WorldWideScience

Sample records for reservation economic development

  1. Economic Development on American Indian Reservations: A Citation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metoyer-Duran, Cheryl; Hernon, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of a citation analysis of literature concerning economic development on American Indian reservations focuses on the topics of gaming and natural resources and the environment. Highlights include a comparison of the findings to previous research; government and nongovernment sources; and suggestions for further research. (LRW)

  2. INTERNATIONAL RESERVES, GUARANTEE THAT SUPPORTS ROMANIA'S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEDAR LUCIAN-ION

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aggregate demand in our country far exceeds the ability of the economy to produce goods and services. The gap between total demand for goods and services on the one hand and economic status, on the other hand stands out primarily by the continuing need for funds to cover the budget deficit. The Lack of foreign investors, poor development of capital market and non-involvement of credit institutions to support economic development leads the Romanian state to borrow regularly on international money market. Guarantor of the country for these loans is the reserve fund managed by the central bank of the state. Trade deficits and foreign borrowing are two components of the same problems. As the state borrows more from the international financial markets the higher is the trade deficit. A national initiative on facilities development companies with export production and aggregate demand for domestic products, can lead to lower imports. Increasing the fund's reserves and activation may be one of the solutions required to support economic development. Through this study we try to discover the role of the reserve fund and other sources of economic development.

  3. The economic efficiency of investment in the development of reserves of small groups of geographically contiguous gold deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evdokimov S.I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of the research is a group of geographically contiguous low volume gold deposits. The subject of the study is an economic justification for a way to involve economic turnover to get a positive commercial result on a specially formed group of gold deposits, in which individual field development is unprofitable. A small production volume, combined with high capital and operating costs are objective reasons for the reduction in investment attractiveness of the deposits which have reserves of gold of 50%, equipped with a mobile processing complex with deep processing technology on highly liquid commodity products on site. An economic-mathematical model was devised to determine the rational placement of the processing capacity of the group.A simulation was conducted and an economic evaluation was performed on the effectiveness of investments in individual and group mining projects. The simulation results show that the joint exploitation of the reserves of the group of deposits, the internal rate of return on investments exceed the rate of return of funds to the bank deposit, the return on investment is above the level of inflation. The group project complies with the strategic line of small mining companies in terms of cost recovery terms, availability of financial sources to cover expenses, provision of stable means of income and obtaining competitive advantage.

  4. Socio-economic conditions in selected biosphere reserves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kušová, Drahomíra; Těšitel, Jan; Matějka, K.; Bartoš, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2006), s. 157-169 ISSN 1211-7420 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/610/3/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : nature protection * socio-economic conditions * biosphere reserves * sustainable development Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  5. Students, Economics, and the Federal Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernanke, Ben S.

    2011-01-01

    Students with an understanding of economics are better equipped to comprehend the forces that influence people's standard of living and overall financial well-being. Broad-based economic literacy supports an environment where students can participate in America's democracy as well-informed and responsible citizens, whose collective actions may…

  6. The Economics of NASA Mission Cost Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Increases in NASA mission costs are well-noted but not well-understood, and there is little evidence that they are decreasing in frequency or amount over time. The need to control spending has led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns, and many program control efforts are being implemented to attempt to prevent or mitigate the problem (NPR 7120). However, cost overruns have not abated, and while some direct causes of increased spending may be obvious (requirements creep, launch delays, directed changes, etc.), the underlying impetus to spend past the original budget may be more subtle. Gaining better insight into the causes of cost overruns will help NASA and its contracting organizations to avoid .them. This paper hypothesizes that one cause of NASA mission cost overruns is that the availability of reserves gives project team members an incentive to make decisions and behave in ways that increase costs. We theorize that the presence of reserves is a contributing factor to cost overruns because it causes organizations to use their funds less efficiently or to control spending less effectively. We draw a comparison to the insurance industry concept of moral hazard, the phenomenon that the presence of insurance causes insureds to have more frequent and higher insurance losses, and we attempt to apply actuarial techniques to quantifY the increase in the expected cost of a mission due to the availability of reserves. We create a theoretical model of reserve spending motivation by defining a variable ReserveSpending as a function of total reserves. This function has a positive slope; for every dollar of reserves available, there is a positive probability of spending it. Finally, the function should be concave down; the probability of spending each incremental dollar of reserves decreases progressively. We test the model against available NASA CADRe data by examining missions with reserve dollars initially available and testing whether

  7. The Economics of NASA Mission Cost Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Increases in NASA mission costs have led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns as well as mitigation and prevention attempts. This paper hypothesizes that one cause is that the availability of reserves may reduce incentives to control costs. We draw a comparison to the insurance concept of moral hazard, and we use actuarial techniques to better understand the increase in mission costs due to the availability of reserves. NASA's CADRe database provided the data against which we tested our hypothesis and discovered that there is correlation between the amount of available reserves and project overruns, particularly for mission hardware cost increases. We address the question of how to prevent reserves from increasing mission spending without increasing cost risk to projects.

  8. Piranema Field: developing economically small reserves in deep waters; Campo de Piracema: o desafio de desenvolver economicamente pequenas reservas em aguas profundas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Renilton M. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Piranema Field is located southeast of the city of Aracaju, in deep waters, sub-basin of Sergipe, about 25 km from the coast, with water depth varying from 200 and 2,000 meters. The biggest challenges for the production of this field, with high quality oil (41 to 44 API), were small reserves, the presence of large submarine canyons separating various geological structures and difficulty installation of pipelines and wax formation in production lines, which could cause its blocking. After several studies, we decided to exploit in two phases, using an FPSO (Floating Production Storage and Offloading), cylindrical, completely innovative, whose cost of construction could make the project economically attractive and gas produced entirely re-injected, which would increase considerably recovery factor. The development will be in two phases, with the first one lasting about 7 years and the second 4 years. It is expected a recovery factor of around 40% over the eleven years of production, with a peak production of around 30,000 bbl/d. The total project cost will be $ 1.1 bi, including investments, operating costs and taxes. (author)

  9. Indian Reserves: Canada's Developing Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Musto, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    Indian reserves are the most visible reminder of the separation of aboriginal people from the rest of Canada and other Canadians. Illness patterns and social conditions in Native communities closely parallel those in developing nations. While they continue to have a large burden of infectious diseases, these groups also have an increased incidence of chronic and lifestyle diseases as well as environment-related conditions. Similarities can be seen in urban areas between immigrants from abroad...

  10. CDBG Economic Development Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to economic development, including commercial or industrial rehab, commercial or industrial land acquisition, commercial or industrial...

  11. Reserve-constrained economic dispatch: Cost and payment allocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misraji, Jaime [Sistema Electrico Nacional Interconectado de la Republica Dominicana, Calle 3, No. 3, Arroyo Hondo 1, Santo Domingo, Distrito Nacional (Dominican Republic); Conejo, Antonio J.; Morales, Juan M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    This paper extends basic economic dispatch analytical results to the reserve-constrained case. For this extended problem, a cost and payment allocation analysis is carried out and a detailed economic interpretation of the results is provided. Sensitivity values (Lagrange multipliers) are also analyzed. A case study is considered to illustrate the proposed analysis. Conclusions are duly drawn. (author)

  12. Thailand's energy security: Strategic Petroleum Reserve and its economic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leesombatpiboon, Poonpat

    This dissertation studies Thailand's energy security from three related perspectives, the role of oil on the Thai macroeconomy, the sectoral demand for oil in Thailand, and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) policy for the Thai economy. The first part of my dissertation estimates an error correction model of aggregate production function for Thailand. Thai economic growth is modeled as a function of labor, capital, and oil consumption. Unlike previous studies that focus on testing the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, I focus on measuring the elasticity of economic growth with respect to oil consumption and oil prices. I find a cointegration relationship between GDP, capital, labor, and oil consumption. The results suggest that there exists a constant-return-to-scale characteristic in Thailand's aggregate production function with the contribution of labor, oil, and capital to output around 68, 19, and 13 percent respectively. The long-run and short-run contribution of oil consumption to the economy appears to be fairly close, suggesting that oil has a critical role in the Thai economy. In the short run, oil shortages have a much more severe impact on Thai economy than the effects of an oil price shock. For example, a 10 percent shortfall in oil consumption might cause economic growth to shrink by 2 percent within the same year while a sharp10 percent rise in oil prices canlead output growth to a fall by about 0.5 percent. The response of output to increases and decreases in oil prices is found to be asymmetric in the short run. The second part of my dissertation examines the short-run and long-run determinants of final oil consumption in seven major economic sectors in Thailand. Two different approaches are compared. The first approach uses dynamic panel data estimation techniques taking into account oil consumption of the whole economy in an aggregate manner. The second approach employs the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ADL

  13. Management of protected areas and objects of natural reserve fund under socio-ecological economic convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Bogoslavska, Alina; Semenchuk, Iryna

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes the problems of the current state of protected areas and objects of natural reserve fund. The author substantiates the way of development process improvement of the sustainable development of the NRF through the development of economics and “green” economic growth management, which integrates a model of sustainable development in the long-term strategy.

  14. Energy reserves. [Summary of reserve estimates and economic supply models for exhaustible resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.; Carhart, S.C.; Marcuse, W.

    1977-03-01

    There is an increasing concern about scarcity of the world's remaining natural energy resources and, in particular, the future supply of oil and natural gas. This paper summarizes recent estimates of energy reserves and economic supply models for exhaustible resources. The basic economic theory of resource exhaustion is reviewed, and recent estimates of both discovered and undiscovered energy resources are presented and compared. Domestic and world-wide reserve estimates are presented for crude oil and natural gas liquids, natural gas, coal, and uranium. Economic models projecting supply of these energy forms, given reserve estimates and other pertinent information, are discussed. Finally, a set of recent models which project world oil prices are summarized and their published results compared. The impact of energy conservation efforts on energy supply is also briefly discussed. 53 references.

  15. The management of the state reserving system in the aspect of the regional economic security supporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Yefimovich Zemskov

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the role of the state material reserve system to ensure economic security of the region. A classification of reserves ensuring economic security of the region was elaborated. A scheme of systematic and structural representation of the state material reserve in order to improve the economic security of the region was suggested. Optimization of operational control of the territorial offices, factories, and settlements of custody within the framework of the state material reserve is one of the most effective instruments to enhance the functioning of the whole system. To solve the problem of technological processes optimization of products acquisition and storage in manufacturings, plants and points of consignment storage of the state material reserve, a static economic-mathematical model was developed. The results can be used to develop appropriate computer systems for support of effective management decisions in the system of state of material reserve.

  16. South Korea's Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihm, Chon-Sun

    1988-01-01

    Examines South Korea's economic development from being one of the poorest nations in the world in the 1950s to becoming a "rising giant" in international trade. Surveys the path to growth, the reasons for success, and problems and new challenges facing the country as it seeks developed nation status. (GEA)

  17. Finance and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Panizza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter reviews the literature on finance and economic development. It starts with a description of the roles of finance, a definition of financial efficiency, and a discussion of whether countries may have financial sectors that are ‘too large’ compared to the size of the domestic economy. Next, the author describes several indicators of financial development and reviews the literature on the relationship between financial development and economic growth. In the literature review, he discusses in detail some recent evidence indicating that the marginal contribution of financial development to gross domestic product (GDP growth becomes negative when credit to the private sector reaches 110 per cent of GDP. The chapter concludes with some policy conclusions targeted to developing countries.

  18. Essays in development economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Marijke

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three chapters in the field of Development Economics. The first chapter examines the saving and investment decisions of self-employed farming households in Indonesia. Using an instrumental variables strategy, with local rainfall as an instrument for farm profit, no

  19. Corruption and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Skender Ahmeti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no sustainable economic development without a functioning rule of law. Besides sustainable economic policies like low interest rates, low inflation, low budget deficit, reasonable taxes and economic freedom for business development, the necessary ones for country’s economic growth are functioning of state institutions, support and development of reforms as well as successful fight against corruption. Corruption is a phenomena often encountered and spread in countries that have problems with rule of law as well as with judiciary system. Corruption manifestation is inevitable in circumstances when state institutions are weak. The phenomena is especially problematic in countries that go through transition periods since these countries are often characterized as nonefficient in fighting this phenomena1 . Countries in transition continue to have the image of countries with high level of corruption, which causes serious crisis from local opinion and continuous demand from international community due to the unsuccessful fight against this malevolence. World Bank considers corruption as the biggest obstacle in the fight for poverty eradication, since it undermines the rule of law, weakens state institutions and most of all it affects the poor. Politically, it undermines democracy and good governance, economic equal growth and development, as well as people’s trust in state institutions. Lately, several anti-corruption laws have been adopted in Kosovo, but they have not been implemented in practice and were not sufficient in fight against corruption. Kosovo’s long lasting dream of integrating in European Union, necessarily demands to built and functionalize anti-corruptive measures with priority, as a fundamental precondition for EU pre-accession process

  20. Uruguay; Recent Economic Developments

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes economic developments in Uruguay during the 1990s. Real GDP expanded on average by more than 4 percent a year in 1990–94 and fell by 2½ percent in 1995. The rapid growth of output during 1990–94 reflected buoyant external demand from Uruguay’s main trading partners (Argentina and Brazil), as well as progress in strengthening the public finances, reducing wage indexation, opening the economy, and curtailing government intervention. Consumer price inflation fell steadily fr...

  1. Regional and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortin, P.

    2004-01-01

    A leading economics expert was asked to list the economic advantages and disadvantages associated with electricity exports. This paper presents his expert opinion and presents a regional and economic analysis of the hydroelectric reserves that Hydro-Quebec should maintain in order to ensure long-term reliability of energy supplies while maintaining its potential for profitable exports. Electricity exports from Hydro-Quebec are extremely profitable for the province. From 1999 to 2003, net cumulative exports of 63 TWh brought in 4.2 billion dollars to the province of Quebec. This income was redistributed to Quebecers in the form of low energy prices. From 1994 to 2003, the average annual electricity export from Hydro-Quebec was 18 TWh which represents 11 per cent of all electricity delivered by the producer. Most of this export was sold to short-term markets. This ensures that electricity remains available to Quebec should the need arise. Long term sales agreement have never dominated the utility, and today account for only 1.5 per cent of electricity production. In order to ensure a secure electricity supply, Hydro-Quebec has kept a safety margin of 10 TWh through its large hydro-reservoirs. However, the year 2003 proved to be a difficult year for the producer due to low precipitation. The safety margin was completely consumed and the utility had to import electricity. A theoretical analysis of the market suggests that Hydro-Quebec's safety margin should be increased from 10 to 20 TWh to better meet energy demands during years of low precipitation. 1 tab., 2 figs

  2. Theory of Economic Development (Pyramids of Economic Development)

    OpenAIRE

    mashkoor, Aasim; ahmed, Ovais

    2015-01-01

    The theory we have designed the idea of economic development which remain associated with main elements that consists of two main development area, firstly is Health and secondly, Education development. The main factor of this idea to provide Human development that enormously influence on economic development which resulted from different perspectives. Many researches explained by analysis of focus variables of economic growth which have relationship to lead the economic development. In addit...

  3. Disaggregating reserve-to-production ratios: An algorithm for United States oil and gas reserve development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charles William

    Reserve-to-production ratios for oil and gas development are utilized by oil and gas producing states to monitor oil and gas reserve and production dynamics. These ratios are used to determine production levels for the manipulation of oil and gas prices while maintaining adequate reserves for future development. These aggregate reserve-to-production ratios do not provide information concerning development cost and the best time necessary to develop newly discovered reserves. Oil and gas reserves are a semi-finished inventory because development of the reserves must take place in order to implement production. These reserves are considered semi-finished in that they are not counted unless it is economically profitable to produce them. The development of these reserves is encouraged by profit maximization economic variables which must consider the legal, political, and geological aspects of a project. This development is comprised of a myriad of incremental operational decisions, each of which influences profit maximization. The primary purpose of this study was to provide a model for characterizing a single product multi-period inventory/production optimization problem from an unconstrained quantity of raw material which was produced and stored as inventory reserve. This optimization was determined by evaluating dynamic changes in new additions to reserves and the subsequent depletion of these reserves with the maximization of production. A secondary purpose was to determine an equation for exponential depletion of proved reserves which presented a more comprehensive representation of reserve-to-production ratio values than an inadequate and frequently used aggregate historical method. The final purpose of this study was to determine the most accurate delay time for a proved reserve to achieve maximum production. This calculated time provided a measure of the discounted cost and calculation of net present value for developing new reserves. This study concluded that

  4. Environmentally sustainable economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.G.; Woodruffe, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Shell Canada adopted Sustainable Development in 1990 as the approach to managing the environment. The corporation's president, representing the energy industry on the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, provided key direction on the development of the process. This paper reports on national concepts of Sustainable Development principles that were utilized as a starting point, but quickly a Shell specific policy was approved, followed by Corporate Principles and Targets and Undertakings. These are being further developed in both the upstream and downstream with leadership from Resources (E and P) Department. Cascading of Targets and Undertakings has occurred to E and P followed by operating complexes, the drilling sites and the seismic lines. Steps were carefully programmed to learn from specific application before expanding to all areas. All plans are expected to be in place by mid 1992. Place contain short and long term target but focus on a rolling 2 year identification of actions to meet those targets. The plans permit an annual appraisal of accomplishments as well as budgeting for successive years. The move to Sustainable Development planning is a significant shift in industry attitude and approach but demonstrates the ability for the coexistence of environmental and economic demands

  5. Developing Senior Leaders for the Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    For more information on the Forces and Resources Policy Center, see http://www.rand.org/nsrd/ndri/centers/frp.html or contact the director (contact information is provided on the web page ). ...some combination of experiences, education, and personal development. Each has an extensive concept of develop- ment—how they define it, what ...policy. First, in what ways can the develop- ment of RC senior leaders be improved? Second, in what ways can reserve component leader development

  6. Capabilities, economic development, sustainability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fagerberg, J.; Srholec, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2017), s. 905-926 ISSN 0309-166X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/2310 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : national innovation systems * growth * technology Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 1.338, year: 2016

  7. Capabilities, economic development, sustainability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fagerberg, J.; Srholec, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2017), s. 905-926 ISSN 0309-166X Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : national innovation systems * growth * technology Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 1.338, year: 2016

  8. Financing options to develop non-conventional reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricoli, C.

    1997-01-01

    The economics of non-conventional natural gas reserves such as coalbed methane, gas shales and tight gas were discussed, with special reference to financing options to develop such reserves. Before 1992, tax credits were used to stimulate the development of non-conventional gas. The requirements for section 29 tax credits, the objectives of investors and producers, and the methods used to monetize section 29 tax credits, such as public royalty trusts, partnership structures, and up-front payment mechanisms were described. The capital gains implications of gas sales were also reviewed. It was noted that in the absence of tax credits, financing the development of non-conventional reserves must undergo the same economic scrutiny as any other oil and gas project

  9. Economic evaluation of indirect use activities in a private natural heritage reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila Lima Sanches

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the economic viability of indirect use activities as developed in a private natural heritage reserve (RPPN. Activities developed in the RPPN include Adventure Tourism and an Ecological Trail. Data were obtained relating to annual number of people visiting the reserve, prices paid to participate in activities, cost of land, maintenance costs and labor costs. Economic criteria used include Net Present Value (VPL and Equivalent Periodic Benefit (BPE. In the 1996-2008 period the number of visitors increased by 6% a year, and the average annual number of visitors to the RPPN was 8,889. It was concluded that indirect use activities in the RPPN are economically viable and can coexist with other direct soil use activities such as eucalyptus cultivation.

  10. Renewable Energy Development on Fort Mojave Reservation Feasiblity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell Gum, ERCC analytics LLC

    2008-03-17

    The Ft. Mojave tribe, whose reservation is located along the Colorado River in the states of Arizona, California, and Nevada near the point where all three states meet, has a need for increased energy supplies. This need is a direct result of the aggressive and successful economic development projects undertaken by the tribe in the last decade. While it is possible to contract for additional energy supplies from fossil fuel sources it was the desire of the tribal power company, AHA MACAV Power Service (AMPS) to investigate the feasibility and desirability of producing power from renewable sources as an alternative to increased purchase of fossil fuel generated power and as a possible enterprise to export green power. Renewable energy generated on the reservation would serve to reduce the energy dependence of the tribal enterprises on off reservation sources of energy and if produced in excess of reservation needs, add a new enterprise to the current mix of economic activities on the reservation. Renewable energy development would also demonstrate the tribe’s support for improving environmental quality, sustainability, and energy independence both on the reservation and for the larger community.

  11. Economic Development of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    development refers to the structural transformation of human society from ... Furthermore, the challenge to development … is to improve the quality of life. Especially in the world's poor countries, a better quality of life generally, calls for higher .... in developing, countries at stages of industrial development ranging from.

  12. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, James K

    2007-01-01

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is an intergovernmental economic organization in which the 30 member countries1 discuss, develop and analyze economic and social policy...

  13. Defining Economic Success as It Pertains to Native American Owned Businesses Located on/or Adjacent to North Dakota Reservations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Barbara Elise

    2013-01-01

    Successful economic development is essential in building and sustaining a healthy community. The purpose of this study was to identify indicators of successful economic development as it pertained to Native American owned businesses located on/or adjacent to North Dakota reservations. More specifically this study sought to explore specific…

  14. Decentralized Economic Dispatch Scheme With Online Power Reserve for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, I. U.; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, P.

    2017-01-01

    costs, their power ratings, and other necessary constraints, before deciding the DG dispatch priorities and droop characteristics. The proposed scheme also allows online power reserve to be set and regulated within the microgrid. This, together with the generation cost saved, has been verified...

  15. African Journals Online: Economics & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 47 of 47 ... This biannual, peer reviewed journal aims at providing space for sharing and debating issues of social, political and economic development not only for ... or economics as an interdisciplinary social science, with special emphasis on African economies and/or how they relate to other economies in Africa or ...

  16. Essays on development economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenthöfer, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    The studies in this thesis investigate some of the effects of humanitarian aid and the production of natural resources in developing countries. The studies suggest that these “free lunches” can have negative (unintended) consequences. Even though it achieves its goal of increasing food consumption

  17. Essays in Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    MOTT, Graham

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation studies the impact that various programs, from small-scale behavioralinterventions to large-scale multi-national projects, have on those living in the developingworld.The first chapter of this dissertation, "Business Training and Behavioral Biases:A Field Experiment with Micro-Entrepreneurs in Ethiopia", is joint work withBiruk Tekle, a researcher at the Ethiopian Development Research Institute. We conducteda field experiment with 590 small businesses in Addis Ababa where we...

  18. Economic interpretation of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk Mortensen, J.

    1994-01-01

    The economic discussion of sustainable development show that it is possible to define the concept sufficiently precise to introduce it in economic models and to get some policy results. The concept of sustainable development does have meaning and practical implications for economic policy. The relation between sustainability as non-decreasing welfare over time and a non-declining stock of total capital including natural capital is very useful for implementing the concept for actual planning. Even rudimentary empirical measures and test of sustainability can be developed and applied and used in planning and evaluation of performance based on this idea. Weak or strong versions of the concept have been suggested and an interesting and clarifying debate within economics is going on. The debate also demonstrates that when the concept is defined more precisely - differences in opinions, standpoints and policy prescriptions show up. (EG)

  19. Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve (Biscay, Spain): Conservation against development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Eguskitza, Nekane; Rescia, Alejandro J; Onaindia, Miren

    2017-08-15

    The protected area approach has extended from conserving biodiversity to improving human well-being. However, the relationship between conservation and socioeconomic and cultural development continues to be controversial. This paper combines land use variables with socioeconomic and cultural variables through multivariate ordination analysis and evaluates their evolution in two areas inside and outside a Biosphere Reserve since the approval of the Governance Plan for Use and Management in the Reserve. The results indicate a similar tendency in the two areas, from the abandonment of traditional rural activities and decline in pine plantations to naturalness, urban sprawl and the growth of the tertiary economic sector, welfare indicators and sustainability index. However, it can be broadly observed that the region included inside the protected area presents better conservation features (native forest) and rural systems (forestry and primary economic sector) than the region outside the protected area while maintaining similar socioeconomic and cultural conditions. We suggest that the designation of the Biosphere Reserve does not influence the local population negatively but does safeguard its conservation, which could have enhanced socioeconomic and cultural development. Thus, even though certain changes must be made to replace the conifer plantations and encourage agricultural activities, the designation of the protected area fulfills its sustainability goal and enhances the local population's quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Economic Impact of Labeled Regional Products: The Experience of the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Entlebuch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Knaus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Protected area management bodies are increasingly required to address economic development alongside the original goal of conservation. This is especially true for United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO biosphere reserves, which are expected to function as models for sustainable development. Economic development has been achieved in many places through nature-based tourism. Sale of products labeled as coming from protected areas is considered promising in this respect too, especially in Europe, but their economic impact has not been assessed so far. This study estimated the gross added value generated by labeled products from the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Entlebuch—a rural, mountainous region in Switzerland. After a management-guided phase of building up credibility, identity, and innovations, labeled products generated a remarkable gross added value of US$ 5.8 million in 2014, 13 years after the product label was introduced. This corresponds to 4% of the jobs in agriculture and forestry and 1% of all jobs in the region. Given potential synergies with biodiversity, tourism, individual well-being, and other assets, labeled products can be true advantages for protected areas and their managers.

  1. Political Predation and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Azam, Jean-Paul; Bates, Robert H; Biais, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    Economic growth occurs as resources are reallocated from the traditional sector to the more productive modern sector. Yet, the latter is more vulnerable to political predation. Hence, political risk hinders development. We analyse a politico-economic game between citizens and governments, whose type (benevolent or predatory) is unknown to the citizens. In equilibrium, opportunistic governments mix between predation and restraint. As long as restraint is observed, political expectations improv...

  2. Entrepreneurship, economic development and institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.J. Acz (Zoltan); S. Desai (Sameeksha); S.J.A. Hessels (Jolanda)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper is an introduction to the special issue from the 3rd Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Research Conference held in Washington, D.C., in 2008. The paper has three objectives. First, to discuss the importance of the three stages of economic development, the factor-driven stage,

  3. INSECURITY AND NATIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health insecurity j. Environmental insecurity k. Relationship insecurity l. Religious insecurity m. Moral insecurity n. Insecurity complex. Economic Development. One cannot .... Ekpo, an economist, opined that despite the healthy growth of ..... facilities like roads, potable pipe borne water and constant power supply that can.

  4. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH ECO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Vergina CHIRITESCU; Manuela Rodica GOGONEA; Ruxandra Daniela ANDREI; Mihaela KRUZSLICIKA; Viorica GAVRILA

    2013-01-01

    The issue of the relationship between humankind and the environment became scientific and economic concerns of the international community since the first UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972) and resulted in the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development, established in 1985. Report of the Commission presented in 1987 by GH Brundtland, entitled "Our Common Future" provided the first universally accepted definition of sustainable development as "development...

  5. Population growth and economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbridge, S

    1989-01-01

    The Malthusian and neo-Malthusian approaches to the role of population growth in economic development and resource depletion are briefly outlined. Three arguments are then presented that emphasize demographic determinism, empirical evidence, and cause and effect. The author concludes that non-coercive family planning programs may have a role to play in countries that are unable to reduce inequalities, particularly for the poor and for women.

  6. Introduction: Long term economic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyka, Andreas; Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2012-01-01

    The general theme of the 13th International Joseph A. Schumpeter Society Conference, held during June 21st–24th, 2010 at Aalborg University in Denmark, was the exploration of the interrelated phenomena of innovation, organization, sustainability and crises. By addressing these phenomena an attemp...... was made to confront some of the underexplored parts the Schumpeterian legacy, but there was also room for new results concerning more well-developed parts of evolutionary economics....

  7. Three Essays on Development Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagawa, Hideyuki

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents three self-contained essays on topics of development economics in the context of rural villages in Bangladesh. The first paper examines how availability of microfinance influences households’ borrowing from informal sources in village economies. It uses a unique household level panel data set, which spans more than two decades (1987–2008), from rural Bangladesh. We find that households’ access to microfinance reduces the incidence of borrowing from informal sourc...

  8. Development growth of uranium reserves during mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroux, M.

    1989-01-01

    According to the 1988 issue of the Nuclear Energy Agency report 'Uranium Resources, Production and Demand' (the Red Book), total uranium resources remained constant, and compare with those given in the 1986 issue. However, the low cost category of the Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR), that is to say potentially mineable reserves under present market conditions, presents a different picture. These show a decrease of 54 000 tonnes U, or about 3.5%, from the 1 January 1985 level. It seems insignificant until compared with what was removed from the ground - only a quarter of the 71 500 tonnes U of the low cost uranium that was extracted during 1985 and 1986 was renewed by the industry. This is probably related to the low level of exploration activity since 1983. Moreover, new uranium might be not as easy to find as some past discoveries have led us to believe. While in 1988 it appears there is enough low cost uranium to supply existing reactors, the picture quickly changes. From 1991 onwards, for 30 years' supply for existing reactors, uranium will have to come from RAR in the higher cost category. (author)

  9. Economic corridor of industrial development in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berawi, M. A.; Miraj, P.; Sidqi, H.

    2017-12-01

    Indonesia as an archipelago country categorize its regional development into six corridors from Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Bali-Nusa Tenggara and Papua-Maluku. Currently, industrial development becomes one of the highest contributing factors to the national economic growth. However, each region in the nation experience inequality of development mainly related to the infrastructure sector. Thus, the research aims to develop a sustainable economic corridor by considering the characteristics and its potential. The research uses a qualitative approach through a desk study, benchmarking and in-depth interview. Location Quotient is used for the method of the analysis tool. The results show each characteristic of every corridor in the country. Sumatera as national plantation and processing industry corridor, Java as cyber technology innovation and services center, Kalimantan as national energy reserves and processing, Sulawesi as national aquaculture and processing industry, Bali - Nusa Tenggara as national eco-tourism center, and Papua - Maluku as national ore mining and processing.

  10. Growing a sustainable biofuels industry: economics, environmental considerations, and the role of the Conservation Reserve Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Christopher M; Bierwagen, Britta G; Morefield, Philip E; Ridley, Caroline E; Lin, Yolanda; Vimmerstedt, Laura; Bush, Brian W; Eaton, Laurence M; Langholtz, Matthew H; Peterson, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Biofuels are expected to be a major contributor to renewable energy in the coming decades under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). These fuels have many attractive properties including the promotion of energy independence, rural development, and the reduction of national carbon emissions. However, several unresolved environmental and economic concerns remain. Environmentally, much of the biomass is expected to come from agricultural expansion and/or intensification, which may greatly affect the net environmental impact, and economically, the lack of a developed infrastructure and bottlenecks along the supply chain may affect the industry’s economic vitality. The approximately 30 million acres (12 million hectares) under the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) represent one land base for possible expansion. Here, we examine the potential role of the CRP in biofuels industry development, by (1) assessing the range of environmental effects on six end points of concern, and (2) simulating differences in potential industry growth nationally using a systems dynamics model. The model examines seven land-use scenarios (various percentages of CRP cultivation for biofuel) and five economic scenarios (subsidy schemes) to explore the benefits of using the CRP. The environmental assessment revealed wide variation in potential impacts. Lignocellulosic feedstocks had the greatest potential to improve the environmental condition relative to row crops, but the most plausible impacts were considered to be neutral or slightly negative. Model simulations revealed that industry growth was much more sensitive to economic scenarios than land-use scenarios—similar volumes of biofuels could be produced with no CRP as with 100% utilization. The range of responses to economic policy was substantial, including long-term market stagnation at current levels of first-generation biofuels under minimal policy intervention, or RFS-scale quantities of biofuels if policy or market conditions were

  11. Growing a sustainable biofuels industry: economics, environmental considerations, and the role of the Conservation Reserve Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christopher M.; Lin, Yolanda; Bierwagen, Britta G.; Eaton, Laurence M.; Langholtz, Matthew H.; Morefield, Philip E.; Ridley, Caroline E.; Vimmerstedt, Laura; Peterson, Steve; Bush, Brian W.

    2013-06-01

    Biofuels are expected to be a major contributor to renewable energy in the coming decades under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). These fuels have many attractive properties including the promotion of energy independence, rural development, and the reduction of national carbon emissions. However, several unresolved environmental and economic concerns remain. Environmentally, much of the biomass is expected to come from agricultural expansion and/or intensification, which may greatly affect the net environmental impact, and economically, the lack of a developed infrastructure and bottlenecks along the supply chain may affect the industry’s economic vitality. The approximately 30 million acres (12 million hectares) under the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) represent one land base for possible expansion. Here, we examine the potential role of the CRP in biofuels industry development, by (1) assessing the range of environmental effects on six end points of concern, and (2) simulating differences in potential industry growth nationally using a systems dynamics model. The model examines seven land-use scenarios (various percentages of CRP cultivation for biofuel) and five economic scenarios (subsidy schemes) to explore the benefits of using the CRP. The environmental assessment revealed wide variation in potential impacts. Lignocellulosic feedstocks had the greatest potential to improve the environmental condition relative to row crops, but the most plausible impacts were considered to be neutral or slightly negative. Model simulations revealed that industry growth was much more sensitive to economic scenarios than land-use scenarios—similar volumes of biofuels could be produced with no CRP as with 100% utilization. The range of responses to economic policy was substantial, including long-term market stagnation at current levels of first-generation biofuels under minimal policy intervention, or RFS-scale quantities of biofuels if policy or market conditions were

  12. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH ECO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergina CHIRITESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the relationship between humankind and the environment became scientific and economic concerns of the international community since the first UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972 and resulted in the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development, established in 1985. Report of the Commission presented in 1987 by GH Brundtland, entitled "Our Common Future" provided the first universally accepted definition of sustainable development as "development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the opportunities of future generations to meet their own needs". Brundtland Report, 1987, was reaffirmed by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development / Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro - Brazil, 1992 which established the principles of Agenda 21, which was intended to be a guide implementation of sustainable development for the 21st century, a development that was required to be applied at national, regional and local level. [1] In the context of developing new eco-economic system adopted a number of international conventions that establish detailed obligations of the States and strict implementation deadlines climate change, biodiversity conservation, protection of forests and wetlands, limiting the use of certain chemicals, access information on the state of the environment and other international legal space outlining the practical application of the principles of sustainable economic development in ecological conditions.

  13. Recent Developments in Ecological Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reader with published articles within the field of ecological economics, mostly from 1997 - 2007......Reader with published articles within the field of ecological economics, mostly from 1997 - 2007...

  14. Natural gas reserve/production ratio in Russia, Iran, Qatar and Turkmenistan: A political and economic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esen, Vedat; Oral, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    In this study, changes in natural gas reserve/production ratio (R/P) of the four countries having the highest natural gas reserves (Russia, Iran, Qatar, Turkmenistan), the importance of which increases in the world market each day due to developing technology and the demand for clean energy, has been analyzed depending on the economic and political developments in national and international fields. Change of R/P ratio depending on years has been displayed on graphics from different sources and these alterations have been tried to be associated with such issues as natural gas agreements in history, handover of political authority, economic crises etc. Therefore; it has been put forward whether or not political and economic changes of the countries are factors on the amount of natural gas production and the discovery of new reserve fields with the addition aim of providing a general overview on natural gas market. - Highlights: •Russia, Iran, Qatar and Turkmenistan are the top four countries with the highest natural gas reserves. •R/P ratios of Russia, Iran, Qatar and Turkmenistan are presented in this study. •Change of R/P ratio has been associated with the political and economic events of the countries are being analyzed. •The effect of political and economic changes on the ratio of natural gas R/P has been proposed.

  15. Economic development and family size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, R J

    1991-01-01

    The demographic transition in Latin America has resulted in increased family size rather than the Western European model of reduced family size. In 1905, both fertility and mortality were high in Latin America, but mortality declined more rapidly in Latin America than in Europe. In 1905, the crude birth rate for 15 selected countries averaged 44/1000 population. Western fertility at a comparable transition point was much lower at 30/1000. Between 1905 and 1960, fertility declines were evident in Uruguay, Argentina, Cuba, and Chile. Between 1960 and 1985, fertility declines appeared in Costa Rica, Panama, Brazil, and Colombia. Fertility declines were smaller in the other Latin American countries. Crude birth rates declined markedly by 1985 but may overestimate fertility decline, which is more accurately measured by standardized birth rates. Fertility decline was evident in Argentina, Chile, and Costa Rica for standardized birth rates, survivorship ratio, and births surviving past the age of 15 years. Theoretically, families are expected to reduce family size when survivorship is assured; when mortality is 25%, only four children need be planned instead of six when mortality is 50%. A result of falling mortality is a cheaper cost of producing children, which may stimulate parents to raise bigger families. Western fertility decline has been attributed to mortality decline, urbanization, increased female labor force participation, rising wages, and more efficient contraception. Comparable economic development in Latin America has not resulted in large enough changes to encourage family size limitation. A table of fertility and economic indicators for selected countries in Latin America and Europe reflects the inverse relationship between income growth, urban growth, and growth in female educational status and fertility. The regression equation explains 60% of the variation in fertility rates among Latin American countries. Explanatory power increases to 75% when female

  16. Economic Development and Network Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    effects of their actions 15. SUBJECT TERMS Social Network Analysis, Actor Oriented Social Networks, Network Science, Economics 16. SECURITY...Scientific Support Program. Battelle Memorial Institute administers the Scientific Support Program for the Army Research Office. vii Economic...economic decisions in a market context that is influenced by their social interactions and opportunities. Understanding the structure, dynamics, and

  17. Economic Developments on Perceived Safety, Violence, and Economic Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Emerging research highlights the promise of community- and policy-level strategies in preventing youth violence. Large-scale economic developments, such as sports and entertainment arenas and casinos, may improve the living conditions, economics, public health, and overall wellbeing of area residents and may influence rates of violence within communities. Objective. To assess the effect of community economic development efforts on neighborhood residents’ perceptions on violence, safety, and economic benefits. Methods. Telephone survey in 2011 using a listed sample of randomly selected numbers in six Pittsburgh neighborhoods. Descriptive analyses examined measures of perceived violence and safety and economic benefit. Responses were compared across neighborhoods using chi-square tests for multiple comparisons. Survey results were compared to census and police data. Results. Residents in neighborhoods with the large-scale economic developments reported more casino-specific and arena-specific economic benefits. However, 42% of participants in the neighborhood with the entertainment arena felt there was an increase in crime, and 29% of respondents from the neighborhood with the casino felt there was an increase. In contrast, crime decreased in both neighborhoods. Conclusions. Large-scale economic developments have a direct influence on the perception of violence, despite actual violence rates.

  18. Resources for Economic Educators from the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suiter, Mary C.; Taylor, Keith G.

    2016-01-01

    The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis has a long history of providing economic and financial information to the public that continues today, although the format, delivery, and amount of information have changed over the years. Today, the St. Louis Fed provides Web-based data and information services, including FRED® and FRASER®, and publications,…

  19. Uranium reserves and the economic factors for their transformation in electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz M, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    In diverse national and international forums, it is has come discussing the idea that the nuclear energy can offer a valuable contribution to the electricity demand and the gases emission of greenhouse effect, due to its unique characteristics in terms of energy density, environmental sustainable and economic viability. Before this panorama it is convenient to meditate about the current situation of the uranium reserves and the economic factors that impact in their conversion to arrive to the nuclear fuel and of there to the electric generation, with the purpose of establishing the available levels of sufficiency, considering the current consumption tendencies, as the increase scenarios. Starting from an analysis about the uranium reserves, the purpose of this work is to make a description of the phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, considering the technological options that there is, as well as the repercussion of its economic aspects. (Author)

  20. Economic Integration Theories and the Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Marinov, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Economic integration theory goes through two development stages each of which addresses the relevant for its time political and economic context The first stage is regarded as classic theory or static analysis and includes the traditional theories of economic integration that explain the possible benefits of integration. The second stage includes the new economic integration theories that are often referred to as dynamic analysis of economic arrangements. Besides these two, there is a third t...

  1. Economic Development and Network Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    representative agent approach assume away complexities associated with the interconnectedness of economic actors and the effects of their actions 1...REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT 6. AUTHORS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Social Network Analysis, Actor Oriented Social Networks, Network Science, Economics REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11

  2. Assets of Nation (Pyramid of Economic Development)

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Ovais; Mashkoor, Aasim

    2015-01-01

    The theory of economic development have designed to explore the assets of nations which explain and analyzed the emphasize on Water crisis, deforestation, land of agriculture for yield and minerals. these are the main resources of improving and generating economic health. we analyzed further significant factors which help to designed the qualitative theory of economic development.

  3. Guidance Document - Provision of Outage Reserve Capacity for Molybdenum-99 Irradiation Services: Methodology and Economic Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peykov, Pavel; Cameron, Ron; Westmacott, Chad

    2013-01-01

    In June 2011, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's (NEA) High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) released its policy approach for ensuring a long-term secure supply of molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) and its decay product technetium-99m (' 99m Tc). This policy approach was developed after two years of extensive examination and analysis of the challenges facing the supply chain, and the provision of a reliable, secure supply of these important medical isotopes. The full policy approach can be found in the OECD/NEA report, The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes: The Path to Reliability (NEA, 2011). One of the key principles in the policy approach relates to the provision of outage reserve capacity (ORC) in the 99 Mo/' 99m Tc supply chain, as defined on page 7: 'Principle 2: Reserve capacity should be sourced and paid for by the supply chain. A common approach should be used to determine the amount of reserve capacity required'. This Principle follows the findings of the OECD/NEA report, The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes: An Economic Study of the Molybdenum-99 Supply Chain (NEA, 2010), which clearly demonstrated the need for excess 99 Mo production capacity, relative to demand, as some reactors may have to be shutdown unexpectedly or for extended periods. The Study also demonstrated that the pricing structure from reactors for 99 Mo irradiation services prior to the 2009-10 supply shortage was not economically sustainable, including the pricing of ORC, with the cost being subsidised by host nations. These nations have indicated a move away from subsidising production, which often benefits foreign nations or foreign companies, and therefore pricing for irradiation services must recover the full cost of production to ensure economic sustainability and a long-term secure supply. Appropriate pricing would also encourage more efficient use of the product, reducing inefficient use of 99 Mo/' 99m Tc would reduce excess production and the associated

  4. Energy consumption and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremblay, M.T.

    1994-01-01

    Speaking as an economic planner, the author of this address suggests a scenario that is rather pessimistic for the future of nuclear energy. He emphasizes that technological change will lead to economic growth, but then supposes that improvements in hydrogen energy and solar energy, combined with global competition, may lead to a fall rather than an increase in oil prices early in the next century. The 10 year lead time for bringing a nuclear station from design to commissioning makes it difficult to predict the economics of operation

  5. Financial globalization and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    TSINTSADZE ASIE ENVEROVNA; PHUTKARADZE BEKA ZAUROVICH

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of financial globalization on economic growth. Advantages and disadvantages have been analyzed, applying various theoretical aspects, as well as empirical data for the period of 2000-2011

  6. Lease of Parcel ED-1 of the Oak Ridge Reservation by the East Tennessee Economic Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1113) for the proposed lease of 957.16 acres of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) to the East Tennessee Economic Council (ETEC), a non-profit community organization, for a period of 10 years, with an option for renewal. ETEC proposes to develop an industrial park on the leased site to provide employment opportunities for DOE and contractor employees affected by decreased federal funding. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA and implementation of mitigation measures defined in this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI), DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this mitigated FONSI. DOE will implement a Mitigation Action Plan for this project and provide annual reports on mitigation and monitoring.

  7. Economic Development Problems of Landlocked Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mackellar, Landis; Wörgötter, Andreas; Wörz, Julia

    2000-01-01

    Abstract: Do landlocked countries face special economic development problems? Whereas traditional neoclassical theory is ambiguous, more recent directions in trade theory and the theory of economic growth suggest reasons why landlocked countries might be at a disadvantage. Our empirical evidence confirms the hypothesis that landlocked countries experience slower economic growth.;

  8. Economic-environmental energy and reserve scheduling of smart distribution systems: A multiobjective mathematical programming approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakariazadeh, Alireza; Jadid, Shahram; Siano, Pierluigi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Environmental/economical scheduling of energy and reserve. • Simultaneous participation of loads in both energy and reserve scheduling. • Aggregate wind generation and demand uncertainties in a stochastic model. • Stochastic scheduling of energy and reserve in a distribution system. • Demand response providers’ participation in energy and reserve scheduling. - Abstract: In this paper a stochastic multi-objective economical/environmental operational scheduling method is proposed to schedule energy and reserve in a smart distribution system with high penetration of wind generation. The proposed multi-objective framework, based on augmented ε-constraint method, is used to minimize the total operational costs and emissions and to generate Pareto-optimal solutions for the energy and reserve scheduling problem. Moreover, fuzzy decision making process is employed to extract one of the Pareto-optimal solutions as the best compromise non-dominated solution. The wind power and demand forecast errors are considered in this approach and the reserve can be furnished by the main grid as well as distributed generators and responsive loads. The consumers participate in both energy and reserve markets using various demand response programs. In order to facilitate small and medium loads participation in demand response programs, a Demand Response Provider (DRP) aggregates offers for load reduction. In order to solve the proposed optimization model, the Benders decomposition technique is used to convert the large scale mixed integer non-linear problem into mixed-integer linear programming and non-linear programming problems. The effectiveness of the proposed scheduling approach is verified on a 41-bus distribution test system over a 24-h period

  9. Population and economic development in Sarawak, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Furuoka, Fumitaka

    2014-01-01

    This paper chooses a Malaysian state in Borneo Island, Sarawak, as the case study to examine the relationship between population growth and economic development. The findings imply that there is no statistically significant long-run relationship, but a causal relationship between population growth and economic development in Sarawak. In other words, the empirical findings indicate that population can have neither positive nor negative impact on economic development. The findings also indicate...

  10. Theory of Economic Development (Secondary Stage)

    OpenAIRE

    Mashkoor, Aasim; Ahmed, Ovais

    2015-01-01

    This is a secondary stage of theory of economic development. This research study is covering the secondary phase of development which rules the tactical plans of the main strategy. In this stage, the social and economical demands varies from country to country and we have developed the theory according to the Pakistani economic conditions. It requires great a lot of technical and strategic analysis to chose the accurate plans accordingly.

  11. Insecurity and national economic development implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insecurity and national economic development implications for Nigeria's vision 20: 2020. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... These social menace trigger off a worrisome sense of insecurity that challenge Nigeria's efforts towards national economic development and consequently its vision ...

  12. Economic development and environmental protection: an ecological economics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, William E

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues on both theoretical and empirical grounds that, beyond a certain point, there is an unavoidable conflict between economic development (generally taken to mean 'material economic growth') and environmental protection. Think for a moment of natural forests, grasslands, marine estuaries, salt marshes, and coral reefs; and of arable soils, aquifers, mineral deposits, petroleum, and coal. These are all forms of 'natural capital' that represent highly-ordered self-producing ecosystems or rich accumulations of energy/matter with high use potential (low entropy). Now contemplate despoiled landscapes, eroding farmlands, depleted fisheries, anthropogenic greenhouse gases, acid rain, poisonous mine tailings and toxic synthetic compounds. These all represent disordered systems or degraded forms of energy and matter with little use potential (high entropy). The main thing connecting these two states is human economic activity. Ecological economics interprets the environment-economy relationship in terms of the second law of thermodynamics. The second law sees economic activity as a dissipative process. From this perspective, the production of economic goods and services invariably requires the consumption of available energy and matter. To grow and develop, the economy necessarily 'feeds' on sources of high-quality energy/matter first produced by nature. This tends to disorder and homogenize the ecosphere, The ascendance of humankind has consistently been accompanied by an accelerating rate of ecological degradation, particularly biodiversity loss, the simplification of natural systems and pollution. In short, contemporary political rhetoric to the contrary, the prevailing growth-oriented global development paradigm is fundamentally incompatible with long-term ecological and social sustainability. Unsustainability is not a technical nor economic problem as usually conceived, but rather a state of systemic incompatibility between a economy that is a fully

  13. Longitudinal relationship between economic development and occupational accidents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li; He, Xueqiu; Li, Chengwu

    2011-01-01

    The relativity between economic development and occupational accidents is a debated topic. Compared with the development courses of both economic development and occupational accidents in China during 1953-2008, this paper used statistic methods such as Granger causality test, cointegration test and impulse response function based on the vector autoregression model to investigate the relativity between economic development and occupational accidents in China from 1953 to 2008. Owing to fluctuation and growth scale characteristics of economic development, two dimensions including economic cycle and economic scale were divided. Results showed that there was no relationship between occupational accidents and economic scale during 1953-1978. Fatality rate per 10(5) workers was a conductive variable to gross domestic product per capita during 1979-2008. And economic cycle was an indicator to occupational accidents during 1979-2008. Variation of economic speed had important influence on occupational accidents in short term. Thus it is necessary to adjust Chinese occupational safety policy according to tempo variation of economic growth. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ECONOMIC DIPLOMACY AND ITS IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Ramona GLONT

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available International developments are driven by an impact on a number of economic, social, cultural and political factors - none more so than those relating to the processes and structures of the world economy. To what extent, if any, does the study of diplomacy have the analytical tools to highlight and explain major global economic developments such as regionalization, globalization, and economic development? This is a question often ignored by scholars of diplomacy but one which those who study International Relations (IR are constantly confronting. Mainstream studies of diplomacy have traditionally approached international relations using realist and neorealist frameworks (see Lee and Hudson 2004 and this has determined both focus and approach, resulting in state-centric analyses of mainly political agendas. In recent years, however, there have been significant ontological and conceptual shifts in the study of diplomacy. Scholars have highlighted the necessity of understanding international relations outside the narrow state-centric security nexus.

  15. Financial Development, Environmental Quality and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shushu Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationships between financial development, environmental quality and economic growth are studied based on data from 102 countries over the period 1980–2010 using the generalized method of moments (GMM estimation. The econometric results show the following three basic conclusions: First, both financial development and environmental quality have a significant impact on economic growth and should be included in the production function of the economic growth model as important variables. Second, there is a significant and robust “inverted U-shaped” relationship between financial development and economic growth; with the improvement of the level of financial development, economic growth would first increase and then decrease, which is consistent with the results of previous studies. Third, there is also a significant and robust “inverted U-shaped” relationship between economic growth and carbon emissions, indicating that there exists a “critical point” at which achieving economic growth comes at the expense of environmental quality, and after passing the critical point, the deterioration of environmental quality will lead to a significant slowdown in economic growth. In addition, the econometric analysis in this paper also shows that there was a mutually promoting and strengthening relationship between financial development and environmental quality. Specifically, the degree of financial development can further strengthen the promoting effect of environmental quality on economic growth; meanwhile, an improvement in environmental quality can also strengthen the promoting effect of financial development on economic growth. Financial development and environmental quality could influence economic growth through strengthening the marginal product effects of capital and labor, which further indicates the that both financial and environmental factors play an important role in modern economic development.

  16. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH AID OR INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mihei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is the supreme goal of modern civilization. This phenomenon is seen not just in terms of growth, but rather as an overall improvement in living standards. Economic development is a national goal, but also an objective of international economic bodies. Talks about development are held in the context of the opposition between developed countries and developing countries.In this article, we discuss whether development aid that originates from industrialized states supports sustainable economic rise of the countries lagging behind and whether it is preferable to let market operate freely, through the liberalization of international trade. Our conclusion is that economic development through the promotion of free trade would be achieved faster and more efficiently, based on net gains from trade and the pride of the peoples who would have won by themselves their daily bread and a place in the global market.

  17. The Economic Crisis and Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede

    This paper presents Concrete Institutional Economics as an economic paradigm to understand how the wish for sustainable energy in times of economic crisis can be used to generate jobs as well as economic growth. In most countries, including European countries, the USA and China, the implementation...... of sustainable energy solutions involves the replacement of imported fossil fuels by substantial investments in energy conservation and renewable energy. In such situation, it becomes increasingly essential to develop economic thinking and economic models that can analyse the concrete institutions in which...... the market is embedded. This paper presents such tools and methodologies and applies them to the case of the Danish heating sector. The case shows how investments in decreasing fossil fuels and CO2 emissions can be made in a way in which they have a positive influence on job creation and economic development...

  18. Transaction Costs, Market Failure and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Todorova, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    This paper relates economic development to transaction costs. It reveals the triad transaction costs-market failure-economic underdevelopment. Many scholars attribute the problems of development to the failure of markets to perform their role of resource allocation. Some deny market failure and blame government instead. Of those who trace the roots of economic backwardness to market failure, few, if none, investigate transaction costs in their linkage with market failure. This paper tries to ...

  19. The Economic Crisis and Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents Concrete Institutional Economics as an economic paradigm to understand how the wish for sustainable energy in times of economiccrisis can be used to generate jobs as well as economic growth. In most countries, including European countries, the USA and China, the implementation...... of sustainable energy solutions involves the replacement of imported fossil fuels by substantial investments in energy conservation and renewable energy (RE). In such situation, it becomes increasingly essential to develop economic thinking and economic models that can analyse the concrete institutions in which...

  20. Biosphere reserves – learning sites of sustainable development?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kušová, Drahomíra; Těšitel, Jan; Bartoš, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2008), s. 221-234 ISSN 1211-7420 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : nature protection * learning sites * biosphere reserves * sustainable development Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation

  1. Social and economic growth of developing nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregersen, H.M.; Laarman, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on social and economic growth of developing nations. Trees and forests are often of immeasurable importance to developing countries of the world. To be of value, however, effective and efficient institutions, programs, and policies must be designed and focused on such resources. Forest economics and policy researchers can contribute much to such activities. To be most effective, forest economics research should be designed to improve understanding of social forestry, watershed management, and nontimber forest outputs; enhance ability to effectively address environmental consequences of forestry development; heighten skill in guiding development of industrial forestry enterprises; and improve effectiveness of international aid for forestry development. Guided by such strategic directions, forest economics research can contribute much to the economic and social well-being of developing nations

  2. Economic Development Impacts of 20% Wind (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, M.; Tegen, S.

    2007-06-01

    Meeting 20% of the nation's electricity demand with wind energy will require enourmous investment in wind farms, manufacturing, and infrastructure. This investment will create substantial economic development impacts on local, regional, and national levels. This conference poster for Windpower 2007 outlines the various economic development impacts from a 20% wind scenario.

  3. Grassroots Economic Development, Social Justice and Poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article discusses the relationship that exists between grassroots economic development, social justice, and poverty reduction. It argues that social justice is a central component for the achievement of grassroots economic development, and in that process making it possible to reduce, and even eradicates, poverty.

  4. Africa's Failed Economic Development Trajectory: A Critique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and practitioners mean by 'economic development', while exploring how adequate are the indices for measuring the idea. .... This duality of meaning – the development of societies and the exploitation of natural ...... Trafficking in Africa: The Role of Endogenous and Exogenous Forces', African Review of Economics and ...

  5. Development Strategies in Papua Economic Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Ismail

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Based economic development aims to increase community participation in various development activities, especially in the economic field. Populist both economic development by exploiting the potential of Micro Small Medium Enterprises has not made a significant impact to the welfare of society. The purpose of the study to see how far the populist economic development in Papua, and formulate a strategy based economic development in the province of Papua. Using SWOT the analysis, using primary and secondary data. The results showed populist economic development in Papua province could not be implemented to the fullest because it is affected by several drawbacks and other technical constraints such as shortage of working capital, equipment is still modest, the quality and quantity of the product is low, the difficulty of access to markets and weak entrepreneurial spirit, especially for community / indigenous people of Papua economic actors. Based economic development can be done by utilizing the role of micro and medium-sized businesses and cooperatives / KUD because people could easily be involved in both the economic container. Based economic development can be done by: Increasing the quality and quantity of local products to compete with regional and international markets, giving stimulant fund for venture capital for the economic actors of the people by utilizing funds OTSUS, and the state budget, Improved HR agriculture through private sector support (partners’ business and capital of banking institutions. To overcome the weaknesses in the development of community economy, it can be done through: Boosting qualities SDM economic actors people through non-formal education / training, education and ongoing training for facilitators, provision of venture capital and agricultural equipment by utilizing appropriate technology (TTG, increasing the role of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises and co-operatives to all districts / cities, utilization of

  6. INNOVATION ASPECTS OF THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Veselovsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problems of economic increase and development under the conditions for the growth of crisis phenomena in the economy of Russia is investigated. Are analyzed the factors, which infl uence economic of the development of state and guarantee of its steady increase. Is examined the integral approach in conducting of economic reforms, which is based to the use of innovation developments and new forms of management of control. They are given to recommendation regarding conducting of the necessary reforms in the systems of management, planning, of organizing of labor, of circulation of money and crediting, taxation and other systems, which have the direct and defi ned by example eff ect on economic development. Is emphasized that for steady economic development is, in the first place, necessary further integration of Russia in the world community, the adjusting of mutually benefi cial intergovermental connections, the exchange, by scientific, technical and economic information, the free motion of labor and capital.Purposes / tasks. The purpose of article is a study of the factors of influencing the economic development in build-up conditions crisis phenomena and the development of the proposals, which ensure economic increase and development.Article tasks: to investigate and to isolate the growth factors, under the conditions of the being deteriorated economic situation, which is expedient to use with the solution of the problem of economic development, the application of innovation developments and new forms of management of control.Methodology. With conducting of the present investigation by the basic sources of initial data served the materials of the state statistics and other information sources. The comparative methods of analysis and synthesis are assumed as the basis of systematic developments.Results. The need for the complex conducting of economic reforms is revealed. The influence of new technologies on the development of

  7. Tax incentives as the tool for stimulating hard to recover oil reserves development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, I. V.; Borzenkova, D. N.; Grinkevich, L. S.

    2015-11-01

    The share of hard-to-recover oil reserves, principally from unconventional hydrocarbon sources, has significantly increased in the world petroleum market. Russian policy of subsurface management is directed to stimulate the development, survey and involvement into production of hard-to-recover oil reserves by tax-financial and economic-organizational tools among which tax incentives is the most effective one. The article highlights different categories of hard-to-recover oil reserves as a basis for generating tax incentives. Also the aspects of tax influence on petroleum business (involved in production of had to recover reserves) in Tomsk region are revealed, both positive and negative.

  8. Terms of trade and Russian economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgy Idrisov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses economic development trends in Russia in late 2014 and 2015 and reviews the basic mechanisms of how changes in the terms of trade affect the economic development of countries from a historical perspective and with a particular focus on those changes in the Russian economy that occurred in late 2014 and 2015. The authors demonstrate that structural reforms aimed at diversification of production and exports are necessary for sustainable economic development, for social stability and for reducing the impact of variability in the terms of trade on the Russian economy. During periods of instability in the government agenda's measures for the real and financial sectors, it is necessary not only to compensate economic agents losses caused by changes in the terms of trade but also to improve the economic structure and to develop and enhance the stability of the financial markets.

  9. Economic Development and Diversification in Southwest Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    as its point of departure Joseph Schumpeter’s analysis of entrepreneurial motivation in The Theory of Economic Development. Schumpeter dismisses...tile region would not be devastated by a change in a particular economic sector. Unfortunately, the problem of diversification has not yet been clearly...200 words) In responde for a need to both diversify and expand the economic base in SW Louisiana, an approach to support local entreprenurship through

  10. Morality, Normativity, and Economic Development in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Karjanen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines debates over local economic development policies and practices in contemporary Slovakia, particularly regarding property and land development. Debates about economic development often occur in relation to economic outcomes, driven by quantitative data and empirical assessments provided by city officials or consultants. In this article, I find that such debates are more likely to be driven by normative concerns, including moral outcomes. I develop a theoretical framework to understand why policy debates occur not in purely objective terms, but the more subjective normative and moral frameworks. The analysis provides greater insight into political debates and policymaking in the postsocialist context.

  11. Modelling management process of key drivers for economic sustainability in the modern conditions of economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pishchulina E.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The text is about issues concerning the management of driver for manufacturing enterprise economic sustainability and manufacturing enterprise sustainability assessment as the key aspect of the management of enterprise economic sustainability. The given issues become topical as new requirements for the methods of manufacturing enterprise management in the modern conditions of market economy occur. An economic sustainability model that is considered in the article is an integration of enterprise economic growth, economic balance of external and internal environment and economic sustainability. The method of assessment of economic sustainability of a manufacturing enterprise proposed in the study allows to reveal some weaknesses in the enterprise performance, and untapped reserves, which can be further used to improve the economic sustainability and efficiency of the enterprise. The management of manufacturing enterprise economic sustainability is one of the most important factors of business functioning and development in modern market economy. The relevance of this trend is increasing in accordance with the objective requirements of the growing volumes of production and sale, the increasing complexity of economic relations, changing external environment of an enterprise.

  12. Forecasting of Socio-Economic Development of the Russian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Yuryevna Gagarina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The regional differentiation makes impossible the sustainable socio-economic development of the subjects of the Russian Federation without the monitoring public governance results in space and time. Despite the comprehensive approach of the current procedure, approved by the federal government, it does not adequately assess the executive authorities effectiveness. Its main problem is the impossibility to assume such important administrative function as forecasting the social and economic development of Russian territorial subjects. The authors propose an alternative methodology on the basis of the system economic theory. This technique is implemented in several consecutive stages. Firstly, we develop the system of 30 indicators. Secondly, we normalize the values of the indicators using the method of pattern. Thirdly, we calculate the index of the social and economic development of Russian regions for 2011–2015 assuming that the indicators are equal. Last, we group Russian regions into clusters according to the level of their social and economic development using neural network technologies (Kohonen selforganizing maps. Only 9 in 80 subjects of the Russian Federation (RF had the degree of realizing the social and economic potential higher than 40 % during the period under consideration. In 2011–2015, the most of regions had a low and lower than average level of social and economic development (with an aggregate share about 64.3 %. It means that, under current conditions, the majority of the RF regions have considerable reserves for realizing their social-economic potential. In particular, the absence of the territorial subjects with a high level of social and economic development proves that. The authors have simulated the social and economic situation of the RF subjects by means of an adequate Bayesian neural networks. The obtained results can be used as the basis for further research in the field of evaluating executive authorities

  13. Minerals transnationalism and economic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The efforts of developing countries to alter the prevailing presumptions and conditions under which their resources will become available for use in developed nations have fundamentally transformed the structure of international minerals political economy. This study attempts to contribute to an improved understanding of the complex issues that currently define the interactions among major participants in the international minerals equation. Its emphasis is directed toward an isolation and evaluation of policy options available to mineral-exporting developing nations. The study begins with a fairly detailed and comprehensive discussion of the historical and analytical issues that impose themselves on national deliberations. The intent of these chapters is to establish the major opportunities and constraints developing nations must confront in formulating appropriate minerals-sector policies. Thereafter, the core of analysis focuses upon a detailed, applied evaluation of policy options concerning ownership and control, fiscal regimes, and integrative linkage or spread-effect questions. The adduced evidence suggests the continued likelihood of instability and policy experimentation, but also indicates some hopeful avenues of establishing a more mutually beneficial and predictable structure of mineral relations.

  14. The New Institutional Economics and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Douglass C. North

    1993-01-01

    In this essay I intend to briefly summarize the essential characteristics of the new institutional economics, to describe how it differs from neo- classical theory, and then to apply its analytical framework (as I see it) to problems of development.

  15. Transportation strategy development under economic uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The interests of the researchers here were to understand various modes for developing long term : that is strategic plans with particular concern for the economic uncertainties one invariably : faces in such a planning environment. Often resou...

  16. Supporting economic development with highway investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Federal transportation regulations and law direct State and local transportation agencies to account for economic development plans in transportation planning processes. While Federal law is not prescriptive about how State and local agencies account...

  17. Egalitarian norms, economic development, and ethnic polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, R.; Mouche, van P.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Economic development generally implies that traditional egalitarian norms and beliefs are replaced by modern individualistic values. Particularly when opportunities for advancement are unequally presented to people, this transformation may be accompanied by polarization and violent conflict. We

  18. Economics of Software Product Development Collectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Weiss

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Where software product development occurs is shifting from single companies to groups or collectives of companies. In this article, we retrace the evolution of how software product development is organized and then offer insights into the economic motivation for collectives, which will be relevant to companies considering joining a software product development collective. Building on the literature on software product line economics, we identify three factors affecting the economics of collectives (level of contribution, number of members, and diversity of use, and develop a model that links those factors to three economic outcomes (time, quality, and cost. This model can be used by potential members when deciding whether or not to join a collective.

  19. Stages of growth in economic development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kejak, Michal

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 5 (2003), s. 771-800 ISSN 0165-1889 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : growth * human capital * development Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.690, year: 2003

  20. JEDI: Jobs and Economic Development Impact Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-13

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models are user-friendly tools that estimate the economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation and biofuel plants at the local (usually state) level. First developed by NREL's researchers to model wind energy jobs and impacts, JEDI has been expanded to also estimate the economic impacts of biofuels, coal, conventional hydro, concentrating solar power, geothermal, marine and hydrokinetic power, natural gas, photovoltaics, and transmission lines. This fact sheet focuses on JEDI for wind energy projects and is revised with 2017 figures.

  1. Economic development and nuclear geography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, Andre.

    1976-01-01

    In a study previously presented at the European Nuclear Conference on the Maturity of Nuclear Energy (Paris-1975), an overall balance of the world energy needs had been drawn and the part played by nuclear energy had been underlined. A model is presented here, which, on the basis of the present situation in each country (i.e. its population, level of development, and level of power consumption), of selected outlines of foreseeable growth, and the possible mechanics of introduction and penetration of nuclear power, offers the possibility of simulating the evolution of nuclear capacity in that country [fr

  2. Nigerian stock exchange and economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olowe,Olusegun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article studies role of cooperations in creating opportunities for using rich renewable energy sources and also their potential role for entrepreneurship and employment in Iran. The presence of constant, sustainable and economical energy is an essential basis for any economical and social development while it can upgrade life qualities. Iran has a considerable amount of natural resources for modernizing its energy supply and being transited to a sustainable energy system as it has countless opportunities for using rich renewable energy sources. On the other hand, cooperation have been considered as a strategic way to create job opportunities as they are strong organizations which can encounter economical and social side affects caused by quick moderating procedures in structural programs.Results show convergence between renewable sources development and Iran's economical development through taking a frugal approach in expenses, creating new job opportunities and entrepreneurship in renewable energies.

  3. Fostering Local Economic Development through Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The skills included information system analysis and development, computing as well as web developing. The case study employed a Community Informatics approach which is the application of information and communications technologies (ICTs) to enable community processes such as local economic development.

  4. 121 WOMEN AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: IGBO WOMEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sustain life. Here in Nigeria, is it so? What should be done to improve the economic development of the country and to bring about national development? To achieve this, the ... stages of life as mothers and wives to be. According to ..... for human development and the scarcity of natural resources also highlight the need for a.

  5. Management Strategies and Economic Development in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2014-01-01

    Ghana has experienced a tumultuous political and economic history since its independence in 1957. But today it is among the handful of African nations that showcase the dreams and aspirations of Sub-Sahara Africa. In 2011 it achieved an impressive economic growth rate of 14.6 per cent and ranked...... as number 2 on the World Bank’s world economic growth list. It has also scored high on measures of civil liberty, political rights and political stability among other nations on the West African sub-continent. But Ghana still faces serious economic and social challenges and is, therefore, in search of new...... development models just like other SSA countries. It has also followed many other African countries in embracing private enterprise development as a model for growth. This volume of the dissertation draws on three decades of research I have conducted into enterprise formation and management in the country...

  6. Home economics in development through action research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette

    2010-01-01

    This research study aimed at describing and developing home economics education through an action research approach in 2 schools and classes grade 6. The study went through 3 phases, an explorative phase with preliminary observations, interviews and discussions with teachers and pupils. Next...... and suggestions were discussed in relation to theories of learning, education and home economics. The overall perspectives were to involve pupils, to make them responsible by active and critical participation, and lastly to evaluate education in different ways....

  7. Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    Energy costs impact low income communities more than anyone else. Low income residents pay a larger percentage of their incomes for energy costs. In addition, they generally have far less discretionary energy use to eliminate in response to increasing energy prices. Furthermore, with less discretionary income, home energy efficiency improvements are often too expensive. Small neighborhood businesses are in the same situation. Improved efficiency in the use of energy can improve this situation by reducing energy costs for residents and local businesses. More importantly, energy management programs can increase the demand for local goods and services and lead to the creation of new job training and employment opportunities. In this way, neighborhood based energy efficiency programs can support community economic development. The present project, undertaken with the support of the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force, was intended to serve as a demonstration of energy/economic programming at the neighborhood level. The San Francisco Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development (NEED) project was designed to be a visible demonstration of bringing the economic development benefits of energy management home to low-income community members who need it most. To begin, a Community Advisory Committee was established to guide the design of the programs to best meet needs of the community. Subsequently three neighborhood energy/economic development programs were developed: The small business energy assistance program; The youth training and weatherization program; and, The energy review of proposed housing development projects.

  8. Occurrence, development and renewal of economic sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidicki Vladan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief history of the discipline of economic sociology. Three historical periods are extracted: pre-classical, classical, and modern. These are the three main processes of this sociological discipline and they represent its occurrence, development and its renewal. With special attention we deal with socio-historical and intellectual factors of each period because we believe that they have had main influence in development of economic sociology. In order to understand its intellectual marginalization till almost 80's it is important to know its history of development as well as reasons why the renewal happened in the first place.

  9. Income Redistribution and Socio-economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mericková Beáta Mikušová

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The trade off efficiency and equity issue, which is represented by income redistribution, becomes increasingly debated not only in economic and social, but also in political dimension. Solution of this trade-off problem is projected into the implementation of social policy and results achieved in macroeconomics policy, with the goal to define the optimal scope and character of the income redistribution processes. The submitted empirical study responds to this problem through the investigation of research question focused on the existence of a relationship between the social protection expenditure (expenditure on policy of family, old age and unemployment and the achieved level of socio-economic development (quantified by Human Development Index HDI. The existence of this relationship is statistically tested in a sample of 15 countries. The research sample is heterogeneous in relation to the analyzed indicators, and it contains countries with a different level of economics development and income redistribution policy. Based on the results of quantitative analysis in most surveyed countries, impact of social protection expenditure on the reached level of economic development was confirmed. The correlation between the social protection expenditure and socio-economic development is positive in the case of the family and old-age pension policy, and negative in the case of employment policy

  10. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    India , Indonesia, and South Africa with a view toward possible membership. The member countries rely on the OECD Secretariat in Paris to collect...science and technology, internet, tax and anti-bribery standards, gender , green growth; public management; and globalization and development. One... inequality that arises from necessary economic adjustments. In addition, the initiative will address the needs and issues of developing countries

  11. Essays in development economics and public finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoseini, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation studies a range of topics in development economics and public finance. The first two chapters contain empirical studies on India addressing the impact of financial development on poverty and informality. Using time and state-level variation across Indian states, the first study

  12. Financial development, uncertainty and economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.

    By performing a cross-country growth regression for the 1970-1998 period this paper finds evidence for the fact that the impact of policy uncertainty on economic growth depends on the development of the financial sector. It appears that a higher level of financial development partly mitigates the

  13. Stimulating Economic Development Through the Capital Market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stimulating Economic Development Through the Capital Market: The Nigerian Experience. ... Journal of Research in National Development ... The explanatory variables were Market capitalization, All shares index Value of transactions, Volume of transactions and Number of listed companies for each of the models.

  14. Economics of Sustainable Development and the Bioeconomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zilberman, David; Gordon, Ben; Hochman, Gal; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable development can be attained by policies that are derived by analyses that integrate biophysical considerations into economic models. We show that policies and incentives that correct market failure can attain sustainable resources, and development of the bioeconomy, which relies on

  15. Economics | Page 22 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. Security, sustainability, and stability often depend on a system of values that has taken centuries to develop within a specific society. Current development strategies, however, tend to ignore, often underestimate, and sometimes undermine cultural values or the cultural environment, ...

  16. Theories of International Economic Development (Case Study: Economic Development in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Bardhok Bashota

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Karl Popper rightly says that “real starting point for each research is set based on assumptions of reality, not only based on the real facts”. The text below was prepared In accordance with this logic, where the Theories of International Development are treated especially focusing on International Economic Development. Therefore, theoretical reflections present assumption side, and study of many empirically measured data will correspond with real facts, because with ought these facts assumption would be useless. Technically this writing consists of two parts: in the first part are elaborated all theoretical and practical characteristics of overall international development, while in a second part as a case study will be Economic Development i Kosovo. From methodological point of view this is a comparative study and based on statistical data, while problem treating approach is critical and explanatory. As it will be understood later, development theories have been decisively influenced by economic thinking, and the focus on this dimension responds best to the nature of the term development. On the other hand the fact of unfolding economical development will reflect interference and the nature of it’s inter politics. Today economic development becomes a worldwide goal, having a considerable place in most of the literature with economic content. Also, here are presented as well examples from different practices that reflect economic development in different periods and places. Here is presented international economic development starting with a brief description of a genealogy of this development and ways of economic development back that time. It is of a special importance elaboration through theoretical approach on the creation of capital and economic development, as  mercantilist theory, classic and neo classic theory, than capitalization and Socialism-Marxism. To better understand the nature of economic development, the focus falls on

  17. How Economic Development Affects Antibiotic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    John B. Horowitz; H. Brian Moehring

    2014-01-01

    Initially, economic development increases resistance because migration of people to urban areas in developing countries increases incomes, crowding and the use of antibiotics. Also, developing countries often don't require prescriptions or distribute high quality antibiotics. In developed countries, antibiotic resistance often falls or there is a decline in the rate of growth of resistance because infections decline with improvements in water quality, sanitation, housing and nutrition. Howeve...

  18. Economic Development Perspective and City Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Vanderleeuw

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The viability of traditional economic development strategies has long been questioned by urban policy scholars; yet traditional strategies remain the norm among city leaders. Traditional concerns emphasize economic and business considerations at the expense of nontraditional community considerations such as quality of life. In this paper, we examine the conditions under which city leaders give weight to nontraditional community concerns when making economic development decisions. Our analysis of the results of a survey conducted of more than 200 leaders in over 150 Texas cities indicates that although traditional economic development concerns remain dominant, certain conditions may exist that allow or compel city leaders to give increased weight to non-traditional community considerations. Conditions revealed by our study include the socioeconomic status of Texas cities and the relative differences in leadership positions and professionalism among city leaders. The paper concludes with a discussion of how our study contributes to the literature about economic development policy and points to avenues for future research on the conditions under which decision-making strategies are pursued by city leaders.

  19. Economic development: How should we proceed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Stojan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to answer the following questions: where were we in a systemic and development sense in October 2000? What changes have occurred in the last three years? What are the main problems regarding economic development and, opposed to them, the created stereotypes? What are the key mistakes from economic aspect? What should be done in the short run and in the medium run? In addition to providing the necessary level of investment as the most important tool of sustainable development and growth in gross domestic product, it is also necessary to ensure: conditions for efficient market functioning, firm and uncompromising legal protection of businesses innovative management, modern technological base. If such conditions are fulfilled, it will be possible to transform the economy, to ensure sustainable economic growth and to regularly service foreign debts. The alternative is a populist scenario, with a short-run rise in living standards and its fall in the medium and long run.

  20. Oman: Economic, social and strategic developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pridham, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    Oman is an important country for the West, both as an oil exporter and as a key ally strategically placed at the entrance to the Arab Gulf. This book provides an overview of recent economic, social and political developments in Oman. It begins by outlining the historical and geographical background, emphasising in particular the problems of geography and tribalism and the impact of the war against Marxist insurgents in Dhofar. It considers economic developments, both in the oil and non-oil sectors, and Oman's contribution to economic co-operation and integration in the region. It examines strategic developments, particularly Oman's relations with the United States, addressing the key question of how close an alliance between Oman and the US is likely and showing how this is influenced by internal politics in Oman. It also explores educational and cultural issues.

  1. REGIONALIZATION, ELEMENT OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Popa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The regional process that is taking place in Europe in recent decades, was determined by the awareness of the important role that regional policies hold in the balanced development of territories, the goal being the revival of economic and social development, locally, the economic recovery of more underdeveloped areas, to reduce the differences existing among the levels of development of regions. The action is aimed at increasing the efficiency of public authorities (central, local in the use of resources they dispose of, in the development of some economic and financial policies aimed at encouraging investments, employment increase, living conditions improvement, taking into account the determinants of balancing regional development (resources, the development of technological processes and knowledge, political and institutional framework. The paper briefly presents the concepts of regionalism, regionalisation, whose common denominator is decentralization, that involves a multilevel governance, as well as the importance which the new model of economic and social development, consisting in the transfer of some prerogatives of the central administrative systems towards local communities, hold in solving problems that occur in regional, local plan.

  2. Economic theory and the application of incentive contracts to procure operating reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Yu, C.W.; Wen, F.S.

    2007-01-01

    The ancillary services market plays an important role in the operation of an electricity market, especially for achieving a high level of reliability. Among all ancillary services, operating reserve is an important research focus, with the attention mainly on the optional procurement and pricing methods. These methods differ in many aspects, including the objective, allocation of risks, and feasibility. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to analyze the users' reserve procurement problem and a novel reserve trade mechanism is developed between electricity users and the retailer of the market. First, the differences between the procurement of operating reserve in decentralized and centralized ways are analyzed. The comparison of the equilibrium solutions reveals that the centralized procurement that results in a systemic optimal solution is better than the decentralized procurement that results in a Nash equilibrium solution. Furthermore, an incentive contract based on a Principal-agent model, that is able to induce a systemic optimality as well as a Pareto equilibrium and manage risks at the same time is designed. The proposed model is equitable and beneficial to all participants. An example is served to illustrate the features of the model and the methodology. (author)

  3. Urbanization, Economic Development and Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shushu Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the pressure-state-response (PSR model to establish environmental quality indices for 30 administrative regions in China from 2003 to 2011 and employs panel data analysis to study the relationships among the urbanization rate, economic development and environmental change. The results reveal a remarkable inverted-U-shaped relationship between the urbanization rate and changes in regional environmental quality; the “turning point” generally appears near an urbanization rate of 60%. In addition, the degree and mode of economic development have significant, but anisotropic effects on the regional environment. Generally, at a higher degree of economic development, the environment will tend to improve, but an extensive economic growth program that simply aims to increase GDP has a clear negative impact on the environment. Overall, the results of this paper not only further confirm the “environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis”, but also expand it in a manner. The analysis in this paper implies that the inverted-U-shaped evolving relationship between environmental quality and economic growth (urbanization is universally applicable.

  4. MONETARY POLICY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: LESSONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    requirement, liquidity ratio, minimum rediscount rate, parity charges and selective credit policies. A Review of .... workers salaries and companies' profits were to be compulsorily deducted and paid to government. However, the ... Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Deregulated Monetary Policy on Economic. Development in ...

  5. Financing resources available for local economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana-Cosînzeana VELICU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals that domestic credit is becoming more involved in local economic development, even if it is considered an expensive resource. The loans are presented as a resource available for various “actors” of the local community – individuals, business agents and local authorities.

  6. Economics | Page 24 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economic self-reliance is as important as political independence. ... this premise to show unequivocally that the process of research for improving natural resource management must incorporate participatory and user-focused approaches, leading to development based on the needs and knowledge of local resource users.

  7. Grassroots Economic Development, Social Justice and Poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article defines, albeit briefly, what constitutes poverty, and factors that contribute to abject poverty: some of which include ignorance, lack of social facilities, dependence, disease, corruption, etc. The article surmises that if there is close relationship and interface between grassroots economic development, social justice, ...

  8. Economic Reform Orchestra And Technical Manpower Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined economic reform issues in Nigeria since 1986 and the impact on technical manpower development in Rivers State in particular. Two sets of structured questionnaire were used to elicit responses from target respondents who ultimately comprised 105 instructors and 340 final year students in the four ...

  9. Facilitating Economic Development through Strategic Alliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noftsinger, John B., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how colleges and universities are becoming increasingly involved in economic development, with the formation of strategic alliances that have led to programs that benefit business and higher education. Discusses example programs from the Valley of Virginia Partnership for Education, and the outreach program of James Madison University.…

  10. Interest Rate Liberalization, Financial Development and Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Interest rate, Financial development, Economic Growth, Liberalisation, Panel. JEL Classifications: ... theories of growth, the third is the endogenous growth theories and the fourth is the institutional ... focuses on financial repression which is define as the measures put in place by government to channel funds to ...

  11. Economic development and the geography of institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, E.M.; Garretsen, J.H.

    To explain cross-country income differences, research has recently focused on the so-called deep determinants of economic development, notably institutions and geography. This article shows that it is not only absolute geography, in terms of for instance climate or being landlocked, but also

  12. Export Prices, Trade Dynamics and Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H. van Heuvelen (Harro)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis focuses on international trade and the economic development of the Philippines. The Philippines is a country that is often said to be stuck in the Middle-Income Trap. Indicating that the Philippines has been unable to move up to the highest income group. The

  13. Economics | Page 9 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. Interactions between firms and universities are key building blocks of innovation systems. With a focus on developing countries, this book presents novel comparative research spanning three continents. The result is a more universal and dynamic view of the shaping and reshaping ...

  14. Economics | Page 23 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. Building Businesses with Small Producers presents the findings and a comparative analysis of seven case studies that challenge current beliefs about good practice in the provision of business development services (BDS) to small and micro enterprises. The book also highlights ...

  15. Economic development, growth, institutions and geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhupatiraju, S.; Verspagen, B.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we test the Rodrik et al (2004) framework to explain differences in development levels across countries by using a broader set of definitions for institutions, geography and economic variables. We use a multi-faceted database to measure institutions in an attempt to go beyond the

  16. Empowering Nigerian youths for national economic development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The world over, from USA to Asia, United Kingdom to Africa and Australia to Latin America, entrepreneurship has been promoted as an effective means of stimulating economic growth through the generation of greater employment opportunities, the development of local technological base and source of foreign exchange ...

  17. Tested program for Third World economic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, R.W.

    1977-04-01

    Some of the responsibility for the inability of Western-oriented Third World Countries (1) to make democratic economic institutions work rests upon advisers to American and international financial institutions who recommend principles of economic growth distilled out of Keynesian recipes for an over-saving Western society of the 1930s, and out of aspects of American experience with no applicability elsewhere. Applicable aspects of U.S. experience suggest a program relying on capitalistic drives and using fiscal and monetary policy of the type that proved useful in the development of democratic capitalism in the U.S. in the 19th century.

  18. VIRTUE ETHICS - NEW COORDINATES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUP ANCA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Operating with business ethic we meet, some ethical systems, some of them developed in Antiquity, that still have a great influence upon economics development. One of these is the ethics of virtue. The aim of this paper work is to focus upon the one ethical system virtue ethics and to illustrate his influence in economical field, offering a new coordination in this direction. We understand the importance of the human character for a successful leadership and management. Recent ethical dilemmas illustrate us how a vicious character has an influence not only to the possessor of that type of character but also to the entire community where he develop his activities. For a comprehensive understanding I expose a briefly review on virtue ethics as it was developed by Plato and Aristotle, ant its new coordination and influence upon our contemporaneous economy, illustrated by some examples.

  19. Global health funding and economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Greg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP, on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI. There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example; thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries.

  20. Global health funding and economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Greg; Grant, Alexandra; D'Agostino, Mark

    2012-04-10

    The impact of increased national wealth, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on public health is widely understood, however an equally important but less well-acclaimed relationship exists between improvements in health and the growth of an economy. Communicable diseases such as HIV, TB, Malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are impacting many of the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations, and depressing economic development. Sickness and disease has decreased the size and capabilities of the workforce through impeding access to education and suppressing foreign direct investment (FDI). There is clear evidence that by investing in health improvements a significant increase in GDP per capita can be attained in four ways: Firstly, healthier populations are more economically productive; secondly, proactive healthcare leads to decrease in many of the additive healthcare costs associated with lack of care (treating opportunistic infections in the case of HIV for example); thirdly, improved health represents a real economic and developmental outcome in-and-of itself and finally, healthcare spending capitalises on the Keynesian 'economic multiplier' effect. Continued under-investment in health and health systems represent an important threat to our future global prosperity. This editorial calls for a recognition of health as a major engine of economic growth and for commensurate investment in public health, particularly in poor countries.

  1. 78 FR 7390 - Information Collection Request; Economic Assessment of Conservation Reserve Program Lands for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... enhance essential ecosystem resources, including wildlife, which has been documented to provide improved... Agricultural and Resource Economics. Estimate of Burden: Public reporting burden for this information...

  2. AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF A FOOD SECURITY COMMODITY RESERVE: COMMODITY VS. CASH

    OpenAIRE

    Young, C. Edwin; Westcott, Paul C.; Hoffman, Linwood A.; Lin, William W.; Rosen, Stacey L.

    1999-01-01

    The cost of operating the Food Security Commodity Reserve as a commodity reserve was compared with the cost of a cash reserve to purchase food aid supplies only in the period of need. Preliminary simulation results reveal the cash reserve to be less costly in almost all cases.

  3. Russian Innovative Potential in the Conditions of Economic Sanctions: Reserves of Grown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustem M. Nureev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the impact of economic sanctions in general for innovative development of Russia, as well as individual sectors of oil, gas, financial and banking sector. It is shown that the ban on exports to the Russian oil and gas technology has led to the freezing of existing and refusal to enter into new projects. Increased production and export of US oil and gas have led to an increase in excess of the global scope of these types of raw materials and led to long-term downward trend in world energy prices. In recent years there has been a sharp decline in the net inflow of foreign direct investment in Russia, which exacerbates the problem of domestic sources of domestic innovation policy. The effect of sanctions on the development of the Russian economy as a whole and its individual regions is condifered. The paper describes the approaches to the definition of the innovation potential of the Russian region, identified several levels of manifestation of the region's potential and its characteristics, provides a definition of the region's innovation potential, discussed the factors influencing the development of the region's innovative capacity. The current state of the regional innovation system of the Russian Federation is analysed. The paper describes the main tasks of the Russian Federation Innovative Development Strategy for the period up to 2020. The degree of implementation of the Strategy, problems and prospects of realization of the basic provisions of the Strategy, the impact of the implementation of the Strategy on the Russian economy, its position in the index business are analysed in the paper.

  4. Green economic growth premise for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lenuţa TRICĂ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerating the global issues such as natural resource depletion, damage to the natural environment, economic and financial crises and consumption growth led to the shift of the development paradigm from consumption to sustainable development and recognition of the new path, namely green economy.At the European level a number of international organizations discussed issues of transition to green economy (EC, UNEP, OECD. In 2008, UNEP launched “Green Economy Initiative to Get the Global Markets Back to Work”, aiming to mobilize and re-focuse the global economy towards.This is the twin challenge of moving towards a green economy: radically reducing the footprint of developed countries, while simultaneously raising levels of social and material well being in developing countries.Without public intervention, the related market failures (i.e. market prices that do not fully reflect the environmental degradation generated by economic activity may delay or even prevent the development of environmentally-friendly technologies.Furthermore, in sectors such as electricity, network effects arising from existing infrastructures create additional barriers to the adoption of alternative sources of power, further hampering incentives to invest in new technologies.Given that the transition to a green economy requires increasing of investment in economic sectors that contribute to enhancing of natural capital and reduce environmental risks, we intend to analyze the main measures taken by Romania to ensure transition to green economy.

  5. Roadmap of Federal Reserve Resources for Teaching Economics and Personal Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Sara; Hennessy, Amy; Rossiter, Caryn

    2011-01-01

    Many textbooks define economics as the social science that studies how people make choices when faced with scarcity; or how a society decides what to produce, how to produce, and for whom to produce. Regardless of the definition, students' economic understanding is fundamental to their financial well-being and their ability to build successful…

  6. Ecological economics, energy, and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peet, J.

    1991-01-01

    Conventional techniques of economics, in different countries, do not normally take proper account of increases in the cost of energy (especially oil) that are expected in the next twenty years, or the rapidly declining ability of the environment to absorb wastes and pollutants, especially those resulting from the use of fossil fuels. Unless these factors are included in political-economic decision-making, and paths for future development adjusted to take account of them, many future development options will be severely damaged. In this paper, it is argued that new decision-making principles are urgently needed, in which societies accept that the physics of the environment are dominant, and the desires of people are subject to physical constraints. When future development options are considered, there is therefore a hierarchy of decision-making. Primary decisions depend upon the physics and ecology of the environment, of development, and of resource utilization. These have to be made before secondary decisions which are mainly ethical, and depend upon social and community values. These are best expressed by people, through adult education and the political process. Only then is it possible to make tertiary decisions, which relate to the allocation of resources. These decisions will depend heavily upon the use of economic tools. Several approaches have been proposed for improving political-economic decision-making. Some concentrate on modifications to markets, so they can incorporate ''externalities''. In other approaches, physical understandings are introduced into policy analyses, in order to indicate the constraints that limit development options. Some important techniques are reviewed, and suggestions are made about better methods of decision-making in the future. (author)

  7. Joint optimization of economic production quantity and preventive maintenance with considering multi-products and reserve time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xuejuan; Wang, Binrong

    2017-07-01

    Purpose: We deal with the problem of the joint determination of optimal economic production quantity (EPQ) and optimal preventive maintenance (PM) for a system that can produce multiple products alternately. The objective is to find the optimal number of production cycles and the PM policy simultaneously by minimizing the cost model. Design/methodology/approach: Considering the products go through the system in a sequence and a complete run of all products forms a production cycle. In each cycle, beyond production time we also consider some reserve time for maintenance and setup, shortage and overproduction may occur. We study the integrated problem based on two PM policies, and explain the situation with the other PM policies. The delay – time concept is used to model PM decisions. Findings: Using the integrated EPQ and PM model, we can calculate the optimal production planning and PM schedule simultaneously, especially we consider multiple products in each production cycle, which is more practical and economic than previous works. Originality/value: In modern companies, the production planning and maintenance schedule share the same system, and traditional research about two activities is separated, that always generate conflicts, such as inadequate or excessive maintenance, and shortages, etc., so we develop the integrated EPQ and PM model to avoid these undesirable effects.

  8. Joint optimization of economic production quantity and preventive maintenance with considering multi-products and reserve time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xuejuan; Wang, Binrong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We deal with the problem of the joint determination of optimal economic production quantity (EPQ) and optimal preventive maintenance (PM) for a system that can produce multiple products alternately. The objective is to find the optimal number of production cycles and the PM policy simultaneously by minimizing the cost model. Design/methodology/approach: Considering the products go through the system in a sequence and a complete run of all products forms a production cycle. In each cycle, beyond production time we also consider some reserve time for maintenance and setup, shortage and overproduction may occur. We study the integrated problem based on two PM policies, and explain the situation with the other PM policies. The delay – time concept is used to model PM decisions. Findings: Using the integrated EPQ and PM model, we can calculate the optimal production planning and PM schedule simultaneously, especially we consider multiple products in each production cycle, which is more practical and economic than previous works. Originality/value: In modern companies, the production planning and maintenance schedule share the same system, and traditional research about two activities is separated, that always generate conflicts, such as inadequate or excessive maintenance, and shortages, etc., so we develop the integrated EPQ and PM model to avoid these undesirable effects.

  9. Economics of secondary energy from GTL regarding natural gas reserves of Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Burani, Geraldo Francisco; Arzabe Maure, Jose Omar; Oliva, Cidar Ramon [Instituto de Eletrotecnica e Energia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil)

    2007-08-15

    This work aims the economics and the viability of Natural Gas Industrialization in Bolivia, by producing secondary fuels like gas to liquid (GTL)-diesel from natural gas (cleaner than the oil by-product), looking for a clean development with that environmentally well energy using this GTL process. Bolivia has resources that could fulfill these secondary energy resources from GTL. It is possible to process 30 MCMpd of gas obtaining profits from the gas and also from the liquid hydrocarbons that are found in it. Then the Bolivian GTL would present the following advantages: it would export diesel and/or gasoline and would not have to import it anymore.; the exportations of GTL-FT would reach 35 Mbpy, acquiring competitive prices; it would increase productive jobs not only due to the GTL itself, but also from secondary economy linked to GTL market; the use of GTL-FT diesel would bring a ''cleaner'' environment especially in the urban areas; finally, from the macroeconomic perspective, the investment in the plant construction and supporting works would generate a great amount of job offers. (author)

  10. Economics of secondary energy from GTL regarding natural gas reserves of Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Burani, Geraldo Francisco; Arzabe Maure, Jose Omar; Oliva, Cidar Ramon

    2007-01-01

    This work aims the economics and the viability of Natural Gas Industrialization in Bolivia, by producing secondary fuels like gas to liquid (GTL)-diesel from natural gas (cleaner than the oil by-product), looking for a clean development with that environmentally well energy using this GTL process. Bolivia has resources that could fulfill these secondary energy resources from GTL. It is possible to process 30 MCMpd of gas obtaining profits from the gas and also from the liquid hydrocarbons that are found in it. Then the Bolivian GTL would present the following advantages: it would export diesel and/or gasoline and would not have to import it anymore.; the exportations of GTL-FT would reach 35 Mbpy, acquiring competitive prices; it would increase productive jobs not only due to the GTL itself, but also from secondary economy linked to GTL market; the use of GTL-FT diesel would bring a 'cleaner' environment especially in the urban areas; finally, from the macroeconomic perspective, the investment in the plant construction and supporting works would generate a great amount of job offers

  11. Nuclear power and economic development: India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, T.N.

    1983-01-01

    It is useful in discussing proliferation problems linked to nuclear power to examine the history of nuclear power in India and the development of her capacity to produce heavy water, fabricate fuel rods, and process spent fuel. The author presents the few published economic analyses of the role of nuclear energy in India's development, then discusses issues relating to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) from India's point of view. The chapter concludes with some proposals for making the NPT more attractive so that nonsignatories will reconsider their position. One step should be to instill greater confidence that scientists in nonweapons states will be able to pursue their research in nuclear physics and that their electricity planners will have access to nuclear technology if they find it economically viable. A dramatic step toward nuclear disarmament will be the voluntary renunciation of nuclear weapons by one or more of the weapons states. 18 references, 2 tables

  12. Development of oilfield facilities on a nature reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, P.J.; Long, V.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Airlie Island which is a small (26 hectare) sand cay, located 35km north of Onslow in Western Australia. In common with other islands in the region, Airlie is a nesting site for seabirds and turtles, but its two primary conservation resources are the large Wedge-tailed Shearwater rookery which covers 64% of the island and an endemic skink species. Its conservation values have prompted the Western Australian State Government to declare the entire island a nature reserve set apart for the preservation of flora and fauna. In 1987 Western Mining Corporation Pty Ltd. developed the South Pepper and North herald oilfields and part of this development included the siting of an oil terminal on Airlie Island. It may be expected that the conservation resources of the island and the Company's requirements for land would be incompatible. However, a careful study of the local environment and the creation of a detailed plan to manage this environment resulted in an acceptable compromise

  13. Essays On Corruption And Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Freille, Sebastian

    2007-01-01

    This thesis addresses two central questions in the field of corruption: the relationship between corruption and some of its main determinants and the effect that these relationships have on economic development. The research presented in this thesis extends the literature on corruption in several directions. The third chapter studies the empirical relationship between press freedom and bureaucratic corruption. As one of the main democratic checks and balances, press freedom is thought to ...

  14. Essays in Public Economics and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard, Francois

    2013-01-01

    The present thesis studies public economics questions in the context of developing countries. In particular, I investigate the impact and design of specific government policies in Brazil. Government interventions may be desirable when unregulated market economies deliver socially inefficient outcomes. Goods and services tend to be under-provided in the presence of imperfect or asymmetric information. Such market failures may be pervasive in the insurance market and prompt governments to provi...

  15. Physical infrastructure and economic development in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Jan, Sajjad Ahmad; Chani, Muhammad Irfan; Pervaiz, Zahid; Chaudhary, Amatul R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the relationship between physical infrastructure and economic development of Pakistan. A composite index of physical infrastructure has been constructed through Principal Component Analysis. This has been done by taking into account three different dimensions of infrastructure i.e. transportation infrastructure, energy infrastructure, and telecommunication infrastructure. Johansen Co-integration Technique has been applied to confirm the existence of co-integrati...

  16. Infrastructure development for ASEAN economic integration

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyay, Biswa Nath

    2009-01-01

    With a population of 600 million, ASEAN is considered to be one of the most diverse regions in the world. It is also one of the world's fastest growing regions. ASEAN's aim is to evolve into an integrated economic community by 2015. Crucial to achieving this ambitious target is cooperation in infrastructure development for physical connectivity, particularly in cross-border infrastructure. This paper provides an overview of the quantity and quality of existing infrastructure in ASEAN member c...

  17. Energy, pollution, and economic development in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miniar Ben Ammar Sghari

    2016-11-01

    The rising level of energy consumption that is occurring internationally also is being mirrored at regional and national levels. An interesting case study along these lines is Tunisia, which is one of the high-growth economies in the Middle East and North African area yet lacks sufficient energy supply to satisfy its growing demand. Tunisia looks like many nations around the world with a young population, growing economy, increasing domestic energy consumption, and the need to balance economic development with environmental concerns.

  18. Capital goods trade and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Mutreja, Piyusha; Ravikumar, B.; Sposi, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Almost 80 percent of capital goods production in the world is concentrated in 10 countries. Poor countries import most of their capital goods. We argue that international trade in capital goods has quantitatively important effects on economic development through two channels: (i) capital formation and (ii) aggregate TFP. We embed a multi country, multi sector Ricardian model of trade into a neoclassical growth model. Barriers to trade result in a misallocation of factors both within and acros...

  19. YOUNG ENTREPRENEURS - PROMOTERS OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina-Georgiana, COJOCARU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship in Romania is no longer an unfamiliar concept, but we can assert that it is a journey full of obstacles. Bureaucracy, the lack of fiscal predictability as well as the absence of an entrepreneurial culture often lead entrepreneurs to bankruptcy. A country develops itself with the help of strong economic policies dictated by the economic environment and not by the political one. The entrepreneur's policy is to make profit which has significant effects in all areas: social, educational, economic. Sustaining entrepreneurship is a solution to be taken into consideration for weighting youth unemployment, given the level reached in the second quarter of 2014 of 23.90%. This article aims to capture aspects of the current situation of entrepreneurship in Romania among young people. Based on data collected, we will analyze the unemployment rate among young people at education level and county-level compared to the number of companies founded by students, with the rate of workforce occupancy. The contribution of young entrepreneurs to economic growth can be achieved in two phases, as more companies are founded, number of employees increases, as a consequence, more young people will become entrepreneurs, so the unemployment rate among them will thus decrease.

  20. Economic development, climate and values: making policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The application of insights from economic development and public policy to climate change requires rigorous analysis of issues such as discounting, modelling the risks of unmanaged climate change, climate policy targets and estimates of the costs of mitigation. The latest research and results show that the case for avoiding the risks of dangerous climate change through the transition to low-carbon economic development and growth is still stronger than when the Stern Review was published. This is partly because of evidence that some of the impacts of climate change are happening more quickly than originally expected, and because of remarkable advances in technologies, such as solar power. Nevertheless, significant hurdles remain in securing the international cooperation required to avoid dangerous climate change, not least because of disagreements and misunderstandings about key issues, such as ethics and equity. PMID:26203007

  1. Revenue Allocation and Economic Development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagwom Yohanna Dang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines the impact of revenue allocation on economic development in Nigeria. Specifically, the study looks at how the various revenue allocations to the three tiers of government affect real gross domestic product (RGDP in Nigeria using time series data for the period 1993 to 2012. Error correction model (ECM and Pairwise Granger Causality test are used in analyzing the data. The study carries out test of stationarity of the variables using Augmented Dickey–Fuller unit root test and test of long-run relationship among the variables using Johansen Cointegration test. The study’s findings show that revenue allocations have significant causal relationship with economic development in Nigeria, with only revenue allocation to states having significant negative relationship. Unidirectional causality runs from revenue allocations to real GDP in Nigeria. All variables of the study are cointegrated and have a long-run relationship that 87.62% of the short-run disequilibrium is corrected yearly. The study recommends among others that more financial control and value for money audit should be carried out to minimize wastages and corruption in the states of the federation, so as to change the direction of influence of states’ revenue allocation on economic development.

  2. Economic development, climate and values: making policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Nicholas

    2015-08-07

    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The application of insights from economic development and public policy to climate change requires rigorous analysis of issues such as discounting, modelling the risks of unmanaged climate change, climate policy targets and estimates of the costs of mitigation. The latest research and results show that the case for avoiding the risks of dangerous climate change through the transition to low-carbon economic development and growth is still stronger than when the Stern Review was published. This is partly because of evidence that some of the impacts of climate change are happening more quickly than originally expected, and because of remarkable advances in technologies, such as solar power. Nevertheless, significant hurdles remain in securing the international cooperation required to avoid dangerous climate change, not least because of disagreements and misunderstandings about key issues, such as ethics and equity. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Finance and Economic Development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonho Song

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the following two issues. First, the paper investigates the extent to which financial development has contributed to economic growth in China. For this purpose, we utilize well-known financial development indicators and seek to find a long-run relationship between output growth and financial development. Second, the effects of financial repression on economic growth are examined. A financial repression index is constructed based on three related measures, and this index is augmented to the growth-finance equation. Empirical results show that, three financial development indicators, Liquid Liabilities, Domestic Credit and Non-Policy Loan, have stable positive long-run relationships with output growth. It is also found that output growth is weakly exogenous with respect to financial development, whereas financial development is not with respect to output growth. As for the financial repression, it turns out to have affected output growth negatively during the sample period. Unlike financial development indicators, financial repression index is found to be weakly exogenous.

  4. Labor markets and economic development in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J P

    1991-01-01

    A researcher analyzed data on male workers from 1262 households from Peninsular Malaysia (1976-1977 Malaysian Family Life Survey) to identify the leading effects of economic development for earnings and employment patterns within labor markets. All 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia profited from the increasing levels of real income over time. The relative income of ethnic Malays, the poorest socioeconomic class, increased more so than the Chinese and Indians. Yet the income of Chinese was 108% higher than Malays and that of Indians was 60%. The difference between Malays and Chinese grew considerably as men aged. Further economic growth resulted in higher earnings for young men than for older men. In addition, the more educated men were the higher their earnings. In fact, education was the most significant determinant of time related growth in incomes. Further, income of men who participated in job training programs grew 2 times as fast than that of men who did not participate in job training programs. Lastly, economic growth increased earnings of men in urban areas more so than those in rural areas. Malaysia had put a lot of time and resources in research and development in rubber and rice production which has resulted in continual introduction of new varieties of rubber trees and rice. These new varieties have increased production considerably. In conclusion, Malaysia was able to experience economic growth because it invested in education and job training for male workers and in research and development to advance production of its 2 most important commodities--rubber and rice.

  5. E-Learning and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly CAREY

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available E-Learning and Economic Development Kelly CAREY West Valley College Saratoga, CA, USA Stanko BLATNIK Institute for Symbolic Analysis and Development of Information Technologies Velenje, SLOVENIA ABSTRACT In this article, our experience in the development and realization of e-Learning courses in Slovenia is described and discussed. Slovenia, the most developed republic of former Yugoslavia, became an EU member in May 2004. In 1991, after its independence from Yugoslavia, Slovenia’s transition to a free market economy resulted in lost jobs and an unemployment rate of 12%. In 1999, as the Institute for Symbolic Analysis and Development of Information Technologies, located in Velenje, Slovenia, we decided to offer several online courses to help unemployed people gain the skills and knowledge needed for employability in information technology. We drew on our previous experience teaching online courses at Sarajevo University after the Bosnian war and on the experience of West Valley College from Saratoga, Silicon Valley in e-Learning. Over the last four years, we organized and delivered e-Learning courses in digital media design and production, with good results. Several students found jobs and changed their perception and attitude as they became more self-confident. We believe e-Learning can efficiently enhance lifelong learning and support economic development, especially in new member countries transitioning from former socialistic to free market economies.

  6. Coal, economic development and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallboys, Richard.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the current importance of coal to the world's energy supply. It outlines its growing importance as a fuel for many developing economies around the world and for the most dynamic industrialised countries of Asia. It then refers to the key environmental issues that are involved in a growing worldwide use of coal and emphasises the role that coal will increasingly play in generating the electricity that accompanies an improving standard of living for the world's poor. Finally, the environmental consequences of economic development by and for those who want to live at a standard of living that Australians take for granted are discussed. 4 tabs

  7. Energy and economic development (environmental implications)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorzoli, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    An examination, for developed countries, of significant correlations among economic growth, electric energy intensity and elasticity, per capita values of gross national product and greenhouse gas emissions, indicates notable possibilities for a healthier global environment with increased world-wide diffusion of clean and rational energy use technologies coupled with substantial economic growth. This scenario, however, is contrasted by worrisome doubts as to the chances for a successful outcome of recently proposed tenable growth policies when it is pointed out that forecasts, based on current demographic trends, call for a doubling of the world population in the near future. The foreseen unrestrained population explosion, leading to an unprecedented proliferation in the use of fossil fuels, now appears to represent the most serious threat to the global environment

  8. IMF and economic reform in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we assess the IMF approach to economic reform in developing countries. The impact of IMF program participation on economic growth has been evaluated empirically in a cross-country literature, with little evidence of IMF programs having been successful. This suggests that a fresh...... of IMF programs is a high degree of policy rigidity. This is in contrast with studies which hold that unleashing an economy's growth potential hinges on a set of well-targeted policy interventions aimed at removing country-specific binding constraints. The process of locating constraints that bind...... involves growth diagnostics and policy trialing. This approach maintains that not all distortions are equally important and, by extension, not all policy reforms. From this point of view, IMF programs based on a list of standard conditionalities will not accomplish much. But policy trialing is more...

  9. Airport development and socio-economic development of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result reveals that, there is a correlation between airport infrastructure development and socio-economic development of the country. The study conclude that, for any proper achievements to be achieve in aviation sector, government must step up its contribution, regulation and due process must be followed in awarding ...

  10. Technical-economic evaluation of uranium reserves in the DIAMO company, Straz pod Ralskem (Czech Republic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hradek, J.

    1998-01-01

    Changing economic conditions in the Czechoslovakian (CSFR) economy (in 1992) made it necessary to realign exploitation of uranium in the country, taking into consideration economical, and environmental factors. This was done partly through mathematical-geological modelling. This analysis, which take into account mining practice and costs, involved reevaluating the uranium resources. The report describes how this was accomplished. It also describes how the uranium classification system used in the CSFR, which is based on the categories A,B,C1,C2,PI and P2, compares to the IAEA system. (author)

  11. Exploring the economic consequences of letting a supplier hold reserve storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abginehchi, Soheil; Larsen, Christian; Thorstenson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    We consider a single-item, periodic review inventory control problem with discrete non-stationary stochastic demand. The time horizon is finite and all shortages at the downstream level are backordered. There are two modes of supply: a normal supplier and a reserve storage supply. The reserve...

  12. Economic Geography and Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, Maarten; Garretsen, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africas (SSA) physical geography is often blamed for its poor economic performance. A countrys geographical location does, however, not only determine its agricultural conditions or disease environment. It also pins down a countrys relative position vis--vis other countries, affecting

  13. The Ledger: Federal Reserve Bank of Boston's Economic Education Newsletter, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabaily, Bob, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    The spring 2001 issue of "The Ledger" looks at economics and sports from the bicycle boom to the failure of the Xtreme Football League (XFL) today. Articles include: "The XFL and the WWF: Win Some, Lose Some" (Robert Wedge); "Major Taylor, Colonel Pope, and the General Commotion over Bicycles" (Robert Jabaily); and…

  14. Energy and economic development in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieteska, K.; Chwaszczewski, S.

    2007-01-01

    In the 21 st century energy cooperation is one of the key factors of fundamental importance for the maintenance of sustainable development. Broadly perceived energy issues offer extensive opportunities for international cooperation and economic integration through the implementation of major infrastructural projects. Energy cooperation should also take into account such key factors as energy efficiency and environment protection. In all these areas cooperation will be based both on instruments available in the framework of regional collaboration in the framework of the European Policy. The result of that policy should be to set up a new nuclear power station in Poland and prepare experts in this area. (author)

  15. Economic Valuation of Reserves on Cross Border Interconnections; A Danish Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa; Rather, Zakir Hussain; Hu, Weihao

    2014-01-01

    regions that plan for high penetration of intermittent renewables. Extreme intermittency in the nature of wind power imposes elevated risk levels to power system operation. This every day challenge of wind dominant power systems necessitate the crucial role of operating reserves. In this paper, we propose...... benefit of reserve provision provided by cross border interconnections. The focus here will be on reserve services from abundant hydropower resource in Norway, taking advantage of fast VSC-based HVDC interconnection that is expected to be commissioned in immediate coming years....

  16. Environmental and economic benefits of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, P.; Kelly, B.; Passmore, J.

    1997-01-01

    The panel on sustainable development was moderated by Paul McKay of the Wildside Foundation. Bryan Kelly, Director of Environment and Sustainable Development at Ontario Hydro, and Jeffrey Passmore of Passmore Associates International were the panel members. Bryan Kelly described the objectives of his group's program as reducing market barriers, and get renewables on a level playing field through technological advances to ensure that ' when Ontario Hydro or its successors make decisions about new capacity, renewables will be a viable option and will not be dismissed out of hand'. To illustrate the approach, he described several ongoing research and development projects. Jeffrey Passmore reported on a study he conducted for the Canadian Wind Energy Association and Environment Canada to determine the environmental and economic benefits of wind energy in Canada. He estimated achievable wind energy potential in Canada at around 6400 MW by 2010. He stressed wind energy's potential for job creation and CO 2 reduction as the principal economic and environmental benefits

  17. Disaster risk, social vulnerability, and economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Patrick S; Shively, Gerald E

    2017-04-01

    This paper examines the extent to which economic development decreases a country's risk of experiencing climate-related disasters as well as the societal impacts of those events. The paper proceeds from the underlying assumption that disasters are not inherently natural, but arise from the intersection of naturally-occurring hazards within fragile environments. It uses data from the International Disaster Database (EM-DAT), representing country-year-level observations over the period 1980-2007. The study finds that low-income countries are significantly more at risk of climate-related disasters, even after controlling for exposure to climate hazards and other factors that may confound disaster reporting. Following the occurrence of a disaster, higher income generally diminishes a country's social vulnerability to such happenings, resulting in lower levels of mortality and morbidity. This implies that continued economic development may be a powerful tool for lessening social vulnerability to climate change. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  18. The economic impact of recreation development: a synopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell G. Breadsley

    1971-01-01

    Economic impacts per dollar of tourist expenditure have generally been found to be low compared to other economic sectors in local less-developed areas where recreation development is often proposed as a stimulus for economic growth. Tourism, however, can be economically important where potential or existing recreation attractions can encourage tourist spending in...

  19. Physical, technical, and economic accessibility of resources and reserves need to be distinguished by grade: Application to the case of phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Nathaniel P

    2017-01-15

    The amount of phosphorus in the total environment is finite, yet recent estimates suggest that more than enough phosphate ore resources exist in the lithosphere to meet future increases in demand during the next century. Still, it remains unclear how the accessibility of this resource stock - which is heterogeneous in terms of grade and location - will change as currently accessible resources are utilized, as extraction and processing technologies develop, and as the relative economic costs vary. This study uses an economic framework, the World Trade Model with Rectangular Choice-of-Technology, to link estimates of known geological resources of various grades with the technically and economically accessible reserves. Using the most recent public data on phosphate ore stocks and mining and technological capacity, this study estimates that the ~400,000teragrams (Tg) of known apatite ore (>1% P 2 O 5 content) equate to ~110,000Tg when converted to potential reserves (~30% P 2 O 5 ) using existing technologies, with over half of these remaining potential reserves converted from resources with grades below 20% P 2 O 5 . Corresponding global reserves are estimated at ~70,000Tg using the Rectangular Choice-of-Technology model, but since any reserve estimate is contingent on the state of the world economy, a set of five illustrative scenarios are constructed to show how this estimate can vary between ~67,000 and ~98,000Tg with only a small number of changes to the economic and technical parameters and variables. Calculating accessibility using consistent definitions for resources and reserves while distinguishing between grades not only creates a clearer picture of remaining non-renewable resources, but creates a framework that can be used to explore future geopolitical scenarios about ore availability, extraction technologies, supply networks, and global commodity prices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Contribution to Quebec's economic development: Development plan 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The activities of Hydro-Quebec are analyzed from the standpoint of their contribution to economic development and their support of regional development. The structuring effects of Hydro-Quebec's electricity supply activities are described, specifically the utility's role as an employer and an important agent of economic development by virtue of its purchasing power. The role played by research and development activities in the technological development of Quebec is discussed along with the contribution of those activities to new industrial developments. Finally, the impacts of electricity use on industrial development are considered. An analysis is presented of Hydro-Quebec's marketing activities and the options they afford. These marketing activities are aimed mainly at supporting economic development. The availability of reasonably priced electricity enhances the competitiveness of all industrial sectors, especially those for which electricity is a factor in siting. Furthermore, Hydro-Quebec can use its marketing activities to reinforce this comparative advantage. Hydro-Quebec can also support regional development by decentralizing operations, standardizing rates, and extending its marketing activities to the regions. 2 tabs

  1. African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Austin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews how colonial rule and African actions during the colonial period affected the resources and institutional settings for subsequent economic development south of the Sahara. The issue is seen from the perspective of the dynamics of development in what was in 1900 an overwhelmingly land-abundant region characterised by shortages of labour and capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market activities and by varying but often low levels of political centralisation. The differential impact of French and British rule is explored, but it is argued that a bigger determinant of the differential evolution of poverty, welfare and structural change was the contrast between “settler” and “peasant” economies.

  2. Financial Structure and Economic Development in Nigieria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Olusegun Olowe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study , the measurement of the Nigerian financial interrelation ratio was considered in line with the structure and development of financial system between 1999 and 2008 with a view to examining the incidences of the financial liberalization . The financial intermediation role for Nigeria on current basic prices was computed to determining the extent of stability and /or positive cum negative changes. This is to ensure the involvement of government as well as thedegree of financial institutions’ involvement in the economic growth and development of the country. In essence, the results of this study will be of relevance to formulate and execute policy formulation in its entirety. The result of the study revealed a pure neglect in the country with emphasis on financial intermediation. The earlier we put an enhanced financial structure in place, , the better for the economy.

  3. SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF PRECARIAT DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARVYDAS GUOGIS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors of the article state that the development of precariat is a social phenomenon produced by the neoliberal political and economic project, for the scientific analysis of which both worldwide and in Lithuania, according to the authors, insufficient attention is paid. The article introduces a qualitative analysis reviewing the formation and development of precariat, as a comparatively new qualitative economic-social phenomenon. The influence of this phenomenon for various areas of the societal life has not raised any doubts recently, yet they have huge influence on such areas as closer and more distant work environment, the opportunities of social dialogue and social security of employees. Theoretically it is not clear if the development of precariat should be considered as the formation of “some kind of class” with its own attributes, or “work status”, where an employee is merely short of a number of things within his work environment and his social security rights are not ensured. Even though for some “voluntary” precariat representatives such unstable, “unbound” situation associates with the “economics of happiness”, for many members of involuntary precariat it marks a much greater exploitation by the employers, less security, dequalification” and worse rights in the area of social security. At the end of the article the authors provide their conclusions and proposals regarding the issues related to the undefined status of precariat, as well as possible solutions. Increasing the scope of social security and the ensuring the guarantees of self-employed is one of the measures in socially oriented countries to solve the issues related to the precariat. Allocation of basic, universal income for all residents is one of the possibly effective measures in improving the situation of precariat and other residents and ensuring social safeness in modern world. Another needed measure for overcoming the negative conditions of

  4. Socio-Economic Effects on The Forest Villagers of Ecotourism Potential (Case of Artvin-Camili Biosphere Reserve Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İnci Zeynep Aydın

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available As a result of rapid changes occurring in the world who live urban people from a resort in the selection of natural areas and start to choose to travel; forest villagers because rural poverty, forest and forest resource have been destroyed. Since people change their expectations from tourism, natural areas began to gain importance. Until ın today’s conditions for citizens to the problems of migration and employment and ensure the sustainability of forest resources with ecotourism activities on the agenda of the approach began to take its place. The case study area, Camili Biosphere Reserve in Artvin; eco-tourism activities on the forest villagers demographic, social, cultural, economic, etc. with eco-tourısm activities and the sustainability of forest resources and forest planning and management aimed at the development stage of the villagers how it ought to be investigated. Forest villagers are selected according to full-count method. Data will be analyzed through descriptives, Chi-Square, paired T tests and Wilcoxon analyses.

  5. Mitigation Action Plan: Lease of Parcel ED-1 of the Oak Ridge Reservation by the East Tennessee Economic Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    In April 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) completed an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1113) for the proposed lease of 957-16 acres (Parcel ED-1) of the Oak Ridge (Tennessee) Reservation (ORR) by the East Tennessee Economic Council (ETEC) for industrial development. DOE plans to issue a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the proposed action, conditional upon the implementation of mitigation and monitoring to protect environmental resources. According to DOE`s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) regulations (10 CFR 1021.322), a FONSI shall include {open_quotes}any commitments to mitigations that are essential to render the impacts of the proposed action not significant, beyond those mitigations that are integral elements of the proposed action, and a reference to the Mitigation Action Plan prepared under 10 CTR 1021.331{close_quotes}. Terms of the lease offer DOE the option of terminating the lease with ETEC should the lessee and/or sublessees fail to implement the mitigation defined in the FONSI.

  6. Inclusive Institutions for Sustainable Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Miomir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent two decades, due to contributions of political macroeconomics, the focus of macroeconomics turned away from a narrow perspective based on market and privatisation (market fundamentalism towards a broader perspective based on institutions and values (institutionalism. Within the institutional paradigm, the emphasis nowadays is put on inclusive institutions. The main thesis of one of leading proponents of political macroeconomics, D. Acemoglu, is: “growth is much more likely under inclusive (economic and political institutions than extractive institutions.” Good institutions are characterized by three attributes: 1 they establish and protect property rights; 2 they restrict social elites which strive to expropriate income and property of others members of society; 3 they provide equal chances for employment, social security and civil rights to all individuals. Good institutions contribute to political stability, successful macroeconomic policy, and enhance initiatives. The key role of institutions is to secure stability and continuity. Extractive institutions can negatively affect entrepreneurship and entire economic development in two ways: a by increasing the opportunity cost, resulting in upward movement of the opportunity cost curve; and b by affecting return to entrepreneurship resulting in leftward movement of the return to entrepreneurship curve. Apart from independence and accountability of institutions what is needed is sufficient level of inclusion. Inclusion should encompass three dimensions: personal, financial, and political. The introduction of principles of independence, accountability, and inclusion is essential for emergence and performance of all institutions.

  7. Foreign investment multinational companies and economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Đorđe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no universal answer on the question whether foreign investments stimulate economic development. The positive effect of foreign direct investments will follow when the investments is carried out under normal conditions of competition. That means, above all, low barriers for foreign trade and the low level of restrictions for foreign owned companies. In such circumstances, multinational corporations can assist the economies of penetration to make its businesses more efficient. Foreign investors bring with them brand new types of economic activities and in that way shifting the limits of business opportunities in the countries of penetration. But if the investments are implemented in markets protected with protectionist barriers of various kinds, then they could have negative effects. The negative effects are in particularly reflected in the inefficient use of domestic resources. Foreign investments depend on the macro and micro institutional reforms, low inflation, real exchange rate, and reasonably efficient legal system that protects the property rights and encourages savings and investment. The low level of corruption, together with the foregoing conditions is a prerequisite for the creation of a stimulating environment for foreign investments.

  8. The Relationship Between Financial Development and Economic Growth)

    OpenAIRE

    Afşar, Aslı

    2007-01-01

    The relation between the development of financial system and economic growth has been discussed for a long time. Financial system has been accepted as the most important of the economic system. The reason is that it is the center of transferring-process of funds which is needed most for economic growth. Mostly general economic success depends on the efficiency of the financial system. On the other hand, economic growth brings about increasing national income and causes a development in the in...

  9. Economics | Page 7 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In February 2015, the Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA) in Ghana hosted a succession of briefings on gains made in promoting transparency and accountability, factors affecting economic growth, and the public's perception of socio-economic and governance conditions in Ghana. IEA is one of the think tanks supported by ...

  10. Feminist Development Economics : An Institutional Approach to Household Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene); O. Odebode (Olasunbo)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this chapter, we argue that an institutional approach to feminist development economics provides deeper understandings to how gender inequalities function in economic processes in developing countries. We do this in three ways. First, we distinguish between

  11. Empirical analysis of relationship between accessibility and economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The main goal of this paper is to investigate the impact of accessibility changes on : the level of economic development in a given region. In this paper, we introduce : several types of accessibility measures while economic development is quantified...

  12. Exploring the economic consequences of paying a supplier to keep a reserve inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abginehchi, Soheil; Larsen, Christian; Thorstenson, Anders

    be accessed (at a higher unit price than the normal one) but also with a shorter lead-time. Furthermore the company must also pay a cost proportional to inventory level for maintaining this reserve inventory. This problem can be considered as an inventory control model with two suppliers. We propose a dynamic......This work inspired by a contact with a larger telecommunication company. Many of the products offered are unique for this company and they also have very short lifetimes, normally about 18 months. Furthermore the suppliers do not wish to keep any inventories and they only accept orders on periodic...... basis, most often only once per month. In addition lead-times are long, as the suppliers are situated overseas.  Therefore the company must keep all the inventories at considerable costs. The company wishes to make contracts with its suppliers such that they keep some reserve inventory that can...

  13. Development Economics and Method: A Quarter Century of ABCDE

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushik Basu; Andrew Foster

    2015-01-01

    This, the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE) and also of the Washington Consensus, is a good time to take stock of development economics. What have we learned? What do we need to unlearn? What is the right methodology for development economics so that future knowledge is on firmer footing? These are important questions and this year’s ABCDE and this introduction is a stocktaking of where we stand on these questions. Development economics ha...

  14. Developing America's Shale Reserves - Water Strategies For A Sustainable Future (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, L. E.; Oshikanlu, T.

    2013-12-01

    The development of shale oil and gas reserves over the last several years has had a significant impact on securing America's energy future while making substantial contributions to our nation's economic prosperity. These developments have also raised serious concerns about potential detrimental impacts to our environment (i.e., land, air and water) with much media attention focused on the impacts to our nation's fresh water supply. These concerns are being discussed across the nation often with little or no distinction that the nature of the water issues vary depending on local circumstances (e.g., depth of aquifer and reservoir zone, water demand and availability, availability of discharge wells, regulatory framework, etc.) and regional shale reservoir development strategies (depth of wells, length of laterals, fluid-type used for fracturing, etc.). Growing concerns over long standing drought conditions in some areas and competing demands for water from other sectors (e.g., agriculture, domestic, etc.) add even greater uncertainty relative to fresh water. Water demands for gas and oil wells vary from region to region but nominally range from 10 to 15 acre feet of water (4 to 6 million gallons) for drilling and hydraulic fracturing applications. Flowback water from the hydraulic fracturing process varies and can range from 5 to 40 % of the water used for drilling and 'fracing'. Produced water can be substantial, leading to significant volumes of 'disposed water' where injection wells are available. A science-based systems approach to water lifecycle management that incorporates leading-edge technology development and considers economic and social impacts is critical for the long-term sustainable development of shale reserves. Various water recycling and reuse technologies are being deployed within select regions across the nation with each having limited success depending on region. The efficacy of reuse technology will vary based on produced water quantity and

  15. LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (LED PLANNING IN THE FACE OF GLOBALISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin BRĂGARU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Local economic development and workforce initiative are continually evolving. There are no hard and fast rules or long-proven experiences upon which to draw. The job of the economic development planner and the work of the community in achieving sustainable economic development have become much harder because of the national and global crisis.

  16. 13 CFR 120.862 - Other economic development objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other economic development objectives. 120.862 Section 120.862 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Project Economic Development Goals § 120.862 Other economic...

  17. A successful local economic development-urban renewal initiative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the urgent need for local economic development in South Africa, Local Economic Development (LED) as area of professional endeavour/activity has largely failed to live up to this need. In this article, an alternative approach to local economic development, which involved a 'bottom-up' approach to urban renewal is ...

  18. Positive and Negative Factors of Economic Development in Economic History of South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jong Min

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the aim of the article is to analyze the Korean economic strategy from the beginning of its development until modern stage. Examination of how this strategy has changed depending on changes within domestic and international economic environment, assumptions, set goals, their effectiveness and significance of all the taken measures. It will demonstrate waypoints for the future economic development and will become a trigger towards recognition of the successful development of the Korean economy by other countries. Methods: the methodological bases of this article are the economic and statistical methods of analysis of the Korean economys, graphical methods displaying economic indicators. Results: economic history of South Korea over the past century shows the positive and negative factors of the development from an economically weak country into a developing country. The history of the Japanese occupation of Korea, lasting from 1910 to 1945, showed that for a country which has lost its national sovereignty, expropriated the state's economy has no effect after the restoration of independence, and that the economy cannot develop in conditions of chaos within the political, economic and social spheres. Even after the establishment of a military dictatorship, it is possible to note that despite limitations of citizens’ rights, the economy can still grow if the people want it. In addition to the development of internal political system, unstable factors in the process of promotion of social reforms and hastily adopted policy of "open doors" in order to enhance the international status are unreasonable political, economic and social changes. In turn, the inability to control currency exchange in Asian countries, which is a policy of economic development, has shown the existence of a risk of national bankruptcy. Moreover, the adoption of policies of excessive decrease of interest rates in order to revive the recession may be counterproductive

  19. IMPORTANCE OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN TERMS OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANKICA TODOROVIC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality of tourist resources and tourist products, competitive ability and positioning of the destinations in the tourist market affect the economic development of the national economy. Natural resources are key, but under-utilized resources necessary for the tourism development, whereby reaching the level where the key development resources are on the verge of carrying capacities, thus making the model structure of the future development to be a significant contribution in searching the optimal model of sustainable development. The paper points to the importance of previous positive experience in the development of tourism and related activities especially in terms of development planning in accordance with the available resources, spatial opportunities and sustainable development. The research the possibility of defining an optimal model for sustainable tourism development in the case of mountain destinations in Zlatibor District will indicate the need to precisely define economic-geographical resources which determine the individual role of an each resource in creating the tourist offer, as well as, to show that the inadequate management of tourist resources and marketing activities leads to their degradation.

  20. Economic Determinants of Regional Integration in Developing Counties

    OpenAIRE

    Marinov, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Regional integration is often viewed as a way to support development and economic growth in developing countries through the related with it benefits to trade and welfare. Economic integration theory goes through two development stages each of which addresses the political and economic context relevant for its time. The first stage is regarded as classic theory or static analysis and includes the traditional theories of economic integration that explain the possible benefits of integration. T...

  1. International Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (I-JEDI) Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    International Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (I-JEDI) is a freely available economic model that estimates gross economic impacts from wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal energy projects. Building on a similar model for the United States, I-JEDI was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory under the U.S. government's Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program to support partner countries in assessing economic impacts of LEDS actions in the energy sector.

  2. Small banks and local economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Hakenes , Hendrik; Hasan, Iftekhar; Molyneux, Phil; Xie , Ru

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the effects of small banks on economic growth. We first theoretically show that small banks operating at a regional level can spur local economic growth. As compared with big interregional banks, small regional banks are more effective in promoting local economic growth, especially in regions with lower initial endowments and severe credit rationing. We then test the model predictions using a sample of German banks and corresponding regional statistics. We find that sma...

  3. Control of Resources for Economic Development in Food Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove

    2010-01-01

    to control resources for innovation to add value and economic development. This paper reveals how crossing dynamic composite underlying boundaries can have an impact on control of resources for economic development in food networking SMEs .The analyses in this paper shows the broad and significant impact...... of preferences on the control of resources, the significant benefit of oral instructions and the significant negative impact from supervising product quality on economic development in the context of the food networking SMEs. Previous level of knowledge has no significant influence on their economic development...... of the dynamic composite underlying boundaries to enable innovation for positive impact on economic development....

  4. Renewable Energy for Rural Economic Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Cathy L. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Stafford, Edwin R. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

    2013-09-30

    When Renewable Energy for Rural Economic Development (RERED) began in 2005, Utah had no commercial wind power projects in operation. Today, the state hosts two commercial wind power plants, the Spanish Fork Wind Project and the Milford Wind Corridor Project, totaling 324 megawatts (MW) of wind capacity. Another project in San Juan County is expected to break ground very soon, and two others, also in San Juan County, are in the approval process. RERED has played a direct role in advancing wind power (and other renewable energy and clean technology innovations) in Utah through its education outreach and research/publication initiatives. RERED has also witnessed and studied some of the persistent barriers facing wind power development in communities across Utah and the West, and its research expanded to examine the diffusion of other energy efficiency and clean technology innovations. RERED leaves a legacy of publications, government reports, and documentary films and educational videos (archived at www.cleantech.usu.edu) to provide important insights for entrepreneurs, policymakers, students, and citizens about the road ahead for transitioning society onto a cleaner, more sustainable future.

  5. Global wind power development: Economics and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Cornelis van Kooten, G.; Narbel, Patrick A.

    2013-01-01

    Existing literature indicates that theoretically, the earth's wind energy supply potential significantly exceeds global energy demand. Yet, only 2–3% of global electricity demand is currently derived from wind power despite 27% annual growth in wind generating capacity over the last 17 years. More than 95% of total current wind power capacity is installed in the developed countries plus China and India. Our analysis shows that the economic competitiveness of wind power varies at wider range across countries or locations. A climate change damage cost of US$20/tCO 2 imposed to fossil fuels would make onshore wind competitive to all fossil fuels for power generation; however, the same would not happen to offshore wind, with few exceptions, even if the damage cost is increased to US$100/tCO 2 . To overcome a large number of technical, financial, institutional, market and other barriers to wind power, many countries have employed various policy instruments, including capital subsidies, tax incentives, tradable energy certificates, feed-in tariffs, grid access guarantees and mandatory standards. Besides, climate change mitigation policies, such as the Clean Development Mechanism, have played a pivotal role in promoting wind power. Despite these policies, intermittency, the main technical constraint, could remain as the major challenge to the future growth of wind power. - Highlights: • Global wind energy potential is enormous, yet the wind energy contribution is very small. • Existing policies are boosting development of wind power. • Costs of wind energy are higher than cost of fossil-based energies. • Reasonable premiums for climate change mitigation substantially promote wind power. • Intermittency is the key challenge to future development of wind power

  6. Developing an effective adaptive monitoring network to support integrated coastal management in a multiuser nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pim Vugteveen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We elaborate the necessary conceptual and strategic elements for developing an effective adaptive monitoring network to support Integrated Coastal Management (ICM in a multiuser nature reserve in the Dutch Wadden Sea Region. We discuss quality criteria and enabling actions essential to accomplish and sustain monitoring excellence to support ICM. The Wadden Sea Long-Term Ecosystem Research project (WaLTER was initiated to develop an adaptive monitoring network and online data portal to better understand and support ICM in the Dutch Wadden Sea Region. Our comprehensive approach integrates ecological and socioeconomic data and links research-driven and policy-driven monitoring for system analysis using indicators of pressures, state, benefits, and responses. The approach and concepts we elaborated are transferable to other coastal regions to accomplish ICM in complex social-ecological systems in which scientists, multisectoral stakeholders, resource managers, and governmental representatives seek to balance long-term ecological, economic, and social objectives within natural limits.

  7. 77 FR 19178 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy AGENCY: Economic Development Administration...: Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy. A Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy (CEDS) is required to...

  8. Distribution of Economic Benefits from Ecotourism: A Case Study of Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guangming; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Bearer, Scott; Zhou, Shiqiang; Cheng, Lily Yeqing; Zhang, Hemin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-12-01

    Ecotourism is widely promoted as a conservation tool and actively practiced in protected areas worldwide. Theoretically, support for conservation from the various types of stakeholder inside and outside protected areas is maximized if stakeholders benefit proportionally to the opportunity costs they bear. The disproportional benefit distribution among stakeholders can erode their support for or lead to the failure of ecotourism and conservation. Using Wolong Nature Reserve for Giant Pandas (China) as an example, we demonstrate two types of uneven distribution of economic benefits among four major groups of stakeholders. First, a significant inequality exists between the local rural residents and the other types of stakeholder. The rural residents are the primary bearers of the cost of conservation, but the majority of economic benefits (investment, employment, and goods) in three key ecotourism sectors (infrastructural construction, hotels/restaurants, and souvenir sales) go to other stakeholders. Second, results show that the distribution of economic benefits is unequal among the rural residents inside the reserve. Most rural households that benefit from ecotourism are located near the main road and potentially have less impact on panda habitat than households far from the road and closer to panda habitats. This distribution gap is likely to discourage conservation support from the latter households, whose activities are the main forces degrading panda habitats. We suggest that the unequal distribution of the benefits from ecotourism can be lessened by enhancing local participation, increasing the use of local goods, and encouraging relocation of rural households closer to ecotourism facilities.

  9. Advanced Small Modular Reactor Economics Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2014-10-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) research and development activities focus on four key areas: Developing assessment methods for evaluating advanced SMR technologies and characteristics; and Developing and testing of materials, fuels and fabrication techniques; and Resolving key regulatory issues identified by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and industry; and Developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces. This report focuses on development of assessment methods to evaluate advanced SMR technologies and characteristics. Specifically, this report describes the expansion and application of the economic modeling effort at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Analysis of the current modeling methods shows that one of the primary concerns for the modeling effort is the handling of uncertainty in cost estimates. Monte Carlo–based methods are commonly used to handle uncertainty, especially when implemented by a stand-alone script within a program such as Python or MATLAB. However, a script-based model requires each potential user to have access to a compiler and an executable capable of handling the script. Making the model accessible to multiple independent analysts is best accomplished by implementing the model in a common computing tool such as Microsoft Excel. Excel is readily available and accessible to most system analysts, but it is not designed for straightforward implementation of a Monte Carlo–based method. Using a Monte Carlo algorithm requires in-spreadsheet scripting and statistical analyses or the use of add-ons such as Crystal Ball. An alternative method uses propagation of error calculations in the existing Excel-based system to estimate system cost uncertainty. This method has the advantage of using Microsoft Excel as is, but it requires the use of simplifying assumptions. These assumptions do not necessarily bring into question the analytical results. In fact, the

  10. Essays in Development Economics and the Economics of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blimpo, Moussa Pouguinimpo

    2010-01-01

    Education is a powerful tool to improve lives and enhance the prospect of innovation and development of nations. While primary school enrollment has increased considerably over the past few decades in Sub-Saharan Africa, learning and the retention rate have remained low. The first two chapters of this dissertation analyze two dimensions in a bid…

  11. Pedagogy for Economic Competitiveness and Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlberg, Pasi; Oldroyd, David

    2010-01-01

    Accelerating threats to a sustainable relationship between economic growth and the capacity of the global social-ecological system to support it require that the implications of competitiveness be reassessed. Today, the capacities that underlie economic competitiveness must also be brought to bear on policy and pedagogy to prepare the coming…

  12. Economics | Page 4 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. Read more about Improving childcare options to create better economic opportunities for women in Nairobi slums. Language English. Read more about Expanding the Canadian Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Scholarship Program to Advanced Scholars. Language English.

  13. 585 Idealogy and Economic Development in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... Abstract. Ideology is the body of ideas, views, theories and aims that constitute a political, social or economic programme of a state. Ideology ultimately reflects the prevailing economic relations in a state. This article is an analysis of the claim by the Nigerian ruling class that Nigeria has no ideology.

  14. Labour productivity as a factor of sustainable economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana-Elena BALU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Romania aims at reducing the economic and social gaps to the EU developed Member States. This requires an economic sustainable growth. An increased labour productivity is one of the main factors of competitiveness at national level and of sustainable economic development.

  15. Evolutionary Systems Theory, Universities, and Endogenous Regional Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Universities today are increasingly being viewed in terms of serving the purpose of economic development. This paper postulates that their chief purpose is to advance knowledge and that in doing so they effectuate regional economic growth and development through processes specified in the endogenous economic growth model. To achieve this purpose…

  16. Corruption and Economic Development in Nigeria: A Theoretical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corruption has had severe negative consequences on the economic growth and development of Nigeria. This paper presents a review of corruption as it relates to the economic development of Nigeria. By using a theoretical method of analysis, the study reveals that corruption has been a deterrent to economic ...

  17. 2010 Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy "Vision Hampton Roads" : Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    The strategy is an economic development planning tool intended to aid local governments in decision-making. The document provides an analysis of regional and local economic conditions within the Hampton Roads region, defined as including the ten (10)...

  18. 2010 Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy "Vision Hampton Roads"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    The strategy is an economic development planning tool intended to aid : local governments in decision-making. The document provides an analysis : of regional and local economic conditions within the Hampton Roads : region, defined as including the te...

  19. Nutritional reserves of Vochysiaceae seeds: chemical diversity and potential economic uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. S Mayworm

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contents of proteins, carbohydrates and oil of seeds of 57 individuals of Vochysiaceae, involving one species of Callisthene, six of Qualea, one of Salvertia and eight of Vochysia were determined. The main nutritional reserves of Vochysiaceae seeds are proteins (20% in average and oils (21. 6%. Mean of carbohydrate contents was 5. 8%. Callisthene showed the lowest protein content (16. 9%, while Q. cordata was the species with the highest content (30% in average. The contents of ethanol soluble carbohydrates were much higher than those of water soluble carbohydrates. Oil contents lay above 20% for most species (30. 4% in V. pygmaea and V. pyramidalis seeds. The predominant fatty acids are lauric (Q. grandiflora, oleic (Qualea and Salvertia or acids with longer carbon chains (Salvertia and a group of Vochysia species. The distribution of Vochysiaceae fatty acids suggests for seeds of some species an exploitation as food sources (predominance of oleic acid, for other species an alternative to cocoa butter (high contents or predominance of stearic acid or the production of lubricants, surfactants, detergents, cosmetics and plastic (predominance of acids with C20 or C22 chains or biodiesel (predominance of monounsaturated acids. The possibility of exploitation of Vochysiaceae products in a cultivation regimen and in extractive reserves is discussed.Teores de proteínas, carboidratos solúveis e óleos de sementes de 57 indivíduos de Vochysiaceae, compreendendo uma espécie de Callisthene, seis de Qualea, uma de Salvertia e oito de Vochysia foram determinados. As principais reservas de sementes de Vochysiaceae são proteínas (20% em média e óleos (21, 6%. A média dos teores de carboidratos foi de 5, 8%. Callisthene apresentou o mais baixo teor de proteínas (16, 9%, enquanto Q. cordata foi a espécie com o mais elevado teor (30% em média. Teores de carboidratos solúveis em etanol foram muito superiores aos solúveis em água. Os teores de

  20. The University and Local Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John MULLIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing pressures on universities and educational institutions to be more involved in the communities that house them have led to a wave of interactions that have been both creative and mutually supportive. These ‘town-gown’ relations have stemmed not only from pressures by government leaders, but also from the sense of civic responsibility and the drive for ‘service learning’ where students move beyond the academic walls to engage in real life situations as part of the learning process. The resultant merits are invaluable lessons and experiences that are mutually beneficial to the students and the communities. Similarly, the involvement of community residents with events on campus fosters a mutual relationship and a positive perception towards the university. Challenges with such partnerships include the resentment between the community residents and the university members and the ‘us and them’ mentality that leads to communication blocks, mistrust and resentment. Overcoming these sentiments requires perseverance, patience, and creative thinking. This paper discusses one successful partnership between the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and the City of Springfield in Massachusetts. This collaboration was targeted to benefit the City by helping with their economic revitalization efforts, and the University by giving them a space in downtown Springfield for a ‘Design Center’, where students have a meeting space for studio and field work and can then exhibit their work. The paper ends with a set of principles that can guide other institutions and communities in developing strategic outreach and engagement activities.

  1. CAPITAL MARKET DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLAVIA BARNA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Capital markets play an important role in the economic development of emerging capital markets. Well functioning markets insure that both corporations and investors get or receive fair prices for their securities. In the literature on endogenous growth, the link between capital markets development and economic growth has received much attention. Thispaper examines the correlation between capital market development and economic growth in Romania using a regression function. The results show that the capital market development is positively correlated with economic growth, with feed-back effect, but the strongest link is from economic growth to capital market, suggesting that financial development follows economic growth, economic growth determining financial institutions to change and develop.

  2. Economic development evaluation based on science and patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokanović, Bojana; Lalic, Bojan; Milovančević, Miloš; Simeunović, Nenad; Marković, Dusan

    2017-09-01

    Economic development could be achieved through many factors. Science and technology factors could influence economic development drastically. Therefore the main aim in this study was to apply computational intelligence methodology, artificial neural network approach, for economic development estimation based on different science and technology factors. Since economic analyzing could be very challenging task because of high nonlinearity, in this study was applied computational intelligence methodology, artificial neural network approach, to estimate the economic development based on different science and technology factors. As economic development measure, gross domestic product (GDP) was used. As the science and technology factors, patents in different field were used. It was found that the patents in electrical engineering field have the highest influence on the economic development or the GDP.

  3. What Lies beyond the Romania’s Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Raileanu-Szeles

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the dynamic of economic development in Romania, underlying the steps already made by Romania on the way of economic development, as well as the causes of theslowness of this long term process. Four dimensions of the economic development are particularly analyzed here, i.e. the GDP, health, education and income inequality, with a great emphasis on the per capita GDP dynamic. The paper also looks at two contemporary challenges of Romania with a considerable impact on economic development – the progress made in the process of EU funds absorption and the income polarization, which is at present a matter of concern for the whole EU. The components of Romania’s economic development are presented in comparison with those of the New Member States.Keywords: economic development, economic growth, Gini.

  4. Is Economic Integration Between Developing Countries a Singular Process?

    OpenAIRE

    Koné, Salif

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the economic integration processes among developing countries and developed nations. It looks into the possible existence of a general theory of economic integration and the reflection is carried out on three levels. The first is theoretical even normative, analyzing the concept of economic integration in various fields. The next is descriptive, which is based on the presentation of the initiatives (past and present) of economic integration. Finally, there is comparative w...

  5. NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN COVERAGE OF ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Beudean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The absence of consensus in definition and economic assessment performance does not take as linguistic valences of the concept as such, as the system of diverging interests of its contents. Can be felt in the case of this major economic concept as well as other economic categories, the power influence of different interveners (not necessarily from know better ones, which will determine and impose the dominant message. Current financial capital, created and imposed an obviously own vision about performance that would serve its interests.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF SHALLOW VISCOUS OIL RESERVES IN NORTH SLOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2004-12-01

    North Slope of Alaska has huge oil deposits in heavy oil reservoirs such as Ugnu, West Sak and Shrader Bluff etc. The viscosity of the last two reservoir oils vary from {approx}30 cp to {approx}3000 cp and the amount in the range of 10-20 billion barrels. High oil viscosity and low formation strength impose problems to high recovery and well productivity. Water-alternate-gas injection processes can be effective for the lower viscosity end of these deposits in West Sak and Shrader Bluff. Several gas streams are available in the North Slope containing NGL and CO{sub 2} (a greenhouse gas). The goal of this research is to develop tools to find optimum solvent, injection schedule and well-architecture for a WAG process in North Slope shallow sand viscous oil reservoirs. Coreflood, quarter 5-spot study, compositional simulation, wettability, relative permeability study and streamline-based simulation were conducted in this project. 1D compositional simulation results agree reasonably well with those of the slim tube experiments. Injection of CO{sub 2}-NGL is preferable over that of PBG-NGL. MME is sensitive to pressure (in the range of 1300-1800 psi) for the injection of PBG-NGL, but not for CO{sub 2}-NGL. Three hydrocarbon phases form in this pressure range. As the mean thickness of the adsorbed organic layer on minerals increases, the oil-water contact angle increases. The adsorbed organic films left behind after extraction of oil by common aromatic solvents used in core studies, such as toluene and decalin, are thinner than those left behind by non-aromatic solvents, such as cyclohexane. The force of adhesion for minerals aged with just the asphaltene fraction is similar to that of the whole oil implying that asphaltenes are responsible for the mixed-wettability in this reservoir. A new relative permeability model for a four-phase, mixed-wet system has been proposed. A streamline module is developed which can be incorporated in an existing finite-difference based

  7. Africa's Failed Economic Development Trajectory: A Critique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Review of Economics and Finance. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, D.; Grace, J.B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H.V.; Guegan, J.-F.; Hochberg, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

  9. The main issues preventing Kosovo’s economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Demir Lima

    2017-01-01

    This study provides an analysis of several problematic factors preventing Kosovo’s economic development. Several sectors that could have been the main pillars of economic development, such as manufacturing, energy, mines and minerals, and other economic sectors have been neglected from the development by domestic institutions or were used clandestinely by certain interest groups, whose focus was not in the development of the country but rather their personal gain. Trade remained the preferred...

  10. Financial development and economic growth. An empirical analysis for Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Adamopoulos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between financial development and economicgrowth for Ireland for the period 1965-2007 using a vector error correction model (VECM.Questions were raised whether financial development causes economic growth or reverselytaking into account the positive effect of industrial production index. Financial marketdevelopment is estimated by the effect of credit market development and stock marketdevelopment on economic growth. The objective of this study was to examine the long-runrelationship between these variables applying the Johansen cointegration analysis takinginto account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Granger causality testsindicated that economic growth causes credit market development, while there is a bilateralcausal relationship between stock market development and economic growth. Therefore, itcan be inferred that economic growth has a positive effect on stock market development andcredit market development taking into account the positive effect of industrial productiongrowth on economic growth for Ireland.

  11. Economic and Human Resource Development: Challenges of the 90s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Nolen M.

    A discussion is presented of the roles of economic and human resource development in a changing economy and society. Introductory material considers the economic changes taking place in society and argues that strategies for economic redevelopment and revitalization must explicitly incorporate strategies for partnership building related to work…

  12. health needs sustainable development, not more economic growth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. HEALTH NEEDS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, NOT MORE ECONOMIC GROWTH. The pursuit of carbon-emitting economic growth has not provided economic and social stability – key determinants of health - for much of the world's population. Better health for all ...

  13. Economic Growth and Development in the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acemoglu, Daron

    2013-01-01

    A central theme of this article is that economics instructors should spend more time teaching about economic growth and development at the undergraduate level because the topic is of interest to students, is less abstract than other macroeconomic topics, and is the focus of exciting research in economics. Facts and data can be presented to…

  14. Post-accession economic development of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold ORŁOWSKI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the economic performance of Poland in the post-accession period. Poland joined the EU in 2004, after a long and difficult economic transition. The whole post-accession period could be divided into two sub-periods: the pre-crisis period of 2004-07, and the turbulent period of 2008-11. During the pre-crisis period, Poland recorded a fast growth, with a built-up of macroeconomic disequilibria. During the turbulent period, the economy was dealing successfully with the global financial crisis. The growth slowed down and the disequilibria were reduced. The paper discusses the growth patterns in the both sub-periods and tries to explain the factors that contributed to the good economic performance during the financial crisis. The astonishingly good economic growth results cannot be attributed to a single factor, but to a combination of many factors contributing at the same time. However, Poland has many valuable assets that may help in dealing with the further economic turbulences.

  15. Economic and Market Developments in the Franc Zone

    OpenAIRE

    MATRIC Staff

    1997-01-01

    Economic development in many Sub-Saharan African countries has been restricted by obstacles such as political instability, population expansion, environmental degradation, and poor technical support systems. However, one group of countries, known as the Franc Zone, experienced economic growth from the 1960s through the early 1980s. This paper provides an overview of the Franc Zone and its economic history, followed by recent economic and market profiles of three of its larger agricultural-bas...

  16. FINANCING ACTIONS OFENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Holubka, S. M.; Shtuler, I. Y.; Biloskyrskiy, Р. Р.

    2018-01-01

    The article provides a comprehensive analysis of the financing actions of ecological and economic development in Ukraine with the identification of the main disadvantages and perspective ways of improvement. The differences between financing environmental protection measures and actions of ecological and economic development are found out. Environmental measures grately involve expenditure of a forced, restrictive nature. Instead, financing actions of environmental and economic development ai...

  17. Potentials of Local Economic Development in Aspect of Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Viktória Csizmadiáné Czuppon; Edina Sáriné Csajka; Tamás Molnár

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to introduce the potentials of local economic development in one of the least favoured micro regions, Tamási. The paper examines operating and planned activities at settlements of the micro region. The authors introduce local economic development activities that support tourism. The economic development planning in Tamási micro region has typically two directions. One of them is the utilisation of thermal water and the use of further potentials of the thermal bat...

  18. The Impact of the Economic Transition on the Development of Economic Freedom – Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stepniak-Kucharska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the Polish socio-economic system, initiated at the turn of 1989 and 1990, led to a systematic increase in the liberalization of economy and thereby the rise of the level of economic freedom. The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the economic transition on the development of economic freedom in Poland. The analysis, carried out in the period 1995-2015, was conducted on the basis of the chain-linked Economic Freedom Index by the Fraser Institute and the Index of Economic Freedom of the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal. The analysis indicates that: (1 Poland cannot be considered as a country that is fully free economically, but the transition of its economic system has resulted in a rapid growth of economic freedom. (2 The impact of transition varies for different areas (sub-indices of the economy. (3 The European economic integration stimulated the increase of EFI, but the economic crisis did not decrease the level of economic freedom.

  19. ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS A FACTOR OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Repkina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance and role of entrepreneurship for enterprise development process under current economic conditions are discussed. Ways to improve enterprise entrepreneurship efficiency are proposed.

  20. Economic development and growth in transition countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusinova, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    The countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, commonly referred to as "transition countries", have undergone transformations unparalleled in recent economic history. This book concentrates on three aspects of the transition process: the factors driving growth, the effect

  1. Economics | Page 11 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. Across Africa, men and women are increasingly entering the marketplace as small business owners, offering a range of goods and services. ... They also examine the supply of and demand for financial services in the region, with a particular focus on marginalized populations.

  2. Welfare Reform and Black Women's Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2007-01-01

    In 1996, the United States Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, placing emphasis on individuals to take responsibility for separating themselves from governmental dependence by becoming economically self-sufficient through employment. Using a qualitative approach, this study explored the experiences…

  3. Military Expenditure and Socio-Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Nicole

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between military expenditure and the stimulation of aggregate demand, inflation, investment, trade balance, foreign exchange, the improvement of taxation, and employment creation and industrialization in the Third World is analyzed. To some extent military expenditure does promote economic growth, but it does not automatically…

  4. Economics | Page 18 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. Agents of Change presents the results of an international conference held in Africa. It provides practical solutions and suggestions for real change. It discusses national strategies for small enterprises, examines legal, regulatory, and tax reform, and makes proposals on how to ...

  5. Economics | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dans leur livre, intitulé Manufacturing Enterprise in Asia: Size Structure and Economic Growth, Dipak Mazumdar et Sandip Sarkar proposent une interprétation des trajectoires de croissance économique de certains pays d'Asie, mise en corrélation avec la structure de la taille des entreprises manufacturières. Read more ...

  6. Economics | Page 32 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. Rather than simply analyzing the current functioning of the WTO, its problems and challenges, this volume is also a call to action. It lays out proposals that are likely to become a blueprint for reform of the WTO as an institution. Its contents are abundantly worthy of reflection and ...

  7. Economics | Page 5 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. Kenya's population is becoming increasingly urban; more than half of Nairobi's residents live in informal settlements (slums) plagued by cramped living conditions and poor access to basic services. Read more about IDRC-supported project influencing government policy in Kenya.

  8. Economic Development, Urbanisation, Energy Consumption and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings lead to the reiteration of the old call for economic diversification in Nigeria and other similar countries to shift urbanisation from a rural push mode to an urban pull mode. More important is that the shift should be powered by the efficient use of both non-renewable and renewable energy sources.

  9. Windfall gains, political economy and economic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Olsson, Ola

    2008-01-01

    Natural resource rents and foreign aid have the character of windfall gains that affect economic outcomes both directly and indirectly. Several studies have shown that the indirect effect typically works via institutions like corruption. In this article, we offer a theoretical framework for a joint...

  10. Territorial Rural Development: Biosphere Reserves as an opportunity for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Benete Reyes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The strategy to strengthen the field of rural development planning aims the search for social cohesion, regional competitiveness and environmental sustainability of the territories. In this sense, the current uncertain context characterized by the globalization of the economy, increasing demand for energy, erosion and pressure on natural resources demand for innovative models that promote rural development territorial strategies that give priority to local resources and that support local development models  In this stage, the model of territorial planning is established as a preferred option on models of local development settled under the concept of the municipality, since mobilizes resources and capabilities between regions that have common strengths and opportunities for promoting development and exceeding the vision and concept of the local as political-administrative unit. It is in this supra-municipal and territorial approach where Biosphere Reserves are an opportunity for sustainable territorial development.

  11. Determinants of Development of Socio-Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opalko Viktoriia V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine the dynamics of development, factors and determinants that can stimulate the development of socio-economic systems. There proposed the author’s approach to the concept of “development of the socio-economic system”, which should be understood as gradual quantitative and qualitative changes in the functioning of the social and market institutions of the system. The theoretical principles of the dynamics of development of socio-economic systems that allow identifying the determinants capable to qualitatively change the development of socio-economic systems are systematized. The novelty of the study is the proposed formalized approach to development determinants that in the aggregate significantly change the functioning of the socio-economic system. It is proved that the determinants of development cause fluctuations, phase transitions from the previous level of development to the next one.

  12. An Attempt to Assess the Quantitative Impact of Institutions on Economic Growth and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Próchniak Mariusz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing to what extent institutional environment is responsible for worldwide differences in economic growth and economic development. To answer this question, we use an innovative approach based on a new concept of the institutions-augmented Solow model which is then estimated empirically using regression equations. The analysis covers 180 countries during the 1993-2012 period. The empirical analysis confirms a large positive impact of the quality of institutional environment on the level of economic development. The positive link has been evidenced for all five institutional indicators: two indices of economic freedom (Heritage Foundation and Fraser Institute, the governance indicator (World Bank, the democracy index (Freedom House, and the EBRD transition indicator for post-socialist countries. Differences in physical capital, human capital, and institutional environment explain about 70-75% of the worldwide differences in economic development. The institutions-augmented Solow model, however, performs slightly poorer in explaining differences in the rates of economic growth: only one institutional variable (index of economic freedom has a statistically significant impact on economic growth. In terms of originality, this paper extends the theoretical analysis of the Solow model by including institutions, on the one hand, and shows a comprehensive empirical analysis of the impact of various institutional indicators on both the level of development and the pace of economic growth, on the other. The results bring important policy implications.

  13. The Role of Multilateral Development Banks in Promoting Economic Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Abalkina, Anna

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of multilateral development banks in promoting economic integration in different regional blocs. The experience of financing regional public goods by several multilateral development banks is studied (Inter-American Development Bank, Central American Bank for Economic Integration, Andean Development Corporation, Asian Development Bank). Special attention is paid to the perspectives of the multilateral development banks in promoting regional integration in the ...

  14. The world economic development with the ISER-PIUS for developing and developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroaki

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power as a base for the world economic development has, unfortunately, been posing some potential risks including excessive radiation and radioactivity releases from the TMI-2 and the Chernobyl-4 as well as the future risks of nuclear waste management. On the other hand, it is a fact that nuclear power is already being used substantially as an economical energy option throughout the world. Therefore, the ISER-PIUS is now envissaged to be used eventually as safe and economical power source to be employed widely in the world. The present economic conditions and future economic development in Indonesia, taken as an example of less developed country, are described briefly. It is insisted that the policy of nuclear power introduction into a less developed country is neither economical nor realistic. More feasible seems a system of domestically designed and developed inherently safe reactor like ISER-PIUS. An analysis is also made of the future potential of such reactors in advanced countries in terms of the future of ISER-PIUS. It is concluded that cheap electricity and heat are needed for the economic development in less developed nations and for the maintenance of the economy level now attained by developed countries as well. International collaboration for the ISER-PIUS development will be a vehecle for the world-wide economic development in the next century. (Nogami, K.)

  15. Revisiting the effect of colonial institutions on comparative economic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina A Assenova

    Full Text Available European settler mortality has been proposed as an instrument to predict the causal effect of colonial institutions on differences in economic development. We examine the relationship between mortality, temperature, and economic development in former European colonies in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. We find that (i European settler mortality rates increased with regional temperatures and (ii economic output decreased with regional temperatures. Conditioning on the continent of settlement and accounting for colonies that were not independent as of 1900 undermines the causal effect of colonial institutions on comparative economic development. Our findings run counter to the institutions hypothesis of economic development, showing instead that geography affected both historic mortality rates and present-day economic output.

  16. Water infrastructure for human and economic development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available 14: Capacity of municipalities to provide waste water treatment services ...................................45 Figure 15: Mining areas and minerals particularly susceptible to the formation of AMD ..........................47 Figure 16: Trialogue... on society through both the primary treatment costs and the secondary impacts on the economy: ? The more polluted the water resource, the higher the treatment costs; ? Human health (and the resultant loss in economic activity) is affected by poor water...

  17. Economics | Page 26 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. L'humanité est de plus en plus tributaire des ressources marines et côtières. Les petites entreprises de pêche emploient aujourd'hui 50 des 51 millions de pêcheurs du monde, qui se trouvent pratiquement tous dans des pays en développement. Ensemble, ils produisent plus de la ...

  18. Law, Economic Growth and Human Development: Evidence from Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu Simplice

    2011-01-01

    This paper cuts adrift the mainstream approach to the legal-origins debate on the law-growth nexus by integrating both overall economic and human components in our understanding of how regulation quality and the rule of law lie at the heart of economic and inequality adjusted human developments. Findings summarily reveal that legal-origin does not explain economic growth and human development beyond the mechanisms of law. Our results support the current consensus that, English common-law coun...

  19. Economic Liberalization as Development Policy: the Contemporary Debate

    OpenAIRE

    Dejene Mamo Bekana

    2011-01-01

    The essay argues that the influential neoliberal economic philosophers assume that market and price mechanisms should be promoted to achieve economic development and calls for economic liberalization undermining the role of policy instruments. The essay challenges the presuppositions of these arguments. It maintains that Selective liberalization should be pursued by governments after development of regulatory and institutional frameworks that enable governments to monitor market operation and...

  20. Modeling the Economic Behavior of Households within the Context of Development of Economic Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov Roman V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the publication is to study formation of the household economic behavior modeling in the context of development of economic thought and methods of the economic-mathematical modeling. The study was carried out under the assumption that, when studying the development of theoretical and methodological foundations of the economic behavior of households one must take into account not only the history of development of economic theory, but also the transformation of attitudes in other areas of human knowledge, in particular the paradigm shift in scientific thinking. It has been specified that the massive use of mathematical methods in economics is associated with formation of the marginal theory and at the same time – with the proliferation of the marginal analysis. At the present stage, the economic behavior of households is being analyzed in the terms of concepts such as neoclassicism, institutionalism and behaviorism. But by dividing the concepts of «individual» and «household», it can be argued that precisely the institutionalism in conjunction with synergistic approach provide the basis for elaboration of strategies for the economic behavior of households, ensuring their economic security.

  1. FORMATION OF ECONOMIC MECHANISM OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shestakova E. V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Now in research of social and economic systems synergy approach according to which the entity represents the open self-organizing (spontaneous system gains ground. Such representation of the entity in the context of modern economic science requires development of new mechanisms and management tools. The purpose of researches in the sphere of synergy management is development of mechanisms of self-organization, and also information filling of its elements. Complexity of processes of self-organization dictates need of integration of separate types of the mechanisms differing on a method of creation, uniformity of elements, complexity, a strategic orientation, target orientation, management functions. Thus, the integrated mechanism of self-organization of the entity represents multi-level system of the interconnected mechanisms (organizational, economic, information, motivational differentiated on elements. In article content of the economic development mechanism of the entity reveals; its purposes, subjects, objects, the principles, methods, tools and resources are considered. On the basis of research of features of development of social and economic systems the ratio of stages of enterprise lifecycle with self-organization process stages is established. The principles of the economic development mechanism of the entity are proved: financial independence, self-sufficiency, economic feasibility, responsibility, resource capability, economic control, interest. Methods of the economic mechanism (planning and forecasting, marketing activity, economic diagnostics, financial credit policy, economic incentives are allocated and the tools corresponding to them are proved. Features of sale of the economic mechanism at stages of dynamic balance and bifurcation are established. The practical importance of results of research consists in development of development mechanisms of the industrial enterprises promoting achievement of long-term competitive

  2. MANAGING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT BY TOURISM CONTRIBUTION: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Petrevska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tourism became one of the leading world industries thus provoking an interest among all countries, regardless the level of their economic development. Moreover, by increasing the number of incoming tourists, each country attempts to contribute to strengthening its economic growth. The paper addresses the economic impacts of tourism in Macedonia and makes an effort to assess its contribution to economic development. For that purpose, some commonly applied economic parameters are employed. The data set is observed in two sub-periods: 1991-2000 as a period just after the independence of Macedonia and 2001-2010 as a period extensive enough to observe the first tourism outcomes. The research generally is covered by comparative analyses based on available sources of secondary data. The outcomes point to modest contribution of tourism towards economic development, and underscores the necessity for managing actions and measures for enhancing current status.

  3. Corruption and Economic Development in Nigeria: Connections and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concern for achieving and sustaining high level of economic development is usually a top priority issue for governments all over the world. Hence, when economic development is planned and financed, what usually determines the success rate is the extent to which the resources earmarked for projects are judiciously ...

  4. In Search of a Sustainable Economic Development Agenda in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since independence, Ghana has adopted different strategies in a quest for a sustainable economic development agenda to better the lives of her citizens. The Nkrumah administration initiated the process through an Import-Substitution Industrialisation-led economic development policy agenda from 1957 to 1966. That was ...

  5. Does Islamic Banking Contribute to Economic Development? Evidence from Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafas Furqani

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Does Islamic banking contribute to the economic development of a country? In what way Islamic banking contribute to the economic development? Are the main question might be asked to examine the viability of Islamic banking to the economic development. This paper attempts to answer those questions by examining the dynamic interactions between Islamic banking and economic development of Malaysia by employing the Cointegration test and Vector Error Model (VECM to see whether the Islamic financial system contributes to the economic development and economic development that contribute to the transformation of the operation of the Islamic financial system in the longrun. We use time series data of total Islamic bank financing (IB financing and real GDP per capita (RGDP, fixed investment (GFCF, and trade activities (TRADE to represent real economic sectors. We found that in the short-run only fixed investment that granger cause Islamic bank to develop for 1997:1-2005:4. Where as in the long-run, there is evidence of a bidirectional relationship between Islamic bank and fixed investment and there is evidence to support ‘demand following’ hypothesis of GDP and Islamic bank, where increase in GDP causes Islamic banking to develop and not vice versa. Islamic banking is also found to have less contribution to the international trade in the form of export and import of goods and services.Keywords: Islamic banking, economic growth, Malaysia, VECM

  6. A Research-Based Development Economics Course for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prakarsh; Guo, Hongye; Morales, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    The authors present details of a research-based course in development economics taught at a private liberal arts college. There were three key elements in this class: teaching of applied econometrics, group presentations reviewing published and working papers in development economics, and using concepts taught in class to write an original…

  7. Impact of Reproductive Health on Socio-economic Development: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Reproductive Health on Socio-economic Development: A Case Study of Nigeria. ... African Journal of Reproductive Health ... Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, has policies and programmes geared towards the improvement of its socio-economic standing and overal development, with little positive result.

  8. THE RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT NEXUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorkemli Kazar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As renewable energy requirements increases, its relation with development is controversial. In this study, by taking human development index for development level, the relationship between renewable electricity net generation values and development has been searched with panel analysis. Study covers two different time periods: 1980-2010 with 5 year data to analyze long term effects and 2005-2010 yearly data for short term effects. Unlike previous studies, energy generation has been taken into consideration for it is thought to be more related with economic development. It is found that in the long run economic development will be leading to renewable energy production, while in the short run there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between renewable energy production and economic development. In addition, the causal relationship between economic development and renewable energy production varies both in the long run and in the short run due to human development level of the countries.

  9. Women and economic development: Igbo women example ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National development has been a universal issue. Every country wants to develop in all areas of life and the development of a nation starts with the development of the communities that make up the nation. In some countries like America, China, Germany and so on, the development of their economy is the major area of ...

  10. Economic development and Environmental quality: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of this study was to analyze evidence of an environmental Kuznets curve for water pollution in the developing and developed countries. The study was conducted based on a panel data set of 54 countries – that were categorized into six groups of “developed countries”, “developing countries”, “developed ...

  11. Tactical Economics: The U.S. Army’s Tactical Contribution to Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    gleaned from prominent scholars in the field of economic development. One of the prominent debates on economic development is between Dr. Jeffrey ... Sachs , and Dr. William Easterly. Sachs is a world-renowned scholar made popular with his involvement on the transition of the former Soviet Union from...He now serves as Director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University and Quetelet Professor of Sustainable Development. Sachs argues that

  12. Economic development and industrial structure - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordaas, Hildegunn Kyvik

    1997-09-01

    The essay offers a selective review of central issues related to economic growth. The interrelationship between technological progress, capital accumulation, specialisation and industrial structure is emphasised. It is concluded that, first, there is little evidence that industrial structure plays an independent role in growth. Second, economists have been more successful in explaining the consequence of technological progress than the determinants of technological progress. However, even the consequences are not well understood and there is still a long way to go before general and well-documented policy implications can be drawn. (Author)

  13. Economics | Page 20 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics. Économie. Colour. #2C81B5. Watershed décrit la crise de l'eau à laquelle font face aujourd'hui Israël et les Territoires occupés de la Palestine – crise qui aura beaucoup d'effet sur la conception et la réussite des propositions de paix en cours. Les auteurs analysent la géopolitique de l'eau dans la région, ...

  14. Population Growth and Economic and Social Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    All evidence shows that fast population growth slows development in the developing countries. It is the combination of social development and family planning that is so powerful in reducing fertility. Governments must act now. (RM)

  15. The Financial Regulation of the Country’s Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydova Irina I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at disclosing the essence of the system of financial regulation of economic development of the country, defining institutional foundations in the process of development of financial mechanism. Approaches to strengthening the efficiency of financial policy as an important economic institution, which should significantly influence economic growth, have been developed. The directions of increase of efficiency of budget policy in conditions of institutional changes have been defined. Currently, financial regulation of the country is being formed in the context of socio-economic policy, which is resulting from the need for the State participation in the world economic and financial relations, for improving the quality of public services on the part of the State, which requires the implementation of a strategy of economic growth at a qualitatively new institutional level. The State financial policy should ultimately focus on the appropriate endogenous factors of economic growth. In modern conditions it is expedient to strengthen the role of financial policy as a significant macro-economic instrument, which provides an effective influence on achievement of financial and economic balance, efficiency of economic transformations.

  16. Institutional factor in international economic activity of region and its socio-economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Leonidovna Andreeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the impact of the institutional factor on the development of regional international economic relations. The scope of the study is regional international economic activity (IEA, the subject-matter is the role of the institutional factor in its development. The study purpose is to develop a scientific approach for the assessment of the institutional factor impact on the development of region’s international economic relations. The hypothesis is that the targeted efforts of all participants of IEA of the region (business, authorities, local community to strengthen of theese components of the institutional factor, which have a strong influence on the regional socio-economic development. A methodological approach for the assessment of this influenceis developed. It includes determining three elements of IEA institutionalization—agreements, organizations, events. A three-dimensional model is proposed for the coordination of these elements with 3 groups of countries—developed, developing and CIS, including the Eurasian Economic Union, and also with basic indexes characterizing the qualitative and quantitative contribution of region’s IEA into its socio-economic development. This model is tested on the example of the Sverdlovsk region of Russia for 2003–2015. That has allowed to define various kinds of the effects from strenthening the IEA institutional component, which are expressed in the increase of the export of the region, improvement of its investment attractiveness, the diversification of regional economy as well as the the generation of additional jobs and tax flows increase.

  17. Economic development strategies of regions of Russia: system crisis and new economic space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Borisovich Gusev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the strength of internal economic space of Russia and the positiveness of the interregional economic relations, the paper investigates the types of economic interaction of federal districts by means of “predator-prey” models. The strategic economic breaks between the European and East parts of the country are revealed. The accelerated economic growth of East part of the country is predicted that will allow to reach about the same volume of Gross Regional Product (GRP as GRP in the European part of Russia by 2020. With the help of model constructions the typology of integration crises of federal districts with each other is revealed: back-to-back paralyzing of economic activity (A crisis; mutual destruction (B crisis; economic indifference (C crisis; transition of a role of «predator» to the economically weak territories (D crisis. Macroeconomic threat and challenge to the territorial integrity of Russia is proved due to the state support of regions of the North Caucasus Federal District without involvement of intro regional sources of economic growth, and due to the accelerated economic development of the Far East Federal District. The limited opportunities of the Ural Federal District to support the national economy during a crisis at the expense of export of energy carriers is concluded. The thesis about the low sensitivity of the economy of Russia to the increase of the oil world prices, and about sensitivity to the negative external economic conditions are reasonable. Estimates of the GRP decrease in Russia at the various levels of decrease in the world prices for oil (up to 50 US dollars for barrel are received and given. The package of measures on response to the threats revealing to the internal economic space and territorial integrity of the country is presented.Keywords: regional economy, regional economic integration, federal districts, “predator-prey” model

  18. Life Insurance Contribution, Insurance Development and Economic Growth in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ying

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Under L-type economy, remodelling the growth power in the medium and long term is essential. The insurance industry during the 13th Five-year Plan period has been given a heavy expectation on promoting economic quality and upgrading economic efficiency, so it will try to accelerate its innovation and development process which serves national needs, market demand and people's requirements. Referring to the previous researches of Solow and Zhang and measuring Capital Stock and Total Factor Productivity independently, the paper analyses the inherent correlation between insurance (including life insurance and non-life insurance and economic growth, reveals the contribution law of the insurance development in economic growth in the short and long term from both economic scale and quality respectively. It also shows enlightenments on policy decision for insurance industry, thus helps economic stability under the downturn periods.

  19. ADMINISTRATION AND LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT CASE STUDY: VALCEA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia-Camelia MARIN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Involving local governments is one of the key issues and challenges for the development of each region, not least for the development of Romania, as an EU member country. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the main factors affecting the ability of local authorities in Romania, especially those in Valcea county to provide economic operators and citizens conducting an environment of economic activities and a high level of quality of life. For example, I follow the development of several economic indicators relevant for economic development and opportunities for involvement of local government to improve the economic situation specific to this county. As research methods in paper I plugged classification, synthesis, static and dynamic comparative analysis, methods of induction and deduction, the graphical representation of events and phenomena investigated in an attempt to provide an explanation of the problem that is, in terms theoretically convincing.

  20. The economic and poverty impacts of animal diseases in developing countries: new roles, new demands for economics and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Karl M; Perry, Brian D

    2011-09-01

    Animal disease outbreaks pose significant threats to livestock sectors throughout the world, both from the standpoint of the economic impacts of the disease itself and the measures taken to mitigate the risk of disease introduction. These impacts are multidimensional and not always well understood, complicating effective policy response. In the developing world, livestock diseases have broader, more nuanced effects on markets, poverty, and livelihoods, given the diversity of uses of livestock and complexity of livestock value chains. In both settings, disease control strategies, particularly those informed by ex ante modeling platforms, often fail to recognize the constraints inherent among farmers, veterinary services, and other value chain actors. In short, context matters. Correspondingly, an important gap in the animal health economics literature is the explicit incorporation of behavior and incentives in impact analyses that highlight the interactions of disease with its socio-economic and institutional setting. In this paper, we examine new approaches and frameworks for the analysis of economic and poverty impacts of animal diseases. We propose greater utilization of "bottom-up" analyses, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of value chain and information economics approaches in impact analyses and stressing the importance of improved integration between the epidemiology of disease and its relationships with economic behavior. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of Technology Transfer Economic Growth Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Christina M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of producing technology transfer metrics that answer the question: Do NASA/MSFC technical assistance activities impact economic growth? The data for this project resides in a 7800-record database maintained by Tec-Masters, Incorporated. The technology assistance data results from survey responses from companies and individuals who have interacted with NASA via a Technology Transfer Agreement, or TTA. The goal of this project was to determine if the existing data could provide indications of increased wealth. This work demonstrates that there is evidence that companies that used NASA technology transfer have a higher job growth rate than the rest of the economy. It also shows that the jobs being supported are jobs in higher wage SIC codes, and this indicates improvements in personal wealth. Finally, this work suggests that with correct data, the wealth issue may be addressed.

  2. Roles of airships in economic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, G. J.; Hidalgo, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    It is proposed that airships of known and tested technology could, in some cases, perform routine transport missions more economically than conventional transport modes. If infrastructure for direct surface transport is already in place or if such infrastructure can be justified by the size of the market and there are no unusual impediments to constructing it, then the airships of tested technology cannot normally compete. If, however, the surface routes would be unusually expensive or circuitous, or if they involve several transhipments, or if the market size is too small to spread infrastructure costs of conventional transport, the airships of tested technology present a workable alternative. A series of special cases are considered. The cases, though unusual, are not unique; there are several similar possible applications which, in total, would provide a reasonably large market for airships.

  3. BREXIT IMPACT ON SERBIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available On Thursday, 23.6.2016. the British were out to vote - a referendum to stay or exit from European Union nations. With minimal but sufficient majority pleaded United Kingdom leave European Union. The paradox is even greater because there are, the principles, and the chapters that each member state has to pass, and to harmonize its legislation and rules of good practice in force in the EU, but there are no rules to carry out, or how to handle the situation when the country decided by a majority vote of its population to leave the EU. However, what is for Serbia at this moment most important is how it will affect the flow Brexit and Serbia's path towards the EU, in terms of whether and how much will be the consequences for Serbia in the light of recent events. More important question is, it seems, refers to economic stability in Serbia. In this regard, the paper discusses the situation primarily on the economic front Serbia after the decision of Great Britain to leave the European Union. Special attention is paid to the opportunities that presented themselves in connection with a faster reception of Serbia in the EU or in the work also indicates the obstacles that Serbia will inevitably encounter on the road to the EU as a strategic orientation through and in a situation where the purpose and existence of the European Union questioned. However, the conclusion is that the citizens of Serbia needed strong EU compared to the one that has ever existed.

  4. The role of tourism in sustainable economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Salvo Creaco; Giulio Querini

    2003-01-01

    Tourism is now one of the world's largest industries and one of its fastest growing economic sectors. For many countries tourism is seen as a main instrument for regional development, as it stimulates new economic activities. Tourism may have a positive economic impact on the balance of payments, on employment, on gross income and production, but it may also have negative effects, particularly on the environment. Unplanned and uncontrolled tourism growth can result in such a deterioration of ...

  5. Chinese Economic Development in the Next 20 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Liang-Xin Li

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, Chinese economic development is discussed in detail. The 5 major strategies are investigated thoroughly: 1) Speed-maintaining strategies. In this strategies, China must hold a suitable high speed economic growth rate in order to fully use Chinese manpower and world economic opportunities; 2)Healthy economy strategy. By designing and making all effective policies, China must strive to keep Chinese economy in a healthy and controllable status. 3) Competiveness strategy. For this ...

  6. Human Capital, Population Growth and Economic Development: Beyond Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenzweig, Mark R.

    1987-01-01

    Empirical evidence on three assertions commonly-made by population policy advocates about the relationships among population growth, human capital formation and economic development is discussed and evaluated in the light of economic-biological models of household behavior and of its relevance to population policy. The three assertions are that (a) population growth and human capital investments jointly reflect and respond to changes in the economic environment, (b) larger families directly i...

  7. Environmental Aspects of Economic Development in Sub-Saharn Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Baytas, A.

    1991-01-01

    Studies on the economies of Sub-Saharan Africa have generally neglected the links between economic growth and environmental quality. In many such studies, economics and ecology have been treated as mutually exclusive rather than complementary domains. The key to Sub-Saharan Africa's future is to achieve sustainable growth. This calls for replacing the traditional concept of growth based economic output alone with a new approach that stresses development through conserv...

  8. Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics--Europe 2004 : Economic Integration and Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Bourguignon, Francois; Jacquet, Pierre; Pleskovic, Boris

    2007-01-01

    To address these broad questions: How to analyze the impact of globalization? What is the effect of rich countries' policies on developing ones? How to redefine the development agenda and scale-up the aid effort? The European Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE-Europe) focused on some of the problematic features of globalization and discussed the global impact of developed countries...

  9. The main issues preventing Kosovo’s economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demir Lima

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an analysis of several problematic factors preventing Kosovo’s economic development. Several sectors that could have been the main pillars of economic development, such as manufacturing, energy, mines and minerals, and other economic sectors have been neglected from the development by domestic institutions or were used clandestinely by certain interest groups, whose focus was not in the development of the country but rather their personal gain. Trade remained the preferred activity throughout these years, which cannot be considered a beneficial sector for economic development, as much as manufacturing, which remains to date as Kosovo’s most underdeveloped sector. As long as Kosovo’s exports cover only 12% of total imports, no economic growth can be expected. Kosovo’s failure to attract strategic investors in years, which could open new jobs, has also contributed its lack of sufficient economic development. Thus, the most concerning issue during this period is the decline in foreign direct investments, which were expected to increase after the declaration of independence. In the lack of a long-term development strategy for certain sectors or priority activities, such as mines, energy, industry etc., there is no progress in the country's economic development. The main issue is that we should only favor those activities or identify segments where we have competitive advantages compared to other countries.

  10. Essays on Political Economy and Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lyubimov (Ivan)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractThe spillover of information from more developed economies to the less developed ones is of key importance for sustainable transition towards higher living standards in emerging societies. The amount and type of essential information which is transferred to developing world is far

  11. Economic development for an exploding population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roukens De Lange, A

    1979-01-01

    The author outlines proposals for the organization and implementation of development policies in Zimbabwe. Suggestions are made for adjustments for policies and life styles to respond to threats of overpopulation, depletion of resources, pollution, and famine. Types and problems of development and fallacies of development planning are examined. Methods of research are briefly discussed

  12. [Immigration and economic development in Eastern Asia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, L L

    1994-01-01

    This work describes recent trends in East Asian migration and their economic effects. The great waves of emigration of the past have largely ceased from Japan and the "dragons" of East Asia, and all have become countries of illegal immigration, return of emigrants, and legal entry of professionals. All the countries except Hong Kong have maintained strict immigration policies in order to protect their traditional and homogeneous societies and the employment and income of their own citizens. But despite active encouragement of industrial displacement to countries with cheap and abundant manpower, the labor shortages in these countries have become so severe that they have had to tolerate increased immigration. There is little evidence that immigrants have taken the jobs of natives or caused their incomes to decrease. They appear to complement shrinking local labor forces in these countries of drastically reduced fertility. The annual growth of the active population is predicted to decline from 523,000 in the 1980s to 227,000 in the 1990s in Japan, from 231,000 to 149,000 in Taiwan, and from 400,000 to 300,000 in Korea. Full employment was achieved in Japan in the early 1960s, in Taiwan in the late 1960s, in Hong Kong in the early 1970s, and in Korea in the late 1980s. Full employment was the major factor prompting relaxed immigration controls in these countries. The foreign workers are concentrated in less skilled jobs in dirty or dangerous industries that are shunned by the local population. Opponents of liberalized immigration policies cite the supplementary expenditures for infrastructure and services necessitated by the workers as well as for integration of workers desiring longterm settlement, especially if they are of different ethnicity. No definitive conclusions can be drawn about the overall positive or negative impact of immigration in East Asia without specifying the perspective from which the analysis is made--economic or social, short or long term, from

  13. Measuring the Degree of Local Administration Action in Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Botezat

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The attentive diagnosis of the local economic basis, the deep understanding of the obstacles that confront the economic growth and the investments, the elaboration and the implementation of certain strategies to facilitate the investments are the means by which the local authorities can assure the future of the local community which voted them. The present paper proposes to measure the effectiveness and efficacity of their activity by lying the basis of the methodology of calculating the degree the local authorities imply themselves in the local economic development and its impact upon the financial mana¬gement performance of a certain town. Only a management that sustains the local economic development can lead to the permanent growth of the economic basis, which generates permanent development.

  14. Social and economic development of Russia: Finding new dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Medvedev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses Russian economic development and economic policy in 2015–2016. The analysis focuses on external and domestic challenges as well as the anti-crisis policy of the Russian government. Special attention is paid to key elements of the new model of economic growth in Russia. The paper discusses economic policy priorities for sustainable growth that include budget efficiency, structural reforms and import substitution, the encouragement of entrepreneurship, the efficiency of public administration, and the modernization of the welfare state.

  15. Christian Church: A Catalyst for Economic Development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Christian Church: A Catalyst for Economic Development in Nigeria. ... African Research Review ... The Nigerian economy had a truncated history from independence to present times and the economy has suffered series of economic instability because of a long period of unsustained growth in the per capital real income of ...

  16. The Role of Stock Market Development on Economic Growth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Research Review ... Abstract. This study investigated the role of stock market development on economic growth of Nigeria using a 15-year time series data from 1994 - 2008. ... This result implies that liquidity has propensity to spur economic growth in Nigeria and that market capitalization influences market liquidity.

  17. 153 Monetary Policy and Nigeria's Economic Development (Pp. 153 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... This policy employs central bank's control of the supply of money as instrument for achieving desired economic goals. Ridhwan, DeGroot, Henri, Nijkamp and Rietveld (2010) studied the impact of monetary policy on economic development in some economies using vector autoregressive (VAR) models and ...

  18. Contributions of Esan women to sustainable economic development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper highlights aspects of Production amongst Esan Women for Sustainable Economic Development and the Consolidation of Intra and Inter Group Relations between1850-1960: Lesson for Nigeria Still in Search of Economic Relations. This paper is timely due to the dearth of literature on women and their ...

  19. Innovation systems, saving, trust, and economic development in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pamuk, H.

    2014-01-01

    The five essays in the dissertation explore the interaction between economic development in Africa and three economic concepts from different fields: decentralized agricultural innovation systems, trust and saving practices. A relatively new view to boost agricultural growth is the implementation of

  20. Feminism and the global economic development of human capital: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feminism and the global economic development of human capital: a philosophical analysis. Irene Omolola Adadevoh. Abstract. No Abstract. The Nigerian Journal of Economic History Vol. 3 2000: 110-123. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African ...

  1. Educational Investments and Economic Development: A Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champaigne, John

    A study examined the relationship between educational investments and economic development in the small community of Canandaigua, New York. A field study approach was used to collect data pertaining to the city's population characteristics, income characteristics, economic conditions, unemployment rates, and housing conditions. These data were…

  2. Mechanism of Economic Empowerment and Development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mechanism of Economic Empowerment and Development in Nigeria: A Discourse. ... AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities ... NEEDS, the concept of economic empowerment, the policy thrusts of NEEDS, the strategies for employment generation, the institutional framework of NEEDS and the ...

  3. Models of Economic Growth and Development in the Context of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Way Forward for Africa. Lansana Keita* ... to such progress. Key Words: economic growth, economic development, human capital, growth models. Résumé. La littérature économique depuis l'avènement de l'économie moderne a été ..... between the economy's growth rate according to investment and the propensity to ...

  4. Perspective: Socio-economic development and child survival | Onike ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perspective: Socio-economic development and child survival. ... Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics ... Soon after independence in the 1950's and 60's many African countries suffered political unrest, social upheaval and economic instability with military coups and or civil wars, leaving 20 million internally displaced or refugees, ...

  5. European Trading Companies and Economic Development in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    European trading companies and economic development in the Cross River Basin 1888 to 1960 is a historical topic that should attract the attention of current economic historians. The paper focuses on the gradual planting of European colonial presence in the interior of the Basin through the agency of their trading ...

  6. ISLAMIC FINANCE DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha JOBARTEH

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This work is a study on Islamic finance development and economic growth nexus for Turkey. It employs the econometric methods of unit root, co-integration, and Granger causality in a VECM framework; and the results, which are robust to all measures of Islamic finance development, show a unidirectional short and long run causality from Islamic finance development to economic growth. Hence, it is recommended that policy makers increase their efforts in promoting Islamic finance in Turkey.

  7. Plural economics and territorial development from the perspective of sustainable development: theoretical elements of an economic sociology and a socio-economics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Lévesque

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This text focuses on the contribution that the concept of plural economics is able to make today toward the advancement of research on the viability of territorial dynamics for sustainable development. The first part of our line of argumentation is centered on clarifying the concept of plural economics, based on studies on economic and social solidarity and on proposals emerging from the New Economic Sociology and the socio-economics of territories. In the second part, the concept of sustainable development is characterized from the angle of the so-called societal paradigm and its interactions with territory and with a plural and social economics. Aligned with the critique of the premises of neo-classical economics, the author accepts the need to re-connect the economy to a broader social and ecological perspective and to seek more effective answers to the challenges raised by the planetary socio-environmental crisis.. Keywords: Sustainable territorial development, plural economics, New Economic Sociology, economics of solidarity, ecological economics.

  8. Economics | Page 28 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The diffusion of its benefits in developing countries (where resources are unevenly distributed to begin with) is therefore an issue of central importance to the ... the results of an international initiative to document the effects of how health systems in the developing world have responded to macroeconomic austerity and ...

  9. Culture, Spirituality, and Economic Development: Opening a ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1995-01-01

    Jan 1, 1995 ... Security, sustainability, and stability often depend on a system of values that has taken centuries to develop within a specific society. Current development strategies, however, tend to ignore, often underestimate, and sometimes undermine cultural values or the cultural environment, which are essential to ...

  10. Social Capital, Creative Destruction and Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Dirk; Dulleck, Uwe; Frijters, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops a conceptual framework for the role of social capital in the political economy of innovation, growth and reform, with illustrations from developing and transition countries. It identifies separate but related roles for the individual and communal interpretations of social

  11. Empiric Study about the Mix Fiscal Policy – Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Sergiu Ocnean

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is one of the primary objectives of any government. Fiscal policy represents one of the most effective tools that government authorities could use in order to influence the economy. Having this in mind, this paper focuses on the connection between economic development and fiscal policy and proposes an empirical study based on a sample of 21 European countries. Using a simple pool data model, we tried to distinguish the relations between the evolution of GDP per capita, as a proxy for economic development, and the evolution of three fiscal policy variables, namely the tax burden, the public expenditure to GDP ratio and the budget deficit to GDP ratio.

  12. Sustainable economic development under The perspective of the agrarian right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Araújo Guimarães

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work is about an analysis of the principle of the sustainable economic development under the optics of the agrarian economic activity, tends in view to growing environmental crisis after the Green Revolution and the emergence of agroindustrial complexes. It is studied the juridical conflict between the sectors, aiming the balance for the full guarantee to the environment, to the economic development and the function of the property foreseen in the Constitution. It is looked for to introduce a study to reach agrarian sustainable development. The methodology used understood the bibliographical revision of the literature related to the theme.

  13. Local economic development policy in Poland: Determinants and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Wiktor Sienkiewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to define nature, basis, and the effects of the economic development policy conducted by local governments in Poland. The analyses carried out are designed to define the role of local authorities in the management of economic development in the area. Furthermore, the purpose of this article is to analyse instruments for supporting economic development, which can be potentially used by local governments in Poland. The realization of this objective is possible by using descriptive methods based on a review of literature and the various types of documents and analysis on the policy of both the economic development and activities of local government, which implement this policy. The method of system analysis is also partially used in the article, and some results of surveys conducted among Polish and foreign investors and entrepreneurs in 2011 are presented. The article assumes that in spite of having a number of instruments, both formal and material, for encouraging economic development and business development, most local governments narrowly assess the current state of entrepreneurship and development trends, and perform an insufficient analysis of the potential of their area. Secondly, the formulated goals of economic development are not very innovative, ambitious or concrete. Furthermore, they do not arise directly from the analysis of the micro and macro-environment that affects the position and development of local government. Key words:

  14. DIVERSIFICATION OF FINANCIAL FLOWS IN THE PROMOTION OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Paentko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of stimulating economic development. International experience of state regulation of economic development is studied. The optimal financing of economic development at the expense of economic entities and the state is justified. Applying of new software to quickly processing and interpreting data, which substantially reduces the time for making financial decisions and reduces the risk of errors. Prospects for further research study identified diversification of financial flows for various real economics industries through the application of information technology. To stimulate the development of the real economy to direct budget investments in terms of growth, which will provide impetus for economic development? In order to overcome the negative impact of institutional deformations in expenditure propose to use the mechanism of diversification of financial flows. Its essence is that the priorities of economic activities funded under the co-financing: budget grant and equity investors. To achieve sustainable GDP growth state should maintain the ratio of budget investments and investments for its own account enterprises in a certain percentage in the form of budget investments and investments on their own businesses.

  15. Financial Development Following Economic Growth: The Chinese Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan il Park

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between financial development and economic growth based on Chinese experiences during the period of 1979~2000. This study places more emphasis on the causality running from economic growth to financThe purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between financial development and economic growth based on Chinese experiences during the period of 1979~2000. This study places more emphasis on the causality running from economic growth to financial development contrary to the mainstream view, which asserts that the well-functioning financial systems exert a large positive impact on economic growth via two channels- capital accumulation and technological innovations. The reverse causality is postulated by considering two factors in developments of the country's financial system. Firstly, this paper argues that the rapid accumulation of financial assets and the remarkable expansion of the financial system during the examined period are due primarily to income rises and changes in industrial structures rather than inefficient financial reforms. Secondly, it is recognized in this study that various financial reform measures undertaken by the state since 1994 are emerged endogenously in response to Chinese financial disorders and macroeconomic imbalances built up during the 1979~93 period. This line of thinking is not following the mainstream view in which financial reforms are regarded as policy variables (or exogenous variables in promoting economic growth. These two factors imply that the causality may run from economic growth to financial development at least in China.

  16. Spawning Economic Development through Enforcement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years, the human rights based approach to development has become a global phenomenon after the World Summit of 2005 when the members of United Nations resolved to integrate the promotion and protection of human rights into national polices. South Africa as a signatory to the above adopted this approach.

  17. Evolutionary economic theories of sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, P.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Sustainable development has become the dominant concept in the study of interactions between the economy and the biophysical environment, as well as a generally accepted goal of environmental policy. So far, economists have predominantly applied standard or neo-classical theory to environmental

  18. Economics | Page 19 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Today, just as businesses must compete for survival, growth, and market space, librarians and information professionals must assume a more proactive role to cope with increasing competition. Read more ... Relationships between social policy and human development are the subject of much research and theorizing.

  19. Economics | Page 31 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Making Choices about Hydrogen : Transport Issues for Developing Countries. Language French. Ce volume traite de l'essor des accords commerciaux régionaux (ACR), qui se multiplient depuis les années 1990, et examine leur potentiel en tant qu'instrument propice à l'aplanissement des conflits ...

  20. Relational knowledge leadership and local economic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, Lummina; Collinge, Chris; Gibney, John

    2017-01-01

    This paper concerns the role of spatial leadership in the development of the knowledge-based economy. It is argued within academic and practitioner circles that leadership of knowledge networks requires a particular non-hierarchical style that is required to establish an ambience conducive to

  1. SME Credit Financing, Financial Development and Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the impact of small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) credit financing and financial market development and their shocks on the output growth of Nigeria. The study estimated a VAR model for Nigeria using 1970-2013 annual data series. Unit root tests and cointegration are carried out. The study ...

  2. Economics | Page 21 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For centuries, communities have been founded or shaped based upon their access to natural resources and today, in our globalizing world, major natural resource developments are spreading to more remote areas. Mining operations are a good example: they have a profound impact on local communities and are often the ...

  3. Globalization, capital market and economic development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Adewole Adediran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the economic integration caused by globalization and effect of capital market in Nigeria context. It establishes the type of relationship and level of significance of globalization and capital market on the economic development. Globalization concept is framed as import plus export divided by growth ratio. The capital market was determined in terms of proxy (by GDP by price index. The growth ratio assessed the level of development using econometric model. The results suggest that sound economic reform and financial policies are necessary to achieve sustainable development in Nigeria. However, there is need to increase exports, reduce imports and control exchange rate for Nigeria to achieve sustainable economic development.

  4. Economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Louise; Schou, Jesper S.

    2010-01-01

    An important challenge of integrated water resources management (IWRM) is to balance water allocation between different users. While economically and/or politically powerful users have well developed methods for quantifying and justifying their water needs, this is not the case for ecosystems......-the silent water user. A promising way of placing aquatic ecosystems on the water agenda is by economic valuation of services sustained by ecosystems. In developing countries, the livelihoods of rural people often depend directly on the provision of aquatic ecosystem services. In such situations, economic...... valuation of ecosystem services becomes particularly challenging. This paper reviews recent literature on economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries. "Market price" is the most widespread method used for valuating marketed ecosystem services in developing countries. "Cost based...

  5. Framework for Creating a Smart Growth Economic Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This step-by-step guide can help small and mid-sized cities, particularly those that have limited population growth, areas of disinvestment, and/or a struggling economy, build a place-based economic development strategy.

  6. Social Capital and Economic Development: A Neighborhood Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Hanka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sean Safford’s 2009 book Why the Garden Club Couldn’t Save Youngstown introduces a revolutionary idea that much of a community’s economic resilience is tied to the social capital that exists within it. Recent research suggests that social capital not only benefits those who develop it, but it can serve as a source of economic development in the communities in which it arises. Past quantitative research on the economic benefit of social capital has only examined the city or higher levels of aggregation. This study measures social capital in three diverse socioeconomic neighborhoods to better understand how social capital can serve as a tool for economic development. An ordered probit regression model was developed to examine how individual and neighborhood levels of social capital benefit households within these communities. Moreover, this study addresses how differences in social capital across neighborhoods are explained by both individual and neighborhood characteristics.

  7. Book Review: Real estate, construction and economic development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Real estate, construction and economic development in emerging market economies. Book Authors: Edited by Raymond Talinbe Abdulai, Franklin Obeng-Odoom, Edward Ochieng, Vida Maliene. (2015). Taylor & Francis, UK. ISBN: 9780415747899 ...

  8. BANKING SECTOR DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH INPALESTINE; 1995-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaber H. Abugamea

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study uses both OLS regression estimation and Granger Causality test toinvestigate the relationship between the banking sector development andeconomic growth in Palestine over the period 1995-2014.OLS results show asignificant impact of banking size with a negative sign, insignificant impact ofcredit lending with a marginal one for lag credit andinsignificant impact ofefficiency on economic growth, respectively.Granger Causality testresultsshowone way causality runningfrom banking size to(GDPeconomic growthandfrom banking efficiency to(GDP per capitaeconomic growth one. Overall resultsreveals a weak nexus between banking sector development and economic growth.In specific, it recommends more improving in banking lending policy to beeffective in promoting economic growth.

  9. Do international economic developments affect the South African economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Swanepoel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation has opened economies more, exposing them to more international shocks and increasing the challenges to which domestic economic policies must respond. This paper provides a starting point for the analysis of the impact of international economic developments on the South African economy by means of graphical illustrations, correlations coefficients and in some cases a VAR analysis. Although this paper has shed some light on the importance of international economic developments on the South African economy, more rigorous econometric investigation is needed to validate the arguments and to address many of the unresolved questions.

  10. THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION AND GOVERNANCE ON LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Armenia ANDRONICEANU

    2013-01-01

    Globalization and the crises context have influenced the local economic development in Romania and determined the government to adapt its policies according to them. This paper presents part of the results of a specific research on the impact of globalization and the government policies to the local economic development. The sample was composed by small and medium size enterprises from Bucharest. They are specialized in export of products from three main areas. The research methodology includ...

  11. Paths of economic development: modelling factors of endogenous growth

    OpenAIRE

    Fusari, Angelo

    1994-01-01

    This article sets out a model giving an interpretation of the engine of economic development and growth, and business cycle. Based on a peculiar concept of dynamic competition, the model explains innovation and uncertainty and describes the way equilibrating and disequilibrating processes are intertwined and operate. It also carries out concise application to successive stages of economic development, along with some econometric application, that demonstrates the degree of gene...

  12. Relational knowledge leadership and local economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Horlings, Lummina; Collinge, Chris; Gibney, John

    2017-01-01

    This paper concerns the role of spatial leadership in the development of the knowledge-based economy. It is argued within academic and practitioner circles that leadership of knowledge networks requires a particular non-hierarchical style that is required to establish an ambience conducive to networking and knowledge sharing across boundaries. In this paper, we explore this hypothesis at both theoretical and empirical levels. Theoretically, we propose a conceptualization of relational knowled...

  13. Nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in nine developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolde-Rufael, Yemane; Menyah, Kojo

    2010-01-01

    This article attempts to test the causal relationship between nuclear energy consumption and real GDP for nine developed countries for the period 1971-2005 by including capital and labour as additional variables. Using a modified version of the Granger causality test developed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995), we found a unidirectional causality running from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth in Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland; the opposite uni-directional causality running from economic growth to nuclear energy consumption in Canada and Sweden; and a bi-directional causality running between economic growth and nuclear energy consumption in France, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. In Spain, the United Kingdom and the USA, increases in nuclear energy consumption caused increases in economic growth implying that conservation measures taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may negatively affect economic growth. In France, Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland increases in nuclear energy consumption caused decreases in economic growth, suggesting that energy conservation measure taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may help to mitigate the adverse effects of nuclear energy consumption on economic growth. In Canada and Sweden energy conservation measures affecting nuclear energy consumption may not harm economic growth.

  14. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES IN CONDITIONS OF ECONOMIC INSTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ya. Veselovsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the perspective of a sustainable development of the industrial enterprises is investigated, the factors infl uencing stability of development of the enterprises are analyzed, defi nition of different types of economic stability in the period of economic instability is given, internal and external factors of stability of the enterprises are allocated, is underlined that economic stability, first of all, is distinguished from the major factors infl uencing stability of development of the industrial enterprises. At the same time, authors consider factors of the available instability and their infl uence on rates of development of the industrial enterprises. Change of the current situation requires weakening of a number of the factors resulting in economic instability.Purposes. The purpose of article is the analysis of factors of the industrial enterprises infl uencing a sustainable development in the conditions of economic instability and development of the off ers providing on their sustainable development. Article tasks: to investigate and allocate factors, in the conditions of the worsening economic situation which are expedient for considering at a solution of the problem of a sustainable development of the industrial enterprises.Methodology. When carrying out the real research materials of the state statistics were the main sources of basic data. Comparative methods of the analysis are the basis for methodical development.Results. The concept is given and types of economic stability of the industrial enterprises are given. Infl uence of internal and external factors of the enterprises infl uencing stability is shown. Infl uence of an economic situation on a role of these factors is allocated. For achievement of a sustainable development of the industrial enterprises it is off ered to realize measures for weakening of the factors resulting in economic instability.Conclusions / importance. In the conditions of new economic

  15. A systems approach to the economics of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragny, M.; Martinek, I.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear power plays a very important role in the long-term energy policy of Czechoslovakia. Its development is directly linked to the development of a nuclear power complex which includes, in addition to nuclear power itself, a series of new special nuclear production processes. The nuclear power complex is a large and highly complex technological and socio-economic scheme whose establishment requires substantial structural changes in the national economy. Accordingly, it is important to consider the economics of nuclear power development and management in relation to the development of the nuclear complex as a whole. Such an approach helps to reveal the interrelationship between the development of nuclear power and the development of the national economy as a whole, and makes it possible to determine the factors limiting development and also to establish the general economic necessity of introducing nuclear power production and ways of actively affecting it. (author)

  16. Development Of Economic Techniques For Residential Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lee R.; Allen, Sharon

    1983-03-01

    Infrared thermography has proven to be a valuable tool in the detection of heat loss in both commercial and residential buildings. The field of residential thermography has needed a simple method with which to report the deficiencies found during an infrared scan. Two major obstacles hindering the cost effectiveness of residential thermography have been 1) the ability to quickly transport some high resolution imaging system equipment from job site to job site without having to totally dismount the instruments at each area, and 2) the lack of a standard form with which to report the findings of the survey to the customer. Since the industry has yet to provide us with either, we believed it necessary to develop our own. Through trial and error, we have come up with a system that makes interior residential thermography a profitable venture at a price the homeowner can afford. Insulation voids, or defects can be instantly spotted with the use of a thermal imaging system under the proper conditions. A special hand-held device was developed that enables the thermographer to carry the equipment from house to house without the need to dismantle and set up at each stop. All the necessary components are attached for a total weight of about 40 pounds. The findings are then conveyed to a form we have developed. The form is simple enough that the client without special training in thermography can understand. The client is then able to locate the problems and take corrective measures or give it to a con-tractor to do the work.

  17. Informal Sector, Income Inequality and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Prabir C. Bhattacharya

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses - with the help of numerical simulation - some of the issues relating to income distribution in the context of development of an economy with an informal sector and migration of both low and high skilled workers from the rural to the urban area. A major aim has been to see under what conditions we do or do not get an inverted U-shaped curve of income distribution. The paper finds that the tendency always is for the Gini coefficient to rise and then decline. However, once ...

  18. FORMING MANAGEMENT IMPACTS IN AVIATION COMPANIES ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Prokhorova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Oriented reflective approach to management involves restructuring of goal, ideal and pragmatic, creating a program of action, organizing, correcting, control the definition of the new strategy. This process is only possible with multidimensional analysis and reflection of all the administrative restructuring process and its elements in determining and planning activities, creating conditions of restructuring, predicting outcomes and consequences of making a choice of ways to solve problems means to achieve the goal of information called ' bonds with participants restructuring process and correction flow management process based on continuous reflection. Methods: Development of the system of economic development now requires the use of mechanisms for continuous monitoring of internal and external environment to identify factors that threaten businesses. Rest of this is possible through the use of diagnostic tests: static analysis, expert diagnosis, linear and dynamic programming. Results: Built as part of the study economic and mathematical models can determine the status and level of economic development potential of aerospace companies that were investigated, confirming the need for action to manage economic development. To develop the mechanism of competition in the aircraft building sector must: implementation in practice of management motivation mechanisms to ensure the appropriate level of interest in the functioning of airlines on the basis of private property; formation of economic market institutions in the field of aircraft construction, affecting the creation of a competitive environment. Discussion: Stipulates that in difficult economic crisis positive results can be achieved managers who are constantly looking for original approaches to inclusion in the development process by aligning internal external opportunities generated by market. It is concluded that aviation business management in times of economic instability or

  19. Economic Growth of a Rapidly Developing Economy: Theoretical Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Sergeyevich Sukharev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the article is the description of economic growth. Modern economy is characterized by a high rate of changes. These changes are the limiting parameters of modern development, which requires a modification of the basic models of growth, the substantiation of the expediency and necessity of a rapid development strategy. In a simple mathematical form, the statement of the problem of economic growth in the “green economy” is examined, in which the costs of environmental measures are not considered a priori as hampering economic development (as it is common for a number of modern neoclassical and neo-Keynesian growth models. The methodological basis of the article are the econometric approach and modelling method. The article has a theoretical character. The main hypothesis supposes that the rapid development strategy cannot make an adequate development strategy under certain conditions, but may be acceptable in other its specific conditions. In this sense, the important growth conditions are the availability of resources, the effectiveness of institutions and the current economic structure, the technological effectiveness of economy, as well as the conditions of technological development (“green economy” and the path of such development. In the article, on the theoretical level of analysis, the substantiation of the adequacy of the rapid development strategy for an economic system is given, whose goal is to achieve the standard of living of the countryleader. Based on the assumptions introduced, the period for which the rapid development strategy might be implemented and the economic lag of the country might be reduced from the country-leader is determined. The conditions that ensure the impact of innovations on the rate of economic development are summarized. The introduced range of dependencies and relations can be useful for the elaboration of the theory of innovation development and for the formation of a new

  20. Nature protection and socio-economic development in selected protected landscape areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kušová, Drahomíra; Těšitel, Jan; Matějka, K.; Bartoš, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2005), s. 109-123 ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/610/3/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : protected landscape areas * nature protection * biosphere reserves * socio-economic development Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation Impact factor: 0.085, year: 2005

  1. Economic justification for floriculture development in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukajlović Đurđica Đ.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Floriculture is a part of horticulture, an agricultural activity which has been on the rise during the past decades. It is different from traditional culture, not only due to the increased sales revenues, but also because flowers are ever more present in daily life, which has created opportunities for engaging in floriculture as a legitimate source of income. The aim of the paper is to present the current situation in the area of floriculture in the world and in Serbia, as well as to draw attention to the relationship between the import and export of floriculture products. This paper includes a SWOT analysis that provides an overview of the current state of floriculture in Serbia and the opportunities for its development. Floriculture is not widespread in Serbia, even though there are quite advantageous climatic conditions, fertile land, tradition and experience, but not enough innovation, inadequate equipment, technological lagging behind in production and insufficient harmonization with EU standards.

  2. Economic development and population policy in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M R

    1984-09-01

    This paper deals with Bangladesh's growth rate and the policy implications for its economy. Despite its obvious influence on the economy, population has never been integrated as an endogenous variable in any planning model. Development planning is mostly supported by donor agencies, involving little micro-level planning and practically no trickle-down effect. This paper examines the interaction of population and other development variables in the country's planning process. Much of the rural population consists of landless farmers share croppers, so that the land ownership pattern contributes to low productivity. Population increase is making the rural masses even poorer. This process is further compounded by increasing foreign aid dependence, adverse terms of trade in the international market, low savings and investments, and the rural sector's worsening terms of trade. During 1950-1970 real per capita gross domestic product (GDP) increased only at a rate of 1% per annum and during 1950-1970 real growth of GDP fell behind the population growth rate. A cost benefit analysis of fertility reduction is needed. The cost benefit ratio of most countries varies between 1:10 to 1:30; for Bangladesh it is 1:16. Macro-model studies indicate that the higher the fertility reduction and shorter the period of required decline, the higher will be the benefits in terms of gains in per capita income. There is, however, a contradiction between national and household interests. The latter's decision to have more children has a negative spillover effect, which nullifies the gains of the community. The national family planning program suffered a serious setback during and after the liberation of Bangladesh, mainly due to lack of administrative leadership and support. In order for the population growth rate to be checked and to increase the quality of life for the entire population, the family planning program must be revitalized by mobilizing the entire government machinery and

  3. Economic Development Benefits of the Mars Hill Wind Farm, Wind Powering America Rural Economic Development, Case Study (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-01

    This case study summarizes the economic development benefits of the Mars Hill Wind Farm to the community of Mars Hill, Maine. The Mars Hill Wind Farm is New England's first utility-scale wind farm.

  4. Analysis of Factors and Development Potential of Economic Clusters by Economic Activities in Mari El Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Aleksandrovich Golovin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the factors that drive the development of economic clusters in Mari El Republic (Russia. This analysis allowed to reveal the potential of those clusters further development. I consider a shift-share method as one of the major methods to identify the factors that determine the expansion of economic clusters. The author proposes the modification of shift-share method using relative performance indicators to evaluate the intensity and qualitaty of clustering processes in the region. The article presents the results of empirical research of the economy of Mari El Republic by shift-share method (2005–2015 years in the context of economic activities according to the Federal State Statistics Service. After the analysis of three basic indicators, the leading and lagging economic activities were revealed for the period of 10 years. I paid special attention to the analysis of clustering potential of the Mari El Republic in the context of economic activities based on the Clustering Potential Index. This analysis shows promising economic activities and industries that may form cluster. The author discusses the compliance and possible conflicts of two methods used in the study. Further research of this field can focus on the of system analysis and identifying specific companies and production chains that form the basis of clustering

  5. Economics of Developing Hot Stratigraphic Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Hillary Hanson; Rick Allis; Joseph Moore

    2014-09-01

    Stratigraphic geothermal reservoirs at 3 – 4 km depth in high heat-flow basins are capable of sustaining 100 MW-scale power plants at about 10 c/kWh. This paper examines the impacts on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of reservoir depth and temperature, reservoir productivity, and drillhole/casing options. For a reservoir at 3 km depth with a moderate productivity index by hydrothermal reservoir standards (about 50 L/s/MPa, 5.6 gpm/psi), an LCOE of 10c/kWh requires the reservoir to be at about 200°C. This is the upper temperature limit for pumps. The calculations assume standard hydrothermal drilling costs, with the production interval completed with a 7 inch liner in an 8.5 inch hole. If a reservoir at 4 km depth has excellent permeability characteristics with a productivity index of 100 L/s/MPa (11.3 gpm/psi), then the LCOE is about 11 c/kWh assuming the temperature decline rate with development is not excessive (< 1%/y, with first thermal breakthrough delayed by about 10 years). Completing wells with modest horizontal legs (e.g. several hundred meters) may be important for improving well productivity because of the naturally high, sub-horizontal permeability in this type of reservoir. Reducing the injector/producer well ratio may also be cost-effective if the injectors are drilled as larger holes.

  6. Strategic and ethical leadership in economical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerimane Bajraktari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available By a simple analysis, it can be said that ethics includes two components. Firstly, it treats recognition and understanding for right or wrong processes, good or wrong processes, and then it evaluates the action in personal or institutional practice concluding that it’s conducted in the right or wrong way. According to ethicists the one that constitutes an ethical guide, often, the next day arrives to convert in written legal act, in a rule, or liability to be implemented. Values such as: respect, honesty, sincerity, responsibility, that show us how to behave are considered moral values. All views that show how these values are applying are often defined as moral or ethical principles. Managers or leaders of the organization have a leading role during a decision-making process. This is because managerial decision-making is one of the problems which has a greater focus recently. Business decisions have a suspicious behavior, because its success in most cases is measured by the profit, not by the effectiveness of humans. Therefore, managers are those who firstly present unethical behavior, influenced by the situation that they are facing and factors surrounding them. If someone in an organization behaves unethically, it will create a bad image for that organization. It is worth mentioning that the ethical code of the company that arises from the organization has a very important role because it links the personal and organizational ethics. The absence of ethical codes, moral and legal principles, will affect greatly the development of the individual, organization and all sectors of economy.

  7. Preferential Market Access, Foreign Aid and Economic Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku; Abreha, Kaleb Girma

    contributed to the economic development of the beneficiary countries. Focusing on the ACP countries over the period 1970-2009, we show that only the EU preferential scheme is effective in promoting exports and that market access plays a significant and economically large role in the development of beneficiary......Several studies highlight that exporters in developing countries face substantial trade costs. To reduce these costs, a few developed countries mainly Canada, the EU, Japan and the USA granted preferential market access to these exporters. We assess whether these preferential accesses have...

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF UKRAINIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оlena Kozyreva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long period of time from 1991 to 2016, the socio-economic development of Ukrainian regions was characterized by enhanced differentiation and persistent inequality. Permanent preservation of the gap between the maximum and minimum values of indicators of socio-economic development of regions, in particular, the GRP per capita (8.8 times in 2014; disposable income of populace (10.3% in 2015; unemployment rate according to ILO methodology (in 2.8 times in January-September 2016, the volume of realized industrial products (38,9 times in January-September 2016 indicate the persistence of centre-periphery relations between regions in the economic space of the country. This situation reduces the overall efficiency of the economy, which is reflected by the decline of Ukraine’s position in the rankings of international organizations. According to the global competitiveness index in 2015, Ukraine has shifted from 76 to 79 place compared with 2014, according to the Index of Human Development, there was a slight increase from 83 to 81 place. To crown it all, taking into account the complexity of modern processes of Ukrainian regions’ socio-economic development, the total assessment of determination of Ukrainian regions’ levels of socio-economic development is required. The purpose of the article implies prompting the research results of determining the problem concerning the consolidated assessment of the socio-economic development of Ukrainian regions. Methodology. The article examines the processes of socio-economic development of Ukrainian regions and offers an analytical scheme of identification stage of problematic of the regions’ socioeconomic development. The article justifies a system of partial indicators and on its basis calculates the integral and generalizing indicators of economic and social development of Ukrainian regions. Analysis of recent researches and publications. Issues of spatial development of the country’s regions

  9. The Development Evaluation of Economic Zones in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Shi, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Zhe; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Zhai, Yuming; Chen, Quan; Wang, Jiangtao

    2018-01-02

    After the Chinese reform and opening up, the construction of economic zones, such as Special Economic Zones, Hi-tech Zones and Bonded Zones, has played an irreplaceable role in China's economic development. Currently, against the background of Chinese economic transition, research on development evaluation of economic zones has become popular and necessary. Similar research usually focuses on one specific field, and the methods that are used to evaluate it are simple. This research aims to analyse the development evaluation of zones by synthesis. A new hybrid multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) model that combines the DEMATEL technique and the DANP method is proposed. After establishing the evaluation criterion system and acquiring data, the influential weights of dimensions and criteria can be calculated, which will be a guide for forming measures of development. Shandong Peninsula Blue Economic Zone is used in the empirical case analysis. The results show that Transportation Conditions, Industrial Structure and Business Climate are the main influencing criteria and measures based on these criteria are proposed.

  10. The Development Evaluation of Economic Zones in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Zhe; Zhai, Yuming; Chen, Quan; Wang, Jiangtao

    2018-01-01

    After the Chinese reform and opening up, the construction of economic zones, such as Special Economic Zones, Hi-tech Zones and Bonded Zones, has played an irreplaceable role in China’s economic development. Currently, against the background of Chinese economic transition, research on development evaluation of economic zones has become popular and necessary. Similar research usually focuses on one specific field, and the methods that are used to evaluate it are simple. This research aims to analyse the development evaluation of zones by synthesis. A new hybrid multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) model that combines the DEMATEL technique and the DANP method is proposed. After establishing the evaluation criterion system and acquiring data, the influential weights of dimensions and criteria can be calculated, which will be a guide for forming measures of development. Shandong Peninsula Blue Economic Zone is used in the empirical case analysis. The results show that Transportation Conditions, Industrial Structure and Business Climate are the main influencing criteria and measures based on these criteria are proposed. PMID:29301304

  11. Developments in the use of economic instruments in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opschoor, H.

    1994-01-01

    For the period 1987-1993, developments in the environmental policies of OECD countries with respect to the use of economic instruments are compared and the differences analyzed. The focus is on applications in the field of air pollution policies. The comparison is made on the basis of two surveys. To complete the descriptive part, a brief survey is also presented of currently discussed and recently introduced economic instruments. A description of economic instruments as such and a review of rationales for employing economic and financial incentives precede this analysis. The analysis shows that the use of economic instruments has indeed increased since 1987, but the development has not been spectacular. Possible explanations for this are presented. Also, some types of instrument have advanced more than others and the changes differ from one set of countries to another. Product charges (including air pollution-related ones) have become more widely used, especially in Scandinavian countries. Moreover, growing attention is being paid to the use of economic instruments at the international level. The incentive impacts of economic (and other) instruments appear to have received relatively little empirical attention, even though these are an important policy-relevant feature in instrument choice. 23 refs., 5 tabs

  12. Economic Development, Infant Mortality, and Their Dynamics in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Tadashi Yamada

    1983-01-01

    The main issue of this paper is to study infant mortality in Latin America in recent decades. In so doing, two questions must be answered: First, how large is the economic loss in terms of net national product due to child mortality under the age of 15 and what are the major causes of death? Second, has the decline of infant mortality been principally a product of economic development in Latin American countries?Surprisingly enough, there is significant variation of economic losses across Lat...

  13. The Impact Of Corruption On Economic Development: Case Study Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita Ionescu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, Romania implemented a strong legislation and a comprehensive program of public financial management reform in order to improve the national fiscal transparency and to reduce corruption. Corruption is a growing phenomenon all over the world, affecting economic development and aggravated by the legacy of the global economic crisis. The global risks are different from the past due to notably cyber attacks, new economic realities and geopolitical risks. Most of the time, corruption is associated with financial crime, fraud and bribery. Corruption is a major factor of reducing economic development and the governments must increase of macroeconomic and fiscal forecasts in order to facilitate access to the public funds.

  14. Entrepreneurship and economic development: Theory, evidence and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Naudé, Wim

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the state of the art of the intersection of development economics and entrepreneurship. Given the relative neglect of entrepreneurship by development scholars it deals with (i) recent theoretical insights from the intersection of entrepreneurship and development studies; (ii) the empirical evidence on the relationship between entrepreneurship and development; and (iii) fresh insights for entrepreneurship policy for development that emerges from recent advanc...

  15. Balancing reserves within a decarbonized European electricity system in 2050. From market developments to model insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Casimir [German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Energy, Transportation, Environment; Univ. of Technology, Berlin (Germany). Workgroup for Infrastructure Policy (WIP)

    2017-03-30

    This paper expands the discussion about future balancing reserve provision to the long-term perspective of 2050. Most pathways for a transformation towards a decarbonized electricity sector rely on very high shares of fluctuating renewables. This can be a challenge for the provision of balancing reserves, although their influence on the balancing cost is unclear. Apart from the transformation of the generation portfolio, various technical and regulatory developments within the balancing framework might further influence balancing costs: i) dynamic dimensioning of balancing reserves, ii) provision by fluctuating renewables or new (battery) storage technologies, and iii) exchange of balancing reserves between balancing zones. The first part of this paper discusses and transforms these developments into quantitative scenario definitions. The second part applies these scenarios to dynELMOD (dynamic Electricity Model), an investment model of the European electricity system that is extended to include balancing reserve provision. In contrast to other models applied in most papers on balancing reserves, this model is capable of evaluating the interdependencies between developments in balancing reserve provision and high shares of fluctuating renewables jointly. The results show that balancing reserve cost can be kept at current levels for a renewable electricity system until 2050, when using a dynamic reserve sizing horizon. Apart from the sizing horizon, storage capacity withholding duration and additional balancing demand from RES are the main driver of balancing costs. Renewables participation in balancing provision is mainly important for negative reserves, while storages play an important role for the provision of positive reserves. However, only on very few occasions, additional storage investments are required for balancing reserve provision, as most of the time sufficient storage capacities are available in the electricity system.

  16. Environmental crises in developing countries: control measures in economic sense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayana, K.B.N.

    1999-01-01

    Most of the developing countries consist of similar type of problems and crises of environment. This may be due to industries vehicles, or agriculture. Referring to the Asian countries it may be due to policy, relocation of industries, different levels of economic crises etc. This study includes impact of environment vs socio, policy, population, demography. The feasibility observed as enhancement of economic status, involving local society, cost base sharing, upgrading the employment opportunities, firm steps and policies, and agenda changes and adoptions. (Author)

  17. Energy price increases and economic development in Malaysia.

    OpenAIRE

    Fong CO

    1984-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the impact of higher energy costs (particularly petroleum price increases) on economic development in Malaysia, 1973 to 1983 - outlines trends in gross domestic product, balance of payments, trade and economic growth; considers household income and fuel expenditure of low income rural communitys; deals with choice of technology and employment in certain high power consumption industries; discusses energy policy implications. Graphs, maps, questionnaires, refe...

  18. Economic Development, Inequality and Climate Change in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Vinh; Do, Trang; Nguyen, Cuong; Phung, Thu; Phung, Tung

    2013-01-01

    From 2011 till 2013, Vietnam has been experiencing an economic slowdown and macroeconomic problems such as high inflation, bad debt from commercial banks and the inefficient operation of state-owned companies. The poverty reduction rate has slowed down and poverty incidence in remote and mountainous areas remains high. Inequality in income and socio-economic development between different geographic and ethnic groups is still significant. Climate changes such as escalating frequency of extreme...

  19. Growth, economic development and structural transition in small vulnerable states

    OpenAIRE

    Read, Robert

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews the critical theoretical and policy issues relating to growth, economic development and structural transition in small states. The paper discusses alternative perspectives on small size and highlights the salient characteristics which give rise to their economic sub-optimality. The theoretical and empirical relationship between size and growth is reviewed, including recent inferences relating to structural transition and comparative advantage in small states. This discussio...

  20. THE FOUNDATION OF ENGLISH BASIC TERM ECONOMICS AND ITS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khudinsha, E.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the peculiarities of the English basic economical term origin “economics”, the dynamics of this term development. The lexical unit “economics” was based by the borrowing from Greek and Latin languages and began to be used actively in the meaning of the management of the household and modified to the term “economics” (the main modern economical science component.

  1. [Co-piloting economic development and the biosphere].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passet, R

    1992-01-01

    Development has reached a stage of evolution in which its effects on the biosphere have become critical, but the discipline of economics has not yet fully absorbed this change. Economic development is in conflict with the ability of ecosystems to regulate themselves largely because of its focus on the immediate exploitation of resources and neglect of bio- geo-chemical cycles and of effects on the larger environment. Development driven solely by economic considerations is destined to end in destruction. A co-management of economic development and the biosphere is required. Economics suffers from a reductionism in which the natural and the social are both denied their rightful places, and a single type of variable, usually monetary, is overemphasized. A new, multidimensional view of the relationship of the economy to the world is needed. The economy finds its raw materials and disposes of its wastes in the natural sphere, but its purpose and ends reside in the sociocultural sphere. The natural and social spheres are related to the economy, but they obey their own laws, which must be respected in economic calculations. The reproductive and renewing mechanisms of the biosphere should be considered constraints to be respected by development and included in economic calculations. Growth in per capita income should not be considered development when, as often happens, it is accompanied by destruction of sociocultural values and degradation of the relationship between individuals and their environment. The reality of economic development is that it is a process of creative destruction in which minerals, raw materials, and energy are transformed to create objects, while material and energy wastes are discarded in the environment. The models used by economists should take account of these processes. The concept of a multidimensional development in perpetual transformation and sensitive to human activity suggests the responsibility of each generation to its successors. Human

  2. An Empirical Investigation of Telecommunications Investment and Economic Development in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hoon Yoo

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the sources of economic development is of obvious importance, and numerous attempts have been made to judge the impact of many different factors on economic development. Since some empirical studies have reported that telecommunications investment is one of the important factors in economic development, this paper empirically investigates the impact of telecommunications investment on economic development using a cross-country analysis based on data from 56 developing countries for the years 1970-98. To this end, a further augmented version of the neoclassical Solow growth model is suggested and applied. Subject to the appropriate caveats, the results provide further support for several key conclusions of the former studies - investment in physical capital, population growth, and human capital seem to be quite important in accounting for economic development in developing countries. In addition, more importantly, it is concluded that telecommunications investment significantly contributes to economic development in the developing world.

  3. International economic relations of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Politics of Uzbekistan on development of international trade-economic cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Mirmuminov M.; Akbarov B.

    2018-01-01

    The article reveals the question of international economic relations of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The policy of Uzbekistan on the development of international trade and economic cooperation. And also, the economic relations of Uzbekistan and Russia. Economic relations with the countries Iran and Azerbaijan.

  4. Social Policy and Economic Development in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kangas, Olli; Palme, Joakim

    This volume examines the relationship between Nordic social policy and economic development from a comparative perspective. It identifies the driving forces behind the development of the Nordic welfare model and the problems and dilemmas the model is facing at present. The book also traces the link...... between democratization and social policy, drawing attention to the role of the state and non-governmental organizations. Social Policy and Economic Development in Nordic Countries examines Nordic social policies on unemployment, social care, family, education and health care policies, and reviews future...

  5. Innovative clusters: a solution for the economic development of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Cornelia DAN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Europe 2020 Strategy emphasizes the importance of the smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The flagships of the strategy (digital agenda for the EU, innovation union, resource efficient Europe, industrial policy for the globalization agenda are setting the frame for economic development. Innovative clusters are seen as a solution to the crisis, a tool for competitiveness and regional development. Given the economic situation of Romania we bring in discussion the potential of clusters in our country and the arguments and critics regarding their development.

  6. Influence of international economic integration on socio-economic development of region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Leonidovna Andreyeva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis about new type’s integration processes in the world economy is made, the essence and distinctive peculiarities of these processes are determined. By the proposed groups of parameters, the comparative analysis of international economic integration (IEI within traditional integration processes (EU, NAFTA and those of new type (SCO, BRIC(S is carried out. The technique of estimation of influence of international economic integration on development of a country’s region is worked out, and the estimation of influence of international economic integration on socio-economic development of Sverdlovsk region is carried out. The movement of goods, services and factors of production (capital, work force between the region and the integration associations of traditional type and the groups of countries arisen in terms of forming integration processes of new type is analyzed. It is shown that the one of the tendencies in development of international economic integration of Sverdlovsk region during the last 12 years has been the increasing role and importance of new integration groups of countries. It is revealed that the purposeful account of this tendency can provide quantitative and qualitative shifts in external trade, foreign investments and labor migration of the region, related on the change of direction of flows: from the receivers of high-technological goods, capital, specialists from developed countries — to the supplier of manufactured goods, investments and high-qualified work force into countries of SCO and BIRC(S, what is one of the factors of providing economic safety of the region.

  7. Local Economic Development in Catacamas and Santa Maria del ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research component will consist of a case study of the process carried out under the guidance of the Sustainable Development Network (Red de Desarrollo Sostenible - Honduras). Lessons learned in the implementation of the project will be exchanged with other local economic development initiatives in the country.

  8. Understanding Economic and Management Sciences Teachers' Conceptions of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    America, Carina

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development has become a key part of the global educational discourse. Education for sustainable development (ESD) specifically is pronounced as an imperative for different curricula and regarded as being critical for teacher education. This article is based on research that was conducted on economic and management sciences (EMS)…

  9. Tax incentive as a catalyst for economic development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An empirical study using a well structured questionnaire survey, the work assesses the relationship that exists between tax incentive and economic development in Nigeria. This study was undertaken primarily to evaluate the effectiveness of tax incentive in developing the Nigerian economy. One hundred and twenty ...

  10. Tourism and economic development in Nigeria: an empirical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper carries out an empirical investigation of the role of tourism in economic development in Nigeria. The investigation reveals that globally, tourism has become a sustainable revenue earner competing favourably with the manufacturing sector, especially in the developed countries. However, in spite of the enormous ...

  11. Human Capital Development in Nigeria: A Socio-Economic Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper establishes the link between education and selected human development indicators. Rapid socio-economic development has been observed to depend essentially on the calibre of human capital in a nation. Although Nigeria is one of the most populous nations in Africa, the country is still largely ...

  12. Nascent Entrepreneurship and the Level of Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy); P. Reynolds (Paul)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBased upon two strands of literature, this paper hypothesizes a U-shaped relationship between a country’s rate of entrepreneurial dynamics and its level of economic development. This would imply a different scope for entrepreneurship policy across subsequent stages of development.

  13. Culture, Spirituality, and Economic Development: Opening a Dialogue

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 1995 ... ... to ignore, often underestimate, and sometimes undermine cultural values or the cultural environment, which are essential to healthy human development. The question, then, becomes: How can human values and belief systems be properly integrated into the modern economic development paradigm?

  14. Science-based economic development: The Eureka Factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science-based economic development: The Eureka Factor. ... Zimbabwe Science News ... This article examines the eureka factor in science based development and underscores the increasing concern that Africa lags behind in science and technology (S&T) due to political and social instability coupled by low investments ...

  15. Foreign direct investment, financial development and economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, C.L.M.; Lensink, B.W.

    2003-01-01

    This article argues that the development of the financial system of the recipient country is an important precondition for FDI to have a positive impact on economic growth. A more developed financial system positively contributes to the process of technological diffusion associated with FDI. The

  16. Infrastructure and Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón, César; Servén, Luis

    2008-01-01

    An adequate supply of infrastructure services has long been viewed by both academics and policy makers as a key ingredient for economic development. Sub-Saharan Africa ranks consistently at the bottom of all developing regions in terms of infrastructure performance, and an increasing number of observers point to deficient infrastructure as a major obstacle for growth and poverty reduction ...

  17. The Impact of Innovation Best Practices in Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Hanadi Mubarak AL-Mubaraki; Michael Busler

    2017-01-01

    Innovation is the process of making changes, differences, and novelties in the products and services, adding values and business practices to create economic and social benefit. The purpose of this paper is to identify the strengths and weaknesses of innovation programs in developed and developing countries. We used a mixed-methods approach, quantitative as survey and qualitative as a multi-case study to examine innovation best practices in developed and developing countries. In addition, fou...

  18. Investment and Employment - Drivers of European Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BURGHELEA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and related specialty practice, the development of the European Economic Community along with the factors determining them (such investments and staff represents a topic that is of great notoriety. This paper shows the role and influence that direct investment in the economy and employment ratio can propagate in the growth of gross domestic product per capita to ensure increased economic sustainability of countries in the European Community. The most important economic effects of FDI on the host economy can be represented by labor productivity growth through knowledge transfer (know-how technology, management skills and marketing term in countries emerging favor progress technological and economic growth. To determine this goal, in the context of economic logic, this research shows the importance of gross domestic product, total and per capita, as a macroeconomic indicator synthetic, and encouraging and using the action of factors that can also provide political steps, organizational and financial, achieving levels attesting social progress and prosperity. The study highlights a Custom Analysis on gross domestic product per capita, direct investment and the proportion of people employed in total for 24 European Union countries in 2014 and also develop an econometric model multifactorial based on system statistics. Research shows utility in making decisions about investment growth in the European Community by attracting a workforce that is in full compliance with state investment policies and by providing a high living standard.

  19. INNOVATION-LED ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH MARKETING AND TAX INCENTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Surugiu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Specialists and decision-makers recognize the power of innovation in inducing economic growth and development of regions and countries. The question is how to sustain an innovative environment, in order to generate creative ideas for the market. The authors debate two solutions, namely marketing and fiscal policy, but we have to underline that there are other instruments available to induce innovativeness. This paper submits to the attention, the innovation as being one of the main forces which supports economic development and economic recovery. Governments which sustain enterprises’ innovation of products and process will have many chances to transform economies into developed and prosperous ones. But innovation by itself does not bring always success, and that is why marketers, economists and innovators must cooperate for favourable outcomes to occur.

  20. GENDER FACTORS OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF A COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kochkina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the impact of gender asymmetry on the socio-economic development of the country. Authors detected factors that determine with high level of the probability social development of the society. Econometric relationship between the level of GDP per capita in comparative prices and the socio-cultural and gender factors are developed and estimated. The analysis showed that the level of individualism, indulgence, economic participation, and political empowerment of women in the society have direct linear correlation with GDP per capita. Power distance has opposite inverse correlation with the level of GDP. Application of regression analysis gave the possibility to divide all countries into 9 clusters with similar features. Two-dimensional matrix included GDP per capita and coefficient of implementation of a country gender and sociocultural potential. The recommendations for stimulating economic growth by smoothing gender gaps are proposed.

  1. ECONOMIC NATURE AND THE ROLE OF NATURAL RESOURCES PAYMENTS UNDER SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zalievska-Shyshak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nature and value of natural resources payments under sustainable economic development are revealed. Mechanisms of using of natural resources potential of Ukraine are examined. Payments for use of natural resources is one of the most important components of an economic mechanism of nature management are established. Features of current legislation as to the setting fees for nature management are studied and the necessity of creating an effective institutional support in controlling of tax authorities for the collection of payments for natural resources and their evaluation is proved.

  2. ESTIMATING FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF REGIONAL PROGRAMS OF SOCIAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Kokhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The given article presents the analysis of the experience of the financial support of the regional programs of social economic development and the areas of usage of internal and external resources of the area. Dynamic and balanced development of regions is one of the most important issues for further establishment of marketing relations and social transformations in Ukraine. The Aim lies in the evaluation of financial support of the approved regional programs and launching the amount of their financing. The assessment of social economic situation in Ivano-Frankivsk region in terms of nationwide tendencies allows asserting that economic growth depends on the amounts and sources provided by the state. To determine close connection between  the amount of financing  for the programs  and  gross domestic product, the coefficient of correlation was calculated according to Pierson. It was proved that the amount of financing regional programs of social economic development influences the growth rate of gross domestic product. During research period the activation of regional authority institutions is being surveyed regarding the adoption and financing target regional programs. It was determined that the dynamic activity of the regional community and its territorial units on realization in terms of defined strategic priorities for programs of social economic development will facilitate disproportion reduction and differences in the development of territory units in the region, as well as positively influences the growth of gross domestic product providing steady increase of social welfare. Keywords: social economic regional development, ecology programs, social programs, gross regional domestic product, Pierson’s correlation coefficient. JEL: R 58

  3. Developing of a network of nature reserves in the Lublin Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanicka, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    The nature reserves are one of the oldest forms of nature conservation. Legal basis for their establishment in Poland gave the Nature Conservation Act of 1934, but much earlier, it originated on private land or in state forests. The natural environment of the Lublin Region was poorly understood. Only after the emergence of Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin in 1944, there started intensive research, mainly in Roztocze and Polesie Lubelskie. The development of the natural science enhanced learning activities for the protection of natural objects. The author presents the history of the creation of nature reserves in the Lublin Region from 1933 to 2008. The first reserves - Jata and Topór were approved in 1933 in the Łuków Forests. In 1934 the famous reserve Bukowa Góra in Roztocze, in Zamoyski Ordination, was approved. In the period 1933-2008, 103 nature reserves were established in the Lublin Region, of which 11 were included in the Roztoczański and 5 in the Poleski National Park. The area of 87 existing nature reserves in the Lublin Region is 6.8% of the reserves in Poland. The reserves represent 8 from 9 types distinguished in Poland - 35 forest reserves, 16 peat, 12 faunal, 8 steppe, 6 landscape, 6 floral, 3 inanimate nature, and 1 water reserve. Against the background of Poland, the Lublin province takes the first place (!) in terms of reserves in the steppe area (30.3% of steppe reserves in the country) and peat (19% of the peat reserves in the country), and the third in terms of the area of forest reserves (9.7% of forest reserves in the country). A large area of forest reserves in the region of low forest cover (22.5% and 14th place in the country) shows the value of natural forests and note that is attached to their protection in the Lublin Region. The annex contains a list of 103 reserves established in the Lublin Region after World War II.

  4. The Economics of Open Source Software Development: An Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Bitzer, Jürgen

    2006-01-01

    This chapter introduces the fundamentals of Open Source Software, its nature, the central economic aspects and the key mechanisms of its development. Furthermore, we present the themes of the book and provide a first overview for the reader by giving short summaries of its chapters.......This chapter introduces the fundamentals of Open Source Software, its nature, the central economic aspects and the key mechanisms of its development. Furthermore, we present the themes of the book and provide a first overview for the reader by giving short summaries of its chapters....

  5. Remittances, financial development and economic growth: Empirical evidence from Lesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athenia Bongani Sibindi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly remittances now constitute a great source of foreign currency inflows for many developing countries. In some instances remittances have outpaced the growth of foreign direct investment (FDI. Amongst others, remittances can be used as a vehicle of savings mobilisation as well as fostering the supply of credit by providing liquidity to the market. In this article we investigate the causal relationship between the remittances, financial development and economic growth in Lesotho for the period 1975 to 2010. We make use of per capita remittances, real per capita broad money supply and real per capita growth domestic product as the proxies for remittances, financial development and economic growth respectively. We then test for cointegration amongst the variables by applying the Johansen procedure and then test for Granger causality based on the vector error correction model (VECM. Our results confirm the existence of at least one cointegrating relationship and also indicate that the direction of causality runs from remittances to the economy without feedback. The results also suggest that financial development Granger causes economic growth without feedback which is consistent with ‘supply-leading’ growth hypothesis. The results also confirm a causal relationship running from financial development to remittances without feedback. The results also lend credence to the “complementarity’ hypothesis in that, remittances complement rather than substitute financial development in bringing about economic growth.

  6. Potentials of Local Economic Development in Aspect of Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktória Csizmadiáné Czuppon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to introduce the potentials of local economic development in one of the least favoured micro regions, Tamási. The paper examines operating and planned activities at settlements of the micro region. The authors introduce local economic development activities that support tourism. The economic development planning in Tamási micro region has typically two directions. One of them is the utilisation of thermal water and the use of further potentials of the thermal bath (Ability, such as to achieve tourism destination function in Hungary. Secondly, the local government aims to sell its fruits and vegetables produced in the frame of public employment programme for local market and institutions. The supply of local population has got in focus because of current external opportunities (or force? in the settlements being traditionally agricultural area. The objective is to join the local tourism attractions and destinations with other existing local developments, which is hold back by the owners of developments. The authors – by keeping in mind local conditions and endogenous resources – define recommendations for settlements to be able to create a well-organised framework of local economic development.

  7. Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Harney County, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

  8. Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Deschutes County, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

  9. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Deschutes County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sifford, A.; Beale, K.

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant

  10. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Harney County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sifford, A.; Beale, K.

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant

  11. Entrepreneurship and economic development: the valley of backwardness

    OpenAIRE

    Acs, Zoltan J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper identifies the impact of productive, unproductive, and destructive entrepreneurship on social value creation. The paper constructs a Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (GEDI) that captures the contextual feature of entrepreneurship across countries. We find the relationship between entrepreneurship and economic development to be mildly S-shaped. It is seen that the stages of development are more varied at the innovation-driven stage than at either the factor-driven stage...

  12. The Political Economy of Postwar Economic Development in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna-Perera Welgamage Lalith Prasanna-Perera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty years of civil war in Sri Lanka has affected economic, political, social, cultural and psychological aspects of the society significantly. This paper presents an overview of postwar development strategies in Sri Lanka and compares it with the prewar economy from a political economic perspective. The paper specifically examines the progress of the overall postwar development in the war affected Northern Province of Sri Lanka. Using mixed methodologies data was gathered on critical aspects related to political economy. According to the current study, no clear progress has been made in the areas of economic growth, FDI growth, household income, and poverty and income inequality in the postwar economy of Sri Lanka when compared with the prewar economy. Government fiscal policy targets the postwar reconstruction works while monetary policy enjoys the amalgamation of North and East provinces to country’s aggregate supply apart from introducing very few loan schemes. Security phobia of the government of Sri Lanka limits local, national, regional and international none-government organizations especially in the North and East. There is a considerable amount of progress made in the area of infrastructure development and resettlement of displaced persons. However, primary data from the study indicates these strategies lack conflict sensitivity and public trust. This study emphasizes that postwar economic development strategies should address the critical determinants of sustainable recovery, peace and development aiming at protecting human rights, ensuring rule of law, establishing efficient public service system and finally offering constitutional reforms in Sri Lanka.

  13. Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Malheur County, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

    1993-01-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance.

  14. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Malheur County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sifford, A.; Beale, K.

    1993-01-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance

  15. Uranium reserves and the economic factors for their transformation in electricity; Reservas de uranio y los factores economicos para su transformacion en electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz M, J. R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In diverse national and international forums, it is has come discussing the idea that the nuclear energy can offer a valuable contribution to the electricity demand and the gases emission of greenhouse effect, due to its unique characteristics in terms of energy density, environmental sustainable and economic viability. Before this panorama it is convenient to meditate about the current situation of the uranium reserves and the economic factors that impact in their conversion to arrive to the nuclear fuel and of there to the electric generation, with the purpose of establishing the available levels of sufficiency, considering the current consumption tendencies, as the increase scenarios. Starting from an analysis about the uranium reserves, the purpose of this work is to make a description of the phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, considering the technological options that there is, as well as the repercussion of its economic aspects. (Author)

  16. The Links between Energy Consumption, Financial Development, and Economic Growth in Lebanon: Evidence from Cointegration with Unknown Structural Breaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Abosedra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the relation between financial development, energy consumption, and economic growth in the economy of Lebanon over the period 2000M2–2010M12. Our findings confirm the existence of cointegration among the variables. The results indicate that financial development and energy consumption contribute to economic growth in Lebanon. The impact of energy consumption on economic growth is positive showing the significance of energy as a main stimulant of economic growth. Financial development is also found to play a vital role in enhancing economic growth. Financial development and economic growth also result in further increase in energy consumption. We offer some policy implications specific to Lebanon considering the recent discovery of large oil and gas reserves in the country and the historical importance of its banking sector which remains a center of Lebanon’s service-oriented economy.

  17. Improving models of democracy: the example of lagged effects of economic development, education, and gender equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaev, Mikhail

    2014-07-01

    The author examines how time delayed effects of economic development, education, and gender equality influence political democracy. Literature review shows inadequate understanding of lagged effects, which raises methodological and theoretical issues with the current quantitative studies of democracy. Using country-years as a unit of analysis, the author estimates a series of OLS PCSE models for each predictor with a systematic analysis of the distributions of the lagged effects. The second set of multiple OLS PCSE regressions are estimated including all three independent variables. The results show that economic development, education, and gender have three unique trajectories of the time-delayed effects: Economic development has long-term effects, education produces continuous effects regardless of the timing, and gender equality has the most prominent immediate and short term effects. The results call for the reassessment of model specifications and theoretical setups in the quantitative studies of democracy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. International Inequalities: Algebraic Investigations into Health and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Susan; Robertson, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The Millennium Project is an international effort to improve the health, economic status, and environmental resources of the world's most vulnerable people. Using data associated with the Millennium Project, students use algebra to explore international development issues including poverty reduction and the relationship between health and economy.…

  19. Vocational Education and Economic Development in Nigeria | Ekpo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the capability of vocational education in creating jobs to reduce unemployment among the Nigerian youths which will result in sustainable economic development of Nigeria. It also defines Vocational education within the provisions of the National Policy on Education. Philosophy of Vocational ...

  20. Pattern of Infrastructure-induced Socio-economic Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analyses the variation in infrastructure – induced pattern of socio – economic development among some selected rural settlements in Niger state of Nigeria. To achieve this aim, twenty-two rural settlements were randomly selected and their scores on selected infrastructure were used to ascertain the pattern of ...

  1. Economic Disparities in Middle Childhood Development: Does Income Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    A large literature has documented the influence of family economic resources on child development, yet income's effects in middle childhood have been understudied. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,551), the author examined the influence of family income in early and middle childhood on academic skills and…

  2. The Role of Stock Market Development on Economic Growth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth of Nigeria using a 15-year time series data from 1994-2008. The method of analysis used is Ordinary Least Square (OLS) techniques. The study measures the relationship between stock market development indices and economic growth. The stock market capitalization ratio was used as a proxy for market size while ...

  3. Technical Aspects Of Africa's Economic Development And The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa's path to economic development has been constrained by destiny and policy choices to different degrees, but evidence does suggest that if institutions are built up, market economy values introduced, and the work ethic harvested, this opening century of a new millennium could indeed by Africa's century.

  4. Rural Community College Initiative II. Economic Development. AACC Project Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Ronald; Martinez, Ruben; Pace, Cynthia; Pavel, Michael; Garza, Hector; Barnett, Lynn

    This report addresses the Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI) from the American Association of Community Colleges, which seeks to enhance the capacity of targeted community colleges to expand access to postsecondary education and help foster regional economic development. The Ford Foundation has made a decade-long commitment to community…

  5. Accounting for Peace and Economic Development in Nigeria, the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of cost of peace keeping in the Niger-Delta region on the economic development of Nigeria. To achieve this purpose, a hypothesis was raised and a review of extant literature was made. In order to generate the necessary data for this study, the secondary method of ...

  6. Environmental economics and biodiversity management in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munasinghe, M. (Policy and Research Div., Environment Dept., World Bank, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Reconciling and operationalizing the three main concepts of sustainable development - the economic, ecological, and sociocultural - poses formidable problems. Environmental economics and valuation can play a key role in helping to incorporate concerns about biodiversity loss into the traditional decision-making framework. A case study from Madagascar examines the impact of a new national park on tropical forests by using both conventional and newer techniques to economically value damage to forests and watersheds, timber and nontimber forest products, other impacts on local inhabitants, impacts on biodiversity, and ecotourism benefits. In the Sri Lanka case study, an integrated energy-environmental analysis was developed, which helps to eliminate projects with unacceptable impacts, and redesign others. Where economic valuation of environmental impacts was not possible, multiple attribute evaluation techniques were used. Improving the incomes and welfare of local communities, especially poor ones, while simultaneously preserving physical and biological systems, offers opportunities for developing countries to pursue all three goals of sustainable development in a complementary manner. (14 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.).

  7. Foreign direct investment and economic growth in developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been widely claimed that foreign direct investment (FDI) stimulates economic growth. In this study, an attempt is made to verify this for ten selected Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries using data spanning from 2008 to 2013 obtained from world development indicators. Preliminary analysis conducted indicates that ...

  8. Export fluctuations and economic development: A theoretical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Export fluctuations and economic development: A theoretical and empirical analysis. MO Nyong, CD Ekpenyong. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Social Sciences Vol. 5 (2) 2006: pp. 97-109. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  9. Slavery, Statehood, and Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, D.; Bolt, J.; Lensink, B.W.

    2014-01-01

    Although Africa's indigenous systems of slavery have been extensively described in the historical literature, comparatively little attention has been paid to analyzing its long term impact on economic and political development. Based on data collected from anthropological records we conduct an

  10. Slavery, statehood, and economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, D.J.; Bolt, J.; Lensink, B.W.

    Although Africa's indigenous systems of slavery have been extensively described in the historical literature, comparatively little attention has been paid to analyzing its long term impact on economic and political development. Based on data collected from anthropological records we conduct an

  11. Does globalization contribute to economic growth in developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines empirically whether or not globalization contributes to economic growth in developing countries, drawing empirical lessons from Nigeria. The globalization – growth link, is anchored on Husain Schematic representation, Solow model, and the new growth (endogenous growth) theory. The paper adopts ...

  12. Recruitment of Rural Teachers in Developing Countries: An Economic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    1999-01-01

    Monetary and nonmonetary incentives for rural teacher recruitment are common in developing-country education systems. This paper interprets incentive policies within the framework of the economic theory of compensating differentials, clarifying implicit assumptions of incentive policies and aids in organizing further empirical work on their…

  13. Recent Developments in Financial Economics and Econometrics: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractResearch papers in empirical finance and financial econometrics are among the most widely cited, downloaded and viewed articles in the discipline of Finance. The special issue presents several papers by leading scholars in the field on “Recent Developments in Financial Economics and

  14. Problems and Prospects for Economic Development in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian environment today is faced with many problems of degradation arising from the impacts of human activities and natural phenomena with less prospect for economic development. Some of the problems include gully erosion; coastal erosion; flooding; drought and desertification; oil spillage and pollution; urban ...

  15. Fiscal Policy and Economic Development in Nigeria (1960 - 2011 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the impact of fiscal policy measures on economic development in Nigeria. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller and Phillips-perron unit root test were first conducted. The cointe gration test was then performedusing Johansen Maximum Likelihood procedure. The granger causality test, the impulse response ...

  16. road sector development and economic growth in ethiopia1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyerusalem

    Ibrahim Worku: Road sector development and economic growth in Ethiopia. 134 identified, i.e., the excluded instruments are "relevant", meaning correlated with the endogenous regressors. Under the null that the equation is underidentified, the statistic is distributed as chi-squared with degrees of freedom (L1-K1+1).

  17. 153 Monetary Policy and Nigeria's Economic Development (Pp. 153 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... Senior Lecturer, Department of Financial. Management Technology, School of Management Technology, Federal. University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. Email: leakujuobi@yahoo.com. Abstract. This study investigated the impact of monetary policy instruments on the economic development of Nigeria, ...

  18. Development and prioritization of socio-economic strategies to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Proper implementation of the participatory projects to conserve national natural resources has become much more important over the recent decades. This socio-economic research seeks developing effective strategies to increase public participation in experts' opinions of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province ...

  19. Major socio-economic and political developments in Nigeria and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The socio-economic and political developments that affected economy of the country in general and its currency in particular, during the period under review included: attainment of independence on 1st October, 1960, attainment of republican status in 1963, the country's civil war (1967-1970), decimalization of currency in ...

  20. The role of library in Nigeria's economic development process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in Nigeria can only be provided through the establishment and adequate funding of the library system. It delved into the importance of information in attaining a sustainable economic development capable of making life better for the Nigerian citizens. African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation Vol.

  1. The introduction of anthropometrics into development and economics

    OpenAIRE

    Komlos, John; Meermann, Lukas

    2007-01-01

    'The authors trace the introduction and use of anthropometric indicators (height, weight, body mass index) into development and labor economics in the late 1970s. These biological markers are used as a proxy measure for health human capital, the degree of poverty or malnutrition, net nutritional status, and productive capacity. The use of these indicators has spread rapidly after the 1980s.' (author's abstract)

  2. Planning local economic development: Policy challenges from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Planning local economic development: Policy challenges from the South African experience. CM Rogerson. Abstract. (Africa Insight: 2002 32(2): 39-45). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ai.v32i2.22286 · AJOL African Journals ...

  3. Socio-Economic Development and Gender Inequality in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvi, Meena; Roth, Gene L.

    2004-01-01

    Gender discrimination in India affects poor women's socio-economic development. This paper describes and interprets recurrent themes indicating that the Indian government, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and other international human rights organizations show growing concerns regarding gender inequality in India. As it is not within the…

  4. The Economics of Adaptation and Climate-Resilient Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    To add to the problem, developing countries have a high need for better water and energy infrastructure. Yet the uncertainty on the exact nature of climate impacts makes it difficult to ensure that correct decisions are made because they require advanced decision-making techniques. The economics of adaptation to climate ...

  5. A Dooyeweerd-based approach to regional economic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aay, H; Van Langevelde, A

    2005-01-01

    Within regional science there is a need for a general theory of regional economic development, one that evaluates and integrates existing approaches. In this paper, the philosophy of Herman Dooyeweerd is used as a basis for conceptualising the contours of such a theory. Contributions of this

  6. Economic Learning Media Development Based on Local Locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Rizali; Supriyanto; Hasanah, Mahmudah

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to describe the learning medium of economic education at senior High School in Banjarmasin with media based on local wisdom. This research uses qualitative method as developed by Miles & Huberman, starting from data collection, data reduction data display, and then made conclusion. Data were collected in the order of Basic…

  7. Income Inequality and Economic Development, A Case Study: Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tsunehiko

    The changes in income inequality during the post-war period in Japan are investigated quantitatively and extensively in order to shed some light on the relationship between income inequality and the rapid economic development experienced in Japan. Following a presentation of some summary pictures on income inequality in the Japanese society the…

  8. Accessibility and socio-economic development of human settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Samiul; Wang, Xiaoming; Khoo, Yong Bing; Foliente, Greg

    2017-01-01

    Access to facilities, services and socio-economic opportunities plays a critical role in the growth and decline of cities and human settlements. Previous attempts to explain changes in socio-economic indicators by differences in accessibility have not been convincing as countries with highly developed transport infrastructure have only seen marginal benefits of infrastructure improvements. Australia offers an ideal case for investigating the effects of accessibility on development since it is seen as home to some of the most liveable cities in the world while, at the same time, it also has some of the most isolated settlements. We investigate herein the connectivity and accessibility of all 1814 human settlements (population centers exceeding 200 persons) in Australia, and how they relate to the socio-economic characteristics of, and opportunities in, each population center. Assuming population as a proxy indicator of available opportunities, we present a simple ranking metric for a settlement using the number of population and the distance required to access all other settlements (and the corresponding opportunities therein). We find a strikingly unequal distribution of access to opportunities in Australia, with a marked prominence of opportunities in capital cities in four of the eight states. The two largest cities of Sydney and Melbourne have a dominant position across all socio-economic indicators, compared to all the other cities. In general, we observe across all the settlements that a decrease in access to opportunities is associated with relatively greater socio-economic disadvantage including increased median age and unemployment rate and decreased median household income. Our methodology can be used to better understand the potential benefits of improved accessibility based on infrastructure development, especially for remote areas and for cities and towns with many socio-economically disadvantaged population.

  9. Accessibility and socio-economic development of human settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Khoo, Yong Bing; Foliente, Greg

    2017-01-01

    Access to facilities, services and socio-economic opportunities plays a critical role in the growth and decline of cities and human settlements. Previous attempts to explain changes in socio-economic indicators by differences in accessibility have not been convincing as countries with highly developed transport infrastructure have only seen marginal benefits of infrastructure improvements. Australia offers an ideal case for investigating the effects of accessibility on development since it is seen as home to some of the most liveable cities in the world while, at the same time, it also has some of the most isolated settlements. We investigate herein the connectivity and accessibility of all 1814 human settlements (population centers exceeding 200 persons) in Australia, and how they relate to the socio-economic characteristics of, and opportunities in, each population center. Assuming population as a proxy indicator of available opportunities, we present a simple ranking metric for a settlement using the number of population and the distance required to access all other settlements (and the corresponding opportunities therein). We find a strikingly unequal distribution of access to opportunities in Australia, with a marked prominence of opportunities in capital cities in four of the eight states. The two largest cities of Sydney and Melbourne have a dominant position across all socio-economic indicators, compared to all the other cities. In general, we observe across all the settlements that a decrease in access to opportunities is associated with relatively greater socio-economic disadvantage including increased median age and unemployment rate and decreased median household income. Our methodology can be used to better understand the potential benefits of improved accessibility based on infrastructure development, especially for remote areas and for cities and towns with many socio-economically disadvantaged population. PMID:28636630

  10. Accessibility and socio-economic development of human settlements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiul Hasan

    Full Text Available Access to facilities, services and socio-economic opportunities plays a critical role in the growth and decline of cities and human settlements. Previous attempts to explain changes in socio-economic indicators by differences in accessibility have not been convincing as countries with highly developed transport infrastructure have only seen marginal benefits of infrastructure improvements. Australia offers an ideal case for investigating the effects of accessibility on development since it is seen as home to some of the most liveable cities in the world while, at the same time, it also has some of the most isolated settlements. We investigate herein the connectivity and accessibility of all 1814 human settlements (population centers exceeding 200 persons in Australia, and how they relate to the socio-economic characteristics of, and opportunities in, each population center. Assuming population as a proxy indicator of available opportunities, we present a simple ranking metric for a settlement using the number of population and the distance required to access all other settlements (and the corresponding opportunities therein. We find a strikingly unequal distribution of access to opportunities in Australia, with a marked prominence of opportunities in capital cities in four of the eight states. The two largest cities of Sydney and Melbourne have a dominant position across all socio-economic indicators, compared to all the other cities. In general, we observe across all the settlements that a decrease in access to opportunities is associated with relatively greater socio-economic disadvantage including increased median age and unemployment rate and decreased median household income. Our methodology can be used to better understand the potential benefits of improved accessibility based on infrastructure development, especially for remote areas and for cities and towns with many socio-economically disadvantaged population.

  11. Vacuum boilers developed heating surfaces technic and economic efficiency evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodina, E. N.; Mikhailov, A. G.; Semenov, B. A.

    2018-01-01

    The vacuum boilers as manufacturing proto types application analysis was carried out, the possible directions for the heating surfaces development are identified with a view to improving the energy efficiency. Economic characteristics to evaluate the vacuum boilers application efficiency (Net Discounted Income (NDI), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Profitability Index (PI) and Payback Period) are represented. The given type boilers application technic and economic efficiency criteria were established. NDI changing curves depending on the finning coefficient and operating pressure were obtained as a result of the conducted calculation studies.

  12. Emerging equity market and economic development: Bangladesh perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan; Datta, Rajib; Das, Arjun

    2011-01-01

    Bangladesh capital market is one of the smallest market in Asia but the third largest in the South Asian region. A stock market or equity market is a public entity for the trading of company stock and derivatives at an agreed price. These are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. Economic development is a term that generally refers to the sustained, concerted effort of policymakers and community to promote the standard of living and economic health in a...

  13. [The economic-industrial health care complex and the social and economic dimension of development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Costa, Laís Silveira; Maldonado, José

    2012-12-01

    The strategic role of health care in the national development agenda has been increasingly recognized and institutionalized. In addition to its importance as a structuring element of the Social Welfare State, health care plays a leading role in the generation of innovation - an essential element for competitiveness in knowledge society. However, health care's productive basis is still fragile, and this negatively affects both the universal provision of health care services and Brazil's competitive inclusion in the globalized environment. This situation suggests the need of a more systematic analysis of the complex relationships among productive, technological and social interests in the scope of health care. Consequently, it is necessary to produce further knowledge about the Economic-Industrial Health Care Complex due to its potential for contributing to a socially inclusive development model. This means reversing the hierarchy between economic and social interests in the sanitary field, thus minimizing the vulnerability of the Brazilian health care policy.

  14. On the Integration and Synchronization of the Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viktorovna Kurushina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern trends are associated with the integration and globalization. Integration is an immanent property of all systems and is the result of the evolution. Integration has its positive and negative effects. The degree of the progress towards the global economy is measured by the integration level in terms of the market integration indicators and the economic convergence. The latent characteristic of the globalization as a process of a unified system creation is the synchronization assuming the coincidence of the economic development ascending and descending trends in time. The coincidence of the tempo-rhythms is studied on the basis of coefficients of the pair correlation of relative growth rates of GDP for 1995-2010 in 175 countries. The very high degree of synchronization of economic dynamics is revealed in the European Union countries and in the United States. The low level of the tempo-rhythm synchronization is registered on the territory of the CIS countries. Russia occupies 29th position in the world ranking. The study of the dependence of the economic instability in the world during the crisis of 2008-2009 on the level of the tempo-rhythm coincidence shows that the more synchronized economic dynamics is, the greater excess coefficient of the average dynamics is observed during the crisis period. In 2009 it manifested itself in a greater reduction of the GDP growth rates in the European countries relatively the average wave dynamics in the pre-crisis period. The obtained results are of interest from the perspective of the substantiation of the regional economic group creation and in the context of the measures on increasing the economic stability.

  15. Chinese Economic Development in the Next 20 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Xin Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Chinese economic development is discussed in detail. The 5 major strategies are investigated thoroughly: 1 Speed-maintaining strategies. In this strategies, China must hold a suitable high speed economic growth rate in order to fully use Chinese manpower and world economic opportunities; 2Healthy economy strategy. By designing and making all effective policies, China must strive to keep Chinese economy in a healthy and controllable status. 3 Competiveness strategy. For this strategy to be effective, China have to push up the RD mechanism to pave the way for technology innovation and encourage companies to use and invent new skills and products to develop a higher level living conditions for Chinese people. 4 People’s quality enhancement. To make Chinese economy a high speed and competitive for a long run, it is vital to enhance Chinese people’s scientific knowledge and skills, especially the modern information technology skills, in this way, Chinese population will be a huge pool for the innovation not the obstacles. 5 Balanced development strategy. All economic related factors must be balanced for a sustainable growth. In the context, the detail procedures and methods are outlined and discussed.

  16. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Bertness, Mark D; Bruno, John F; Li, Bo; Chen, Guoqian; Coverdale, Tyler C; Altieri, Andrew H; Bai, Junhong; Sun, Tao; Pennings, Steven C; Liu, Jianguo; Ehrlich, Paul R; Cui, Baoshan

    2014-08-08

    Despite their value, coastal ecosystems are globally threatened by anthropogenic impacts, yet how these impacts are driven by economic development is not well understood. We compiled a multifaceted dataset to quantify coastal trends and examine the role of economic growth in China's coastal degradation since the 1950s. Although China's coastal population growth did not change following the 1978 economic reforms, its coastal economy increased by orders of magnitude. All 15 coastal human impacts examined increased over time, especially after the reforms. Econometric analysis revealed positive relationships between most impacts and GDP across temporal and spatial scales, often lacking dropping thresholds. These relationships generally held when influences of population growth were addressed by analyzing per capita impacts, and when population density was included as explanatory variables. Historical trends in physical and biotic indicators showed that China's coastal ecosystems changed little or slowly between the 1950s and 1978, but have degraded at accelerated rates since 1978. Thus economic growth has been the cause of accelerating human damage to China's coastal ecosystems. China's GDP per capita remains very low. Without strict conservation efforts, continuing economic growth will further degrade China's coastal ecosystems.

  17. Impact of recent technical developments on upgrading economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padamsey, R.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed study was conducted to compare the economics of hydrogen addition processes using Alberta heavy oil feedstocks, based on test achievements, with the economics of upgrading processes representative of those currently in commercial use in Alberta. Capital and operating cost estimates were developed for an upgrader complex centrally located in Alberta utilizing three alternative upgrading schemes: flexicoking with separate hydrotreating, low conversion flexicoking-fining with delayed coking of unconverted bottoms and separate hydrotreating, and VEBA combi-cracker high conversion (VCC) hydrogen addition with integrated hydrotreating. Each scheme was designed to process 60,000 bbl per calendar day of Cold Lake bitumen and produce a synthetic crude oil that could be substituted for a conventional crude. The study included capital cost estimates, operating cost estimates, economic analysis and sensitivity analysis. The results of these analyses, as measured by the price available for the bitumen, indicated that high conversion hydrogen addition processes with integrated hydrotreating, such as VCC, offer a significant economic advantage over the currently employed coking processes combined with separate hydrotreating and over the low conversion hydrogen addition processes combined with separate hydrotreating and coking of unconverted bottoms. Technology was found to have a significant impact on the economics of the operation. 4 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  18. Big Social Network Data and Sustainable Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Can

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available New information technologies have led to the rapid and effective growth of social networks. The amount of data produced by social networks has increased the value of the big data concept, which is one of the popular current phenomena. The immediate or unpredictable effects of a wide array of economic activities on large masses and the reactions to them can be measured by using social media platforms and big data methods. Thus, it would be extremely beneficial to analyze the harmful environmental and social impacts that are caused by unsustainable business applications. As social networks and big data are popular realms currently, their efficient use would be an important factor in sustainable economic development. Accurate analysis of people’s consumption habits and economic tendencies would provide significant advantages to companies. Moreover, unknown consumption factors that affect the economic preferences of individuals can be discovered and economic efficiency can be increased. This study shows that the numerous solution opportunities that are provided by social networks and big data have become significant tools in dynamic policy creation by companies and states, in solving problems related to women’s rights, the environment, and health.

  19. CREDIT AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCES AMONG THE ITALIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    colantonio emiliano

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The international economic crisis of 2007 has had long-lasting negative effects on the financial markets and the real economy of many countries. The occurred uncertainty and the complications of the balance sheets of many banks, due to the strong international connections, particularly impacted on the ability and willingness of financial market, on granting credit to consumer households and companies. Credit, and the financial system in general, represent according to the economic literature, one of the determinants of economic development and, particularly, its efficiency determines the speed of growth and the potential level. The difficulties in the transmission of monetary policy and the structural inefficiency have worsened the negative effects of the economic crisis in many European countries, including Italy, where large differences in the socio-economic context of the various macro-areas still persist. The role of banks is to exploit tools and knowledge to the best addressing of funds, by subjects in excess to those in deficit, or towards who may exploit them for productive purposes. In addition, banks are locally a guidance to entrepreneurs and an entity aware of the local needs and potentials. In this paper we combine several variables on the credit and the quality of banking contracts, in addition to real economic and R&D variables, with reference to the Italian regions. The aim is to identify structural differences among the Italian regions in terms of financial and economic development, and in addition to observe the discrepancy between the various macro areas, even considering the effects of the international financial crisis broken out in the U.S. in 2007. We consider data over sufficiently long periods before and after the advent of the crisis and the long subsequent period of economic recession. The detail of the analysis is regional, in order to have a sufficient number of contexts that are grouped into homogeneous groups

  20. Organizational-Economic Mechanism for Industrial Complex Management as a Tool of Regional Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenii Aleksandrovich Mazilov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective functioning of economy is possible only if all economic sectors function successfully. However, only the regions with a developed industrial complex can provide a decent quality of life and promote economic growth. At the same time, certain systemic problems have emerged in the industrial complex during the years of market reforms; these problems can be solved only with the help of profound and comprehensive transformations, such as an extensive use of advanced scientific and technological achievements and the formation of a fundamentally new approach to the development of the industrial complex. Under current economic conditions the functioning and development of the industrial complex depends to a great extent on the efficiency of their management mechanism. Therefore, it is expedient to begin modernization of the industrial complex and enhance its competitiveness with the changes in the existing management system. The paper outlines main problems in the development of the industrial complex, presents the typology of regions according to the level of development of the industrial complex. The authors prove that innovation has the greatest effect on the performance of the industrial complex. In addition, the article presents the results of mathematical modeling of the influence of the main components of innovative activity on the volume of shipped products by enterprises of Russia’s industrial complex. The authors put forward their suggestions concerning the adjustment of existing mechanism for the regional industrial complex management and present the priorities of its development in the long term. The authors also substantiate a viewpoint about the necessity of establishing a Foundation for the development of industrial technology in the region

  1. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND EU CITIZENS’ PRO-ENVIRONMENTAL ATTITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. UNTARU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to determine the influence of EU member countries’ economic development on their citizens’ pro-environmental attitudes, using a Cluster Analysis, a Principal Components Analysis and a series of multiple regressions. In this sense, we have used the results of the 2012 survey on the „Attitudes of Europeans towards building the single market for green products”, as well as the 2012 statistical information referring to EU member countries’ economic development, provided by Eurostat. Using multiple regression analyses, we have outlined a significant influence of macroeconomic variables, such as: the employment rate, tertiary educational attainment, GDP per capita, human development index value, unemployment rate, share of gross value added in services and share of employment in services on European citizens’ pro-environmental attitudes.

  2. INDEX OF ECONOMIC FREEDOM AND TRANSPORT DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PĂUN IULIAN GABRIEL

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Transport is an important component of the economy - as a promoter of local, regional and global development, by alleviating the disparities between the different regions, by facilitating the mobility of human, material and immaterial resources through the facilitating and stimulating role, increasing the degree of intercultural knowledge with positive effects on peace and attenuation of different types of discrimination. Romania, as a member of the European Union, must implement the transport stimulation and development objectives set by the European Commission. In this context, we want to identify relations between the degree of economic freedom and the changes that have taken place in the three main transport sectors - road, rail and air. For this, a series of correlograms will be created to capture the relationship between the various transport indicators and the Index of Economic Freedom, developed by Heritage Foundation.

  3. Energy and economic development in Lithuania and neighbouring countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankauskas, V.; Shtremeikiene, D.

    1995-01-01

    In Lithuania as also in neighbouring countries (Poland, Latvia, Belarus, Russia) economic reforms are going on. All these countries, better or worse, slower or quicker, are restructuring their economies from centrally planned into market based ones. The neighbouring countries also are the main Lithuania's trading partners, and Russia is a sole supplier of crude oil and natural gas. This article deals with the analysis of the latest economic development in Lithuania and in neighbouring countries, as well as with it impact on the development of the Lithuanian energy sector. The analysis is based on the statistical data of the last few years and on some projections of future development. (author). 12 refs., 7 tabs., 21 figs

  4. Reflections on the development of health economics in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Anne

    2014-08-22

    Health economics is a relatively new discipline, though its antecedents can be traced back to William Petty FRS (1623-1687). In high-income countries, the academic discipline and scientific literature have grown rapidly since the 1960s. In low- and middle-income countries, the growth of health economics has been strongly influenced by trends in health policy, especially among the international and bilateral agencies involved in supporting health sector development. Valuable and influential research has been done in areas such as cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis, financing of healthcare, healthcare provision, and health systems analysis, but there has been insufficient questioning of the relevance of theories and policy recommendations in the rich world literature to the circumstances of poorer countries. Characteristics such as a country's economic structure, strength of political and social institutions, management capacity, and dependence on external agencies, mean that theories and models cannot necessarily be transferred between settings. Recent innovations in the health economics literature on low- and middle-income countries indicate how health economics can be shaped to provide more relevant advice for policy. For this to be taken further, it is critical that such countries develop stronger capacity for health economics within their universities and research institutes, with greater local commitment of funding. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. The contribution of the Saudi woman in economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haga Elimam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study is to analyze the contribution of Saudi woman in economic development of the country. This report develops an understanding of women contributions towards economic development. The method used to analyze the data was Pearson correlation. Through correlation we can determine the relationship between the variables. The study was a quantitative study. The data for five years was taken. Hypotheses development proceeded by focusing on labor work force participation, literacy rate of adult females and GDP rate within Saudi Arabia. Analysis was done on the results and the findings confirmed that there is a significant relationship between the variables. This study was of exploratory nature, it is recommended that this research be expanded to a statistically valid base within Saudi Arabia and then expand the study to additional countries. The findings showed that there was a high significant relationship between women labor work force participation and GDP. Whereas, there was moderate significant relationship between labor work force and literacy rate. Hence, there is a positive relationship between women contribution and economic development. The research is conducted within the context of Saudi Arabia and has certain limitation with further directions of conducting research in related field to get more accurate results.

  6. Problems of Economic Development in Reunified Germany. Retrospective Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gotz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Does Eastern Germany differ significantly from Western part in economic terms? How have new Bundeslnder been developing over past twenty years? How fast has East been catching up with West? What could have hampered convergence? How today are German states equipped with factors determining future growth? How the new Bundeslnder performed do compared with the old ones? This paper seeks to address above mentioned questions. It offers a comprehensive review of key economic developments of two decades of reunited Germany. Particularly it examines current economic landscape; investigates convergence processes taking place since reunification and tries to identify most likely impediments hampering full catching up. Finally, it aims at assessing contemporary growth potential of German states. With respect to the starting point poor performance of East Germany back in 1990 the progress made and results achieved are impressive. Though, comparing the situation with Western part of the country significant discrepancies continue to exist. Certainly, assessment of the last twenty years of reunited Germany hinges much upon perspective taken. Two decades after Berlin Wall Fall opinions on economic consequences of reunification are more balanced, since much has been achieved, but much still needs to be done.

  7. "Biosphere Reserve"--The Actual Research Subject of the Sustainable Development Process"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasaev, Gabibulla R.; Sadovenko, Marina Yu.; Isaev, Roman O.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the analyzed issue is caused by the growing slippage of research funds of sustainable development in its practice. The purpose of the article is the theoretical basis of the biosphere reserve as a scientific research subject that is relevant to rules of the scientific activity. The leading approach to the study of this issue is…

  8. Cross-Cultural Study of Cognitive Development on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyat, Gilbert; Silk, Stephen

    1970-01-01

    The research summarized in this paper was conducted on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota. The purpose of the developmental study was to explore the cognitive aspect of development rather than to explore the personality as a whole. The Clinical Exploratory Method of Piaget was employed, which focuses primarily upon an experimental…

  9. Relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes in Luya Mountain Nature Reserve, Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhan-Hong; Zhang, Jin-Tun

    2005-09-01

    The relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes is analyzed for the Luya Mountain Nature Reserve (LMNR), Shanxi, China, in this study. Indices such as Sensitive Level (SL), Landscape Importance Value (LIV), information index of biodiversity (H'), Shade-tolerant Species Proportion (SSP), and Tourism Influencing Index (TII) are used to characterize vegetated landscapes, the impact of tourism, and their relationship. Their relationship is studied by Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA). TWINSPAN gives correct and rapid partition to the classification, and DCA ordination shows the changing tendency of all vegetation types based on tourism development. These results reflect the ecological relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes. In Luya Mountain Nature Reserve, most plant communities are in good or medium condition, which shows that these vegetated landscapes can support more tourism. However, the occurrence of the bad condition shows that there is a severe contradiction between tourism development and vegetated landscapes.

  10. ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF DEVELOPING INTERMODAL TRANSPORT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisan Radu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transport plays a crucial role in economic and social development and its contribution goes beyond what is normally captured in traditional cost-benefit analyses. Transportation investments can have large long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The European Commission when developing transport policy, focuses on the intermodal transport, which is seen as a sustainable mobility solution, environmentally friendly and efficient in terms of resources, especially in terms of freight. European transport policies promote co-modality - combining different modes for a single supply chain - as a solution to the adverse effects of transport: pollution, traffic congestion, energy consumption. Intermodal transport is found to be consistently cheaper than all-road solutions, and its external costs significantly lower, thereby confirming the high potential of intermodal transport in increasing the sustainability of the transport sector. So, freight intermodality is increasingly considered as major potential contributor to solving the sustainability problems of the European transport sector. This paper addresses the pricing issues specifically related to intermodal transport. The focus in on the main economical advantages of developing intermodal transport, but also on the usage limits brought by particularities of transport modes. Special attention is given to intermodal transfer terminals with solutions for activity efficiency increase, with major implications on the quality and cost of transportation. The theme discussed in this paper is of great importance, many authors and specialists developed it in their studies. Some names are needed to be mentioned: Todd Litman, Dr. Yuri V. Yevdokimov, John J. Coyle, Kenneth D. Boyer and few more. But, a special attention for this subject is paid by the European Commission and its subordinated institutions, that are interested in developing sustainable strategies and promoting concrete solutions for

  11. Regional and national differences in stressful life events: The role of cultural factors, economic development, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, José Juan; Panadero, Sonia; Martín, Rosa M

    2015-07-01

    The study analyzed differences in the risk of experiencing stressful life events (SLE) according to cultural factors, the level of economic development of the region inhabited, and gender. Information was gathered on the number and nature of SLE experienced by a sample of 604 undergraduates from 3 regions with very different levels of economic development: Madrid (Spain), León (Nicaragua), and Bilwi (Nicaragua). The results indicated a greater risk of experiencing SLE among undergraduates from Nicaragua, but few differences attributed to the undergraduates' gender or the level of economic development in the region they inhabit within the same country. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. THE ROLE OF INDUSTRIAL PARCS IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEȘTER Liana-Eugenia

    2013-07-01

    The approach of the subject is theoretical starting from the need to support the economic activities by local social institutions fostering the access to information and technology and identifying some solutions that meet these needs - industrial parks. Even if industrial parks in Romania are still considered in draft form, some examples can be identified as functional and supporting the local development. Their functionality is given by the involvement of local authorities and the interest of the business environment in exploiting the economic potential of the region. The role of industrial parks in supporting the local development is measured in the number of new jobs created, the income received by local institutions by paying taxes and duties from firms benefiting from the infrastructure made available through their involvement in attracting investors; the more productive the industry and more efficient the production, the higher the company\\\\\\'s results and therefore the benefits of local institutions.

  13. Economic Development and Forest Cover: Evidence from Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesús; Danylo, Olha; Fritz, Steffen; McCallum, Ian; Obersteiner, Michael; See, Linda; Walsh, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Ongoing deforestation is a pressing, global environmental issue with direct impacts on climate change, carbon emissions, and biodiversity. There is an intuitive link between economic development and overexploitation of natural resources including forests, but this relationship has proven difficult to establish empirically due to both inadequate data and convoluting geo-climactic factors. In this analysis, we use satellite data on forest cover along national borders in order to study the determinants of deforestation differences across countries. Controlling for trans-border geo-climactic differences, we find that income per capita is the most robust determinant of differences in cross-border forest cover. We show that the marginal effect of per capita income growth on forest cover is strongest at the earliest stages of economic development, and weakens in more advanced economies, presenting some of the strongest evidence to date for the existence of at least half of an environmental Kuznets curve for deforestation.

  14. Is Economic Development Promoting Monetary Integration in East Asia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Kawasaki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to investigate whether there exist international integrated markets among East Asian economies, by employing the Generalized Purchasing Power Parity (G-PPP model, then, it would help to suggest whether the East Asian region is the Optimum Currency Area (OCA or not. The empirical results in this paper suggest that holding the G-PPP among nine Asian countries (China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam becomes more applicable in 2000–2013 than of that in 1984–1997. In the period of “globalization,” which is characterized by expansion of world trade, increase of international capital flows, and development of information and communications technologies, Asian economic development has been promoting not only economic integrations but also constructing the stable linkages of real exchange rates. Therefore, it would help to adopt regional coordination for monetary policies to assure the feasibility of a possible monetary union.

  15. Innovation tools of economic development of the enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor Pavlovich Zotov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ways to generate new economic and financial benefits from the practice of rationalization work in the industrial enterprise are considered. An attempt to combine the practice rationalization work with the capabilities of tools and techniques of the modern management technologies is made. It is offered to learn the tools and techniques of the technologies by members of the 4types of the formed cross-functional teams through the tutorials. It is offered to distribute the tutorials between the four stages of the method PDCA management cycle. It is shown that the creation of teams and development of tutorials will create internal resources for innovation projects to achieve effective changes in economic development of the enterprise.

  16. Principled Analysis of Economic Development and adoption by the State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carlos Duarte

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of a study about the effectiveness of the constitutional principles related to the economic development, which proved to be the principles that justify the State’s decision to act through regulatory agencies, balancing the public interest and the private sector. It is a revisitation of the reform of the State’s apparatus, with a new prin- cipiologic and hermeneutic approach in accordance to the complex factual, ethical and axiological situations of the contemporary society that saw its’ social rights shaken by the economic instability scenario that has affected the whole world in recent years. It will be developed a reflection on the interaction of these principles with each other, and conclu- sively, how is the effectiveness managed by the State.

  17. New developments in Orinoco oil belt projects reflect a positive effect on the areas reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarroel, T. [PDVSA, La Campina, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2008-07-01

    The Orinoco oil belt is located in the eastern Venezuela basin, parallel to the Orinoco River. The area is divided into four zones which include four projects that convert crude oil to synthetic crudes. Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA) believes that the extra heavy oil reserve scenario of this area is extremely promising. This paper discussed several positive effects that recent developments have had on the reserve numbers within the area. Reserve numbers of the five joint venture projects currently operating in the area were presented. The paper discussed the location of the Orinoco oil belt and presented the general geology of the region. Basic reservoir properties and ongoing projects in the Orinoco heavy oil belt were described. Production methods for extra heavy oils were also explained. It was concluded that huge investment opportunities existed in the area, especially for those interested in participating in mixed enterprises with the Venezuelan government. 6 refs., 16 figs.

  18. Green finance is essential for economic development and sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Tasnim; Datta, Rajib; Mohajan, Haradhan

    2013-01-01

    Green finance is part of a broader occurrence; from the incorporation of various non-financial or ethical concerns onto the financial universe. Generally green finance is considered as the financial support for green growth which reduces greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutant emissions significantly. Green finance in agriculture, green buildings and other green projects should increase for the economic development of the country. In this paper an attempt has been made to describe green fi...

  19. Impact of Mental Poverty on Rural Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Lan-xiang

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the definition of mental poverty and the status quo of mental poverty in China's rural areas. Mental poverty in China's rural areas embodies the following aspects: the sense of parochialism is serious; the small farmer consciousness is strong; there is misgiving about identity. This paper analyses the reason of Mental poverty influencing farmers' behavior model and rural economic development. Mental poverty influences the farmers' changing current situation; Mental pover...

  20. Professional Sports Facilities, Franchises and Urban Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis Coates; Brad R. Humphreys

    2003-01-01

    Local political and community leaders and the owners of professional sports teams frequently claim that professional sports facilities and franchises are important engines of economic development in urban areas. These structures and teams allegedly contribute millions of dollars of net new spending annually and create hundreds of new jobs, and provide justification for hundreds of millions of dollars of public subsidies for the construction of many new professional sports facilities in the Un...

  1. Domestic capital formation, financial intermediation and economic development in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Bernhard

    1987-01-01

    This paper focusses on the reasons of the poor performance of domestic resource mobilization in Peru. It begins with an analysis of the structure of domestic savings and its changes in the course of economic development (Section II) . After the description of the Peruvian financial sector (Section III) financial policies since the early 1970 are reviewed and the effects of financial repression discussed (Section IV). Finally some policy suggestions to improve domestic resource mobilization ar...

  2. Who Wins the Olympic Games: Economic Development and Medal Totals

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew B. Bernard; Meghan R. Busse

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines determinants of Olympic success at the country level. Does the U.S. win its fair share of Olympic medals? Why does China win 6% of the medals even though it has 1/5 of the world's population? We consider the role of population and economic development in determining medal totals from 1960-1996. We also provide out of sample predictions for the 2000 Olympics in Sydney.

  3. Culture, Spirituality, and Economic Development : Opening a Dialogue

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 1995 ... Dans Culture, Spirituality, and Economic Development, l'auteur, William F. Ryan, S.J. aborde la question en formulant des réflexions sur une série d'entrevues réalisées auprès de théoriciens de diverses disciplines de toutes les régions du monde. Les résultats confirment le caractère fallacieux que ...

  4. The case for the community partner in economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Steiger; Tessa Hebb; Lisa A. Hagerman

    2007-01-01

    Community-based organizations promote economic development by assembling investments in affordable housing, mixed-use real estate, community facilities, and small business in specific geographies. A principal way that community-based organizations tap institutional investors for deals is by partnering with investment intermediaries who manage the risk of these transactions by pooling assets, spreading risk across investors, and pricing the transaction up to the associated risk. Such a partner...

  5. Cluster Initiatives in Poland as a Factor of Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Jarzebowski, Sebastian; Klepacki, Bogdan; Bezat-Jarzębowska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    competitiveness and innovativeness of companies and regions. The economic benefits achieved by companies participating in a cluster are varied and depend on the individual's experience, human and intellectual capital, organizational efficiency, etc. However, clusters are an important mechanism for stimulating innovation, and therefore in the knowledge-based economy, it is important to form such structures. As part of this publication, assumptions regarding a creation and development of a regi...

  6. The potentials for Political and Economic Development of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Ngadhnjim Brovina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is rather clear that it is mandatory to understand the potentials of growth for any economy to grow. With globalization taking place, countries in general, have intensified their political, economic and social integration. Kosovo, as the youngest state in Europe, is about to transform from a devastated economy into a developing one. It has not yet been able to tap on its natural resources and neither of its potentials for a faster economic growth. Its backbone economic sectors such as agriculture, textile, mining and metal sectors are still on their initial stages of revitalization, while the privatization of the public companies has not met its expectations. Whereas, Kosovo is doing a better job on, as its international presence and subjectivity of its political status (Independence is strengthened. More and more countries are recognizing it as a sovereign country, while the recent initiation of the Stabilization and Association Agreement with the European Union, Kosovo is undergoing through its structural reforms and alliance with the EU standards and regulations. The future of Kosovo, like of any country, will depend on the way that its human, financial and natural resources are utilized. On this regard, this paper is an attempt to explore the potentials of the economic growth on different political contexts that Kosovo has and is expected to undergo.

  7. When Small is Big: Microcredit and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Brown

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Microcredit - the extension of small loans - gives people who would otherwise not have access to credit the opportunity to begin or expand businesses or to pursue job-specific training. These borrowers lack the income, credit history, assets, or security to borrow from other sources. Although the popularity and success of microcredit in developing countries has been trumpeted in the media, microcredit is established and growing in the United States and Canada as well. Its appeal comes from its capacity to provide the means for those who have the ability, drive, and commitment to overcome the hurdles to self-sufficiency. In this article, the role of microcredit as a stimulant for economic development is examined. First, its importance for the establishment of small businesss is described. Second, the article provides an overview of the general microcredit climate in the United states and the local situation in the Ottawa area. Third, brief stories about individuals who have received this type of loan reveal the human impact behind the economic benefits. Finally, the role of microcredit in funding startups is analyzed in comparison to other sources of available funding. The article concludes with a summary of the benefits of microcredit as a win-win proposition for economic development.

  8. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Skamania County, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesser, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Skamania County, Washington, near Mt. Adams, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Skamania County was chosen due to both identified geothermal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Skamania County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system

  9. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Whatcom County, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesser, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system

  10. Geothermal : Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Whatcom County, Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesser, Jonathan A.

    1992-07-01

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.

  11. Geothermal : Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Skamania County, Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesser, Jonathan A.

    1992-07-01

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Skamania County, Washington, near Mt. Adams, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Skamania County was chosen due to both identified geothermal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Skamania County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.

  12. Evidence on Economic Growth and Financial Development in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Lipovina-Bozovic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Macroeconomic development must be supported by a stable and efficient financial system. There are many different measures of financial development that are suggested when the relationship between growth and financial system is analyzed. In this paper we will identify the most important indicators of the financial development in Montenegro. Due to the fact that in the last decade Montenegrin financial market has been developing, we want to see if that fact had an influence on the economic growth, as well as if there is significant positive relationship between the growth and financial development. The intention of this article is to use principal components in order to examine correlation among indicators and find means or main components. This technique has the advantage of giving more general measures of financial development rather than individual variables for bank or stock market development. It could be concluded that it is difficult to identify the specific components of the financial system most associated with the economic growth.

  13. The effect of economic development on population health: a review of the empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Simon; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Economic growth is considered an important determinant of population health. Relevant studies investigating the effect of economic growth on health outcomes were identified from Google Scholar and PubMed searches in economics and medical journals. Additional resources generated through economic growth are potentially useful for improving population health. The empirical evidence on the aggregate effect of economic growth on population health is rather mixed and inconclusive. The causal pathways from economic growth to population health are crucial and failure or success in completing the pathways explains differences in empirical findings. Future research should investigate how additional resources can more effectively reach those in need and how additional resources can be used more efficiently. It is particularly relevant to understand why preventive health care in developing countries is very price elastic whereas curative health care is very health inelastic and how this understanding can inform public health policy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Innovation Cluster and Economic Development in Bucharest Ilfov Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Adumitroaei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous globalisation tendencies have created policy challenges for national and local governments. One response to these challenges has been a dramatic proliferation of development policies based on clusters of firms and industries. In EU Strategy 2020 – COM 546/6.10.2010 Initiative “An Union of Innovation”, COM 614/27.10.2010 Initiative “Industrial Policy in the Globalization Era” innovative clusters were considered the “engine” of economic development. They represent a framework for business development, collaboration between companies, universities, research institutions, suppliers, customers and competitors located in the same geographical area. Clusters of small and medium sized firms in developing economies are coming under increased pressure from competition as products mature, technology becomes widely available, and companies seek lower cost locations for production. In this paper, we consider that the cluster is an engine for economic development in our region and we need to have a regional strategy for clusters in Bucharest Ilfov Regional Development Plan for 2014-2020.

  15. CONTINUOUS ECONOMIC EDUCATION AS THE FACTOR OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Lomakina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of continuous economic education of future professionals is caused by importance of forming correct understanding of the economic reality, of comprehension of economic basic laws, of understanding of global and national tendencies in economic development; the growing role of continuous economic education as a major factor of formation and development of a postindustrial society is shown; the reasons and circumstances of the active reference of the domestic pedagogical science and practice to problems of economic education are emphasized; the factors influencing development of continuous economic education are established in the article. Continuous economic education is considered as a part of continuous education promoting the formation of a competitive expert in conditions of market economy, demanded on labour market and directed on formation of economic competencies depending on the type of preparation (economic and not economic at different educational levels according to models of the graduate and the teacher and realized by means of economic training and economic education.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF SELF-EMPLOYMENT IN GLOBAL ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Paliulyte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses factors effecting the development of self-employment activities in global economic conditions and, namely, liberal professions. The aim of this article is to identify the factors affecting the development of liberal professions. The methods used in this investigation are followers: scientific literature analysis, collection of information, comparison, generalization and logical analysis. The authors of this article concludes that the emergence of knowledge sector, increasing differentiation and flexibility of production and the growing role of creativity in value creation process determine the rising importance of liberal professions as one of the self-employment forms.

  17. Modern Olympic sport: economic mechanism of self-development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubka S.N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents characteristics of the Olympic movement as a real self-sufficient socio-economic phenomenon, with its inherent internal mechanism of self-development. There are identified the main problems of improving the mechanism of self-development, the modernization of the distribution of income from the sale of commercial programs between the participants of Olympic sports and enhance the fight against "piracy" marketing. The objectives of the NOC assistance program implemented by "Olympic Solidarity" fund are defined, the structure of expenditures on the IOC "Olympic Solidarity" program implementation are presented.

  18. Energy and economic development in isolated regions: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, A.; Maldonado, P.

    1992-01-01

    High production costs and inadequate supply of electricity are severe handicaps to economic development in remote areas. Costs are increased further by the low level and high variability of electric loads. In order to face these problems a simultaneous development of wind diesel energy resources and productive projects with demand management is proposed. This paper illustrates such a case in Southern Chile where present electricity costs are reduced as consumption is increased from 85 to 468 KWh/person/year. A new refrigeration plant increases the storage capacity for the small fishing activity and effectively uses the output of wind energy generators. (author)

  19. Population change and some aspects of socio-economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Some of the major dimensions of the interrelationship of population dynamics and socioeconomic development are examined in the context of Asia and the Pacific. Most of the countries in the region are developing, and population growth is viewed more as an obstacle to development rather than as a stimulant to economic progress. There are at least 10 countries in the region whose per capita income is less than US$300, namely: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. In 1979 these countries had an estimated combined population of 1,867,103,000 or about 77% of the population of the region. Per capita gross national product (GNP) masks the real economic condition of the people as it fails to show the actual distribution of income and wealth. In most nonsocialist countries there is maldistribution of income and wealth. The International Labor Organization (ILO) report points out that during 1963-73 in Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka, the richest 20% of households receive about half the income. In contrast, the poorest 40% receive between 12-18% of total income. In short, there could be economic development but not social development, such as equitable distribution of wealth and income. Studies have shown that equitable income distribution exerts a far greater influence on fertility than the GNP. In many countries of the region poverty is reality. The World Bank estimates that half of the people in absolute poverty live in South Asia, mainly India and Bangladesh. It is most unfortunate that among the very poor, poverty is frequently regarded as the cause rather than the effect of high fertility. Among the very poor, mortality, particularly infant mortality, tends to be high. China is among the countries which have recognized that rapid population growth is not beneficial to the accelerated speed of capital accumulation. It has been observed that in most countries as the GNP per

  20. Synergistic Integration of Liner Shipping and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvard Roškar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Liner shipping with all its specific features plays an importantrole in the economic development of a country whose portsare involved. In the strategic goals of maritime policy for the period2005-2009 the European Commission stresses the needfor a sustainable environmental development and economicgrowth. Besides, it points out the necessity for the fulfilment ofall maritime potentials. Yet, individual EU member states frequentlycreate the environment, which discourages the developmentof their own national maritime economy. Unfortunately,this applies also to the Republic of Slovenia. The current paperoffers a detailed analysis of the weaknesses and benefits of theclassical liner shipping in present day.

  1. Contemporary Determinants of the Development of Socio-Economic Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czyż Teresa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the effect on the development of socio-economic regions in Poland of contemporary external determinants considered at the European and the world scale. It consists of two parts. The first gives a description of the main general processes that are external determinants of regional development today: modernisation changes, globalisation, metropolitanisation, and European integration. Part two is empirical in character and seeks to find regional manifestations and effects of those determinants in Poland, and to establish how they influence regional income and spatial differences in its value.

  2. COMPETITIVENESS IN SERVICES, DRIVING FORCE OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMONA PÎRVU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness of a nation is ensured by the profitable activity of firms. They strengthen their position in the domestic and international markets through global strategies whose purpose is to increase productivity and maintain it at a high level. For this, the company must take into account both the internal economic environment which ensures operating conditions and the external economic environment’s development. The five competitive forces determine the industry’s profitability because they configure firms’ selling prices, production costs and investments needed to be competitive in the field. The threat of new competitors limits the potential profit since they involve new production units and the opportunities for market expansion. Economic strength of the buyers and bidders attracts profits to them. Rivalry among existing competitors erodes profits by increasing costs of competition (like advertising, selling expenses or those required for research and development. The presence of substitutive goods or services limits competitors’ prices through buyers’ transfer phenomena limiting and eroding market share of industry / firm in the total production output.

  3. [On the relationship between population growth and economic development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D

    1983-03-29

    People are producers as well as consumers. If we look at only one side and ignore the other, we will be unable to reach impartial conclusions concerning the population problem. An obvious and close relationship exists between population growth and national economic development. If the two do not match each other, there will be numerous contradictory problems. For example, if the population grows too fast, serious social and economic problems will be created, such as a rise in the demand for living resources, an oversupply of the labor force, unemployment, and an insufficient availability of arable land, a shortage of public housing, more demand for health care and public transportation, and cultural and educational enterprises. In addition, a rapid population growth may cause more problems for the natural environment. As a result of overpopulation, the pressure on natural resources will be intensified and may therefore cause damage to the environment and create an ecological imbalance. All the above may bring very serious difficulties and obstacles to the advancement of socialism and modernized constructions. To avoid this, we must try to solve the population problem thoroughly and maintain a balanced relationship between the population growth and economic development.

  4. Environmental economics and policy making in developing countries. Current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, R.S. da

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries, where growth expectations are high, least-cost environmental policies are crucial since they can reduce the conflict between economic growth and the environment. In view of this, policymakers in these economies must be very aware of the relationship between economic and environmental issues to offer policy initiatives which can increase efficiency and improve equity. The authors provide a comprehensive analysis of topics varying from the general problems of growth and conservation to specific applications such as; pollution costs, environmental taxation, deforestation and climate change. This volume also offers policymakers a comprehensive view of the challenges they face, and the legacies they leave, in order to convert environmental policy making into an actual programme of welfare improvement. (author)

  5. The Economics of Human Development and Social Mobility *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J.; Mosso, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    This paper distills and extends recent research on the economics of human development and social mobility. It summarizes the evidence from diverse literatures on the importance of early life conditions in shaping multiple life skills and the evidence on critical and sensitive investment periods for shaping different skills. It presents economic models that rationalize the evidence and unify the treatment effect and family influence literatures. The evidence on the empirical and policy importance of credit constraints in forming skills is examined. There is little support for the claim that untargeted income transfer policies to poor families significantly boost child outcomes. Mentoring, parenting, and attachment are essential features of successful families and interventions to shape skills at all stages of childhood. The next wave of family studies will better capture the active role of the emerging autonomous child in learning and responding to the actions of parents, mentors and teachers. PMID:25346785

  6. Leadership and institutional factors in endogenous regional economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Stimson

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes that a virtuous circle for the sustainable developmentof a city or region is achieved through a process whereby proactive and strongleadership and effective institutions enhance the capacity and capability of a place tobetter use its resource endowments and gain an improved market fit in becomingcompetitive and being entrepreneurial. It is proposed that the performance of a city orregion at a point in time and the path of its economic development over time may berepresented by its position in a Regional Competitiveness Performance Cube. Thepaper proposes a new model framework whereby a city or region’s economic developmentand performance is an outcome dependent on how its resource endowmentsand market fit as quasi-independent variables are mediated by the interaction betweenleadership, institutions, and entrepreneurship as intervening variables. The experiencesof a number of case study cities from a variety of settings in the US, Europe,Asia and Australia are explored within that framework.

  7. The Economics of Human Development and Social Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J; Mosso, Stefano

    2014-08-01

    This paper distills and extends recent research on the economics of human development and social mobility. It summarizes the evidence from diverse literatures on the importance of early life conditions in shaping multiple life skills and the evidence on critical and sensitive investment periods for shaping different skills. It presents economic models that rationalize the evidence and unify the treatment effect and family influence literatures. The evidence on the empirical and policy importance of credit constraints in forming skills is examined. There is little support for the claim that untargeted income transfer policies to poor families significantly boost child outcomes. Mentoring, parenting, and attachment are essential features of successful families and interventions to shape skills at all stages of childhood. The next wave of family studies will better capture the active role of the emerging autonomous child in learning and responding to the actions of parents, mentors and teachers.

  8. Spreading of technological developments in socio-economic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun, F.; Pal, K.F.

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Recently, it has been recognized that various aspects of the time evolution of modern socio-economic systems show strong analogies to complex systems extensively studied by physical sciences. During the last decade the application of methods and models of statistical physics provided a novel insight into social and economical problems and led to the emergence of new branches of physical research. In the framework of the present project we proposed a simple cellular automata model of the spreading of new technological developments in socio-economic systems. In our model the socio-economic system is defined in a general sense: the elements/members of the system are called agents, which may be firms or simply individuals. Depending on the meaning of agents, the system under consideration can be a macro-economic system where firms compete with each other, or it can be a society where individuals purchase products of di rent technological level. Technological development occurs such that agents adopt more advanced technologies of their social environment in order to minimize their costs. Technological development due to innovation can be captured in the model as a random external driving. As a first step, we analyzed the basic setup of the model where agents have random technological levels uniformly distributed between 0 and 1 and interact solely with their near- est neighbors in a square lattice without considering external driving. Computer simulations revealed that even under these simplifying assumptions a rather complex behavior of the system emerges: when the most advanced technologies do not provide enough improvement (enough cost reduction) in the system, the agents tend to form clusters of di rent technological levels where even low level technologies may survive for a long time. At intermediate values of the advantage provided by the new technologies, the global technological level of the society improves, however, it

  9. The Financial and Economic Crisis and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gurtner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries were hit hard by the financial and economic crisis, although the impact was somewhat delayed. Every country had different challenges to master. The closer the developing countries are interconnected with the world economy, the crasser the effects. And the incipient recovery that is becoming noticeable is, for the time being, restricted to only a few countries and regions.The crisis was transmitted primarily by trade and financial flows forcing millions back into poverty. Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals is seriously jeopardised in many countries. Many developing countries did not and do not have the resources to stimulate the economy and protect their socially disadvantaged populations to the same extent as the industrialised countries. However, many countries have made considerable efforts to mitigate the effects. Developing countries have also increased their cooperation with one another and are urgently demanding a greater voice in global economic affairs.The industrialised countries are for the most part more concerned with their own problems. Their readiness to provide more extensive aid is limited. They are under pressure from the international institutions to relax their previous dominance in favour of the increasingly strong emerging countries. A shift in power and influence that was already noticeable before the financial crisis is deepening.

  10. A New ′Conservation Space′? Protected Areas, Environmental Economic Activities and Discourses in Two Yucatán Biosphere Reserves in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Doyon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines some of the local socioeconomic repercussions of two biosphere reserves on the Yucatán Peninsula-Ría Celestún and Ría Lagartos. We analyse aspects of the relationship that the residents of the six villages located within the two reserves have with their environment, by examining both the ′environmental economic activities′ residents are involved in and their discourses on, and interpretations of, the notion of environment and the conservation precepts put forward by the biosphere reserves. Our research explores how the objectives of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization′s Man and Biosphere Programme, disseminated by biosphere reserves, are put into practice on the ground. In particular, we look at how environmental economic activities are experienced and practised without necessarily being accompanied by the integration, acceptance, and internalisation of conservation principles-and how these activities contribute, or fail to contribute, to the crystallisation of a new ′conservation space′.

  11. Regional economic cooperation among developing countries: some further considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robson, P.

    1978-06-01

    Peter Robson offers further comments on a paper Crisis in Regional Economic Cooperation (Integration) among Developing Countries: A Survey by Constantine Vaitsos in World Development, June 1978. He wonders if the approach espoused by Vaitsos may even now need reappraising. Robson adds further that market integration through trade liberalization has had only a limited impact on growth and very little impact on structural change and, through the imbalance created, has raised political obstacles to cooperation before substantial economic gains have been generated. The new emphasis gives pride of place to cooperation for production on a regional basis. It is now widely accepted that integration of this kind has an important role to play--at any rate if acceptable instruments are utilized to provide the necessary preferential support. But the implications for this kind of integration of the objective of promoting international cooperation among developing countries outside the framework of integration groupings have also to be taken into account, as have those of an international development strategy involving the development of manufacturing production in developing countries to serve not only the needs of advanced countries but particularly those of other developing countries. These objectives point not only to a strengthening of the links of developing countries with advanced countries--for instance, through the conclusion of industrial collaboration agreements--but also towards an increased emphasis on broader preferential collaboration arrangements in trade and other matters among the developing countries themselves. The consequences of progress in these directions for regional-integration approaches based on cooperation for industrial production could be far-reaching.

  12. Wealth and well-being, economic growth, and integral development.

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    Bunge, Mario

    2012-01-01

    This essay tackles a bimillenary problem in psychology, ethics, economics, and political philosophy: that of the relations between wealth and well-being. What are they, and should we live for pleasure, or rather seek to live a full and useful life? This is the ancient dilemma between hedonism, the cult of pleasure, and eudemonism, the search for a good life. Economists, almost without exception, have opted for hedonism, but they have not found out what percentage of the goods that ordinary people want are not merchandises. This gap is currently being filled by psychologists, sociologists, socioeconomists, and other workers in the new "science of happiness". Their main finding, that happiness is not for sale, might surprise the orthodox economists. On the social level, the former problem, concerning individuals, gets translated into the question of national development: what kind of development should we seek, and for whom? In particular, should economic growth be prioritized, or should we promote the simultaneous development of all sectors of society, including the political and cultural? In either case, should development benefit the chosen few or everybody? And should it enhance the well-being of the individual and make that of her offspring possible? This problem, of course, lies at the intersection of three sciences--psychology, economics, and political science--and two chapters of philosophy--ethics and political philosophy. Consequently, anyone daring to propose original solutions to the problem in question will risk being criticized by experts distributed among these five fields, who are not used to talking to one another.

  13. DECENTRALIZATION AND LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY

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    Elena, RUSU (CIGU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development became a goal for knowledge society, but one of the main question in literature remains as how close is the relationship between economic dvelopment, knowledge society and local governments' level. Given the great diversity of situations and frameworks both across countries and within them in the European Union, I consider that each country must have own policies designed to implement process of decentralization with the commitment of "healthy" economy in a society dominated by the technology and innovation. In this context, the problem occurs in decentralization should be managed on two levels: on the one hand in terms of central-local budgets relations, and on the other hand, in the local public finance structural plan. The paper will try to emphasize the connection between decentralization, local economic sustainable development and knowledge society, taking into account an overview of this three aspects and empirical evidences. In this regard, I will use the background offered by literature and the official statiscal data for analysis to identify the variables which explain decentralization and local economic development in the knowledge society. I estimate the analysis to confirm the hypothesis that there are good aspects, but also deficiencies that require solutions and budgetary policy options as part undisputed positioning local government finance as an engine of development of the whole nation. I consider that the paper can be a useful viewpoint in understanding local public finances in decentralization, which allows researchers to include other sources of information for researching an in a much more complex approach.

  14. FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT, INSTITUTIONS AND ECONOMIC POLICY – PANEL DATA EVIDENCE

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    Filippidis Ioannis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years significant researches have been done to identify what are the determinants of financial development. With regard to this outline, the main objective is to investigate the effect of economic, political and social dimension of institutional quality, as well as the effect of political and macroeconomic factors on financial development. More specifically, the present work aims to contribute to the relevant literature in the following ways: i in the econometric front, we employ dynamic panel techniques, that allow for heterogeneity among variables, avoiding the known problems of traditional techniques. More specifically, we employ the “system GMM” estimator developed by Arellano and Bover (1995, and Blundell and Bond (1998, controlling for endogeneity among variables; ii we disentangle into economic, political and social institutional quality in order to quantify the effect of institutions on financial development and check the robustness of our results; iii in the same logic, we decompose our measure of financial openness into equity- and loan-related foreign assets and liabilities in order to assess whether the hoarding of risky vs. riskless assets or the accumulation of equity vs. debt liabilities affect the development of domestic financial institutions; and iv to control for a potential bias among variables, we include a large set of information, which covers all the spectrum of possible effects on finance, giving emphasis on political factors and government policies. Our main finding from the regression analyses is a robust empirical relationship from institutions to financial development, a result consistent with most empirical studies. Also, we find a stronger effect from economic institutions to banking sector development and from political institutions to stock market development. Regarding the trade and finance link, we find that openness has a much stronger association with bank-based finance than with stock market

  15. Regional development institutions as an economic growth factors

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    Aleksandr Ivanovich Tatarkin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the characteristics of development and the territorial distribution of regional development institutions. The methodical approach to assessing the level of development of regional institutions taking into account the systemic nature and activity of territories in the creation and development of regional institutions is introduced. The results of evaluation of the development level of regional institutions have allowed to identify the regions using various institutions and instruments of development most actively in their territories (22 Federal subjects of Russia and the regions where are no institutes for development (45 Federal subjects of Russia. Following parameters of performance evaluation of regional development institutions are offered: the indicators of intensity of innovation in production, performance intensity of innovation in society and the resulting performance of the dynamics of economic development. The results of evaluating the effectiveness of regional development institutions in the subjects of the Russian Federation are presented in the paper. The main problem of the formation of institutions and institutional environment in the regions of the Russian Federation due to the lack of unified science-based theoretical and methodological framework and the lack of integration links between science, business, education and government are defined.

  16. Essays on economic development, energy demand, and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlock, Kenneth Barry, III

    2000-10-01

    The rapid expansion of industry at the outset of economic development and the subsequent growth of the transportation and residential and commercial sectors dictate both the rate at which energy demand increases and the composition of primary fuel sources used to meet secondary requirements. Each of these factors each has an impact on the pollution problems that nations may face. Growth in consumer wealth, however, appears to eventually lead to a shift in priorities. In particular, the importance of the environment begins to take precedent over the acquisition of goods. Accordingly, cleaner energy alternatives are sought out. The approach taken here is to determine the energy profile of an average nation, and apply those results to a model of economic growth. Dematerialization of production and saturation of consumer bundles results in declining rates of growth of energy demand in broadly defined end-use sectors. The effects of technological change in fossil fuel efficiency, fossil fuel recovery, and 'backstop' energy resources on economic growth and the emissions of carbon dioxide are then analyzed. A central planner is assumed to optimize the consumption of goods and services subject to capital and resource constraints. Slight perturbations in the parameters are used to determine their local elasticities with respect to different endogenous variables, and give an indication of the effects of changes in the various assumptions.

  17. Structural Change and Economic Development in China and India

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    Vittorio Valli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The comparison of the periods of rapid economic growth in China since 1978 and India since 1992 markedly show different patterns of development and structural change. However, both countries experienced some advantages of "relative economic backwardness" and some aspects of the "fordist model of growth". China had an anticipated and deeper structural change, spurred mainly by economic reforms and the growth of the internal market in the 1980s, and, since the mid-1990s, by a very rapid penetration of its industrial products in the world market. However, a substantial part of China's exports in medium and high tech sectors are due to joint-ventures with foreign multinationals. India had a more balanced structural change and a slower insertion in the world market, although some sectors, such as software, steel, automotive and pharmaceuticals are recently increasing their share in the world markets. Owing to the huge number of micro-enterprises and the great size of the informal sector, India benefited much less than China from the economies of scale and from the third wave of the "fordist model of growth". Both countries, but in particular China, experienced negative externalities of this recent phase of rapid growth, such as higher inequalities, pollution and urban congestion.

  18. Developing economic and managerial competencies of bachelors in mechanical engineering

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    Lizunkov Vladislav G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the development problems of economic and managerial competencies of bachelors after graduating from engineering higher schools to meet employers’ requirements, through implementing the Federal State Education Standards (FSES of the third generation. The case study is conducted on the basis of training programs for the bachelor’s degree in Mechanical Engineering at Yurga Institute of Technology (Affiliate of National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University. The list of economic and managerial competencies for bachelors in mechanical engineering is specified according to the third generation FSES, enlarged with new competences based on surveys and analyses after questioning employers. The criteria and indicators are described to identify maturity levels in terms of economic and managerial competencies for bachelors. A structural and functional model for training mechanical engineering bachelors has been tested in the implementation of the bachelor’s degree courses in "Mechanical engineering" at Yurga Institute of Technology (Affiliate of National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, in the period from 2011 to 2015.

  19. The role of entrepreneurship in economic development in Saudi Arabia

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    Nadia Yusuf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One of key objectives of modern economics is to determine factors that influence the economic development. This paper, therefore, seeks to discuss entrepreneurship as one of the factors that influence the economy of a nation, either directly or indirectly. It is a fact that entrepreneurship plays a significant part in shaping the landscape of a country’s economy. Economists and policy makers recognize this fact. In fact, entrepreneurship is the engine of economic growth and it has come to be perceived as a catalytic agent for expansion and promotion of productive activities in every sphere of global economy life. This research will focus on finding out how entrepreneurship influences the economy of Saudi Arabia. The paper will begin with a brief introduction of the topic before proceeding to present a comprehensive review of literature relevant to the topic. It will then proceed to present an overview of relevant variables used in determining the role played by entrepreneurship in the economy of Saudi Arabia. There will then follow a discussion on the disadvantages of entrepreneurship to the economy. The paper will end with a conclusion summarizing all the keys points discussed, research limitations, and recommendations for further research.

  20. Women Education and Economic Development in Kenya: Implications for Curriculum Development and Implementation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syomwene, Anne; Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the relationship between women education and sustainable economic development in Kenya and its implications for curriculum development and implementation processes. The argument advanced in this paper is that the solution to the development problems in Kenya and other developing nations lies on women education.…