WorldWideScience

Sample records for reservation key field

  1. Marine ecology: reserves do have a key role in fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Callum

    2012-06-05

    A new study of the Great Barrier Reef proves a 100-year old conjecture correct: marine reserves do replenish populations in surrounding fishing grounds, while modern reserve networking theory is validated by exchange of offspring of animals among protected areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Key for the classification of reserves/resources - United Nations International Framework Classification for Reserves/Resources (UNFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-08-22

    Since the introduction of the United Nations International Framework Classification for Reserves/Resources (UNFC) - Solid Fuels and Mineral Commodities in 1977 by UNECE, recommended for application worldwide in 1998 by the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), some of those using the system who do not deal daily with the classification of reserves/resources are not certain how they should apply this reserves/resources classification system. The classification key described here provides the user with an easy to use tool for classifying reserves/resources according to the UN Framework Classification. This document is submitted by the Government of Germany. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs., 1 append.

  3. Reserve growth in oil fields of the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.; Gautier, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of petroleum resources of the North Sea, as well as other areas of the world, requires a viable means to forecast the amount of growth of reserve estimates (reserve growth) for discovered fields and to predict the potential fully developed sizes of undiscovered fields. This study investigates the utility of North Sea oil field data to construct reserve-growth models. Oil fields of the North Sea provide an excellent dataset in which to examine the mechanisms, characteristics, rates and quantities of reserve growth because of the high level of capital investments, implementation of sophisticated technologies and careful data collection. Additionally, these field data are well reported and available publicly. Increases in successive annual estimat es of recoverable crude oil volumes indicate that oil fields in the North Sea, collectively and in each country, experience reserve growth. Specific patterns of reserve growth are observed among countries and primary producing reservoir-rock types. Since 1985, Norwegian oil fields had the greatest volume increase; Danish oil fields increased by the greatest percentage relative to 1985 estimates; and British oil fields experienced an increase in recoverable oil estimates for the first ten years since 1985, followed by a slight reduction. Fields producing primarily from clastic reservoirs account for the majority of the estimated recoverable oil and, therefore, these fields had the largest volumetric increase. Fields producing primarily from chalk (limestone) reservoirs increased by a greater percentage relative to 1985 estimates than did fields producing primarily from clastic reservoirs. Additionally, the largest oil fields had the greatest volumetric increases. Although different reserve-growth patterns are observed among oil fields located in different countries, the small number of fields in Denmark precludes construction of reserve-growth models for that country. However, differences in reserve

  4. Identification of the Key Fields and Their Key Technical Points of Oncology by Patent Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhang

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the key fields and their key technical points of oncology by patent analysis.Patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were searched in the Thomson Innovation database. The key fields and their key technical points were determined by analyzing the Derwent Classification (DC and the International Patent Classification (IPC, respectively. Patent applications in the top ten DC occupied 80% of all the patent applications of oncology, which were the ten fields of oncology to be analyzed. The number of patent applications in these ten fields of oncology was standardized based on patent applications of oncology from 2006 to 2012. For each field, standardization was conducted separately for each of the seven years (2006-2012 and the mean of the seven standardized values was calculated to reflect the relative amount of patent applications in that field; meanwhile, regression analysis using time (year and the standardized values of patent applications in seven years (2006-2012 was conducted so as to evaluate the trend of patent applications in each field. Two-dimensional quadrant analysis, together with the professional knowledge of oncology, was taken into consideration in determining the key fields of oncology. The fields located in the quadrant with high relative amount or increasing trend of patent applications are identified as key ones. By using the same method, the key technical points in each key field were identified. Altogether 116,820 patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were retrieved, and four key fields with twenty-nine key technical points were identified, including "natural products and polymers" with nine key technical points, "fermentation industry" with twelve ones, "electrical medical equipment" with four ones, and "diagnosis, surgery" with four ones.The results of this study could provide guidance on the development direction of oncology, and also help researchers broaden innovative ideas and

  5. Identification of the Key Fields and Their Key Technical Points of Oncology by Patent Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Juan; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the key fields and their key technical points of oncology by patent analysis. Patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were searched in the Thomson Innovation database. The key fields and their key technical points were determined by analyzing the Derwent Classification (DC) and the International Patent Classification (IPC), respectively. Patent applications in the top ten DC occupied 80% of all the patent applications of oncology, which were the ten fields of oncology to be analyzed. The number of patent applications in these ten fields of oncology was standardized based on patent applications of oncology from 2006 to 2012. For each field, standardization was conducted separately for each of the seven years (2006-2012) and the mean of the seven standardized values was calculated to reflect the relative amount of patent applications in that field; meanwhile, regression analysis using time (year) and the standardized values of patent applications in seven years (2006-2012) was conducted so as to evaluate the trend of patent applications in each field. Two-dimensional quadrant analysis, together with the professional knowledge of oncology, was taken into consideration in determining the key fields of oncology. The fields located in the quadrant with high relative amount or increasing trend of patent applications are identified as key ones. By using the same method, the key technical points in each key field were identified. Altogether 116,820 patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were retrieved, and four key fields with twenty-nine key technical points were identified, including "natural products and polymers" with nine key technical points, "fermentation industry" with twelve ones, "electrical medical equipment" with four ones, and "diagnosis, surgery" with four ones. The results of this study could provide guidance on the development direction of oncology, and also help researchers broaden innovative ideas and discover new

  6. Determination of key parameters of vector multifractal vector fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertzer, D. J. M.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.

    2017-12-01

    For too long time, multifractal analyses and simulations have been restricted to scalar-valued fields (Schertzer and Tchiguirinskaia, 2017a,b). For instance, the wind velocity multifractality has been mostly analysed in terms of scalar structure functions and with the scalar energy flux. This restriction has had the unfortunate consequences that multifractals were applicable to their full extent in geophysics, whereas it has inspired them. Indeed a key question in geophysics is the complexity of the interactions between various fields or they components. Nevertheless, sophisticated methods have been developed to determine the key parameters of scalar valued fields. In this communication, we first present the vector extensions of the universal multifractal analysis techniques to multifractals whose generator belong to a Levy-Clifford algebra (Schertzer and Tchiguirinskaia, 2015). We point out further extensions noting the increased complexity. For instance, the (scalar) index of multifractality becomes a matrice. Schertzer, D. and Tchiguirinskaia, I. (2015) `Multifractal vector fields and stochastic Clifford algebra', Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science, 25(12), p. 123127. doi: 10.1063/1.4937364. Schertzer, D. and Tchiguirinskaia, I. (2017) `An Introduction to Multifractals and Scale Symmetry Groups', in Ghanbarian, B. and Hunt, A. (eds) Fractals: Concepts and Applications in Geosciences. CRC Press, p. (in press). Schertzer, D. and Tchiguirinskaia, I. (2017b) `Pandora Box of Multifractals: Barely Open ?', in Tsonis, A. A. (ed.) 30 Years of Nonlinear Dynamics in Geophysics. Berlin: Springer, p. (in press).

  7. Key developments that impacted the field of mechanobiology and mechanotransduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Michelle; Butler, David; El Haj, Alicia; Bodle, Josephine C; Loboa, Elizabeth G; Banes, Albert J

    2018-02-01

    Advances in mechanobiology have evolved through insights from multiple disciplines including structural engineering, biomechanics, vascular biology, and orthopaedics. In this paper, we reviewed the impact of key reports related to the study of applied loads on tissues and cells and the resulting signal transduction pathways. We addressed how technology has helped advance the burgeoning field of mechanobiology (over 33,600 publications from 1970 to 2016). We analyzed the impact of critical ideas and then determined how these concepts influenced the mechanobiology field by looking at the citation frequency of these reports as well as tracking how the overall number of citations within the field changed over time. These data allowed us to understand how a key publication, idea, or technology guided or enabled the field. Initial observations of how forces acted on bone and soft tissues stimulated the development of computational solutions defining how forces affect tissue modeling and remodeling. Enabling technologies, such as cell and tissue stretching, compression, and shear stress devices, allowed more researchers to explore how deformation and fluid flow affect cells. Observation of the cell as a tensegrity structure and advanced methods to study genetic regulation in cells further advanced knowledge of specific mechanisms of mechanotransduction. The future of the field will involve developing gene and drug therapies to simulate or augment beneficial load regimens in patients and in mechanically conditioning organs for implantation. Here, we addressed a history of the field, but we limited our discussions to advances in musculoskeletal mechanobiology, primarily in bone, tendon, and ligament tissues. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:605-619, 2018. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Geomechanical Model Calibration Using Field Measurements for a Petroleum Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Sobolik, Steven R.; Herrick, Courtney G.

    2018-03-01

    A finite element numerical analysis model has been constructed that consists of a mesh that effectively captures the geometries of Bayou Choctaw (BC) Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) site and multimechanism deformation (M-D) salt constitutive model using the daily data of actual wellhead pressure and oil-brine interface location. The salt creep rate is not uniform in the salt dome, and the creep test data for BC salt are limited. Therefore, the model calibration is necessary to simulate the geomechanical behavior of the salt dome. The cavern volumetric closures of SPR caverns calculated from CAVEMAN are used as the field baseline measurement. The structure factor, A 2, and transient strain limit factor, K 0, in the M-D constitutive model are used for the calibration. The value of A 2, obtained experimentally from BC salt, and the value of K 0, obtained from Waste Isolation Pilot Plant salt, are used for the baseline values. To adjust the magnitude of A 2 and K 0, multiplication factors A 2 F and K 0 F are defined, respectively. The A 2 F and K 0 F values of the salt dome and salt drawdown skins surrounding each SPR cavern have been determined through a number of back analyses. The cavern volumetric closures calculated from this model correspond to the predictions from CAVEMAN for six SPR caverns. Therefore, this model is able to predict behaviors of the salt dome, caverns, caprock, and interbed layers. The geotechnical concerns associated with the BC site from this analysis will be explained in a follow-up paper.

  9. Impact of typhoon disturbance on the diversity of key ecosystem engineers in a monoculture mangrove forest plantation, Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, Vietnam.

    OpenAIRE

    Diele, Karen.; Tran Ngoc, D M.; Geist, S J.; Meyer, F.; Pham, Q H.; Saint-Paul, Ulrich.; Triet, Tran.; Berger, Uta.

    2013-01-01

    Mangrove crabs as key ecosystem engineers may play an important role in the recovery process of storm-damaged forests. Yet, their response to storm disturbance is largely unknown. Here we compare the ground-dwelling brachyuran crab community of intact mangrove stands with that of typhoon gaps having experienced 100% tree mortality. Field work was conducted in two adjacent areas in Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, southern Vietnam. In each area, an 18–20 yr old monoculture Rhizophora apiculata stand...

  10. Field Keys to Common Hawaiian Marine Animals and Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Presented are keys for identifying common Hawaiian marine algae, beach plants, reef corals, sea urchins, tidepool fishes, and sea cucumbers. Nearly all species considered can be distinguished by characteristics visible to the naked eye. Line drawings illustrate most plants and animals included, and a list of suggested readings follows each…

  11. Key Notes on a Geometric Theory of Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruchholz U. E.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of potentials and sources in electromagnetic and gravitational fields is investi- gated. A critical analysis leads to the result that sources have to be replaced by integra- tion constants. The existence of spatial boundaries gives reasons for this step. Potentials gain physical relevance first with it. The common view, that fields are “generated” by sources, appears as not tenable. Fields do exist by their own. These insights as well as results from numerical simulations force the conclusion that a Riemannian-geometrical background of electromagnetism and even quantum phenomena cannot be excluded. Nature could differ from abstract geometry in a way that distances and intervals never become infinitesimally small.

  12. Field classes: key to involve and attract students to soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggler, Cristine Carole; Cardoso, Irene Maria; da Silva Lopes, Angelica

    2015-04-01

    Soil genesis is a subject taught to students of Agrarian Sciences and Geography at the Federal University of Viçosa in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Each semester 200 to 250 students inscribe for it. It is organized as the first 60 hours course on soils for 1st and 2nd year's students. The course has a distinct pedagogical approach, which is based on Paulo Freire's education principles, known as socio constructivism. In such approach, learning environments and materials are prepared to stimulate dialogues and exchange of knowledge between students themselves, strengthening that their role is crucial to their own learning. During the course, students have different types of practical classes: indoors, in a class room or at the Earth Sciences museum and outdoors, in the field. In the class room they have the opportunity to handle materials -minerals, rocks, soils and maps-, follow demonstrations and perform small experiments. The classes given in the museum intend a broadening of the subjects approached in theoretical and practical classes. In the field classes the students are organized in small groups with the task to investigate soil formation by observation and description of geology, landscape, land use, soil expositions and some of the soil properties. Attracting students to soils involves looking at meanings and perceptions related to soils they bring with themselves and follow this up to sensitize and create awareness about their importance. With this aim, it is also included, as part of the evaluation, a final voluntary presentation that many of the students do. The presentation can be a song, a poem, a sketch or whatever they propose and create. Many of the presentations bring topics related to the new perception about soils they get during the semester and to ideas or questions raised in the field classes. A survey with the students showed that field classes are by far the preferred classes and they are considered more dynamic. Since students have less and less

  13. Retention of key employees in the oil field service sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    1999-01-01

    Before 1994, Core Laboratories Canada Ltd. adopted local country benefit plans as stipulated by the government of the day. This approach meant that the company had many different benefit plans in place or in some situations no benefit plans at all, if the law of the land allowed such an approach. The company at this time viewed the lack of or minimal benefit plans as a cost saving venture. The parent company did not take onto account the effect on morale, employee retention and loyalty that these limited plans provided. A change in ownership in 1994 presented the opportunity for Core to re-assess its benefits package and introduce an incentive plan for its worldwide employees. The introduction of a pension with profits plan proved to be satisfying to employees, and the manager's incentive plan enabled the company to retain, with the exception of people who retired from the business, its entire management staff over a four year period. The stock option plan led to the retention of essential employees and reduced the turnover in this area. Discretionary bonuses succeeded in promoting recognition amongst employees as well as providing monetary reward, and the combination of benefits, incentive and stock option plans enabled the company to retain the vast majority of key employees and to entice selected individuals to the company from other organizations. 3 refs

  14. Approaches to identifying reservoir heterogeneity and reserve growth opportunities from subsurface data: The Oficina Formation, Budare field, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, D.S.; Raeuchle, S.K.; Holtz, M.H. [Bureau of Economic Geology, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    We applied an integrated geologic, geophysical, and engineering approach devised to identify heterogeneities in the subsurface that might lead to reserve growth opportunities in our analysis of the Oficina Formation at Budare field, Venezuela. The approach involves 4 key steps: (1) Determine geologic reservoir architecture; (2) Investigate trends in reservoir fluid flow; (3) Integrate fluid flow trends with reservoir architecture; and (4) Estimate original oil-in-place, residual oil saturation, and remaining mobile oil, to identify opportunities for reserve growth. There are three main oil-producing reservoirs in the Oficina Formation that were deposited in a bed-load fluvial system, an incised valley-fill, and a barrier-strandplain system. Reservoir continuity is complex because, in addition to lateral facies variability, the major Oficina depositional systems were internally subdivided by high-frequency stratigraphic surfaces. These surfaces define times of intermittent lacustrine and marine flooding events that punctuated the fluvial and marginal marine sedimentation, respectively. Syn and post depositional faulting further disrupted reservoir continuity. Trends in fluid flow established from initial fluid levels, response to recompletion workovers, and pressure depletion data demonstrated barriers to lateral and vertical fluid flow caused by a combination of reservoir facies pinchout, flooding shale markers, and the faults. Considerable reserve growth potential exists at Budare field because the reservoir units are highly compartment by the depositional heterogeneity and structural complexity. Numerous reserve growth opportunities were identified in attics updip of existing production, in untapped or incompletely drained compartments, and in field extensions.

  15. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems light-vehicle field operational test key findings report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    "This document presents key findings from the light-vehicle field operational test conducted as part of the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems program. These findings are the result of analyses performed by the University of Michigan Transportat...

  16. Estimation of Reserves of Tula Horizon Oil Deposits of Severo-Yurmanskoye Field, Perm Kray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Nabiullin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an estimation of reserves of the Tula horizon oil-bearing layers Tl2-a and Tl2-b at the Severo-Yurmanskoye oil field. Research was carried out in order to prospect the unestimated oil reserves at the previously drilled but not commercially producing areas of Perm kray. The opportunity of reserve calculation for this oil field was provided by the sufficient oil encroachment rate achieved during testing of Tula horizon layers in the borehole 174, reliable mapping of oil-bearing horizons using seismic and borehole data, existence of updated stratigraphic information, results of study of uniformity of oil-bearing layers throughout the area of the Severo-Yurmanskoye oil field, reliable estimate of the position of water-oil contact, defining the effective oil-bearing thickness of oil-bearing layers using results of borehole geophysical survey, study of lithological composition and reservoir  properties, study of physical and chemical properties of oil in borehole and in laboratory, and reliability of statistical evaluation of oil recovery factor.

  17. Le Conte's sparrows breeding in Conservation Reserve Program fields: precipitation and patterns of population change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, Lawrence D.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    1999-01-01

    ). Like populations of many grassland breeding birds in North America (Fretwell 1986, Igl and Johnson 1997), Le Conte's Sparrow populations exhibit numerical highs and lows depending on local moisture conditions (Peabody 1901, Stewart 1975, Knapton 1979, Zimmer 1979, Madden 1996). This observation, however, is based largely on anecdotal evidence or short-term observations. Long-term studies of Le Conte's Sparrow populations are limited. Le Conte's Sparrow is poorly represented on the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) because of small sample sizes, poor coverage in the northern portion of its breeding range, and the species' furtive behavior (Sauer et al. 1995). Moreover, dramatic fluctuations in Le Conte's Sparrow abundance tend to obscure the species' long-term population trends on the BBS (Sauer et al. 1995). In this paper we examine long-term population changes of Le Conte's Sparrows breeding in perennial grassland fields enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) on the northern Great Plains. We discuss patterns of population change of Le Conte's Sparrows associated with changes in precipitation and moisture conditions.

  18. 25th anniversary article: key points for high-mobility organic field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huanli; Fu, Xiaolong; Liu, Jie; Wang, Zongrui; Hu, Wenping

    2013-11-20

    Remarkable progress has been made in developing high performance organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and the mobility of OFETs has been approaching the values of polycrystalline silicon, meeting the requirements of various electronic applications from electronic papers to integrated circuits. In this review, the key points for development of high mobility OFETs are highlighted from aspects of molecular engineering, process engineering and interface engineering. The importance of other factors, such as impurities and testing conditions is also addressed. Finally, the current challenges in this field for practical applications of OFETs are further discussed. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Estimation of lignite reserve in the Kalburcayiri field, Kangal basin, Sivas, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tercan, A.E. [Department of Mining Engineering, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06532 Ankara (Turkey); Karayigit, A.I. [Department of Geological Engineering, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06532 Ankara (Turkey)

    2001-08-01

    This paper addresses a case study on global estimation of lignite reserve in the Kalburcayiri field from the Sivas-Kangal basin, which is one of the most productive lignite basins in eastern Anatolia, Turkey. The two lignite seams, which were developed in a fresh-water lacustrine depositional environment during the Pliocene time, are currently being exploited in the Kalburcayiri open-cast mine for feed coal to a power plant with 300-MW capacity. Tonnage, thickness and quality parameters (ash yield, total sulphur content, and calorific value) of the lignite are variables considered in this study. The global estimates of these variables together with 95% confidence limits are obtained using the approximation principle of global estimation. A random stratified grid is fitted to available boreholes; the variograms for thickness and lignite quality parameters are estimated and modeled. The models are used in calculating estimation error variances that will later be used in constructing 95% confidence intervals for the true values.

  20. Hydrologic data for the East Poplar oil field, Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Northeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamke, J.N.; Craigg, S.D.; Mendes, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents selected hydrologic data for the East Poplar oil field, located in the south-central part of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation in northeastern Montana. Data about the occurrence, quantity, and quality of ground and surface water are presented in tabular form. The tables contain records of privately owned wells (active and abandoned), monitoring wells installed by the U.S. Geological Survey and Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, oil wells, and brine-injection wells; lithologic descriptions of drill cuttings and well-completion data from monitoring wells; data from two aquifer tests conducted in Quaternary alluvial and glacial deposits; chemical quality of ground water; and information on the quantity and chemical quality of surface water. Records of electromagnetic geophysical measurements collected throughout an area of about 20 square miles of the study area are compiled and included on a floppy disk. Illustrations in this report contain information about study area location, site- numbering system, general physical and cultural features, and construction of monitoring wells installed by the U.S. Geological Survey. plate-sized map presents additional information about privately owned wells, monitoring wells, oil wells, brine-injections wells, surface-water data-collection sites, and area of electromagnetic data collection. The data presented in this report provide a base with which to better define and interpret the occurrence, quantity, and quality of ground and surface water in the vicinity of the Poplar River Valley in the south-central part of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation. The data can be used to help delineate the occurrence of brine and saline water in Quaternary alluvial and glacial deposits in the East Poplar oil field.

  1. Impact of typhoon disturbance on the diversity of key ecosystem engineers in a monoculture mangrove forest plantation, Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diele, K.; Tran Ngoc, D. M.; Geist, S. J.; Meyer, F. W.; Pham, Q. H.; Saint-Paul, U.; Tran, T.; Berger, U.

    2013-11-01

    Mangrove crabs as key ecosystem engineers may play an important role in the recovery process of storm-damaged forests. Yet, their response to storm disturbance is largely unknown. Here we compare the ground-dwelling brachyuran crab community of intact mangrove stands with that of typhoon gaps having experienced 100% tree mortality. Field work was conducted in two adjacent areas in Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, southern Vietnam. In each area, an 18-20 yr old monoculture Rhizophora apiculata stand served as control and was compared with typhoon gaps where downed stems had been removed or left on-site. The gaps were 14 and 20 months old when studied in the dry and rainy season 2008, respectively. Time-based sampling of ground-dwelling crabs with hand or shovel was conducted by 4 persons inside 100 m2 plots for 30 min (7 replicate plots per area, treatment and month). Abiotic (sediment pH, salinity, temperature, grain size, water content, carbon and nitrogen content), and biotic measures (e.g. canopy coverage, woody debris, number of trees, leaf litter) were also taken. Despite complete canopy loss, total crab abundance has not changed significantly (in contrast to biomass) and all 12 species found in the forest were also found in the gaps, demonstrating their robustness. Another 9 gap-exclusive species were recorded and average species number and Shannon diversity were thus higher in the gaps. Perisesarma eumolpe was the most abundant species, both in the forest and in the gaps, and a shift from sesarmids (typical forest species) to ocypodids (generally more prominent in open areas) has not occurred. The persistence of litter-feeding sesarmid crabs prior to the re-establishment of a mangrove canopy is likely to depend on the availability of woody debris on the ground of the gaps, fuelling a mangrove detritus based food web, rather than one based on microphytobenthos and deposit-feeding ocypodids. The presence of burrowing crabs in the gaps suggests that important

  2. INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

    2002-02-28

    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  3. Key action items for the stem cell field: looking ahead to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoepfler, Paul S

    2013-12-01

    The stem cell field is at a critical juncture in late 2013. We find ourselves buoyed by building momentum for both transformative basic science discoveries and clinical translation of stem cells. Cellular reprogramming has given the field exciting new avenues as well. The overall prospect of novel stem cell-based therapies becoming a reality for patients in the coming years has never seemed higher. At the same time, we face serious challenges. Some of these challenges, such as stem cell tourism, are familiar to us, although even those are evolving in ways that require adaptability and action by the stem cell field. Other new challenges are also emerging, including an urgent need for formal physician training in stem cells, regulatory compliance balanced with innovation and U.S. Food and Drug Administration reform, and savvy educational outreach. Looking ahead to 2014, both the challenges and opportunities for the stem cell field require a proactive, thoughtful approach to maximize the potential for a positive impact from stem cell advances. In this study, I discuss the key action items for the field as we look ahead to the coming year and beyond.

  4. Increased Oil Production and Reserves from Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deo, M.D.; Morgan, C.D.

    1999-04-28

    The objective of the project is to increase oil production and reserves by the use of improved reservoir characterization and completion techniques in the Uinta Basin, Utah. To accomplish this objective, a two-year geologic and engineering characterization of the Bluebell field was conducted. The study evaluated surface and subsurface data, currently used completion techniques, and common production problems. It was determined that advanced case- and open-hole logs could be effective in determining productive beds and that stage-interval (about 500 ft [150 m] per stage) and bed-scale isolation completion techniques could result in improved well performance. In the first demonstration well (Michelle Ute well discussed in the previous technical report), dipole shear anisotropy (anisotropy) and dual-burst thermal decay time (TDT) logs were run before and isotope tracer log was run after the treatment. The logs were very helpful in characterizing the remaining hydrocarbon potential in the well. But, mechanical failure resulted in a poor recompletion and did not result in a significant improvement in the oil production from the well.

  5. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It was hoped that the successful application of these technologies would result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  6. Field-measured drag area is a key correlate of level cycling time trial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Peterman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Drag area (Ad is a primary factor determining aerodynamic resistance during level cycling and is therefore a key determinant of level time trial performance. However, Ad has traditionally been difficult to measure. Our purpose was to determine the value of adding field-measured Ad as a correlate of level cycling time trial performance. In the field, 19 male cyclists performed a level (22.1 km time trial. Separately, field-determined Ad and rolling resistance were calculated for subjects along with projected frontal area assessed directly (AP and indirectly (Est AP. Also, a graded exercise test was performed to determine $\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$V̇O2 peak, lactate threshold (LT, and economy. $\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$V̇O2 peak ($\\mathrm{l}~\\min ^{-1}$lmin−1 and power at LT were significantly correlated to power measured during the time trial (r = 0.83 and 0.69, respectively but were not significantly correlated to performance time (r = − 0.42 and −0.45. The correlation with performance time improved significantly (p < 0.05 when these variables were normalized to Ad. Of note, Ad alone was better correlated to performance time (r = 0.85, p < 0.001 than any combination of non-normalized physiological measure. The best correlate with performance time was field-measured power output during the time trial normalized to Ad (r = − 0.92. AP only accounted for 54% of the variability in Ad. Accordingly, the correlation to performance time was significantly lower using power normalized to AP (r = − 0.75 or Est AP (r = − 0.71. In conclusion, unless normalized to Ad, level time trial performance in the field was not highly correlated to common laboratory measures. Furthermore, our field-measured Ad is easy to determine and was the single best predictor of level time trial performance.

  7. Life-Cycle Management of the Active Reserve Field Grade Officer Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    of the country from the Great Depression and inadequate Congressional resourcing of the Army adequately, only 14 percent of Army Reserve officers...copy in CMH files). 10 Twice the Citizen, A History of the United States Army Reserve, 1908-1983, Richard B. Crossland, Lieutenant Colonel, USAR

  8. Electric-field assisted spin torque nano-oscillator and binary frequency shift keying modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangli; Chen, Hao-Hsuan; Zhang, Zongzhi; Liu, Yaowen

    2018-04-01

    Electric-controlled magnetization precession introduces technologically relevant possibility for developing spin torque nano-oscillators (STNO) with potential applications in microwave emission. Using the perpendicularly magnetized magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), we show that the magnetization oscillation frequency can be tuned by the co-action of electric field and spin polarized current. The dynamical phase diagram of MTJ-based STNO is analytically predicted through coordinate transformation from the laboratory frame to the rotation frame, by which the nonstationary out-of-plane magnetization precession process is therefore transformed into the stationary process in the rotation frame. Furthermore, using this STNO as a microwave source, we numerically demonstrate that the bit signal can be transmitted by a binary frequency shift keying (BFSK) modulation technique. The BFSK scheme shows good modulation features with no transient state.

  9. Forest resource inventory assessment in Gunung Rara Forest Reserve, Sabah, using stratified field sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruzaman Jusoff

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the current timber volume by stratified sampling on a proposed plantation area. The study area is located in Gunung Rara Forest Reserve in the district of Tawau, Sabah, Malaysia.

  10. Light Field Compression with Disparity Guided Sparse Coding based on Structural Key Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Hou, Junhui; Chau, Lap-Pui

    2017-09-08

    Recent imaging technologies are rapidly evolving for sampling richer and more immersive representations of the 3D world. One of the emerging technologies is light field (LF) cameras based on micro-lens arrays. To record the directional information of the light rays, a much larger storage space and transmission bandwidth are required by a LF image as compared with a conventional 2D image of similar spatial dimension. Hence, the compression of LF data becomes a vital part of its application. In this paper, we propose a LF codec with disparity guided Sparse Coding over a learned perspective-shifted LF dictionary based on selected Structural Key Views (SC-SKV). The sparse coding is based on a limited number of optimally selected SKVs; yet the entire LF can be recovered from the coding coefficients. By keeping the approximation identical between encoder and decoder, only the residuals of the non-key views, disparity map and the SKVs need to be compressed into the bit stream. An optimized SKV selection method is proposed such that most LF spatial information can be preserved. To achieve optimum dictionary efficiency, the LF is divided into several coding regions, over which the reconstruction works individually. Experiments and comparisons have been carried out over benchmark LF dataset, which show that the proposed SC-SKV codec produces convincing compression results in terms of both rate-distortion performance and visual quality compared with JEM (Joint Exploration Model): with 37.9% BD-rate reduction and 1.17 dB BD-PSNR improvement achieved on average, especially with up to 6 dB improvement for low bit rate scenarios.

  11. Specialists of social work as key subjects in the field of social work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Oresheta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the presented article an author is analyze social work as type of professional activity and is carried out the sociological analysis of specialists of social work as key subjects in the field of social work. As social work is important direction of activity in any state, it methodological bases, key tasks and main principles though are something alike, however differ depending on legal, organizational, financial possibilities of the state and necessities of clients. Specialists of social work provide realization of social work on national, regional and local levels on enterprises, in establishments, organizations of different pattern of ownership. Professional activity of specialists of social work in Ukraine must correspond the basic requirements and tasks, to certain in Order of Ministry of social policy of Ukraine from 25.05.2012 year «About assertion of new release of qualifying description of profession «Specialist on social work»». In the article is also analyses the short history and features of social work as the type of professional activity in Ukraine, professional requirements to the specialists of social work, their task, role and function are specified. It is set that a necessary condition for a capture this profession is social orientation of personality, presence of the proper social qualities, such as: humanism, goodwill, justice, to responsibility and others. One of entrance terms of efficiency of social work is the presence of skilled shots of the proper level. A considerable value for successful professionalism has an orientation of specialist of social work which plugs the system of values and motivation of him to activity. For a social worker as the professional an important place is occupied by the awareness of itself by the subject of professional activity, that is professional identity.

  12. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  13. Is there a relationship between earthworm energy reserves and metal availability after exposure to field-contaminated soils?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumelle, Léa; Lamy, Isabelle; Cheviron, Nathalie; Hedde, Mickaël

    2014-01-01

    Generic biomarkers are needed to assess environmental risks in metal polluted soils. We assessed the strength of the relationship between earthworm energy reserves and metal availability under conditions of cocktail of metals at low doses and large range of soil parameters. Aporrectodea caliginosa was exposed in laboratory to a panel of soils differing in Cd, Pb and Zn total and available (CaCl 2 and EDTA-extractable) concentrations, and in soil texture, pH, CEC and organic-C. Glycogen, protein and lipid contents were recorded in exposed worms. Glycogen contents were not linked to the explaining variables considered. Variable selection identified CaCl 2 extractable metals concentrations and soil texture as the main factors affecting protein and lipid contents. The results showed opposite effects of Pb and Zn, high inter-individual variability of biomarkers and weak relationships with easily extractable metals. Our results support the lack of genericity of energy reserves in earthworms exposed to field-contaminated soils. - Highlights: • Energy reserves were quantified in earthworms exposed to a wide panel of field soils. • Protein and lipid contents were related to CaCl 2 extractable metals. • Soil texture affected protein and lipid contents. • Energy reserves were highly variable inter-individually. - Earthworm energy reserves response to low doses of available metals is not generic

  14. High-Rate Field Demonstration of Large-Alphabet Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-22

    Public Release ∗To whom correspondence should be addressed; E-mail: englund@mit.edu. May 22, 2017 A central goal of quantum information science is to...approximately 100 km for these parameters, the best strategy to maximize the secret-key rate is to reduce the transmitted pho- ton rate by increasing...into shared secret keys through a series of classical postprocessing steps. Bob demodulates the PPM signal, and Alice and Bob sift their data to

  15. Field test of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossier, S; Debuisschert, T; Diamanti, E; Villing, A; Tualle-Brouri, R; Grangier, P

    2009-01-01

    We have designed and realized a prototype that implements a continuous-variable quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol based on coherent states and reverse reconciliation. The system uses time and polarization multiplexing for optimal transmission and detection of the signal and phase reference, and employs sophisticated error-correction codes for reconciliation. The security of the system is guaranteed against general coherent eavesdropping attacks. The performance of the prototype was tested over preinstalled optical fibres as part of a quantum cryptography network combining different QKD technologies. The stable and automatic operation of the prototype over 57 h yielded an average secret key distribution rate of 8 kbit s -1 over a 3 dB loss optical fibre, including the key extraction process and all quantum and classical communication. This system is therefore ideal for securing communications in metropolitan size networks with high-speed requirements.

  16. A field key to upload Kenya grasses | Agnew | Journal of East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The species of Gramineae (Poaceae) that have been recorded in a delimited area of central and western Kenya are listed and keys are provided for their identification. The area is bounded by the 1000 m contour except in the southern Rift Valley where the Kenya/Tanzania boundary encorporates lower altitudes. For every ...

  17. High-Rate Field Demonstration of Large-Alphabet Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    et al. Provably secure and practical quantum key distribution over 307 km of optical fibre . Nat. Photon. 9, 163–168 (2015). [16] Mower, J. et al. High...the optical channel could support. For a given detector technology, this cap can be raised by encoding photons in high-dimensional basis states...distances of tens of kilometers. To demonstrate high-rate, large-alphabet QKD, we implemented dispersive- optics QKD (DO-QKD) [16], a high- dimensional

  18. Quantum key distribution with hacking countermeasures and long term field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, A R; Dynes, J F; Lucamarini, M; Fröhlich, B; Sharpe, A W; Plews, A; Tam, W; Yuan, Z L; Tanizawa, Y; Sato, H; Kawamura, S; Fujiwara, M; Sasaki, M; Shields, A J

    2017-05-16

    Quantum key distribution's (QKD's) central and unique claim is information theoretic security. However there is an increasing understanding that the security of a QKD system relies not only on theoretical security proofs, but also on how closely the physical system matches the theoretical models and prevents attacks due to discrepancies. These side channel or hacking attacks exploit physical devices which do not necessarily behave precisely as the theory expects. As such there is a need for QKD systems to be demonstrated to provide security both in the theoretical and physical implementation. We report here a QKD system designed with this goal in mind, providing a more resilient target against possible hacking attacks including Trojan horse, detector blinding, phase randomisation and photon number splitting attacks. The QKD system was installed into a 45 km link of a metropolitan telecom network for a 2.5 month period, during which time the system operated continuously and distributed 1.33 Tbits of secure key data with a stable secure key rate over 200 kbit/s. In addition security is demonstrated against coherent attacks that are more general than the collective class of attacks usually considered.

  19. Calcium neuroimaging in behaving zebrafish larvae using a turn-key light field camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Perez, Carlos; Lauri, Antonella; Symvoulidis, Panagiotis; Cappetta, Michele; Erdmann, Arne; Westmeyer, Gil Gregor

    2015-09-01

    Reconstructing a three-dimensional scene from multiple simultaneously acquired perspectives (the light field) is an elegant scanless imaging concept that can exceed the temporal resolution of currently available scanning-based imaging methods for capturing fast cellular processes. We tested the performance of commercially available light field cameras on a fluorescent microscopy setup for monitoring calcium activity in the brain of awake and behaving reporter zebrafish larvae. The plenoptic imaging system could volumetrically resolve diverse neuronal response profiles throughout the zebrafish brain upon stimulation with an aversive odorant. Behavioral responses of the reporter fish could be captured simultaneously together with depth-resolved neuronal activity. Overall, our assessment showed that with some optimizations for fluorescence microscopy applications, commercial light field cameras have the potential of becoming an attractive alternative to custom-built systems to accelerate molecular imaging research on cellular dynamics.

  20. Magnetic quantum tunneling: key insights from multi-dimensional high-field EPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J; Yang, E-C; Hendrickson, D N; Hill, S

    2009-08-21

    Multi-dimensional high-field/frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (HFEPR) spectroscopy is performed on single-crystals of the high-symmetry spin S = 4 tetranuclear single-molecule magnet (SMM) [Ni(hmp)(dmb)Cl](4), where hmp(-) is the anion of 2-hydroxymethylpyridine and dmb is 3,3-dimethyl-1-butanol. Measurements performed as a function of the applied magnetic field strength and its orientation within the hard-plane reveal the four-fold behavior associated with the fourth order transverse zero-field splitting (ZFS) interaction, (1/2)B(S + S), within the framework of a rigid spin approximation (with S = 4). This ZFS interaction mixes the m(s) = +/-4 ground states in second order of perturbation, generating a sizeable (12 MHz) tunnel splitting, which explains the fast magnetic quantum tunneling in this SMM. Meanwhile, multi-frequency measurements performed with the field parallel to the easy-axis reveal HFEPR transitions associated with excited spin multiplets (S spin s = 1 Ni(II) ions within the cluster, as well as a characterization of the ZFS within excited states. The combined experimental studies support recent work indicating that the fourth order anisotropy associated with the S = 4 state originates from second order ZFS interactions associated with the individual Ni(II) centers, but only as a result of higher-order processes that occur via S-mixing between the ground state and higher-lying (S spin multiplets. We argue that this S-mixing plays an important role in the low-temperature quantum dynamics associated with many other well known SMMs.

  1. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-08-08

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs, including: (1) Development of three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic reservoir simulation models--thermal or otherwise--to aid in reservoir management of the steamflood and post-steamflood phases and subsequent development work. (2) Development of computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid reservoir surveillance and operations. (3) Perform detailed studies of the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (4) Testing and proposed application of a

  2. Single stranded loops of quadruplex DNA as key benchmark for testing nucleic acids force fields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fadrná, E.; Špačková, Naďa; Sarzynska, J.; Koča, J.; Orozco, M.; Cheatham III, T.E.; Kulinski, T.; Šponer, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 9 (2009), s. 2514-2530 ISSN 1549-9618 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06030; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040581; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400040802 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA203/09/1476 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : DNA quadruplex * MD simulation * force fields Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.804, year: 2009

  3. Nitrogen reserves, spring regrowth and winter survival of field-grown alfalfa (Medicago sativa) defoliated in the autumn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, Catherine; Castonguay, Yves; Nadeau, Paul; Bélanger, Gilles; Drapeau, Raynald; Laberge, Serge; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Chalifour, François-P

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize variations in proline, arginine, histidine, vegetative storage proteins, and cold-inducible gene expression in overwintering roots of field-grown alfalfa, in response to autumn defoliation, and in relation to spring regrowth and winter survival. Field trials, established in 1996 in eastern Canada, consisted of two alfalfa cultivars ('AC Caribou' and 'WL 225') defoliated in 1997 and 1998 either only twice during the summer or three times with the third defoliation taken 400, 500 or 600 growing degree days (basis 5 degrees C) after the second summer defoliation. The root accumulation of proline, arginine, histidine and soluble proteins of 32, 19 and 15 kDa, characterized as alfalfa vegetative storage proteins, was reduced the following spring by an early autumn defoliation at 400 or 500 growing degree days in both cultivars; the 600-growing-degree-days defoliation treatment had less or no effect. Transcript levels of the cold-inducible gene msaCIA, encoding a glycine-rich protein, were markedly reduced by autumn defoliation in 'WL 225', but remained unaffected in the more winter-hardy cultivar 'AC Caribou'. The expression of another cold-inducible gene, the dehydrin homologue msaCIG, was not consistently affected by autumn defoliation. Principal component analyses, including components of root organic reserves at the onset of winter, along with yield and plant density in the following spring, revealed that (a) amino acids and soluble proteins are positively related to the vigour of spring regrowth but poorly related to winter survival and (b) winter survival, as indicated by plant density in the spring, is associated with higher concentrations of cryoprotective sugars in alfalfa roots the previous autumn. An untimely autumn defoliation of alfalfa reduces root accumulation of specific N reserves such as proline, arginine, histidine and vegetative storage proteins that are positively related to the vigour of spring

  4. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability

  5. Gallium-nitride-based field-effect transistors: Key material synthesis and device processing issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffey, Brendan Martin

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is viewed as an excellent candidate for the fabrication of high-power and high-frequency transistors operating at elevated temperatures, due to its wide bandgap, high electron saturation velocity, high breakdown electric-field strength, and potential for lattice-matched heterojunctions with other group-III nitrides. This thesis focuses on the following three open areas of research important to the eventual commercialization of GaN-based field-effect transistors: (1) metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of high-mobility, low-doped GaN, (2) n- and p-type conductivity control of GaN through ion implantation and in-situ doping during MOCVD growth, and (3) potential gate insulators deposited on GaN. Parameters affecting the MOCVD growth of GaN, including source quality, buffer-layer thickness, growth temperature, and epitaxial-layer thickness, are explored, and optimum conditions for the MOCVD growth of unintentionally-doped GaN are identified. In addition, electron-density and electron-mobility values extracted from Hall-effect measurements are shown to be misleading indications of material quality for unintentionally-doped GaN, caused by structural non-homogeneity along the direction of growth in theses samples. N- and p-type doping of GaN is also investigated. Silane and Bis(cyclopentadienyl)magnesium are used for in-situ silicon and magnesium doping of GaN during MOCVD growth, respectively. Silicon is demonstrated to be a very effective donor in GaN, allowing for the growth of n-type GaN over a large range of electron densities (10 16--1019 cm-3) with high electron mobilities (maximum of 543 cm2/V·sec). Magnesium doping, while producing p-type conductivity in GaN (maximum p = 2.3 x 1017 cm-3 with a corresponding mu h = 17 cm2/V·sec), demonstrates an anomalous relationship between the Mg incorporation and the hole density. The cause of this behavior is identified as native-defect formation during GaN growth. Ion implantation of Si

  6. Boundary-layer processes: key findings from MATERHORN-X field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sabatino, Silvana; Leo, Laura S.; Pardyjak, Eric R.; Fernando, Harindra JS

    2017-04-01

    Understanding of atmospheric boundary-layer processes in complex terrain continues to be an active area of research considering its profound implications on numerical weather prediction (WP). It is largely recognized that nocturnal circulation, non-stationary processes involved in evening and morning transitions as well gusty conditions near mountains are poorly captured by current WP models. The search for novel understanding of boundary-layer phenomena especially in critical conditions for WP models has been one of the goals of the interdisciplinary Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) program (2011-2016). The program developed with four main pillars: modelling (MATERHORN-M), experiments (MATERHORN-X), technology (MATERHORN-T), and parameterizations (MATERHORN-P), all synergistically working to meet new scientific challenges, address them effectively through dedicated field and laboratory studies, and transfer the acquired knowledge for model improvements. Specifically, MATERHORN-X is at the core of the MATERHORN program. It was built upon two major field experiments carried out in 31 September-October 2012 and in May 2013 at the Granite Mountain Atmospheric Science Testbed 32 (GMAST) of the Dugway Proving Ground (DPG). In this talk we will focus on results of data analyses from MATERHORN-X with emphasis on several aspects of the nocturnal circulation under low synoptic forcing when stable stratification occurs. The first part of the talk will discuss the evolution of nocturnal flows including both evening transitions on slopes and valleys as well as the occurrence of isolated flow bursts under very stable conditions. As far as the former is concerned we report on our latest understanding of mechanisms leading to evening transitions (e.g. shadow front, slab flow, and transitional front). As far as the latter is concerned, it is hypothesized that a link exists between isolated bursts in turbulent kinetic energy and low-level jets

  7. Hydrogeologic aspects of brine disposal in the East Poplar oil field, Fort Peck Indian Reservation, northeastern Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craigg, S.D.; Thamke, J.N. (Geological Survey, Helena, MT (United States))

    1993-04-01

    The East Poplar Oil Field encompasses about 70 square miles in the south-central part of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation. Oil production began in 1952 from the Mississippian Madison Group. Production depths range from about 5,500 to 6,000 feet below land surface. Large quantities of brine (water having a dissolved-solids concentration greater than 35,000 milligrams per liter) have been produced with the oil. The brine has a dissolved-solids concentration of as much as 160,000 milligrams per liter. Most of the brine has been disposed of by injection into shallower subsurface formations (mainly the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone at depths of about 3,300 feet and the Upper Cretaceous Judith River Formation at depths of about 1,000 feet). Smaller quantities of brine have been directed to storage and evaporation pits. Handling, transport, and disposal of the brine have resulted in its movement into and migration through shallow Quaternary alluvial and glacial deposits along the Poplar River valley. Locally, domestic water supplies are obtained from these deposits. The major point, sources of shallow ground-water contamination probably is leakage of brine from corroded disposal-well casing and pipelines. Using electromagnetic geophysical techniques and auger drilling, three saline-water plumes in alluvial deposits and one plum in glacial deposits have been delineated. Dominant constituents in plume areas are sodium and chloride, whereas those in nonplume areas are sodium and bicarbonate.

  8. Key factors that influence government policies and decision making about healthcare priorities: Lessons for the field of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteford, Harvey; Weissman, Ruth Striegel

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide, the demand for healthcare exceeds what individuals and governments are able to afford. Priority setting is therefore inevitable, and mental health services have often been given low priority in the decision-making process. Drawing on established economic criteria, and specifically the work of Philip Musgrove, key factors which influence government decision-making about health priorities are reviewed. These factors include the size of the health burden, the availability of cost-effective interventions to reduce the burden, whether private markets can provide the necessary treatment efficiently, whether there are "catastrophic costs" incurred in accessing treatment, whether negative externalities arise from not providing care, and if the "rule of rescue" applies. Beyond setting priorities for resource allocation, governments also become involved where there is a need for regulation to maintain quality in the delivery of healthcare. By providing field-specific examples for each factor, we illustrate how advocates in the eating disorder field may use evidence to inform government policy about resource allocation and regulation in support of individuals with an eating disorder. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Research to practice in addiction treatment: key terms and a field-driven model of technology transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    The transfer of new technologies (e.g., evidence-based practices) into substance abuse treatment organizations often occurs long after they have been developed and shown to be effective. Transfer is slowed, in part, due to a lack of clear understanding about all that is needed to achieve full implementation of these technologies. Such misunderstanding is exacerbated by inconsistent terminology and overlapping models of an innovation, including its development and validation, dissemination to the public, and implementation or use in the field. For this reason, a workgroup of the Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC) Network developed a field-driven conceptual model of the innovation process that more precisely defines relevant terms and concepts and integrates them into a comprehensive taxonomy. The proposed definitions and conceptual framework will allow for improved understanding and consensus regarding the distinct meaning and conceptual relationships between dimensions of the technology transfer process and accelerate the use of evidence-based practices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Plans to Develop a Gas Field in the Kansu on the Border of the Usturt State Nature Reserve is a Real Threat for the Ecosystem of the Reserve and Largest Population of the Saker Falcon in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark V. Pestov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plans of JSC “KazMunayGaz” National Company” on developing the Kansu gas field, which is situated right next to current southern borders of Usturt natural reserve on Kenderli-Kayasan conservation zone (Mangystau Province of the Republic of Kazakhstan are a direct danger for the largest population of the Saker Falcon Falco cherrug korelovi in Kazakhstan and for Kenderli-Kayasan conservation zone’s ecosystem as a whole. On the contrary, the realization of plans to expand the Usturt State Reserve within the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan/GEF/UNDP project “Rising of stability of systems in conservation territories in desert ecosystems through promoting life sustaining sources compatible with biodiversity in and around conservation areas” and international expert group’s initiative of Mangystau Protected Area System to be nominated for UNESCO World Heritage status could create favorable environment for Usturt population of the Saker Falcon. It’s evident that all possible outcomes should be taken into account in the long-term planning of future development of Mangystau region, and options of development with less negative effect on environment should be chosen. In their letter to President of Kazakhstan the experts described their opinion on the necessity of imposing a moratorium on exploration and development of the Kansu gas field and concentrating on alternative fields.

  11. Characterization and expression patterns of key C4photosynthetic pathway genes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachir, Daoura Goudia; Saeed, Iqbal; Song, Quanhao; Linn, Tay Zar; Chen, Liang; Hu, Yin-Gang

    2017-06-01

    Wheat is a C 3 plant with relatively low photosynthetic efficiency and is a potential target for C 4 photosynthetic pathway engineering. Here we reported the characterization of four key C 4 pathway genes and assessed their expression patterns and enzymatic activities at three growth stages in flag leaves of 59 bread wheat genotypes. The C 4 -like genes homologous to PEPC, NADP-ME, MDH, and PPDK in maize were identified in the A, B, and D sub-genomes of bread wheat, located on the long arms of chromosomes 3 and 5 (TaPEPC), short arms of chromosomes 1 and 3 (TaNADP-ME), long arms of chromosomes 1 and 7 (TaMDH), and long arms of chromosome 1 (TaPPDK), respectively. All the four C 4 -like genes were expressed in the flag leaves at the three growth stages with considerable variations among the 59 bread wheat genotypes. Significant differences were observed between the photosynthesis rates (A) of wheat genotypes with higher expressions of TaPEPC_5, TaNADP-ME_1, and TaMDH_7 at heading and middle grain-filling stages and those with intermediate and low expressions. Our results also indicated that the four C 4 enzymes showed activity in the flag leaves and were obviously different among the 59 wheat genotypes. The activities of PEPcase and PPDK decreased at anthesis and slightly increased at grain-filling stage, while NADP-ME and MDH exhibited a decreasing trend at the three stages. The results of the current study could be very valuable and useful for wheat researchers in improving photosynthetic capacity of wheat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: brine-disposal studies in the Gulf of Mexico. Field and laboratory procedures manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hann, R.W. Jr.; Giammona, C.P.; Randall, R.E. (eds.)

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of this manual is to describe the field and laboratory procedures which have been developed over the past five years and those currently in use for monitoring the effects of brine discharge on the marine environment in the Gulf of Mexico. Using such a manual provides a mechanism for updating procedures as changes occur, such as those for a monitoring plan change or the inclusion of the Big Hill site. The manual is divided into chapters which generally correspond to areas of responsibility of the principal investigators on the project team. These chapters are entitled Introduction (Chapter 1), Project Organization (Chapter 2), Objectives/Project Plan (Chapter 3), Field Operations (Chapter 4), Physical Oceanography (Chapter 5), CTD/DO and Brine Plume Tracking (Chapter 6), Water and Sediment Quality (Chapter 7), Special Pollutant Survey (Chapter 8), Phytoplankton (Chapter 9), Zooplankton (Chapter 10), Benthos (Chapter 11), Nekton (Chapter 12), and Data Management (Chapter 13). 65 references, 144 figures, 34 tables.

  13. Field Laboratory in the Osage Reservation -- Determination of the Status of Oil and Gas Operations: Task 1. Development of Survey Procedures and Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    Procedures and protocols were developed for the determination of the status of oil, gas, and other mineral operations on the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate. The strategy for surveying Osage County, Oklahoma, was developed and then tested in the field. Two Osage Tribal Council members and two Native American college students (who are members of the Osage Tribe) were trained in the field as a test of the procedures and protocols developed in Task 1. Active and inactive surface mining operations, industrial sites, and hydrocarbon-producing fields were located on maps of the county, which was divided into four more or less equal areas for future investigation. Field testing of the procedures, protocols, and training was successful. No significant damage was found at petroleum production operations in a relatively new production operation and in a mature waterflood operation.

  14. The key role of Satellite Laser Ranging towards the integrated estimation of geometry, rotation and gravitational field of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossfeld, Mathis

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) was installed as a full component of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG). One primary goal of GGOS is the integration of geometric and gravimetric observation techniques to estimate consistent geodetic-geophysical parameters. Thereby, GGOS is based on the data and services of the IAG. Besides the combination of different geodetic techniques, also the common estimation of the station coordinates (TRF), Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP) and coefficients of the Earth's gravitational field (Stokes coefficients) is necessary in order to reach this goal. However, the combination of all geometric and gravimetric observation techniques is not yet fully realized. A major step towards the GGOS idea of parameter integration would be the understanding of the existing correlations between the above mentioned fundamental geodetic parameter groups. This topic is the major objective of this thesis. One possibility to study the interactions is the use of Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) in an intertechnique combination with Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) or the intra-technique combination of multiple SLR-tracked satellites. SLR plays a key role in this thesis since it is the unique technique which is sensitive to all parameter groups and allows an integrated parameter estimation with very high accuracy. The present work is based on five first-author publications which are supplemented by four co-author publications. In this framework, for the first time an extensive discussion of a refined global Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF) estimation procedure, the estimation of so-called Epoch Reference Frames (ERFs) is presented. In contrast to the conventional linear station motion model, the ERFs provide frequently estimated station coordinates and Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP) which allow to approximate not modeled non-linear station motions very accurately

  15. Measuring stock and change in the GB countryside for policy--key findings and developments from the Countryside Survey 2007 field survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, L R; Maskell, L C; Smart, S S; Dunbar, M J; Emmett, B A; Carey, P D; Williams, P; Crowe, A; Chandler, K; Scott, W A; Wood, C M

    2012-12-30

    Countryside Survey is a unique large scale long-term monitoring programme investigating stock and change of habitats, landscape features, vegetation, soil and freshwaters of Great Britain. Repeat field surveys combine policy and scientific objectives to provide evidence on how multiple aspects of the environment are changing over time, a key goal of international science in the face of profound human impacts on ecosystems. Countryside Survey 2007 (CS2007), the fifth survey since 1978, retained consistency with previous surveys, whilst evolving in line with technological and conceptual advances in the collection and integration of data to understand landscape change. This paper outlines approaches taken in the 2007 survey and its subsequent analysis and presents some of the headline results of the survey and their relevance for national and international policy objectives. Key changes between 1998 and 2007 included: a) significant shifts in agricultural land cover from arable to grassland, accompanied by increases in the area of broadleaved woodland, b) decreases in the length of managed hedges associated with agricultural land, as a proportion deteriorated to lines of trees and c) increases in the areas and numbers of wet habitats (standing open water, ponds) and species preferring wetter conditions (1998-2007 and 1978-2007). Despite international policy directed at maintaining and enhancing biodiversity, there were widespread decreases in species richness in all linear and area habitats, except on arable land, consistent with an increase in competitive and late successional species between 1998 and 2007 and 1978 and 2007. Late successional and competitive species: Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), Hawthorn (Cratageous monogyna) and Bramble (Rubus fruticosus), in the top ten recorded species recorded in 2007, all increased between 1998 and 2007. The most commonly recorded species in CS (1990, 1998 and 2007) was agricultural Ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Increases in

  16. Using Conjoint Analysis to Estimate Employers Preferences for Key Competencies of Master Level Dutch Graduates Entering the Public Health Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesma, R. G.; Pavlova, M.; van Merode, G. G.; Groot, W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses an experimental design to estimate preferences of employers for key competencies during the transition from initial education to the labor market. The study is restricted to employers of entry-level academic graduates entering public health organizations in the Netherlands. Given the changing and complex demands in public health,…

  17. Increasing heavy oil reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Annual report, March 30, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in a portion of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, by implementing advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Based on the knowledge and experience gained with this project, these technologies are intended to be extended to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, and, through technology transfer, will be available to increase heavy oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The project involves implementing thermal recovery in the southern half of the Fault Block II-A Tar zone. The existing steamflood in Fault Block II-A has been relatively inefficient due to several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery efficiency and reduce operating costs.

  18. An Investigation of the Mass Balance of Oil and Gas Produced Versus Estimated Reserves Remaining within the A.W.P. Field, McMullen County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Scott Murphy

    The A.W.P. Field is located in McMullen County, approximately 4 to 6 miles southeast of the town of Tilden in the Rio Grande Embayment. The study area was believed to be near depletion of all hydrocarbons; however, a recent well drilled (fall 2014) just to the west of the study area has produced significant hydrocarbons. This prompted Milagro Exploration to launch an effort to reevaluate the potential within the field in order to investigate whether the field is, in fact, entirely depleted. My approach to solving this problem began with researching the area to develop an understanding of the geological setting, depositional systems, and productive intervals, then acquiring the proper data, as this data was the foundation of the project. I completed a detailed correlation framework of key formations with the acquired well logs. I interpreted an extensive 3D seismic data set to map my areas of interest and faults. With all relevant information, I completed structure maps, isopach maps, production maps, and calculated volumetrics, concluding with my recommendation, and determined whether the field is ultimately depleted or not. I concluded that there are two relevant intervals within the study area. First, the Wilcox-Wales Formation (Wales; Early Tertiary) was a random stratigraphic accumulation that had sporadic hydrocarbon production, and would be essentially high risk to drill. Second, the Olmos Formation (Olmos; Late Cretaceous) had significant potential for 2 horizontal wells on the western side of the lease area.

  19. Modeling and Simulation of a Non-Coherent Frequency Shift Keying Transceiver Using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Voskakis, Konstantinos

    2008-01-01

    ...) receiver-transmitter in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). After introducing the theory behind the Non- Coherent BFSK demodulation implemented at the receiver, the design of transmitter and receiver is illustrated...

  20. Secondary natural gas recovery: Targeted applications for infield reserve growth in midcontinent reservoirs, Boonsville Field, Fort Worth Basin, Texas. Topical report, May 1993--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardage, B.A.; Carr, D.L.; Finley, R.J.; Tyler, N.; Lancaster, D.E.; Elphick, R.Y.; Ballard, J.R.

    1995-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to define undrained or incompletely drained reservoir compartments controlled primarily by depositional heterogeneity in a low-accommodation, cratonic Midcontinent depositional setting, and, afterwards, to develop and transfer to producers strategies for infield reserve growth of natural gas. Integrated geologic, geophysical, reservoir engineering, and petrophysical evaluations are described in complex difficult-to-characterize fluvial and deltaic reservoirs in Boonsville (Bend Conglomerate Gas) field, a large, mature gas field located in the Fort Worth Basin of North Texas. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate approaches to overcoming the reservoir complexity, targeting the gas resource, and doing so using state-of-the-art technologies being applied by a large cross section of Midcontinent operators.

  1. Putting the community back in community ecology and education: the role of field schools and private reserves in the ethical training of primatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, P A; Molina, A; Molina, R L

    2010-09-01

    In 1993 and 1999, with the assistance of a Nicaraguan family, we founded La Suerte Biological Research Station in northeastern Costa Rica and Ometepe Biological Research Station in southern Nicaragua as a privately owned conservation-oriented business. Our goal was to develop a program of sustainable community ecology focused on education, research, and the conservation of primates and tropical forests. In order to accomplish this we developed field courses in which undergraduate and graduate students conduct scientific research, experience local cultures, and learn about conservation. Over 120 of these students have received doctoral degrees or are currently in graduate programs. Four doctoral dissertations, several MA theses, and some 20 scientific articles have been published based on research conducted at our field stations. In order to achieve our long-term goals of preserving the environment, we also needed to engage directly with local communities to address their needs and concerns. To this end, we developed a series of community-based initiatives related to health care, bilingual education, and conservation education using traditional and on-line teaching tools. In this article, we describe our efforts in Costa Rica and Nicaragua teaching conservation-oriented field courses and working with the local human communities. Building upon these experiences, we outline a set of ethical considerations and responsibilities for private reserves, conservation-oriented businesses, NGOs, and conservancies that help integrate members of the local community as stakeholders in conservation. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Forest and field abundance of Scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae in the São Donato Biological Reserve, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius da Costa Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare the species richness, abundance and diversity of Scarabaeidae beetles in two types of habitats (field and forest, and to assess whether their seasonal variation is related to climatic variables. This study was conducted in the São Donato Biological Reserve, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil (Pampa biome. Beetles were collected using pitfall traps between January 2012 and January 2013. A total of 125 individuals were collected, of which six genera and 11 species from four subfamilies of Scarabaeidae were identified. 54 individuals of five species were collected from the field, and 71 individuals of eight species were collected from the forest. The most abundant species were Ataenius picinus Harold, 1868, Canthon lividus Blanchard, 1845 and Leucothyreus lavipes Eschscholtz, 1822, which together accounted for 86.4% of all individuals captured. The highest total number of individuals was collected in summer (78, and the highest number of species was collected in spring (9. Differences in environmental structure (and associated climate and food resource availability may be decisive and limiting factors for beetle occurrence in forest versus field areas, as various species were restricted to a specific habitat type or season.

  3. Enhancing Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) Level-0 Physical Process Security Using Field Device Distinct Native Attribute Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Juan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liefer, Nathan C. [Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH (United States); Busho, Colin R. [Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH (United States); Temple, Michael A. [Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH (United States)

    2017-12-04

    Here, the need for improved Critical Infrastructure and Key Resource (CIKR) security is unquestioned and there has been minimal emphasis on Level-0 (PHY Process) improvements. Wired Signal Distinct Native Attribute (WS-DNA) Fingerprinting is investigated here as a non-intrusive PHY-based security augmentation to support an envisioned layered security strategy. Results are based on experimental response collections from Highway Addressable Remote Transducer (HART) Differential Pressure Transmitter (DPT) devices from three manufacturers (Yokogawa, Honeywell, Endress+Hauer) installed in an automated process control system. Device discrimination is assessed using Time Domain (TD) and Slope-Based FSK (SB-FSK) fingerprints input to Multiple Discriminant Analysis, Maximum Likelihood (MDA/ML) and Random Forest (RndF) classifiers. For 12 different classes (two devices per manufacturer at two distinct set points), both classifiers performed reliably and achieved an arbitrary performance benchmark of average cross-class percent correct of %C > 90%. The least challenging cross-manufacturer results included near-perfect %C ≈ 100%, while the more challenging like-model (serial number) discrimination results included 90%< %C < 100%, with TD Fingerprinting marginally outperforming SB-FSK Fingerprinting; SB-FSK benefits from having less stringent response alignment and registration requirements. The RndF classifier was most beneficial and enabled reliable selection of dimensionally reduced fingerprint subsets that minimize data storage and computational requirements. The RndF selected feature sets contained 15% of the full-dimensional feature sets and only suffered a worst case %CΔ = 3% to 4% performance degradation.

  4. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Peter M.; Brown, Tim W. C.

    2015-01-01

    The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one's own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed. PMID:26229540

  5. Expectations as a key to understanding actor strategies in the field of fuel cell and hydrogen vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, Björn; Alkemade, Floortje; Weber, K Matthias

    2012-07-01

    Due to its environmental impact, the mobility system is increasingly under pressure. The challenges to cope with climate change, air quality, depleting fossil resources imply the need for a transition of the current mobility system towards a more sustainable one. Expectations and visions have been identified as crucial in the guidance of such transitions, and more specifically of actor strategies. Still, it remained unclear why the actors involved in transition activities appear to change their strategies frequently and suddenly. The empirical analysis of the expectations and strategies of three actors in the field of hydrogen and fuel cell technology indicates that changing actor strategies can be explained by rather volatile expectations related to different levels. Our case studies of the strategies of two large car manufacturers and the German government demonstrate that the car manufacturers refer strongly to expectations about the future regime, while expectations related to the socio-technical landscape level appear to be crucial for the strategy of the German government.

  6. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Freudenstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one’s own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed.

  7. Piranema Field: developing economically small reserves in deep waters; Campo de Piracema: o desafio de desenvolver economicamente pequenas reservas em aguas profundas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Renilton M. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Piranema Field is located southeast of the city of Aracaju, in deep waters, sub-basin of Sergipe, about 25 km from the coast, with water depth varying from 200 and 2,000 meters. The biggest challenges for the production of this field, with high quality oil (41 to 44 API), were small reserves, the presence of large submarine canyons separating various geological structures and difficulty installation of pipelines and wax formation in production lines, which could cause its blocking. After several studies, we decided to exploit in two phases, using an FPSO (Floating Production Storage and Offloading), cylindrical, completely innovative, whose cost of construction could make the project economically attractive and gas produced entirely re-injected, which would increase considerably recovery factor. The development will be in two phases, with the first one lasting about 7 years and the second 4 years. It is expected a recovery factor of around 40% over the eleven years of production, with a peak production of around 30,000 bbl/d. The total project cost will be $ 1.1 bi, including investments, operating costs and taxes. (author)

  8. Class III Mid-Term Project, "Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2007-03-31

    The overall objective of this project was to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involved improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective has been to transfer technology that can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The first budget period addressed several producibility problems in the Tar II-A and Tar V thermal recovery operations that are common in SBC reservoirs. A few of the advanced technologies developed include a three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic geologic model, a 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model to aid in reservoir management and subsequent post-steamflood development work, and a detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rocks and fluids. State of the art operational work included drilling and performing a pilot steam injection and production project via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors), implementing a hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steamflood area to improve thermal efficiency, installing a 2400-foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location, testing a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems, and starting on an advanced reservoir management system through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation. The second budget period phase (BP2) continued to implement state-of-the-art operational work to optimize thermal recovery processes, improve well drilling and completion practices, and evaluate the

  9. Progress, opportunities, and key fields for groundwater quality research under the impacts of human activities in China with a special focus on western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiyue; Tian, Rui; Xue, Chenyang; Wu, Jianhua

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater quality research is extremely important for supporting the safety of the water supply and human health in arid and semi-arid areas of China. This review article was constructed to report the latest research progress of groundwater quality in western China where groundwater quality is undergoing fast deterioration because of fast economic development and extensive anthropogenic activities. The opportunities brought by increasing public awareness of groundwater quality protection were also highlighted and discussed. To guide and promote further development of groundwater quality research in China, especially in western China, ten key groundwater quality research fields were proposed. The review shows that the intensification of human activities and the associated impacts on groundwater quality in China, especially in western China, has made groundwater quality research increasingly important, and has caught the attention of local, national, and international agencies and scholars. China has achieved some progress in groundwater quality research in terms of national and regional laws, regulations, and financial supports. The future of groundwater quality research in China, especially in western China, is promising reflected by the opportunities highlighted. The key research fields proposed in this article may also inform groundwater quality protection and management at the national and international level.

  10. Key role of higher order symmetry and electrostatic ligand field design in the magnetic relaxation of low-coordinate Er(iii) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saurabh Kumar; Pandey, Bhawana; Velmurugan, Gunasekaran; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2017-09-12

    The conceptual framework of electrostatic ligand field modulation based on oblate/prolate type electron density of lanthanide ions is one of the most successful approaches to enhance barrier height in lanthanide-based single-ion magnets. Recently, a tetra coordinated [Er{N(SiMe 3 ) 2 }s 3 Cl]·2THF (1) complex with an unfavourable ligand field showed slow relaxation of magnetization in zero field and challenges the concept of electrostatic ligand field modulation. To unravel the magnetic relaxation in this complex, we carried out a detailed theoretical investigation on three Er(iii) complexes belonging to the same family of single-ion magnets. The CASSCF/PT2 + RASSI-SO approach highlights that the concept of electrostatic ligand field modulation based on oblate/prolate type is still valid in these complexes, and the relaxation dynamics observed can be rationalized by accounting for both the symmetry and geometrical distortions around the Er(iii) ion. Using ab initio computed blockade barriers and crystal field analysis, we analysed the key components of the magnetic relaxation. Our study suggests that in these structures, the Er(iii) ion shifted out of the triangular plane formed by the three nitrogen donor atoms and this out-of-plane shift (τ) significantly influences the slow-relaxation of magnetization. In order to gain deeper insights into the nature of metal-ligand bonding, and to predict quantitatively the strength of the axial and equatorial ligand field, ELF, QTAIM, and EDA analysis were carried out in these complexes. Our findings highlight that the molecules possessing large barrier height for magnetic relaxation are due to the combined effect of a favourable ligand field and the symmetry around the Er(iii) ion. To understand the intricate role of both effects, several robust magneto-structural correlations were developed. Besides, the lanthanide-halogen covalency was also found to play a vital role in controlling the magnetic anisotropy and thus the

  11. International key comparison of neutron fluence measurements in mono-energetic neutron fields: C.C.R.I.(3)-K10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.; Wang, Z.; Rong, C. [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), Beijing, People' s Republic of China (China); Lovestam, G.; Plompen, A.; Puglisi, N. [EC-JRC-Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Geel (Belgium); Gilliam, D.M.; Eisenhauer, C.M.; Nico, J.S.; Dewey, M.S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg (United States); Kudo, K.; Uritani, A.; Harano, H.; Takeda, N. [National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), Tsukuba (Japan); Thomas, D.J.; Roberts, N.J.; Bennett, A.; Kolkowski, P. [National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington (United Kingdom); Moisseev, N.N.; Kharitonov, I.A. [Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology (VNIIM), St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Guldbakke, S.; Klein, H.; Nolte, R.; Schlegel, D. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    C.C.R.I. Section III (neutron measurements) conducted a unique key comparison of neutron fluence measurements in mono-energetic neutron fields. In contrast to former comparisons, here the fluence measurements were performed with the participants' instruments in the same neutron fields at the P.T.B. accelerator facility. Seven laboratories- the C.I.A.E. (China), I.R.M.M. (E.C.), N.M.I.J. (Japan), N.I.S.T. (USA), N.P.L. (UK), P.T.B. (Germany) and the V.N.I.I.M. (Russia)-employed their primary standard reference methods or transfer instruments carefully calibrated against their primary standards, to determine the fluence of 0.144 MeV, 1.2 MeV, 5.0 MeV and 14.8 MeV neutrons and reported calibration coefficients for a selected neutron monitor and each neutron energy with a detailed uncertainty budget for the measurements. The key comparison reference values (K.C.R.V.) were finally evaluated as the weighted mean values of the neutron fluence at 1 m distance from the target in vacuum per neutron monitor count. The uncertainties of each K.C.R.V. amounted to about 1%. The degree of equivalence (D.o.E.), defined as the deviation of the result reported by the laboratories for each energy from the corresponding K.C.R.V., and the associated expanded uncertainty are also reported. The deviations between the results of two laboratories each with the corresponding expanded uncertainties complete the documentation of the degrees of equivalence. (authors)

  12. International key comparison of neutron fluence measurements in mono-energetic neutron fields: C.C.R.I.(3)-K10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Wang, Z.; Rong, C.; Lovestam, G.; Plompen, A.; Puglisi, N.; Gilliam, D.M.; Eisenhauer, C.M.; Nico, J.S.; Dewey, M.S.; Kudo, K.; Uritani, A.; Harano, H.; Takeda, N.; Thomas, D.J.; Roberts, N.J.; Bennett, A.; Kolkowski, P.; Moisseev, N.N.; Kharitonov, I.A.; Guldbakke, S.; Klein, H.; Nolte, R.; Schlegel, D.

    2007-01-01

    C.C.R.I. Section III (neutron measurements) conducted a unique key comparison of neutron fluence measurements in mono-energetic neutron fields. In contrast to former comparisons, here the fluence measurements were performed with the participants' instruments in the same neutron fields at the P.T.B. accelerator facility. Seven laboratories- the C.I.A.E. (China), I.R.M.M. (E.C.), N.M.I.J. (Japan), N.I.S.T. (USA), N.P.L. (UK), P.T.B. (Germany) and the V.N.I.I.M. (Russia)-employed their primary standard reference methods or transfer instruments carefully calibrated against their primary standards, to determine the fluence of 0.144 MeV, 1.2 MeV, 5.0 MeV and 14.8 MeV neutrons and reported calibration coefficients for a selected neutron monitor and each neutron energy with a detailed uncertainty budget for the measurements. The key comparison reference values (K.C.R.V.) were finally evaluated as the weighted mean values of the neutron fluence at 1 m distance from the target in vacuum per neutron monitor count. The uncertainties of each K.C.R.V. amounted to about 1%. The degree of equivalence (D.o.E.), defined as the deviation of the result reported by the laboratories for each energy from the corresponding K.C.R.V., and the associated expanded uncertainty are also reported. The deviations between the results of two laboratories each with the corresponding expanded uncertainties complete the documentation of the degrees of equivalence. (authors)

  13. Comment on: "Recent revisions of phosphate rock reserves and resources: a critique" by Edixhoven et al. (2014) - clarifying comments and thoughts on key conceptions, conclusions and interpretation to allow for sustainable action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, R. W.; Wellmer, F.-W.

    2016-02-01

    Several recent papers deal with concerns about the longevity of the supply of the mineral phosphorus. The paper by Edixhoven et al. (2014), for instance, expresses doubts about whether the upward estimate of reserves by the IFDC (2006, 2010) and the USGS (2010) provides an accurate, reliable, and comparable picture, as it is based on reports that do not clearly differentiate between phosphate ore and phosphate products (i.e., marketable phosphate rock concentrate). Further, the indistinct use of the terms reserves and resources is criticized. Edixhoven et al. (2014) call for a differentiated inventory of world phosphate reserves including "guidelines which determine the appropriate drill hole distances and a detailed granularity". The claim that "humanity is on the safe side" with respect to future phosphate supply is doubted, as the validity of the IFDC's upgrading of the Moroccan data to 50 Gt phosphate is questioned. The main achievement of Edixhoven et al. (2014) is to elaborate that in the literature frequently used data on phosphate rock ore and phosphate concentrate are not properly distinguished, resulting in incorrect summary figures. In addition, it is commendable to raise the question how transparency concerning reserve and resources data and information on the geopotential of phosphate can be achieved because phosphorus is a special element. As fertilizer, it cannot be substituted and there are no unlimited resources as for the other main nutrients potassium in sea water and nitrogen in the air. However, the paper by Edixhoven et al. (2014) contains in the opinion of the authors some incorrect statements. Our comment elaborates first that several statements, such as that the upgrading of the Moroccan data is "solely based" on one scientific paper, are incorrect. Secondly, the paper comments on and illuminates a set of, in our opinion, misleading statements. These include the fact that the dynamic nature of reserves (which depend on price, technology

  14. Guidelines for Setting Up an Extended Field Trip to Florida and the Florida Keys: An Interactive Experiential Training Field Biology Program Consisting of Pretrip Instruction, Search Image Training, Field Exercises, and Observations of Tropical Habitats and Coral Reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Claude D.; And Others

    The importance of experiential aspects of biological study is addressed using multi-dimensional classroom and field classroom approaches to student learning. This document includes a guide to setting up this style of field experience. Several teaching innovations are employed to introduce undergraduate students to the literature, techniques, and…

  15. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  16. Selecting cryptographic key sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Verheul, E. R.; Lenstra, Arjen K.

    2001-01-01

    In this article we offer guidelines for the determination of key sizes for symmetric cryptosystems, RSA, and discrete logarithm-based cryptosystems both over finite fields and over groups of elliptic curves over prime fields. Our recommendations are based on a set of explicitly formulated parameter settings, combined with existing data points about the cryptosystems.

  17. Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, C.D.; Allison, M.L.

    1997-08-01

    The Bluebell field is productive from the Tertiary lower Green River and Wasatch Formations of the Uinta Basin, Utah. The productive interval consists of thousands of feet of interbedded fractured clastic and carbonate beds deposited in a fluvial-dominated lacustrine environment. Wells in the Bluebell field are typically completed by perforating 40 or more beds over 1,000 to 3,000 vertical feet (300-900 m), then stimulating the entire interval. This completion technique is believed to leave many potentially productive beds damaged and/or untreated, while allowing water-bearing and low-pressure (thief) zones to communicate with the wellbore. Geologic and engineering characterization has been used to define improved completion techniques. A two-year characterization study involved detailed examination of outcrop, core, well logs, surface and subsurface fractures, produced oil-field waters, engineering parameters of the two demonstration wells, and analysis of past completion techniques and effectiveness. The characterization study resulted in recommendations for improved completion techniques and a field-demonstration program to test those techniques. The results of the characterization study and the proposed demonstration program are discussed in the second annual technical progress report. The operator of the wells was unable to begin the field demonstration this project year (October 1, 1995 to September 20, 1996). Correlation and thickness mapping of individual beds in the Wasatch Formation was completed and resulted in a. series of maps of each of the individual beds. These data were used in constructing the reservoir models. Non-fractured and fractured geostatistical models and reservoir simulations were generated for a 20-square-mile (51.8-km{sup 2}) portion of the Bluebell field. The modeling provides insights into the effects of fracture porosity and permeability in the Green River and Wasatch reservoirs.

  18. Locked modes and plasma-wall interaction in a reserved-field pinch with a resistive shell and carbon first wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hokin, S.; Bergsaaker, H.; Brunsell, P.

    1999-01-01

    The Extrap-T2 reversed-field pinch has concluded operation in the OHTE RFP configuration with a resistive shell. This paper summarizes our observations and conclusions regarding wall-locked modes, dynamo activity and plasma-wall interaction with a resistive shell and graphite first wall

  19. Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Annual report, September 30, 1993--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.

    1995-07-01

    The Bluebell field produces from the Tertiary lower Green River and Wasatch Formations of the Uinta Basin, Utah. The productive interval consists of thousands of feet of interbedded fractured clastic and carbonate beds deposited in a fluvial-dominated deltaic lacustrine environment, sandstones deposited in fluvial-dominated deltas; and carbonates and some interbedded sandstones of the lower Wasatch transition deposited in mud flats. Bluebell project personnel are studying ways to improve completion techniques used in the field to increase primary production in both new wells and recompletions. The study includes detailed petrographic examination of the different lithologic reservoir types in both the outcrop and core. Outcrop, core, and geophysical logs are being used to identify and map important depositional cycles. Petrographic detail will be used to improve log calculation methods which are currently highly questionable due to varying water chemistry and clay content in the Green River and Wasatch Formations. Field mapping of fractures and their relationship to basin tectonics helps predict the orientation of open fractures in the subsurface. The project includes acquiring bore-hole imaging logs from new wells in the Bluebell field thereby obtaining detailed subsurface fracture data previously not available. Reservoir simulation models are being constructed to improve the understanding of pressure and fluid flow within the reservoir. A detailed database of well completion histories has been compiled and will be studied to determine which were the most and the least effective methods used in the past.

  20. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Results of Field Sampling Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, D.R.; Ammons, J.T.; Branson, J.L. [and others

    1993-10-01

    This report presents, evaluates, and documents data and results obtained in the Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP). It is intended to be a stand-alone document for application and use in structuring and conducting remedial investigation and remedial action projects in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. The objectives of the BSCP consist of the following: determine background concentrations of organics, metals, and radionuclides in natural soils that are key to environmental restoration projects; provide remediation projects with 100% validated data on background concentrations, which are technically and legally defensible; and quantify baseline risks from background constituents for comparison of risks associated with contaminated sites.

  1. Delineation of brine contamination in and near the East Poplar oil field, Fort Peck Indian Reservation, northeastern Montana, 2004-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamke, Joanna N.; Smith, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    The extent of brine contamination in the shallow aquifers in and near the East Poplar oil field is as much as 17.9 square miles and appears to be present throughout the entire saturated zone in contaminated areas. The brine contamination affects 15–37 billion gallons of groundwater. Brine contamination in the shallow aquifers east of the Poplar River generally moves to the southwest toward the river and then southward in the Poplar River valley. The likely source of brine contamination in the shallow aquifers is brine that is produced with crude oil in the East Poplar oil field study area. Brine contamination has not only affected the water quality from privately owned wells in and near the East Poplar oil field, but also the city of Poplar’s public water-supply wells. Three water-quality types characterize water in the shallow aquifers; a fourth water-quality type in the study area characterizes the brine. Type 1 is uncontaminated water that is suitable for most domestic purposes and typically contains sodium bicarbonate and sodium/magnesium sulfate as the dominant ions. Type 2 is moderately contaminated water that is suitable for some domestic purposes, but not used for drinking water, and typically contains sodium and chloride as the dominant ions. Type 3 is considerably contaminated water that is unsuitable for any domestic purpose and always contains sodium and chloride as the dominant ions. Type 3 quality of water in the shallow aquifers is similar to Type 4, which is the brine that is produced with crude oil. Electromagnetic apparent conductivity data were collected in the 106 square-mile area and used to determine extent of brine contamination. These data were collected and interpreted in conjunction with water-quality data collected through 2009 to delineate brine plumes in the shallow aquifers. Monitoring wells subsequently were drilled in some areas without existing water wells to confirm most of the delineated brine plumes; however, several possible

  2. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  3. Don't Forget the Distributor! the Importance of Field Testing Draft Educational Materials with Key Gatekeepers before Production and Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Alina L.; Prue, Christine E.; Panissidi, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article presents the results of testing draft folic acid educational materials with key gatekeepers, leading to the development of a Spanish-language print advertisement, poster, and radio public service announcement (PSA) aimed at promoting folic acid consumption among 18- to 25-year-old young Latina adults, as well as a…

  4. Lack of effects on key cellular parameters of MRC-5 human lung fibroblasts exposed to 370 mT static magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Stefania; Sannino, Anna; Scarfì, Maria Rosaria; Massa, Rita; D'Angelo, Raffaele; Zeni, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The last decades have seen increased interest toward possible adverse effects arising from exposure to intense static magnetic fields. This concern is mainly due to the wider and wider applications of such fields in industry and clinical practice; among them, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) facilities are the main sources of exposure to static magnetic fields for both general public (patients) and workers. In recent investigations, exposures to static magnetic fields have been demonstrated to elicit, in different cell models, both permanent and transient modifications in cellular endpoints critical for the carcinogenesis process. The World Health Organization has therefore recommended in vitro investigations as important research need, to be carried out under strictly controlled exposure conditions. Here we report on the absence of effects on cell viability, reactive oxygen species levels and DNA integrity in MRC-5 human foetal lung fibroblasts exposed to 370 mT magnetic induction level, under different exposure regimens. Exposures have been performed by using an experimental apparatus designed and realized for operating with the static magnetic field generated by permanent magnets, and confined in a magnetic circuit, to allow cell cultures exposure in absence of confounding factors like heating or electric field components.

  5. Reinforcing key concepts in the discipline of geobiology through active learning in the field - an example integrating middle school through graduate school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilhooly, W., III; Werne, J. P.; O'Beirne, M.; Johnson, E.; Martin, P. A.; Harris, J. H., IV; Fouskas, F.; Steinman, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Our goal was to introduce students to current research in the scientific discipline of geobiology. To accomplish this, we established a three-fold approach to link course work with fieldwork through: 1) active participation in the field and laboratory, 2) multi-tiered mentoring, 3) and formal education modules. During the summer of 2015, six undergraduate students and seven graduate students collected field samples from Green Lake (NY) and Mahoney Lake (BC). The students learned how to take water and sediment samples, process samples in anaerobic chambers in the field, and deal with moderately adverse field conditions. These learning by doing activities reinforced lessons learned in the classroom. The second phase involved two high school students who helped process and analyze the samples in the laboratory during summer session. These students worked with the undergraduate and graduate students who participated in the fieldwork. This interaction benefited both the high school students, who learned new methods, and the university students who learned to explain their field research and mentor younger students. The third phase involved creation of education modules to better inform middle school students of the issues of hypoxia. We piloted portions of our module at a conference for forty middle school girls. Graduate students showed the girls field equipment and how to make oxygen measurements using handheld instruments. In all of these activities, the students had the opportunity to work with the PI's, who were fully engaged in the process and who made a constant effort to be educators in the field and in the lab.

  6. CRISPR and piRNAs: Fundamental Mechanisms and Key Applications of the Next Generation of Molecular Technologies in the Field of Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    " Exploration into the roles of genes, the proteins that they encode, and the functions that they carry out within the cell is a founding pillar in the field of toxicology. Recent breakthroughs in clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) technology...

  7. Explaining key properties of lithiation in TiO2-anatase Li-ion battery electrodes using phase-field modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Klerk, N.J.J.; Vasileiadis, A.; Smith, Raymond B.; Bazant, Martin Z.; Wagemaker, M.

    2017-01-01

    The improvement of Li-ion battery performance requires development of models that capture the essential physics and chemistry in Li-ion battery electrode materials. Phase-field modeling has recently been shown to have this ability, providing new opportunities to gain understanding of these complex

  8. Explaining key properties of lithiation in TiO2-anatase Li-ion battery electrodes using phase-field modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Klerk, Niek J. J.; Vasileiadis, Alexandros; Smith, Raymond B.; Bazant, Martin Z.; Wagemaker, Marnix

    2017-07-01

    The improvement of Li-ion battery performance requires development of models that capture the essential physics and chemistry in Li-ion battery electrode materials. Phase-field modeling has recently been shown to have this ability, providing new opportunities to gain understanding of these complex systems. In this paper, a novel electrochemical phase-field model is presented that captures the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of lithium insertion in Ti O2 -anatase, a well-known and intensively studied Li-ion battery electrode material. Using a linear combination of two regular solution models, the two phase transitions during lithiation are described as lithiation of two separate lattices with different physical properties. Previous elaborate experimental work on lithiated anatase Ti O2 provides all parameters necessary for the phase-field simulations, giving the opportunity to gain fundamental insight in the lithiation of anatase and validate this phase-field model. The phase-field model captures the essential experimentally observed phenomena, rationalizing the impact of C rate, particle size, surface area, and the memory effect on the performance of anatase as a Li-ion battery electrode. Thereby a comprehensive physical picture of the lithiation of anatase Ti O2 is provided. The results of the simulations demonstrate that the performance of anatase is limited by the formation of the poor Li-ion diffusion in the Li1TiO2 phase at the surface of the particles. Unlike other electrode materials, the kinetic limitations of individual anatase particles limit the performance of full electrodes. Hence, rather than improving the ionic and electronic network in electrodes, improving the performance of anatase Ti O2 electrodes requires preventing the formation of a blocking Li1TiO2 phase at the surface of particles. Additionally, the qualitative agreement of the phase-field model, containing only parameters from literature, with a broad spectrum of experiments

  9. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Graeme C; Ferreira, Luciana C; Sequeira, Ana M M; Meekan, Mark G; Duarte, Carlos M; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W Don; Caley, M Julian; Costa, Daniel P; Eguíluz, Victor M; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L; Heithaus, Michael R; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L; Lowe, Christopher G; Madsen, Peter T; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; Sims, David W; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N; Thums, Michele

    2016-06-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel barite chimneys at the Loki´s Castle Vent Field shed light on key factors shaping microbial communities and functions in hydrothermal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Helene eSteen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to fully understand the cycling of elements in hydrothermal systems it is critical to understand intra-field variations in geochemical and microbiological processes in both focused, high-temperature and diffuse, low-temperature areas. To reveal important causes and effects of this variation, we performed an extensive chemical and microbiological characterization of a low-temperature venting area in the Loki’s Castle Vent Field (LCVF. This area, located at the flank of the large sulfide mound, is characterized by numerous chimney-like barite (BaSO4 structures (≤ 1m high covered with white cotton-like microbial mats. Results from geochemical analyses, microscopy (FISH, SEM, 16S rRNA gene amplicon-sequencing and metatranscriptomics were compared to results from previous analyses of biofilms growing on black smoker chimneys at LCVF. Based on our results, we constructed a conceptual model involving the geochemistry and microbiology in the LCVF. The model suggests that CH4 and H2S are important electron donors for microorganisms in both high-temperature and low-temperature areas, whereas the utilization of H2 seems restricted to high-temperature areas. This further implies that sub-seafloor processes can affect energy-landscapes, elemental cycling, and the metabolic activity of primary producers on the seafloor. In the cotton-like microbial mats on top of the active barite chimneys, a unique network of single cells of Epsilonproteobacteria interconnected by threads of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS was seen, differing significantly from the long filamentous Sulfurovum filaments observed in biofilms on the black smokers. This network also induced nucleation of barite crystals and is suggested to play an essential role in the formation of the microbial mats and the chimneys. Furthermore, it illustrates variations in how different genera of Epsilonproteobacteria colonize and position cells in different vent fluid mixing zones within

  11. Solar UV-B radiation and ethylene play a key role in modulating effective defenses against Anticarsia gemmatalis larvae in field-grown soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Francisco M; Tejedor, M Daniela; Ilina, Natalia; Chludil, Hugo D; Mithöfer, Axel; Pagano, Eduardo A; Zavala, Jorge A

    2018-02-01

    Solar UV-B radiation has been reported to enhance plant defenses against herbivore insects in many species. However, the mechanism and traits involved in the UV-B mediated increment of plant resistance are unknown in crops species, such as soybean. Here, we studied defense-related responses in undamaged and Anticarsia gemmatalis larvae-damaged leaves of two soybean cultivars grown under attenuated or full solar UV-B radiation. We determined changes in jasmonates, ethylene (ET), salicylic acid, trypsin protease inhibitor activity, flavonoids, and mRNA expression of genes related with defenses. ET emission induced by Anticarsia gemmatalis damage was synergistically increased in plants grown under solar UV-B radiation and was positively correlated with malonyl genistin concentration, trypsin proteinase inhibitor activity and expression of IFS2, and the pathogenesis protein PR2, while was negatively correlated with leaf consumption. The precursor of ET, aminocyclopropane-carboxylic acid, applied exogenously to soybean was sufficient to strongly induce leaf isoflavonoids. Our results showed that in field-grown soybean isoflavonoids were regulated by both herbivory and solar UV-B inducible ET, whereas flavonols were regulated by solar UV-B radiation only and not by herbivory or ET. Our study suggests that, although ET can modulate UV-B-mediated priming of inducible plant defenses, some plant defenses, such as isoflavonoids, are regulated by ET alone. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A Sanctuary for Science: The Hastings Natural History Reservation and the Origins of the University of California's Natural Reserve System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagona, Peter S

    2012-01-01

    In 1937 Joseph Grinnell founded the University of California's (U.C.) first biological field station, the Hastings Natural History Reservation. Hastings became a center for field biology on the West Coast, and by 1960 it was serving as a model for the creation of additional U.C. reserves. Today, the U.C. Natural Reserve System (NRS) is the largest and most diverse network of university-based biological field stations in the world, with 36 sites covering more than 135,000 acres. This essay examines the founding of the Hastings Reservation, and asks how it managed to grow and develop, in the 1940s and 1950s, during a time of declining support for natural history research. It shows how faculty and staff courted the support of key institutional allies, presented themselves as the guardians of a venerable tradition in nature study, and emphasized the station's capacity to document ecological change and inform environmental policy and management. In the years since, Hastings and other U.C. reserves have played crucial roles in California environmental politics. Biological field stations in the post-war era deserve more attention not only from historians of biology, but also from environmental historians and other scholars interested in the role of science in society.

  13. Cognitive reserve in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, A M; Stern, Y

    2011-06-01

    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer's disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer's disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and other age-related problems.

  14. Secret-key certificates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Brands (Stefan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe notion of secret-key certificate schemes is introduced and formalized. As with public-key certificates, triples consisting of a secret key, a corresponding public key, and a secret-key certificate on the public key can only be retrieved by engaging in an issuing protocol with the

  15. COGNITIVE RESERVE IN AGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Adrienne M.; Stern, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer’s disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related problems. PMID:21222591

  16. Ovarian reserve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja

    2012-01-01

    2-5 of the menstrual cycle or during withdrawal bleeding, blood sampling and transvaginal sonography was performed. After adjusting for age, ovarian reserve parameters were lower among users than among non-users of hormonal contraception: serum AMH concentration by 29.8% (95% CI 19.9 to 38...... was observed between duration of hormonal-contraception use and ovarian reserve parameters. No dose-response relation was found between the dose of ethinyloestradiol and AMH or AFC. This study indicates that ovarian reserve markers are lower in women using sex steroids for contraception. Thus, AMH...... concentration and AFC may not retain their accuracy as predictors of ovarian reserve in women using hormonal contraception. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration is an indirect marker of the number of small follicles in the ovary and thereby the ovarian reserve. The AMH concentration is now widely...

  17. Skyline Reservation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Flight reservation application used for in-country flights by USAID and DoS staff in Afghanistan. The application is managed and maintained by the vendor and USAID...

  18. Foreign Exchange Reserves and the Reserve Bank’s Balance Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Vallence

    2012-01-01

    The Reserve Bank of Australia holds and manages the nation’s foreign exchange reserve assets in order to meet its policy objectives. While Australia’s foreign exchange reserves are relatively modest by international standards, they nonetheless constitute a sizeable portion of the Bank’s balance sheet, and variations in the Australian dollar value of these reserves are usually the most volatile component of the Bank’s profit and loss statement. This article discusses some of the key decisions ...

  19. Key Players and Key Groups in Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Sudipta Sarangi; Emre Unlu

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on centrality measures in economics by defining a team game and identifying the key players in the game. As an illustration of the theory we create a unique data set from the UEFA Euro 2008 tournament. To capture the interaction between players we create the passing network of each team. This all allows us to identify the key player and key groups of players for both teams in each game. We then use our measure to explain player ratings by experts and t...

  20. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  1. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    of reserves and resources (H. Le Leuch); Additional reserves: the role of new technologies - A global perspective on EORIOR (G. Fries); - Updating reservoir models with dynamic data and uncertainty quantification: an integrated approach (F. Roggero); Seismic technology for the OAPEC countries (P. Canal); Exploration knowledge and technologies: impact of progress - Statistical results (N. Alazard); Stratigraphic modelling as a key to find new potentialities in exploration (D. Granjeon); Modelling hydrocarbon migration as a tool for reserve estimation (J-L. Rudkiewicz); The contribution of surface and near surface geology to hydrocarbon discoveries (S.M. Kumati); Contribution of the exploration activity in renewing reserves - The case of Algeria (R. Lounissi); Egypt's petroleum hydrocarbon potential (H. Hataba); Future of hydrocarbon reserves in Syria (T. Hemsh); Natural gas, the fuel of choice for decades to com (M.F. Chabrelie); The role and importance of Arab natural gas in world market (M. Al-Lababidi); LNG and GTL: two pathways for natural gas utilization (C. Cameron); Yet to find hydrocarbon potential (S. Al Menhali); Libyan context of hydrocarbon reserves: abundance or scarcity? (M. Elazi)

  2. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    impact on the growth of reserves and resources (H. Le Leuch); Additional reserves: the role of new technologies - A global perspective on EORIOR (G. Fries); - Updating reservoir models with dynamic data and uncertainty quantification: an integrated approach (F. Roggero); Seismic technology for the OAPEC countries (P. Canal); Exploration knowledge and technologies: impact of progress - Statistical results (N. Alazard); Stratigraphic modelling as a key to find new potentialities in exploration (D. Granjeon); Modelling hydrocarbon migration as a tool for reserve estimation (J-L. Rudkiewicz); The contribution of surface and near surface geology to hydrocarbon discoveries (S.M. Kumati); Contribution of the exploration activity in renewing reserves - The case of Algeria (R. Lounissi); Egypt's petroleum hydrocarbon potential (H. Hataba); Future of hydrocarbon reserves in Syria (T. Hemsh); Natural gas, the fuel of choice for decades to com (M.F. Chabrelie); The role and importance of Arab natural gas in world market (M. Al-Lababidi); LNG and GTL: two pathways for natural gas utilization (C. Cameron); Yet to find hydrocarbon potential (S. Al Menhali); Libyan context of hydrocarbon reserves: abundance or scarcity? (M. Elazi)

  3. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve and fts educational facilities are run by the Transvaal. Division of. Nature Conservation. ... tion and the education facilities provided. The former are utilized mainly by the general public ... artist Paul Bosman (already reviewed in the EEASA newsletter). The co-founders of the Foundation are.

  4. Session 7: Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.; Crockford, G.

    2001-01-01

    The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)

  5. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  6. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reserve, the total length being 66 km with six overnight huts. There are also the BokmakiePie. Nature Troil. and the Cheetah Interpretive Troil. which can be used by day visitors. The former has two loops, one of 10 km and another of 17 km. The. Cheetah Troil. is much shorter and various points of interest are interpreted en ...

  7. Quantum key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth

    2016-11-29

    Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.

  8. Modular Connector Keying Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishman, Scott; Dukes, Scott; Warnica, Gary; Conrad, Guy; Senigla, Steven

    2013-01-01

    For panel-mount-type connectors, keying is usually "built-in" to the connector body, necessitating different part numbers for each key arrangement. This is costly for jobs that require small quantities. This invention was driven to provide a cost savings and to reduce documentation of individual parts. The keys are removable and configurable in up to 16 combinations. Since the key parts are separate from the connector body, a common design can be used for the plug, receptacle, and key parts. The keying can then be set at the next higher assembly.

  9. Group key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.

  10. All rights reserved

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    atmosphere. For this reason, man has always explored means of measuring different parameters of the weather. With the advancement in technology, new methods and equipment have been developed to measure, collect and monitor weather information and today a whole field of study called meteorology is dedicated to it ...

  11. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  12. [Hypertrophy and coronary reserve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motz, W; Scheler, S

    2008-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy represents the structural mechanism of adaptation of the left ventricle as the answer of a chronic pressure overload in arterial hypertension. Initially an increment in left ventricular wall thickness occurs. In this stadium of "concentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress, LV ejection fraction and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium remain unchanged. In the further time course of disease LV dilatation will be present. In this phase of "excentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium rise and LV ejection fraction decreases. Patients with arterial hypertension frequently complain of angina pectoris. Angina pectoris and the positive exercise tolerance test or the positive myocardial scintigraphy are the consequence of the impaired coronary flow reserve. The coronary flow reserve is diminished due to structural and functional changes of the coronary circulation. ACE-inhibitors and AT1-receptor blockers cause a significant improvement of coronary flow reserve and regression of both left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis.

  13. Public Key Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapson, Frank

    1996-01-01

    Describes public key cryptography, also known as RSA, which is a system using two keys, one used to put a message into cipher and another used to decipher the message. Presents examples using small prime numbers. (MKR)

  14. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  15. Public Key Infrastructure Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berkovits, Shimshon

    1994-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has tasked The MITRE Corporation to study the alternatives for automated management of public keys and of the associated public key certificates for the Federal Government...

  16. Key Management Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides a secure environment to research and develop advanced electronic key management and networked key distribution technologies for the Navy and DoD....

  17. SCPR: Secure Crowdsourcing-Based Parking Reservation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsheng Wan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The crowdsourcing-based parking reservation system is a new computing paradigm, where private owners can rent their parking spots out. Security is the main concern for parking reservation systems. However, current schemes cannot provide user privacy protection for drivers and have no key agreement functions, resulting in a lot of security problems. Moreover, current schemes are typically based on the time-consuming bilinear pairing and not suitable for real-time applications. To solve these security and efficiency problems, we present a novel security protocol with user privacy called SCPR. Similar to protocols of this field, SCPR can authenticate drivers involved in the parking reservation system. However, different from other well-known approaches, SCPR uses pseudonyms instead of real identities for providing user privacy protection for drivers and designs a novel pseudonym-based key agreement protocol. Finally, to reduce the time cost, SCPR designs several novel cryptographic algorithms based on the algebraic signature technique. By doing so, SCPR can satisfy a number of security requirements and enjoy high efficiency. Experimental results show SCPR is feasible for real world applications.

  18. Intelligent system for helping the development of production an recoverable reserves in fully developed oil fields in Colombia; Sistema inteligente ayuda a incrementar la produccion y reservas recuperables en campos maduros de Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto B, Rodolfo; Bejarano, Aristobulo; Ferneynes, Heberth Ferneynes; Ardila, Juan Fernando [Ecopetrol S.A., Bogota (Colombia)]|[Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo, Bogota (Colombia)

    2000-07-01

    An intelligent system - Oil field Intelligence - have been developed as a engineering tool for improving the characterization of oil and gas reservoirs. The system integrates neural networks, main component analysis, staggering and generalization techniques, and a expertise module. (author)

  19. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  20. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Key Lake is located in the Athabasca sand stone basin, 640 kilometers north of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The three sources of ore at Key Lake contain 70 100 tonnes of uranium. Features of the Key Lake Project were described under the key headings: work force, mining, mill process, tailings storage, permanent camp, environmental features, worker health and safety, and economic benefits. Appendices covering the historical background, construction projects, comparisons of western world mines, mining statistics, Northern Saskatchewan surface lease, and Key Lake development and regulatory agencies were included

  1. LOCKS AND KEYS SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Locks and Keys Service

    2002-01-01

    The Locks and Keys service (ST/FM) will move from building 55 to building 570 from the 2nd August to the 9th August 2002 included. During this period the service will be closed. Only in case of extreme urgency please call the 164550. Starting from Monday, 12th August, the Locks and Keys Service will continue to follow the activities related to office keys (keys and locks) and will provide the keys for furniture. The service is open from 8h30 to 12h00 and from 13h00 to 17h30. We remind you that your divisional correspondents can help you in the execution of the procedures. We thank you for your comprehension and we remain at your service to help you in solving all the matters related to keys for offices and furniture. Locks and Keys Service - ST Division - FM Group

  2. Clave para la determinación de malezas ciperáceas asociadas con el cultivo del arroz en Colombia Key for identification of cyperaceae weds associated with rice fields in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuentes Cilia Leonor

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Las ciperáceas constituyen, después de las gramíneas, el segundo grupo más importante de plantas adventicias asociadas
    con la producción de arroz en Colombia. Se ha podido
    observar diferencias en la respuesta a los herbicidas entre las
    especies de ciperáceas, de ahí la necesidad de reconocer las
    diferentes especies de esta familia que infestan los arrozales
    de Colombia. Se realizó una intensiva colecta botánica de estas
    especies en las principales zonas arroceras de Colombia:
    Tolima, Huila, Meta, Córdoba, Cesar, Santander y Valle del
    Cauca. Un total de 25 especies pertenecientes a nueve géneros,
    fueron reconocidas. Se elaboraron claves para la separación
    de géneros y especies.Cyperaceae constitute after the gramineous the second most
    important weed group associated with rice production in Colombia. There are sorne differences in herbicide response among cyperaceae species, therefore there is a need to recognize the different species ofthis family that infest Colombian rice fields. An intensive botanical collection of these species was done in the main rice production areas ofColombia: Tolima, Huila, Meta, Córdoba, Cesar, Santander and Valle del Cauca. A total of 25 species belonging to nine genus were identified. Keys were made to separate genera and species.

  3. Key Topics in Sports Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...

  4. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Annual/quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-16

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual and quarterly reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This report combines the fourth quarter 1993 Quarterly Report with the 1993 Annual Report. Key activities described include appropriations; life extension planning; expansion planning; Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil acquisition; the oil stabilization program; and the refined petroleum product reserve test programs. Sections of this report also describe the program mission; the storage facility development program; environmental compliance; budget and finance; and drawdown and distribution.

  5. Study on Online Hotel Reservation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Alleweldt, Frank; Tonner, Klaus; McDonald, Marc

    2009-01-01

    This study, conducted by Civic Consulting, looks at both pre-contractual and contractual matters concerning online hotel reservation systems, examines relevant Community rules, identifies gaps and, where needed, discusses possible policy options. Key conclusions The study shows that the impact of Community law on online hotel

  6. STEM Summer Academy on the Navajo Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    The US Rosetta Project is the NASA contribution to the International Rosetta Mission, an ESA cornerstone mission to comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. While the project's outreach efforts span multi-media, and a variety of age and ethnic groups, a special emphasis has been made to find a way to provide meaningful outreach to the reservation communities. Because language preservation is an issue of urgent concern to the reservation communities, and because Rosetta, uniquely among NASA missions, has been named after the notion that keys to missing understanding of elements of the ancient past were found in the language on the original Rosetta stone, the US Rosetta Project has embarked upon outreach with a focus on STEM vocabulary in ancient US languages of the Navajo, Hopi, Ojibwe, and other tribal communities as the project expands. NASA image and science are used and described in the native language, alongside lay English and scientific English curriculum elements. Additionally, science (geology/chemistry/botany/physics) elements drawn from the reservation environment, including geomorphology, geochemistry, soil physics, are included and discussed in the native language as much as possible — with their analogs in other planetary environments (such as Mars). In this paper we will report on the most recent Summer Science Academy [2012], a four week summer course for middle school children, created in collaboration with teachers and administrators in the Chinle Unified School District. The concept of the Academy was initiated in 2011, and the first Academy was conducted shortly thereafter, in June 2011 with 14 children, 3 instructors, and a NASA teacher workshop. The community requested three topics: geology, astronomy, and botany. The 2012 Academy built on the curriculum already developed with more robust field trips, addressed to specific science topics, additional quantitative measurements and activities, with more written material for the cultural components from

  7. Are uranium reserves adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Against a backdrop of growing concerns about global warming and geopolitical pressures on fossil energies, especially natural gas and oil, interest in nuclear power has revived considerably. Conscious of its addiction to oil and reeling from a series of gigantic blackouts, the United States, in the words of its president, must 'aggressively move forward with the construction of nuclear power plants'. Some European countries have approved new power plant construction (Finland and France), while the more reserved ones (Belgium, Germany and Sweden) have begun to show a change in attitude. Asia, meanwhile, is host to the planet's largest number of potential nuclear construction projects in this first half of the 21. century. All these signs point to a sharp rise in uranium consumption, the basic fuel for these plants. But are there enough resources to support a nuclear revival on a planetary scale? The publication of the Red Book on uranium in late May 2006 was an opportunity for Thierry Dujardin, Deputy Director of Science and Development at the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency, to take stock of resources. He gives his opinion in this paper

  8. Is deciduousness a key to climate resilience among iconic California savanna oak species? Relating phenological habits to seasonal indicators of tree physiological and water stress across field, hyperspectral, drone (UAS)-based multispectral and thermal image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, M. T.; Caylor, K. K.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Greenberger, R. N.; Estes, L. D.

    2017-12-01

    In California (CA) savannas, oak trees (genus Quercus) play keystone roles in water and nutrient cycling, support biodiversity and many land-use activities. Declines in oak basal area of up to 25% from the 1930s-2000s, which have occurred alongside climate trends such as increasing variability of rainfall and prevalence of hotter droughts, threaten the services and ecological functions these trees provide. It is particularly unclear how climate relates to productivity and stress across oak species. Past work has found that seedling recruitment has varied inversely with "deciduousness." That is, evergreen oaks (e.g. Quercus agrifola. Coast Live Oak) are reproducing more successfully than drought-deciduous (e.g. Quercus douglassi, Blue Oak), which in turn are more successful than fully deciduous species (e.g. Quercus lobata, Valley Oak). However, there is poor understanding of how these ecological trends by species, corresponding with phenological habit, relate to physiological and ecohydrological processes such as carbon assimilation, water or nutrient use efficiency in mature tree stands. This limits predictive capability for which species will be most resilient to harsher future growing conditions, and, how to monitor stress and productivity in long-lived mature oak communities across landscapes via tools including remotely sensed data. This project explores how ecophysiological variables (e.g. stomatal conductance) relate to phenological habits across three oak species (Coast Live, Blue and Valley) over a seasonal dry-down period in Santa Barbara County, CA. Our goal is to probe if deciduousness is a key to resilience in productivity and water stress across iconic oak species. We test relationships between leaf and canopy-level field data, and indicators from multiple new sources of remotely sensed data, including ground hyperspectral, drone (UAS)-based multi-spectral and thermal image data, as means of monitoring tree physiological and water stress from scales

  9. Key Players and Key Groups in Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Sudipta Sarangi; Colin Cannonier; Bibhudutta Panda

    2011-01-01

    Using data for 2008-2009, we determine winning strategies for the game in two different formats: 50-over one-day internationals and 20-over games from the Indian Premier League and Twenty20 Internationals. We find that attacking batting and defensive bowling outperform all other strate- gies in determining the probability of winning in both formats despite the thirty over difference between them. Moreover, in both versions of the game, good fielding turns out to be an important complement to ...

  10. Keys to the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsson, Christian Kjær

    2014-01-01

    Review of: Keys to the City: How Economics, Institutions, Social Interaction, and Politics Shape Development / Michael Storper Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2013, 288 pp., $39.95/£27.95 (cloth), ISBN 9780691143118......Review of: Keys to the City: How Economics, Institutions, Social Interaction, and Politics Shape Development / Michael Storper Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2013, 288 pp., $39.95/£27.95 (cloth), ISBN 9780691143118...

  11. Reserve Component Personnel Issues: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-18

    of one day of basic pay for each unit training assembly ( UTA ) they attend. A UTA is generally a four-hour period of instruction, and there are usually...training assembly ( UTA ), one point for each day of annual training (AT), and one point for each day of active duty. Points can also be earned for completing... on the vitality of the reserve components, such as funding, equipment, and personnel policy. This report is designed to provide an overview of key

  12. Key World Energy Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997. This new edition responds to the enormously positive reaction to the book since then. Key World Energy Statistics produced by the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts. It exists in different formats to suit our readers' requirements.

  13. Key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without

  14. Cryptographic Key Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, author

    2014-02-21

    This report summarizes the outcome of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-OE0000543, requesting the design of a Cryptographic Key Management System (CKMS) for the secure management of cryptographic keys for the energy sector infrastructure. Prime contractor Sypris Electronics, in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Valicore Technologies, and Purdue University's Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security (CERIAS) and Smart Meter Integration Laboratory (SMIL), has designed, developed and evaluated the CKMS solution. We provide an overview of the project in Section 3, review the core contributions of all contractors in Section 4, and discuss bene ts to the DOE in Section 5. In Section 6 we describe the technical construction of the CKMS solution, and review its key contributions in Section 6.9. Section 7 describes the evaluation and demonstration of the CKMS solution in different environments. We summarize the key project objectives in Section 8, list publications resulting from the project in Section 9, and conclude with a discussion on commercialization in Section 10 and future work in Section 11.

  15. Locks and Keys Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Claude Ducastel

    The GS-LS-SEM section is pleased to inform you that as from Monday 30 November 2009, the opening hours of the Locks and Keys service will be the following: 08h30 - 12h30 / 13h30 - 16:30, Mondays to Fridays. GS-SEM-LS 73333

  16. Key Features of oxypnictides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Key Features of oxypnictides. Metal –insulator boundary. Quasi 2D structure. Doping important. Charge transfer (redox behaviour). Normal resistivity : mohms (little higher in oxypnictides). Near antiferromagnetic ground state. Superexchange through Fe-As-Fe (Cu-O-Cu) ...

  17. Semantic Keys and Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zev bar-Lev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Keys are elements (word-parts of written language that give an iconic, general representation of the whole word’s meaning. In written Sino-Japanese the “radical” or semantic components play this role. For example, the character meaning ‘woman, female’ is the Semantic Key of the character for Ma ‘Mama’ (alongside the phonetic component Ma, which means ‘horse’ as a separate character. The theory of semantic Keys in both graphic and phonemic aspects is called qTheory or nanosemantics. The most innovative aspect of the present article is the hypothesis that, in languages using alphabetic writing systems, the role of Semantic Key is played by consonants, more specifically the first consonant. Thus, L meaning ‘LIFT’ is the Semantic Key of English Lift, Ladle, Lofty, aLps, eLevator, oLympus; Spanish Leva, Lecantarse, aLto, Lengua; Arabic aLLah, and Hebrew① ªeL-ºaL ‘upto-above’ (the Israeli airline, Polish Lot ‘flight’ (the Polish airline; Hebrew ªeL, ªeLohim ‘God’, and haLLeluyah ‘praise-ye God’ (using Parallels, ‘Lift up God’. Evidence for the universality of the theory is shown by many examples drawn from various languages, including Indo-European Semitic, Chinese and Japanese. The theory reveals hundreds of relationships within and between languages, related and unrelated, that have been “Hiding in Plain Sight”, to mention just one example: the Parallel between Spanish Pan ‘bread’ and Mandarin Fan ‘rice’.

  18. Assessing the in situ conservation status of key protected wild plants in Shanxi Province

    OpenAIRE

    Yinbo Zhang; Xiaolong Zhang; Hu Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Establishing nature reserves to protect species and their habitats, is the most direct and effective approach for biodiversity conservation. Conducting investigations of the important protected species and assessing their in situ conservation status are of important guiding significance for reasonable conservation and effective management within a region. In this paper, based on the literature and field investigations, we analyzed the distribution and protection status of the key protected wi...

  19. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  20. Physician Appraisals: Key Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klich Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify key criteria being used for physician appraisals and to find how communication skills of physicians are valued in those appraisals. ScienceDirect and EBSCOhost databases were used for this search. The results show that a physician appraisal is underestimated both theoretically and empirically. The particular gap exists with respect to the communication skills of physicians, which are rarely present in medical training syllabi and physician assessments. The article contributes to the theoretical discourse on physician appraisals and points out at the inconsistency between the high status of physicians as a key hospital resource on the one hand and, on the other hand, at inadequate and poorly researched assessment of their performance with a special emphasis on communication skills. The article may inspire health managers to develop and implement up-to-date assessment forms for physicians and good managerial practices in this respect in hospitals and other health care units.

  1. Chapter 06: Identification key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2011-01-01

    The key is written to guide you through the identification process in the most efficient and accurate way possible. It presents you with a numbered series of questions and asks you to answer them. The answers you provide will be based on your interpretations of the anatomical characters in your unknown specimen and will lead you to a new set of questions. Each time you...

  2. Reserve growth during financial volatility in a technologically challenging world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Reserve growth (growth-to-known) is the addition of oil and gas quantities to reported proved or proved-plus-probable reserves in discovered fields. The amount of reserve growth fluctuates through time with prevailing economic and technological conditions. Most reserve additions are the result of investment in field operations and in development technology. These investments can be justified by higher prices of oil and gas, the desire to maintain cash flow, and by greater recovery efficiency in well established fields. The price/cost ratio affects decisions for field abandonment and (or) implementation of improved recovery methods. Although small- to medium-size fields might show higher percentages of reserve growth, a relatively few giant fields contribute most volumetric reserve growth, indicating that companies may prefer to invest in existing fields with low geologic and production risk and an established infrastructure in order to increase their price/cost relationship. Whereas many previous estimates of reserve growth were based on past trends of reported reserves, future reserve growth is expected to be greatly affected by financial volatility and fluctuating economic and technological conditions.

  3. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Terrestrial habitat mapping of the Oak Ridge Reservation: 1996 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington-Allen, R.A.; Ashwood, T.L.

    1996-09-01

    The US DOE is in the process of remediating historical contamination on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Two key components are ecological risk assessment and monitoring. In 1994 a strategy was developed and a specific program was initiated to implement the strategy for the terrestrial biota of the entire ORR. This document details results of the first task: development of a habitat map and habitat models for key species of interest. During the last 50 years ORR has been a relatively protected island of plant and animal habitats in a region of rapidly expanding urbanization. A preliminary biodiversity assessment of the ORR by the Nature Conservancy in 1995 noted 272 occurrences of significant plant and animal species and communities. Field surveys of threatened and endangered species show that the ORR contains 20 rare plant species, 4 of which are on the state list of endangered species. The rest are either on the state list of threatened species or listed as being of special concern. The ORR provides habitat for some 60 reptilian and amphibian species; more than 120 species of terrestrial birds; 32 species of waterfowl, wading birds, and shorebirds; and about 40 mammalian species. The ORR is both a refuge for rare species and a reservoir of recruitment for surrounding environments and wildlife management areas. Cedar barrens, river bluffs, and wetlands have been identified as the habitat for most rare vascular plant species on the ORR.

  5. Terrestrial habitat mapping of the Oak Ridge Reservation: 1996 Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington-Allen, R.A.; Ashwood, T.L.

    1996-09-01

    The US DOE is in the process of remediating historical contamination on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Two key components are ecological risk assessment and monitoring. In 1994 a strategy was developed and a specific program was initiated to implement the strategy for the terrestrial biota of the entire ORR. This document details results of the first task: development of a habitat map and habitat models for key species of interest. During the last 50 years ORR has been a relatively protected island of plant and animal habitats in a region of rapidly expanding urbanization. A preliminary biodiversity assessment of the ORR by the Nature Conservancy in 1995 noted 272 occurrences of significant plant and animal species and communities. Field surveys of threatened and endangered species show that the ORR contains 20 rare plant species, 4 of which are on the state list of endangered species. The rest are either on the state list of threatened species or listed as being of special concern. The ORR provides habitat for some 60 reptilian and amphibian species; more than 120 species of terrestrial birds; 32 species of waterfowl, wading birds, and shorebirds; and about 40 mammalian species. The ORR is both a refuge for rare species and a reservoir of recruitment for surrounding environments and wildlife management areas. Cedar barrens, river bluffs, and wetlands have been identified as the habitat for most rare vascular plant species on the ORR

  6. an alternative approach to t reservations for hand ative approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    using the Gaussian Elimination method. Key words: Key words: GSM, resource reservation, quality of ser. 1. INTRODUCTION. INTRODUCTION. INTRODUCTION. In a typical cellular network, the radio and fixed l required are not permanently allocated for duration of a call. Handover, which is also referre as handoff in North ...

  7. Key nuclear reaction experiments discoveries and consequences

    CERN Document Server

    Paetz gen. Schieck, Hans

    2015-01-01

    In this book the author charts the developments in nuclear physics since its inception around a century ago by reviewing the key experiments that helped drive and shape our understanding of the field, especially in the context of the wider developments in physics in the early 20th Century. In addition to providing a path through the field and the crucial events it looks at how these experiments not only answered key questions at the time but presented new challenges to the contemporary perception of the nuclear and sub-atomic worlds and how they helped develop our present understanding of nuclear physics.

  8. Nuclear, uranium, reserves, sustainability, independence; Nucleaire, Uranium, reserves, durabilite, independance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acket, C

    2007-06-15

    In order to evaluate the energy independence concerning the nuclear energy, the author takes the state of the art about the uranium. He details the fuel needs, the reserves on the base of the today available techniques, the reserves on the base of the future techniques and concludes positively on the energy independence for the nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  9. Key health indicators database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menic, J L

    1990-01-01

    A new database developed by the Canadian Centre for Health Information (CCHI) contains 40 key health indicators and lets users select a range of disaggregations, categories and variables. The database can be accessed through CANSIM, Statistics Canada's electronic database and retrieval system, or through a package for personal computers. This package includes the database on diskettes, as well as software for retrieving and manipulating data and for producing graphics. A data dictionary, a user's guide and tables and graphs that highlight aspects of each indicator are also included.

  10. Key appropriations subcommittee assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Below are membership lists for appropriations subcommittees in the 100th Congress that have direct jurisdiction over geophysical research. Last week, Eos published membership lists for other key congressional committees (Eos, March 10, 1987, p. 138.).Letters to Senate committees should be addressed to the committee, U.S. Senate, Washington, DC 20510; letters to House committees should be addressed to the committee, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, DC 20515. Initial contacts with committee and subcommittee staff may be valuable. For additional guidelines on contacting a member of Congress or congressional staff, see “AGU's Guide to Legislative Information and Contacts” (Eos, September 30, 1986, p. 739).

  11. Reflections on full reserve banking and sustainability in a long term perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    of the system. Because of the need to cope with environmental, distributional and economic crises in combination, issues related to finance have also attracted increased attention among environmentalists and within the field of ecological economics. In this community, one of the most popular suggestions...... is to introduce full reserve banking (or related arrangements), but the idea meets with substantial criticism from some Keynesian economists who are also concerned about environment and distribution. The intention with this paper is to provide an overview of the main participants and the key arguments...... in the debate on full reserve banking and to discuss whether the proposal is useful from a sustainability perspective. It is also discussed whether other proposals are more promising, either as alternatives or in combination with full reserve banking, and what the potential is for political mobilisation based...

  12. Key energy technologies for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst Joergensen, Birte

    2005-09-01

    The report is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. The outline of the report is: 1) In the introductory section, energy technologies are defined and for analytical reasons further narrowed down; 2) The description of the socio-economic challenges facing Europe in the energy field is based on the analysis made by the International Energy Agency going back to 1970 and with forecasts to 2030. Both the world situation and the European situation are described. This section also contains an overview of the main EU policy responses to energy. Both EU energy R and D as well as Member State energy R and D resources are described in view of international efforts; 3) The description of the science and technology base is made for selected energy technologies, including energy efficiency, biomass, hydrogen, and fuel cells, photovoltaics, clean fossil fuel technologies and CO 2 capture and storage, nuclear fission and fusion. When possible, a SWOT is made for each technology and finally summarised; 4) The forward look highlights some of the key problems and uncertainties related to the future energy situation. Examples of recent energy foresights are given, including national energy foresights in Sweden and the UK as well as links to a number of regional and national foresights and roadmaps; 5) Appendix 1 contains a short description of key international organisations dealing with energy technologies and energy research. (ln)

  13. Three key affordances for serendipity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björneborn, Lennart

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Serendipity is an interesting phenomenon to study in information science as it plays a fundamental – but perhaps underestimated – role in how we discover, explore, and learn in all fields of life. The purpose of this paper is to operationalize the concept of serendipity by providing termi...... terminological “building blocks” for understanding connections between environmental and personal factors in serendipitous encounters. Understanding these connections is essential when designing affordances in physical and digital environments that can facilitate serendipity. Design....../methodology/approach In this paper, serendipity is defined as what happens when we, in unplanned ways, encounter resources (information, things, people, etc.) that we find interesting. In the outlined framework, serendipity is understood as an affordance, i.e., a usage potential when environmental and personal factors correspond...... the three key affordances and three key personal serendipity factors: curiosity, mobility, and sensitivity. Ten sub-affordances for serendipity and ten coupled personal sub-factors are also briefly outlined. Related research is compared with and mapped into the framework aiming at a theoretical validation...

  14. Youth Problems on Indian Reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Ruth M., Ed.

    Juvenile delinquency was identified as the major problem affecting youth on Indian reservations. Causes for delinquency which were discussed included culture conflict, expectation of failure, unemployment, failure of homes and parents, discrimination, inadequate education, off-reservation schools, and alcoholism. Needs identified by tribal leaders…

  15. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  16. Secure SCADA communication by using a modified key management scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezai, Abdalhossein; Keshavarzi, Parviz; Moravej, Zahra

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents and evaluates a new cryptographic key management scheme which increases the efficiency and security of the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) communication. In the proposed key management scheme, two key update phases are used: session key update and master key update. In the session key update phase, session keys are generated in the master station. In the master key update phase, the Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) protocol is used. The Poisson process is also used to model the Security Index (SI) and Quality of Service (QoS). Our analysis shows that the proposed key management not only supports the required speed in the MODBUS implementation but also has several advantages compared to other key management schemes for secure communication in SCADA networks. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Unemployment insurance and reservation wages : evidence from administrative data

    OpenAIRE

    Le Barbanchon, Thomas; Rathelot, Roland; Roulet, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Although the reservation wage plays a central role in job search models, empirical evidence on the determinants of reservation wages, including key policy variables such as unemployment insurance (UI), is scarce. In France, unemployed people must declare their reservation wage to the Public Employment Service when they register to claim UI benefits. We take advantage of these rich French administrative data and of a reform of UI rules to estimate the effect of the Potential Benefit Duration (...

  18. The LOFAR Magnetism Key Science Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, James; Beck, Rainer; Bell, Michael; de Bruyn, Ger; Chyzy, Krzysztof; Eislöffel, Jochen; Enßlin, Torsten; Fletcher, Andrew; Haverkorn, Marijke; Heald, George; Horneffer, Andreas; Noutsos, Aris; Reich, Wolfgang; Scaife, Anna; the LOFAR collaboration, [No Value

    2012-01-01

    Measuring radio waves at low frequencies offers a new window to study cosmic magnetism, and LOFAR is the ideal radio telescope to open this window widely. The LOFAR Magnetism Key Science Project (MKSP) draws together expertise from multiple fields of magnetism science and intends to use LOFAR to

  19. Key Ideas and Memorability in Proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Gila; Mason, John

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the concepts of "key ideas" and "memorability" and how they relate to the metric "width of a proof" put forward by the Fields medalist Timothy Gowers (2007) in a recent essay entitled "Mathematics, memory and mental arithmetic". The paper looks at the meaning of these concepts and…

  20. Key-Finding by Artificial Neural Networks That Learn About Key Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Michael R W; Zielinski, Jasen A Z

    2017-05-08

    We explore the ability of a very simple artificial neural network, a perceptron, to assert the musical key of novel stimuli. First, perceptrons are trained to associate standardized key profiles (taken from 1 of 3 different sources) to different musical keys. After training, we measured perceptron accuracy in asserting musical keys for 296 novel stimuli. Depending upon which key profiles were used during training, perceptrons can perform as well as established key-finding algorithms on this task. Further analyses indicate that perceptrons generate higher activity in a unit representing a selected key and much lower activities in the units representing the competing keys that are not selected than does a traditional algorithm. Finally, we examined the internal structure of trained perceptrons and discovered that they, unlike traditional algorithms, assign very different weights to different components of a key profile. Perceptrons learn that some profile components are more important for specifying musical key than are others. These differential weights could be incorporated into traditional algorithms that do not themselves employ artificial neural networks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Effects of sand-shale anisotropy on amplitude variation with angle (AVA) modelling: The Sawan gas field (Pakistan) as a key case-study for South Asia's sedimentary basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, Hafiz Mubbasher; Alves, Tiago M.; Ali, Aamir; Zubair

    2017-10-01

    Amplitude variation with angle (AVA) is a technique widely used in the characterisation of hydrocarbon reservoirs and assumes the Earth's crust to be an isotropic medium. Yet, anisotropy is ubiquitous in stratigraphic sequences and has first-order effects on seismic AVA responses when investigating subsurface prospects. This work analyses the effects of anisotropic strata on AVA responses using the Lower Goru Formation, middle Indus basin (Pakistan) as a case study. In the study area, shale intervals are interbedded with reservoir sands of the Sawan gas field. Shales in this field form laminae or are dispersed within reservoir sands, making the Lower Goru Formation an example of a vertically transversely isotropic (VTI) medium. In this work, we calculate the effective (saturated) mechanical properties of the Lower Goru Formation based on rock physics templates; the Backus (1962) average typically designed for layered media, combined with the empirical relations of Brown and Korringa (1975) and Wood (1955). The input data used in our rock physics modelling is based on detailed petrophysical analyses of well data. Using the saturated effective mechanical properties of the Lower Goru Formation, we generate angle-dependent reflection coefficient curves (and seismic AVA responses) based on exact and approximate solutions, for both isotropic and anisotropic reservoir scenarios. Our results suggest that the effects of lithological anisotropy are more pronounced in places with thick shale beds within reservoir sands. Conversely, angle-dependent reflection curves, and seismic AVA responses based on isotropic or anisotropic cases, give similar solutions in the presence of thin shale beds. As a corollary of this work, we present a Bayesian inversion method for the estimation of porosity in VTI media.

  2. NF-Pro: an integrated project on key-processes and their couplings in the near-field of a repository for the geological disposal of vitrified high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneyers, A.; Volckaert, G.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1984, the European Commission has supported R and D activities related to the management of radioactive waste. Community-supported R and D projects have been funded through the EURATOM programme by means of multi-annual framework programmes. In 2002, the Commission launched the Sixth Framework Programme (FP6), which is now in force and which represents a major change compared with previous Community-supported Programmes. In particular, the scope and ambition of research supported within FP6 as well as the average level of funding of individual projects have substantially increased. In addition, the European Commission has introduced two new instruments in the Sixth Framework Programme: - Networks of Excellence (NoEs) aim at progressively integrating the activities of partners through 'virtual' centres of excellence; - Integrated Projects (IPs) are large-scale projects that aim at bringing together a critical mass in research activities focusing on clearly defined scientific and technological objectives. In the Sixth Framework Programme, the Commission has attributed high priority to R and D on the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel. One of the Integrated Projects that has been accepted for funding as part of the FP6 EURATOM programme is NF-PRO. NF-PRO integrates European research on the near-field of geological repositories for high-level waste disposal. The present paper gives an overview of the scope, objectives and content of NF-PRO and outlines composition of the consortium. Particular emphasis is on the role of modelling in connection with the integration of results from detailed process studies into assessments on the overall performance of the near-field system. (authors)

  3. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  4. Cognitive Reserve Scale and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene León

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construct of cognitive reserve attempts to explain why some individuals with brain impairment, and some people during normal ageing, can solve cognitive tasks better than expected. This study aimed to estimate cognitive reserve in a healthy sample of people aged 65 years and over, with special attention to its influence on cognitive performance. For this purpose, it used the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS and a neuropsychological battery that included tests of attention and memory. The results revealed that women obtained higher total CRS raw scores than men. Moreover, the CRS predicted the learning curve, short-term and long-term memory, but not attentional and working memory performance. Thus, the CRS offers a new proxy of cognitive reserve based on cognitively stimulating activities performed by healthy elderly people. Following an active lifestyle throughout life was associated with better intellectual performance and positive effects on relevant aspects of quality of life.

  5. Smooth Phase Interpolated Keying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Deva K.

    2007-01-01

    Smooth phase interpolated keying (SPIK) is an improved method of computing smooth phase-modulation waveforms for radio communication systems that convey digital information. SPIK is applicable to a variety of phase-shift-keying (PSK) modulation schemes, including quaternary PSK (QPSK), octonary PSK (8PSK), and 16PSK. In comparison with a related prior method, SPIK offers advantages of better performance and less complexity of implementation. In a PSK scheme, the underlying information waveform that one seeks to convey consists of discrete rectangular steps, but the spectral width of such a waveform is excessive for practical radio communication. Therefore, the problem is to smooth the step phase waveform in such a manner as to maintain power and bandwidth efficiency without incurring an unacceptably large error rate and without introducing undesired variations in the amplitude of the affected radio signal. Although the ideal constellation of PSK phasor points does not cause amplitude variations, filtering of the modulation waveform (in which, typically, a rectangular pulse is converted to a square-root raised cosine pulse) causes amplitude fluctuations. If a power-efficient nonlinear amplifier is used in the radio communication system, the fluctuating-amplitude signal can undergo significant spectral regrowth, thus compromising the bandwidth efficiency of the system. In the related prior method, one seeks to solve the problem in a procedure that comprises two major steps: phase-value generation and phase interpolation. SPIK follows the two-step approach of the related prior method, but the details of the steps are different. In the phase-value-generation step, the phase values of symbols in the PSK constellation are determined by a phase function that is said to be maximally smooth and that is chosen to minimize the spectral spread of the modulated signal. In this step, the constellation is divided into two groups by assigning, to information symbols, phase values

  6. Fractional Reserve Banking: Some Quibbles

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David

    2010-01-01

    We explore several unaddressed issues in George Selgin’s (1988) claim that the best monetary system to maintain monetary equilibrium is a fractional reserve free banking one. The claim that adverse clearing balances would limit credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking system is more troublesome than previously reckoned. Both lengthened clearing periods and interbank agreements render credit expansion unrestrained. “The theory of free banking” confuses increases in money held with...

  7. Geologic constraints on the upper limits of reserve growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Richard G.

    2001-01-01

    For many oil and gas fields, estimates of ultimate recovery (the sum of cumulative production plus estimated reserves) tend to increase from one year to the next, and the gain is called reserve growth. Forecasts of reserve growth by the U.S. Geological Survey rely on statistical analyses of historical records of oil and gas production and estimated reserves. The preproposal in this Open-File Report suggests that this traditional petroleum–engineering approach to reserve growth might be supplemented, or at least better understood, by using geological data from individual oil and gas fields, 3–D modeling software, and standard volumetric techniques to estimate in–place volumes of oil and gas. Such estimates, in turn, can be used to constrain the upper limits of reserve growth and ultimate recovery from those fields.

  8. Key data. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Energy actors and economical energy context are changing: the world extension and the opening of markets calls for reliable and convenient indicators to understand the energy choices and stakes of France with respect to European and world data. The examination of this 2001 issue of the key energy data will help the reader in his understanding of the French energy policy which is mainly based on: the imperative security of energy supplies, the limitation of CO 2 emissions and the respect of the environment, the growth of economic competitiveness, the keeping of public utilities, and the employment. The energy data are presented in tables, graphs, curves and charts. The production, consumption, and foreign market data of France and of the rest of the world are presented successively for: the overall energy sources, petroleum, natural gas, coal and electricity. Renewable energy data are presented for Europe and France (consumption, production, wind energy, solar energy, heat distribution networks, bio-fuels, biogas, biomass). A chapter concerns the rational use of energy in the industry, in transports and in the residential and tertiary sectors. The emissions of pollutants (CH 4 , CO, CO 2 , VOCs, N 2 O, NO x , SO 2 ) are given for France and compared to the worldwide CO 2 emissions. (J.S.)

  9. Reserve Retirement Equality: Treating Reserves Fairly While Saving Taxpayer Dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    rata .121 For example, a Reserve who performs the equivalent of five years of active duty, will receive one-fourth the retired pay of his active duty...4,225 per month.124 But because reserve-retirement benefits are based on pro rata years of service, this officer’s years of service for retirement...purposes are 3,146 retirement points divided by 360.125 This results in 8.74 years pro rata years of service.126 His retirement benefits thus are

  10. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.

    2008-09-15

    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  11. Improved Effectiveness of Reserve Forces During Reserve Duty Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadaway, Harry H.

    The problem areas of motivation, job enrichment, recruiting, and retention are addressed from the viewpoint of the behavioral scientist. Special attention is given to relating job enrichment and motivation techniques, as successfully demonstrated in industry, to the United State Army Reserve. Research method utilized was a literature review…

  12. Key energy technologies for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holst Joergensen, Birte

    2005-09-01

    The report is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. The outline of the report is: 1) In the introductory section, energy technologies are defined and for analytical reasons further narrowed down; 2) The description of the socio-economic challenges facing Europe in the energy field is based on the analysis made by the International Energy Agency going back to 1970 and with forecasts to 2030. Both the world situation and the European situation are described. This section also contains an overview of the main EU policy responses to energy. Both EU energy R and D as well as Member State energy R and D resources are described in view of international efforts; 3) The description of the science and technology base is made for selected energy technologies, including energy efficiency, biomass, hydrogen, and fuel cells, photovoltaics, clean fossil fuel technologies and CO{sub 2} capture and storage, nuclear fission and fusion. When possible, a SWOT is made for each technology and finally summarised; 4) The forward look highlights some of the key problems and uncertainties related to the future energy situation. Examples of recent energy foresights are given, including national energy foresights in Sweden and the UK as well as links to a number of regional and national foresights and roadmaps; 5) Appendix 1 contains a short description of key international organisations dealing with energy technologies and energy research. (ln)

  13. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial

  14. Cerebral correlates of cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Lawrence J; Staff, Roger T; Fox, Helen C; Murray, Alison D

    2016-01-30

    Cognitive reserve is a hypothetical concept introduced to explain discrepancies between severity of clinical dementia syndromes and the extent of dementia pathology. We examined cognitive reserve in a research programme that followed up a non-clinical sample born in 1921 or 1936 and IQ-tested age 11 years in 1932 or 1947. Structural MRI exams were acquired in about 50% of the sample from whom a subsample were recruited into an additional fMRI study. Here, we summarise findings from seven inter-related studies. These support an understanding of cognitive reserve as a balance between positive life course activity-driven experiences and the negative effects of brain pathologies including cerebrovascular disease and total and regional brain volume loss. Hypothesised structural equation models illustrate the relative causal effects of these positive and negative contributions. Cognitive reserve is considered in the context of choice of interventions to prevent dementia and the opposing effects of cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer like brain appearances. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  16. Identification and determination of trapping parameters as key site parameters for CO2 storage for the active CO2 storage site in Ketzin (Germany) - Comparison of different experimental approaches and analysis of field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemke, Kornelia; Liebscher, Axel

    2015-04-01

    Petrophysical properties like porosity and permeability are key parameters for a safe long-term storage of CO2 but also for the injection operation itself. The accurate quantification of residual trapping is difficult, but very important for both storage containment security and storage capacity; it is also an important parameter for dynamic simulation. The German CO2 pilot storage in Ketzin is a Triassic saline aquifer with initial conditions of the target sandstone horizon of 33.5 ° C/6.1 MPa at 630 m. One injection and two observation wells were drilled in 2007 and nearly 200 m of core material was recovered for site characterization. From June 2008 to September 2013, slightly more than 67 kt food-grade CO2 has been injected and continuously monitored. A fourth observation well has been drilled after 61 kt injected CO2 in summer 2012 at only 25 m distance to the injection well and new core material was recovered that allow study CO2 induced changes in petrophysical properties. The observed only minor differences between pre-injection and post-injection petrophysical parameters of the heterogeneous formation have no severe consequences on reservoir and cap rock integrity or on the injection behavior. Residual brine saturation for the Ketzin reservoir core material was estimated by different methods. Brine-CO2 flooding experiments for two reservoir samples resulted in 36% and 55% residual brine saturation (Kiessling, 2011). Centrifuge capillary pressure measurements (pc = 0.22 MPa) yielded the smallest residual brine saturation values with ~20% for the lower part of the reservoir sandstone and ~28% for the upper part (Fleury, 2010). The method by Cerepi (2002), which calculates the residual mercury saturation after pressure release on the imbibition path as trapped porosity and the retracted mercury volume as free porosity, yielded unrealistic low free porosity values of only a few percent, because over 80% of the penetrated mercury remained in the samples after

  17. Key Updating Methods for Combinatorial Design Based Key Management Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonghuan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN has become one of the most promising network technologies for many useful applications. However, for the lack of resources, it is different but important to ensure the security of the WSNs. Key management is a corner stone on which to build secure WSNs for it has a fundamental role in confidentiality, authentication, and so on. Combinatorial design theory has been used to generate good-designed key rings for each sensor node in WSNs. A large number of combinatorial design based key management schemes have been proposed but none of them have taken key updating into consideration. In this paper, we point out the essence of key updating for the unital design based key management scheme and propose two key updating methods; then, we conduct performance analysis on the two methods from three aspects; at last, we generalize the two methods to other combinatorial design based key management schemes and enhance the second method.

  18. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...... balancing measure, which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the electricity demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR...

  19. 77 FR 40253 - Reserve Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    .... The commentators represented Rural Development employees who work with the Multi-Family Housing Direct... their annual over-inflated tax bills and assessments. As a result, rent income funding that could be..., as rents cannot be raised to an amount that will cover all current and future reserve expenses...

  20. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Togeby, Mikael; Østergaard, Jacob

    This report summaries the research outcomes of the project ‘Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)’, which has received the support from Energinet.dk’s PSO program, Grant no. 2005-2-6380. The objective of this project is to investigate the technology of using electricity demands for providing...

  1. Botanical species lists for Moor House National Nature Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Rawes, M.

    1981-01-01

    This Occasional Paper brings together published work, Reserve Records and field information on flowering plants, ferns, mosses, liverworts, lichens, fungi and algae. It is an update of the 1978 version.

  2. Key Elasticities in Job Search Theory : International Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, John T.; Centeno, Mário; Portugal, Pedro

    2004-01-01

    This paper exploits the informational value of search theory, after Lancaster and Chesher (1983), in conjunction with survey data on the unemployed to calculate key reservation wage and duration elasticities for most EU-15 nations.

  3. Uranium reserves and exploration activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meehan, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    The strategy that ERDA plans to employ regarding resource appraisal is outlined. All types of uranium occurrences will be evaluated as sources of domestic ore reserves. Industry's exploration efforts will be compiled. These data will include information on land acquisition and costs, footage drilled and costs, estimates of exploration activities and expenditures, exploration for non-sandstone deposits, exploration in non-established areas, and foreign exploration plans and costs. Typical data in each of these areas are given

  4. Gas reserves, discoveries and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniere, A.

    2006-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2004, new discoveries, located mostly in the Asia/Pacific region, permitted a 71% produced reserve replacement rate. The Middle East and the offshore sector represent a growing proportion of world gas production Non-conventional gas resources are substantial but are not exploited to any significant extent, except in the United States, where they account for 30% of U.S. gas production. (author)

  5. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  6. Indian Reserves: Canada's Developing Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Musto, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    Indian reserves are the most visible reminder of the separation of aboriginal people from the rest of Canada and other Canadians. Illness patterns and social conditions in Native communities closely parallel those in developing nations. While they continue to have a large burden of infectious diseases, these groups also have an increased incidence of chronic and lifestyle diseases as well as environment-related conditions. Similarities can be seen in urban areas between immigrants from abroad...

  7. Secure key storage and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Punit

    2015-06-02

    This disclosure describes a distributed, fault-tolerant security system that enables the secure storage and distribution of private keys. In one implementation, the security system includes a plurality of computing resources that independently store private keys provided by publishers and encrypted using a single security system public key. To protect against malicious activity, the security system private key necessary to decrypt the publication private keys is not stored at any of the computing resources. Rather portions, or shares of the security system private key are stored at each of the computing resources within the security system and multiple security systems must communicate and share partial decryptions in order to decrypt the stored private key.

  8. Metropolitan Quantum Key Distribution with Silicon Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunandar, Darius; Lentine, Anthony; Lee, Catherine; Cai, Hong; Long, Christopher M.; Boynton, Nicholas; Martinez, Nicholas; DeRose, Christopher; Chen, Changchen; Grein, Matthew; Trotter, Douglas; Starbuck, Andrew; Pomerene, Andrew; Hamilton, Scott; Wong, Franco N. C.; Camacho, Ryan; Davids, Paul; Urayama, Junji; Englund, Dirk

    2018-04-01

    Photonic integrated circuits provide a compact and stable platform for quantum photonics. Here we demonstrate a silicon photonics quantum key distribution (QKD) encoder in the first high-speed polarization-based QKD field tests. The systems reach composable secret key rates of 1.039 Mbps in a local test (on a 103.6-m fiber with a total emulated loss of 9.2 dB) and 157 kbps in an intercity metropolitan test (on a 43-km fiber with 16.4 dB loss). Our results represent the highest secret key generation rate for polarization-based QKD experiments at a standard telecom wavelength and demonstrate photonic integrated circuits as a promising, scalable resource for future formation of metropolitan quantum-secure communications networks.

  9. A Novel Method for Generating Encryption Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dascalescu Ana Cristina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the informational society, which has led to an impressive growth of the information volume circulating in the computer networks, has accelerated the evolution and especially the use of modern cryptography instruments. Today, the commercial products use standard cryptographic libraries that implement certified and tested cryptographic algorithms. Instead, the fragility ofencryption algorithms is given by compositional operations like key handling or key generation. In this sense, the article proposes an innovative method to generate pseudorandom numbers which can be used for the construction of secure stream encryption keys. The proposed method is based on the mathematical complements based on the algebra of the finite fields and uses a particularized structure of the linear feedback shift registers.

  10. Key parameters analysis of hybrid HEMP simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Congguang; Zhou Hui

    2009-01-01

    According to the new standards on the high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) developed by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the target parameter requirements of the key structure of the hybrid HEMP simulator are decomposed. Firstly, the influences of the different excitation sources and biconical structures to the key parameters of the radiated electric field wave shape are investigated and analyzed. Then based on the influence curves the target parameter requirements of the pulse generator are proposed. Finally the appropriate parameters of the biconical structure and the excitation sources are chosen, and the computational result of the electric field in free space is presented. The results are of great value for the design of the hybrid HEMP simulator. (authors)

  11. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  12. Brain reserve and cognitive reserve in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Maria A.; Leavitt, Victoria M.; Riccitelli, Gianna; Comi, Giancarlo; DeLuca, John; Filippi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We first tested the brain reserve (BR) hypothesis in multiple sclerosis (MS) by examining whether larger maximal lifetime brain volume (MLBV; determined by genetics) protects against disease-related cognitive impairment, and then investigated whether cognitive reserve (CR) gained through life experience (intellectually enriching leisure activities) protects against cognitive decline independently of MLBV (BR). Methods: Sixty-two patients with MS (41 relapsing-remitting MS, 21 secondary progressive MS) received MRIs to estimate BR (MLBV, estimated with intracranial volume [ICV]) and disease burden (T2 lesion load; atrophy of gray matter, white matter, thalamus, and hippocampus). Early-life cognitive leisure was measured as a source of CR. We assessed cognitive status with tasks of cognitive efficiency and memory. Hierarchical regressions were used to investigate whether higher BR (ICV) protects against cognitive impairment, and whether higher CR (leisure) independently protects against cognitive impairment over and above BR. Results: Cognitive status was positively associated with ICV (R2 = 0.066, p = 0.017). An ICV × disease burden interaction (R2 = 0.050, p = 0.030) revealed that larger ICV attenuated the impact of disease burden on cognition. Controlling for BR, higher education (R2 = 0.047, p = 0.030) and leisure (R2 = 0.090, p = 0.001) predicted better cognition. A leisure × disease burden interaction (R2 = 0.037, p = 0.030) showed that leisure independently attenuated the impact of disease burden on cognition. Follow-up analyses revealed that BR protected against cognitive inefficiency, not memory deficits, whereas CR was more protective against memory deficits than cognitive inefficiency. Conclusion: We provide evidence of BR in MS, and show that CR independently protects against disease-related cognitive decline over and above BR. Lifestyle choices protect against cognitive impairment independently of genetic factors outside of one's control

  13. Army Grit: Field Marshal Viscount Slims Key to Victory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    demands, military personnel have to know what it means to dig deep during self-study, training, and execution. Psychologist and MacArthur “genius grant...war’s demands, military personnel have to know what it means to dig deep during self- study, training, and execution. Psychologist and MacArthur “genius...accomplish a range of missions.6 Psychologist and MacArthur “genius grant” winner Angela Duckworth, in her work, Grit: The Power of Passion and

  14. KEY TOPICS IN SPORTS MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Narvani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1 Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2 Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3 Drugs in sport, 4 Exercise and health promotion, 5 Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6 The psychology of performance and injury. PURPOSE The Key Topics format provides extensive, concise information in an accessible, easy-to-follow manner. AUDIENCE The book is targeted the students and specialists in sports medicine and rehabilitation, athletic training, physiotherapy and orthopaedic surgery. The editors are authorities in their respective fields and this handbook depends on their extensive experience and knowledge accumulated over the years. FEATURES The book contains the information for clinical guidance, rapid access to concise details and facts. It is composed of 99 topics which present the information in an order that is considered logical and progressive as in most texts. Chapter headings are: 1. Functional Anatomy, 2. Training Principles / Development of Strength and Power, 3. Biomechanical Principles, 4. Biomechanical Analysis, 5. Physiology of Training, 6. Monitoring of Training Progress, 7. Nutrition, 8. Hot and Cold Climates, 9. Altitude, 10. Sport and Travelling, 11. Principles of Sport Injury Diagnosis, 12. Principles of Sport and Soft Tissue Management, 13. Principles of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, 14. Principles of Sport Injury Prevention, 15. Sports Psychology, 16. Team Sports, 17. Psychological Aspects of Injury in Sport, 18. Injury Repair Process, 19. Basic Biomechanics of Tissue Injury, 20. Plain Film Radiography in Sport, 21. Nuclear Medicine, 22. Diagnostic Ultrasound, 23. MRI Scan, 24. Other Imaging, 5. Head Injury, 26. Eye

  15. Identifying tier one key suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base.

  16. Flow hydrodynamics near inlet key of Piano Key Weir (PKW)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents fundamental outcomes from an experimental study on the hydrodynamic performance near inlet key of Piano Key Weir (PKW). Hydrodynamic performance was tested in a circulated open channel that comprised of PKW and sand bed (d50 = 0.25 mm). Instantaneous velocities were measured at 20 cross ...

  17. Z' reservation at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    Montagna, G.; Piccinini, F.; Renard, F.M.; Verzegnassi, C.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the possibility that one extra Z\\equiv Z' exists with arbitrary mass and fermion couplings that do not violate (charged) lepton universality. We show that, in such a situation, a functional relationship is generated between the \\underline{deviations} from the SM values of three leptonic observables of two-fermion production at future e^+e^- colliders that is completely independent of the values of the Z' mass and couplings. This selects a certain region in the 3-d space of the deviations that is \\underline{characteristic} of the model (Z' "reservation"). As a specific and relevant example, we show the picture that would emerge at LEP2 under realistic experimental conditions.

  18. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.

    2016-03-12

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. 76 FR 16620 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... plans for future land acquisition and facility development to support reserve operations. The objectives... information to key decisionmakers; and added significant monitoring of emergent marsh vegetation, water... maritime forest, coastal shrub, wetlands, tidal marshes and sand beaches. The property provides important...

  20. The effects of calcium regulation of endosperm reserve protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of steep liquor calcium ion on sorghum endosperm reserve protein mobilization were evaluated using two improved Nigeria sorghum cultivars (ICSV 400 and KSV 8). The key protein modification factors evaluated were free amino nitrogen (FAN), total non protein nitrogen (TNPN) and soluble protein of cold water ...

  1. Model plant Key Measurement Points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    For IAEA safeguards a Key Measurement Point is defined as the location where nuclear material appears in such a form that it may be measured to determine material flow or inventory. This presentation describes in an introductory manner the key measurement points and associated measurements for the model plant used in this training course

  2. Secret Public Key Protocols Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hoon Wei; Paterson, Kenneth G.

    Password-based protocols are important and popular means of providing human-to-machine authentication. The concept of secret public keys was proposed more than a decade ago as a means of securing password-based authentication protocols against off-line password guessing attacks, but was later found vulnerable to various attacks. In this paper, we revisit the concept and introduce the notion of identity-based secret public keys. Our new identity-based approach allows secret public keys to be constructed in a very natural way using arbitrary random strings, eliminating the structure found in, for example, RSA or ElGamal keys. We examine identity-based secret public key protocols and give informal security analyses, indicating that they are secure against off-line password guessing and other attacks.

  3. Independents add gas reserves, forego romance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, D.

    1981-08-01

    Incentive pricing for low-permeability reservoirs and tax advantages for drilling them are 2 big reasons why more independents may start making a special effort to add gas reserves to their inventories. If so, it will be a change from past practices, which saw independents build up big gas positions by circumstance rather than by intention. There are always major refiners ready and willing to buy whole crude oil reservoirs from small producers, but purchasers willing to take gas fields in a single investment are few and far between. Lower-than-normal return on equity during the first 20 years, plus the heavy front-end cost of a frac necessary to produce the tight gas might dissuade independents from drilling tight gas sands, but those liabilities are offset by the higher price tight gas gets and the peculiar tax advantages of exploring for it that make a nice fit with the small operator's way of doing business.

  4. Key parameters controlling radiology departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    For radiology departments and outstanding practises control and optimization of processes demand an efficient management based on key data. Systems of key data deliver indicators for control of medical quality, service quality and economics. For practices effectiveness (productivity), for hospitals effectiveness and efficiency are in the focus of economical optimization strategies. Task of daily key data is continuous monitoring of activities and workflow, task of weekly/monthly key data is control of data quality, process quality and achievement of objectives, task of yearly key data is determination of long term strategies (marketing) and comparison with competitors (benchmarking). Key parameters have to be defined clearly and have to be available directly. For generation, evaluation and control of key parameters suitable forms of organization and processes are necessary. Strategies for the future will be directed more to the total processes of treatment. To think in total processes and to steer and optimize with suitable parameters is the challenge for participants in the healthcare market of the future. (orig.)

  5. TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE AND DEMOCRATIC CHANGE: KEY CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA ANDREEVSKA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This Article proposes a genealogy of transitional justice and focuses on transitional justice as one of the key steps in peace building that needs to be taken to secure a stable democratic futureTransitional justice is a response to systematic or widespread violations of human rights. It seeks recognition for victims and promotion of possibilities for peace, reconciliation and democracy. The paper focuses on key concepts of transitional justice before addressing its traditional components: justice, reparation, truth and institutional reform. This Article meeting point on the transitional process in a society which has experienced a violent conflict and needs adequate mechanisms to deal with the legacies of the past in order to prevent future violence and cover the way for reconciliation and democratic consolidation. It provides key stakeholders with an overview of transitional justice and its different components, while examining key challenges faced by those working in this area. The present paper concludes with some remarks that challenge the traditional concept of transitional justice and its processes in order to initiate important debate on where future work in this field is needed.

  6. Key questions and challenges in angiosperm macroevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauquet, Hervé; Magallón, Susana

    2018-03-25

    Contents Summary I. Introduction II. Six key questions III. Three key challenges IV. Conclusions Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: The origin and rapid diversification of angiosperms (flowering plants) represent one of the most intriguing topics in evolutionary biology. Despite considerable progress made in complementary fields over the last two decades (paleobotany, phylogenetics, ecology, evo-devo, genomics), many important questions remain. For instance, what has been the impact of mass extinctions on angiosperm diversification? Are the angiosperms an adaptive radiation? Has morphological evolution in angiosperms been gradual or pulsed? We propose that the recent and ongoing revolution in macroevolutionary methods provides an unprecedented opportunity to explore long-standing questions that probably hold important clues to understand present-day biodiversity. We present six key questions that explore the origin and diversification of angiosperms. We also identify three key challenges to address these questions: (1) the development of new integrative models that include diversification, multiple intrinsic and environmental traits, biogeography and the fossil record all at once, whilst accounting for sampling bias and heterogeneity of macroevolutionary processes through time and among lineages; (2) the need for large and standardized synthetic databases of morphological variation; and (3) continuous effort on sampling the fossil record, but with a revolution in current paleobotanical practice. © 2018 Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Key Management in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Mansour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are a challenging field of research when it comes to security issues. Using low cost sensor nodes with limited resources makes it difficult for cryptographic algorithms to function without impacting energy consumption and latency. In this paper, we focus on key management issues in multi-hop wireless sensor networks. These networks are easy to attack due to the open nature of the wireless medium. Intruders could try to penetrate the network, capture nodes or take control over particular nodes. In this context, it is important to revoke and renew keys that might be learned by malicious nodes. We propose several secure protocols for key revocation and key renewal based on symmetric encryption and elliptic curve cryptography. All protocols are secure, but have different security levels. Each proposed protocol is formally proven and analyzed using Scyther, an automatic verification tool for cryptographic protocols. For efficiency comparison sake, we implemented all protocols on real testbeds using TelosB motes and discussed their performances.

  8. Are Private Reserves Effective for Jaguar Conservation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmina E Gutiérrez-González

    Full Text Available We present the first study of density and apparent survival for a jaguar (Panthera onca population in northern Mexico using 13 years of camera trap data from 2000 to 2012. We used the Barker robust design model which combines data from closed sampling periods and resight data between these periods to estimate apparent survival and abundance. We identified 467 jaguar pictures that corresponded to 48 jaguar individuals. We included camera type and field technician as covariates for detection probabilities. We used three covariates to evaluate the effect of reserve on jaguar apparent survival: i private reserve creation ii later reserve expansions, and iii cattle ranches' conservation activities. We found that the use of digital cameras in addition to film cameras increased detection probability by a factor of 6x compared with the use of only film cameras (p = 0.34 ± 0.05 and p = 0.05 ± 0.02 respectively in the closed period and more than three times in the open period (R = 0.91 ± 0.08 and R = 0.30 ± 0.13 mixed and film cameras respectively. Our availability estimates showed no temporary emigration and a fidelity probability of 1. Despite an increase of apparent survival probability from 0.47 ± 0.15 to 0.56 ± 0.11 after 2007, no single covariate explained the change in these point estimates. Mean jaguar density was 1.87 ± 0.47 jaguars/100 km2. We found that 13 years of jaguar population monitoring with our sampling size were not enough for detecting changes in survival or density. Our results provide a baseline for studies evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas and the inclusion of ranch owners in jaguar conservation programs and long-term population viability.

  9. Key economic sectors and services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arent, Douglas J.; Tol, Richard S.J.; Faust, Eberhard; Hella, Joseph P.; Kumar, Surender; Strzepek, Kenneth M.; Tóth, Ferenc L.; Yan, Denghua; Abdulla, Amjad; Kheshgi, Haroon; Xu, He; Ngeh, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Context This chapter discusses the implications of climate change on key economic sectors and services, for example, economic activity. Other chapters discuss impacts from a physical, chemical, biological, or social perspective. Economic impacts cannot be isolated; therefore, there

  10. Model plant key measurement points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The key measurement points for the model low enriched fuel fabrication plant are described as well as the measurement methods. These are the measurement points and methods that are used to complete the plant's formal material balance. The purpose of the session is to enable participants to: (1) understand the basis for each key measurement; and (2) understand the importance of each measurement to the overall plant material balance. The feed to the model low enriched uranium fuel fabrication plant is UF 6 and the product is finished light water reactor fuel assemblies. The waste discards are solid and liquid wastes. The plant inventory consists of unopened UF 6 cylinders, UF 6 heels, fuel assemblies, fuel rods, fuel pellets, UO 2 powder, U 3 O 8 powder, and various scrap materials. At the key measurement points the total plant material balance (flow and inventory) is measured. The two types of key measurement points-flow and inventory are described

  11. Algorithms for Lightweight Key Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rafael; Caballero-Gil, Cándido; Santonja, Juan; Zamora, Antonio

    2017-06-27

    Public-key cryptography is too slow for general purpose encryption, with most applications limiting its use as much as possible. Some secure protocols, especially those that enable forward secrecy, make a much heavier use of public-key cryptography, increasing the demand for lightweight cryptosystems that can be implemented in low powered or mobile devices. This performance requirements are even more significant in critical infrastructure and emergency scenarios where peer-to-peer networks are deployed for increased availability and resiliency. We benchmark several public-key key-exchange algorithms, determining those that are better for the requirements of critical infrastructure and emergency applications and propose a security framework based on these algorithms and study its application to decentralized node or sensor networks.

  12. Analysis of key competencies in museums. Proposal for a tool to assess key competencies in museum managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zara Marcela Arguello Arciniegas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the field of Cultural Management, such a wide world and sometimes so difficult to outline in terms of all-encompassing, key competencies play a very important role. Therefore, we have tried to propose a tool to assess key competencies in cultural managers who perform their professional work in museums. We present a set of key competencies and then, a list of ten key competencies which are considered important for the staff of cultural management of a museum. For this it is assumed, first, the key competencies proposed by the universities offering master's degrees in official Cultural Management in Spain and, second, the key competencies proposed for the ICOM museum workers. Finally, we present a tool for the evaluation of the chosen key competencies.

  13. Wiki keys on mobile devices

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Gisela; Hagedorn, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    The development of increasingly powerful mobile devices like PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants) and Smartphones, with larger displays and greater resolution makes them increasingly suitable for identification tools available directly “in the field”. One of several approaches towards this aim in the KeyToNature project is based on wiki-stored documents. Important features of wiki-based keys, such as hidden text and media information as well as links to glossary entries are su...

  14. Conceptual and Measurement Challenges in Research on Cognitive Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard N.; Manly, Jennifer; Glymour, M. Maria; Rentz, Dorene M.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Stern, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive reserve, broadly conceived, encompasses aspects of brain structure and function that optimize individual performance in the presence of injury or pathology. Reserve is defined as a feature of brain structure and/or function that modifies the relationship between injury or pathology and performance on neuropsychological tasks or clinical outcomes. Reserve is challenging to study for two reasons. The first is: reserve is a hypothetical construct, and direct measures of reserve are not available. Proxy variables and latent variable models are used to attempt to operationalize reserve. The second is: in vivo measures of neuronal pathology are not widely available. It is challenging to develop and test models involving a risk factor (injury or pathology), a moderator (reserve) and an outcome (performance or clinical status) when neither the risk factor nor the moderator are measured directly. We discuss approaches for quantifying reserve with latent variable models, with emphasis on their application in the analysis of data from observational studies. Increasingly latent variable models are used to generate composites of cognitive reserve based on multiple proxies. We review the theoretical and ontological status of latent variable modeling approaches to cognitive reserve, and suggest research strategies for advancing the field. PMID:21411036

  15. Federal Reserve System Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... [The Regulatory Plan and Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions] [Federal Reserve System Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] Part XXI Federal Reserve System Semiannual Regulatory Agenda... Flexibility Agenda AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Semiannual regulatory...

  16. Local innovation: The key to globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivardhini K. Jha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The round table discussion draws the panellists to weigh in on how multinational enterprises from developed countries are innovating in and for emerging markets, the challenges faced, and lessons learnt. The key takeaways are that MNEs are increasingly innovating for the Indian market, alongside their contribution to global products. They are doing so by developing close relationships with field facing organisations, co-creating with customers, empowering engineers, and taking a clean slate approach to product development. This approach has given them dividends not only in the local market but also in the global market.

  17. Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2005-10-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties to communicate in absolute security based on the fundamental laws of physics. Up till now, it is widely believed that unconditionally secure QKD based on standard Bennett-Brassard (BB84) protocol is limited in both key generation rate and distance because of imperfect devices. Here, we solve these two problems directly by presenting new protocols that are feasible with only current technology. Surprisingly, our new protocols can make fiber-based QKD unconditionally secure at distances over 100km (for some experiments, such as GYS) and increase the key generation rate from O(η2) in prior art to O(η) where η is the overall transmittance. Our method is to develop the decoy state idea (first proposed by W.-Y. Hwang in "Quantum Key Distribution with High Loss: Toward Global Secure Communication", Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003)) and consider simple extensions of the BB84 protocol. This part of work is published in "Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution", . We present a general theory of the decoy state protocol and propose a decoy method based on only one signal state and two decoy states. We perform optimization on the choice of intensities of the signal state and the two decoy states. Our result shows that a decoy state protocol with only two types of decoy states--a vacuum and a weak decoy state--asymptotically approaches the theoretical limit of the most general type of decoy state protocols (with an infinite number of decoy states). We also present a one-decoy-state protocol as a special case of Vacuum+Weak decoy method. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects of statistical fluctuations and suggest that, even for long distance (larger than 100km) QKD, our two-decoy-state protocol can be implemented with only a few hours of experimental data. In conclusion, decoy state quantum key distribution is highly practical. This part of work is published in "Practical Decoy State for Quantum Key Distribution

  18. Key distillation in quantum cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutsky, Boris Aron

    1998-11-01

    Quantum cryptography is a technique which permits two parties to communicate over an open channel and establish a shared sequence of bits known only to themselves. This task, provably impossible in classical cryptography, is accomplished by encoding the data on quantum particles and harnessing their unique properties. It is believed that no eavesdropping attack consistent with the laws of quantum theory can compromise the secret data unknowingly to the legitimate users of the channel. Any attempt by a hostile actor to monitor the data carrying particles while in transit reveals itself through transmission errors it must inevitably introduce. Unfortunately, in practice a communication is not free of errors even when no eavesdropping is present. Key distillation is a technique that permits the parties to overcome this difficulty and establish a secret key despite channel defects, under the assumption that every particle is handled independently from other particles by the enemy. In the present work, key distillation is described and its various aspects are studied. A relationship is derived between the average error rate resulting from an eavesdropping attack and the amount of information obtained by the attacker. Formal definition is developed of the security of the final key. The net throughput of secret bits in a quantum cryptosystem employing key distillation is assessed. An overview of quantum cryptographic protocols and related information theoretical results is also given.

  19. Key to good fit: body measurement problems specific to key ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research (as part of a broader research project) was to explore and describe the problems that the South African Clothing Industry currently experiences with regard to the key body measurements needed for the manufacturing of well-fitting clothes. A postal survey was conducted among South African ...

  20. Flow hydrodynamics near inlet key of Piano Key Weir (PKW)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    smoothly bifurcate the flow. 3. Experimental setup. The experiments were conducted in River Engineering Laboratory, Water Resources Devel- opment and Management Department, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India. An experimental program was established to quantify the flow behavior at crest level inlet key ...

  1. KeyPathwayMinerWeb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Alcaraz, Nicolas; Dissing-Hansen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    , for instance), KeyPathwayMiner extracts connected sub-networks containing a high number of active or differentially regulated genes (proteins, metabolites) in the molecular profiles. The web interface at (http://keypathwayminer.compbio.sdu.dk) implements all core functionalities of the KeyPathwayMiner tool set......We present KeyPathwayMinerWeb, the first online platform for de novo pathway enrichment analysis directly in the browser. Given a biological interaction network (e.g. protein-protein interactions) and a series of molecular profiles derived from one or multiple OMICS studies (gene expression...... such as data integration, input of background knowledge, batch runs for parameter optimization and visualization of extracted pathways. In addition to an intuitive web interface, we also implemented a RESTful API that now enables other online developers to integrate network enrichment as a web service...

  2. Key World Energy Statistics 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997 and every year since then it has been more and more successful. Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  3. Key Lake spill. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    On January 5, 1984 contaminated water overflowed a storage reservoir at the Key Lake uranium mill onto the ice on a neighboring lake, into a muskeg area and onto a road. Outflow continued for two days, partially undercutting a retaining dyke. This report concludes the spill was the result of poor operation by the Key Lake Mining Corp.. The environmental impact will be minimal after cleanup. Improvements can be made in the regulatory process, and it is necessary to prepare for possible future mishaps

  4. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). The Group has published seven editions to date of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  5. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). In 2008 the Group published the Seventh Edition of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  6. Petroleum reserves and undiscovered resources in the total petroleum systems of Iraq: Reserve growth and production implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M.K.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Al-Gailani, M.

    2004-01-01

    Iraq is one of the world's most petroleum-rich countries and, in the future, it could become one of the main producers. Iraq's petroleum resources are estimated to be 184 billion barrels, which include oil and natural gas reserves, and undiscovered resources. With its proved (or remaining) reserves of 113 billion barrels of oil (BBO) as of January 2003, Iraq ranks second to Saudi Arabia with 259 BBO in the Middle East. Iraq's proved reserves of 110 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) rank tenth in the world. In addition to known reserves, the combined undiscovered hydrocarbon potential for the three Total Petroleum Systems (Paleozoic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous/Tertiary) in Iraq is estimated to range from 14 to 84 BBO (45 BBO at the mean), and 37 to 227 TCFG (120 TCFG at the mean). Additionally, of the 526 known prospective structures, some 370 remain undrilled. Petroleum migration models and associated geological and geochemical studies were used to constrain the undiscovered resource estimates of Iraq. Based on a criterion of recoverable reserves of between 1 and 5 BBO for a giant field, and more than 5 BBO for a super-giant, Iraq has 6 super-giant and 11 giant fields, accounting for 88% of its recoverable reserves, which include proved reserves and cumulative production. Of the 28 producing fields, 22 have recovery factors that range from 15 to 42% with an overall average of less than 30%. The recovery factor can be increased with water injection, improved and enhanced oil recovery methods (IOR and EOR) in various reservoirs, thus potentially increasing Iraq's reserves by an additional 50 to 70 BBO. Reserve growth is a significant factor that has been observed, to some extent, in nearly all Iraqi oil fields. Historically, producing fields have shown an average growth of 1.6 fold (or 60%) in their recoverable reserves over a 20-year period (1981-2001). With periodic assessments of reservoirs, application of available technology, and an upgrading of facilities

  7. 24 CFR 891.605 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.605... 8 Assistance § 891.605 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Borrower shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance, and repair and...

  8. 24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.405....405 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Owner shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items...

  9. Key competencies and characteristics of accommodation managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Wessels

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Tourism employees are trained by various higher education institutions, yet industry still voices its concern regarding the readiness of potential employees entering the tourism industry. Research purpose: This article aims to critically assess the key competencies and personal characteristics needed by accommodation managers in the South Africa tourism industry based on the opinions of the industry itself. Motivation for the study: Tertiary institutions in South Africa educate potential tourism employees in a variety of skills and knowledge. However, some employers are still of the opinion that these students are not adequately prepared for the demand of the industry. Therefore, the tourism industry feels that students are not employable, which creates challenges for students, tertiary institutions and the tourism industry. Research, design, approach and method: It was achieved by collecting 254 self-administered questionnaires from graded tourism accommodation establishments in South Africa. Main findings: Nine key competencies needed by accommodation managers were identified and the importance of certain personal characteristics was evident. Novel to this field of research, the latter was rated more important than the nine key competencies that hold implications for training institutions and the industry. Practical/managerial implications: The implication of the study is that accommodation managers should be trained in a different manner and higher education institutions should revise their training methods and selection strategies to address the needs of industry. Contribution: Effective selection and training of accommodation managers will improve not only business success but also contribute to the success and growth of the tourism industry.

  10. Cognitive Reserve: Implications for Assessment and Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Stern, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    The concept of reserve is used to explain the observation that some individuals function better than others in the presence of brain pathology. This paper reviews the concept of reserve from its theoretical basis to the implication of reserve for clinical practice. A distinction between brain reserve, referring to individual differences in the anatomic substrate, and cognitive reserve, referring to differences in the flexibility or adaptivity of cognitive networks, is useful. Epidemiologic ev...

  11. Symmetric Key Authentication Services Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crispo, B.; Popescu, B.C.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Most of the symmetric key authentication schemes deployed today are based on principles introduced by Needham and Schroeder [15] more than twenty years ago. However, since then, the computing environment has evolved from a LAN-based client-server world to include new paradigms, including wide area

  12. Women are still the key

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicky

    September 2005, V ol. 18, No. 2. Member of Parliament, Kenya, Founder and Chair of Board of Trustees, Rural Outreach. Program, Professor of Food Science and Nutrition, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya. Ruth K Oniang'o. WOMEN AND FOOD SECURITY. Women are still the key.

  13. Key concepts in glioblastoma therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartek, Jiri; Ng, Kimberly; Bartek, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    regimen, the median survival remains approximately 14 months. Meaningful strategies for therapeutic intervention are desperately needed. Development of such strategies will require an understanding of the therapeutic concepts that have evolved over the past three decades. This article reviews the key...

  14. Key World Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  15. Key energy technologies for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, B.H.

    2005-01-01

    This report on key energy technologies is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. Senior Scientist BirteHolst Jørgensen, Risø National Laboratory...

  16. Key to marine arthropod larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Fornshell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this key is restricted to the larvae of marine arthropods. The key is based solely on their morphology, patterns of body segmentation, numbers of appendages, and mode of locomotion. An effort has been made to treat all traditionally named larval forms, both planktonic and benthic. It is intended that this key be useful for a researcher working with archived museum specimens and therefore, does not include habitat information as a identifying trait, even though this information is usually available in the archived records. Within the phylum Arthropoda there are two sub-phyla and eleven classes having larval stages in the marineenvironment. Where feasible the original names of the various larval types have been used. Because this nomenclature is less commonly used today compared to the past, the more recent taxonomic affinities are included in parentheses after the original larval name. The key includes the following thirty-four larvae: Branchhiopoda nauplii; Cephalocarida nauplii; Mystacocarida nauplii; trilobite larva; protonymphon; hexapod larvae; Remipedia nauplii; nauplius - Y larvae; Cirripedia nauplii; Ascothoracida nauplii; Ostracoda nauplii; Euphausiacea nauplii; Penaeidea nauplii; Cyclopoida nauplii; Calanoida nauplii; Harpacticoida nauplii;Polyarthra nauplii; cypris larva; eryonecius larva; cypris-Y larva; elapthocaris larvae; mysis larvae; lucifer zoea; acetes zoea; acanthosoma larva; phyllosoma; antizoea larva; anomuran zoea; brachyuran zoea; calyptopis larvae; furcilia larva; crytopia larva; puerulus larva; alima larva.

  17. The Key to School Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotle, Dan

    1993-01-01

    In addition to legislative accessibility requirements, other security issues facing school administrators who select a security system include the following: access control; user friendliness; durability or serviceability; life safety precautions; possibility of vandalism, theft, and tampering; and key control. Offers steps to take in considering…

  18. Reserve growth in oil pools of Alberta: Model and forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M.; Cook, T.

    2010-01-01

    Reserve growth is recognized as a major component of additions to reserves in most oil provinces around the world, particularly in mature provinces. It takes place as a result of the discovery of new pools/reservoirs and extensions of known pools within existing fields, improved knowledge of reservoirs over time leading to a change in estimates of original oil-in-place, and improvement in recovery factor through the application of new technology, such as enhanced oil recovery methods, horizontal/multilateral drilling, and 4D seismic. A reserve growth study was conducted on oil pools in Alberta, Canada, with the following objectives: 1) evaluate historical oil reserve data in order to assess the potential for future reserve growth; 2) develop reserve growth models/ functions to help forecast hydrocarbon volumes; 3) study reserve growth sensitivity to various parameters (for example, pool size, porosity, and oil gravity); and 4) compare reserve growth in oil pools and fields in Alberta with those from other large petroleum provinces around the world. The reported known recoverable oil exclusive of Athabasca oil sands in Alberta increased from 4.5 billion barrels of oil (BBO) in 1960 to 17 BBO in 2005. Some of the pools that were included in the existing database were excluded from the present study for lack of adequate data. Therefore, the known recoverable oil increased from 4.2 to 13.9 BBO over the period from 1960 through 2005, with new discoveries contributing 3.7 BBO and reserve growth adding 6 BBO. This reserve growth took place mostly in pools with more than 125,000 barrels of known recoverable oil. Pools with light oil accounted for most of the total known oil volume, therefore reflecting the overall pool growth. Smaller pools, in contrast, shrank in their total recoverable volumes over the years. Pools with heavy oil (gravity less than 20o API) make up only a small share (3.8 percent) of the total recoverable oil; they showed a 23-fold growth compared to

  19. Impact of ground control on mining reserve estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, G. [AMC Resource Consultants Pty Ltd., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2001-07-01

    The estimation of coal resources and reserves is an important and often critical component of the assessment of a mining operation or project. An accurate estimation of reserves in particular is essential for many stages of a mining project - from initial evaluation of the project potential, commitment to a mine development, approval of capital expenditure and/or project finance, through to mine valuation for sale or public listing. Accurate estimation of reserves is also a compulsory reporting requirement for public listed companies as set out in the Australian Stock Exchange (ASX), listing rules. Under these rules, resources and reserves are reported under the JOC Code that incorporates the 'Australian Code for Reporting Identified Coal Resources and Reserves'. These rules are now also used more frequently for non public listed companies. A number of geotechnical parameters play an important role in the process of converting insitu resources to economically recoverable reserves. Whilst these parameters play a role in opencut mining, this paper covers a number of key geotechnical issues that influence the estimation of underground reserves. 11 figs.

  20. The principle of complementarity in the design of reserve networks ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Ratcliffe envisioned a three-stage selection process: (i) field surveys, (ii) the application of explicitly agreed ..... equal. This leads to the creation of larger reserves. The. MNP algorithm has been the basis for many of the ...... It is a matter of judgement whether money is better spent on acquiring data or on land purchase based.

  1. Key features of an EU health information system: a concept mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkötter, Nicole; Achterberg, Peter W; van Bon-Martens, Marja J H; Michelsen, Kai; van Oers, Hans A M; Brand, Helmut

    2016-02-01

    Despite the acknowledged value of an EU health information system (EU-HISys) and the many achievements in this field, the landscape is still heavily fragmented and incomplete. Through a systematic analysis of the opinions and valuations of public health stakeholders, this study aims to conceptualize key features of an EU-HISys. Public health professionals and policymakers were invited to participate in a concept mapping procedure. First, participants (N = 34) formulated statements that reflected their vision of an EU-HISys. Second, participants (N = 28) rated the relative importance of each statement and grouped conceptually similar ones. Principal Component and cluster analyses were used to condense these results to EU-HISys key features in a concept map. The number of key features and the labelling of the concept map were determined by expert consensus. The concept map contains 10 key features that summarize 93 statements. The map consists of a horizontal axis that represents the relevance of an 'organizational strategy', which deals with the 'efforts' to design and develop an EU-HISys and the 'achievements' gained by a functioning EU-HISys. The vertical axis represents the 'professional orientation' of the EU-HISys, ranging from the 'scientific' through to the 'policy' perspective. The top ranking statement expressed the need to establish a system that is permanent and sustainable. The top ranking key feature focuses on data and information quality. This study provides insights into key features of an EU-HISys. The results can be used to guide future planning and to support the development of a health information system for Europe. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  2. Tiger Team Assessment of the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) which consists of Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1 (NPR-1), referred to as the Elk Hills oil field and Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 2 (NPR-2), referred to as the Buena Vista oil field, each located near Bakersfield, California. The Tiger Team Assessment was conducted from November 12 to December 13, 1991, under the auspices of DOE's Office of Special Projects (OSP) under the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The assessment was comprehensive, encompassing environmental, safety, and health (ES ampersand H), and quality assurance (OA) disciplines; site remediation; facilities management; and waste management operations. Compliance with applicable Federal, State of California, and local regulations; applicable DOE Orders; best management practices; and internal NPRC requirements was assessed. In addition, an evaluation of the adequacy and effectiveness of DOE/NPRC, CUSA, and BPOI management of the ES ampersand H/QA programs was conducted

  3. Assessment of secondary aluminum reserves of nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maung, Kyaw Nyunt; Yoshida, Tomoharu; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    A classification framework of the secondary resources was applied to evaluate the framework's applicability and to assess secondary aluminum reserves for 19 countries. Estimated amounts of secondary aluminum reserves in 2010 were 85 million tonnes in the United States, 65 million tonnes in China......, 29 million tonnes in Japan, and 413 million tonnes globally. For the United States, its secondary reserves are larger than its primary reserves, although the global primary reserves (28,000 million tonnes) are much larger than the estimated secondary reserves. Considerable amounts of secondary...

  4. Key drivers of airline loyalty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty. PMID:27064618

  5. The Body: The Key Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Blackman, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Questions around 'the body' are central to social theory. Our changing understanding of the body now challenges the ways we conceive power, ideology, subjectivity and social and cultural process. The Body: the key concepts highlights and analyses the debates which make the body central to current sociological, psychological, cultural and feminist thinking. Today, questions around the body are intrinsic to a wide range of debates - from technological developments in media and communications, t...

  6. Aksu-Zhabagly Nature Reserve's 90-anniversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy F. Kovshar

    2016-05-01

    whistling thrush (Myophonus caeruleus turcestanicus, paradise flycatcher (Terpsiphone paradisi leucogaster and several species of highland finches, including Eurasian crimson-winged finch (Rhodopechys sanguinea, white-winged snowfinch (Montifringilla nivalis alpicola and Brandt's mountain finch (Leucosticte brandti; reptiles – Ophisaurus apodus, Elape dione and Coluber rhodorhachis. 18 Vertebrate and 26 invertebrate species are listed in the Red Data Book of Kazakhstan. In the 90 years of its existence a huge research was carried out and the scientific staff of field biologists, botanists and zoologists were prepared (N.K. Karmysheva, V.V. Shevchenko, F.D. Shaposhnikov, V.D. Utekhin, A.F. Kovshar, A.A. Ivaschenko, B.M. Gubin, Yu.A. Grachyov, etc.. At the same time dozens of expeditions were working on this territory from several scientific institutions – institutes of botany and zoology (Alma-Ata, Tashkent, Leningrad, Kiev, botanical gardens (Moscow, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, All-Union Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (Moscow, All-Union Institute of Pharmacology (Moscow, Institute of Plant Protection (Alma-Ata, Zoological Museum of Moscow State University (Moscow, Palaeontological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of USSR and many others. As a result from the material collected on the territory of the nature reserve, more than 900 scientific works were published, including 11 issues of Proceedings of the nature reserve, published since 1948 till 2016.

  7. KEY COMPETENCES OF SLOVENIAN SPORT MANAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iztok Retar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research that examined the key competences in the management field in Slovenian sports. The success rate of sport organisations and sportsmen is based on the creative, innovative and quality expert work of employees or/and volunteers. Their work is planned, organised, managed and supervised by a sport manager who possesses knowledge as well as managerial, technical, social, creative and other competences. The purpose of the presented research, which involved successful Slovenian sport managers, was to establish which competences are the most important for successful work in the field of sport management. The paper also presents the technical framework for the selected determination of sport management terminology and competences as well as a competence structure model, prepared by the authors. We have found that the human resources management competence most significantly contributes to the success of Slovenian sport managers in the field of general competences. Respondents evaluated the competence of developing a positive working environment as the most important specific competence that supplements general competences.

  8. Twelve key nutritional issues in bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Ronan; Huber, Olivier; Azagury, Dan E; Pichard, Claude

    2016-02-01

    In morbidly obese patients, i.e. body mass index ≥35, bariatric surgery is considered the only effective durable weight-loss therapy. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP), laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) are associated with risks of nutritional deficiencies and malnutrition. Therefore, preoperative nutritional assessment and correction of vitamin and micronutrient deficiencies, as well as long-term postoperative nutritional follow-up, are advised. Dietetic counseling is mandatory during the first year, optional later. Planned and structured physical exercise should be systematically promoted to maintain muscle mass and bone health. In this review, twelve key perioperative nutritional issues are raised with focus on LRYGBP and LSG procedures, the most common current bariatric procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. Biocatalysis--key to sustainable industrial chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, Roland

    2010-12-01

    The ongoing trends to process improvements, cost reductions and increasing quality, safety, health and environment requirements of industrial chemical transformations have strengthened the translation of global biocatalysis research work into industrial applications. One focus has been on biocatalytic single-step reactions with one or two substrates, the identification of bottlenecks and molecular as well as engineering approaches to overcome these bottlenecks. Robust industrial procedures have been established along classes of biocatalytic single-step reactions. Multi-step reactions and multi-component reactions (MCRs) enable a bottom-up approach with biocatalytic reactions working together in one compartment and recations hindering each other within different compartments or steps. The understanding of the catalytic functions of known and new enzymes is key for the development of new sustainable chemical transformations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cognitive Reserve: Implications for Assessment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    The concept of reserve is used to explain the observation that some individuals function better than others in the presence of brain pathology. This paper reviews the concept of reserve from its theoretical basis to the implication of reserve for clinical practice. A distinction between brain reserve, referring to individual differences in the anatomic substrate, and cognitive reserve, referring to differences in the flexibility or adaptivity of cognitive networks, is useful. Epidemiologic evidence indicates that a set of life exposures including higher educational and occupational attainment, and engaging in leisure activities is associated with a lower risk of incident dementia, suggesting that these life exposures may enhance cognitive reserve. This provides a basis for controlled clinical studies can test specific exposures that may enhance reserve. The concept of cognitive reserve also has important implications for clinical practice in terms of diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:23941972

  11. Clipboard: Unraveling the mystery of cognitive reserve

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 40; Issue 2. Clipboard : Unraveling the mystery of cognitive reserve ... Keywords. Aging; Alzheimer's; bilingualism; cognitive reserve; dementia; Down's; education; enrichment; environment; learning; long term potentiation; LTP; memory; neuroepigenetics; plasticity ...

  12. Transforming the Reserve Component: Four Essays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binnendijk, Hans; Baranick, Michael J; Bell, Raymond E., Jr; Cordero, Gina; Duncan, Stephen M; Holshek, Christopher; Wentz, Larry

    2005-01-01

    This volume contains four essays on various aspects of the Reserve Component. We publish it at a time when Reserves are serving overseas at historically high rates and when new missions like homeland security demand their attention...

  13. 5 CFR 330.610 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 330.610 Section 330.610 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND... Employees § 330.610 [Reserved] ...

  14. 5 CFR 330.603 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 330.603 Section 330.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND... Employees § 330.603 [Reserved] ...

  15. Application of a Mathematical Model to an Advertisement Reservation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem COSGUN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Television networks provide TV programs free of charge to the public. However, they acquire their revenue by telecasting advertisements in the midst of continuing programs or shows. A key problem faced by the TV networks in Turkey is how to accept and televise the advertisements reserved by a client on a specified advertisement break which we called “Advertisement Reservation Problem” (ARP. The problem is complicated by limited time inventory, by different rating points for different target groups, competition avoidance and the relationship between TV networks and clients. In this study we have developed a mathematical model for advertisement reservation problem and extended this model for some cases encountered in real business life. We have also discussed how these cases affect the decisions of a TV network. Mixed integer linear programming approach is proposed to solve these problems. This approach has been implemented to a case taken from one of the biggest TV networks of Turkey.

  16. Reserving by detailed conditioning on individual claim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, Mujiati Dwi; Effendie, Adhitya Ronnie; Wilandari, Yuciana

    2017-03-01

    The estimation of claim reserves is an important activity in insurance companies to fulfill their liabilities. Recently, reserving method of individual claim have attracted a lot of interest in the actuarial science, which overcome some deficiency of aggregated claim method. This paper explores the Reserving by Detailed Conditioning (RDC) method using all of claim information for reserving with individual claim of liability insurance from an Indonesian general insurance company. Furthermore, we compare it to Chain Ladder and Bornhuetter-Ferguson method.

  17. DNA based random key generation and management for OTP encryption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunpeng; Liu, Xin; Sun, Manhui

    2017-09-01

    One-time pad (OTP) is a principle of key generation applied to the stream ciphering method which offers total privacy. The OTP encryption scheme has proved to be unbreakable in theory, but difficult to realize in practical applications. Because OTP encryption specially requires the absolute randomness of the key, its development has suffered from dense constraints. DNA cryptography is a new and promising technology in the field of information security. DNA chromosomes storing capabilities can be used as one-time pad structures with pseudo-random number generation and indexing in order to encrypt the plaintext messages. In this paper, we present a feasible solution to the OTP symmetric key generation and transmission problem with DNA at the molecular level. Through recombinant DNA technology, by using only sender-receiver known restriction enzymes to combine the secure key represented by DNA sequence and the T vector, we generate the DNA bio-hiding secure key and then place the recombinant plasmid in implanted bacteria for secure key transmission. The designed bio experiments and simulation results show that the security of the transmission of the key is further improved and the environmental requirements of key transmission are reduced. Analysis has demonstrated that the proposed DNA-based random key generation and management solutions are marked by high security and usability. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane

    2007-07-01

    We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves.

  19. 24 CFR 572.125 - Replacement reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserves. 572.125...) Homeownership Program Requirements-Implementation Grants § 572.125 Replacement reserves. (a) Purpose. A single replacement reserve may be established for the homeownership program only if HUD determines it is necessary to...

  20. 24 CFR 880.602 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 880.602... Replacement reserve. (a) A replacement reserve must be established and maintained in an interest-bearing account to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items. (1) Part...

  1. 24 CFR 891.745 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.745... and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.745 Replacement reserve. The general requirements for the replacement reserve are provided in § 891.605. For projects funded under §§ 891.655 through 891.790, the...

  2. Reserve evaluation of minerals at NUCLEBRAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.; Guerra, P.A.G.; Vinha, C.A.G. da

    1980-10-01

    The method used for the reserve evaluation of minerals, particularly of uranium, as used worldwide, and specially at NUCLEBRAS is described. This is done through a series of procedures envolving basic definitions, reserve evaluation methods (conventional, statistical and geoestatistical), data management, use of computer systems, classification and evaluation of reserves. (Author) [pt

  3. John Brainerd and the First Indian Reservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Susanne Banta

    1979-01-01

    Describes the humanitarian founding in 1758 of the nation's first reservation--the Brotherton reservation for New Jersey's Lenni Lenape (Algonquin) Indians. The people were demoralized, sick, and decimated in numbers; and so the venture failed. In 1801 those few remaining sold the reservation and moved to join related tribes in New York. (DS)

  4. Improving Deterministic Reserve Requirements for Security Constrained Unit Commitment and Scheduling Problems in Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyu

    Traditional deterministic reserve requirements rely on ad-hoc, rule of thumb methods to determine adequate reserve in order to ensure a reliable unit commitment. Since congestion and uncertainties exist in the system, both the quantity and the location of reserves are essential to ensure system reliability and market efficiency. The modeling of operating reserves in the existing deterministic reserve requirements acquire the operating reserves on a zonal basis and do not fully capture the impact of congestion. The purpose of a reserve zone is to ensure that operating reserves are spread across the network. Operating reserves are shared inside each reserve zone, but intra-zonal congestion may block the deliverability of operating reserves within a zone. Thus, improving reserve policies such as reserve zones may improve the location and deliverability of reserve. As more non-dispatchable renewable resources are integrated into the grid, it will become increasingly difficult to predict the transfer capabilities and the network congestion. At the same time, renewable resources require operators to acquire more operating reserves. With existing deterministic reserve requirements unable to ensure optimal reserve locations, the importance of reserve location and reserve deliverability will increase. While stochastic programming can be used to determine reserve by explicitly modelling uncertainties, there are still scalability as well as pricing issues. Therefore, new methods to improve existing deterministic reserve requirements are desired. One key barrier of improving existing deterministic reserve requirements is its potential market impacts. A metric, quality of service, is proposed in this thesis to evaluate the price signal and market impacts of proposed hourly reserve zones. Three main goals of this thesis are: 1) to develop a theoretical and mathematical model to better locate reserve while maintaining the deterministic unit commitment and economic dispatch

  5. Resource Management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 28, Wetlands on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pounds, Larry [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-01

    A survey of wetlands on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted in 1990. Wetlands occurring on ORR were identified using National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) maps and field surveys. More than 120 sites were visited and 90 wetlands were identified. Wetland types on ORR included emergent communities in shallow embayments on reservoirs, emergent and aquatic communities in ponds, forested wetland on low ground along major creeks, and wet meadows and marshes associated with streams and seeps. Vascular plant species occurring on sites visited were inventoried, and 57 species were added to the checklist of vascular plants on ORR. Three species listed as rare in Tennessee were discovered on ORR during the wetlands survey. The survey provided an intensive ground truth of the wetlands identified by NWI and offered an indication of wetlands that the NWI remote sensing techniques did not detect.

  6. Fibre Optic Communication Key Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The book gives an in-depth description of the key devices of current and next generation fibre optic communication networks. In particular, the book covers devices such as semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers, modulators, wavelength filters, and detectors but the relevant properties of optical fibres as well. The presentations include the physical principles underlying the various devices, the technologies used for the realization of the different devices, typical performance characteristics and limitations, and development trends towards more advanced components are also illustrated. Thus the scope of the book spans relevant principles, state-of-the-art implementations, the status of current research and expected future components.

  7. Symmetric autocompensating quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Zachary D.; Sergienko, Alexander V.; Levitin, Lev B.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin C.

    2004-08-01

    We present quantum key distribution schemes which are autocompensating (require no alignment) and symmetric (Alice and Bob receive photons from a central source) for both polarization and time-bin qubits. The primary benefit of the symmetric configuration is that both Alice and Bob may have passive setups (neither Alice nor Bob is required to make active changes for each run of the protocol). We show that both the polarization and the time-bin schemes may be implemented with existing technology. The new schemes are related to previously described schemes by the concept of advanced waves.

  8. Rapid effects of marine reserves via larval dispersal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Cudney-Bueno

    Full Text Available Marine reserves have been advocated worldwide as conservation and fishery management tools. It is argued that they can protect ecosystems and also benefit fisheries via density-dependent spillover of adults and enhanced larval dispersal into fishing areas. However, while evidence has shown that marine reserves can meet conservation targets, their effects on fisheries are less understood. In particular, the basic question of if and over what temporal and spatial scales reserves can benefit fished populations via larval dispersal remains unanswered. We tested predictions of a larval transport model for a marine reserve network in the Gulf of California, Mexico, via field oceanography and repeated density counts of recently settled juvenile commercial mollusks before and after reserve establishment. We show that local retention of larvae within a reserve network can take place with enhanced, but spatially-explicit, recruitment to local fisheries. Enhancement occurred rapidly (2 yrs, with up to a three-fold increase in density of juveniles found in fished areas at the downstream edge of the reserve network, but other fishing areas within the network were unaffected. These findings were consistent with our model predictions. Our findings underscore the potential benefits of protecting larval sources and show that enhancement in recruitment can be manifested rapidly. However, benefits can be markedly variable within a local seascape. Hence, effects of marine reserve networks, positive or negative, may be overlooked when only focusing on overall responses and not considering finer spatially-explicit responses within a reserve network and its adjacent fishing grounds. Our results therefore call for future research on marine reserves that addresses this variability in order to help frame appropriate scenarios for the spatial management scales of interest.

  9. Cognitive reserve in ageing and Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reserve accounts for individual differences in susceptibility to age-related brain changes or Alzheimer's disease-related pathology. There is evidence that some people can tolerate more of these changes than others and still maintain function. Epidemiologic studies suggest that lifetime exposures including educational and occupational attainment, and leisure activities in late life, can increase this reserve. For example, there is a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in individuals with higher educational or occupational attainment. It is convenient to think of two types of reserve: brain reserve, which refers to actual differences in the brain itself that may increase tolerance of pathology, and cognitive reserve. Cognitive reserve refers to individual differences in how tasks are performed that may allow some people to be more resilient than others. The concept of cognitive reserve holds out the promise of interventions that could slow cognitive aging or reduce the risk of dementia. PMID:23079557

  10. Public/private key certification authority and key distribution. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, J.P.; Christensen, M.J.; Sturtevant, A.P.; Johnston, W.E.

    1995-09-25

    Traditional encryption, which protects messages from prying eyes, has been used for many decades. The present concepts of encryption are built from that heritage. Utilization of modern software-based encryption techniques implies much more than simply converting files to an unreadable form. Ubiquitous use of computers and advances in encryption technology coupled with the use of wide-area networking completely changed the reasons for utilizing encryption technology. The technology demands a new and extensive infrastructure to support these functions. Full understanding of these functions, their utility and value, and the need for an infrastructure, takes extensive exposure to the new paradigm. This paper addresses issues surrounding the establishment and operation of a key management system (i.e., certification authority) that is essential to the successful implementation and wide-spread use of encryption.

  11. Soil fauna: key to new carbon models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filser, Juliane; Faber, Jack H.; Tiunov, Alexei V.; Brussaard, Lijbert; Frouz, Jan; De Deyn, Gerlinde; Uvarov, Alexei V.; Berg, Matty P.; Lavelle, Patrick; Loreau, Michel; Wall, Diana H.; Querner, Pascal; Eijsackers, Herman; José Jiménez, Juan

    2016-11-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is key to maintaining soil fertility, mitigating climate change, combatting land degradation, and conserving above- and below-ground biodiversity and associated soil processes and ecosystem services. In order to derive management options for maintaining these essential services provided by soils, policy makers depend on robust, predictive models identifying key drivers of SOM dynamics. Existing SOM models and suggested guidelines for future SOM modelling are defined mostly in terms of plant residue quality and input and microbial decomposition, overlooking the significant regulation provided by soil fauna. The fauna controls almost any aspect of organic matter turnover, foremost by regulating the activity and functional composition of soil microorganisms and their physical-chemical connectivity with soil organic matter. We demonstrate a very strong impact of soil animals on carbon turnover, increasing or decreasing it by several dozen percent, sometimes even turning C sinks into C sources or vice versa. This is demonstrated not only for earthworms and other larger invertebrates but also for smaller fauna such as Collembola. We suggest that inclusion of soil animal activities (plant residue consumption and bioturbation altering the formation, depth, hydraulic properties and physical heterogeneity of soils) can fundamentally affect the predictive outcome of SOM models. Understanding direct and indirect impacts of soil fauna on nutrient availability, carbon sequestration, greenhouse gas emissions and plant growth is key to the understanding of SOM dynamics in the context of global carbon cycling models. We argue that explicit consideration of soil fauna is essential to make realistic modelling predictions on SOM dynamics and to detect expected non-linear responses of SOM dynamics to global change. We present a decision framework, to be further developed through the activities of KEYSOM, a European COST Action, for when mechanistic SOM models

  12. Moisture movement in soils on the Hanford Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, L.E.; Isaacson, R.E.; Sloughter, J.P.; Veatch, M.D.

    1971-01-01

    Methods being studied are as follows: the thermodynamic method based on water potential and thermocouple psychrometers; the tracer method using atmospheric tritium; the annual water balance based on the annual heat balance; the field lysimeter using thermocouple psychrometers; the influence of soil breathing as a result of changes in barometric pressure; and the influence of soil stratification. Progress to date has involved the installation of thermocouple psychrometers from the surface to the water table 310 feet below. These instruments are in the process of equilibration. Isothermal methods of analyzing water potential must be extended to include nonisothermal conditions which are dominant at the Hanford Reservation. Tracer techniques using tritium analyses of soil samples have successfully demonstrated that archaic water exists in virgin soil at the Hanford Reservation from a depth of approximately 7 meters to the water table, indicating that percolation has been limited to lesser depths. The annual heat balance indicates that quantities of water many times greater than the annual average precipitation of 16 centimeters can be evaporated from the soils at the Hanford Reservation during a normal summer. This indicates that the critical precipitation (P/sub c/) value may be greater than 30 to 50 centimeters of water. More precise values of the Bowen's ratio for the Hanford Reservation are required to refine this computation. The field lysimeter is perhaps the most direct method of determining the critical precipitation values for the Hanford Reservation but as yet has not been used

  13. Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual/quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-16

    During 1992 the Department continued planning activities for the expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to one billion barrels. A draft Environmental Impact Statement for the five candidate sites was completed in October 1992, and a series of public hearings was held during December 1992. Conceptual design engineering activities, life cycle cost estimates and geotechnical studies to support the technical requirements for an Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan Amendment were essentially completed in December 1992. At the end of 1992, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil inventory was 574.7 million barrels and an additional 1.7 million barrels was in transit to the Reserve. During 1992 approximately 6.2 million barrels of crude oil were acquired for the Reserve. A Department of Energy Tiger Team Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Assessment was conducted at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve from March 9 through April 10, 1992. In general, the Tiger Team found that Strategic Petroleum Reserve activities do not pose undue environmental, safety or health risks. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve`s Final Corrective Action Plan, prepared in response to the Tiger Team assessment, was submitted for Department approval in December 1992. On November 18, 1992, the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy selected DynMcDennott Petroleum Operations Company to provide management and operating services for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve for a period of 5 years commencing April 1, 1993. DynMcDermott will succeed Boeing Petroleum Services, Inc.

  14. Demand for International Reserves in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimaz Sinem

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Having an important place in the international monetary system, international reserves held by central bank usually reflect country’s economic strength in terms of international finance and trade. There are many reasons for holding international reserves by central banks such as financing the deficit in the balance of payment, managing the monetary and exchange rate policies, minimizing the negative effects of external shocks and reducing the cost of borrowing. Continuously changing and diversifying characteristics of these reasons affect the demand for reserves depending to the economic conditions of the country. Over the last ten years, there has been a tremendous increase in international reserves held by Turkish Central Bank. From 2002 to 2012, the reserves of the bank have risen from 20 billion dollars to 96 billion dollars, showing an increase more than four times. This sudden and huge increase in the foreign reserves drove us to determine and investigate the factors which induce the Turkish Central Bank to hold high level of reserves. Thus, the purpose of this study is to estimate and analyze the demand for international reserves held by central banks using the buffer stock model in the case of Turkey. The data used in the study is monthly and cover the period of 1990:03-2012:10. The buffer stock model was econometrically estimated by using the OLS method for three different models. Our findings indicate that the opportunity cost affected reserve demand much stronger than the reserve volatility in Turkish case.

  15. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

  16. Ore reserve estimation: a summary of principles and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.

    1985-01-01

    The mining industry has experienced substantial improvements with the increasing utilization of computerized and electronic devices throughout the last few years. In the ore reserve estimation field the main methods have undergone recent advances in order to improve their overall efficiency. This paper presents the three main groups of ore reserve estimation methods presently used worldwide: Conventional, Statistical and Geostatistical, and elaborates a detaited description and comparative analysis of each. The Conventional Methods are the oldest, less complex and most employed ones. The Geostatistical Methods are the most recent precise and more complex ones. The Statistical Methods are intermediate to the others in complexity, diffusion and chronological order. (D.J.M.) [pt

  17. A General Business Model for Marine Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Enric; Costello, Christopher; Dougherty, Dawn; Heal, Geoffrey; Kelleher, Kieran; Murray, Jason H.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Sumaila, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models. PMID:23573192

  18. Substantiating the Incurred but not Reported Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Vintilã

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to handle past and future liability taken by insurance contracts concluded, any insurance company must constitute and maintain technical reserves. Substantiating technical reserves is done through actuarial methods and its over-evaluation or under-evaluation influence solvency and financial performance of the insurance companies, in the sense of reducing solvency through over-evaluating reserves and, respectively, influencing profit (hence of outstanding tax through under-evaluating reserves. An important reserve for insurance companies is represented by the incurred but not reported reserve, as it allows the estimation of the liability the company may confront in the future, generated by events occurred in the past, which are not currently known in the present but will be reported in the future.

  19. A Policy Analysis of Reserve Retirement Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    adapted their manning requirements to this retention. Perhaps tasks and jobs have been designed to accommodate the reten - tion profile produced by the...a reward for a long career of service, a benefit to help transition to the civilian economy, and a means of securing the reten - tion of career...to determine their likely effect on active reten - tion, reserve affiliation after leaving an active component, reserve retention, and reserve

  20. IGT calculates world reserves of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has published the IGT World Reserves Survey, giving their latest tabulation of world reserves of fossil fuels and uranium. The report contains 120 Tables and 41 Figures. Estimates are provided for proved reserves, resources, current production, and life indexes of the non-renewable energy sources of the US and of the world as a whole. World regional data are also provided in many cases. The data are summarized here. 2 figures, 5 tables

  1. Reserve valuation in electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Pablo Ariel

    Operational reliability is provided in part by scheduling capacity in excess of the load forecast. This reserve capacity balances the uncertain power demand with the supply in real time and provides for equipment outages. Traditionally, reserve scheduling has been ensured by enforcing reserve requirements in the operations planning. An alternate approach is to employ a stochastic formulation, which allows the explicit modeling of the sources of uncertainty. This thesis compares stochastic and reserve methods and evaluates the benefits of a combined approach for the efficient management of uncertainty in the unit commitment problem. Numerical studies show that the unit commitment solutions obtained for the combined approach are robust and superior with respect to the traditional approach. These robust solutions are especially valuable in areas with a high proportion of wind power, as their built-in flexibility allows the dispatch of practically all the available wind power while minimizing the costs of operation. The scheduled reserve has an economic value since it reduces the outage costs. In several electricity markets, reserve demand functions have been implemented to take into account the value of reserve in the market clearing process. These often take the form of a step-down function at the reserve requirement level, and as such they may not appropriately represent the reserve value. The value of reserve is impacted by the reliability, dynamic and stochastic characteristics of system components, the system operation policies, and the economic aspects such as the risk preferences of the demand. In this thesis, these aspects are taken into account to approximate the reserve value and construct reserve demand functions. Illustrative examples show that the demand functions constructed have similarities with those implemented in some markets.

  2. Reserve reporting from a banker's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.O.

    1996-01-01

    A banker's perspective of oil and gas reserve reporting was presented. Topics chosen for discussion emphasized oil and gas lending, and the type of capital which is most relevant to the oil and gas industry. The concept of capital differentiation, potential worst case, and least specialization, were explained. An explanation of the reasons for the lender's different perspective on reserves was given. Methods that banks use to limit risk, and the role that reserve reports play in loan approvals were also reviewed

  3. Fibre optic communication key devices

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    The book gives an in-depth description of key devices of current and next generation fibre optic communication networks. Devices treated include semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers, modulators, wavelength filters and other passives, detectors, all-optical switches, but relevant properties of optical fibres and network aspects are included as well. The presentations include the physical principles underlying the various devices, technologies used for their realization, typical performance characteristics and limitations, but development trends towards more advanced components are also illustrated. This new edition of a successful book was expanded and updated extensively. The new edition covers among others lasers for optical communication, optical switches, hybrid integration, monolithic integration and silicon photonics. The main focus is on Indium phosphide-based structures but silicon photonics is included as well. The book covers relevant principles, state-of-the-art implementations, status of curren...

  4. Cogeneration: Key feasibility analysis parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coslovi, S.; Zulian, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first reviews the essential requirements, in terms of scope, objectives and methods, of technical/economic feasibility analyses applied to cogeneration systems proposed for industrial plants in Italy. Attention is given to the influence on overall feasibility of the following factors: electric power and fuel costs, equipment coefficients of performance, operating schedules, maintenance costs, Italian Government taxes and financial and legal incentives. Through an examination of several feasibility studies that were done on cogeneration proposals relative to different industrial sectors, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effects of varying the weights of different cost benefit analysis parameters. With the use of statistical analyses, standard deviations are then determined for key analysis parameters, and guidelines are suggested for analysis simplifications

  5. Key concepts in social pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Lotte Junker

    2011-01-01

    “Now I can actually play soccer with the young people without fearing that my colleagues think I am escaping the paper work.” These were the words from a participant in a social pedagogy training course in England a few years ago. This understanding emerged through in-depth discussions and activi......“Now I can actually play soccer with the young people without fearing that my colleagues think I am escaping the paper work.” These were the words from a participant in a social pedagogy training course in England a few years ago. This understanding emerged through in-depth discussions...... and activities around key social pedagogical concepts, such as the Common Third, the 3 P’s, the Zone of Proximal Development and the Learning Zone model. In the article we explore how a joint activity, for example playing soccer, can be seen as a pedagogical activity and with what intentions it is undertaken...

  6. Visual field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perimetry; Tangent screen exam; Automated perimetry exam; Goldmann visual field exam; Humphrey visual field exam ... Confrontation visual field exam. This is a quick and basic check of the visual field. The health care provider ...

  7. When will fossil fuel reserves be diminished?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiee, Shahriar; Topal, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    Crude oil, coal and gas are the main resources for world energy supply. The size of fossil fuel reserves and the dilemma that 'when non-renewable energy will be diminished' is a fundamental and doubtful question that needs to be answered. This paper presents a new formula for calculating when fossil fuel reserves are likely to be depleted and develops an econometrics model to demonstrate the relationship between fossil fuel reserves and some main variables. The new formula is modified from the Klass model and thus assumes a continuous compound rate and computes fossil fuel reserve depletion times for oil, coal and gas of approximately 35, 107 and 37 years, respectively. This means that coal reserves are available up to 2112, and will be the only fossil fuel remaining after 2042. In the Econometrics model, the main exogenous variables affecting oil, coal and gas reserve trends are their consumption and respective prices between 1980 and 2006. The models for oil and gas reserves unexpectedly show a positive and significant relationship with consumption, while presenting a negative and significant relationship with price. The econometrics model for coal reserves, however, expectedly illustrates a negative and significant relationship with consumption and a positive and significant relationship with price. Consequently, huge reserves of coal and low-level coal prices in comparison to oil and gas make coal one of the main energy substitutions for oil and gas in the future, under the assumption of coal as a clean energy source. (author)

  8. Reservation system with graphical user interface

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mahmoud A. Abdelhamid

    2012-01-05

    Techniques for providing a reservation system are provided. The techniques include displaying a scalable visualization object, wherein the scalable visualization object comprises an expanded view element of the reservation system depicting information in connection with a selected interval of time and a compressed view element of the reservation system depicting information in connection with one or more additional intervals of time, maintaining a visual context between the expanded view and the compressed view within the visualization object, and enabling a user to switch between the expanded view and the compressed view to facilitate use of the reservation system.

  9. Comparative assessment of public opinion on the landscape quality of two biosphere reserves in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowińska-Świerkosz, Barbara; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J

    2014-09-01

    The European Landscape Convention (2000) obligates European Union countries to identify and implement landscape quality objectives (LQOs) understood as the specification of public expectations and preferences concerning the landscape of a given area, expressed by competent public authorities. The convention emphasizes the important role of local community representatives in this field. In Poland, the implementation of the LQO concept was first undertaken in two regions with radically different landscape characteristics: (1) the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve and (2) the selected protected areas of the Roztocze-Solska Forest, nominated to the rank of a biosphere reserve. The first stage of the presented study was the recognition of public opinion on the quality of key features of landscape, based on a questionnaire (n = 470). The primary objective of the study was to provide an answer to the following questions: (1) Whether similar social expectations regarding landscape quality exist in spite of radically different landscape characteristics of the regions investigated (landscape quality is understood as spatial arrangement, scenic beauty, and lack of environmental pollution); (2) which landscape features are considered to be most preservation worthy by the representatives of both local communities; and (3) What processes or development impacts pose the greatest threat to the landscape quality of both regions according to the public opinion? The conducted comparative assessment revealed that it is possible to define a set of features fundamental to the quality of both areas and that representatives of local communities pointed out the same threats to the natural and cultural values of both regions investigated.

  10. The Uneasy Case for Fractional-Reserve Free Banking

    OpenAIRE

    van den Hauwe, Ludwig

    2006-01-01

    Since a few decades several sub-disciplines within economics have witnessed a reorientation towards institutional analysis. This development has in particular also affected the fields of macroeconomics and monetary theory where it has led to several proposals for far-reaching financial and monetary reform. One of the more successful of these proposals advocates a fractional-reserve free banking system, that is, a system with no central bank, but with permission for the banks to operate with a...

  11. 48 CFR 4.501 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 4.501 Section 4.501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Electronic Commerce in Contracting 4.501 [Reserved...

  12. 7 CFR 300.1 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 300.1 Section 300.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE § 300.1 [Reserved...

  13. 7 CFR 305.4 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 305.4 Section 305.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS § 305.4 [Reserved...

  14. 50 CFR 216.42 - Photography. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Photography. [Reserved] 216.42 Section 216.42 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.42 Photography. [Reserved] ...

  15. 9 CFR 73.1a - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 73.1a Section 73.1a Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.1a [Reserved] ...

  16. 12 CFR 614.4710 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 614.4710 Section 614.4710 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Banks for Cooperatives and Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4710 [Reserved] ...

  17. 40 CFR 406.43 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 406.43 Section 406.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bulgur Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.43 [Reserved] ...

  18. 40 CFR 406.23 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 406.23 Section 406.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Dry Milling Subcategory § 406.23 [Reserved] ...

  19. 40 CFR 406.13 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 406.13 Section 406.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory § 406.13 [Reserved] ...

  20. 24 CFR 891.855 - Replacement reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserves. 891.855... § 891.855 Replacement reserves. (a) The mixed-finance owner shall establish and maintain a replacement... the funds will be used to pay for capital replacement costs for the Section 202 or 811 supportive...

  1. 22 CFR 40.69 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 40.69 Section 40.69 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Illegal Entrants and Immigration Violators § 40.69 [Reserved] ...

  2. Body reserves in intra-African migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nwaogu, Chima; Cresswell, Will

    Avian migration has been shown to be a life history strategy for surviving environmental resource variability, but it requires increased body reserves for long distance flight. Fat reserves make excellent energy stores for barrier crossing, whereas proteins generate less energy for the same mass of

  3. 21 CFR 211.170 - Reserve samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reserve samples. 211.170 Section 211.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL... of deterioration unless visual examination would affect the integrity of the reserve sample. Any...

  4. 8 CFR 325.1 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 325.1 Section 325.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS NATIONALS BUT NOT CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES; RESIDENCE WITHIN OUTLYING POSSESSIONS § 325.1 [Reserved] ...

  5. 30 CFR 253.44 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 253.44 Section 253.44 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Requirements for Submitting OSFR Information § 253.44 [Reserved] ...

  6. 14 CFR 33.13 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 33.13 Section 33.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.13 [Reserved] ...

  7. 14 CFR 35.13 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 35.13 Section 35.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.13 [Reserved] ...

  8. 14 CFR 35.11 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 35.11 Section 35.11 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.11 [Reserved] ...

  9. Reserve selection using nonlinear species distribution models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Atte

    2005-06-01

    Reserve design is concerned with optimal selection of sites for new conservation areas. Spatial reserve design explicitly considers the spatial pattern of the proposed reserve network and the effects of that pattern on reserve cost and/or ability to maintain species there. The vast majority of reserve selection formulations have assumed a linear problem structure, which effectively means that the biological value of a potential reserve site does not depend on the pattern of selected cells. However, spatial population dynamics and autocorrelation cause the biological values of neighboring sites to be interdependent. Habitat degradation may have indirect negative effects on biodiversity in areas neighboring the degraded site as a result of, for example, negative edge effects or lower permeability for animal movement. In this study, I present a formulation and a spatial optimization algorithm for nonlinear reserve selection problems in grid-based landscapes that accounts for interdependent site values. The method is demonstrated using habitat maps and nonlinear habitat models for threatened birds in the Netherlands, and it is shown that near-optimal solutions are found for regions consisting of up to hundreds of thousands grid cells, a landscape size much larger than those commonly attempted even with linear reserve selection formulations.

  10. 7 CFR 1709.2 Policy. - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1709.2 Policy. Section 1709.2 Policy. Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.2 Policy. [Reserved] ...

  11. 7 CFR 1709.202 Policy. - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1709.202 Policy. Section 1709.202 Policy... AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES Bulk Fuel Revolving Fund Grant Program § 1709.202 Policy. [Reserved] ...

  12. 7 CFR 3560.65 - Reserve account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reserve account. 3560.65 Section 3560.65 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.65 Reserve account... account that meets requirements of § 3560.306. At a minimum, the borrower must agree to make monthly...

  13. 21 CFR 720.5 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 720.5 Section 720.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.5 [Reserved] ...

  14. 39 CFR 111.5 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 111.5 Section 111.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] GENERAL INFORMATION ON POSTAL SERVICE § 111.5 [Reserved] ...

  15. 75 FR 44067 - Conservation Reserve Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... amending the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) regulations to implement provisions of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (the 2008 Farm Bill). The 2008 Farm Bill generally extends the existing... Commodity Credit Corporation 7 CFR Part 1410 RIN 0560-AH80 Conservation Reserve Program AGENCY: Commodity...

  16. 7 CFR 1780.8 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1780.8 Section 1780.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS General Policies and Requirements § 1780.8 [Reserved] ...

  17. 7 CFR 1779.79 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.79 Section 1779.79 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.79 [Reserved] ...

  18. 7 CFR 1780.5 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1780.5 Section 1780.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS General Policies and Requirements § 1780.5 [Reserved] ...

  19. 7 CFR 1779.82 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.82 Section 1779.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.82 [Reserved] ...

  20. 7 CFR 1779.74 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.74 Section 1779.74 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.74 [Reserved] ...

  1. 7 CFR 1780.12 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1780.12 Section 1780.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS General Policies and Requirements § 1780.12 [Reserved] ...

  2. 7 CFR 1779.26 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 1779.26 Section 1779.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.26 [Reserved] ...

  3. 20 CFR 410.394 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 410.394 Section 410.394 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and Dependency § 410.394 [Reserved] ...

  4. 40 CFR 26.1124 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 26.1124 Section 26.1124 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic Ethical...-nursing Adults § 26.1124 [Reserved] ...

  5. 26 CFR 1.46-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true [Reserved] 1.46-10 Section 1.46-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.46-10 [Reserved] ...

  6. 34 CFR 97.121 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 97.121 Section 97.121 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.121 [Reserved] ...

  7. Running on Empty? The Compensatory Reserve Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    and HR,31 more blood pressure oscillations,32 and greater vasoconstrictor reserve,33 compared with low-tolerant individuals. By leveraging recent... vasoconstrictor reserves. Clin Auton Res. 2012; 22:123Y130. 32. Rickards CA, Ryan KL, Cooke WH, Convertino VA. Tolerance to central hypovolemia: the

  8. 77 FR 66980 - Federal Reserve Bank Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... earn net income of $15.3 million, compared with the target of $9.1 million. While the check service and... upgrades, and increase product revenue. 4. 2013 Pricing--The following summarizes the Reserve Banks... the office closed. The Reserve Banks also will introduce incentive pricing for depository institutions...

  9. 15 CFR 2003.3 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 2003.3 Section 2003.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS OF TRADE POLICY STAFF COMMITTEE § 2003.3 [Reserved] ...

  10. What's working, what's not: The monitoring and reporting system for Tasmania's national parks and reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenys Jones

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the Australian State of Tasmania's management effectiveness Monitoring and Reporting System for national parks and reserves. This jurisdictional performance measurement system is designed to provide all interested parties with reliable factual information and measured evidence about reserve management achievements, progress and challenges. Key...

  11. VICKEY: Mining Conditional Keys on Knowledge Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Symeonidou, Danai; Prado, Luis Antonio Galarraga Del; Pernelle, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    A conditional key is a key constraint that is valid in only a part of the data. In this paper, we show how such keys can be mined automatically on large knowledge bases (KBs). For this, we combine techniques from key mining with techniques from rule mining. We show that our method can scale to KBs...

  12. The Economics of NASA Mission Cost Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Increases in NASA mission costs are well-noted but not well-understood, and there is little evidence that they are decreasing in frequency or amount over time. The need to control spending has led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns, and many program control efforts are being implemented to attempt to prevent or mitigate the problem (NPR 7120). However, cost overruns have not abated, and while some direct causes of increased spending may be obvious (requirements creep, launch delays, directed changes, etc.), the underlying impetus to spend past the original budget may be more subtle. Gaining better insight into the causes of cost overruns will help NASA and its contracting organizations to avoid .them. This paper hypothesizes that one cause of NASA mission cost overruns is that the availability of reserves gives project team members an incentive to make decisions and behave in ways that increase costs. We theorize that the presence of reserves is a contributing factor to cost overruns because it causes organizations to use their funds less efficiently or to control spending less effectively. We draw a comparison to the insurance industry concept of moral hazard, the phenomenon that the presence of insurance causes insureds to have more frequent and higher insurance losses, and we attempt to apply actuarial techniques to quantifY the increase in the expected cost of a mission due to the availability of reserves. We create a theoretical model of reserve spending motivation by defining a variable ReserveSpending as a function of total reserves. This function has a positive slope; for every dollar of reserves available, there is a positive probability of spending it. Finally, the function should be concave down; the probability of spending each incremental dollar of reserves decreases progressively. We test the model against available NASA CADRe data by examining missions with reserve dollars initially available and testing whether

  13. Embedding classical fields in quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, S.

    1978-01-01

    We describe a procedure for quantizing a classical field theory which is the field-theoretica analog of Sudarshan's method for embedding a classical-mechanical system in a quantum-mechanical system. The essence of the difference between our quantization procedure and Fock-space quantization lies in the choice of vacuum states. The key to our choice of vacuum is the procedure we outline for constructing Lagrangians which have gradient terms linear in the field varialbes from classical Lagrangians which have gradient terms which are quadratic in field variables. We apply this procedure to model electrodynamic field theories, Yang-Mills theories, and a vierbein model of gravity. In the case of electrodynamics models we find a formalism with a close similarity to the coherent-soft-photon-state formalism of QED. In addition, photons propagate to t = + infinity via retarded propagators. We also show how to construct a quantum field for action-at-a-distance electrodynamics. In the Yang-Mills case we show that a previously suggested model for quark confinement necessarily has gluons with principle-value propagation which allows the model to be unitary despite the presence of higher-order-derivative field equations. In the vierbein-gravity model we show that our quantization procedure allows us to treat the classical and quantum parts of the metric field in a unified manner. We find a new perturbation scheme for quantum gravity as a result

  14. Simple Web-based interactive key development software (WEBiKEY) and an example key for Kuruna (Poaceae: Bambusoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attigala, Lakshmi; De Silva, Nuwan I; Clark, Lynn G

    2016-04-01

    Programs that are user-friendly and freely available for developing Web-based interactive keys are scarce and most of the well-structured applications are relatively expensive. WEBiKEY was developed to enable researchers to easily develop their own Web-based interactive keys with fewer resources. A Web-based multiaccess identification tool (WEBiKEY) was developed that uses freely available Microsoft ASP.NET technologies and an SQL Server database for Windows-based hosting environments. WEBiKEY was tested for its usability with a sample data set, the temperate woody bamboo genus Kuruna (Poaceae). WEBiKEY is freely available to the public and can be used to develop Web-based interactive keys for any group of species. The interactive key we developed for Kuruna using WEBiKEY enables users to visually inspect characteristics of Kuruna and identify an unknown specimen as one of seven possible species in the genus.

  15. Cosmic decoherence: massive fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Junyu [Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); School of the Gifted Young, University of Science and Technology of China,Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Sou, Chon-Man; Wang, Yi [Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology,Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2016-10-14

    We study the decoherence of massive fields during inflation based on the Zurek’s density matrix approach. With the cubic interaction between inflaton and massive fields, the reduced density matrix for the massive fields can be calculated in the Schrödinger picture which is related to the variance of the non-Gaussian exponent in the wave functional. The decoherence rate is computed in the one-loop form from functional integration. For heavy fields with m≳O(H), quantum fluctuations will easily stay in the quantum state and decoherence is unlikely. While for light fields with mass smaller than O(H), quantum fluctuations are easily decohered within 5∼10 e-folds after Hubble crossing. Thus heavy fields can play a key role in studying problems involving inflationary quantum information.

  16. VICKEY: Mining Conditional Keys on Knowledge Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Symeonidou, Danai; Prado, Luis Antonio Galarraga Del; Pernelle, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    A conditional key is a key constraint that is valid in only a part of the data. In this paper, we show how such keys can be mined automatically on large knowledge bases (KBs). For this, we combine techniques from key mining with techniques from rule mining. We show that our method can scale to KBs...... of millions of facts. We also show that the conditional keys we mine can improve the quality of entity linking by up to 47% points....

  17. 76 FR 64250 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification and Private Sector...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... D; Docket No. R-1433] RIN No. 7100 AD 83 Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification and Private Sector Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System... public comment on proposed amendments to Regulation D, Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions...

  18. Use of key performance indicators in histological dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Matthew; Gillibrand, Rachel

    2017-12-01

    Reports into standards in the National Health Service and quality in pathology have focused on the way we work in pathology and how to provide assurance that this is of a high standard. There are a number of external quality assurance schemes covering pathology and histopathology specifically; however, there is no scheme covering the process of histological surgical dissection. This is an area undergoing development, emerging from the sole preserve of medically qualified pathologists to a field populated by a number of highly trained biomedical scientists, but remains without any formal quality assurance. This work builds on Barnes, taking the guidance of the Royal College of Pathologists (RCPath)and Institute of Biomedical Science (IBMS)to form a series of key performance indicators relating to dissection. These were developed for use as an indicator of individual practice, highlighting areas of variation, weakness or strength. Once identified, a feedback event provided opportunities to address these errors and omissions, or to enable areas of strength to be shared. The data obtained from the checklists demonstrate a large variation in practice at the outset of this study. The use of the checklists alone served to reduce this variation in practice, the addition of the training event showed further reduction in variation. The combination of these two tools was an effective method for enhancing standardisation of practice. The results of this work show that training events serve to reduce variation in practice by, and between, dissectors, driving up standards in dissection-directly addressing the needs of the modern pathology service. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Cognitive reserve and appraisal in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Snook, Erin; Quaranto, Brian; Benedict, Ralph H B; Rapkin, Bruce D; Vollmer, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive appraisal processes underlying self-report affect the interpretation of patient-reported outcomes. These processes are relevant to resilience and adaptability, and may relate to how cognitive reserve protects against disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). To describe how passive and active indicators of cognitive reserve relate to QOL appraisal processes in MS. Cross-sectional data (n=860) were drawn from the North American Research Committee on MS (NARCOMS) Registry, from whom additional survey data were collected. Cognitive reserve was measured using the Stern and Sole-Padulles measures. Using the quality of life appraisal profile (QOLAP), we assessed how MS patients conceptualize their experiences and how that impacts how they report their quality of life. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare groups within sets of appraisal parameters, and t-tests or chi-square tests were used to compare mean item responses within appraisal parameters for continuous or dichotomous variables, respectively. People high in passive or active reserve report different conceptualizations of QOL, different types of goals, and considering different types of experiences and standards of comparison in responding to QOL questionnaires, as compared to low-reserve individuals. Although item response patterns were slightly different between passive and active indicators, they generally reflect a tendency in high-reserve individuals to emphasize the positive, focus on aspects of their life that are more controllable, and less based in fantasy. MS patients high in cognitive reserve differ in their cognitive appraisals from their low reserve counterparts. These appraisal metrics may predict disease course and other important clinical outcomes in MS patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Contaminant transport model validation: The Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.R.; Ketelle, R.H.

    1988-09-01

    In the complex geologic setting on the Oak Ridge Reservation, hydraulic conductivity is anisotropic and flow is strongly influenced by an extensive and largely discontinuous fracture network. Difficulties in describing and modeling the aquifer system prompted a study to obtain aquifer property data to be used in a groundwater flow model validation experiment. Characterization studies included the performance of an extensive suite of aquifer test within a 600-square-meter area to obtain aquifer property values to describe the flow field in detail. Following aquifer test, a groundwater tracer test was performed under ambient conditions to verify the aquifer analysis. Tracer migration data in the near-field were used in model calibration to predict tracer arrival time and concentration in the far-field. Despite the extensive aquifer testing, initial modeling inaccurately predicted tracer migration direction. Initial tracer migration rates were consistent with those predicted by the model; however, changing environmental conditions resulted in an unanticipated decay in tracer movement. Evaluation of the predictive accuracy of groundwater flow and contaminant transport models on the Oak Ridge Reservation depends on defining the resolution required, followed by field testing and model grid definition at compatible scales. The use of tracer tests, both as a characterization method and to verify model results, provides the highest level of resolution of groundwater flow characteristics. 3 refs., 4 figs

  1. Key issues in transplant tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoh, Jacob A

    2012-02-24

    Access to organ transplantation depends on national circumstances, and is partly determined by the cost of health care, availability of transplant services, the level of technical capacity and the availability of organs. Commercial transplantation is estimated to account for 5%-10% (3500-7000) of kidney transplants performed annually throughout the world. This review is to determine the state and outcome of renal transplantation associated with transplant tourism (TT) and the key challenges with such transplantation. The stakeholders of commercial transplantation include: patients on the waiting lists in developed countries or not on any list in developing countries; dialysis funding bodies; middlemen, hosting transplant centres; organ-exporting countries; and organ vendors. TT and commercial kidney transplants are associated with a high incidence of surgical complications, acute rejection and invasive infection which cause major morbidity and mortality. There are ethical and medical concerns regarding the management of recipients of organs from vendors. The growing demand for transplantation, the perceived failure of altruistic donation in providing enough organs has led to calls for a legalised market in organ procurement or regulated trial in incentives for donation. Developing transplant services worldwide has many benefits - improving results of transplantation as they would be performed legally, increasing the donor pool and making TT unnecessary. Meanwhile there is a need to re-examine intrinsic attitudes to TT bearing in mind the cultural and economic realities of globalisation. Perhaps the World Health Organization in conjunction with The Transplantation Society would set up a working party of stakeholders to study this matter in greater detail and make recommendations.

  2. Introduction strategies raise key questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R; Keller, S

    1995-09-01

    Key issues that must be considered before a new contraceptive is introduced center on the need for a trained provider to begin or terminate the method, its side effects, duration of use, method's ability to meet users' needs and preferences, and extra training or staff requirements. Logistics and economic issues to consider are identifying a dependable way of effectively supplying commodities, planning extra services needed for the method, and cost of providing the method. Each contraceptive method presents a different side effect pattern and burdens the service delivery setting differently. The strategy developed to introduce or expand the 3-month injectable Depo-Provera (DMPA) can be used for any method. It includes a needs assessment and addresses regulatory issues, service delivery policies and procedures, information and training, evaluation, and other concerns. Viet Nam's needs assessment showed that Norplant should not be introduced until the service delivery system becomes stronger. Any needs assessment for expansion of contraceptive services should cover sexually transmitted disease/HIV issues. A World Health Organization strategy helps officials identify the best method mix for local situations. Introductory strategies must aim to improve the quality of family planning programs and expand choices. Many begin by examining existing data and conducting interviews with policymakers, users, providers, and women's health advocates. Introductory programs for Norplant focus on provider training, adequate counseling and informed consent for users, and ready access to removal. They need a well-prepared service delivery infrastructure. The first phase of the DMPA introductory strategy for the Philippines comprised a social marketing campaign and DMPA introduction at public clinics in 10 pilot areas with strong service delivery. Successful AIDS prevention programs show that people tend to use barrier methods when they are available. USAID is currently studying

  3. Key issues in transplant tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoh, Jacob A

    2012-01-01

    Access to organ transplantation depends on national circumstances, and is partly determined by the cost of health care, availability of transplant services, the level of technical capacity and the availability of organs. Commercial transplantation is estimated to account for 5%-10% (3500-7000) of kidney transplants performed annually throughout the world. This review is to determine the state and outcome of renal transplantation associated with transplant tourism (TT) and the key challenges with such transplantation. The stakeholders of commercial transplantation include: patients on the waiting lists in developed countries or not on any list in developing countries; dialysis funding bodies; middlemen, hosting transplant centres; organ-exporting countries; and organ vendors. TT and commercial kidney transplants are associated with a high incidence of surgical complications, acute rejection and invasive infection which cause major morbidity and mortality. There are ethical and medical concerns regarding the management of recipients of organs from vendors. The growing demand for transplantation, the perceived failure of altruistic donation in providing enough organs has led to calls for a legalised market in organ procurement or regulated trial in incentives for donation. Developing transplant services worldwide has many benefits - improving results of transplantation as they would be performed legally, increasing the donor pool and making TT unnecessary. Meanwhile there is a need to re-examine intrinsic attitudes to TT bearing in mind the cultural and economic realities of globalisation. Perhaps the World Health Organization in conjunction with The Transplantation Society would set up a working party of stakeholders to study this matter in greater detail and make recommendations. PMID:24175191

  4. A key for the identification of the tintinnoinea of the mediterranean sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rampi, L.; Zattera, A.

    1982-01-01

    A key for the identification of Tintinnoinea is presented. The key's main aplication will be in the fields of production studies, species succession and alteration of the species composition caused by pollution of various origin. Each species described is accompanied by an appropriate drawing either an original or from published source, arranged in 45 plates. The key consists of two parts. One is a key to genera and the other a key to the species of mediterranean pelagic Tintinnoinea. The key is preceeded by an introduction into the general morphology of Tintinnoinea and of their principle morphological feature. This introduction is accompanied by 1 plate

  5. Computerized reserves assessment improves colliery planning. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozor, L.; Wrobel, R.

    1984-01-01

    The authors describe systems developed in Poland for the computerised assessment of coal reserves. The Zasoby system calculates coal reserves and evaluates selected natural properties of seams within the boundaries of an arbitrary mining property, based entirely on exploratory borehole data. The IOS-10 system is based on the Polish data bank for bituminous coal deposits. It is not suitable for use in mine design procedures, but is widely used for the statistical recording of reserves in areas currently being worked. The major part of the paper is devoted to a description of the Geo-3 system, used for the computation of reserves in prospective areas from borehole data, as well as in active mining areas or partially worked-out deposits. The computation method is explained and examples of the results obtained are given.

  6. Operational Army Reserve Implications for Organizational Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dahms, Jonathan A

    2007-01-01

    The Army Reserve has been in a constant state of mobilization since 1995 with the advent of the Bosnia crisis and the pace of mobilization increased exponentially after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001...

  7. Communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Lester, Sarah E.; Airamé, Satie; Neeley, Elizabeth; Gaines, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    As human impacts cause ecosystem-wide changes in the oceans, the need to protect and restore marine resources has led to increasing calls for and establishment of marine reserves. Scientific information about marine reserves has multiplied over the last decade, providing useful knowledge about this tool for resource users, managers, policy makers, and the general public. This information must be conveyed to nonscientists in a nontechnical, credible, and neutral format, but most scientists are not trained to communicate in this style or to develop effective strategies for sharing their scientific knowledge. Here, we present a case study from California, in which communicating scientific information during the process to establish marine reserves in the Channel Islands and along the California mainland coast expanded into an international communication effort. We discuss how to develop a strategy for communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences and highlight the influence that effective science communication can have in discussions about marine management. PMID:20427745

  8. 48 CFR 9904.404-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.404-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.404-10 [Reserved] ...

  9. 48 CFR 9904.401-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.401-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-10 [Reserved] ...

  10. 48 CFR 9904.400 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.400 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.400 [Reserved] ...

  11. 48 CFR 9904.402-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.402-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-10 [Reserved] ...

  12. 48 CFR 9904.405-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.405-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.405-10 [Reserved] ...

  13. 48 CFR 9904.407-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.407-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.407-10 [Reserved] ...

  14. 48 CFR 9904.408-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.408-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.408-10 [Reserved] ...

  15. 48 CFR 9904.406-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.406-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-10 [Reserved] ...

  16. 48 CFR 9904.403-10 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.403-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.403-10 [Reserved] ...

  17. 10 CFR 51.110 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Rulemaking § 51.110 [Reserved] Public Notice of and Access to Environmental Documents ...

  18. U.S. Federal Reserve Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset is comprised of forty-five entities that are part of the United States Federal Reserve System according to the United States Department of Treasury. The...

  19. Communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Lester, Sarah E; Airamé, Satie; Neeley, Elizabeth; Gaines, Steven D

    2010-10-26

    As human impacts cause ecosystem-wide changes in the oceans, the need to protect and restore marine resources has led to increasing calls for and establishment of marine reserves. Scientific information about marine reserves has multiplied over the last decade, providing useful knowledge about this tool for resource users, managers, policy makers, and the general public. This information must be conveyed to nonscientists in a nontechnical, credible, and neutral format, but most scientists are not trained to communicate in this style or to develop effective strategies for sharing their scientific knowledge. Here, we present a case study from California, in which communicating scientific information during the process to establish marine reserves in the Channel Islands and along the California mainland coast expanded into an international communication effort. We discuss how to develop a strategy for communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences and highlight the influence that effective science communication can have in discussions about marine management.

  20. The Economics of NASA Mission Cost Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Increases in NASA mission costs have led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns as well as mitigation and prevention attempts. This paper hypothesizes that one cause is that the availability of reserves may reduce incentives to control costs. We draw a comparison to the insurance concept of moral hazard, and we use actuarial techniques to better understand the increase in mission costs due to the availability of reserves. NASA's CADRe database provided the data against which we tested our hypothesis and discovered that there is correlation between the amount of available reserves and project overruns, particularly for mission hardware cost increases. We address the question of how to prevent reserves from increasing mission spending without increasing cost risk to projects.

  1. 40 CFR 63.131 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.131 [Reserved] ...

  2. Talent Management: Working lines and key processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Alonso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Talent management represents today a challenge for companies, since the contribution of value comes increasingly from the area of intangible capital. The current paradigm of expanding technology and competitive dynamics, makes talent management that companies realize a critical success factor in today's markets. However, there is no generally accepted theoretical framework and empirical studies sufficient to demonstrate the role of talent management in creating competitive advantage. Therefore, the first objective of this paper is to analyze the evolution of talent management, to understand more deeply their fundamental dimensions: people and key positions in the organization. From these dimensions, as a second objective of the research is proposed to classify and characterize the literature about four alternative ways of study, according to the treatment they receive such dimensions and thus improve understanding of the role of talent management in business strategyDesign/methodology: To develop this paper we have selected the major contributions to the field of talent management, with particular emphasis on certain meta-analysis very quoted by the scientific community (Lewis and Heckman, 2006; Mellahi and Collings, 2009; Tarique and Schuler, 2010. In addition we have select additional papers published in high impact journals seen in ABI/Inform, Science Direct, SCOPUS, and EBSCO (Business Source Complete, through the keywords "Gestion del talento", "Plan de Gestion del Talento" and "Modelo de Gestion de Talento" and its English equivalent "Talent Management ", "Talent Management Plans/Systems" and "Talent Management Framework/Model ".Findings: From this review, we extracted the existence of different ways of understanding and talent management apply in organizations and even different understandings of what is talent itself. For this, we describe the basic dimensions of talent management (people and key positions and four alternative

  3. Reserves and cash flows under stochastic retirement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Kamille Sofie Tågholt; Nielsen, Jeppe Woetmann

    2016-01-01

    and the guarantees provided. Stochastic retirement creates a need to rethink the construction of disability products for high ages and ways to handle this are discussed. We show how to calculate market reserves and how to use modified transition probabilities to calculate expected cash flows without significantly...... more complexity than in the traditional model. At last, we demonstrate the impact of stochastic retirement on market reserves and expected cash flow in numerical examples....

  4. Cognitive reserve in ageing and Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Stern, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reserve accounts for individual differences in susceptibility to age-related brain changes or Alzheimer's disease-related pathology. There is evidence that some people can tolerate more of these changes than others and still maintain function. Epidemiologic studies suggest that lifetime exposures including educational and occupational attainment, and leisure activities in late life, can increase this reserve. For example, there is a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer's diseas...

  5. Reserve Component Programs, Fiscal Year 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-28

    utilizing WMrcha’t Marine Academy gr , ,ates and Naval Reserve Officer Training Course S’(NROTC)/Student Incentive Progrim (SIP) graduates from state...personnel gr , atly enhances the mobilization and combat readiness of the Total Force. Several new medical programs were implemented by the Reserve components...Defense Force Chief of Joint Staff, Defense Command * Mendez, Honorable Enrique Jr., M.D. Norway Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs

  6. Exploration report in mining reserve XIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoturno Pioppo, J.; Lara Vigil, P.

    1991-01-01

    This report has been referred to the antecedents and works developed in the mining Reservation XIV. This Reservation, covered a 1900 km2 surface, involving the aerial photography Valentines Cerro Chato, Chileno, Rossel y Rius, Sarandi del Yi and Cuchilla del Pescado. It has been reduced this area to western part of the aerial phothograpy Pavas, releasing other areas such as Chileno, Rossel y Rius, Cuchilla del Pescado y Cerro Chato. Finally, gold, sulphures, pirite and carbonates iron oxides findings have been found.

  7. Unanswered Quibbles with Fractional Reserve Free Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David

    2011-01-01

    In this article we reply to George Selgin’s counterarguments to our article “Fractional Reserve Free Banking: Some Quibbles”. Selgin regards holding cash as saving while we focus on the real savings necessary to maintain investment projects. Real savings are unconsumed real income. Variations in real savings are not necessarily equal to variations in cash holdings. We show that a coordinated credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking (FRFB) system is possible and that precautionary...

  8. Improving the Design of a Conservation Reserve for a Critically Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Chris; Cadenhead, Natasha; Lindenmayer, David B; Wintle, Brendan A

    2017-01-01

    Setting aside protected areas is a key strategy for tackling biodiversity loss. Reserve effectiveness depends on the extent to which protected areas capture both known occurrences and areas likely to support the species. We assessed the effectiveness of the existing reserve network for Leadbeater's Possum (Gymnobelideus leadbeateri) and other forest-dependent species, and compared the existing reserve system to a set of plausible reserve expansion options based on area targets implied in a recent Population Viability Analysis (PVA). The existing Leadbeater's Reserve and surrounding reserve system captured 7.6% and 29.6% of cumulative habitat suitability, respectively, across the landscape. Expanded reserve scenarios captured 34% to 62% of cumulative habitat suitability. We found acute trade-offs between conserving Leadbeater's Possum habitat and conserving habitat of other forest-dependent species. Our analysis provides a template for systematically expanding and evaluating reserve expansion options in terms of trade-offs between priority species' needs.

  9. Improving the Design of a Conservation Reserve for a Critically Endangered Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Taylor

    Full Text Available Setting aside protected areas is a key strategy for tackling biodiversity loss. Reserve effectiveness depends on the extent to which protected areas capture both known occurrences and areas likely to support the species. We assessed the effectiveness of the existing reserve network for Leadbeater's Possum (Gymnobelideus leadbeateri and other forest-dependent species, and compared the existing reserve system to a set of plausible reserve expansion options based on area targets implied in a recent Population Viability Analysis (PVA. The existing Leadbeater's Reserve and surrounding reserve system captured 7.6% and 29.6% of cumulative habitat suitability, respectively, across the landscape. Expanded reserve scenarios captured 34% to 62% of cumulative habitat suitability. We found acute trade-offs between conserving Leadbeater's Possum habitat and conserving habitat of other forest-dependent species. Our analysis provides a template for systematically expanding and evaluating reserve expansion options in terms of trade-offs between priority species' needs.

  10. Designing organizational structures: Key thoughts for development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Patricia; Eschenbacher, Lynn

    2018-04-01

    Current strategies and concepts to consider in developing a system-level organizational structure for the pharmacy enterprise are discussed. There are many different ways to design an organizational structure for the pharmacy enterprise within a health system. The size of the organization, the number of states in which it operates, and the geographic spread and complexity of the pharmacy business lines should be among the key considerations in determining the optimal organizational and decision-making structures for the pharmacy enterprise. The structure needs to support incorporation of the pharmacy leadership (both system-level executives and local leaders) into all strategic planning and discussions at the hospital and health-system levels so that they can directly represent the pharmacy enterprise instead of relying on others to develop strategy on their behalf. It is important that leaders of all aspects of the pharmacy enterprise report through the system's top pharmacy executive, who should be a pharmacist and have a title consistent with those of other leaders reporting at the same organizational level (e.g., chief pharmacy officer). Pharmacy leaders need to be well positioned within an organization to advocate for the pharmacy enterprise and use all resources to the best of their ability. As the scope and complexity of pharmacy services grow, it is critical to ensure that leadership of the pharmacy enterprise is unified under a single pharmacy executive team. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Natural radioactivity as indicator of petroleum reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, T.; Viloriab, L.; Sajo Bohusa, K.; Gomez, A.

    2001-01-01

    The possibilities of the measurement method of Radon emanation from the ground, using passive detectors, to identify oil-saturated beds in reserves or well-known deposit was evaluated in the North part of the Orinoco river and in some areas of Zulia Sate, Venezuela. The existence of Negative anomalies of radon emanation in regions of proven petroleum reserves was shown. The Space variability of emanated Radon concentration from the ground was measured and maps of three-dimensional contour curves applying different surface models were obtained, which allowed to locate the anomalies of radon emanation and to compare them with the location of reserves reported by other methods. In both regions it was obtained that the area having the lowest radon value is surrounded by an annular region of high radon values, being able to identify a locally decreased emanation over petroleum reserves as compared to the surroundings. The cause of such anomalies is not identified but they can provide useful information for locating the deeply buried oil reserves. Both regions showed a decrease in gamma activity and in upward flow of gases CH4 and C02 over the geologic structures which contain petroleum reserves Underneath. An applicable experimental routine was proposed to other regions. We conclude that the method of etched track detection can be useful in recognizing the subsurface oil-bearing structures and the technique is relatively simple and inexpensive

  12. Informed consent plays key role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaney, C L

    1994-08-01

    Contraceptive research is conducted in developed and developing countries with the objective of developing safe and acceptable contraceptive methods and improved family planning programs. Volunteers who participate in biomedical and social science research in the field of family planning may, however, be at risk since some of the effects of new drugs, devices, or programs are unknown. It is imperative in such research that volunteers be informed and protected in terms of their health, safety, well-being, rights, and privacy. The responsibility for conferring such protection lies with the organizations which are sponsoring the research. International guidelines and safeguards exist to prevent research participants from being taken advantage of, but the integrity and commitment of researchers is the most essential element. Experts say that communicating all necessary information about the research to participants and obtaining their voluntary informed consent are important protection measures. Ethical review before research and communication between investigators and staff who conduct studies are also important. Contraceptive research, informed consent, the history of consent arising in response to Nazi experimentation upon prisoners in concentration camps during World War II, consent in practice, and improving the protection of volunteers are discussed.

  13. Does cognitive reserve shape cognitive decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmot, Michael G; Glymour, Maria; Sabia, Séverine; Kivimäki, Mika; Dugravot, Aline

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Cognitive reserve is associated with a lower risk of dementia but the extent to which it shapes cognitive aging trajectories remains unclear. Our objective is to examine the impact of three markers of reserve from different points in the lifecourse on cognitive function and decline in late adulthood. Methods Data are from 5234 men and 2220 women, mean age 56 years (standard deviation=6) at baseline, from the Whitehall II cohort study. Memory, reasoning, vocabulary, phonemic and semantic fluency were assessed three times over 10 years. Linear mixed models were used to assess the association between markers of reserve (height, education, and occupation) and cognitive decline, using the 5 cognitive tests and a global cognitive score composed of these tests. Results All three reserve measures were associated with baseline cognitive function, with strongest associations with occupation and the weakest with height. All cognitive functions except vocabulary declined over the 10 year follow-up period. On the global cognitive test, there was greater decline in the high occupation group (−0.27; 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.28, −0.26) compared to the intermediate (−0.23; 95% CI: −0.25, −0.22) and low groups (−0.21; 95% CI: −0.24, −0.19); p=0.001. The decline in reserve groups defined by education (p=0.82) and height (p=0.55) was similar. Interpretation Cognitive performance over the adult lifecourse was remarkably higher in the high reserve groups. However, rate of cognitive decline did not differ between reserve groups except occupation where there was some evidence of greater decline in the high occupation group. PMID:21563209

  14. OPINIONS ON INTERNATIONAL RESERVES MANAGEMENT - POST CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERCEA (HANDRO PATRICIA AMALIA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent crisis demonstrated once again the importance of maintaining an adequate level of the international reserves as part of the defense of a country against the shocks internationally transmitted. Liquidity buffers aided the good functioning of financial systems, and allowed countries to cope with sudden foreign capital stops or to manage massive outflows without facing a costly crisis. This logic has been strengthened in the context of the crisis from 2008, when countries with lots of reserves, such as China or Brazil, came through better than those with lower liquid assets. Economists have argued that developing countries need reserves mainly to cover urgent imports and short-term debts. The current level of global reserves far exceeds this traditional postulate. In this context, it is necessary to rethink the adequacy of the level of constituting the reserves portfolio. The dominance of the dollar as a reserve currency, another important feature of the current reserves portfolio, makes the holders become vulnerable to the monetary policy of FED. A greater flexibility of the currency will also be needed. The often called the “trilemma” of international economics dictates: when capital is mobile, countries must choose between fixing their currencies and controlling their domestic monetary conditions. They cannot do both. The domestic currency inflexibility will ultimately lead to asset bubbles and inflation. The pressure of capital flows will depend on the prospects of rich economies, especially America’s. The increment of emerging economies availability to allow the exchange rate to move will depend on what China does - and China may remain forever linked to the dollar. The emergence of a global currency that constitute a genuine means of exchange or the use of cross-border multifaceted cash pools common to IMF members would reduce systemic risks. International regulations for countries with persistent trade surpluses could be a

  15. Electric field measurements in high pressure discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitko, S.V.; Ochkin, V.N.; Serdyuchenko, A.Yu.; Tskhai, S.N.

    2001-01-01

    Electric fields define a wide range of interactions and phenomena at different phases of matter both on micro- and macro-level. Investigation of electric fields behavior provides a key for understanding of these phenomena and their application

  16. Oral Health in the US: Key Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy Oral Health in the U.S.: Key Facts Oral Health in the U.S.: Key Facts Published: Jun 01, ... Email Print This fact sheet provides data on oral health care coverage and access for children, nonelderly adults ...

  17. Attaching Chuck Keys to Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, V.

    1984-01-01

    Chuck keys attached to portable machine tools by retracting lanyards. Lanyard held taut by recoil caddy attached to tool base. Chuck key available for use when needed and safely secured during operation of tool.

  18. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic which outlines key facts related to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including...

  19. Bryophytes for Beginners: The Usability of a Printed Dichotomous Key versus a Multi-Access Computer-Based Key for Bryophyte Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Bethan C.; Donkin, Maria E.; Smith, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    Bryophytes are a rewarding study group in field biology and the UK bryophyte flora has international importance to biodiversity conservation. We designed an identification key to common woodland moss species and compared the usability of two formats, web-based multi-access and printed dichotomous key, with undergraduate students. The rate of…

  20. Electroencephalogram γ-band activity during the perception of music key levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weiyi; Lai, Yongxiu; Zheng, Xiaojing; Yang, Hua; Yao, Dezhong

    2013-03-06

    An interdisciplinary research field, music perception involves various disciplines, such as psychology, neuroscience, and even physics. Research on music perception offers us a window into the mechanism of the brain. In music perception, the same distance of key shift in different directions tends to be perceived as different degrees of change. It, however, still remains unclear whether directional asymmetry is specific to key shift perception or a general phenomenon of key perception. Using both behavioral and electroencephalogram methods, this study examined Chinese nonmusicians' subjective ratings and electroencephalogram γ-band activity related to a piece of music performed at three different key levels and presented in three separate performances, none of which contained a key shift. This study showed that directional asymmetry is a general phenomenon of key level perception rather than specific to key shift perception. Furthermore, a counterclockwisely modulated key is related to stronger γ-band spectral power than a clockwisely modulated key.

  1. Phase Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Toshiyuki

    The term phase field has recently become known across many fields of materials science. The meaning of phase field is the spatial and temporal order parameter field defined in a continuum-diffused interface model. By using the phase field order parameters, many types of complex microstructure changes observed in materials science are described effectively. This methodology has been referred to as the phase field method, phase field simulation, phase field modeling, phase field approach, etc. In this chapter, the basic concept and theoretical background for the phase field approach is explained in Sects. 21.1 and 21.2. The overview of recent applications of the phase field method is demonstrated in Sects. 21.3 to 21.6.

  2. RFID: A key technology for Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duroc, Yvan; Tedjini, Smail

    2018-01-01

    The RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) technology is a well-known wireless application for traceability, logistics, and access control. It became ubiquitous in industry and our daily life (ticketing, payment, passports, car keys, etc.). RFID is nowadays a standardized technology; its inherent advantages, which are unitary, identification, wireless communication, and low cost of tags, provide it with decisive practical benefits that drive new developments in terms of concepts and applications. This trend is largely confirmed by the market forecast, but also by its implementation in the area of health (smart hospital), assistance to persons, anti-counterfeiting, as well as by its perspective in terms of new paradigms for distributed ambient intelligence and the Internet of Things. The first part of this paper briefly reviews the fundamental concepts of the RFID technology, and shows its link with the radio science. A state of the art including the presentation of current performance and developments is also summarized. The second part illustrates the impact of RFID to the service of our society with a focus of applications in the field of autonomy and handicap. Finally, the last part highlights a panorama of perspectives and the future directions of RFID applications dedicated to the service of Humanity. xml:lang="fr"

  3. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Daniela DINU

    2014-01-01

    This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of bot...

  4. Closing the gap in reserves replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    A compilation of extended abstracts are provided. Abstract titles listed: The Norwegian continental shelf- future exploration potential; stratigraphic traps - learning and mapping techniques from Ringhorn West - Norwegian North Sea; depth migration of electromagnetic seabed logging data; acquisition independent 3D SRME by wave field modelling; seismic attenuation and hybrid attributes to reduce exploration risk - North Sea case study; the role of rock physics in oil and gas exploration. Linking geological processes, seismic amplitudes and electromagnetic data in the next generation exploration work flows; oil discovery in PL281, deep water Norwegian Sea; towards a second exploration well; seismic mapping of reservoir quality on ultra far offsets; examples from the Njord Field, offshore Norway; long offset simultaneous inversion for seismic reservoir characterization - a case study: the Gryphon Field; case studies in advanced multiple removal; volume model building - a hierarchical segmentation approach; 3D PP/PS pre stack depth migration on the Volve Field; re-developing Europe's largest onshore oil field: how to justify new 3D seismic for the Schoonebeek; reservoir characterization on the Goliat Field: the use of integrated well-driven seismic processing and inversion; efficient RD in geophysics through partnership with academia, service companies and oil companies; 3D high-resolution V{sub p}/V{sub s} inversion of 4C seismic: application in processing, exploration and reservoir characterization; high-resolution reservoir characterization through AVA joint inversion of partially stacked seismic amplitude data and well logs: application to deep water hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Central Gulf of Mexico; depletion induces stresses and strain - a broad perspective; real time update of a reservoir property model in geo steering applications; modelling the seismic response to production: a closer look at the sensitivity to overburden, survey, rock physics model

  5. 76 FR 68314 - Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL AGENCY: Coast... regulations on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located southwest of Key West, Florida during the Key West... unless authorized by the Captain of the Port Key West or a designated representative. DATES: This rule is...

  6. Harry Potter and the Dichotomous Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, David T.

    2003-01-01

    In this lesson, students use Bertie Bott's Every Flavor Beans--a "wild" candy written about in the Harry Potter books and now available in stores--to learn about classification and dichotomous keys. In these activities, students sort jelly beans according to a key and then construct a key for a "new" flavor of beans. Students then build on their…

  7. Wind offering in energy and reserve markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Pinson, Pierre; Morais, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The increasing penetration of wind generation in power systems to fulfil the ambitious European targets will make wind power producers to play an even more important role in the future power system. Wind power producers are being incentivized to participate in reserve markets to increase their re......The increasing penetration of wind generation in power systems to fulfil the ambitious European targets will make wind power producers to play an even more important role in the future power system. Wind power producers are being incentivized to participate in reserve markets to increase...... dayahead and balancing market is performed. A set of numerical examples illustrate the behavior of such strategy. An important conclusion is that the optimal split of the available wind power between energy and reserve strongly depends upon prices and penalties on both market trading floors....

  8. Right hemisphere role in cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Ian H

    2014-06-01

    High levels of education, occupational complexity, and/or premorbid intelligence are associated with lower levels of cognitive impairment than would be expected from a given brain pathology. This has been observed across a range of conditions including Alzheimer's disease (Roe et al., 2010), stroke (Ojala-Oksala et al., 2012), traumatic brain injury (Kesler et al., 2003), and penetrating brain injury (Grafman, 1986). This cluster of factors, which seemingly protect the brain from expressing symptoms of damage, has been termed "cognitive reserve" (Stern, 2012). The current review considers one possible neural network, which may contribute to cognitive reserve. Based on the evidence that the neurotransmitter, noradrenaline mediates cognitive reserve's protective effects (Robertson, 2013) this review identifies the neurocognitive correlates of noradrenergic (NA) activity. These involve a set of inter-related cognitive processes (arousal, sustained attention, response to novelty, and awareness) with a strongly right hemisphere, fronto-parietal localization, along with working memory, which is also strongly modulated by NA. It is proposed that this set of processes is one plausible candidate for partially mediating the protective effects of cognitive reserve. In addition to its biological effects on brain structure and function, NA function may also facilitate networks for arousal, novelty, attention, awareness, and working memory, which collectively provide for a set of additional, cognitive, mechanisms that help the brain adapt to age-related changes and disease. It is hypothesized that to the extent that the lateral surface of the right prefrontal lobe and/or the right inferior parietal lobe maintain structural (white and gray matter) and functional integrity and connectivity, cognitive reserve should benefit and behavioral expression of pathologic damage should thus be mitigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk spreading, connectivity, and optimal reserve spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowes, Shane A; Connolly, Sean R

    2012-01-01

    Two important processes determining the dynamics of spatially structured populations are dispersal and the spatial covariance of demographic fluctuations. Spatially explicit approaches to conservation, such as reserve networks, must consider the tension between these two processes and reach a balance between distances near enough to maintain connectivity, but far enough to benefit from risk spreading. Here, we model this trade-off. We show how two measures of metapopulation persistence depend on the shape of the dispersal kernel and the shape of the distance decay in demographic covariance, and we consider the implications of this trade-off for reserve spacing. The relative rates of distance decay in dispersal and demographic covariance determine whether the long-run metapopulation growth rate, and quasi-extinction risk, peak for adjacent patches or intermediately spaced patches; two local maxima in metapopulation persistence are also possible. When dispersal itself fluctuates over time, the trade-off changes. Temporal variation in mean distance that propagules are dispersed (i.e., propagule advection) decreases metapopulation persistence and decreases the likelihood that persistence will peak for adjacent patches. Conversely, variation in diffusion (the extent of random spread around mean dispersal) increases metapopulation persistence overall and causes it to peak at shorter inter-patch distances. Thus, failure to consider temporal variation in dispersal processes increases the risk that reserve spacings will fail to meet the objective of ensuring metapopulation persistence. This study identifies two phenomena that receive relatively little attention in empirical work on reserve spacing, but that can qualitatively change the effectiveness of reserve spacing strategies: (1) the functional form of the distance decay in covariance among patch-specific demographic rates and (2) temporal variation in the shape of the dispersal kernel. The sensitivity of metapopulation

  10. Estimating Quartz Reserves Using Compositional Kriging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Taboada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine spatial distribution and volume of four commercial quartz grades, namely, silicon metal, ferrosilicon, aggregate, and kaolin (depending on content in impurities in a quartz seam. The chemical and mineralogical composition of the reserves in the seam were determined from samples collected from outcrops, blasting operations, and exploratory drilling, and compositional kriging was used to calculate the volume and distribution of the reserves. A more accurate knowledge of the deposit ensures better mine planning, leading to higher profitability and an improved relationship with the environment.

  11. Transformation of Taiwan’s Reserve Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    sim - ulations, and games have important value, but they miss other quali- tative factors that history shows are important and often decisive for...deployed on Taiwan’s frontline islands at locations that Wins Most Gold Medals at Asia Pacific ICT Competition,” Focus Taiwan, November 26, 2015; and John...are sim - ilar in one key respect: They confront an overtly hostile neighbor (in Taiwan’s case) or neighbors (in Israel’s) who pose an existential

  12. Optimizing Key Updates in Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Sensor networks offer the advantages of simple and low–resource communication. Nevertheless, security is of particular importance in many cases such as when sensitive data is communicated or tamper-resistance is required. Updating the security keys is one of the key points in security, which...... restrict the amount of data that may be exposed when a key is compromised. In this paper, we propose novel key update methods, and benefiting from stochastic model checking we propose a novel method for determining optimal key update strategies for custom network scenarios. We also present a case study...

  13. Indigenous, colonist, and government Impacts on Nicaragua's Bosawas Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, Anthony; McMahan, Benjamin; Taber, Peter

    2007-12-01

    We studied the impacts of colonists, two groups of indigenous residents (Miskitu and Mayangna), and management by the Nicaraguan Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (MARENA) on the forest of the Bosawas International Biosphere Reserve. Indigenous people and colonists subsist on the natural resources of the reserve, and MARENA is responsible for protecting the area from colonization and illicit exploitation. Using geostatistical procedures and Landsat images at three different time periods, we compared per capita deforestation and boundary stabilization in areas with colonists and areas with indigenous peoples. We also examined whether the Mayangna deforested less than the Miskitu and whether the Nicaraguan government has effectively defended the Bosawas boundary against the advance of the agricultural frontier. In addition, we analyzed the current distribution of land uses within the reserve and its contiguous indigenous areas with a supervised classification of current land cover. Indigenous demarcations protected the forest successfully, whereas the Bosawas boundary itself did not inhibit colonization and consequent deforestation. Indigenous farmers deforested significantly less per capita than colonists, and the two indigenous groups in Bosawas did not differ significantly in their effects on the forest. Our results show that indigenous common-property institutions and indigenous defense of homeland have been powerful factors in protecting the forests of Bosawas and that the difficult evolution of a nested cross-scale governance system in Bosawas-under pressure from indigenous peoples-is probably the key to the forest's survival thus far.

  14. User's guide for the Uranium Ore Reserve Calculation System (URAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    The URAD (Uranium Reserves and Data) system consists of four computer programs designed to facilitate the evaluation of uranium ore reserves analysis and the handling of basic uranium assay data. URAD is designed specifically as a training tool for anyone unfamiliar with the methodology, data requirements, and/or general computer applications in the field of uranium ore reserves analysis. However, it can effectively be used in a 'production' environment involving considerable amounts of data. The resulting programs are written in Microsoft FORTRAN (Version 3.1) and may be run on any IBM-compatible microcomputer under DOS 2.1 (or later). Only a basic working knowledge of DOS 2.1 is needed to maintain the system and run the programs. This guide includes the overview of the URAD system, the review of sample data and a complete description of the file structure and sample type formats of the basic sample data files. Program URDAT explains the initial processing of the primary UDAT files to obtain standard output listings and gamma-log interpretations of radiometric data, and to create intermediate UDAT files which are used by the ore reserves programs - RESUV, ORSAC, and SCOR. Figs and tabs

  15. Demand as Frequency-controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Christian; Rasmussen, Christian Brandt; Østergaard, Jacob

    electric loads to provide frequency controlled primary reserves. The devices collected data from domestic households and industrial loads covering i.e. circulation pumps, electrical domestic heating, bottle coolers, a wastewater treatment plant etc., that have been analysed and used for the papers...

  16. 34 CFR 300.811 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 300.811 Section 300.811 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH...

  17. 34 CFR 300.805 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 300.805 Section 300.805 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH...

  18. Use of reserve substances by irradiated tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Tabares, Francisco; Perez Talavera, Susana

    1999-01-01

    The response of tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosun L.) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) to gamma radiation from 60 Co were investigated. The use of reserve substances by the tubers increased when the irradiation dose raise up to the level of GR10-20 and then decreased down to the values lower than the control non-irradiated tubers

  19. Diminished ovarian reserve in patients with psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Tuğrul Ayanoğlu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Psoriasis is a multi-systemic chronic inflammatory skin disease. Previous data suggests that women with some chronic inflammatory diseases have diminished ovarian reserve. This study explores ovarian reserve in patients with psoriasis. Materials and methods: We prospectively analyzed 14 female patients with psoriasis and 35 healthy age and body mass index matched controls. An interview explored demographic characteristics, obstetrical history and menstrual characteristics. Psoriatic area severity index (PASI in patients was assessed. Estrogen, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, thyroid stimulating hormone and with gynecologic ultrasonography, ovarian volume and antral follicular count (AFC were measured in both study and control groups. These values were analyzed with changes of the PASI in the patient group. Results: Patients with psoriasis had significantly higher levels of FSH and FSH/LH ratio than healthy controls (p = 0.039, p = 0.005 respectively. AFC of psoriasis patients were significantly lower than healthy controls (p = 0.002.There were no significant difference among other hormone levels and ovarian volumes (p > 0.05. The hormone levels, ovarian volume and AFC were not correlated with PASI of the patients. Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that patients with psoriasis may have diminished ovarian reserve. Keywords: Psoriasis, Ovarian reserve, Psoriatic area severity index, Antral follicular count, Follicle-stimulating hormone

  20. 49 CFR 236.533 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 236.533 Section 236.533 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  1. 49 CFR 236.704 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 236.704 Section 236.704 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  2. 49 CFR 236.561 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 236.561 Section 236.561 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  3. 49 CFR 236.530 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 236.530 Section 236.530 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  4. Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.W. [ed.

    1995-02-01

    This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year.

  5. Optimization of Marine Forces Reserve Equipment Redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    industry as an example. Bertrand and Bookbinder begin with a basic supply chain logistics model of a large warehouse supplying a number of retail...solutions, and perform fast sensitivity analysis on the competing objectives. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Optimization, Marine Forces Reserve, redistribution...reallocation, equipment supply , logistics 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 61 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY

  6. Wind offering in energy and reserve markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, T.; Pinson, P.; Morais, H.

    2016-09-01

    The increasing penetration of wind generation in power systems to fulfil the ambitious European targets will make wind power producers to play an even more important role in the future power system. Wind power producers are being incentivized to participate in reserve markets to increase their revenue, since currently wind turbine/farm technologies allow them to provide ancillary services. Thus, wind power producers are to develop offering strategies for participation in both energy and reserve markets, accounting for market rules, while ensuring optimal revenue. We consider a proportional offering strategy to optimally decide upon participation in both markets by maximizing expected revenue from day-ahead decisions while accounting for estimated regulation costs for failing to provide the services. An evaluation of considering the same proportional splitting of energy and reserve in both day- ahead and balancing market is performed. A set of numerical examples illustrate the behavior of such strategy. An important conclusion is that the optimal split of the available wind power between energy and reserve strongly depends upon prices and penalties on both market trading floors.

  7. Clipboard: Unraveling the mystery of cognitive reserve

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aging; Alzheimer's; bilingualism; cognitive reserve; dementia; Down's; education; enrichment; environment; learning; long term potentiation; LTP; memory; neuroepigenetics; plasticity ... Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London Alexandra House, 17-19 Queen Square, London WC1N 3AR, England ...

  8. Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.W.

    1995-02-01

    This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year

  9. 40 CFR 80.605 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 80.605 Section 80.605 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA...

  10. 40 CFR 80.609 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 80.609 Section 80.609 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA...

  11. 40 CFR 80.534 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 80.534 Section 80.534 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA...

  12. 10 CFR 51.99 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 51.99 Section 51.99 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental...

  13. 27 CFR 27.205 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 27.205 Section 27.205 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Requirements for Liquor Bottles...

  14. Your Money and the Federal Reserve System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, Minn.

    The booklet explores various roles which money has played throughout history and examines the relationship between money and the Federal Reserve System. The major objective is to increase understanding of the performance of various functions such as making money work as a medium of exchange and as a measure of value and of storing value for future…

  15. Mental Reservation and Military Testimony before Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Gordon R

    2008-01-01

    .... The cause for this apparent mental reservation on the part of military leaders can be found in their organizational bias and environmental influences, but the solution can be found in history. It is vital for the military to understand that a currency of truth is the most important contribution it can make to the civilian-military relationship.

  16. 7 CFR 3560.306 - Reserve account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) As projects age, the required reserve account level may be adjusted to meet anticipated “life-cycle...) Purpose. To meet the major capital expense needs of a housing project, borrowers must establish and... be deemed to contain surplus funds when the balance at the end of the housing project's fiscal year...

  17. 18 CFR 4.91 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 4.91 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT LICENSES, PERMITS, EXEMPTIONS, AND DETERMINATION OF PROJECT COSTS Exemption of Small Conduit Hydroelectric Facilities § 4.91 [Reserved] ...

  18. Unanswered Quibbles with Fractional Reserve Free Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Bagus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we reply to George Selgin’s counterarguments to our article “Fractional Reserve Free Banking: Some Quibbles”. Selgin regards holding cash as saving while we focus on the real savings necessary to maintain investment projects. Real savings are unconsumed real income. Variations in real savings are not necessarily equal to variations in cash holdings. We show that a coordinated credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking (FRFB system is possible and that precautionary reserves consequently do not pose a necessary limit. We discuss various instances in which a FRFB system may expand credit without a prior increase in real savings. These facets all demonstrate why a fractional reserve banking system – even a free banking one – is inherently unstable, and incentivized to impose a stabilizing central bank. We find that at the root of our disagreements with Selgin lies a different approach to monetary theory. Selgin subscribes to the aggregative equation of exchange, which impedes him from seeing the microeconomic problems that the stabilization of “MV” by a FRFB system causes.

  19. 78 FR 66715 - Federal Reserve Bank Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... imputed costs and earn net income of $24.6 million, compared with the target of $4.2 million. Although the... initiatives, and to increase product revenue. 4.2014 Pricing--The following summarizes the Reserve Banks... Banks will discontinue the Choice Receiver program, which provides pricing incentives to those customers...

  20. 40 CFR 427.84 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 427.84 Section 427.84 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Coating or Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.84...

  1. 40 CFR 86.220-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.220-94 Section 86.220-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  2. 40 CFR 86.217-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.217-94 Section 86.217-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  3. 40 CFR 86.212-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.212-94 Section 86.212-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  4. 40 CFR 86.241-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.241-94 Section 86.241-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  5. 40 CFR 86.207-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.207-94 Section 86.207-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  6. 40 CFR 86.243-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.243-94 Section 86.243-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  7. 40 CFR 428.64 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 428.64 Section 428.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber...

  8. 40 CFR 86.210-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.210-94 Section 86.210-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  9. 40 CFR 86.245-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.245-94 Section 86.245-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  10. 40 CFR 86.225-94 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 86.225-94 Section 86.225-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger...

  11. 5 CFR 330.710 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 330.710 Section 330.710 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Interagency Career Transition Assistance Plan for Displaced Employees § 330.710...

  12. 5 CFR 330.702 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] 330.702 Section 330.702 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Interagency Career Transition Assistance Plan for Displaced Employees § 330.702...

  13. Demonstrated reserve base for coal in New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, G.K.

    1995-02-01

    The new demonstrated reserve base estimate of coal for the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, is 11.28 billion short tons. This compares with 4.429 billion short tons in the Energy Information Administration`s demonstrated reserve base of coal as of January 1, 1992 for all of New Mexico and 2.806 billion short tons for the San Juan Basin. The new estimate includes revised resource calculations in the San Juan Basin, in San Juan, McKinley, Sandoval, Rio Arriba, Bernalillo and Cibola counties, but does not include the Raton Basin and smaller fields in New Mexico. These estimated {open_quotes}remaining{close_quotes} coal resource quantities, however, include significant adjustments for depletion due to past mining, and adjustments for accessibility and recoverability.

  14. Key management issue in SCADA networks: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalhossein Rezai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA networks have a vital role in Critical Infrastructures (CIs such as public transports, power generation systems, gas, water and oil industries, so that there are concerns on security issues in these networks. The utilized Remote Terminal Units (RTUs and Intelligence Electronic Devices (IEDs in these networks have resource limitations, which make security applications a challenging issue. Efficient key management schemes are required besides lightweight ciphers for securing the SCADA communications. Many key management schemes have been developed to address the tradeoff between SCADA constrain and security, but which scheme is the most effective is still debatable. This paper presents a review of the existing key management schemes in SCADA networks, which provides directions for further researches in this field.

  15. Planning outstanding reserves in general insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeva, E.; Pavlov, V.

    2017-10-01

    Each insurance company have to ensure its solvency through presentation of accounts for its own reserves in the start of the year. Usually the task of the actuary is to estimate the state of the company on an annual basis and the expectation of the status of the company for a future period. One of the major problem when calculating the liabilities of the incurred claims, is related to the delay of payments. Object of consideration in the present note are the outstanding claim reserves, which are set aside to cover claims, occurred before the date of the annual account, but still not paid, and related with them expenses. There may be different reasons for the delay of claims settlement. For example, continuation the process of the liquidation of the damage waiting for necessary documents or the presence of controversial cases whose permission takes time, etc. Thus the claims, which determine the outstanding reserves could be divided in the following types: claims, which are reported, but not settled (RBNS); claims, which are incurred but not reported (IBNR); claims, whose case is finished, but it is possible to be reopened. When calculating the reserves for IBNR claims, most widely used is the Chain-ladder method and its modification presented by the Bornhuetter - Ferguson method. For modeling the outstanding claims, the available data should be presented in so called run-off triangle, which underlies in the basis of such methods. The present work provides a review of the algorithm for calculating insurance outstanding claim reserves according to the Chain-ladder method. Using available data for claims related to liability of drivers, registered in Bulgaria an example is constructed to illustrate the methodology of the Chain-Ladder method. Back-testing approach is used for validating the results.

  16. EDITORIAL: 'Key issues' articles in Reports on Progress in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Laura H.

    2007-03-01

    The Editorial Board of Reports on Progress in Physics has commissioned a series of short articles from world leaders on key physics issues in their field. These essays may raise the key issues, or ask open questions or may even suggest wild ideas. Basically, they give world leading physicists the opportunity to write what they think about the key issues in their field, free from the usual requirement to provide the fair and balanced presentations of the subject normally found in articles in Reports on Progress in Physics. We believe that the readers of the journal will be interested to learn about these exciting ideas. Just as Hilbert's famous paper of 1900 set the agenda for the next century or more in mathematics, so we hope that this series of papers will define the key issues and open questions in physics for the 21st Century and that the articles will be widely cited and downloaded. The first of these articles—'Insights from simulations of star formation' by Richard B Larson (Yale University, USA)—is published in the current issue. We trust that readers will find this article and its successors in the series to appear through 2007 and beyond entertaining and stimulating.

  17. How to Share a Key (Invited paper)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzi, Matthias; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Wolf, Stefan

    on the common OTP and only partial local knowledge of how many key bits have already been used by each other player, the goal is to commonly consume as many key bits as possible without any overlap. In this paper, we consider a related problem with immediate implications to the previous model. We consider n...... players to share the same k keys of length ` bits. The goal is to assign a key sequence to each player such that, for as many keys as possible and independently of which player uses how many of them, it is guaranteed that all used keys are independent. Such an assignment is called loss-free if k keys can...... always be consumed independently. Note that, in contrast to the previous model, the players are ignorant of each other’s key consumptions. We first observe a simple loss-free solution for the case that the key is of certain (small) minimal length `. Furthermore, for the case of key length ` = 1 (the most...

  18. Petroleum reserves in West Africa: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copinschi, Ph.; Favennec, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Gulf of Guinea region in West Africa is one in which production and reserves have increased the most during the last few years, essentially due to offshore operation. It is also there that the most spectacular discoveries have been made in recent years, particularly with deep-sea drilling. The low production costs and enthusiastic welcome for foreign investors make the region a favoured destination for large international companies, even if uncertainties and political tensions remain to make the situation delicate. In these conditions, the relationship between the host State and the foreign petrol companies are changing. Beyond the purely formal aspects of these new contacts, the whole former system of 'reserved markets' is being threatened by the increasing tendency to open the sector to competition. Eight countries are examined in detail: Nigeria, Angola, Gabon, Congo, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, the Ivory Coast and Chad. (authors)

  19. Natural Areas Analysis and Evaluation: Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranski, Micahel J [self

    2009-11-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Oak Ridge Reservation, encompassing 33,639 acres in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of East Tennessee, has long been known for its unfragmented forests and high biodiversity. Many areas on the Reservation have been recognized as important natural areas, but no comprehensive treatment has been performed to evaluate the relative significance and importance of these areas compared to each other. The present study was conducted to develop a set of guidelines for evaluating the natural value of specific areas, to evaluate all the terrestrial areas that are currently delineated, and to rank all areas according to their relative biodiversity importance. All available data, reports and site-specific information relevant to Reservation lands, including Tennessee Division of Natural Areas database information, were evaluated and field work was conducted. Methodologies and criteria for assessment and evaluation of areas were developed; categories of criteria were devised; and a ranking system for evaluation of natural areas was produced. There were 70 areas evaluated during the study. The system is flexible, dynamic and easily revised to reflect updated and new information and interpretations. Eight categories of evaluation factors were established and used to characterize each site. These were the following: size of area, number or status taxa present, number of Endangered and Threatened taxa present, rarity of the Endangered and Threatened taxa on the Reservation, community diversity, site integrity and quality, disturbance and threat levels, and other significant features and factors. Each category generally consisted of a 5-point ranking scale from 0-4, allowing for a possible composite score of 32, with higher ranked, more important, sites attaining higher scores. Highly ranked sites are representative of regional natural diversity; contain outstanding natural features, communities or geology and/or very rare taxa or other elements; are

  20. Developing Senior Leaders for the Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    For more information on the Forces and Resources Policy Center, see http://www.rand.org/nsrd/ndri/centers/frp.html or contact the director (contact information is provided on the web page ). ...some combination of experiences, education, and personal development. Each has an extensive concept of develop- ment—how they define it, what ...policy. First, in what ways can the develop- ment of RC senior leaders be improved? Second, in what ways can reserve component leader development

  1. Bilingualism, dementia, cognitive and neural reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perani, Daniela; Abutalebi, Jubin

    2015-12-01

    We discuss the role of bilingualism as a source of cognitive reserve and we propose the putative neural mechanisms through which lifelong bilingualism leads to a neural reserve that delays the onset of dementia. Recent findings highlight that the use of more than one language affects the human brain in terms of anatomo-structural changes. It is noteworthy that recent evidence from different places and cultures throughout the world points to a significant delay of dementia onset in bilingual/multilingual individuals. This delay has been reported not only for Alzheimer's dementia and its prodromal mild cognitive impairment phase, but also for other dementias such as vascular and fronto-temporal dementia, and was found to be independent of literacy, education and immigrant status. Lifelong bilingualism represents a powerful cognitive reserve delaying the onset of dementia by approximately 4 years. As to the causal mechanism, because speaking more than one language heavily relies upon executive control and attention, brain systems handling these functions are more developed in bilinguals resulting in increases of gray and white matter densities that may help protect from dementia onset. These neurocognitive benefits are even more prominent when second language proficiency and exposure are kept high throughout life.

  2. World energy demands and coal reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Kovács

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the expected increase in the world’s population and taking the estimated improvement in both technology and living standards into account, the paper forecasts energy demands. In 2000, actual energy consumption was 380-400 EJ.year-1, the forecast for the year 2050 is 600-1,050 EJ.year-1, while for the year 2100 it is 900-3,600 EJ.year-1. On the basis of the expected shares of the different fuels (coal, mineral oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, renewable energies, it can be assumed that in 2050 coal demand will be between 122-200 EJ.year-1 while the total coal demand for the 45 years ahead is estimated to be 5,500-6,900 EJ.year-1. This rate of demand basically involves an approximately 2 % increase every year.On the basis of data in relevant literature, the world’s coal reserves are: the industrial coal reserve is 800-1,000 · 109 tons, the geological stock is 5-15 1012 tons and the expected stock is 8-35 1012 tons. The world’s industrial coal reserve (which is economically exploitable at the present technological level guarantees supply for 200 years while the detected geological stock guarantees supply for a round 1,000 years.

  3. Earth's Magnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    research with the aim to better characterise the state and dynamics of Earth’s magnetic field. Advances in the exploitation of geomagnetic observations hold a huge potential not only for an improved quantitative description of the field source but also for a better understanding of the underlying processes...... and physics. Key is the separation of the field sources in the observations, especially, but not solely, during times of quiet geomagnetic conditions, when the most subtle geomagnetic effects can be identified and become significant. The collected articles are based on the current constellation of ground......This volume provides a comprehensive view on the different sources of the geomagnetic field both in the Earth’s interior and from the field’s interaction with the terrestrial atmosphere and the solar wind. It combines expertise from various relevant areas of geomagnetic and near Earth space...

  4. Searching for a global reserves standard - The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch-Bell, Michael

    2010-09-15

    The UNFC-2009 applies to fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources located on or below the Earth's surface and is intended to serve the needs for classification at a global level for governments, for industry and for financial reporting. UNFC-2009 is a generic system in which quantities are classified on the basis of the three fundamental criteria of economic and social viability (E), field project status and feasibility (F), and geological knowledge (G), using a numerical coding system. The aim of this paper is to explore whether the UNFC-2009 can meet the needs of all internal and external stakeholders.

  5. Secret-key expansion from covert communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Amiri, Ryan

    2018-02-01

    Covert communication allows the transmission of messages in such a way that it is not possible for adversaries to detect that the communication is occurring. This provides protection in situations where knowledge that two parties are talking to each other may be incriminating to them. In this work, we study how covert communication can be used for a different purpose: secret key expansion. First, we show that any message transmitted in a secure covert protocol is also secret and therefore unknown to an adversary. We then propose a covert communication protocol where the amount of key consumed in the protocol is smaller than the transmitted key, thus leading to secure secret key expansion. We derive precise conditions for secret key expansion to occur, showing that it is possible when there are sufficiently low levels of noise for a given security level. We conclude by examining how secret key expansion from covert communication can be performed in a computational security model.

  6. Key Recovery Attacks on Recent Authenticated Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Dobraunig, Christoph; Eichlseder, Maria

    2014-01-01

    and wireless networks. All these schemes use well-established and secure components such as the AES, Grain-like NFSRs, ChaCha and SipHash as their building blocks. However, we discover key recovery attacks for all three designs, featuring square-root complexities. Using a key collision technique, we can...... recover the secret key of AVALANCHE in 2n/2, where n 2∈ {28; 192; 256} is the key length. This technique also applies to the authentication part of Calico whose 128-bit key can be recovered in 264 time. For RBS, we can recover its full 132-bit key in 265 time with a guess-and-determine attack. All attacks...

  7. Disaggregating reserve-to-production ratios: An algorithm for United States oil and gas reserve development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charles William

    Reserve-to-production ratios for oil and gas development are utilized by oil and gas producing states to monitor oil and gas reserve and production dynamics. These ratios are used to determine production levels for the manipulation of oil and gas prices while maintaining adequate reserves for future development. These aggregate reserve-to-production ratios do not provide information concerning development cost and the best time necessary to develop newly discovered reserves. Oil and gas reserves are a semi-finished inventory because development of the reserves must take place in order to implement production. These reserves are considered semi-finished in that they are not counted unless it is economically profitable to produce them. The development of these reserves is encouraged by profit maximization economic variables which must consider the legal, political, and geological aspects of a project. This development is comprised of a myriad of incremental operational decisions, each of which influences profit maximization. The primary purpose of this study was to provide a model for characterizing a single product multi-period inventory/production optimization problem from an unconstrained quantity of raw material which was produced and stored as inventory reserve. This optimization was determined by evaluating dynamic changes in new additions to reserves and the subsequent depletion of these reserves with the maximization of production. A secondary purpose was to determine an equation for exponential depletion of proved reserves which presented a more comprehensive representation of reserve-to-production ratio values than an inadequate and frequently used aggregate historical method. The final purpose of this study was to determine the most accurate delay time for a proved reserve to achieve maximum production. This calculated time provided a measure of the discounted cost and calculation of net present value for developing new reserves. This study concluded that

  8. Changing the VP Reserve Readiness System to Match the Crew-Coordination Requirements of Reserve Aircrews

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, William

    1997-01-01

    .... The current VP readiness system promotes long-term, fixed crews with TACNUC rules. Adhering to these crew composition rules can cause considerable scheduling difficulties for reserve squadrons...

  9. Magnetic Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Schöller, Markus; Hubrig, Swetlana

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we give a brief introduction into the use of the Zeeman effect in astronomy and the general detection of magnetic fields in stars, concentrating on the use of FORS2 for longitudinal magnetic field measurements.

  10. Assessment of renewable energy reserves in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Falin; Lu, Shyi-Min; Tseng, Kuo-Tung; Wang, Eric; Lee, Si-Chen

    2010-01-01

    Since Taiwan imports more than 99% of energy supply from foreign countries, energy security has always been the first priority for government to formulate energy policy. The development of renewable energy not only contributes to the independence of energy supply, but also achieves benefits of economic development and environmental protection. Based upon information available to public, the present paper reassesses reserves of various renewable energies in Taiwan. The assessment includes seven kinds of renewable energies, namely, solar energy, wind power, biomass energy, wave energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy and hydropower, which are all commercialized and matured in terms of current technologies. Other renewable energies, which have not proven as matured as the aforementioned ones, are only assessed preliminarily in this paper, such as second generation of biomass, deep geothermal energy, the Kuroshio power generation and ocean thermal energy conversion. According to the estimation of this paper, the reserve of wind energy, up to 29.9 kWh/d/p (i.e., kWh per day per person), is the largest one among seven kinds of renewable energies in Taiwan, followed by 24.27 kWh/d/p of solar energy, 4.55 kWh/d/p of biomass, 4.58 kWh/d/p of ocean energy, 0.67 kWh/d/p of geothermal energy and 16.79 kWh/d/p of hydropower. If regarding biomass as a primary energy, and assuming 40% being the average efficiency to convert primary energy into electricity, the total power of the seven kinds of renewable energy reserves is about 78.03 kWh/d/p, which is equal to 2.75 times of 28.35 kWh/d/p of national power generation in 2008. If the reserves of 54.93 kWh/d/p estimated from other four kinds of renewable energies that have not technically matured yet are also taken into account, it will result that the reserves of renewable energy in Taiwan can be quite abundant. Although the results of the assessment point out that Taiwan has abundant renewable energy resources, the four inherent

  11. Competency Assessment Using Key Performance Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Alexandra Toader; Laura Brad

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a method for computing the scores of the key performance indicators resulted in the competency assessment process. The key performance indicators are estimated considering four performance levels that an IT professional can obtain at the end of the assessment process. We suggest as the best approach for estimating the performance key indicators an online questionnaire filled by 60 employees that work in IT Romanian companies. The results provide evidence that the difference...

  12. Establishing Key Performance Indicators : Case company X

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Jatinder

    2015-01-01

    The key performance indicators serve as the navigational tools for a business organization to monitor its performance. They enable the management team to take real time decisions to keep organization’s resources aligned to its business strategy to accomplish its strategic objec-tives. This research was conducted to analyse the process of establishing successful key per-formance indicators for a business organization. The research was conducted to recommend key performance indicators developme...

  13. FPGA BASED HARDWARE KEY FOR TEMPORAL ENCRYPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lakshmi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel encryption scheme with time based key technique on an FPGA is presented. Time based key technique ensures right key to be entered at right time and hence, vulnerability of encryption through brute force attack is eliminated. Presently available encryption systems, suffer from Brute force attack and in such a case, the time taken for breaking a code depends on the system used for cryptanalysis. The proposed scheme provides an effective method in which the time is taken as the second dimension of the key so that the same system can defend against brute force attack more vigorously. In the proposed scheme, the key is rotated continuously and four bits are drawn from the key with their concatenated value representing the delay the system has to wait. This forms the time based key concept. Also the key based function selection from a pool of functions enhances the confusion and diffusion to defend against linear and differential attacks while the time factor inclusion makes the brute force attack nearly impossible. In the proposed scheme, the key scheduler is implemented on FPGA that generates the right key at right time intervals which is then connected to a NIOS – II processor (a virtual microcontroller which is brought out from Altera FPGA that communicates with the keys to the personal computer through JTAG (Joint Test Action Group communication and the computer is used to perform encryption (or decryption. In this case the FPGA serves as hardware key (dongle for data encryption (or decryption.

  14. EPA Monthly Key Performance Indicator Dashboards 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each month, the Web Analytics Program posts updated Key Performance Indicator (KPI) dashboards that correspond to three Web performance goals: content consumption, content discovery, and audience engagement.

  15. Nickel exposure from keys: a Brazilian issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nathalie Mie; Duarte, Ida Alzira Gomes; Hafner, Mariana de Figueiredo Silva; Lazzarini, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Keys are a significant source of exposure to metal allergens and can be a relevant problem for nickel-allergic individuals. This study aimed to perform nickel and cobalt spot testing among the 5 most common Brazilian brands of keys. Among the tested keys, 100% showed positive result to nickel spot test, 83,3% presented strong positive reaction. 50% exhibited cobalt release as well. Nickel release from keys is very common in our country and may cause a negative impact on sensitized individual's quality of life. Study's results highlight the importance of establishing directives to regulate nickel release in Brazil.

  16. Finite key analysis in quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, T.

    2007-01-01

    In view of experimental realization of quantum key distribution schemes, the study of their efficiency becomes as important as the proof of their security. The latter is the subject of most of the theoretical work about quantum key distribution, and many important results such as the proof of unconditional security have been obtained. The efficiency and also the robustness of quantum key distribution protocols against noise can be measured by figures of merit such as the secret key rate (the fraction of input signals that make it into the key) and the threshold quantum bit error rate (the maximal error rate such that one can still create a secret key). It is important to determine these quantities because they tell us whether a certain quantum key distribution scheme can be used at all in a given situation and if so, how many secret key bits it can generate in a given time. However, these figures of merit are usually derived under the ''infinite key limit'' assumption, that is, one assumes that an infinite number of quantum states are send and that all sub-protocols of the scheme (in particular privacy amplification) are carried out on these infinitely large blocks. Such an assumption usually eases the analysis, but also leads to (potentially) too optimistic values for the quantities in question. In this thesis, we are explicitly avoiding the infinite key limit for the analysis of the privacy amplification step, which plays the most important role in a quantum key distribution scheme. We still assume that an optimal error correction code is applied and we do not take into account any statistical errors that might occur in the parameter estimation step. Renner and coworkers derived an explicit formula for the obtainable key rate in terms of Renyi entropies of the quantum states describing Alice's, Bob's, and Eve's systems. This results serves as a starting point for our analysis, and we derive an algorithm that efficiently computes the obtainable key rate for any

  17. 75 FR 17463 - Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice is hereby given that, pursuant to the authority contained in... Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as sole Receiver for Key West Bank, Key West, Florida, (OTS No...

  18. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.189a Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with its...

  19. Key-value store with internal key-value storage interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Ting, Dennis P. J.; Tzelnic, Percy; Gupta, Uday; Grider, Gary; Bonnie, David J.

    2018-01-16

    A key-value store is provided having one or more key-value storage interfaces. A key-value store on at least one compute node comprises a memory for storing a plurality of key-value pairs; and an abstract storage interface comprising a software interface module that communicates with at least one persistent storage device providing a key-value interface for persistent storage of one or more of the plurality of key-value pairs, wherein the software interface module provides the one or more key-value pairs to the at least one persistent storage device in a key-value format. The abstract storage interface optionally processes one or more batch operations on the plurality of key-value pairs. A distributed embodiment for a partitioned key-value store is also provided.

  20. Key parameters controlling the performance of catalytic motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplandiu, Maria J.; Afshar Farniya, Ali; Reguera, David

    2016-03-01

    The development of autonomous micro/nanomotors driven by self-generated chemical gradients is a topic of high interest given their potential impact in medicine and environmental remediation. Although impressive functionalities of these devices have been demonstrated, a detailed understanding of the propulsion mechanism is still lacking. In this work, we perform a comprehensive numerical analysis of the key parameters governing the actuation of bimetallic catalytic micropumps. We show that the fluid motion is driven by self-generated electro-osmosis where the electric field originates by a proton current rather than by a lateral charge asymmetry inside the double layer. Hence, the surface potential and the electric field are the key parameters for setting the pumping strength and directionality. The proton flux that generates the electric field stems from the proton gradient induced by the electrochemical reactions taken place at the pump. Surprisingly the electric field and consequently the fluid flow are mainly controlled by the ionic strength and not by the conductivity of the solution, as one could have expected. We have also analyzed the influence of the chemical fuel concentration, electrochemical reaction rates, and size of the metallic structures for an optimized pump performance. Our findings cast light on the complex chemomechanical actuation of catalytic motors and provide important clues for the search, design, and optimization of novel catalytic actuators.

  1. Reserve Component Programs. Fiscal Year 1999 Report of the Reserve Forces Policy Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Heavy Equipment Truck UH-1 Helicopter AH-1 Attack Helicopter PVS-5 Night Vision Goggles Army Reserve Dolly Sets Yard Truck Maintenance Contact...border collie instead of a propane canon, and agri- cultural outsourcing with 4-H sheep grazing. The Marine Corps Reserve continues to increase

  2. Parasite infection rates of impala (Aepyceros melampus) in fenced game reserves in relation to reserve characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, V.O.

    2004-01-01

    Under certain conditions reserves can pose a threat to wildlife conservation by increasing the transmission of parasites and pathogens. In this study, I investigated associations between reserve characteristics including area, density and species richness and parasite infection rates in impala (Aepyceros melampus). Using coprological methods to measure gastrointestinal parasitism rates of impala inhabiting five fully or partially fenced game reserves in central Kenya, I found that bovid species richness was correlated with parasite taxa richness across reserves, and that prevalence rates of multi-host strongyle nematodes were higher in reserves with more species. In addition, reserve size was also implicated as a potential predictor of infection risk. Overall, these results suggest that wildlife inhabiting highly diverse and small reserves may suffer from higher than normal rates of infection. Given the potential debilitating effects increases in parasitism can have on wildlife, these results underscore the importance of considering parasite transmission dynamics in the management of small, fenced protected areas. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koncinski, W.S.

    1993-09-01

    The two volumes of this report present data and supporting narratives regarding the impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on its environs and the public during 1992. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1992 data for the ORR. This volume (volume 2) includes the detailed data in formats that ensure all the environmental data are presented. Narratives are not included in Vol. 2

  4. Flexible reserve markets for wind integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Alisha R.

    The increased interconnection of variable generation has motivated the use of improved forecasting to more accurately predict future production with the purpose to lower total system costs for balancing when the expected output exceeds or falls short of the actual output. Forecasts are imperfect, and the forecast errors associated with utility-scale generation from variable generators need new balancing capabilities that cannot be handled by existing ancillary services. Our work focuses on strategies for integrating large amounts of wind generation under the flex reserve market, a market that would called upon for short-term energy services during an under or oversupply of wind generation to maintain electric grid reliability. The flex reserve market would be utilized for time intervals that fall in-between the current ancillary services markets that would be longer than second-to-second energy services for maintaining system frequency and shorter than reserve capacity services that are called upon for several minutes up to an hour during an unexpected contingency on the grid. In our work, the wind operator would access the flex reserve market as an energy service to correct for unanticipated forecast errors, akin to paying the generators participating in the market to increase generation during a shortfall or paying the other generators to decrease generation during an excess of wind generation. Such a market does not currently exist in the Mid-Atlantic United States. The Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection (PJM) is the Mid-Atlantic electric grid case study that was used to examine if a flex reserve market can be utilized for integrating large capacities of wind generation in a lowcost manner for those providing, purchasing and dispatching these short-term balancing services. The following work consists of three studies. The first examines the ability of a hydroelectric facility to provide short-term forecast error balancing services via a flex

  5. Essays in the California electricity reserves markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxoglou, Konstantinos

    This dissertation examines inefficiencies in the California electricity reserves markets. In Chapter 1, I use the information released during the investigation of the state's electricity crisis of 2000 and 2001 by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to diagnose allocative inefficiencies. Building upon the work of Wolak (2000), I calculate a lower bound for the sellers' price-cost margins using the inverse elasticities of their residual demand curves. The downward bias in my estimates stems from the fact that I don't account for the hierarchical substitutability of the reserve types. The margins averaged at least 20 percent for the two highest quality types of reserves, regulation and spinning, generating millions of dollars in transfers to a handful of sellers. I provide evidence that the deviations from marginal cost pricing were due to the markets' high concentration and a principal-agent relationship that emerged from their design. In Chapter 2, I document systematic differences between the markets' day- and hour-ahead prices. I use a high-dimensional vector moving average model to estimate the premia and conduct correct inferences. To obtain exact maximum likelihood estimates of the model, I employ the EM algorithm that I develop in Chapter 3. I uncover significant day-ahead premia, which I attribute to market design characteristics too. On the demand side, the market design established a principal-agent relationship between the markets' buyers (principal) and their supervisory authority (agent). The agent had very limited incentives to shift reserve purchases to the lower priced hour-ahead markets. On the supply side, the market design raised substantial entry barriers by precluding purely speculative trading and by introducing a complicated code of conduct that induced uncertainty about which actions were subject to regulatory scrutiny. In Chapter 3, I introduce a state-space representation for vector autoregressive moving average models that enables

  6. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koncinski, W.S.

    1993-09-01

    The two volumes of this report present data and supporting narratives regarding the impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on its environs and the public during 1992. This Volume (Volume 1) includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1992 data for the ORR. Volume 2 includes the detailed data in formats that ensure all the environmental data are represented. Narratives are not included in Vol. 2

  7. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucke, P.C.

    1992-10-01

    The first two volumes of this report present data and supporting narratives regarding the impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on its surrounding environs and the public during 1991. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1991 data for the ORR. This volume, Volume 2, includes the detailed data formats that ensure all the environmental data are represented. Narratives are not included. The information in Vol. 2 is addressed and analyzed in Vol. 1

  8. Habitat Restoration/Enhancement Fort Hall Reservation : 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, Hunter [Shoshone Bannock Tribes

    2009-07-23

    Habitat enhancement, protection and monitoring were the focus of the Resident Fisheries Program during 2008. Enhancement and protection included sloping, fencing and planting wetlands plugs at sites on Spring Creek (Head-waters). Many previously constructed instream structures (rock barbs and wing dams) were repaired throughout the Fort Hall Indian Reservation (Reservation). Physical sampling during 2008 included sediment and depth measurements (SADMS) in Spring Creek at the Car Removal site. SADMS, used to track changes in channel morphology and specifically track movements of silt through Bottoms stream systems were completed for 5 strata on Spring Creek. Water temperature and chemistry were monitored monthly on Spring Creek, Clear Creek, Diggie Creek, and Portneuf (Jimmy Drinks) and Blackfoot rivers. Fish population densities and biomass were sampled in five reservation streams which included nine sites. Sampling protocols were identical to methods used in past years. Numbers of fish in Spring Creek series remained relatively low, however, there was an increase of biomass overall since 1993. Salmonid fry densities were monitored near Broncho Bridge and were similar to 2006, and 2007, however, as in years past, high densities of macrophytes make it very difficult to see fry in addition to lack of field technicians. Mean catch rate by anglers on Bottoms streams stayed the same as 2007 at 1.5/hr. Numbers of fish larger than 18-inches caught by anglers increased from 2007 at .20 to .26/hr.

  9. Smart as a Key Component of the Sustainable City Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Zelinka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Smart City Initiatives are aiming on creation of a sustainable model for cities with the aim to improve quality of life of their citizens. A smart city represents an interdisciplinary field requiring high level of cooperation among experts from different fields and a contribution of the latest technologies in order to achieve the best results in the city's key areas. Such approach requires an effective cooperation across many fields, from technical or economic through legislation to social areas. Success of the smart city concept is not thinkable without an effective engagement of the end users, i.e. citizens of the smart cities. The traditional systems engineering methodologies fail and new approaches are urgently needed. A new Hybrid-Agile Methodology (HAM is introduced and its advantages with respect to smart city projects are discussed. However, application of methodologies cannot be successful without principal changes in how are all engaged parties thinking.

  10. The LOFAR Transients Key Science Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stappers, B.; Fender, R.; Wijers, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Transients Key Science Project (TKP) is one of six Key Science Projects of the next generation radio telescope LOFAR. Its aim is the study of transient and variable low-frequency radio sources with an extremely broad science case ranging from relativistic jet sources to pulsars, exoplanets,

  11. Failure of Kak quantum key distribution protocol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Kak's quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol provides not only the dis- tribution but also the integrity of secret key simultaneously in quantum channel. Conse- quently the additional exchange of information, used to check whether an eavesdropper exists, is unnecessary. In this comment, we will point out the ...

  12. Locks & keys service moves to building 55

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Please note that as of July 12 Locks & keys service will be at building 55 second floor. The opening hours are as follows: 08:30 am to 12:30 pm - 1:30 pm to 5:30 pm. The procedures and rules relating to applications for key and cylinder have not changed. GI-IS Group

  13. Failure of Kak quantum key distribution protocol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kak's quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol provides not only the distribution but also the integrity of secret key simultaneously in quantum channel. Consequently the additional exchange of information, used to check whether an eavesdropper exists, is unnecessary. In this comment, we will point out the failure of Kak's ...

  14. Bioenergy has a key role to play!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    Key note speach - Opening seremony of the 6.th International Bioenergy Conference organized by NASU - Kiev, Ukraine; www.biomass.kiev.ua;......Key note speach - Opening seremony of the 6.th International Bioenergy Conference organized by NASU - Kiev, Ukraine; www.biomass.kiev.ua;...

  15. Securing information using optically generated biometric keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Gaurav; Sinha, Aloka

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present a new technique to obtain biometric keys by using the fingerprint of a person for an optical image encryption system. The key generation scheme uses the fingerprint biometric information in terms of the amplitude mask (AM) and the phase mask (PM) of the reconstructed fingerprint image that is implemented using the digital holographic technique. Statistical tests have been conducted to check the randomness of the fingerprint PM key that enables its usage as an image encryption key. To explore the utility of the generated biometric keys, an optical image encryption system has been further demonstrated based on the phase retrieval algorithm and the double random phase encoding scheme in which keys for the encryption are used as the AM and the PM key. The advantage associated with the proposed scheme is that the biometric keys’ retrieval requires the simultaneous presence of the fingerprint hologram and the correct knowledge of the reconstruction parameters at the decryption stage, which not only verifies the authenticity of the person but also protects the valuable fingerprint biometric features of the keys. Numerical results are carried out to prove the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed encryption system.

  16. Key Competencies, Assessment and Learning Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Keryn; Wright, Jocelyn; Carr, Margaret; Peters, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Developed in response to a strong interest in the use of Learning Stories in schools, this resource is designed to answer some common questions asked by teachers. The assessment of Key Competencies is a topic that deserves a lot of discussion. A Key Competency is complex: it includes social, emotional, cognitive and cultural aspects, and is…

  17. Group Key Agreement Efficient in Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-14

    proceedings. [12] G. Caronni, M. Waldvogel, D. Sun, N. Weiler, and B. Plattner. The VersaKey framework: Versatile group key management. IEEE Journal on...scientist at the University of California at Irvine. His acdemic interests include network security and cryptography. More information about his research is

  18. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R.

    1990-10-01

    This two-volume report, the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1989, is the nineteenth in an annual series that began in 1971. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at the three major US Department of Energy (DOE) production and research installations in Oak Ridge on the immediate areas' and surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation and wildlife, and through these multiple and varied pathways, the resident human population. Information is presented for the environmental monitoring Quality Assurance (QA) Program, audits and reviews, waste management activities, land special environmental studies. Data are included for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). Volume 1 presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions based on environmental monitoring at the three DOE installations and in the surrounding environs during calendar year (CY) 1989. Volume 1 is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report about the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the reader who does not want an in-depth review of 1989 data. Volume 2 presents the detailed data from which these conclusions have been drawn and should be used in conjunction with Volume 1

  19. Classification of uranium reserves/resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    Projections of future availability of uranium to meet present and future nuclear power requirements depend on the reliability of uranium resource estimates. Lack of harmony of the definition of the different classes of uranium reserves and resources between countries makes the compilation and analysis of such information difficult. The problem was accentuated in the early 1990s with the entry of uranium producing countries from the former Soviet Union, eastern Europe and China into the world uranium supply market. The need for an internationally acceptable reserve/resource classification system and terminology using market based criteria is therefore obvious. This publication was compiled from participant's contributions and findings of the Consultants Meetings on Harmonization of Uranium Resource Assessment Concepts held in Vienna from 22 to 25 June 1992, and two Consultants Meetings on the Development of a More Meaningful Classification of Uranium Resources held in Kiev, Ukraine on 24-26 April 1995 and 20-23 August 1996. This document includes 11 contributions, summary, list of participants of the Consultants Meetings. Each contribution has been indexed and provided with an abstract

  20. Extrapolating phosphorus production to estimate resource reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccari, David A; Strigul, Nikolay

    2011-08-01

    Various indicators of resource scarcity and methods for extrapolating resource availability are examined for phosphorus. These include resource lifetime, and trends in resource price, ore grade and discovery rates, and Hubbert curve extrapolation. Several of these indicate increasing scarcity of phosphate resources. Calculated resource lifetime is subject to a number of caveats such as unanticipated future changes in resource discovery, mining and beneficiation technology, population growth or per-capita demand. Thus it should be used only as a rough planning index or as a relative indicator of potential scarcity. This paper examines the uncertainty in one method for estimating available resources from historical production data. The confidence intervals for the parameters and predictions of the Hubbert curves are computed as they relate to the amount of information available. These show that Hubbert-type extrapolations are not robust for predicting the ultimately recoverable reserves or year of peak production of phosphate rock. Previous successes of the Hubbert curve are for cases in which there exist alternative resources, which is not the situation for phosphate. It is suggested that data other than historical production, such as population growth, identified resources and economic factors, should be included in making such forecasts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R. (eds.)

    1990-10-01

    This two-volume report, the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1989, is the nineteenth in an annual series that began in 1971. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at the three major US Department of Energy (DOE) production and research installations in Oak Ridge on the immediate areas' and surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation and wildlife, and through these multiple and varied pathways, the resident human population. Information is presented for the environmental monitoring Quality Assurance (QA) Program, audits and reviews, waste management activities, land special environmental studies. Data are included for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). Volume 1 presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions based on environmental monitoring at the three DOE installations and in the surrounding environs during calendar year (CY) 1989. Volume 1 is intended to be a stand-alone'' report about the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the reader who does not want an in-depth review of 1989 data. Volume 2 presents the detailed data from which these conclusions have been drawn and should be used in conjunction with Volume 1.

  2. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Daniela DINU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of both Supply Chain’ s components, procedures, workflow, processes and the importance of Supply Chain Management into maximizing company's value. SCORE model able to provide solid information about measuring performance and identifying priorities within Supply Chain Management will help us to understand the key factors by analyzing its elements: Plan, Source, Make, Deliver,Return, Enable. These elements covers all the challenging areas from first to third tier of Supply Chain Management.

  3. Analysis of Human Activities in Nature Reserves Based on Nighttime Light Remote Sensing and Microblogging Data - by the Case of National Nature Reserves in Jiangxi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, F.; Li, X.; Xu, H.

    2017-09-01

    The study used the mainstream social media in china - Sina microblogging data combined with nighttime light remote sensing and various geographical data to reveal the pattern of human activities and light pollution of the Jiangxi Provincial National Nature Reserves. Firstly, we performed statistical analysis based on both functional areas and km-grid from the perspective of space and time, and selected the key areas for in-depth study. Secondly, the relationship between microblogging data and nighttime light remote sensing, population, GDP, road coverage, road distance and road type in nature reserves was analyzed by Spearman correlation coefficient method, so the distribution pattern and influencing factors of the microblogging data were explored. Thirdly, a region where the luminance value was greater than 0.2 was defined as a light region. We evaluated the management status by analyzing the distribution of microblogging data in both light area and non-light area. Final results showed that in all nature reserves, the top three were the Lushan Nature Reserve, the Jinggangshan Nature Reserve, the Taohongling National Nature Reserve of Sikas both on the total number and density of microblogging ; microblogging had a significant correlation with nighttime light remote sensing , the GDP, population, road and other factors; the distribution of microblogging near roads in protected area followed power laws; luminous radiance of Lushan Nature Reserve was the highest, with 43 percent of region was light at night; analysis combining nighttime light remote sensing with microblogging data reflected the status of management of nature reserves.

  4. CD4+ T-cell activation for immunotherapy of malignancies using Ii-Key/MHC class II epitope hybrid vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Minzhen; Kallinteris, Nikoletta L; von Hofe, Eric

    2012-04-16

    Active immunotherapy is becoming a reality in the treatment of malignancies. Peptide-based vaccines represent a simple, safe, and economic basis for cancer immunotherapeutics development. However, therapeutic efficacy has been disappointing. Some of the reasons for this, such as selection of patients with advanced disease and ignorance of the delayed activity of many immunotherapeutic vaccines, have hampered the entire field of cancer immunotherapy over the last decade. Another reason for this may be that most peptide regimens historically have focused on activation of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes, having little or only indirect CD4+ T helper (Th) cell activation. We review here evidence for the importance of specific CD4+ Th activation in cancer immunotherapy and the use of Ii-Key technology to accomplish this. Ii-Key (LRMK), a portion of the MHC class II-associated invariant chain (Ii protein), facilitates the direct charging of peptide epitopes onto MHC class II molecules. Directly linking Ii-Key to MHC class II peptide epitopes greatly enhances their potency in activating CD4+ T-cells. The Ii-Key hybrid AE37, generated by linking LRMK to the known HER2 MHC class II epitope HER2 (aa 776-790), has been shown to generate robust, long lasting HER2-specific immune responses both in patients with breast and prostate cancer. Interim data from a phase II study of AE37 in breast cancer patients suggest a possible improvement in clinical outcome. The Ii-Key hybrid technology is compared to other methods for enhancing the potency of peptide immunotherapy for cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fundamental study on the size and inter-key spacing of numeric keys for touch screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, H; Katsuura, T; Kikuchi, Y

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the optimum size and inter-key spacing of numeric square keys for touch screens. Six male students (22-25 years old) and three female students (21-24 years old) volunteered as subjects for this experiment. Each subject took part in data entry tasks using numeric square keys of touch devices. The sizes of keys were 6, 12, 21, 30 and 39 mm and each the inter-key spacing was 0, 3, 6, 12 and 21 mm. Response times with key sizes of 6 and 12 mm were significantly slower than with key sizes of 21 and 30 mm (p touch screens should be more than 21 mm and optimum inter-key spacing should be from 3 to 6 mm. Optimum key size, however, must be selected with regard to the limitation of screen size.

  6. New weak keys in simplified IDEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafman, Sari Agustini; Muhafidzah, Arini

    2016-02-01

    Simplified IDEA (S-IDEA) is simplified version of International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) and useful teaching tool to help students to understand IDEA. In 2012, Muryanto and Hafman have found a weak key class in the S-IDEA by used differential characteristics in one-round (0, ν, 0, ν) → (0,0, ν, ν) on the first round to produce input difference (0,0, ν, ν) on the fifth round. Because Muryanto and Hafman only use three differential characteristics in one-round, we conducted a research to find new differential characteristics in one-round and used it to produce new weak key classes of S-IDEA. To find new differential characteristics in one-round of S-IDEA, we applied a multiplication mod 216+1 on input difference and combination of active sub key Z1, Z4, Z5, Z6. New classes of weak keys are obtained by combining all of these characteristics and use them to construct two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA with or without the 4th round sub key. In this research, we found six new differential characteristics in one round and combined them to construct two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA. When two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA are used and the 4th round sub key required, we obtain 2 new classes of weak keys, 213 and 28. When two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA are used, yet the 4th round sub key is not required, the weak key class of 213 will be 221 and 28 will be 210. Membership test can not be applied to recover the key bits in those weak key classes. The recovery of those unknown key bits can only be done by using brute force attack. The simulation result indicates that the bit of the key can be recovered by the longest computation time of 0,031 ms.

  7. Magnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    of the fluid flow at the top of the core. However, what is measured at or near the surface of the Earth is the superposition of the core field and fields caused by magnetized rocks in the Earth’s crust, by electric currents flowing in the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and oceans, and by currents induced......he Earth has a large and complicated magnetic field, the major part of which is produced by a self-sustaining dynamo operating in the fluid outer core. Magnetic field observations provide one of the few tools for remote sensing the Earth’s deep interior, especially regarding the dynamics...... in the Earth by time-varying external fields. These sources have their specific characteristics in terms of spatial and temporal variations, and their proper separation, based on magnetic measurements, is a major challenge. Such a separation is a prerequisite for remote sensing by means of magnetic field...

  8. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucke, P.C.

    1992-10-01

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1991 is the 21st in a series that began in 1971. The report documents the annual results of a comprehensive program to estimate the impact of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge operations upon human health and the environment. The report is organized into ten sections that address various aspects of effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, dose assessment, waste management, and quality assurance. A compliance summary gives a synopsis of the status of each facility relative to applicable state and federal regulations. Data are included for the following: Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); and Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance programs are intended to serve as effective indicators of contaminant releases and ambient contaminant concentrations that have the potential to result in adverse impacts to human health and the environment

  9. Digital radiographic assessment of coronary flow reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A method for measuring relative changes in regional blood flow using digital radiographic enhancement of selective coronary arteriography. Coronary flow reserve is measured in individual arterial distributions using the washin ratio of contrast appearance time under baseline and hyperemic conditions. Information is quantitatively presented in functional (parametric) image format. These images, termed contrast medium appearance pictures (CMAP), depict the transit of contrast through the arterial, myocardial and early venous stages. This process can be divided into three general phases: data acquisition, CMAP formation and CMAP analysis. The technique has evolved over its development period from a cine film-based technology which required substantial processing time to a real-time digital radiographic technique

  10. Coronary flow velocity reserve by echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Snoer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    reserve (MFR) measured by PET in overweight and obese patients. METHODS: Participants with revascularized coronary artery disease were examined by CFVR. Subgroups were examined by repeated CFVR (reproducibility) or Rubidium-82-PET (agreement). To account for time variation, results were computed for scans...... %, and reliability 0.97. Agreement with MFR of the LAD territory (n = 35) was without significant bias and overall LOA were (-1.40;1.46). Agreement was best for examinations performed within 1-week of participants without MI of the LAD-territory (n = 12); LOA = (-0.68;0.88). CONCLUSIONS: CFVR was highly feasible...... with a good reproducibility on par with other contemporary measures applied in cardiology. Agreement with MFR was acceptable, though discrepancy related to prior MI has to be considered. CFVR of LAD is a valid tool in overweight and obese patients....

  11. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, N.L.

    1989-05-01

    The first two volumes of this report are devoted to a presentation of environmental data and supporting narratives for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding environs during 1988. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report for the ORR for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1988 data. Volume 2 includes the detailed data summarized in a format to ensure that all environmental data are represented in the tables. Narratives are not included in Volume 2. The tables in Volume 2 are addressed in Volume 1. For this reason, Vol. 2 cannot be considered a stand-alone report but is intended to be used in conjunction with Volume 1

  12. Oil reserves are a dynamic quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeberli, O. E.

    2006-01-01

    In this exclusive interview with Rolf Hartl, head of the Oil Association of Switzerland, questions on developments in the consumption area and on future perspectives for the oil business are dealt with. The extent of oil reserves is looked at and the opinions of various experts on the subject are discussed. The 'energy-hunger' of China and third-world countries is discussed and the question is asked as to whether the maximum of oil-extraction has already been reached. Price developments and their possible effect on consumption are discussed, as are the effects of political conflicts on price developments. Finally, perspectives for the development of new oil discoveries are looked at

  13. Macrofungi of the Zasavica special nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvijanović Marko S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of biodiversity investigation of the Republic of Serbia, the investigation of the presence and the diversity of macrofungi of the Zasavica Special Nature Reserve (North Serbia has been undertaken. Relatively poor generic diversity of macrofungi was recorded with domination of ecological group of wood-decaying species. Even though being preliminary, our results point to the necessity of conservation and protection of recent fungal diversity but, in our opinion, not by making a so-called 'Red list of endangered species', which, due to the lack of information and very poor evidence on this group of organisms in our country, are extremely unreliable and therefore disputable, but rather through the very short list of a few not endangered species, conditionally called 'White list of not endangered fungal species', if such species recently exist et all.

  14. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R. (eds.)

    1990-10-01

    The first two volumes of this report are devoted to a presentation of environmental data and supporting narratives for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding environs during 1989. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a stand-alone'' report for the ORR for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1989 data. Volume 2 includes the detailed data summarized in a format to ensure that all environmental data are represented in the tables. Narratives are not included in Vol. 2. The tables in Vol. 2 are addressed in Vol. 1. For this reason, Vol. 2 cannot be considered a stand-alone report but is intended to be used in conjunction with Vol. 1. 16 figs., 194 tabs.

  15. NMR in pulsed magnetic field

    KAUST Repository

    Abou-Hamad, Edy

    2011-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments in pulsed magnetic fields up to 30.4 T focused on 1H and 93Nb nuclei are reported. Here we discuss the advantage and limitation of pulsed field NMR and why this technique is able to become a promising research tool. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Radioactive waste management at the Hanford Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    During some 30 years of plutonium production, the Hanford Reservation has accumulated large quantities of low- and high-level radioactive wastes. The high-level wastes have been stored in underground tanks, and the low-level wastes have been percolated into the soil. In recent years some programs for solidification and separation of the high-level wastes have been initiated. The Hanford waste-management system was studied by a panel of the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Academy of Sciences. The panel concluded that Hanford waste-management practices were adequate at present and for the immediate future but recommended increased research and development programs related to long-term isolation of the wastes. The panel also considered some alternatives for on-site disposal of the wastes. The Hanford Reservation was originally established for the production of plutonium for military purposes. During more than 30 years of operation, large volumes of high- and low-level radioactive wastes have been accumulated and contained at the site. The Management of these wastes has been the subject of controversy and criticism. To obtain a true technical evaluation of the Hanford waste situation, the Energy Research and Development Administration (now part of the Department of Energy) issued a contract to the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Councilto conduct an independent review and evaluation of the Hanford waste-management practices and plans. A panel of the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) of the National Academy of Sciences conducted this study between the summer of 1976 and the summer of 1977. This article is a summary of the final report of that panel

  17. The generation of shared cryptographic keys through channel impulse response estimation at 60 GHz.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Derek P.; Forman, Michael A.; Dowdle, Donald Ryan

    2010-09-01

    Methods to generate private keys based on wireless channel characteristics have been proposed as an alternative to standard key-management schemes. In this work, we discuss past work in the field and offer a generalized scheme for the generation of private keys using uncorrelated channels in multiple domains. Proposed cognitive enhancements measure channel characteristics, to dynamically change transmission and reception parameters as well as estimate private key randomness and expiration times. Finally, results are presented on the implementation of a system for the generation of private keys for cryptographic communications using channel impulse-response estimation at 60 GHz. The testbed is composed of commercial millimeter-wave VubIQ transceivers, laboratory equipment, and software implemented in MATLAB. Novel cognitive enhancements are demonstrated, using channel estimation to dynamically change system parameters and estimate cryptographic key strength. We show for a complex channel that secret key generation can be accomplished on the order of 100 kb/s.

  18. Assessing reserve-building pursuits and person characteristics: psychometric validation of the Reserve-Building Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Michael, Wesley; Zhang, Jie; Rapkin, Bruce D; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2018-02-01

    A growing body of research suggests that regularly engaging in stimulating activities across multiple domains-physical, cultural, intellectual, communal, and spiritual-builds resilience. This project investigated the psychometric characteristics of the DeltaQuest Reserve-Building Measure for use in prospective research. The study included Rare Patient Voice panel participants. The web-based survey included the Reserve-Building Measure with one-week re-test, measures of quality of life (QOL) and well-being (PROMIS General Health; NeuroQOL Cognitive Function and Positive Affect & Well-Being short-forms; Ryff Environmental Mastery subscale); and the Big Five Inventory-10 personality measure. Classical test theory and item response theory (IRT) analyses investigated psychometric characteristics of the Reserve-Building Measure. This North American sample (n = 592) included both patients and caregivers [mean age = 44, SD 19)]. Psychometric analyses revealed distinct subscales measuring current reserve-building activities (Active in the World, Games, Outdoors, Creative, Religious/Spiritual, Exercise, Inner Life, Shopping/Cooking, Passive Media Consumption,), past reserve-building activities (Childhood Activities, Achievement), and reserve-related person-factors (Perseverance, Current and Past Social Support, and Work Value). Test-retest stability (n = 101) was moderately high for 11 of 15 subscales (ICC range 0.78-0.99); four were below 0.59 indicating a need for further refinement. IRT analyses supported the item functioning of all subscales. Correlational analyses suggest the measure's subscales tap distinct constructs (range r = 0.11-0.46) which are not redundant with QOL, well-being, or personality (range r = 0.11-0.48). The Reserve-Building Measure provides a measure of activities and person-factors related to reserve that may potentially be useful in prospective research.

  19. Environmental Art as an Innovative Medium for Environmental Education in Biosphere Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, M.; Chandler, L.; Baldwin, C.

    2017-01-01

    A key goal of Biosphere Reserves (BR) is to foster environmental education for sustainable development. In this study we systematically analyse two cases in which environmental art is used as a mechanism to engage communities in "building environmental understanding", in Noosa BR in Australia and North Devon BR in the United Kingdom.…

  20. Self Retaining Anti-Rotation Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Alan Benjamin Christopher (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Anti-rotation keys are typically used in applications where an end of a threaded stud is received in a housing, and where the opposite end of the stud projects from the housing to allow attachment of another component to the housing. Once partially received in the housing, further rotation of the stud is prevented by an anti-rotation key. The disclosed anti-rotation key is self-retaining, in that it prevents itself from "backing out" of the channel due to vibration or thermal expansion of the housing, etc., while also being removable from the channel if desired.