and sediment quality of the Lake Andes and Choteau Creek basins, South Dakota, 1983-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven Kent; Neitzert, Kathleen M.

    2003-01-01

    different units, with medians that range from about 2.4 to 4.0 mg/L. Median whole-water phosphorus concentrations for the different Lake Andes units range from 0.2 to 0.5 mg/L, and decrease downstream through Lake Andes. Median selenium concentrations are substantially lower for Andes Creek (3 ?g/L (micrograms per liter)) than for the other tributary stations (34, 18, and 7 ?g/L). Median selenium concentrations for the lake stations (ranging from less than 1 to 2 ?g/L) are substantially lower than tributary stations. The pesticides 2,4-D and atrazine were the most commonly detected pesticides in Lake Andes. Median concentrations for 2,4-D for Lake Andes range from 0.07 to 0.11 ?g/L; the median concentration for Owens Bay is 0.04 ?g/L. Median concentrations for atrazine for Lake Andes range from 0.2 to 0.4 ?g/L; the median concentration for Owens Bay is less than 0.1 ?g/L. Concentrations of both 2,4-D and atrazine are largest for the most upstream part of Lake Andes that is most influenced by tributary inflow. Median suspended-sediment concentrations for Lake Andes tributaries range from 22 to 56 mg/L. Most of the suspended sediment transported in the Lake Andes tributaries consists of particles less than 63 ?m (micrometers) in diameter. Concentrations of most constituents in bottom sediments generally had similar ranges and medians for the Lake Andes tributaries. However, Andes Creek generally had lower concentrations of several metals. For Lake Andes, medians and ranges for most constituents generally were similar among the different units. However, selenium concentrations tended to be higher in the upstream part of the lake, and generally decreased downstream. Results of vertical sediment cores collected from a single site in the South Unit of Lake Andes in October 2000 indicate that selenium loading to Lake Andes increased during the period 1952 through 2000. Choteau Creek has a drainage area of 619 mi2. In the upstream part of the basin, Chotea

  4. Power-system-wide analysis of the benefits of reserve provision from solar photovoltaics in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bischof-Niemz, T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available . However, South Africa has abundant solar resources and has seen a dramatic decline in solar PV tariffs over the past few years. The value of reserve provision to the system from solar PV was determined by simulating the South African power system...

  5. Movement and Home Range of Nile Crocodiles in Ndumo Game Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Calverley

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of movement patterns and home range is fundamental in understanding the spatial requirements of animals and is important in generating information for the conservation and management of threatened species. Ndumo Game Reserve, in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal, bordering Mozambique, has the third largest Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus population in South Africa. Movement patterns of 50 Nile crocodiles with a total length of between 202 cm and 472 cm were followed over a period of 18 months, using mark-resight, radio and satellite telemetry. The duration of radio transmitter attachment (131 ± 11.4 days was significantly and negatively related to total length and reproductive status. Satellite transmitters failed after an average of 15 ± 12.5 days. Home range was calculated for individuals with 10 or more radio locations, spanning a period of at least 6 months. There was a significant relationship between home range size and total length, with sub-adults (1.5 m – 2.5 m occupying smaller, more localised home ranges than adults (> 2.5 m. The largest home ranges were for adults (> 2.5 m. Home ranges overlapped extensively, suggesting that territoriality, if present, does not result in spatially discrete home ranges of Nile crocodiles in Ndumo Game Reserve during the dry season. Larger crocodiles moved farther and more frequently than smaller crocodiles. The reserve acts as a winter refuge and spring breeding site for an estimated 846 crocodiles, which also inhabit the Rio Maputo during the summer months. Nile crocodile movement out of the reserve and into the Rio Maputo starts in November and crocodiles return to the reserve as water levels in the floodplain recede in May. Conservation implications: Movement patterns of Nile crocodiles show the important role the reserve plays in the conservation of Nile crocodile populations within the greater Ndumo Game Reserve–Rio Maputo area.

  6. The phytosociology of the southern section of Borakalalo Nature Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Brown

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of a vegetation survey programme for conservation areas in South Africa, the plant communities of the Borakalalo Nature Reserve were investigated. A TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures was used for a phytosociological study. The analysis resulted in five major plant communities, one with two subcommunities and one with four subcommunities and two variants. Habitat factors associated with differences in vegetation include topography, soil form and grazing pressure. Descriptions of the plant communities include diagnostic species as well as prominent and less conspicuous species of the tree, shrub, forb and grass strata. The classification provides the necessary delimitation of homogeneous areas which are considered necessary for veld management.

  7. CASL Dakota Capabilities Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Brian M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Simmons, Chris [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Williams, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-10

    The Dakota software project serves the mission of Sandia National Laboratories and supports a worldwide user community by delivering state-of-the-art research and robust, usable software for optimization and uncertainty quantification. These capabilities enable advanced exploration and riskinformed prediction with a wide range of computational science and engineering models. Dakota is the verification and validation (V&V) / uncertainty quantification (UQ) software delivery vehicle for CASL, allowing analysts across focus areas to apply these capabilities to myriad nuclear engineering analyses.

  8. Latino College Completion: South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  9. Concentrations of selected metals in Quaternary-age fluvial deposits along the lower Cheyenne and middle Belle Fourche Rivers, western South Dakota, 2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, John F.; Hoogestraat, Galen K.

    2012-01-01

    The headwaters of the Cheyenne and Belle Fourche Rivers drain the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, an area that has been affected by mining and ore-milling operations since the discovery of gold in 1875. A tributary to the Belle Fourche River is Whitewood Creek, which drains the area of the Homestake Mine, a gold mine that operated from 1876 to 2001. Tailings discharged into Whitewood Creek contained arsenopyrite, an arsenic-rich variety of pyrite associated with gold ore, and mercury used as an amalgam during the gold-extraction process. Approximately 18 percent of the tailings that were discharged remain in fluvial deposits on the flood plain along Whitewood Creek, and approximately 25 percent remain in fluvial deposits on the flood plain along the Belle Fourche River, downstream from Whitewood Creek. In 1983, a 29-kilometer (18-mile) reach of Whitewood Creek and the adjacent flood plain was included in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Priority List of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, commonly referred to as a "Superfund site." Listing of this reach of Whitewood Creek was primarily in response to arsenic toxicity of fluvial deposits on the flood plain. Lands along the lower Cheyenne River were transferred to adjoining States and Tribes in response to the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) of 1999. An amendment in 2000 to WRDA required a study of sediment contamination of the Cheyenne River. In response to the WRDA amendment, the U.S. Geological Survey completed field sampling of reference sites (not affected by mine-tailing disposal) along the lower Belle Fourche and lower Cheyenne Rivers. Reference sites were located on stream terraces that were elevated well above historical stream stages to ensure no contamination from historical mining activity. Sampling of potentially contaminated sites was performed on transects of the active flood plain and adjacent terraces that could

  10. Home range utilization by chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) troops on Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Kerry; Barrett, Alan; Brown, Leslie R

    2018-01-01

    Rapid urbanization coupled with decreasing areas of natural habitat are causing baboon populations to become scattered and isolated, often resulting in increased levels of human-baboon conflict. To implement baboon-human conflict management strategies, it is essential to formulate realistic conservation policies that deal with all stakeholder concerns and ensure the conservation of viable baboon populations. A study was initiated in response to complaints of perceived excessive baboon numbers and associated lack of food resources on Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve in South Africa. Data obtained from GPS tracking collars fitted to one baboon from each of 10 identified troops were analyzed to determine home range size and utilization. The spatial representation of home ranges generated from this study will allow reserve management to identify areas of potential high and low human-baboon conflict and will contribute to the development of a formal baboon management plan to reduce human-baboon conflict on and around the reserve. Home ranges were unevenly distributed and had a mean size of 26.72 km2 ± 13.91 SD in the cold/dry season and 26.54 km2 ± 12.76 SD in the warm/wet season. Troop home ranges overlapped to some degree and five troops utilized areas outside the reserve. Although no significant relationship between troop size and home range was found, there was a positive relationship between troop size and daily distance travelled. All troops had significantly longer mean daily distances during the warm/wet season than during the cold/dry season (P ≤ 0.02).

  11. Monitoring limber pine health in the Rocky Mountains and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Burns; Jim Blodgett; Marcus Jackson; Brian Howell; William Jacobi; Anna Schoettle; Anne Marie Casper; Jennifer Klutsch

    2012-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) is an ecologically and culturally important, yet little studied, tree species within the Western United States. Its distribution extends from Alberta and southeastern British Colombia to New Mexico, Arizona, and southeastern California with isolated populations in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, eastern Oregon...

  12. Fargo, North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated version Click on the image for high resolution TIFF file Why does Fargo flood? The Red River of the North, which forms the border between North Dakota and Minnesota, has a long history of severe floods. Major floods include those of 1826, 1897, 1950, 1997, and now 2009. The 1997 flood caused billions of dollars of damage, with greatest impact to the city of Grand Forks, north of and downstream from Fargo. The 2009 flood, which has primarily impacted Fargo, appears to have peaked early on March 28. Several factors combine to cause floods. Obviously, rainfall and snowmelt rates (and their geographic distribution) are the fundamental variables that create flooding in some years and not others. But the repetition of flooding in Fargo (and areas downstream), rather than in adjacent regions, can be attributed largely to its topographic setting and geologic history. The formation of landforms in the geologic past is often interpretable from digital topographic data, such as that supplied by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This image, covering parts of North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, displays ground elevation as brightness (higher is brighter) plus has simulated shading (with illumination from the north) to enhance topographic detail such as stream channels, ridges, and cliffs. The Red River of the North is the only major river that flows northward from the United States into Canada. In this scene it flows almost straight north from Fargo. North of this image it continues past the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, and into Lake Winnipeg, which in turn drains to Hudson Bay. In the United States, the river lies in a trough that was shaped by continental glaciers that pushed south from Canada during the Pleistocene epoch, up to about 10,000 years ago. This trough is about 70 km (45 miles) wide and tens of meters (very generally about 100 feet) deep. Here near Fargo it lies on the east side of a much

  13. Conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow in the Ogallala aquifer in Gregory and Tripp Counties, South Dakota, water years 1985--2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle W.; Putnam, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    The Ogallala aquifer is an important water resource for the Rosebud Sioux Tribe in Gregory and Tripp Counties in south-central South Dakota and is used for irrigation, public supply, domestic, and stock water supplies. To better understand groundwater flow in the Ogallala aquifer, conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow were developed for the aquifer. A conceptual model of the Ogallala aquifer was used to analyze groundwater flow and develop a numerical model to simulate groundwater flow in the aquifer. The MODFLOW–NWT model was used to simulate transient groundwater conditions for water years 1985–2009. The model was calibrated using statistical parameter estimation techniques. Potential future scenarios were simulated using the input parameters from the calibrated model for simulations of potential future drought and future increased pumping. Transient simulations were completed with the numerical model. A 200-year transient initialization period was used to establish starting conditions for the subsequent 25-year simulation of water years 1985–2009. The 25-year simulation was discretized into three seasonal stress periods per year and used to simulate transient conditions. A single-layer model was used to simulate flow and mass balance in the Ogallala aquifer with a grid of 133 rows and 282 columns and a uniform spacing of 500 meters (1,640 feet). Regional inflow and outflow were simulated along the western and southern boundaries using specified-head cells. All other boundaries were simulated using no-flow cells. Recharge to the aquifer occurs through precipitation on the outcrop area. Model calibration was accomplished using the Parameter Estimation (PEST) program that adjusted individual model input parameters and assessed the difference between estimated and model-simulated values of hydraulic head and base flow. This program was designed to estimate parameter values that are statistically the most likely set of values to result in the

  14. 8 June 2010 - South Dakota Governor M. Rounds signing the guest book with External Relations Office Adviser R. Voss, visiting the LHC superconducting Magnet test hall with Technology Department L. Bottura, in the CERN Control Centre with Beams Department Head P. Collier, ATLAS visitor Centre with Deputy Collaboration Spokesperson A. Lankford and visiting CMS Control Centre with Deputy Collaboration Spokesperson J. Incandela. LHC Communications and FNAL member K. Yurkewicz accompanies throughout (see complete delegation list below).

    CERN Multimedia

    Teams (M. Brice/J.C. Gadmer)

    2010-01-01

    CERN-HI-1006100 24: from left to right: Permanent Mission Representative A. Shybut; External Relations Office Adviser R. Voss; LHC Communications and FNAL K. Yurkewicz, Washington CSG Director for internationl programmes S. Sutcliffe-Stephenson; Technology Department Representative L. Bottura; South Dakota State Patrol D. Svendsen; CSG Executive Director and Former State Senator from Kansas D. Atkins;Office of the First Lady L. Svendsen; Office of the Governor K. Mueller; First Lady J. Rounds; South Dakota Governor M. Rounds; Washington State Senator T. Eide;Judge M. Eide; Assemblyman J. Oceguera and G. Oceguera (with son Jackson Oceguera, 5 months).

  15. Diet and seasonal dispersal of extralimital giraffe at Sanbona Wildlife Reserve, Little Karoo, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire N. Gordon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available South African giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa have been introduced as an extralimital species to private farms in the Little Karoo on the basis of economic sustainability, and the need to create a competitive tourism product. However, little is known about the medium- to long-term impacts and ecological sustainability of such introductions. The diet of a population of giraffe on Sanbona Wildlife Reserve, near the town of Ladismith, was assessed via direct observations between January and October 2014, in order to determine their potential impact on the world’s most species-rich semi-desert, the Succulent Karoo. Unlike giraffe in their native range, the Sanbona population showed seasonal preference for browse species. Acacia karroo (sweet thorn appears to be the preferred browse species during autumn and spring, with Schotia afra being the preferred species in winter, and no significant preference being shown in summer. Giraffe also appeared to seasonally move between catchments where tree species other than A. karroo occurs, especially during winter and spring when the tributaries of the Brak River, containing mixed Acacia with S. afra (karoo boer-bean and Euclea undulata (small-leaved guarri, were visited with increasing frequency. These results largely confirm the importance of A. karroo as the main browse species in this environment but also suggest that other species may be important components of the diet of extralimital giraffe in the Little Karoo. On farms where A. karroo is dominant, supplementary feed may be needed when A. karroo browse is unavailable due to leaf drop. Conservation implications: Acacia karroo was the main browse species of extralimital G. c. giraffa at Sanbona Wildlife Reserve, but it switched to S. afra during winter. This suggests that an assessment of alternative food species forms part of suitability assessments for the introduction of extralimital G. c. giraffa for areas similar to Sanbona.

  16. Phytoplankton biomass dynamics and environmental variables around the Rocas Atoll Biological Reserve, South Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Cavalcanti Jales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Rocas Atoll Biological Reserve is located in the Atlantic Ocean, at 3º 51' S and 33º 49' W. It lies 143 nautical miles from the City of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil. The purpose of this study was to analyze the hydrology, water masses, currents and chlorophyll a content to determine the dynamics of phytoplankton biomass around the Rocas Atoll. Samples were collected in July 2010 in the area around the Atoll, using the Research Vessel Cruzeiro do Sul of the Brazilian Navy. Two transects were established according to the surface currents, one of which at the southeast of the Atoll (SE and the other at norwest (NW. Three collection points were determined on each of these transects. Samples were collected at different depths (surface and DCM - Deep Chlorophyll Maximum and different times (day and night. According to PCA (Principal Component Analysis, the nutrients analyzed, DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen, DIP (dissolved inorganic phosphorus and silicate, were inversely correlated with temperature and dissolved oxygen. Most environmental variables showed a significant increase due to the turbulence on the Northwest transect. There was an increase in the concentration of chlorophyll a and nutrients when the temperature and oxygen in the mixed layer was reduced due to the influence of the SACW (South Atlantic Central Water. Despite the increase observed in some variables such as nutrient salts and chlorophyll a, the temperature in the mixed layer attained a mean value of 23.23 ºC due to the predominance of Tropical Water. The increase of the phytoplankton biomass on the NW transect was, therefore, caused by the "island effect" and not by upwelling.

  17. The effect of mature elephant bull introductions on ranging patterns of resident bulls: Phinda Private Game Reserve, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Heleen Druce; K. Pretorius; D. Druce; R. Slotow

    2006-01-01

    Increasing popularity of wildlife viewing has resulted in a rapid increase in small, enclosed reserves in South Africa. The African elephant is one of the many species that has been reintroduced into these reserves for eco-tourism. These elephant populations were established as young (smaller that 10 years old) orphans from prior Kruger National Park culling operations. Consequently, this abnormal sex and age structure of these introduced populations has influenced their behavioural and spati...

  18. Diagnostic nutrient mass balance on J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The Souris River, an international river originating in Canada’s Saskatchewan Province, flows south into the State of North Dakota and then back north into Canada’s...

  19. 77 FR 51560 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Director, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Great Plains Region, Aberdeen, South Dakota, and was necessary to...: 43 U.S.C. Chap. 3. Josh Alexander, Acting Chief Cadastral Surveyor, Division of Resources. [FR Doc...

  20. North Dakota's forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Michael Kangas; Susan J. Crocker; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall; Brett J. Butler; Barry T. Wilson; Dan J. Kaisershot

    2009-01-01

    The first completed annual inventory of North Dakota's forests reports estimates of more than 724,000 acres of forest land. Information about forest attributes and forest health is presented along with information on agents of change including changing land use patterns and the introduction of nonnative plants, insects, and disease.

  1. Vegetation and flora of Booti Booti National Park and Yahoo Nature Reserve, lower North Coast of New South Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, S. J.; Wilson, R.; Maryott-Brown, K.

    2015-01-01

    The vegetation of Booti Booti National Park and Yahoo Nature Reserve on the lower North Coast of New South Wales has been classified and mapped from aerial photography at a scale of 1:25,000. The plant communities so identified are described in terms of their composition and distribution within Booti Booti NP and Yahoo NR. The plant communities are also discussed in terms of their distribution elsewhere in south-eastern Australia, with particular emphasis given to the NSW North Coast where co...

  2. Flooding of S. Dakota mine stalls plans for laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    Chang, K

    2003-01-01

    The owner of a former gold mine in South Dakota turned off the pumps allowing water to begin accumulating in the tunnels below ground. The site had previously been proposed as the location for a new underground particle physics and astronomy laboratory (1 page).

  3. Evaluating lek occupancy of greater sage-grouse in relation to landscape cultivation in the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joe T.; Flake, Lester D.; Higgins, Kenneth F.; Kobriger, Gerald D.; Homer, Collin G.

    2005-01-01

    Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have been declining in many states and provinces of North America, and North and South Dakota hold no exception to these declines. We studied effects of cultivated land on Greater Sage-Grouse lek abandonment in North and South Dakota. Landscape-level data were assessed using satellite imagery within a geographic information system. Comparisons were made of 1972-1976 and 1999-2000 percent cultivated and noncultivated land. These comparisons were made between land uses surrounding active leks versus inactive leks, active leks versus random locations, and abandoned regions versus active regions. The 1999-2000 imagery illustrated that percent cultivated land was greater near abandoned leks (4-km buffers) than near active leks in North Dakota or random sites, but this did not hold true in South Dakota. Comparison of an extensive region of abandoned leks with a region of active leks in North Dakota illustrated a similar increase as well as dispersion of cultivation within the abandoned region. However, 1972-1976 imagery revealed that this relationship between percentage of cultivated land and lek activity in North Dakota has been static over the last 30 years. Thus, if the decline of Greater Sage-Grouse is the result of cultivated land infringements, it occurred prior to 1972 in North Dakota.

  4. The Rise and Fall of a Dakota Immersion Pre-school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Bill

    2002-01-01

    Discusses an attempt to establish a Dakota-language immersion preschool on an Indian reservation in Minnesota. Outlines the historical experience of the Dakota and contrasts the educational success of the preschool program. Describes the final crisis that led to the resignation of the director and to the program's demise. (Author/VWL)

  5. Geology of the Early Arikareean sharps formation on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and surrounding areas of South Dakota and Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Thomas H; Dibenedetto, Joseph N

    2012-01-01

    Based on geologic mapping, measured sections, and lithologic correlations, the local features of the upper and lower type areas of the Early Arikareean (30.8-20.6 million years ago) Sharps Formation are revised and correlated. The Sharps Formation above the basal Rockyford Member is divided into two members of distinct lithotypes. The upper 233 feet of massive siltstones and sandy siltstones is named the Gooseneck Road Member. The middle member, 161 feet of eolian volcaniclastic siltstones with fluvially reworked volcaniclastic lenses and sandy siltstone sheets, is named the Wolff Camp Member. An ashey zone at the base of the Sharps Formation is described and defined as the Rockyford Ash Zone (RAZ) in the same stratigraphic position as the Nonpareil Ash Zone (NPAZ) in Nebraska. Widespread marker beds of fresh water limestones at 130 feet above the base of the Sharps Formation and a widespread reddish-brown clayey siltstone at 165 feet above the base of the Sharps Formation are described. The Brown Siltstone Beds of Nebraska are shown to be a southern correlative of the Wolff Camp Member and the Rockyford Member of the Sharps Formation. Early attempts to correlate strata in the Great Plains were slow in developing. Recognition of the implications of the paleomagnetic and lithologic correlations of this paper will provide an added datum assisting researchers in future biostratigraphic studies. Based on similar lithologies, the Sharps Formation, currently assigned to the Arikaree Group, should be reassigned to the White River Group.

  6. Edgemont uranium mill decommissioning, Fall River County, South Dakota (adoption as a final environmental impact statement (EIS) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's final EIS of September 1982): final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Decommissioning of the existing uranium milling facilities at Edgemont, South Dakota is proposed. In this adoption by the Tennessee Valley Authority of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's final environmental impact statement on the decommissioning, no significant deviations from that statement are presented. The project would prevent human exposure to radioactive material emitted by the defunct mill and its ancillary facilities. Reclamation of mill and waste impoundment sites would ensure their future usefulness for wildlife habitat and other purposes. Grading operations could result in occasional particulate levels that exceed federal air quality standards. As much as 105 acre-feet of water could be removed from the Pahasapa Aquifer. Disturbance of soils at the sites would degrade the quality of these soils. Approximately 501 acres of land, including 30 acres of land to be used as haul roads, would be denuded; 86 acres of farmland within the disposal site would be lost. All aquatic communities in Cottonwood Creek would be destroyed during cleanup operations, although the creek would be repopulated. Winddown tailings would increase downwind radiation levels during decommissioning activities

  7. Towards measuring the transaction costs of co-management in Mkambati Nature Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blore, M L; Cundill, G; Mkhulisi, M

    2013-11-15

    During the last three decades, there has been an increased pursuit of participatory approaches to managing natural resources. In South Africa, this has been evident in the management of protected areas. In particular, land claims, which affect much of the conservation estate in South Africa, frequently result in co-management of protected areas by claimant communities and conservation agencies. This is occurring against a backdrop of declining state subsidies and growing expectations that South African conservation agencies will finance themselves while simultaneously stimulating local economic opportunities. In this context, it is important for co-management partners to understand and monitor the cost-effectiveness of management processes in achieving both the socio-economic and ecological targets of conservation management. Transaction costs are useful in gauging the cost-effectiveness of policies and institutions; however there is little methodological guidance for measuring transaction costs empirically. This study develops and tests a transaction costs model for a co-managed nature reserve in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Transaction costs were quantified by taking into account the total time spent in meetings annually, the daily opportunity cost of participants' time and the travel costs associated with attending such meetings. A key limitation in the development of this model was a lack of record keeping by the conservation agency. The model developed in this study offers a practical means for co-management partners in similar contexts to monitor how transaction costs change over time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Preliminary inventory and classification of indigenous afromontane forests on the Blyde River Canyon Nature Reserve, Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck Hans T

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mixed evergreen forests form the smallest, most widely distributed and fragmented biome in southern Africa. Within South Africa, 44% of this vegetation type has been transformed. Afromontane forest only covers 0.56 % of South Africa, yet it contains 5.35% of South Africa's plant species. Prior to this investigation of the indigenous forests on the Blyde River Canyon Nature Reserve (BRCNR, very little was known about the size, floristic composition and conservation status of the forest biome conserved within the reserve. We report here an inventory of the forest size, fragmentation, species composition and the basic floristic communities along environmental gradients. Results A total of 2111 ha of forest occurs on Blyde River Canyon Nature Reserve. The forest is fragmented, with a total of 60 forest patches recorded, varying from 0.21 ha to 567 ha in size. On average, patch size was 23 ha. Two forest communities – high altitude moist afromontane forest and low altitude dry afromontane forest – are identified. Sub-communities are recognized based on canopy development and slope, respectively. An altitudinal gradient accounts for most of the variation within the forest communities. Conclusion BRCNR has a fragmented network of small forest patches that together make up 7.3% of the reserve's surface area. These forest patches host a variety of forest-dependent trees, including some species considered rare, insufficiently known, or listed under the Red Data List of South African Plants. The fragmented nature of the relatively small forest patches accentuates the need for careful fire management and stringent alien plant control.

  9. Lignite in North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    The State of North Dakota and the lignite industry are working together in a partnership called the Lignite Research, Development and Marketing Program. The program provides funds and supports activities which: preserve and enhance jobs and lignite production; ensure economic growth, stability and opportunity; and maintain a stable and competitive tax base. Since 1987, 70 grants totaling $24 million have been awarded. Each program dollar has resulted in nearly five of matching dollars. These program investments have yielded returns for the state and industry, including an additional $20 million annually from by-products at the Great Plains Synfuels Plant; about $1 million annually from improved reclamation practices; and combustion options, which preserve 2,000 megawatts of existing generation capacity. Research activities have identified future opportunities, including: the SynCoal demonstration plant, requiring 800,000 tons per year of new production; new chemical feedstock by-products from Great Plains worth an additional $26 million annually; revised reclamation practices that could substantially reduce cost; and potential new markets for upgraded lignite of about 12 million tons annually. This program helps ensure a healthy future for the North Dakota lignite industry, which currently represents 10% of the state's total economic base. Such a program is important because it will encourage the development of new and better uses of North Dakota's most abundant resource--lignite coal

  10. North Inlet • Winyah Bay (NIW) National Estuarine Research Reserve Meteorological Data, North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 2000 • 2004.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — National Estuarine Research Reserve System The National Estuarine Research Reserve System was established by the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (as amended) and...

  11. An investigation of human activity and vegetation change around Mkuze Game Reserve, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.A. (Geography) In the last century, the establishment of protected areas has become an important part of managing South Africa’s wilderness and wildlife. The notion of untouched protected areas is becoming contested in a time when developing nations are seeking to improve quality of life for their citizens. With the promulgation of the NEM: PAA of 2003, resource sharing with local rural communities has become an important policy guideline for protected area management authorities. An exa...

  12. A status report on weather modification research in the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul L.; Orville, Harold D.; Boe, Bruce A.; Stith, Jeffrey L.

    An overview of the status of weather modification research in North and South Dakota (USA) is presented. The operational North Dakota Cloud Modification Projects has, since 1976, been seeding summer convective clouds for the dual objectives of hail suppression and rainfall enhancement. Research being carried out as part of a Federal/State cooperative program, in coordination with the operational activities, has included physical and statistical evaluation studies as well as numerical cloud modeling investigations. The statistical analyses provide some indications that the intended seeding effects are being obtained. The physical studies involve aircraft and radar observations and emphasize tracer experiments to study the transport and dispersion of seeding agents and the activation of ice nuclei. The modeling studies simulate the experiments and aid in investigation of the process involved and the effects of seeding. The 1989 North Dakota Thunderstorm Project, a major field study emphasizing physical and numerical modeling studies, is described briefly.

  13. Forests of North Dakota, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles S. Paulson

    2018-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program within the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  14. Forests of North Dakota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  15. Forests of North Dakota, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  16. Forests of North Dakota, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; S.A. Pugh

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  17. Greybull Sandstone Petroleum Potential on the Crow Indian Reservation, South-Central Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, David A.

    2002-05-13

    The focus of this project was to explore for stratigraphic traps that may be present in valley-fill sandstone at the top of the Lower Cretaceous Kootenai Formation. This sandstone interval, generally known as the Greybull Sandstone, has been identified along the western edge of the reservation and is a known oil and gas reservoir in the surrounding region. The Greybull Sandstone was chosen as the focus of this research because it is an excellent, well-documented, productive reservoir in adjacent areas, such as Elk Basin; Mosser Dome field, a few miles northwest of the reservation; and several other oil and gas fields in the northern portion of the Bighorn Basin.

  18. Forcing the few: Issues from the South African Reserve Bank's legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amendments provide, inter alia, for shareholders regarded as associates in terms of the SA Reserve Bank Act to declare such relationship and their shareholding to the bank. While some associated shareholders made such declarations or provided undertakings to sell their shares, the central bank has reason to ...

  19. The effect of mature elephant bull introductions on ranging patterns of resident bulls: Phinda Private Game Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen Druce

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing popularity of wildlife viewing has resulted in a rapid increase in small, enclosed reserves in South Africa. The African elephant is one of the many species that has been reintroduced into these reserves for eco-tourism. These elephant populations were established as young (smaller that 10 years old orphans from prior Kruger National Park culling operations. Consequently, this abnormal sex and age structure of these introduced populations has influenced their behavioural and spatial ecology. In Pilanesberg National Park, this abnormal behaviour was corrected by introducing older bulls and culling certain problem elephants. In July 2003, three older bulls (29–41 years old were introduced into Phinda Private Game Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in order to normalise the bull age structure. These introduced bulls were monitored intensively after release, as was the resident bull population, both before and after introduction of the older bulls. The introduced bulls settled into restricted ranges separate from the family groups. All the resident bulls decreased their home ranges at first, with most increasing their home ranges a year later. The resident bulls’ change in ranging patterns was due more to ecological factors than to the influence of the mature bull introduction. This study indicates that the introduction of older male elephants into small populations does not pose major risks or animal welfare concerns.

  20. Thunderstorms and flooding of August 17, 2007, with a context provided by a history of other large storm and flood events in the Black Hills area of South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Bunkers, Matthew J.; Carter, Janet M.; Stamm, John F.; Williamson, Joyce E.

    2010-01-01

    The Black Hills area of western South Dakota has a history of damaging flash floods that have resulted primarily from exceptionally strong rain-producing thunderstorms. The best known example is the catastrophic storm system of June 9-10, 1972, which caused severe flooding in several major drainages near Rapid City and resulted in 238 deaths. More recently, severe thunderstorms caused flash flooding near Piedmont and Hermosa on August 17, 2007. Obtaining a thorough understanding of peak-flow characteristics for low-probability floods will require a comprehensive long-term approach involving (1) documentation of scientific information for extreme events such as these; (2) long-term collection of systematic peak-flow records; and (3) regional assessments of a wide variety of peak-flow information. To that end, the U.S. Geological Survey cooperated with the South Dakota Department of Transportation and National Weather Service to produce this report, which provides documentation regarding the August 17, 2007, storm and associated flooding and provides a context through examination of other large storm and flood events in the Black Hills area. The area affected by the August 17, 2007, storms and associated flooding generally was within the area affected by the larger storm of June 9-10, 1972. The maximum observed 2007 precipitation totals of between 10.00 and 10.50 inches occurred within about 2-3 hours in a small area about 5 miles west of Hermosa. The maximum documented precipitation amount in 1972 was 15.0 inches, and precipitation totals of 10.0 inches or more were documented for 34 locations within an area of about 76 square miles. A peak flow of less than 1 cubic foot per second occurred upstream from the 2007 storm extent for streamflow-gaging station 06404000 (Battle Creek near Keystone); whereas, the 1972 peak flow of 26,200 cubic feet per second was large, relative to the drainage area of only 58.6 square miles. Farther downstream along Battle Creek, a 2007

  1. Interesting new record and further notes on the occurrence of marine fish in Nyamithi Pan, Ndumo Game Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kyle

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Nyamithi Pan, situated in Ndumo Game Reserve, South Africa, is a floodplain pan near the confluence of the Usuthu and Pongolo rivers. It lies approximately 75 km from the Indian Ocean. The floodplain and its fish have been extensively surveyed (Coke & Pott 1970; Kok 1980; Merron et al 1993, 1994, 1994a, 1994b, 1994c, 1994d; Pooley 1975 and there are many records of the occurrence of marine fish in this and other pans of the Pongolo and Usuthu rivers. These are, however, usually isolated instances of individual fish being caught and attracting attention.

  2. Environmental Info for North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains information about air and water in North Dakota, including state implementation programs (SIPs), air permitting, underground injection control (UIC) and National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES).

  3. Major Vegetation Types of the Soutpansberg Conservancy and the Blouberg Nature Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo H.C. Mostert

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Major Megetation Types (MVT and plant communities of the Soutpansberg Centre of Endemism are described in detail, with special reference to the Soutpansberg Conservancy and the Blouberg Nature Reserve. Phytosociological data from 442 sample plots were ordinated using a DEtrended CORrespondence ANAlysis (DECORANA and classified using TWo-Way INdicator SPecies ANalysis (TWINSPAN. The resulting classification was further refined with table-sorting procedures based on the Braun–Blanquet floristic–sociological approach of vegetation classification using MEGATAB. Eight MVT’s were identified and described as Eragrostis lehmanniana var. lehmanniana–Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra Blouberg Northern Plains Bushveld, Euclea divinorum–Acacia tortilis Blouberg Southern Plains Bushveld, Englerophytum magalismontanum–Combretum molle Blouberg Mountain Bushveld, Adansonia digitata–Acacia nigrescens Soutpansberg Arid Northern Bushveld, Catha edulis–Flueggia virosa Soutpansberg Moist Mountain Thickets, Diplorhynchus condylocarpon–Burkea africana Soutpansberg Leached Sandveld, Rhus rigida var. rigida–Rhus magalismontanum subsp. coddii Soutpansberg Mistbelt Vegetation and Xymalos monospora–Rhus chirendensis Soutpansberg Forest Vegetation.

  4. North Inlet • Winyah Bay (NIW) National Estuarine Research Reserve Meteorological Data, North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1997 • 1999.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The North Inlet Estuary and the adjacent lower northeastern section of Winyah Bay Estuary were designated as part of the National Estuarine Research Reserve System...

  5. North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve's (NERR) Estuarine Water Quality Data for the North Inlet and Winyah Bay Estuaries, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1993-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The North Inlet Estuary and the adjacent lower northeastern section of the Winyah Bay Estuary were designated as part of the National Estuarine Research Reserve...

  6. 77 FR 75119 - Dakota Prairie Grasslands, North Dakota; Oil and Gas Development Supplemental Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Dakota Prairie Grasslands, North Dakota; Oil and Gas... to prepare a supplemental environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: In June of 2003, the Dakota... Dakota Prairie Grasslands Land and Resource Management Plan, based on the 2001 Northern Great Plains...

  7. Islet immunity and beta cell reserve of indigenous Black South Africans with ketoacidosis at initial diagnosis of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpebegh, Chukwuma; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Blanco-Blanco, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Islet immunity and beta cell reserve status were utilized to classify persons with ketoacidosis as the initial manifestation of diabetes. The clinical features of the various diabetes classes were also characterized. Prospective cross sectional study. Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital, Mthatha, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Indigenous Black South Africans with ketoacidosis as the initial manifestation of diabetes. Islet immunity and beta cell reserve were respectively assessed using serum anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD) antibody and serum C-peptide after 1 mg of intravenous glucagon. Serum anti-GAD 65 antibody > or = 5 units/L and or = 0.5 ng/mL and < 0.5 ng/mL, respectively. The proportions of patients with A+beta-, A+beta+, A-beta- and A-beta+ and their clinical characteristics were determined. Of the 38 males and 33 females who participated in the study, patients were categorized in various classes: A-beta+, 46.5% (n=33/ 71); A-beta-, 26.8% (n=19/71); A+beta-, 22.5% (n=16/71); and A+beta+, 4.2% (n=3/71). The ages of the various classes were: 41.8 +/- 13.8 years for A-beta+ (n=33); 36.5 +/- 14.6 years for A-beta- (n=19); and 20.6 +/- 7.1 years for the combination of A+beta- with A+beta+ (n=19) (P<.0001, P<.0001 for the combination of A+beta- and A+beta+ vs A-beta+, P=.001 for the combination of A+beta- and A+beta+ vs A-beta-and P=.2 for A-beta- vs A-beta+. The clinical features of type 2 diabetes were most prevalent in A-beta+ class while the A+beta- and A+beta+ groups had the clinical profile of type 1A diabetes. Most of the indigenous Black South African patients with ketoacidosis as the initial manifestation of diabetes had islet immunity, beta cell reserve status and clinical profiles of type 2 diabetes.

  8. Home range establishment and utilization by reintroduced lions (Panthera leo) in a small South African wildlife reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Sze-Wing; Parrini, Francesca; Karczmarski, Leszek; Keith, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Understanding of animal spatial behavior is essential for informed management decisions. In southern Africa, reintroduction of lions (Panthera leo) to small reserves (lions reintroduced to Dinokeng Game Reserve, South Africa, during 2011 through 2014. Lions established home ranges close to their release sites and during the following 3 years their home range sizes continued to increase, but in each individual case the size remained smaller than half of the reserve area (60 separate visits) around the largest dam and along rivers suggest the importance of water and its surrounding vegetation in the lions' space utilization pattern. The home range size did not differ with season or sex of the individuals, whereas shifts in locations of home ranges revealed differences in the response of the 2 sexes to territorial conflicts and management interventions. Our study shows a dynamic home range utilization pattern and highlights the importance of both fine-scale space use patterns (frequency and duration of visits) and broad-scale home range changes in understanding the ranging behavior of reintroduced animals. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. A checklist of the non-acarine arachnids (Chelicerata: Arachnida of the Ndumo Game Reserve, Maputaland, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Haddad

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Arachnids (Chelicerata: Arachnida were collected in the Ndumo Game Reserve (Maputaland, South Africa during 11 collecting trips in the period 2000–2006. Sampling was undertaken by various methods in eight broad habitat types: Acacia tortilis savanna; Acacia xanthophloea (fever tree forests; deciduous broadleaf woodland; Ficus (wild fig tree forests; floodplain vegetation; riparian forest; sand forest; and subtropical bush. In total, 457 species of arachnids were collected, representing six orders, 59 families and 240 determined genera. The most diverse order was the Araneae (46 families, 431 spp., followed by the Pseudoscorpiones (6 families, 12 spp., Scorpiones (3 families, 8 spp., Opiliones (2 families, 3 spp., Solifugae (1 family, 2 spp. and Amblypygi (a single species. The most diverse families all belonged to the Araneae: Salticidae (82 spp., Thomisidae (56 spp. and Araneidae (38 spp.. The spider diversity is the highest recorded from any protected area in South Africa so far, and represents approximately 22 % of the country’s spider fauna. The habitat and guild associations of each species are provided.

  10. New azonal syntaxa from the hills and river banks of the Manyeleti Game Reserve, Northern Transvaal Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Bredenkamp

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of a vegetation survey programme for nature conservation areas in South Africa, surveys of the plant communities of the rocky outcrops and river banks in the Manyeleti Game Reserve were undertaken. The Cardiospermo corindii-Acacietalia nigricentis are restricted to quartz and gabbro hills, mainly on shallow, soils, whereas the Spirostachyo africanae-Diospyretalia mespiliformis occur on the banks of small dry rivers. From a Braun-Blanquet analysis of the vegetation of the rocky outcrops and the riparian vegetation, two new orders, two new alliances and six new associations were identified and described. Additionally a quantitative assessment of the woody component of each association is presented. Ordinations based on floristic data revealed the position of the syntaxa on an environmental gradient.

  11. Ecology of the plant-dwelling spiders (Arachnida: Araneae of the Erfenis Dam Nature Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Fourie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As part of the South African National Survey of Arachnida in the Grassland Biome, foliage-dwelling and grass-dwelling spiders (Arachnida: Araneae were collected in the Erfenis Dam Nature Reserve in the central Free State Province from November 2005 to August 2007. Foliage-dwelling spiders were collected from three common tree or shrub species (Acacia karroo, Searsia ciliata and Searsia lancea and grass-dwellers from four contrasting grasslands (uniform Themeda triandra, mixed, weedy and woodland grasslands. From the grass layer, 1649 spiders were collected, representing 15 families and 82 species, whilst 496 tree-dwelling spiders were collected that represented 17 families and 52 species. There was some overlap in the fauna of the two strata, resulting in a total of 108 species from 18 families being collected. The Araneidae, Philodromidae, Salticidae and Thomisidae were consistently the most abundant in all grassland types and tree species, although Salticidae were scarce on A. karroo. Assemblage analysis indicates high similarity and overlap in the fauna of the four grassland types, suggesting that the structural complexity of grasslands has a limited effect on species composition. In contrast, the foliage-dwelling assemblages were more distinct, with only some overlap between the faunas of S. ciliata and A. karroo, suggesting a stronger vegetation structural effect in shaping arboreal spider assemblages. The isolation of trees and shrubs within the extensive grassy habitat may contribute to the more unique fauna and lower species richness of the woody vegetation. Conservation implications: This study uncovered a rich diversity of plant-dwelling spiders from central South Africa. Grassland faunas show considerable temporal variation and some variability in microhabitat preferences, and sampling protocols should take this into account when spiders are considered in management plans and biodiversity surveys in reserves and private land.

  12. Ecology of the plant-dwelling spiders (Arachnida: Araneae of the Erfenis Dam Nature Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Fourie

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of the South African National Survey of Arachnida in the Grassland Biome, foliage-dwelling and grass-dwelling spiders (Arachnida: Araneae were collected in the Erfenis Dam Nature Reserve in the central Free State Province from November 2005 to August 2007. Foliage-dwelling spiders were collected from three common tree or shrub species (Acacia karroo, Searsia ciliata and Searsia lancea and grass-dwellers from four contrasting grasslands (uniform Themeda triandra, mixed, weedy and woodland grasslands. From the grass layer, 1649 spiders were collected, representing 15 families and 82 species, whilst 496 tree-dwelling spiders were collected that represented 17 families and 52 species. There was some overlap in the fauna of the two strata, resulting in a total of 108 species from 18 families being collected. The Araneidae, Philodromidae, Salticidae and Thomisidae were consistently the most abundant in all grassland types and tree species, although Salticidae were scarce on A. karroo. Assemblage analysis indicates high similarity and overlap in the fauna of the four grassland types, suggesting that the structural complexity of grasslands has a limited effect on species composition. In contrast, the foliage-dwelling assemblages were more distinct, with only some overlap between the faunas of S. ciliata and A. karroo, suggesting a stronger vegetation structural effect in shaping arboreal spider assemblages. The isolation of trees and shrubs within the extensive grassy habitat may contribute to the more unique fauna and lower species richness of the woody vegetation. Conservation implications: This study uncovered a rich diversity of plant-dwelling spiders from central South Africa. Grassland faunas show considerable temporal variation and some variability in microhabitat preferences, and sampling protocols should take this into account when spiders are considered in management plans and biodiversity surveys in reserves and private land.

  13. The Economic Contribution of North Dakota Cooperatives to the North Dakota State Economy

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperatives are a vital component of the North Dakota economy. Owned by their customers or by privately-held firms, cooperatives provide a variety of goods and services to North Dakota. Based on data provided by the North Dakota Secretary of State, 332 businesses operating in North Dakota identified themselves as cooperatives in 2010; 256 are headquartered in the state. The economic contribution of the North Dakota cooperatives reaches beyond the local communities where they are headquartere...

  14. Jim Sanovia - South Dakota School of Mines and Technology Undergrad: Geological Engineering (Jr.) September 7, 2004 thesanoves@hotmail.com Abstract Experiences Interning at NASA/GSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanovia, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    In the summer of 2001 and 2004 I experienced internships at the NASA/ Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Through these internships I was introduced to Geographical Information Systems and Remote Sensing. My experiences at NASA have also helped me acquire the ability to learn how I can now best utilize my networking contacts at NASA and other connections to facilitate my future plans as an engineer working on Indian and non-Indian Reservation lands. My experiences working at a large agency such as NASA have shown me the significance how a Native American engineer can strive to improve and preserve Indian and non-Indian lands for future generations. Formulating new and inventive methodologies on how to better approach Indian Reservation research while incorporating Native American culture I feel are vital for success. My accomplishments throughout the recent past years have also allowed me conduct outreach to Indian K-12 kids and college students alike.

  15. North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the spring of 2015, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction brought together tribal Elders from across North Dakota to share stories, memories, songs, and wisdom in order to develop the North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings (NDNAEU) to guide the learning of both Native and non-Native students across the state. They…

  16. Impact of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor) on a local population of Euphorbia bothae in the Great Fish River Reserve, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luske, B.L.; Mertens, T.; Lent, P.C.; Boer, de W.F.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2009-01-01

    In the Great Fish River Reserve, South Africa, black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor) feed extensively on a local population of Euphorbia bothae. Maintaining the endangered black rhinoceros and the protected E. bothae population are both conservation priorities of the reserve. Therefore, the

  17. The North Dakota lignite partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    The State of North Dakota and the Lignite Energy Council have formed a government/industry partnership to promote the use of North Dakota lignite. The partnership provides funding and management for the Lignite Research, Development and Marketing Program. The program funds activities which preserve and enhance jobs and lignite production; ensure economic growth, stability and opportunity; and maintain a stable and competitive tax base. Funding is provided for activities in three areas: marketing feasibility studies, small research projects, and demonstration projects. Funding is derived from the state coal severance tax. Approximately $3,000,000 annually is appropriated from coal severance revenues for program activities. North Dakota is the ninth largest coal producing state, with lignite as the only rank of coal found in the state. Energy is the second largest economic sector in North Dakota, and it currently comprises over 12% of the state's total economic base. This paper reviews the North Dakota lignite industry and describes studies and projects which have received funding from the program

  18. Evaluation of blood reservation and use for caesarean sections in a tertiary maternity unit in south western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshodi Yussuf A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haemorrhage from obstetric causes is the most common cause of maternal mortality in the developing world. Prevention of mortality from haemorrhage will necessarily involve prompt blood transfusions among other life saving measures. There are however limited stocks of fresh or stored blood in many health care facilities in Sub Saharan Africa. Caesarean section has been identified as a common indication for blood transfusion in obstetrics practice and its performance is often delayed by non availability of blood in our centre. An evaluation of blood reservation and use at caesarean sections in a tertiary maternity unit in Lagos, south western Nigeria should therefore assist in formulating the most rational blood transfusion policies. Methods Case records of 327 patients who had elective and emergency caesarian sections at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital between 1st October and 31st December 2007 were reviewed. Data pertaining to age, parity, booking status, type and indication for Caesarean section, pre- and post-operative packed cell volume, blood loss at surgery, units of blood reserved in the blood bank, unit(s of blood transfused and duration of hospital stay was extracted and the data analysed. Results There were 1056 deliveries out of which 327 (31% were by Caesarean section. During the study period, a total of 654 units of blood were reserved in the blood bank and subsequently made available in theatre. Out of this number, only 89 (13.6% were transfused to 41 patients. Amongst those transfused, twenty-six (54% were booked and 31 (75.6% had primary caesarian section. About 81% of those transfused had emergency caesarean section. The most common indication for surgery among those transfused were placenta praevia (9 patients with 21 units of blood and cephalo-pelvic disproportion (8 patients with 13 units. Conclusion Even though a large number of units of blood was reserved and made available in the theatre at

  19. Thirty years of change in the fynbos vegetation of the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. J. Privett

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This study used permanently marked 50 m: sites, surveyed at a 30 year interval, to provide a descriptive account of the temporal change in the fynbos vegetation of the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve. South Africa. Management records were used to examine the role of post-fire age. fire frequency and intensity, as well as biotic interactions (competition from overstorey proteoids and alien plants in influencing vegetation composition over this time period. The mean similarity in species composition of sites between surveys was 62%, indicating an average of nearly 40% turnover in species over the 30 year period. The main causes of this change included differences resulting from different stages in the post-fire succession as well as the impact of differential fire regimes (especially frequency effects. Competition from serotinous Proteaceae. which proved highly mobile after fire, as well as invasive Australian acacias also impacted on the composition of the vegetation over time. The study demonstrated that fynbos communities are temporally dynamic and that the changes over time in species composition are caused by a variety of processes. The study also provided evidence for the role of temporal diversity in contributing to the high species diversity in fynbos systems.

  20. North Dakota's forest resources, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; R.A. Harsel

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  1. North Dakota's forest resources, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; R.A. Harsel

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  2. North Dakota's forest resources, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with Web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  3. North Dakota's forest resources, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; A.J. Lister

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  4. North Dakota's forest resources, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  5. 77 FR 9260 - Establishment of Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... under conservation protection. The area's strong and vibrant rural lifestyle, of which agriculture is the dominant land use, is one of the key components to ensuring habitat integrity and wildlife... conservation area are to protect 240,000 acres of wetland and 1.7 million acres of critical grassland habitat...

  6. A Black Hills-Madison Aquifer origin for Dakota Aquifer groundwater in northeastern Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotler, Randy; Harvey, F Edwin; Gosselin, David C

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies of the Dakota Aquifer in South Dakota attributed elevated groundwater sulfate concentrations to Madison Aquifer recharge in the Black Hills with subsequent chemical evolution prior to upward migration into the Dakota Aquifer. This study examines the plausibility of a Madison Aquifer origin for groundwater in northeastern Nebraska. Dakota Aquifer water samples were collected for major ion chemistry and isotopic analysis ((18)O, (2)H, (3)H, (14)C, (13)C, (34)S, (18)O-SO(4), (87)Sr, (37)Cl). Results show that groundwater beneath the eastern, unconfined portion of the study area is distinctly different from groundwater sampled beneath the western, confined portion. In the east, groundwater is calcium-bicarbonate type, with delta(18)O values (-9.6 per thousand to -12.4 per thousand) similar to local, modern precipitation (-7.4 per thousand to -10 per thousand), and tritium values reflecting modern recharge. In the west, groundwater is calcium-sulfate type, having depleted delta(18)O values (-16 per thousand to -18 per thousand) relative to local, modern precipitation, and (14)C ages 32,000 to more than 47,000 years before present. Sulfate, delta(18)O, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O-SO(4) concentrations are similar to those found in Madison Aquifer groundwater in South Dakota. Thus, it is proposed that Madison Aquifer source water is also present within the Dakota Aquifer beneath northeastern Nebraska. A simple Darcy equation estimate of groundwater velocities and travel times using reported physical parameters from the Madison and Dakota Aquifers suggests such a migration is plausible. However, discrepancies between (14)C and Darcy age estimates indicate that (14)C ages may not accurately reflect aquifer residence time, due to mixtures of varying aged water.

  7. NPDES Permit for Dakota Magic Casino Wastewater Treatment Facility in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit ND-0030813, the Dakota Nation Gaming Enterprise is authorized to discharge from the wastewater treatment facility in Richland County, North Dakota, to a roadside ditch flowing to an unnamed tributary to the Bois de Sioux.

  8. Level IV Ecoregions of South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  9. 2015 State Geodatabase for South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 TIGER Geodatabases are extracts of selected nation based and state based geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  10. 50 CFR 32.61 - South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... listed in alphabetical order with applicable refuge-specific regulations. Huron Wetland Management... bringing any type of live or dead vegetation onto the refuge for any purpose at any time. B. Upland Game.... Sport Fishing. We allow sport fishing on Waterfowl Production Areas throughout the District in...

  11. Level III Ecoregions of South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  12. Hydrodynamic simulations of physical aquatic habitat availability for Pallid Sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River, at Yankton, South Dakota, Kenslers Bend, Nebraska, Little Sioux, Iowa, and Miami, Missouri, 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Johnson, Harold E.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity of habitat availability in the Lower Missouri River to discharge variation, with emphasis on habitats that might support spawning of the endangered pallid sturgeon. We constructed computational hydrodynamic models for four reaches that were selected because of evidence that sturgeon have spawned in them. The reaches are located at Miami, Missouri (river mile 259.6–263.5), Little Sioux, Iowa (river mile 669.6–673.5), Kenslers Bend, Nebraska (river mile 743.9–748.1), and Yankton, South Dakota reach (river mile 804.8–808.4). The models were calibrated for a range of measured flow conditions, and run for a range of discharges that might be affected by flow modifications from Gavins Point Dam. Model performance was assessed by comparing modeled and measured water velocities.A selection of derived habitat units was assessed for sensitivity to hydraulic input parameters (drag coefficient and lateral eddy viscosity). Overall, model results were minimally sensitive to varying eddy viscosity; varying lateral eddy viscosity by 20 percent resulted in maximum change in habitat units of 5.4 percent. Shallow-water habitat units were most sensitive to variation in drag coefficient with 42 percent change in unit area resulting from 20 percent change in the parameter value; however, no habitat unit value changed more than 10 percent for a 10 percent variation in drag coefficient. Sensitivity analysis provides guidance for selecting habitat metrics that maximize information content while minimizing model uncertainties.To assess model sensitivities arising from topographic variation from sediment transport on an annual time scale, we constructed separate models from two complete independent surveys in 2006 and 2007. The net topographic change was minimal at each site; the ratio of net topographic change to water volume in the reaches at 95 percent exceedance flow was less than 5 percent, indicating that on a reach

  13. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Devils Lake quadrangle, North Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    During the months of June through October, 1980, Aero Service Division Western Geophysical Company of America conducted an airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey over eleven (11) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles located in the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin and seven (7) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles in North and South Dakota. This report discusses the results obtained over the Devil's Lake map area of North Dakota. The final data are presented in four different forms: on magnetic tape; on microfiche; in graphic form as profiles and histograms; and in map form as anomaly maps, flight path maps, and computer printer maps

  14. An exploratory study of the relation of population density and agricultural activity to hematologic malignancies in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Patricia L; Watkins, John M

    2013-02-01

    Established risk factors for hematologic cancers include exposure to ionizing radiation, organic solvents, and genetic mutation; however, the potential roles of environmental and sociological factors are not well explored. As North Dakota engages in significant agricultural activity, the present investigation seeks to determine whether an association exists between the incidence of hematologic cancers and either population density or agricultural occupation for residents of south central North Dakota. The present study is a retrospective analysis. Cases of hematologic malignancies and associated pre-malignant conditions were collected from the regional Central North Dakota Cancer Registry, and analysis of study-specific demographic factors was performed. Significantly higher incidence of hematologic cancers and pre-malignant disorders was associated with residence in an "urban" county and rural city/town. Within the latter designation, there was a higher rate of self-reported agricultural occupation (40% vs 10%, P Dakota supports the need for more detailed prospective research centered on agricultural exposures.

  15. Estimating North Dakota's Economic Base

    OpenAIRE

    Coon, Randal C.; Leistritz, F. Larry

    2009-01-01

    North Dakota’s economic base is comprised of those activities producing a product paid for by nonresidents, or products exported from the state. North Dakota’s economic base activities include agriculture, mining, manufacturing, tourism, and federal government payments for construction and to individuals. Development of the North Dakota economic base data is important because it provides the information to quantify the state’s economic growth, and it creates the final demand sectors for the N...

  16. 40 CFR 81.423 - North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Dakota. 81.423 Section 81.423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.423 North Dakota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  17. 40 CFR 81.335 - North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Dakota. 81.335 Section 81.335... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.335 North Dakota. North Dakota—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards...

  18. History and Acculturation of the Dakota Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlee, James L.; Malan, Vernon D.

    Relating the history of the Dakota Indians from their origins to the present time, this document also examines the effects of acculturation on these Sioux people. Beginning with the Paleo-Indians of North America, it details the structure of the Dakota culture and attempts to acculturate the Indians into white society. Historical and current…

  19. Range Analysis and Terrain Preference of Adult Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum in a South African Private Game Reserve: Insights into Carrying Capacity and Future Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Thompson

    Full Text Available The Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum is a threatened species, central to the tourism appeal of private game reserves in South Africa. Privately owned reserves in South Africa tend to be smaller than government run reserves such as Kruger National Park. Because of their relatively small size and the often heterogeneous nature of the landscape private game reserve managers benefit from detailed knowledge of white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences, which can be assessed from their ranging behaviours. We collected adult and sub-adult white rhinoceros distribution data over a 15 month period, calculating individual range size using kernel density estimation analysis within a GIS. From this, terrain selectivity was calculated using 50% and 95% kernels to extract terrain composition values. Jacob's correction of the Ivlev's selectivity index was subsequently applied to the terrain composition of each individual to identify trends in selectivity. Results reveal that adult males hold exclusive territories considerably smaller than those found in previous work conducted in "open" or large reserves. Similarly, results for the size of male versus female territories were also not in keeping with those from previous field studies, with males, rather than females, having the larger territory requirement. Terrain selection for both genders and age classes (adult and sub-adult showed a strong preference for open grassland and avoidance of hill slope and riparian terrains. This research reveals white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences and how they influence range requirements in small, closed reserves. We conclude that this knowledge will be valuable in future white rhinoceros conservation management in small private game reserves, particularly in decisions surrounding removal of surplus individuals or augmentation of existing populations, calculation of reserve carrying capacity and future private reserve acquisition.

  20. North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve’s (NERR) Estuarine Surface Water Nutrient, Suspended Sediment, and Chlorophyll a Data for the North Inlet and Winyah Bay Estuaries, Georgetown, South Carolina: 2002-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — National Estuarine Research Reserve System The National Estuarine Research Reserve System was established by the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (as amended) and...

  1. North Dakota Energy Workforce Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Drake [Bismarck State College, Bismarck, ND (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Bismarck State College, along with its partners (Williston State College, Minot State University and Dickinson State University), received funding to help address the labor and social impacts of rapid oilfield development in the Williston Basin of western North Dakota. Funding was used to develop and support both credit and non-credit workforce training as well as four major symposia designed to inform and educate the public; enhance communication and sense of partnership among citizens, local community leaders and industry; and identify and plan to ameliorate negative impacts of oil field development.

  2. Studies on Factors affecting the Evolution of Agroecosystems in the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Gaurav

    This dissertation combines remote sensing and applied economics tools to study land use conversions in North Dakota and South Dakota that are tied to this region's overall socio-economic welfare. Specifically, the region's corn and soybeans cultivation expanded significantly over the past decade replacing the region's grasslands and grain crops. In paper I, we estimate the localized impacts of the advent of corn-based ethanol plants on the Dakotas' corn acreage. We implement a Difference-in-Difference framework through more flexible assumptions as the Parallel Paths assumption of the standard model fails to hold. We find strong trends in the Dakotas' corn acreage over the past decade, but surprisingly some ethanol plants were found to have a negative impact on local corn acreage. In paper II, we evaluate crop competitiveness due to heterogeneous weather impacts on crop yields, and then test whether annual weather fluctuations explain land allocations among the Dakotas' major land uses. Our integrated framework suggests that annual weather variability is an important determinant of regional land use decisions. Under the A1B emissions scenario of climate change, we find that the yields of all of the Dakotas' major crops will decline by 2031-2060 relative to 1981-2010, leading to lower (higher) spring wheat (alfalfa) acres in Eastern (Western) Dakotas. In paper III, we develop and implement a satellite image-processing algorithm to estimate historical land use acres using raw Landsat sensor data, thereby extending the existing Cropland Data Layers back to 1984 in eastern Dakotas. We demonstrate that the availability of a longer time-series is useful as the rate of land use change may differ among different time-spans. In paper IV, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of grassland conservation easements when spatial spillovers are present among private landowners. We first develop a conceptual model to incorporate social spillovers in evaluating the role of easements in

  3. Integration of Dakota into the NEAMS Workbench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lefebvre, Robert A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langley, Brandon R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thompson, Adam B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report summarizes a NEAMS (Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation) project focused on integrating Dakota into the NEAMS Workbench. The NEAMS Workbench, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is a new software framework that provides a graphical user interface, input file creation, parsing, validation, job execution, workflow management, and output processing for a variety of nuclear codes. Dakota is a tool developed at Sandia National Laboratories that provides a suite of uncertainty quantification and optimization algorithms. Providing Dakota within the NEAMS Workbench allows users of nuclear simulation codes to perform uncertainty and optimization studies on their nuclear codes from within a common, integrated environment. Details of the integration and parsing are provided, along with an example of Dakota running a sampling study on the fuels performance code, BISON, from within the NEAMS Workbench.

  4. Structure of a bat assemblage (Mammalia, Chiroptera in Serra do Caraça Reserve, South-east Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falcão Fábio de C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Serra do Caraça Reserve is situated in the southern portion of the Espinhaço Mountain Range, and contains areas of "campos de altitude", "cerrado" and atlantic forest. This study had as its objective the registering of the bats species that occur in the reserve. The data collection was carried out in one year through monthly samplings, using mist nets set on trails, and also through hand capture. A total of 246 individuals were collected (0.72 bats/net-hour, distributed across 15 species, belonging to the families Phyllostomidae (83.0%; nine species, Vespertilionidae (12.5%; three species and Molossidae (4.5%; three species. The most abundant species were Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (n = 121, 60.5%, Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 (n = 21, 10.5% and Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (n = 10, 5.0%, and less represented were Lasiurus blossevilli (Lesson y Garnot, 1826 (n = 2, 1.0%, Eumops perotis (Schinz, 1821 (n = 2, 1.0% e Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843 (n = 1, 0.5%. The richness of species found and the non-occurrence of phyllostomines in the reserve could be indicative of some level of forest disturbance.

  5. Sequence Stratigraphy of the Dakota Sandstone, Eastern San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and its Relationship to Reservoir Compartmentalization; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varney, Peter J.

    2002-01-01

    This research established the Dakota-outcrop sequence stratigraphy in part of the eastern San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and relates reservoir quality lithologies in depositional sequences to structure and reservoir compartmentalization in the South Lindrith Field area. The result was a predictive tool that will help guide further exploration and development

  6. Sequence Stratigraphy of the Dakota Sandstone, Eastern San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and its Relationship to Reservoir Compartmentalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varney, Peter J.

    2002-04-23

    This research established the Dakota-outcrop sequence stratigraphy in part of the eastern San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and relates reservoir quality lithologies in depositional sequences to structure and reservoir compartmentalization in the South Lindrith Field area. The result was a predictive tool that will help guide further exploration and development.

  7. The Themedo triandrae - Setarietum incrassatae, a new association from gabbro in the Manyeleti Game Reserve, Gazankulu, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Bredenkamp

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies identified a unique plant community on gabbro in the Manyeleti Game Reserve, but it was not formally described. From a Braun-Blanquet analysis of this vegetation, six syntaxa were recognised. These were classified as one association, two subassociations, five variants and one community without syntaxonomic rank. All these syntaxa are newly decribed, and ecologically interpreted by means of habitat data. A quantitive assessment of the woody component of each syntaxon is presented. Ordinations, based on floristic and habitat data, revealed the position of the syntaxa on environmental gradients.

  8. Valley-Fill Sandstones in the Koontenai Formation on the Crow Indian Reservation, South-Central Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, David A.

    1999-10-28

    Subsurface data continues to be collected, organized, and a digital database is being prepared for the project. An ACCESS database and PC-Arcview is being used to manage and interpret the data. Well data and base map data have been successfully imported into Arcview and customized to meet the needs of this project. Log tops and other data from most of the exploration wells in the area have been incorporated into the data base; only a few wells outside the reservation remain to be incorporated.

  9. Valley-Fill Standstones in the Kootenai Formation on the Crow Indian Reservation, South-Central Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Lopez

    1998-01-07

    Subsurface data is being collected, organized, and a digital database is being prepared. An ACCESS database and PC-Arcview if being used to manage and interpret the data. Well data and base map have been successfully imported to Arcview and customized. All of the four 30 feet by 60 feet geologic surface geologic quadrangles have been scanned to produce a digital surface data base for the Crow Reservation. Field investigations inventoried for the presence of valley-fill deposits. These appear to represent at least a four major westward-trending valley systems.

  10. Concentrations and human health implications of heavy metals in wild aquatic organisms captured from the core area of Daya Bay's Fishery Resource Reserve, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Huang, Hong-Hui; Lin, Qin

    2016-07-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in edible organisms from the core area of Daya Bay's Fishery Resource Reserve, South China Sea, were determined. Samples of 14 crustacean, fish, and shellfish species were collected and analyzed. The As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations were 0.18-1.16, 0.002-0.919, 0.40-2.85, 0.07-4.10, 0.004-0.055, 0.14-1.19, 0.014-0.070, and 4.57-15.94μg/g wet weight, respectively. The As concentrations were higher than the Chinese maximum permissible levels in all of the fish and shellfish species and two crustacean species, indicating that consumption of these wild species by humans may pose health risks. However, calculations of the health risks posed to humans indicated that no significant adverse health effects would be associated with consuming these species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Economic Impact of Higher Education in North Dakota. North Dakota Economic Studies, No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobesh, Larry J.; Henry, Mark S.

    Besides their primary mission of providing education to the students of North Dakota, the 11 colleges and universities in the state represent an important "industry" which generates substantial income to the businesses and people of the state. Total college-related spending in North Dakota was $76 million during the 1973-1974 school…

  12. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  13. The Impact of Hydrodynamics in Erosion - Deposition Process in Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve, South Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo-Luong, H. P.

    2014-12-01

    Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve is always considered as a friendly green belt to protect and bring up the habitants. However, recently some mangrove areas in the Dong Tranh estuary are being eroded seriously. Based on the field measurements in SW and NE monsoons as well as data of topography changes in 10 years, it is proved that hydrodynamics of waves, tidal currents and riverine currents are the main reasons for erosion-deposition processes at the studied site. The erosion-deposition process changes due to monsoon. The analysed results show that high waves and tidal oscillation cause the increase of the erosion rate in NE monsoon. However, high sediment deposition occurs in SW monsoon due to weak waves and more alluvium from upstream. Many young mangrove trees grow up and develop in the SW monsoon. From the research, it is strongly emphasized the role of mangrove forests in soil retention and energy dissipation.

  14. VALLEY-FILL SANDSTONE IN THE KOOTENAI FORMATION ON THE CROW INDIAN RESERVATION, SOUTH-CENTRAL MONTANA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Lopez

    1999-04-12

    The subsurface database has been completed for the project. An ACCESS database converted to PC-Arcview is being used to manage and interpret the data. Well data and base map data have been successfully imported into Arcview and customized to meet the needs of this project. Log tops and other data from all of the exploration wells in the area have been incorporated into the data base, except for some wells that have no available logs or other information. All of the four 30 x 60 feet geologic quadrangles have been scanned to produce a digital surface geologic data base for the Crow Reservation and all are nearing completion. Formal technical review prior to publication has been completed for all the quandrangles; Billings, Bridger; Hardin, and Lodge Grass. All four quadrangles are in the Bureau's Publications Department being prepared for submittal to a printer. Field investigations were completed during the third quarter, 1997. With the help of a student field assistant from the Crow Tribe, the entire project area was inventoried for the presence of valley-fill deposits in the Kootenai Formation. Field inventory has resulted in the identification of nine exposures of thick valley-fill deposits. These appear to represent at least four major westward-trending valley systems. All the channel localities have been measured and described in detail and paleocurrent data has been collected from all but one locality. In addition, two stratigraphic sections were measured in areas where channels are absent. One channel has been traced over a distance of about 60 miles and exhibits definite paleostructural control. An abstract describing this channel was submitted and the paper was presented at the Williston Basin Symposium in October, 1998. A follow on proposal to conduct a soil gas geochemical survey of the reservation was approved and the contract was received in late August. The sampling will be conducted next summer and will involve Crow students.

  15. Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report for 2008-09 was prepared by Kimberly Vachal and Laurel Benson, : Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the North Dakota : Grain Dealers Asso...

  16. Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report, 2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report for 2009-10 was prepared by Kimberly Vachal and Laurel Benson, : Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the North Dakota : Wheat Commission a...

  17. Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report for 2007-08 was prepared by Kimberly Vachal and Laurel Benson, : Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the North Dakota : Grain Dealers Asso...

  18. Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report, 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report for 2010-11 was prepared by Kimberly Vachal and Laurel Benson, Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the North Dakota Wheat Commission and t...

  19. Biological and chemical evaluation of sewage water pollution in the Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberholster, P.J.; Botha, A.-M.; Cloete, T.E.

    2008-01-01

    Macroinvertebrate communities in Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area and their relationship with water quality were studied with the aim to evaluate their use as potential indicators of pollution. Sampling locations were selected to include outlets from swage effluent, agricultural and informal residential runoff. A large increase in nutrient concentrations was observed downstream from discharged treated sewage with an associated decrease in species richness. Bioassays performed included: Daphnia magna, Hydra attenuate, Lactuca sativa, Allium cepa and Pyxicephalus adspersus. The highest percentage of lethality response to a screen (100% concentration) of sampled wetland water by test specimens were observed at the point source input of the Hartbeespoort treated sewage plant. Data generated from the AUSRIVAS method and multitrophic level bioassays revealed the deterioration of the wetland possibly due to factors such as increasing urbanization, industrialization, agriculture runoff and rapid human settlement in the Hennops River catchment area and its principal tributaries. - Bioassays confirmed the degradation of a freshwater wetland system due to effluent from a variety of sources

  20. Biological and chemical evaluation of sewage water pollution in the Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberholster, P.J. [CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)], E-mail: anna.oberholster@up.ac.za; Botha, A.-M. [Department of Genetics, University of Pretoria, Hillcrest, Pretoria ZA002 (South Africa); Cloete, T.E. [Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, Hillcrest, Pretoria ZA002 (South Africa)

    2008-11-15

    Macroinvertebrate communities in Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area and their relationship with water quality were studied with the aim to evaluate their use as potential indicators of pollution. Sampling locations were selected to include outlets from swage effluent, agricultural and informal residential runoff. A large increase in nutrient concentrations was observed downstream from discharged treated sewage with an associated decrease in species richness. Bioassays performed included: Daphnia magna, Hydra attenuate, Lactuca sativa, Allium cepa and Pyxicephalus adspersus. The highest percentage of lethality response to a screen (100% concentration) of sampled wetland water by test specimens were observed at the point source input of the Hartbeespoort treated sewage plant. Data generated from the AUSRIVAS method and multitrophic level bioassays revealed the deterioration of the wetland possibly due to factors such as increasing urbanization, industrialization, agriculture runoff and rapid human settlement in the Hennops River catchment area and its principal tributaries. - Bioassays confirmed the degradation of a freshwater wetland system due to effluent from a variety of sources.

  1. Valley-Fill Sandstones in the Kootenai Formation on the Crow Indian Reservation, South-Central Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, David A

    1998-07-03

    Subsurface data continues to be collected, organized, and a digital database is being prepared for the project. An ACCESS database and PC-Arcview is being used to manage and interpret the data. Well data and base map data have been successfully imported into Arcview and customized to meet the needs of this project. Log tops and other data from about ¾ of the exploration wells in the area have been incorporated into the data base. All of the four 30" X 60" geologic quadrangles have been scanned to produce a digital surface geologic data base for the Crow Reservation and all are nearing completion. Formal technical review prior to publication has been completed for all the quadrangles; Billings, Bridger; Hardin, and Lodge Grass. Final GIS edits are being made before being forwarded to the Bureau's Publications Department. Field investigations were completed during the third quarter, 1997. With the help of a student field assistant from the Crow Tribe, the entire project area was inventoried for the presence of valley-fill deposits in the Kootenai Formation. Field inventory has resulted in the identification of nine exposures of thick valley-fill deposits. These appear to represent at least four major westward-trending valley systems. All the channel localities have been measured and described in detail and paleocurrent data has been collected from all but one locality. In addition, two stratigraphic sections were measured in areas where channels are absent. One channel has bee traced over a distance of about 60 miles and exhibits definite paleostructural control. An abstract describing this channel has been submitted and accepted for presentation at the Williston Basin Symposium in October, 1998.

  2. Valey-Fill Sandstones in the Kootenai Formation on the Crow Indian Reservation, South-Central Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, David A

    1998-04-07

    Subsurface data is being collected, organized, and a digital database is being prepared for the project. An ACCESS database and PC-Arcview is being used to manage and interpret the data. Well data and base map data have been successfully imported into Arcview and customized to meet the needs of this project. Log tops and other data from about ½ of the exploration wells in the area have been incorporated into the data base. All of the four 30" X 60" geologic quadrangles have been scanned to produce a digital surface geologic data base for the Crow Reservation and all are nearing completion. Formal technical review prior to publication has been completed for the Billings and Bridger Quadrangles; and are underway for the Hardin and Lodge Grass Quadrangles. Field investigations were completed during the last quarter. With the help of a student field assistant from the Crow Tribe, the entire project area was inventoried for the presence of valley-fill deposits in the Kootenai Formation. Field inventory has resulted in the identification of nine exposures of thick valley-fill deposits. These appear to represent at least four major westward-trending valley systems. All the channel localities have been measured and described in detail and paleocurrent data has been collected from all but one locality. In addition, two stratigraphic sections were measured in areas where channels are absent. One channel has bee traced over a distance of about 60 miles and exhibits definite paleostructural control. An abstract describing this channel has been submitted and accepted for presentation at the Williston Basin Symposium in October, 1998.

  3. The North Dakota Beef Industry Survey: Implications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Carl R.; Hadrich, Joleen C.; Lardy, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    A portion of the North Dakota Beef Industry Survey was developed to determine how educational programs can evolve to meet future needs of North Dakota beef producers. Of the 2,500 surveys mailed out to beef producers, 527 responses were completed and returned. Results highlight the level of education of North Dakota beef producers, anticipated use…

  4. 76 FR 44029 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    .... FEMA-1986-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-1986-DR), dated May 20, 2011, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of North Dakota resulting from a severe winter storm...

  5. 76 FR 34089 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    .... FEMA-1981-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-1981-DR), dated May 10, 2011...''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of North Dakota resulting...

  6. 78 FR 67381 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    .... FEMA-4154-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-4154-DR), dated October 31, 2013, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of North Dakota...

  7. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota... Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal reclamation project, located in North Dakota. A... CONTACT: Alicia Waters, Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area...

  8. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota... Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal reclamation project, located in North Dakota. A... CONTACT: Alicia Waters, Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area...

  9. Oceans of Discourses:Utilizing Q methodology or analyzing perceptions on marine biodiversity conservation in the Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve,South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Hagan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to empirically investigate perceptions regarding marine biodiversity conservation among different stakeholders of the Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve, South Africa. The study’s data was collected by following Q methodology in combination with semi-structured interviews and participant observation. Q methodology combines elements from quantitative and qualitative research traditions, providing researchers with a systematic and rigorous means to study human subjectivities. Primary data were gathered from stakeholders who either live, work, or have performed research in the Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve. A combination of interpretative discourse analysis and Q factor analysis was employed to identify perceptions. The results reveal that there are two operating discourses with clear stakeholder divisions. The science discourse is characterized by its scientific management-based ecological approach. On the other hand, the livelihoods discourse is primarily concerned about the social implications brought about by Kogelberg as a biosphere reserve. The paper goes on to argue that the meaning people attach to the concept of ‘marine biodiversity conservation’ is relational as it is based on their lived experience. It further highlights the importance of performing context-specific social research of protected areas, as it is difficult for conservation projects to meet both ecological and social needs without understanding the viewpoints of engaged stakeholders and local communities.

  10. Perceived sustainability of community telepharmacy in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David M; Friesner, Daniel L; Undem, Teri; Anderson, Gabrielle; Sem, Kelli; Peterson, Charles D

    To assess the sustainability of the business model underlying the North Dakota Telepharmacy Project (NDTP). Of the 38 community pharmacy organizations (14 central, 24 remote), 27 organizations (11 central and 16 remote sites) in North Dakota provided a useable set of responses (71.1% response rate). A twelfth organization (a community pharmacy) ceased operations over the study's time frame and was not included in the data analysis. Emphasis is placed on NDTP community telepharmacies, because the community telepharmacy business model is more established than hospital telepharmacies. Yet little is known about the long-run financial viability of telepharmacies. Originally funded by a series of federal grants, the goal of the NDTP was to create the infrastructure necessary to support the development of telepharmacy sites. A 48-item questionnaire assessed the self-reported operational, financial, and community impacts of a community telepharmacy. The questionnaire was administered from December 2015 to February 2016 to all NDTP community telepharmacy owners-managers. Thus, 1 participant (owner-manager) addressed both central and remote-site locations served by a pharmacy. Most respondents reported that their telepharmacy sites (especially remote sites) generate small positive financial returns for the organization. Respondents also reported that the closure of their remote sites would significantly harm the communities they serve. NDTP aims of restoration and retention have been achieved via the investment and shared decision making with pharmacy owners in North Dakota. The telepharmacy model is sustainable, even if it does not generate significant economic profit. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. South Dakotans on the Move: Characteristics of People Leaving and Entering the State, 1970 to 1980. Update Series C229, No. 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goreham, Gary A.; And Others

    Based primarily on 1980 census data, the bulletin presents five sets of tables which describe changes in population which have occurred in South Dakota as a result of migration into and out of the state. Table 1 provides state of origin/destination, rank, number, and percentage data on migration into and out of South Dakota from 1975-80. Figures…

  12. Valuing ecosystem and economic services across land-use scenarios in the Prairie Pothole Regions of the Dakotas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, William R.; Hoag, Dana; Koontz, Lynne; Tangen, Brian A.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Gleason, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses biophysical values derived for the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North and South Dakota, in conjunction with value transfer methods, to assess environmental and economic tradeoffs under different policy-relevant land-use scenarios over a 20-year period. The ecosystem service valuation is carried out by comparing the biophysical and economic values of three focal services (i.e. carbon sequestration, reduction in sedimentation, and waterfowl production) across three focal land uses in the region [i.e. native prairie grasslands, lands enrolled in the Conservation Reserve and Wetlands Reserve Programs (CRP/WRP), and cropland]. This study finds that CRP/WRP lands cannot mitigate (hectare for hectare) the loss of native prairie from a social welfare standpoint. Land use scenarios where native prairie loss was minimized, and CRP/WRP lands were increased, provided the most societal benefit. The scenario modeling projected native prairie conversion to cropland over the next 20 years would result in a social welfare loss valued at over $4 billion when considering the study's three ecosystem services, and a net loss of about $3.4 billion when reductions in commodity production are accounted for.

  13. Dakota and Ojibwe People in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Frances

    1977-01-01

    A biographical sketch of Frances Densmore, ethnologist of Native American music, and seven articles describing the lives of the Dakota and Ojibwe people as Densmore saw them are presented. The biographical sketch recounts Ms. Densmore's study of Ojibwe music and her ability to copy songs from memory when listening to them at fairs or attending…

  14. BRIDGES for Young Adolescents in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary McDonnell

    The BRIDGES Project was initiated to explore ways for North Dakota to provide young people with stronger bridges from childhood to adulthood. This report summarizes recommendations of the 1990-91 Governor's Task Force on Early Adolescence. The recommendations concern practical actions for the building of bridges by the following groups: (1)…

  15. Factors influencing woodlands of southwestern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1987-01-01

    Literature pertaining to woodlands of southwestern North Dakota is reviewed. Woodland species composition and distribution, and factors influencing woodland ecosystems such as climate, logging, fire, and grazing are described. Potential management and improvement techniques using vegetation and livestock manipulation have been suggested.

  16. 75 FR 6330 - North Dakota Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... be consistent with the corresponding Federal regulations and to improve operational efficiency. This document gives the times and locations that the North Dakota program and proposed amendment to that program..., contact the person listed under FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT. We will arrange the location and time of...

  17. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by North Dakota single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  18. 78 FR 6062 - North Dakota Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... System (AVS) prior to the approval of permits, renewals and certain revisions. The proposed rule also contains procedures for coal operators to use if they want to submit challenges to information in the AVS... counterpart federal rules regarding the AVS and ownership and control. Additionally, North Dakota is...

  19. 78 FR 35781 - North Dakota Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ...) Section 69-5.2. The changes regard the use of OSM's Applicant Violator System (AVS) prior to the approval... operators to use if they want to submit challenges to information in the AVS. These changes are being... the AVS and ownership and control. Additionally, North Dakota is submitting a proposed rule change...

  20. Accumulation of Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in terrestrial passerines from a nature reserve in South China: The influences of biological and chemical variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Jiang-Ping, E-mail: jpwu@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tao, Lin [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Mo, Ling [Hainan Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Haikou 571126 (China); Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Tang, Bin [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Although a number of studies have addressed the bioaccumulation of Dechlorane Plus (DP) flame retardant in wildlife, few data are available on terrestrial organisms. This study examined the presence of DP isomers in the muscle tissue of seven terrestrial resident passerine species, i.e., the great tit (Parus major), the oriental magpie-robin (Copsychus saularis), the red-whiskered bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus), the light-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis), the streak-breasted scimitar babbler (Pomatorhinus ruficollis), the long-tailed shrike (Lanius schach), and the orange-headed thrush (Zoothera citrina), from a national nature reserve located in South China. The ∑DP (sum of syn-DP and anti-DP) concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 104 ng/g lipid weight, with significantly higher levels in insectivorous birds than in omnivorous birds. The overall exposure to DP isomers of the current passerines may be attributed to the intensive release of this pollutant from electronic waste recycling sites and industrial zones in the vicinity of the nature reserve. Species-specific DP isomeric profiles were also found, with significantly greater f{sub anti} values (the isomer fractions of anti-DP) in the red-whiskered bulbul and the oriental magpie-robin. Additionally, the f{sub anti} values were significantly negatively correlated to ∑DP concentrations for the individual bird samples, suggesting the influence of DP concentrations on the isomeric profiles. - Highlights: • We investigated the occurrence of DP in seven species of terrestrial passerines. • Insectivorous birds accumulated higher ∑DP concentrations than omnivorous birds. • Inter-species differences in the f{sub anti} values were observed. • The f{sub anti} values were significantly correlated to DP concentrations.

  1. Accumulation of Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in terrestrial passerines from a nature reserve in South China: The influences of biological and chemical variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Ying; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Tao, Lin; Mo, Ling; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Tang, Bin; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Although a number of studies have addressed the bioaccumulation of Dechlorane Plus (DP) flame retardant in wildlife, few data are available on terrestrial organisms. This study examined the presence of DP isomers in the muscle tissue of seven terrestrial resident passerine species, i.e., the great tit (Parus major), the oriental magpie-robin (Copsychus saularis), the red-whiskered bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus), the light-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis), the streak-breasted scimitar babbler (Pomatorhinus ruficollis), the long-tailed shrike (Lanius schach), and the orange-headed thrush (Zoothera citrina), from a national nature reserve located in South China. The ∑DP (sum of syn-DP and anti-DP) concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 104 ng/g lipid weight, with significantly higher levels in insectivorous birds than in omnivorous birds. The overall exposure to DP isomers of the current passerines may be attributed to the intensive release of this pollutant from electronic waste recycling sites and industrial zones in the vicinity of the nature reserve. Species-specific DP isomeric profiles were also found, with significantly greater f anti values (the isomer fractions of anti-DP) in the red-whiskered bulbul and the oriental magpie-robin. Additionally, the f anti values were significantly negatively correlated to ∑DP concentrations for the individual bird samples, suggesting the influence of DP concentrations on the isomeric profiles. - Highlights: • We investigated the occurrence of DP in seven species of terrestrial passerines. • Insectivorous birds accumulated higher ∑DP concentrations than omnivorous birds. • Inter-species differences in the f anti values were observed. • The f anti values were significantly correlated to DP concentrations

  2. Coefficients of conservatism for the vascular flora of the Dakotas and adjacent grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2001-01-01

    Floristic quality assessment can be used to identity natural areas, to facilitate comparisons among different sites, to provide long-term monitoring of natural area quality, and to evaluate habitat management and restoration efforts. To facilitate the use of floristic quality assessment in North Dakota, South Dakota (excluding the Black Hills), and adjacent grasslands, we developed a species list and assigned coefficients of conservatism (C values; range 0 to 10) to each plant species in the region's flora. The C values we assigned represented our collective knowledge of the patterns of occurrence of each plant species in the Dakotas and our confidence that a particular taxon is natural-area dependent. Because state boundaries usually do not follow ecological boundaries, the C values we assigned should be equally valid in nearby areas with the same vegetation types. Of the 1,584 taxa we recognized in this effort, 275 (17%) were determined to be nonnative to the region. We assigned C values of 4 or higher to 77% of our taxa, and the entire native flora had a mean C value (C) of 6.l. A floristic quality index (FQI) can be calculated to rank sites in order of their floristic quality. By applying the coefficients of conservatism supplied here and calculating C and FQI, an effective means of evaluating the quality of plant communities can be obtained. Additionally, by repeating plant surveys and calculations of C and FQI over time, temporal changes in floristic quality can be identified.

  3. Salt toxicosis in waterfowl in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windingstad, Ronald M.; Kartch, Fred X.; Stroud, Richard K.; Smith, Milton R.

    1987-01-01

    About 150 waterfowl died and another 250 became weak and lethargic from suspected salt poisoning after using White Lake, a highly saline lake in Mountrail County, North Dakota. Frigid temperatures made fresh water unavailable, forcing the birds to ingest the saline waters with resultant toxic effects. Sick birds recovered when removed from the salt water and released into fresh water marshes. Brain sodium levels were higher in dead geese submitted for necropsy than in controls.

  4. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, New Rockford Quadrangle, North Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    An airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey was conducted over eleven (11) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles located in the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin and seven (7) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles in North and South Dakota. The quadrangles located within the North and South Dakota survey area include Devil's Lake, New Rockford, Jamestown, Aberdeen, Huron, Mitchell, and Sioux Falls. This report discusses the results obtained over the New Rockford map area. Traverse lines were flown in an east-west direction at a line spacing of six (6) miles. Tie lines were flown north-south approximately twenty-four (24) miles apart. A total of 21,481 line miles of geophysical data were acquired, compiled, and interpreted during the survey, of which 1397 line miles are in this quadrangle. The purpose of this study is to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States

  5. National uranium resource evaluation: Lemmon quadrangle, South Dakota and North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewell, J.M.; Pickering, L.A.

    1982-06-01

    The Lemmon Quadrangle was evaluated to identify and delineate geologic environments favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits using criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Surface studies included investigation of uranium occurrences, general surface reconnaissance, and detailed rock sampling in selected areas. In addition, followup studies were conducted on carborne spectrometric, aerial radiometric, and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment surveys. Subsurface investigations included examination of geophysical well logs and ground-water geochemical data. These investigations indicate environments favorable for sandstone-type uranium deposits in the Upper Cretaceous strata and lignite-type deposits in the Paleocene strata. Environments unfavorable for uranium deposits include Tertiary sandstones and Jurassic and Cretaceous strata, exclusive of the Upper Cretaceous sandstones

  6. Assessing urban forest effects and values of the Great Plains: Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Robert E. III Hoehn; Daniel E. Crane; Allison R. Bodine

    2012-01-01

    This report details the evaluation of the urban tree resources of the north-central Great Plains region of the United States. Specifically this report provides a more comprehensive understanding of the species composition and structural and functional benefits of the urban forests in the states of Kansas (33.1 million urban trees), Nebraska (13.3 million urban trees),...

  7. Wildlife use and the role of taboos in the conservation of wildlife around the Nkwende Hills Forest Reserve; South-west Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Kadiri Serge; Aghomo, Fodjou Florence Mariam; Ntumwel, Bonito Chia

    2015-01-07

    Cameroon is known as Africa in miniature because of its multitude of ecosystems and associated biodiversity, cultures and traditions. The country also harbors very ancient human populations whose relationship with nature is very intimate and where animals play important roles for their livelihood. Located in the South-west region of Cameroon, the Nkwende Hills Forest Reserve (NHFR) represents an important wildlife conservation site because of its strategic position at the periphery of Korup National Park (KNP). The periphery of NHFR is inhabited by several ethnic groups amongst which are the Obang and Ngunnchang clans who share particular relationships with wildlife. The present paper studies these relationships and contributes to the growing trend of scientific ethnozoological studies across Africa. From August to December 2011, a questionnaire survey was addressed to 126 randomly chosen household respondents (HRs) in seven villages at the Northwest periphery of NHFR. In households, preference was given to parents, and to the eldest child in case the parents were absent. Questions related to the uses and local taboos on wildlife species were asked to HRs. Both communities have accumulated knowledge on the use of 51 wildlife species of which 50.9% represent mammals, 21.6% birds, 15.7% reptiles, 7.8% fish and 3.9% invertebrates. Four main use categories of wildlife by both communities were identified, namely (1) Food, medicine and sales values (41.2%), (2) Ethnomusical animals and parts used as trophy (29.2%), (3) Decoration and jewelry making values (21.9%) and (4) Magico-religious and multipurpose values (7.8%). Regarding local taboos, species specific taboos (generation totems and acquired totems), habitat taboos (sacred forests), method and segment taboos still persist but are rarely respected among the youth mainly because of the scarcity of wildlife (65.3% of HRs). Like other communities living around forest areas, the studied communities use wildlife in their

  8. 2009 Legislative Session Resource Guide. Investing in North Dakota's Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota University System, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The North Dakota University System (NDUS) is composed of two doctoral universities, two master's degree-granting universities, two universities that offer bachelor's degrees and five community colleges that offer associate and trade/technical degrees. Each institution is unique in its mission to serve the people of North Dakota. The "2009…

  9. The Dakota or Sioux. Gopher Historian Leaflet Series No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.

    The Dakota or Sioux people may well be the best known of all the nations which first lived in North America. Tribal members gave themselves the name Dakota, meaning friends. Their Minnesota neighbors called them by a long name meaning enemy. French traders in the 1600s took the last part of the name and wrote it down as Sioux. Since then, they…

  10. North Dakota's forests, 2005: statistics, methods, and quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Miles; David E. Haugen; Charles J. Barnett

    2011-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of North Dakota's forests was completed in 2005 after 7,622 plots were selected and 164 forested plots were visited and measured. This report includes detailed information on forest inventory methods and data quality estimates. Important resource statistics are included in the tables. A detailed analysis of the North Dakota...

  11. 1992 North Dakota Economic Impact Study for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project in North Dakota is to improve the environment and reduce the negative health effects associated with residual radioactive material (RRM) from the inactive processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota. A secondary benefit of the UMTRA Project is economic gain. The 1992 North Dakota Economic Impact Study (NDEIS) analyzes the impact of the remedial actions at the inactive Belfield and Bowman processing sites and their associated vicinity properties. This analysis is based on the assumption that the state of North Dakota will provide 10 percent of the funding required for remediation. For every dollar the state of North Dakota invests in the Belfield and Bowman onsite portion of the UMTRA Project, it will realize $5.04 in gross labor income (i.e., gross labor income divided by the state's total funding requirement). For every dollar the state of North Dakota invests, it will realize a net return of $3.04 (i.e., net benefit divided by the state's total funding requirement). This reflects only labor expenditure and employment impact. ff state and local non-labor tax benefits were considered in the net economic benefit, North Dakota could receive significantly more than $3.04 for each dollar it invests. The UMTRA Project work at Belfield and Bowman will benefit the state of North Dakota. Benefits include a reduction in the negative health effects caused by low-level RRM, an improvement in the environment, and increased economic growth

  12. Nitrogen dynamics in land cleared of alien vegetation (Acacia saligna) and impacts on groundwater at Riverlands Nature Reserve (Western Cape, South Africa)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jovanovic, Nebojsa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Woody invading alien plants, many of which are nitrogen-fixing legumes (Fabaceae family), are currently cleared in South African catchments to reduce water loss and preserve streamflow, and for the restoration of the ecosystem. This study tested...

  13. Dakota, Minnesota and Eastern Railroad: 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Paul R. Reed; Carol J. Cumber

    1998-01-01

    Approximately twenty-five years ago, a majority of the railroads in the industry were either in or near bankruptcy. As a partial cure, a series of federal and state legislation was enacted which freed the industry from archaic laws passed in the days railroads enjoyed a virtual monopoly in U.S. transportation. One of the outcomes of this new legislation was the freedom granted major railroads to abandon or sell off excess trackage to entrepreneurs. The Dakota Minnesota & Eastern (DM&E) is a r...

  14. Coyote foods in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. MacCracken; Daniel W. Uresk

    1984-01-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) are one of the most widely studied animals in North America. The primary reason that much effort has been directed toward understanding the coyote is its feeding patterns. Coyotes prey upon domestic animals (Murie 1951, Gipson 1974, MacCracken 1982) and game animals (Fichter et al. 1955, Beasom 1974, Salwasser 1974, MacCracken...

  15. REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION AT THE GILT EDGE MINE, SOUTH DAKOTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document reports the findings of the Mine Waste Technology Program's Activity III, Project 29,The Remediation Technology Evaluation Project at the Gilt Edge Mine, S.D. This project consisted of evaluating three emerging acidic waste rock stabilization technologies and compar...

  16. 2008 South Dakota motor vehicle traffic crash summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Summary is divided into two main sections, Historical : Trends and 2008 Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Profile. The Historical Trend section : provides information on alcohol involvement in motor vehicle crashes, severity...

  17. 2010 South Dakota motor vehicle traffic crash summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Summary is divided into two main sections, Historical Trends and 2010 Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Profile. The Historical Trend section provides information on alcohol involvement in motor vehicle crashes, severity of ...

  18. 2009 South Dakota motor vehicle traffic crash summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Summary is divided into two main sections, Historical : Trends and 2009 Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Profile. The Historical Trend section : provides information on alcohol involvement in motor vehicle crashes, severity...

  19. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  20. The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide: South Dakota Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Establishment Statistical Factor Banks 0.04 Barber Shops 0.20 Beauty Salons 0.20 Car Wash without Recycling Equipment 4.90 Department Store with Lunch...body of water such as a lake or river specifically designated or zoned for public swimming by the Department of Game , Fish, and Parks, a federal

  1. 78 FR 32415 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  2. 78 FR 45548 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance...; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to [[Page 45549

  3. 78 FR 51200 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''). Therefore, I..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing...

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: South Dakota Transportation Data for

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grants Ethanol and Methanol Tax Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Tax Biofuel Franchising Contract Regulations Natural Gas Transportation Fuel Consumption Source: State Energy Data System based on beta data converted

  5. The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide South Dakota Supplement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Rourke, Carolyn

    1998-01-01

    .... The U.S. Air Force. U.S. Army, Defense Logistics Agency (DLA), and Corps of Engineers (Civil Works) have adopted environmental compliance programs that identify compliance problems before they are cited as violations...

  6. 78 FR 48764 - South Dakota Disaster # SD-00061

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    .../2013. Economic Injury (EIDL) Loan Application Deadline Date: 05/02/2014. ADDRESSES: Submit completed... on 08/02/2013, private non- profit organizations that provide essential services of governmental...-Profit Organizations without Credit Available Elsewhere 2.875 For Economic Injury: Non-Profit...

  7. 78 FR 69739 - South Dakota Disaster # D-00063

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    .... Economic Injury (EIDL) Loan Application Deadline Date: 08/08/2014. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan.../2013, Private Non- Profit organizations that provide essential services of governmental nature may file...-Profit Organizations Without Credit Available 2.875 Elsewhere For Economic Injury: Non-Profit...

  8. Geological controls on soil parent material geochemistry along a northern Manitoba-North Dakota transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    As a pilot study for mapping the geochemistry of North American soils, samples were collected along two continental transects extending east–west from Virginia to California, and north–south from northern Manitoba to the US–Mexican border and subjected to geochemical and mineralogical analyses. For the northern Manitoba–North Dakota segment of the north–south transect, X-ray diffraction analysis and bivariate relations indicate that geochemical properties of soil parent materials may be interpreted in terms of minerals derived from Shield and clastic sedimentary bedrock, and carbonate sedimentary bedrock terranes. The elements Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and Ti occur primarily in silicate minerals decomposed by aqua regia, likely phyllosilicates, that preferentially concentrate in clay-sized fractions; Cr and Ti also occur in minerals decomposed only by stronger acid. Physical glacial processes affecting the distribution and concentration of carbonate minerals are significant controls on the variation of trace metal background concentrations.

  9. Geological controls on soil parent material geochemistry along a northern Manitoba-North Dakota transect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    As a pilot study for mapping the geochemistry of North American soils, samples were collected along two continental transects extending east-west from Virginia to California, and north-south from northern Manitoba to the US-Mexican border and subjected to geochemical and mineralogical analyses. For the northern Manitoba-North Dakota segment of the north-south transect, X-ray diffraction analysis and bivariate relations indicate that geochemical properties of soil parent materials may be interpreted in terms of minerals derived from Shield and clastic sedimentary bedrock, and carbonate sedimentary bedrock terranes. The elements Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and Ti occur primarily in silicate minerals decomposed by aqua regia, likely phyllosilicates, that preferentially concentrate in clay-sized fractions; Cr and Ti also occur in minerals decomposed only by stronger acid. Physical glacial processes affecting the distribution and concentration of carbonate minerals are significant controls on the variation of trace metal background concentrations.

  10. North Dakota wheat transportation knowledge for market enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    North Dakota wheat producers are located long distances from major consumer and export markets. Understanding the competitive position of their products is important to focusing efforts for market development and transportation investments. Research ...

  11. Data Reports for Retrospective Case Study in Killdeer, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data from sampling events conducted in Killdeer, North Dakota as part of EPA's Study of the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas on Drinking Water Resources, retrospective case study

  12. Economic Impact of the North Dakota University System in 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Coon, Randal C.; Bangsund, Dean A.; Hodur, Nancy M.

    2012-01-01

    The North Dakota University System consists of the North Dakota University System Office and 11 college campuses located throughout the state. In addition to the 11 main campuses, numerous other university facilities, centers, and offices are located throughout the state. Institutions of higher education have an economic effect in their respective areas and across the state as those institutions acquire inputs, purchase services, and provide for payroll and employment at both the local and st...

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in North Dakota. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in North Dakota.

  14. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranich, S.; Berger, N.; Bierley, D.; Bond, T.M.; Burt, C.; Caldwell, J.A.; Dery, V.A.; Dutcher, A.; Glover, W.A.; Heydenburg, R.J.; Larson, N.B.; Lindsey, G.; Longley, J.M.; Millard, J.B.; Miller, M.; Peel, R.C.; Persson-Reeves, C.H.; Titus, F.B.; Wagner, L.

    1989-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), to clean up the Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, uraniferous lignite processing sites to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at these sites. Remedial action at these sites must be performed in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standards promulgated for the remedial action and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The inactive Belfield uraniferous lignite processing site is one mile southeast of Belfield, North Dakota. The inactive Bowman uraniferous lignite processing site at the former town of Griffin, is seven miles northwest of Bowman, North Dakota and 65 road miles south of Belfield. Lignite ash from the processing operations has contaminated the soils over the entire 10.7-acre designated Belfield site and the entire 12.1-acre designated Bowman site. Dispersion of the ash has contaminated an additional 20.6 acres surrounding the Belfield processing site and an additional 59.2 acres surrounding the Bowman processing site. The proposed remedial action is to relocate the contaminated materials at the Belfield processing site to the Bowman processing/disposal site for codisposal with the Bowman contaminated soils. The environmental impacts assessed in this EA were evaluated for the proposed remedial action and the no action alternative and demonstrate that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment and would be performed in compliance with applicable environmental laws. The no action alternative would not be consistent with the intent of Public Law 95-604 and would not comply with the EPA standards. 48 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Resource management and operations in central North Dakota: Climate change scenario planning workshop summary November 12-13, 2015, Bismarck, ND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Schuurman, Gregor; Symstad, Amy J.; Ray, Andrea; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Miller, Brian; Rowland, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The Scaling Climate Change Adaptation in the Northern Great Plains through Regional Climate Summaries and Local Qualitative-Quantitative Scenario Planning Workshops project synthesizes climate data into 3-5 distinct but plausible climate summaries for the northern Great Plains region; crafts quantitative summaries of these climate futures for two focal areas; and applies these local summaries by developing climate-resource-management scenarios through participatory workshops and, where possible, simulation models. The two focal areas are central North Dakota and southwest South Dakota (Figure 1). The primary objective of this project is to help resource managers and scientists in a focal area use scenario planning to make management and planning decisions based on assessments of critical future uncertainties.This report summarizes project work for public and tribal lands in the central North Dakota focal area, with an emphasis on Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site. The report explainsscenario planning as an adaptation tool in general, then describes how it was applied to the central North Dakota focal area in three phases. Priority resource management and climate uncertainties were identified in the orientation phase. Local climate summaries for relevant, divergent, and challenging climate scenarios were developed in the second phase. In the final phase, a two-day scenario planning workshop held November 12-13, 2015 in Bismarck, ND, featured scenario development and implications, testing management decisions, and methods for operationalizing scenario planning outcomes.

  16. Spatio-temporal separation between lions and leopards in the Kruger National Park and the Timbavati Private Nature Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakedi W. Maputla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the underlying processes that drive coexistence among apex predators is of great importance to landscape managers overseeing their persistence. Two pressing questions stand out. These questions relate to whether space use by subordinate carnivores is a function of resource distribution and shifts in resource availability or fine scale movement associations with sympatric top predators that dominate them. We hypothesized that leopard movements were primarily resource-driven and secondarily, competition driven. Using data from leopards and lions collared in the Kruger National Park (Kruger and the neighboring Timbavati Private Nature Reserve (Timbavati, we investigated the associations between leopard GPS fixes and resource distribution. We built landscapes of movement activities of lions to investigate the relationships with leopard movements. Results suggested that leopard movements were strongly resource-driven. Lion influence did not come out strongly on leopards collared in the Kruger. In the Timbavati however, lion movements appeared to strongly influence the male leopard movements. We concluded that resources were the main driver of leopard movement behavior and that differences in observed behaviors between Kruger and Timbavati were as a result of different management regimes practiced in the two reserves.

  17. Neuroprotective effect of seaweeds inhabiting South Indian coastal area (Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve): Cholinesterase inhibitory effect of Hypnea valentiae and Ulva reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganthy, N; Karutha Pandian, S; Pandima Devi, K

    2010-01-14

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, which is one of the four leading causes of death in developed nations. Until date the only symptomatic treatment for this disease is based on the "cholinergic hypothesis" where the drugs enhance acetylcholine levels in the brain by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In the course for screening cholinesterase inhibitors about eight seaweeds, with wide pharmaceutical applications, were collected from Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar, Marine Biosphere Reserve, Tamil Nadu, India. Inhibitory effect of methanol extract of the seaweeds was studied in vitro by incubating various concentration of the extract with AChE or butyryl cholinesterase (BuChE) and assessing their activities by Ellman's colorimetric method. Kinetic parameters like IC(50), K(i) and V(max) were also analyzed. The results showed that of the eight seaweeds screened Hypnea valentiae, Padina gymnospora, Ulva reticulata and Gracilaria edulis exhibited inhibitory activity to AChE with IC(50) value of 2.6, 3.5, 10 and 3mg/ml respectively, while H. valentiae, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Dictyota dichotoma and U. reticulata showed 50% inhibition to BuChE at concentration 3.9, 7, 6.5 and 10mg/ml respectively. The inhibitory activities of the seaweed extracts were comparable to the standard drug donepezil. Enzyme kinetic analysis showed that algal extracts exhibited mixed type inhibition (partial noncompetitive inhibition). Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Contributions to North American Ethnology, Volume VII: A Dakota-English dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Stephen Return; Dorsey, James Owen; Powell, John Wesley

    1890-01-01

    This volume consists of a Dakota-English dictionary. The Dakota, commonly known as the Sioux, forms the leading and best known division of the Siouan linguistic family. The Dakota language now consists of three well defined dialects, the Santee, Yankton and Teton.

  19. 78 FR 76176 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of.... The lands we surveyed are: Fifth Principal Meridian, North Dakota T. 152 N., R. 100 W. The plat, in... lottings, Township 152 North, Range 100 West, Fifth Principal Meridian, North Dakota, was accepted November...

  20. 78 FR 23952 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... determine Federal Leasable Mineral Lands. The lands we surveyed are: Fifth Principal Meridian, North Dakota... dividing Lot 1 of section 29, Township 148 North, Range 95 West, Fifth Principal Meridian, North Dakota...

  1. 75 FR 42125 - Notice of Public Meeting, Dakotas Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... Public Meeting, Dakotas Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior..., Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Dakotas Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below. DATES: The next regular meeting of the Dakotas Resource Advisory Council will be held on September 2...

  2. 76 FR 21779 - Notice of Public Meeting, Dakotas Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... Public Meeting, Dakotas Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior..., Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Dakotas Resource Advisory Council (RAC), will meet as indicated below. DATES: The next regular meeting of the Dakotas Resource Advisory Council will be held on May 11, 2011 in...

  3. 75 FR 15724 - Notice of Public Meeting, Dakotas Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... Public Meeting, Dakotas Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior..., Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Dakotas Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below. DATES: The next regular meeting of the Dakotas Resource Advisory Council will be held on May 6, 2010, in...

  4. 77 FR 22800 - Notice of Public Meeting, Dakotas Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Public Meeting, Dakotas Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior..., Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Dakotas Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below. DATES: The next regular meeting of the Dakotas RAC will be held on May 9, 2012, in Spearfish, SD. The...

  5. 76 FR 43705 - Notice of Public Meeting, Dakotas Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... Public Meeting, Dakotas Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Dakotas Resource Advisory Council (RAC), will meet as indicated below. DATES: The next regular meeting of the Dakotas Resource Advisory Council will be held on Aug. 17...

  6. Arboviruses in North Dakota, 2003–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John F.; Main, Andy J.; Armstrong, Philip M.; Andreadis, Theodore G.; Ferrandino, Francis J.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate arbovirus transmission in North Dakota, we collected and screened mosquitoes for viral infection by Vero cell culture assay. Seven viruses were isolated from 13 mosquito species. Spatial and temporal distributions of the important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV), Cache Valley virus, Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV), and trivittatus virus are reported. Snowshoe hare virus, Potosi virus, and western equine encephalomyelitis virus were also isolated. The risks of Culex tarsalis and Aedes vexans transmitting WNV to humans were 61.4% and 34.0% in 2003–2006, respectively, but in 2003 when the largest epidemic was reported, risks for Ae. vexans and Cx. tarsalis in Cass County were 73.6% and 23.9%, respectively. Risk of humans acquiring an infectious bite was greatest from about the second week of July through most of August. West Nile virus sequences were of the WN02 genotype. Most JCV strains belonged to a single clade of genetically related strains. Cache Valley virus and JCV were prevalent during August and early September and during July and August, respectively. PMID:25487728

  7. Foods of breeding pintails in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, G.L.

    1974-01-01

    Food habits of breeding pintails (Anas acuta) were studied relative to sex, land use, and reproductive condition during the spring and summer of 1969, 1970, and 1971 in eastern North Dakota. Hens and drakes, respectively, consumed 79.2 percent and 30.0 percent animal matter on nontilled wetlands and consumed 16.6 percent and 1.1 percent animal matter on tilled wetlands. Aquatic dipterans (primarily larval forms), snails, fairy shrimp, and earthworms accounted for 71 percent of the diet of hens on nontilled wetlands, while barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli) seeds formed 71 percent of the diet of hens on tilled wetlands. Cereal grain seeds formed 84 percent of the diet of 10 hens feeding on cropland. The diet of hens was influenced by reproductive status. Animal foods were predominant during the laying period (77.1 percent) but were less important in the postlaying diet (28.9 percent). Invertebrates formed 83.9 percent of the diet of renesting hens, 61.0 percent were dipteran larvae and snails. High consumption of animal foods during egg formation presumably is related to invertebrates being superior to plants in providing certain nutrients required for production of viable eggs. Research findings suggest that food requirements of prairie-nesting pintails can be met most effectively by providing pairs access to shallow, nontilled wetland habitat subject to periodic drawdowns.

  8. The Western progression of lyme disease: infectious and Nonclonal Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato populations in Grand Forks County, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Brandee L; Russart, Nathan M; Gaultney, Robert A; Floden, Angela M; Vaughan, Jefferson A; Brissette, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    Scant attention has been paid to Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ixodes scapularis, or reservoirs in eastern North Dakota despite the fact that it borders high-risk counties in Minnesota. Recent reports of B. burgdorferi and I. scapularis in North Dakota, however, prompted a more detailed examination. Spirochetes cultured from the hearts of five rodents trapped in Grand Forks County, ND, were identified as B. burgdorferi sensu lato through sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, the 16S rRNA gene-ileT intergenic spacer region, flaB, ospA, ospC, and p66. OspC typing revealed the presence of groups A, B, E, F, L, and I. Two rodents were concurrently carrying multiple OspC types. Multilocus sequence typing suggested the eastern North Dakota strains are most closely related to those found in neighboring regions of the upper Midwest and Canada. BALB/c mice were infected with B. burgdorferi isolate M3 (OspC group B) by needle inoculation or tick bite. Tibiotarsal joints and ear pinnae were culture positive, and B. burgdorferi M3 was detected by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the tibiotarsal joints, hearts, and ear pinnae of infected mice. Uninfected larval I. scapularis ticks were able to acquire B. burgdorferi M3 from infected mice; M3 was maintained in I. scapularis during the molt from larva to nymph; and further, M3 was transmitted from infected I. scapularis nymphs to naive mice, as evidenced by cultures and qPCR analyses. These results demonstrate that isolate M3 is capable of disseminated infection by both artificial and natural routes of infection. This study confirms the presence of unique (nonclonal) and infectious B. burgdorferi populations in eastern North Dakota. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. DAKOTA JAGUAR 3.0 user's manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Brian M.; Bauman, Lara E; Chan, Ethan; Lefantzi, Sophia; Ruthruff, Joseph.

    2013-05-01

    JAGUAR (JAva GUi for Applied Research) is a Java software tool providing an advanced text editor and graphical user interface (GUI) to manipulate DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) input specifications. This document focuses on the features necessary to use JAGUAR.

  10. Letter from North Dakota: Inviting the People to See

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Eve

    1974-01-01

    A descriptive account of the diverse experiences and reactions, both positive and negative, of a resource teacher for a Follow Through Program at an Indian elementary school in Fort Yates, North Dakota, and her attempts to promote teacher cooperation and engender local involvement in the school. (EH)

  11. Legal Liability of Children and Parents in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall K.

    Three legal issues are examined: (1) the responsibility of children for breached contracts and the commission of torts; (2) parental liability; and (3) relevant law in North Dakota and other states. The people most affected by the actions of children are parents, merchants, and victims of vandalism. People who enter into contracts with children…

  12. Accelerating the College and Career Readiness of North Dakota's Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper captures the progress made by North Dakota in adopting both the common core state standards, subsequent work in ensuring those standards are accompanied by college- and career-ready assessments, and the potential benefits of preparing all students for success in college and a career. (Contains 11 endnotes.)

  13. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of North Dakota. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  14. Electronic Timekeeping: North Dakota State University Improves Payroll Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Ronald J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    North Dakota State University has adopted automated timekeeping to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of payroll processing. The microcomputer-based system accurately records and computes employee time, tracks labor distribution, accommodates complex labor policies and company pay practices, provides automatic data processing and reporting,…

  15. DAKOTA JAGUAR 2.1 user's Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Brian M.; Lefantzi, Sophia; Chan, Ethan; Ruthruff, Joseph R.

    2011-06-01

    JAGUAR (JAva GUi for Applied Research) is a Java software tool providing an advanced text editor and graphical user interface (GUI) to manipulate DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) input specifications. This document focuses on the features necessary for a user to use JAGUAR.

  16. North Dakota Leadership Training Boosts Confidence and Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flage, Lynette; Hvidsten, Marie; Vettern, Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    Effective leadership is critical for communities as they work to maintain their vitality and sustainability for years to come. The purpose of the study reported here was to assess confidence levels and community engagement of community leadership program participants in North Dakota State University Extension programs. Through a survey…

  17. Upland hardwood habitat types in southwestern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1985-01-01

    The Daubenmire habitat type method was used to classify the upland hardwood draws of southwestern North Dakota. Preliminary data analysis indicates there are four upland habitat types: Fraxinus pennsylvanica/Prunus virginiana; F. pnnseanica-Ulmus americana/P. virginiana; Populus...

  18. Pressurized grout remote backfilling at AML sites near Beulah and Zap, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, E.J.; Dodd, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    The Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Division of the North Dakota Public Service Commission (PSC) is charged with the reclamation of hazardous abandoned mine sites in North Dakota. Several underground lignite coalmines were operated near the cities of Beulah and Zap, North Dakota, from the early 1900's until about 1955. Coal seams in this area were relatively thick and the overburden generally shallow. As these mines have deteriorated with time, deep collapse features, or sinkholes, have surfaced in many areas. These features are very dangerous, especially when they occur at or near residential and commercial areas and public roads. In the past five years, sinkholes have surfaced beneath a commercial building (boat dealership, lounge, and gas station) and beneath a nearby occupied mobile home north of Beulah. sinkholes have also surfaced near KHOL Radio Station in Beulah and in the right of way of a public road south of Zap. The AML Division has conducted several emergency sinkhole-filling projects in these areas. In 1995--97, the AML Division conducted exploratory drilling which confirmed the presence of collapsing underground mines at these sites. The remediation of these sites around Beulah/Zap will take place over several years and involve three or more separate contracts due to budget considerations. In 1997, the AML Division began reclamation at these sties utilizing pressurized grout remote backfilling. In this technique, a cementitious grout is pumped through cased drill holes directly into the mine cavities to fill them and thereby stabilize the surface from collapse. The successful contractor for Phase One of the project was The Concrete Doctor, Inc. (TCDI). This paper will concentrate on Phase One of this work performed from June through September 1997. This project is especially interesting because grout was pumped through holes drilled inside the occupied commercial building. Grout was also pumped through angled holes that intercepted mined workings directly

  19. Pressurized grout remote backfilling at AML sites near Beulah and Zap, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, E.J.; Dodd, W.E.

    1999-07-01

    The Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Division of the North Dakota Public Service Commission (PSC) is charged with the reclamation of hazardous abandoned mine sites in North Dakota. Several underground lignite coalmines were operated near the cities of Beulah and Zap, North Dakota, from the early 1900's until about 1955. Coal seams in this area were relatively thick and the overburden generally shallow. As these mines have deteriorated with time, deep collapse features, or sinkholes, have surfaced in many areas. These features are very dangerous, especially when they occur at or near residential and commercial areas and public roads. In the past five years, sinkholes have surfaced beneath a commercial building (boat dealership, lounge, and gas station) and beneath a nearby occupied mobile home north of Beulah. sinkholes have also surfaced near KHOL Radio Station in Beulah and in the right of way of a public road south of Zap. The AML Division has conducted several emergency sinkhole-filling projects in these areas. In 1995--97, the AML Division conducted exploratory drilling which confirmed the presence of collapsing underground mines at these sites. The remediation of these sites around Beulah/Zap will take place over several years and involve three or more separate contracts due to budget considerations. In 1997, the AML Division began reclamation at these sties utilizing pressurized grout remote backfilling. In this technique, a cementitious grout is pumped through cased drill holes directly into the mine cavities to fill them and thereby stabilize the surface from collapse. The successful contractor for Phase One of the project was The Concrete Doctor, Inc. (TCDI). This paper will concentrate on Phase One of this work performed from June through September 1997. This project is especially interesting because grout was pumped through holes drilled inside the occupied commercial building. Grout was also pumped through angled holes that intercepted mined workings

  20. Tobacco Control Policy Making in North Dakota: A Tradition of Activism

    OpenAIRE

    Welle, Jennifer R MPH; Ibrahim, Jennifer K. Ph.D.; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    2004-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY North Dakota has a long history of tobacco-related legislation dating back to the late 1800's, well before the formal organization of health advocates for tobacco control. Citizens of North Dakota recognized the negative health effects of tobacco smoke before most of the nation and made attempts to regulate the sale and use of tobacco products throughout the early 1900's. In 1913, the North Dakota legislature went as far as prohibiting the use of tobacco products in...

  1. Water-quality characteristics in runoff for three discovery farms in North Dakota, 2008-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nustad, Rochelle A.; Rowland, Kathleen M.; Wiederholt, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with North Dakota State University Agriculture Research Extension and in collaboration with North Dakota State Department of Health, North Dakota State Water Commission, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and several agricultural producers, helped organize a Discovery Farms program in North Dakota in 2007. Discharge measurements and water-quality samples collected at the three Farms (Underwood, Dazey, and Embden) were used to describe water-quality characteristics in runoff, and compute estimates of annual loads and yields for selected constituents from spring 2008 through fall 2012.

  2. Quantification of healthy and atretic germ cells and follicles in the developing and post-natal ovary of the South American plains vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus: evidence of continuous rise of the germinal reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inserra, P I F; Leopardo, N P; Willis, M A; Freysselinard, A L; Vitullo, A D

    2014-02-01

    The female germ line in mammals is subjected to massive cell death that eliminates 60-85% of the germinal reserve by birth and continues from birth to adulthood until the exhaustion of the germinal pool. Germ cell demise occurs mainly through apoptosis by means of a biased expression in favour of pro-apoptotic members of the BCL2 gene family. By contrast, the South American plains vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus, exhibits sustained expression of the anti-apoptotic BCL2 gene throughout gestation and a low incidence of germ cell apoptosis. This led to the proposal that, in the absence of death mechanisms other than apoptosis, the female germ line should increase continuously from foetal life until after birth. In this study, we quantified all healthy germ cells and follicles in the ovaries of L. maximus from early foetal life to day 60 after birth using unbiased stereological methods and detected apoptosis by labelling with TUNEL assay. The healthy germ cell population increased continuously from early-developing ovary reaching a 50 times higher population number by the end of gestation. TUNEL-positive germ cells were develops in the absence of constitutive massive germ cell elimination.

  3. Critical systems for public health management of floods, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedrich, Tim W; Sickler, Juli L; Vossler, Brenda L; Pickard, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    Availability of emergency preparedness funding between 2002 and 2009 allowed the North Dakota Department of Health to build public health response capabilities. Five of the 15 public health preparedness capability areas identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2011 have been thoroughly tested by responses to flooding in North Dakota in 2009, 2010, and 2011; those capability areas are information sharing, emergency operations coordination, medical surge, material management and distribution, and volunteer management. Increasing response effectiveness has depended on planning, implementation of new information technology, changes to command and control procedures, containerized response materials, and rapid contract procedures. Continued improvement in response and maintenance of response capabilities is dependent on ongoing funding.

  4. Guide to North Dakota's ground-water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Q.F.

    1983-01-01

    Ground water, the water we pump from the Earth through wells or that which flows naturally from springs, is one of North Dakota's most valuable resources. More than 60 percent of the people living in the State use ground water for one purpose of another. It is the only source of water for thousands of farm families and their livestock. Almost all smaller cities and villages depend solely on groudn water as a source of supply. Increasingly, ground water is being used to irrigate crops and grasslands (fig. 1) during protracted dry spells so common in North Dakota. During recent years there has been a rapid development of rural water ditribution systems in which thousands of farms and rurals residences are connected via underground pipeline to a single water source, usually wells pumping ground water.

  5. From dry to wet, 1988-97, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    1999-01-01

    Unusual climatic and hydrologic conditions continue to affect the people and resources of North Dakota. Above-average precipitation during 1993-97 caused flooding in parts of North Dakota, and damage to crops, roads, and homes led to tremendous economic losses and increased personal stress for the people of the State. However, the above-average precipitation also replenished diminished water supplies, produced bumper crops in some parts of the State, enhanced wildlife and fishery resources, and improved recreational activities such as fishing, camping, and boating. Thus, prolonged periods of above-average precipitation (wet periods) and the resulting hydrologic conditions can be beneficial and prosperous but also can be as disastrous and economically damaging as periods of drought (dry periods).

  6. Experiences using DAKOTA stochastic expansion methods in computational simulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templeton, Jeremy Alan; Ruthruff, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification (UQ) methods bring rigorous statistical connections to the analysis of computational and experiment data, and provide a basis for probabilistically assessing margins associated with safety and reliability. The DAKOTA toolkit developed at Sandia National Laboratories implements a number of UQ methods, which are being increasingly adopted by modeling and simulation teams to facilitate these analyses. This report disseminates results as to the performance of DAKOTA's stochastic expansion methods for UQ on a representative application. Our results provide a number of insights that may be of interest to future users of these methods, including the behavior of the methods in estimating responses at varying probability levels, and the expansion levels for the methodologies that may be needed to achieve convergence.

  7. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: McIntosh National Topographic Map, North Dakota/South Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the McIntosh National Topographic Map NL14-7 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  8. WHITE WHEAT MARKET AND STRATEGY ANALYSIS FOR NORTH DAKOTA

    OpenAIRE

    Janzen, Edward L.; Wilson, William W.

    2001-01-01

    There is a growing interest and a perceived demand for hard white (HW) wheat to satisfy the needs of the growing Asian noodle market which is currently dominated by Australia. The wheat industry is reviewed with attention to U.S. and Australian production and international markets for white wheat. Quality issues and target markets/market development are discussed. Economic issues associated with production of HW wheat in hard red spring (HRS) wheat producing areas, primarily North Dakota, are...

  9. Water-resources activities, North Dakota District, Fiscal Year 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cathy R.

    1993-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, is to provide the hydrologic information and understanding needed for the optimum utilization and management of the Nation's water resources for the overall benefit of the people of the United States. This report describes water-resources activities of the Water Resources Division in North Dakota in fiscal year 1992. Information on each project includes objectives, approach, progress, plans for fiscal year 1993, and completed and planned report products.

  10. Modeling workforce demand in North Dakota: a System Dynamics approach

    OpenAIRE

    Muminova, Adiba

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the dynamics behind the workforce demand and attempts to predict the potential effects of future changes in oil prices on workforce demand in North Dakota. The study attempts to join System Dynamics and Input-Output models in order to overcome shortcomings in both of the approaches and gain a more complete understanding of the issue of workforce demand. A system dynamics simulation of workforce demand within different economic sector...

  11. Small Numbers and Big Spaces Call for a Team Approach in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pam; Lambert, Bambi

    2016-01-01

    Preparing deaf and hard of hearing students for transition is a unique challenge in North Dakota, a rural state in which the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction has identified only 32 transition-age students as "deaf" or "hearing impaired." Additional students who are deaf or hard of hearing may be being served via…

  12. Community Living for Adults in North Dakota: A Case Study of an Apartment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racino, Julie Ann

    This report describes a 1988 site visit to Pride Industries, a private, nonprofit agency which operates an apartment program for individuals with developmental disabilities in Bismarck, North Dakota, through a contract with a regional office of North Dakota's Department of Developmental Disabilities. Pride Industries supports 34 people living in…

  13. 78 FR 77791 - Dakota, Minnesota & Eastern Railroad Corporation-Abandonment Exemption-in Scott County, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. AB 337 (Sub-No. 7X)] Dakota, Minnesota & Eastern Railroad Corporation--Abandonment Exemption--in Scott County, Iowa Dakota, Minnesota... as Blackhawk Spur, between milepost 0.33+/- and milepost 0.99 +/- in Scott County, Iowa (the Line...

  14. User Guidelines and Best Practices for CASL VUQ Analysis Using Dakota.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Brian M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coleman, Kayla [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hooper, Russell [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Khuwaileh, Bassam A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lewis, Allison [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Ralph C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turinsky, Paul J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Brian W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Sandia's Dakota software (available at http://dakota.sandia.gov) supports science and engineering transformation through advanced exploration of simulations. Specifically it manages and analyzes ensembles of simulations to provide broader and deeper perspective for analysts and decision makers. This enables them to enhance understanding of risk, improve products, and assess simulation credibility.

  15. Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, University of North Dakota Session. Volume 38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martlett, Stephen A., Ed.; Meyer, Jim, Ed.

    This collection of eight papers and six "data squibs" (short research findings) are based on topics and languages under study by students and staff of the linguistics program of the University of North Dakota. The papers are: (1) "Dakota Sioux Objects" (Thomas M. Pinson); (2) "The Tapir: A Yanomami Text" (Irma…

  16. 77 FR 20893 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Dakota; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... initials AVS mean or refer to Antelope Valley Station. The initials BACT mean or refer to Best Available... (AVS) Units 1 and 2. c. North Dakota's reasonable progress goals (RPGs). d. Portions of North Dakota's... AVS Units 1 and 2. d. A five-year deadline to meet the emission limits and monitoring, recordkeeping...

  17. User Guidelines and Best Practices for CASL VUQ Analysis Using Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Brian M.; Coleman, Kayla; Hooper, Russell; Khuwaileh, Bassam A.; Lewis, Allison; Smith, Ralph C.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Turinsky, Paul J.; Williams, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    Sandia's Dakota software (available at http://dakota.sandia.gov) supports science and engineering transformation through advanced exploration of simulations. Specifically, it manages and analyzes ensembles of simulations to provide broader and deeper perspective for analysts and decision makers. This enables them to enhance understanding of risk, improve products, and assess simulation credibility. This manual offers Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) (CASL) partners a guide to conducting Dakota-based VUQ studies for CASL problems. It motivates various classes of Dakota methods and includes examples of their use on representative application problems. On reading, a CASL analyst should understand why and how to apply Dakota to a simulation problem.

  18. User guidelines and best practices for CASL VUQ analysis using Dakota.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Brian M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hooper, Russell [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lewis, Allison [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McMahan, Jerry A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Ralph C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, Brian J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Sandia's Dakota software (available at http://dakota.sandia.gov) supports science and engineering transformation through advanced exploration of simulations. Specifically it manages and analyzes ensembles of simulations to provide broader and deeper perspective for analysts and decision makers. This enables them to enhance understanding of risk, improve products, and assess simulation credibility. This manual offers Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) (CASL) partners a guide to conducting Dakota-based VUQ studies for CASL problems. It motivates various classes of Dakota methods and includes examples of their use on representative application problems. On reading, a CASL analyst should understand why and how to apply Dakota to a simulation problem. This SAND report constitutes the product of CASL milestone L3:VUQ.V&V.P8.01 and is also being released as a CASL unlimited release report with number CASL-U-2014-0038-000.

  19. User Guidelines and Best Practices for CASL VUQ Analysis Using Dakota.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Brian M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coleman, Kayla [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Hooper, Russell [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Khuwaileh, Bassam A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lewis, Allison [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Smith, Ralph C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turinsky, Paul J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Williams, Brian W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Sandia's Dakota software (available at http://dakota.sandia.gov) supports science and engineering transformation through advanced exploration of simulations. Specifically, it manages and analyzes ensembles of simulations to provide broader and deeper perspective for analysts and decision makers. This enables them to enhance understanding of risk, improve products, and assess simulation credibility. This manual offers Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) (CASL) partners a guide to conducting Dakota-based VUQ studies for CASL problems. It motivates various classes of Dakota methods and includes examples of their use on representative application problems. On reading, a CASL analyst should understand why and how to apply Dakota to a simulation problem.

  20. 50 CFR 32.53 - North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... applies. D. Sport Fishing. [Reserved] Lostwood Wetland Management District A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting... hunt on the refuge any time the State bow season is open. 13. Youth deer hunters (14 years of age) may... Youth Deer Season except in designated closed areas around refuge headquarters, the wildlife observation...

  1. Prevalence of Selected Zoonotic and Vector-Borne Agents in Dogs and Cats on the Pine Ridge Reservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Valeria Scorza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of intestinal parasites and vector-borne agents of dogs and cats in the Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota were determined. Fecal samples (84 dogs, 9 cats were examined by centrifugal floatation and by immunofluorescence assay (FA for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. PCR was performed on Giardia [beta-giardin (bg, triose phosphate isomerase (tpi, glutamate dehydrogenase genes (gdh] and Cryptosporidium [heat shock protein-70 gene (hsp] FA positive samples. Cat sera (n = 32 were tested for antibodies against Bartonella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and FIV, and antigens of FeLV and Dirofilaria immitis. Dog sera (n = 82 were tested for antibodies against T. gondii, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum and D. immitis antigen. Blood samples (92 dogs, 39 cats were assessed by PCR for amplification of DNA of Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., haemoplasmas, and Babesia spp. (dogs only. The most significant results were Giardia spp. (32% by FA, Taenia spp. (17.8% and Cryptosporidium spp. (7.1%. The Giardia isolates typed as the dog-specific assemblages C or D and four Cryptosporidium isolates typed as C. canis. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in 15% of the dogs. Antibodies against Bartonella spp. and against T. gondii were detected in 37.5% and 6% of the cats respectively. FeLV antigen was detected in 10% of the cats.

  2. Obtaining Crustal Properties From the P Coda Without Deconvolution: an Example From the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, A. W.; Delaney, C.

    2013-12-01

    Receiver functions are a popular technique for mapping variations in crustal thickness and bulk properties, as the travel times of Ps conversions and multiples from the Moho constrain both Moho depth (h) and the Vp/Vs ratio (k) of the crust. The established approach is to generate a suite of receiver functions, which are then stacked along arrival-time curves for a set of (h,k) values (the h-k stacking approach of Zhu and Kanamori, 2000). However, this approach is sensitive to noise issues with the receiver functions, deconvolution artifacts, and the effects of strong crustal layering (such as in sedimentary basins). In principle, however, the deconvolution is unnecessary; for any given crustal model, we can derive a transfer function allowing us to predict the radial component of the P coda from the vertical, and so determine a misfit value for a particular crustal model. We apply this idea to an Earthscope Transportable Array data set from North and South Dakota and western Minnesota, for which we already have measurements obtained using conventional h-k stacking, and so examine the possibility of crustal thinning and modification by a possible failed branch of the Mid-Continent Rift.

  3. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Belfield Site, Belfield, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has evaluated the Belfield site in order to assess the problems resulting from the existence of radiactive ash at Belfield, South Dakota. This engineering assessment has included drilling of boreholes and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of ash and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actons. Radon gas released from the 55,600 tons of ash and contaminated material at the Belfield site constitutes a significant environmental impact, although external gamma radiation also is a factor. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the ash and contaminated materials to remote disposal sites, and decontamination of the Belfield site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $1,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $2,500,000 for disposal at a distance of about 17 mi from the Belfield site. Reprocessing the ash for uranium recovery is not feasible because of the extremely small amount of material available at the site and because of its low U 3 O 8 content

  4. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Belfield Site, Belfield, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has evaluated the Belfield site in order to assess the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive ash at Belfield, South Dakota. This engineering assessment has included drilling of boreholes and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of ash and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 55,600 tons of ash and contaminated material at the Belfield site constitutes a significant environmental impact, although external gamma radiation also is a factor. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the ash and contaminated materials to remote disposal sites, and decontamination of the Belfield site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $1,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $2,500,000 for disposal at a distance of about 17 mi from the Belfield site. Reprocessing the ash for uranium recovery is not feasible because of the extremely small amount of material available at the site and because of its low U 3 O 8 content

  5. Water-resources activities, North Dakota District, fiscal year 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cathy R.

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, is to provide the hydrologic information and understanding needed for the optimum utilization and management of the Nation's water resources for the overall benefit of the people of the United States. This report describes waterresources activities of the Water Resources Division in North Dakota in fiscal year 1990. Information on each project includes objectives, approach, progress in fiscal year 1990, plans for fiscal year 1991, completed and planned report products, and the name of the project chief.

  6. Behaviour patterns of Mallard Anas Platyrhynchos pairs and broods in Minnesota and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietz, P.J.; Buhl, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    Few studies have quantitatively examined Mallard behaviour in North America during the breeding season. We estimated diurnal time budgets of unmarked Mallard males, females, and broods from over 1,200 hours of observations at two study areas in western Minnesota and south-central North Dakota during 1988-91. Paired males spent less time feeding and more time alert than did females. Both pair members were engaged in the same behaviour about 67% of the time; the male was always most likely to be doing the same thing as the female, but when the male was resting on water or alert, the female was most likely to be feeding. Females with broods spent less time feeding and more time alert and in locomotion than did females without broods. Behaviour of brood females did not differ with brood age or size. Females temporarily left their broods alone 45 times - about once for each 11 hours of observation. Female absences ranged from 2 to >80 minutes (x>27 min); length of absence was not related to brood age or size. Broods of all ages (a few days old to near fledging) and sizes (1-10 ducklings) were left alone on land and water; broods mostly rested and fed during female absences. Brood females spent less time feeding and more time alert than did broods. Females and their broods were engaged in the same behaviour 6267% of the time; the female was always most likely to be doing the same behaviour as her brood, but when the female was resting on water, the brood was most likely to be feeding, and when the female was alert, the brood was most likely to be feeding (North Dakota site) or resting on land (Minnesota site). Daily activity patterns varied between sites for both pairs and broods. Feeding and resting behaviour showed opposite daily patterns, suggesting that time allocated to feeding constrained time spent resting. Differences between sites and years in time spent feeding by pairs and broods probably reflected varying water conditions and food availability. In light of

  7. Assessing spring direct mortality to avifauna from wind energy facilities in the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Brianna J.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Stafford, Joshua D.; Jensen, Kent C.; Grovenburg, Troy W.

    2016-01-01

    The Northern Great Plains (NGP) contains much of the remaining temperate grasslands, an ecosystem that is one of the most converted and least protected in the world. Within the NGP, the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) provides important habitat for >50% of North America's breeding waterfowl and many species of shorebirds, waterbirds, and grassland songbirds. This region also has high wind energy potential, but the effects of wind energy developments on migratory and resident bird and bat populations in the NGP remains understudied. This is troubling considering >2,200 wind turbines are actively generating power in the region and numerous wind energy projects have been proposed for development in the future. Our objectives were to estimate avian and bat fatality rates for wind turbines situated in cropland- and grassland-dominated landscapes, document species at high risk to direct mortality, and assess the influence of habitat variables on waterfowl mortality at 2 wind farms in the NGP. From 10 March to 7 June 2013–2014, we completed 2,398 searches around turbines for carcasses at the Tatanka Wind Farm (TAWF) and the Edgeley-Kulm Wind Farm (EKWF) in South Dakota and North Dakota. During spring, we found 92 turbine-related mortalities comprising 33 species and documented a greater diversity of species (n = 30) killed at TAWF (predominately grassland) than at EKWF (n = 9; predominately agricultural fields). After accounting for detection rates, we estimated spring mortality of 1.86 (SE = 0.22) deaths/megawatt (MW) at TAWF and 2.55 (SE = 0.51) deaths/MW at EKWF. Waterfowl spring (Mar–Jun) fatality rates were 0.79 (SE = 0.11) and 0.91 (SE = 0.10) deaths/MW at TAWF and EKWF, respectively. Our results suggest that future wind facility siting decisions consider avoiding grassland habitats and locate turbines in pre-existing fragmented and converted habitat outside of high densities of breeding waterfowl and major migration corridors.

  8. TRENDS Historical and Recent In South Dakota’s Agricultural Land Market

    OpenAIRE

    Yonas Hamda; Burton Pflueger; Larry Janssen

    2003-01-01

    Long-term (20th century) and recent (1991–2003) trends in South Dakota’s agricultural land values are the main topics of this report. It is written for farmers and ranchers, landowners, agricultural professionals (lenders, rural appraisers, Extension educators, and agribusiness persons) and policymakers interested, for various decision- making purposes, in agricultural land market trends. Topics covered in the first section are: (1) historical trends in South Dakota farm real estate values fr...

  9. Once Upon a Toxic Sanctuary: Partnering to Restore and Reclaim a Dakota Sacred Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne Gould

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we examine the role of partnerships as they relate to the destruction and reconstruction of Wakaŋ Tipi and Indian Mounds Park as a Dakota sacred feminine, origin, birth site through a theoretical lens of critical Indigenous pedagogy of place (Trinidad, 2016 and partnership studies (Eisler, 2005. We discuss the deep historical, social, psychological, and cultural relationship the Dakota have to this sacred site and the challenge of partnering with non-Dakota entities to restore Wakaŋ Tipi/Indian Mounds Park from a toxic waste dump to a spiritual sanctuary.

  10. North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve's (NERR) Estuarine Surface Water Nutrient, Suspended Sediment, and Chlorophyll a Data for the North Inlet and Winyah Bay Estuaries, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1993-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A one 1000 ml (one Liter) water sample was collected every 20 days at 2 hour and 4 minute intervals for 2 complete tidal cycles (26 hours) with an ISCO automated...

  11. Replacing reserve requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Edward J. Stevens

    1993-01-01

    An examination of the fading significance of the Federal Reserve System's reserve requirements and the recent flowering of required clearing balances, a rapidly growing feature of Reserve Bank operations.

  12. NPDES Draft Permit for Spirit Lake Water Treatment Facility in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES draft permit ND-0031101, Spirit Lake Water Resource Management is authorized to discharge to an unnamed intermittent tributary to Devils Lake which is tributary to Sheyenne River in North Dakota.

  13. Hospital Medicine and Fellowship Program in Rural North Dakota - A Multifaceted Success Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, S S; Amundson, Mary

    2017-11-01

    Recruitment of hospitalists and primary care physicians for Critical Access Hospitals and tertiary care hospitals in North Dakota is difficult. To address this challenge, 2 programs were implemented in Bismarck, North Dakota. St. Alexius Medical Center created a hospitalist fellowship training program in collaboration with the University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences and physicians willing to work in Critical Access Hospitals were offered a joint appointment to teach hospitalist fellows and obtain a clinical academic appointment at the university. Since it was created in 2012, 84 physicians have applied for 13 fellowships. Of the 11 fellows who have completed the program, 64% (7/11) remained in North Dakota to practice. Physicians are more likely to work in a rural Critical Access Hospital if they spend time working at a tertiary care center and have clinical academic appointments. Where recruitment is challenging, hospitalist fellowship programs are helpful in meeting the health care workforce demand.

  14. The Spirit of North Dakota: Alive in Weatherization; Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    North Dakota demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes

  15. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: New Rockford quadrangle, North Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    Volume II contains the flight path, radiometric multi-parameter stacked profiles, magnetic and ancillary parameter stacked profiles, histograms, and anomaly maps for the New Rockford Quadrangle in North Dakota

  16. NPDES Draft Permit for City of New Town Water Treatment Plant in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System draft permit number ND0031151, The City of New Town Water Treatment Plant is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Mountrail County, North Dakota.

  17. North Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    The North Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Dakota.

  18. North Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The North Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Dakota

  19. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, State or Country, and Place. Part 16 (South Dakota [State of], Brookings, South Dakota - Tekna, Mountain View, California), FY1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    4 - %-) N6- NN 4 .4 C.4 0 .4N Ho. up r-( r- N4 Nn NO. N N- NN M 040 H >.A WIx 0 -Cl 4c. q*j r- W W4 en H~C t-4OHI C00 C4 (D V 00 000~0 o CO a ccN H𔃺...I- I-- ə IW C-4 /) I-I. z I.- 2 z 2 Z z 3 IS I We-i if < 00 1-1 0 #-4 1-0 I- 1-4 0- < IS I Web Uo IP- I-- If M" ISO a a a 0 0 a 1-i ,0W UZ IS Z 2w 2...C4 C4 C4 Cj C-4 e4 C4 C4 C,4 cm ൌ (4 cli 04 " cli cm CS1 C4 e4 cm C14 c4cljcqclI"NNe4rqNN CIA CS1 C4 eq C14 C14 C4 C4 N C4 CSI eq C4 1 131 wix

  20. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in North Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 6,800 LGBT workers in North Dakota are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees has been documented in surveys, legislative testimony, the media, and in reports to community-based organizations. Many corporate employers and public opinion in North Dakota support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, thr...

  1. Development of Smoking Behavior in Adolescence: the Case of North Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Oleksandr

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes a modeling project, performed by Oleksandr Ivanov, a student enrolled in European Master Program in System Dynamics, in cooperation with assistant professor Arielle Selya (University of North Dakota) and under the supervision of associate professor I. David Wheat (University of Bergen). The fieldwork was conducted in Grand Fork, North Dakota, the USA in April-June 2015. The main problem is devoted to the prevalence in smoking cigarettes a...

  2. The nature of the Dakota-Morrison boundary, Southeastern San Juan basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubrey, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    A thin, discontinuous, fluvial locally conglomeratic sandstone at the vase of the Dakota Sandstone in the vicinity of the southeastern San Juan basin, New Mexico has been named the Encinal Canyon Member of the Dakota Sandstone. In the past, the sandstone beds, placed here in the Encinal Canyon, have been included in the Jackpile sandstone, (an economic unit in the Morrison Formation), in the Burro Canyon Formation, or in the Oak Canyon Member of the Dakota Sandstone. Distinction between the Encinal Canyon Member and the Jackpile sandstone, which are separated by an unconformity that probably spans most of the Early Cretaceous, is economically important. The Jackpile is a primary uranium exploration target, whereas the Dakota contains little known uranium. In the past, the sub-Dakota erosional surface in the southeastern San Juan basin generally was thought to be at the base of the marine and paralic Oak Canyon Member of the Dakota Sandstone, which overlies the Encinal Canyon Member. The unconformity is shown here to be at the base of the fluvial rocks of the Encinal Canyon Member. Local relief at the base of the Encinal Canyon indicates that the sub-Dakota erosional surface formed during a time of regional degradation. Easterly flowing streams scoured underlying units and in some places cut completely through the Jackpile sandstone and the Burro Canyon Formation. The Encinal Canyon was deposited in response to the initial transgression of the Dakota sea. As the sea inundated the area, a transgressive erosional surface formed, and the overlying paralic and marine sediments of the Oak Canyon Member were deposited

  3. North Dakota State University Sunflower Research: A Summary of Selected Research Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Roy M.; Sell, Randall S.; Watt, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Sunflower research in North Dakota focuses on variety testing. Additional research has been conducted on cost-effective cultural practices, possible use to produce a red dye food colorant, and the estimated economic impact of banning an insecticide. Variety testing has been conducted at most state experiment sites in North Dakota, including, Casselton Agronomy Seed Farm, Carrington Research Extension Center, Langdon, Minot, Williston, Dickinson, and Hettinger Experiment Stations. A comparison...

  4. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Updating the Commercial Building Energy Code in North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.

    2004-04-30

    The state of North Dakota is considering updating its commercial building energy code. This report evaluates the potential costs and benefits to North Dakota residents from updating and requiring compliance with ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed in the analysis. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST simulation combined with a Life-cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess correspodning economic costs and benefits.

  5. Important improvement of utilization the available geological reserves of the South mining district deposit in Majdanpek in the new defined optimum contour of the open pit using the Whittle and Gemcom softwares

    OpenAIRE

    Kržanović, Daniel; Žikić, Miodrag; Pantović, Radoje

    2012-01-01

    A significant increase in copper prices on the World Metal Exchange, whose lower limit in the long term will not be under $ 6,000 per ton of cathode copper, and reduction the operating costs of ore mining by introduction the high capacity mining equipment in the production process, requires a new consideration of the open pit South Mining District Majdanpek and defining the new final (optimum) limit of mining for the given techno economic parameters. Using the modern software tools for strate...

  6. User Guidelines and Best Practices for CASL VUQ Analysis Using Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Brian M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coleman, Kayla [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Hooper, Russell W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Khuwaileh, Bassam [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lewis, Allison [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Smith, Ralph C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Swiler, Laura P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turinsky, Paul J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Williams, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-04

    In general, Dakota is the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) delivery vehicle for verification, validation, and uncertainty quantification (VUQ) algorithms. It permits ready application of the VUQ methods described above to simulation codes by CASL researchers, code developers, and application engineers. More specifically, the CASL VUQ Strategy [33] prescribes the use of Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) assessments [37]. PCMM is an expert elicitation tool designed to characterize and communicate completeness of the approaches used for computational model definition, verification, validation, and uncertainty quantification associated with an intended application. Exercising a computational model with the methods in Dakota will yield, in part, evidence for a predictive capability maturity model (PCMM) assessment. Table 1.1 summarizes some key predictive maturity related activities (see details in [33]), with examples of how Dakota fits in. This manual offers CASL partners a guide to conducting Dakota-based VUQ studies for CASL problems. It motivates various classes of Dakota methods and includes examples of their use on representative application problems. On reading, a CASL analyst should understand why and how to apply Dakota to a simulation problem.

  7. JV Task 90 - Activated Carbon Production from North Dakota Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson; Charlene Crocker; Rokan Zaman; Mark Musich; Edwin Olson

    2008-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has pursued a research program for producing activated carbon from North Dakota lignite that can be competitive with commercial-grade activated carbon. As part of this effort, small-scale production of activated carbon was produced from Fort Union lignite. A conceptual design of a commercial activated carbon production plant was drawn, and a market assessment was performed to determine likely revenue streams for the produced carbon. Activated carbon was produced from lignite coal in both laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactors and in a small pilot-scale rotary kiln. The EERC was successfully able to upgrade the laboratory-scale activated carbon production system to a pilot-scale rotary kiln system. The activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite was superior to commercial grade DARCO{reg_sign} FGD and Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product with respect to iodine number. The iodine number of North Dakota lignite-derived activated carbon was between 600 and 800 mg I{sub 2}/g, whereas the iodine number of DARCO FGD was between 500 and 600 mg I{sub 2}/g, and the iodine number of Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product was around 275 mg I{sub 2}/g. The EERC performed both bench-scale and pilot-scale mercury capture tests using the activated carbon made under various optimization process conditions. For comparison, the mercury capture capability of commercial DARCO FGD was also tested. The lab-scale apparatus is a thin fixed-bed mercury-screening system, which has been used by the EERC for many mercury capture screen tests. The pilot-scale systems included two combustion units, both equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Activated carbons were also tested in a slipstream baghouse at a Texas power plant. The results indicated that the activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite coal is capable of removing mercury from flue gas. The tests showed that activated carbon with the greatest

  8. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of North Dakota, elevation data are critical for agriculture and precision farming, natural resources conservation, water supply and quality, infrastructure and construction management, flood risk management, geologic resource assessment and hazard mitigation, and other business uses. Today, high-density light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the primary sources for deriving elevation models and other datasets. Federal, State, Tribal, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data that are older and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data.

  9. National uranium resource evaluation, Dickinson quadrangle, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.H.; Pack, D.D.; Galipeau, J.M.; Lawton, D.E.

    1982-05-01

    The Dickinson Quadrangle, North Dakota, was evaluated to a depth of 1500 m to identify environments and delineate areas favorable for uranium deposits. Criteria used in the evaluation were developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. The evaluation primarily consisted of a surface study, subsurface investigation, and an in-house ground-water geochemical study. These studies were augumented by aerial radiometric and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment studies. The evaluation results indicate that the Sentinel Butte and Tongue River Members of the Fort Union Formation have environments favorable for uraniferous lignite deposits. The Sentinel Butte, Tongue River, and Ludlow Members of the Fort Union Formation are favorable for sandstone uranium deposits. Environments unfavorable for uranium deposits are the remaining Cenozoic rocks and all the rocks of the Cretaceous

  10. Perceived risks of produced water management and naturally occurring radioactive material content in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Luisa; Yadav, Om Prakash; Khan, Eakalak

    2017-07-01

    Unconventional oil and gas development using hydraulic fracturing has caused conflict and controversy across the globe including the U.S. where some States banned the practice. Nevertheless, North Dakota (ND) has supported the practice because the State perceives the risks to be acceptable and because it has brought growth and opportunities to small communities. However, social acceptance of new technology is based on a number of factors and not contingent on economic benefits. To date, no research has been conducted to understand public risk perception of hazards associated with produced water from hydraulic fracturing in ND. This study focuses on understanding the risk perception of select ND stakeholder groups regarding produced water management and naturally occurring radioactive material. The software Qualtrics was used to create an online survey, collect data, and perform statistical analysis. The most important variables that seem to influence risk perception are the images and thoughts associated with produced water, level of knowledge about produced water handling and content, and knowing how to proceed in case of a spill of produced water. Overall, social risk perception could be in alignment with actual technical risk if availability of objective information is improved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Regional Studies Program. Extraction of North Dakota lignite: environmental and reclamation issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFevers, J.R.; Johnson, D.O.; Dvorak, A.J.

    1976-12-01

    This study, sponsored by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, addresses the environmental implications of extraction of coal in North Dakota. These implications are supported by details of the geologic and historical background of the area of focus, the lignite resources in the Fort Union coalfield portion. The particular concentration is on the four-county area of Mercer, Dunn, McLean, and Oliver where substantial coal reserves exist and a potential gasification plant site has been identified. The purposes of this extensive study are to identify the land use and environmental problems and issues associated with extraction; to provide a base of information for assessing the impacts of various levels of extraction; to examine the economics and feasibility of reclamation; and to identify research that needs to be undertaken to evaluate and to improve reclamation practices. The study also includes a description of the physical and chemical soil characteristics and hydrological and climatic factors entailed in extraction, revegetation, and reclamation procedures.

  12. A People Extra: North Dakota and United States Situational Issues Related to and Influences upon--Families (Single Persons, Single Parents, Parent-Child, Married).

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota Univ., Fargo. Dept. of Agriculture and Applied Science.

    Situational issues related to families and influences upon families in North Dakota and the United States are briefly outlined in these fact sheets. Contents specifically concern (1) outbound migration from North Dakota and transition of rural families from farming; (2) suicide in North Dakota and the nation; (3) child care issues, such as child…

  13. Realidades Suburbanas: Latinos en el Condado de Dakota. Una Investigacion Dirigida por HACER = Suburban Realities: Latinos in Dakota County. A Study Conducted by HACER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HACER: Hispanic Advocacy and Community Empowerment through Research, Minneapolis, MN.

    A research project was conducted between April and December of 1998 to learn about the experiences of the sizable numbers of Latinos who live in Dakota County (Minnesota). This diverse group was studied through examining existing demographic information, conducting interviews with 45 Latino and Anglo individuals, and conducting several focus…

  14. Identifying a Statistical Model for North Dakota K-12 Public School Transportation Funding by Comparing Fifteen State Transportation Funding Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holen, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the history of North Dakota K-12 transportation funding system, identify how school districts are reimbursed for transportation expenses, and compare this information with fourteen other state transportation funding systems. North Dakota utilizes a block grant structure that has been in place since 1972 and…

  15. Experimental program to stimulate competitive energy research in North Dakota: Summary and significance of DOE Trainee research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudjouk, Philip

    1999-07-01

    The general goals of the North Dakota DOE/EPSCoR Program are to enhance the capabilities of North Dakota's researchers to conduct nationally competitive energy-related research and to develop science and engineering human resources to meet current and future needs in energy-related areas. Doctoral students were trained and energy research was conducted.

  16. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  17. A spring aerial census of red foxes in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.; Pfeifer, W.K.; Allen, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    Systematic aerial searches were flown on transects to locate adult red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), pups, and rearing dens on 559.4 km2 (six townships) in eastern North Dakota during mid-May and mid-June each year from 1969 through 1973 and during mid-April 1969 and early May 1970. The combined sightings of foxes and fox dens from the mid-May and mid-June searches were used to identify individual fox families. The number of fox families was used as the measurement of density. Dens, highly visible during the mid-May searches, were the most reliable family indicator; 84 percent of 270 families identified during the study were represented by dens. Adult foxes second in importance, were most observable during the mid-May searches when 20 to 35 percent of those estimated to be available were sighted. Adult sightings during other search periods ranged from 4 to 17 percent of those available. Pup sightings were the most variable family indicator, but they led to the discovery of some dens. Sources of error for which adjustment factors were determined are: den moves exceeding criterion established for the spacing of dens in a single family, overestimation of the number of fox families living near township boundaries, and the percentage of fox families overlooked during the aerial searches. These adjustment factors appeared to be largely compensatory.

  18. Tundra swan habitat preferences during migration in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnst, Susan L.

    1994-01-01

    I studied tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus columbianus) habitat preference in North Dakota during autumn migration, 1988-89. Many thousand tundra swans stop in the Prairie Pothole region during autumn migration, but swan resource use has not been quantified. I examined habitat preference in relation to an index of sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) presence, extent of open water, and wetland size. I compared habitat preference derived from counts of all swans to those derived from foraging swans only and cygnets only. Foraging swans preferred wetlands with sago pondweed (P = 0.03); the number of foraging swans per wetland was >4 times higher on wetlands with sago pondweed than on wetlands without sago. In contrast, nonforaging swans did not prefer wetlands with sago pondweed (P = 0.85) but preferred large wetlands (P = 0.02) and those with a high proportion of contiguous open water (P feeding than adults (P = 0.03) and occurred proportionately more often in smaller flocks (P = 0.04), but cygnets and adults had similar habitat preferences.

  19. Holocene eolian activity in the Minot dune field, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Been, J.; Mahan, S.A.; Burdett, J.; Skipp, G.; Rowland, Z.M.

    1997-01-01

    Stabilized eolian sand is common over much of the Great Plains region of the United States and Canada, including a subhumid area of ??? 1500 km2 near Minot, North Dakota. Eolian landforms consist of sand sheets and northwest-trending parabolic dunes. Dunes and sand sheets in the Minot field are presently stabilized by a cover of prairie grasses or oak woodland. Stratigraphic studies and accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of paleosols indicate at least two periods of eolian sand movement in the late Holocene. Pedologic data suggest that all of the dune field has experienced late Holocene dune activity, though not all parts of the dune field may have been active simultaneously. Similar immobile element (Ti, Zr, La, Ce) concentrations support the interpretation that eolian sands are derived from local glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine sediments. However, glaciolacustrine and glaciofluvial source sediments have high Ca concentrations from carbonate minerals, whereas dune sands are depleted in Ca. Because noneolian-derived soils in the area are calcareous, these data indicate that the Minot dune field may have had extended periods of activity in the Holocene, such that eolian abrasion removed soft carbonate minerals. The southwest-facing parts of some presently stabilized dunes were active during the 1930s drought, but were revegetated during the wetter years of the 1940s. These observations indicate that severe droughts accompanied by high temperatures are the most likely cause of Holocene eolian activity.

  20. COFIRING OF BIOMASS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillip N. Hutton

    2002-01-01

    A project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory was completed by the Energy & Environmental Research Center to explore the potential for cofiring biomass at the University of North Dakota (UND). The results demonstrate how 25% sunflower hulls can be cofired with subbituminous coal and provide a 20% return on investment or 5-year payback for the modifications required to enable firing biomass. Significant outcomes of the study are as follows. A complete resource assessment presented all biomass options to UND within a 100-mile radius. Among the most promising options in order of preference were sunflower hulls, wood residues, and turkey manure. The firing of up to 28% sunflower hulls by weight was completed at the university's steam plant to identify plant modifications that would be necessary to enable cofiring sunflower hulls. The results indicated investments in a new equipment could be less than $408,711. Data collected from test burns, which were not optimized for biomass firing, resulted in a 15% reduction in sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions, no increase in opacity, and slightly better boiler efficiency. Fouling and clinkering potential were not evaluated; however, no noticeable detrimental effects occurred during testing. As a result of this study, UND has the potential to achieve a cost savings of approximately $100,000 per year from a $1,500,000 annual fossil fuel budget by implementing the cofiring of 25% sunflower hulls.

  1. Climate Change Impacts on North Dakota: Agriculture and Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilenko, Andrei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Lim, Yeo Howe; Teng, William L.

    2011-01-01

    North Dakota is one of the principal producers of agricultural commodities in the USA, including over half of the total spring wheat production. While the region includes some of the best agricultural lands in the world, the steep temperature and precipitation gradients also make it one of the most sensitive to climate change. Over the 20th century, both the temperature and the pattern of precipitation in the state have changed; one of the most dramatic examples of the consequences of this change is the Devils Lake flooding. In two studies, we estimated the climate change impacts on crop yields and on the hydrology of the Devils Lake basin. The projections of six GCMs, driven by three SRES scenarios were statistically downscaled for multiple locations throughout the state, for the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s climate. Averaged over all GCMs, there is a small increase in precipitation, by 0.6 - 1.1% in 2020s, 3.1 - 3.5% in 2050s, and 3.0 - 7.6% in 2080s. This change in precipitation varies with the seasons, with cold seasons becoming wetter and warm seasons not changing.

  2. Skyline Reservation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Flight reservation application used for in-country flights by USAID and DoS staff in Afghanistan. The application is managed and maintained by the vendor and USAID...

  3. User Guidelines and Best Practices for CASL VUQ Analysis Using Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Brian M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coleman, Kayla [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Gilkey, Lindsay N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gordon, Natalie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hooper, Russell [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Khuwaileh, Bassam A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lewis, Allison [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Maupin, Kathryn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Ralph C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Swiler, Laura P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turinsky, Paul J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Williams, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-04

    Sandia’s Dakota software (available at http://dakota.sandia.gov) supports science and engineering transformation through advanced exploration of simulations. Specifically it manages and analyzes ensembles of simulations to provide broader and deeper perspective for analysts and decision makers. This enables them to enhance understanding of risk, improve products, and assess simulation credibility. In its simplest mode, Dakota can automate typical parameter variation studies through a generic interface to a physics-based computational model. This can lend efficiency and rigor to manual parameter perturbation studies already being conducted by analysts. However, Dakota also delivers advanced parametric analysis techniques enabling design exploration, optimization, model calibration, risk analysis, and quantification of margins and uncertainty with such models. It directly supports verification and validation activities. Dakota algorithms enrich complex science and engineering models, enabling an analyst to answer crucial questions of - Sensitivity: Which are the most important input factors or parameters entering the simulation, and how do they influence key outputs?; Uncertainty: What is the uncertainty or variability in simulation output, given uncertainties in input parameters? How safe, reliable, robust, or variable is my system? (Quantification of margins and uncertainty, QMU); Optimization: What parameter values yield the best performing design or operating condition, given constraints? Calibration: What models and/or parameters best match experimental data? In general, Dakota is the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) delivery vehicle for verification, validation, and uncertainty quantification (VUQ) algorithms. It permits ready application of the VUQ methods described above to simulation codes by CASL researchers, code developers, and application engineers.

  4. Management goals for wildlife reserves in grassveld and bushveld ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and therefore require control. A means of measuring the success of management is outlined. Keywords: condition; cover; fire; game reserves; genetic diversity; goals; management; management strategy; nature reserves; range; reserves; soil; south africa; species composition; species diversity; veld; veld condition; wildlife ...

  5. Survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and tick-borne pathogens in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russart, Nathan M; Dougherty, Michael W; Vaughan, Jefferson A

    2014-09-01

    Ticks were sampled at nine locations throughout North Dakota during early summer of 2010, using flagging techniques and small mammals trapping. In total, 1,762 ticks were collected from eight of the nine locations. The dominant species were Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (82%), found throughout the state, and Ixodes scapularis Say (17%), found in northeastern counties. A few nymphal and adult I. scapularis tested positive for Borrelia burgdorferi (3%) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (8%). This is the first report of I. scapularis and associated pathogens occurring in North Dakota and provides evidence for continued westward expansion of this important vector tick species in the United States.

  6. Chemical and morphological comparison of erionite from Oregon, North Dakota, and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowers, Heather; Adams, David T.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Nutt, Constance J.

    2010-01-01

    Erionite, a fibrous zeolite, occurs in pediment gravel deposits near Killdeer Mountain, North Dakota. Material from these pediment deposits has been excavated for use as roadbed throughout Dunn County, North Dakota. Erionite also occurs in the Cappadocian region of Turkey, where a link between malignant mesothelioma and inhalation of this mineral has been established. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 8, requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compare the chemistry and morphology of erionite collected from the Killdeer Mountains to those collected from villages in Turkey and from Rome, Oregon, which has also been linked to disease in animal studies.

  7. US uranium reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, M.V.

    1981-01-01

    The current low level of demand, compounded by rapidly rising costs and low prices, has caused a significant reduction in drilling for uranium in the United States, and the trend is likely to continue for a few more years. The effect on uranium reserves will be fewer additions to reserves because less exploration is being done. Further reductions will occur, especially in low-cost reserves, because of increasing costs, continuing depletion through production, and erosion through the high grading of deposits to fulfill previous contractual commitments. During the past several years, it has been necessary to increase the upper reserve cost level twice to compensate for rising costs. Rising costs are reducing the $15 reserves, the cost category corresponding most closely to the present market price, to an insignificant level. An encouraging factor related to US uranium reserves is that the US position internationally, as far as quantity is concerned, is not bad for the longer term. Also, there is a general opinion that US consumers would rather contract for domestic uranium than for foreign because of greater assurance of supply. Still another factor, nearly impossible to assess, is what effect rising costs in other countries will have on their uranium reserves. The annual conferences between the Grand Junction Area Office staff and major uranium companies provide a broad overview of the industry's perception of the future. It is not optimistic for the short term. Many companies are reducing their exploration and mining programs; some are switching to other more marketable mineral commodities, and a few are investing more heavily in foreign ventures. However, there is general optimism for the long term, and many predict a growth in demand in the mid-1980s. If the industry can survive the few lean years ahead, rising prices may restore its viability to former levels

  8. 76 FR 76646 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; South Dakota; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... identify the best available type and level of control for reducing emissions. \\7\\ BART-eligible sources are... calculations presented in Table 1 and elsewhere in section III.B represent corrections EPA made to minor math... Haze Levels II: Application of the New IMPROVE Algorithm to Natural Species Concentrations Estimates...

  9. Understanding Great Plains Urbanization through the Lens of South Dakota Townscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conzen, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Most towns were crucial to the initial colonization and economic development of the Great Plains. Many were, directly or indirectly, creatures of railroad corporate planning, owing their location as well as their physical layout to the townsite companies controlled by railroad officials. This article examines how these facts shaped the fundamental…

  10. Analysis of Miscellaneous Human Osteological Remains Recovered from Multi-County Areas of South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    84 5.3 Periodontal Disease, Abscessing , and Related Conditions ...... 89 5.4 Caries...34. Periapical abscesses and severe periodontal resorption, individual no. 4, Blue Blanket Point (39WW98) (Exhibit I, Catalogue No. 9/10). Note...apical abscessing , and/or when the alveolar bone displayed minimal resorption or other bony changes which accompany periodontal disease. All other cases

  11. 78 FR 22901 - United States v. Chiropractic Associates, Ltd. of South Dakota Proposed Final Judgment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... naked agreements among competitors that set prices as per se illegal.\\2\\ Where competitors economically... quality of care by monitoring over-utilization of health care services, provided that such mechanisms are... agreement among competitors on prices or price-related terms; (K) ``Utilization Review Services'' means a...

  12. 76 FR 22670 - Black Hills National Forest, Hell Canyon Ranger District, South Dakota, Vestal Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... on a proposal to use multiple vegetation treatments focused on reducing the threat to ecosystem components including forest resources from an existing insect epidemic (mountain pine beetle), creating a landscape condition that reduces the potential for high severity wildfire adjacent to the at-risk community...

  13. 78 FR 48136 - Agenda and Notice of Public Meeting of the South Dakota Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... orientation and ethics training and project planning. Members of the public are entitled to submit written... needing accessibility services should contact the Rocky Mountain Regional Office at least 10 working days...

  14. Evaluation of small area crop estimation techniques using LANDSAT- and ground-derived data. [South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amis, M. L.; Martin, M. V.; Mcguire, W. G.; Shen, S. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Studies completed in fiscal year 1981 in support of the clustering/classification and preprocessing activities of the Domestic Crops and Land Cover project. The theme throughout the study was the improvement of subanalysis district (usually county level) crop hectarage estimates, as reflected in the following three objectives: (1) to evaluate the current U.S. Department of Agriculture Statistical Reporting Service regression approach to crop area estimation as applied to the problem of obtaining subanalysis district estimates; (2) to develop and test alternative approaches to subanalysis district estimation; and (3) to develop and test preprocessing techniques for use in improving subanalysis district estimates.

  15. ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF HYDROLOGIC DISTURBANCE REGIMES IN STREAMS OF NORTH AND SOUTH DAKOTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streamflow variability is an important component of physical disturbance in streams, and is likely to be a major organizing feature of habitat for stream fishes. The disturbance regime in streams is frequently described by the variability in streamflow from both floods and prolo...

  16. Acute aspergillosis in mallards at Oahe seep near Pierre, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, W.C.; Simpson, S.G.; Windingstad, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Aspergillosis was diagnosed at the cause of death of 158 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in January and February 1985 and 11 mallards in December 1985 near Pierre, SD. Isolation of Aspergillus fumigatus from carcass tissues confirmed the diagnosis. The sex ratio of mallards dead from aspergillosis in January and February 1985 was significantly different from the sex ratio in the local population at that time. The source of the fungus was not determined, but severe weather caused physiologically stressed mallards to feeds on corn stored in open piles on the ground, a likely source of the Aspergillus fungus.

  17. 77 FR 10717 - Black Hills National Forest, Custer, South Dakota-Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    .... The predominant tree species on lands of all ownerships in the Black Hills is ponderosa pine (Pinus... drought the Forest has seen a dramatic increase in acreage burned by wildfires. In that period over 250...

  18. 76 FR 38206 - Notice of Application for Disclaimer of Interest; Pennington County, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... normal business hours. The FIRS is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, to leave a message or question with the above individual. You will receive a reply during normal business hours. SUPPLEMENTARY... transactions occurred between 1898 and October 16, 1900, when the same legal description was deeded back to the...

  19. Soil Carbon Changes in Transitional Grain Crop Production Systems in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, H. J.

    2004-12-01

    Corn-C (Zea Mays L.), soybean-S (Glycine max L.) and spring wheat-W (Triticum aestivum L.) crops were seeded as a component of either a C-S, S-W, or C-S-W crop rotation on silt-loam textured soils ranging from 3.0-5.0% organic matter. Conservation tillage(chisel plow-field cultivator) was applied to half of the plots. The other plots were direct seeded as a no-till (zero-tillage) treatment. Grain yield and surface crop residues were weighed from each treatment plot. Crop residue (stover and straw) was removed from half of the plots. After four years, soil samples were removed at various increments of depth and soil organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) was measured. The ranking of crop residue weights occurred by the order corn>>soybean>wheat. Surface residue accumulation was also greatest with residue treatments that were returned to the plots, those rotations in which maize was a component, and those without tillage. Mean soil organic carbon levels in the 0-7.5cm depth decreased from 3.41% to 3.19% (- 0.22%) with conventional tillage (chisel plow/field cultivator) as compared to a decrease from 3.19% to 3.05% (-0.14%) in plots without tillage over a four year period. Organic carbon in the 0-7.5cm depth decreased from 3.21% to 3.01% (- 0.20%) after residue removed as compared to a decrease from 3.39% to 3.23% (-0.17%) in plots without tillage applied after four years. The soil C:N ratio (0-7.5cm) decreased from 10.63 to 10.37 (-0.26 (unitless)) in the tilled plots over a four-year period. Soil C:N ratio at the 0-7.5cm depth decreased from 10.72 to 10.04 (-0.68) in the no-till plots over a four year period. Differences in the soil C:N ratio comparing residue removed and residue returned were similar (-0.51 vs. -0.43 respectively). These soils are highly buffered for organic carbon changes. Many cropping cycles are required to determine how soil carbon storage is significantly impacted by production systems.

  20. Restoration of Emergent Sandbar Habitat Complexes in the Missouri River, Nebraska and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    of smartweeds (Polygonum spp.), cottonwood and willow seedlings, cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium ), beggarticks (Bidens spp.), flatsedges (Cyperus spp...observed on the sandbars during an ESH PDT boat trip in late summer of 2012 included small amounts of cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium ) and sweet clover