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Sample records for reservation b-4 appendix

  1. 12 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 1750 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS CAPITAL Risk-Based Capital Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 1750 [Reserved] ...

  2. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 41 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] D Appendix D to Part 41 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Appendix D to Part 41[Reserved] ...

  3. 12 CFR Appendixes A-B to Part 41 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false [Reserved] A Appendixes A-B to Part 41 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Appendixes A-B to Part 41 [Reserved] ...

  4. 32 CFR Appendix G to Part 154 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false G Appendix G to Part 154 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE SECURITY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Appendix G to Part 154 ...

  5. 7 CFR 15b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.4 Section 15b.4... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 15b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  6. 15 CFR 8b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.4 Section 8b.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Provisions § 8b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped individual shall, on the...

  7. 18 CFR 3b.4 - Government contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government contractors. 3b.4 Section 3b.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... PERSONAL INFORMATION General § 3b.4 Government contractors. Systems of records operated by a contractor...

  8. Resource Management Plan for the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 15, Appendix P: waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, B.A.

    1984-07-01

    Since their inception, the DOE facilities on the Oak Ridge Reservation have been the source of a variety of airborne, liquid, and solid wastes which are characterized as nonhazardous, hazardous, and/or radioactive. The major airborne releases come from three primary sources: steam plant emissions, process discharge, and cooling towers. Liquid wastes are handled in various manners depending upon the particular waste, but in general, major corrosive waste streams are neutralized prior to discharge with the discharge routed to holding or settling ponds. The major solid wastes are derived from construction debris, sanitary operation, and radioactive processes, and the machining operations at Y-12. Nonradioactive hazardous wastes are disposed in solid waste storage areas, shipped to commercial disposal facilities, returned in sludge ponds, or sent to radioactive waste burial areas. The radioactive-hazardous wastes are treated in two manners: storage of the waste until acceptable disposal options are developed, or treatment of the waste to remove or destroy one of the components prior to disposal. 5 references, 4 figures, 13 tables

  9. Combustion of Na2B4O7 + Mg + C to synthesis B4C powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Guojian; Xu Jiayue; Zhuang Hanrui; Li Wenlan

    2009-01-01

    Boron carbide powder was fabricated by combustion synthesis (CS) method directly from mixed powders of borax (Na 2 B 4 O 7 ), magnesium (Mg) and carbon. The adiabatic temperature of the combustion reaction of Na 2 B 4 O 7 + 6 Mg + C was calculated. The control of the reactions was achieved by selecting reactant composition, relative density of powder compact and gas pressure in CS reactor. The effects of these different influential factors on the composition and morphologies of combustion products were investigated. The results show that, it is advantageous for more Mg/Na 2 B 4 O 7 than stoichiometric ratio in Na 2 B 4 O 7 + Mg + C system and high atmosphere pressure in the CS reactor to increase the conversion degree of reactants to end product. The final product with the minimal impurities' content could be fabricated at appropriate relative density of powder compact. At last, boron carbide without impurities could be obtained after the acid enrichment and distilled water washing.

  10. 26 CFR 1.50B-4 - Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 1.50A-3, or if the partnership fails to pay comparable wages and such failure is subject to the... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Partnerships. 1.50B-4 Section 1.50B-4 Internal... Credit for Expenses of Work Incentive Programs § 1.50B-4 Partnerships. (a) General rule—(1) In general...

  11. EphB4 as a therapeutic target in mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ren; Ferguson, Benjamin D; Zhou, Yue; Naga, Kranthi; Salgia, Ravi; Gill, Parkash S; Krasnoperov, Valery

    2013-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) often develops decades following exposure to asbestos. Current best therapy produces a response in only half of patients, and the median survival with this therapy remains under a year. A search for novel targets and therapeutics is underway, and recently identified targets include VEGF, Notch, and EphB4-Ephrin-B2. Each of these targets has dual activity, promoting tumor cell growth as well as tumor angiogenesis. We investigated EphB4 expression in 39 human mesothelioma tissues by immunohistochemistry. Xenograft tumors established with human mesothelioma cells were treated with an EphB4 inhibitor (monomeric soluble EphB4 fused to human serum albumin, or sEphB4-HSA). The combinatorial effect of sEphB4-HSA and biologic agent was also studied. EphB4 was overexpressed in 72% of mesothelioma tissues evaluated, with 85% of epithelioid and 38% of sarcomatoid subtypes demonstrating overexpression. The EphB4 inhibitor sEphB4-HSA was highly active as a single agent to inhibit tumor growth, accompanied by tumor cell apoptosis and inhibition of PI3K and Src signaling. Combination of sEphB4-HSA and the anti-VEGF antibody (Bevacizumab) was superior to each agent alone and led to complete tumor regression. EphB4 is a potential therapeutic target in mesothelioma. Clinical investigation of sEphB4-HSA as a single agent and in combination with VEGF inhibitors is warranted

  12. 26 CFR 54.4980B-4 - Qualifying events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualifying events. 54.4980B-4 Section 54.4980B... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-4 Qualifying events. The determination of what constitutes a qualifying event is addressed in the following questions and answers: Q-1: What is a qualifying...

  13. Boron carbide (B4C) coating. Deposition and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizov, E.; Barsuk, V.; Begrambekov, L.; Buzhinsky, O.; Evsin, A.; Gordeev, A.; Grunin, A.; Klimov, N.; Kurnaev, V.; Mazul, I.; Otroshchenko, V.; Putric, A.; Sadovskiy, Ya.; Shigin, P.; Vergazov, S.; Zakharov, A.

    2015-08-01

    Boron carbide was proposed as a material of in-situ protecting coating for tungsten tiles of ITER divertor. To prove this concept the project including investigation of regimes of plasma deposition of B4C coating on tungsten and tests of boron carbide layer in ITER-like is started recently. The paper contends the first results of the project. The results of B4C coating irradiation by the plasma pulses of QSPU-T plasma accelerator are presented. The new device capable of B4C film deposition on tungsten and testing of the films and materials with ITER-like heat loads and ion- and electron irradiation is described. The results of B4C coating deposition and testing of both tungsten substrate and coating are shown and discussed.

  14. Characterization of LysB4, an endolysin from the Bacillus cereus-infecting bacteriophage B4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Bokyung; Yun, Jiae; Lim, Jeong-A; Shin, Hakdong; Heu, Sunggi; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2012-03-15

    Bacillus cereus is a foodborne pathogen that causes emetic or diarrheal types of food poisoning. The incidence of B. cereus food poisoning has been gradually increasing over the past few years, therefore, biocontrol agents effective against B. cereus need to be developed. Endolysins are phage-encoded bacterial peptidoglycan hydrolases and have received considerable attention as promising antibacterial agents. The endolysin from B. cereus phage B4, designated LysB4, was identified and characterized. In silico analysis revealed that this endolysin had the VanY domain at the N terminus as the catalytic domain, and the SH3_5 domain at the C terminus that appears to be the cell wall binding domain. Biochemical characterization of LysB4 enzymatic activity showed that it had optimal peptidoglycan hydrolase activity at pH 8.0-10.0 and 50°C. The lytic activity was dependent on divalent metal ions, especially Zn2+. The antimicrobial spectrum was relatively broad because LysB4 lysed Gram-positive bacteria such as B. cereus, Bacillus subtilis and Listeria monocytogenes and some Gram-negative bacteria when treated with EDTA. LC-MS analysis of the cell wall cleavage products showed that LysB4 was an L-alanoyl-D-glutamate endopeptidase, making LysB4 the first characterized endopeptidase of this type to target B. cereus. LysB4 is believed to be the first reported L-alanoyl-D-glutamate endopeptidase from B. cereus-infecting bacteriophages. The properties of LysB4 showed that this endolysin has strong lytic activity against a broad range of pathogenic bacteria, which makes LysB4 a good candidate as a biocontrol agent against B. cereus and other pathogenic bacteria.

  15. Characterization of LysB4, an endolysin from the Bacillus cereus-infecting bacteriophage B4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Bokyung

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus cereus is a foodborne pathogen that causes emetic or diarrheal types of food poisoning. The incidence of B. cereus food poisoning has been gradually increasing over the past few years, therefore, biocontrol agents effective against B. cereus need to be developed. Endolysins are phage-encoded bacterial peptidoglycan hydrolases and have received considerable attention as promising antibacterial agents. Results The endolysin from B. cereus phage B4, designated LysB4, was identified and characterized. In silico analysis revealed that this endolysin had the VanY domain at the N terminus as the catalytic domain, and the SH3_5 domain at the C terminus that appears to be the cell wall binding domain. Biochemical characterization of LysB4 enzymatic activity showed that it had optimal peptidoglycan hydrolase activity at pH 8.0-10.0 and 50°C. The lytic activity was dependent on divalent metal ions, especially Zn2+. The antimicrobial spectrum was relatively broad because LysB4 lysed Gram-positive bacteria such as B. cereus, Bacillus subtilis and Listeria monocytogenes and some Gram-negative bacteria when treated with EDTA. LC-MS analysis of the cell wall cleavage products showed that LysB4 was an L-alanoyl-D-glutamate endopeptidase, making LysB4 the first characterized endopeptidase of this type to target B. cereus. Conclusions LysB4 is believed to be the first reported L-alanoyl-D-glutamate endopeptidase from B. cereus-infecting bacteriophages. The properties of LysB4 showed that this endolysin has strong lytic activity against a broad range of pathogenic bacteria, which makes LysB4 a good candidate as a biocontrol agent against B. cereus and other pathogenic bacteria.

  16. Hardness of FeB4: Density functional theory investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao; Lu, Mingchun; Du, Yonghui; Gao, Lili; Lu, Cheng; Liu, Hanyu

    2014-05-01

    A recent experimental study reported the successful synthesis of an orthorhombic FeB4 with a high hardness of 62(5) GPa [H. Gou et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 157002 (2013)], which has reignited extensive interests on whether transition-metal borides compounds will become superhard materials. However, it is contradicted with some theoretical studies suggesting transition-metal boron compounds are unlikely to become superhard materials. Here, we examined structural and electronic properties of FeB4 using density functional theory. The electronic calculations show the good metallicity and covalent Fe-B bonding. Meanwhile, we extensively investigated stress-strain relations of FeB4 under various tensile and shear loading directions. The calculated weakest tensile and shear stresses are 40 GPa and 25 GPa, respectively. Further simulations (e.g., electron localization function and bond length along the weakest loading direction) on FeB4 show the weak Fe-B bonding is responsible for this low hardness. Moreover, these results are consistent with the value of Vickers hardness (11.7-32.3 GPa) by employing different empirical hardness models and below the superhardness threshold of 40 GPa. Our current results suggest FeB4 is a hard material and unlikely to become superhard (>40 GPa).

  17. Vermiform appendix within incisional hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kler, Aaron; Hossain, Naveed; Singh, Sandeep; Scarpinata, Rosaria

    2017-08-20

    The vermiform appendix (whether inflamed or not) within a hernia is very rare occurrence. We present the unprecedented case of a normal appendix found within a Pfannenstiel incisional hernia. A diagnostic laparoscopy was performed as appendicitis was suspected. However, the tip of a normal appendix was visualised within a previous Pfannenstiel incision. Laparoscopic appendicectomy was carried successfully and the patient was discharged. The patient later returned for a successful elective laparoscopic incisional hernia repair. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Site-Specific Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. [Appendix contains accromyms list and maps of waste management facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to achieving and maintaining environmental regulatory compliance at its waste sites and facilities, while responding to public concerns and emphasizing waste minimization. DOE publishes the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (FYP) annually to document its progress towards these goals. The purpose of this Site-Specific Plan (SSP) is to describe the activities, planned and completed, undertaken to implement these FYP goals at the DOE Field Office-Oak Ridge (DOE/OR) installations and programs; specifically, for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), and Hazardous Waste Remedial Action Program (HAZWRAP). Activities described in this SSP address hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary wastes, along with treatment, storage, and disposal of current production waste and legacy waste from past operation. The SSP is presented in sections emphasizing Corrective Activities (A), Environmental Restoration (ER), Waste Management (WM), Technology Development (TD), and Transportation; and includes descriptions of activities, resources, and milestones by installation or program. 87 tabs.

  19. Sintering of B4C by pressureless liquid phase sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Rosa Maria da; Melo, Francisco Cristovao Lourenco de

    2009-01-01

    The effect of three different sintering additive systems on densification of boron carbide powder was investigated. The sintering additives were Al 2 O 3 :Y 2 O 3 , AlN:Y 2 O 3 and BN:Y 2 O 3 compositions. Powder mixtures were prepared with 10 vol% of sintering aids following conventional powder technology processes. Samples were sintered by pressureless sintering at 2050 deg C/30min in argon atmosphere. Sintered samples were compared to a sintered B 4 C without sintering additive. Samples were characterized by XRD to analyze the crystalline phases after sintering and SEM to observe the microstructure and the second phase distribution. YB 4 and YB 2 C 2 were identified in all samples, indicating a reaction between Y 2 O 3 , B 4 C and B 2 O 3 present at the B 4 C particle surface. The best densification result was achieved with Al 2 O 3 :Y 2 O 3 additive system, showing 92.0 % of theoretical density, low porosity and 15.2 % of linear shrinkage. But this sample showed the highest weight loss. (author)

  20. Magnetic anomaly in superconducting TmRh4B4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L.; Huang, C.Y.; Tsou, J.J.; Ho, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The magnetic and superconducting properties of TmRh 4 B 4 (which becomes superconducting at 9.6 K) by means of ac and dc magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements are investigated. At 10.7 K, an ac susceptibility peak similar to those found in spin glasses has been observed. In addition, a pronounced specific heat peak has been observed at 11.4 K. The susceptibility peak is essentially unaffected by substitution of 1% Lu or Er for the Tm, but it diminishes when much larger amounts of Er are substituted. The physical origin of this anomalous peak will be discussed

  1. Integral core degradation test with B4C control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windberg, P.; Nagy, I.; Matus, L.; Balasko, M.; Hozer, Z.; Czitrovszky, A.; Nagy, A.

    2001-01-01

    The CODEX-B4C VVER bundle test has been successfully performed on 25 th May 2001 in the framework of the COLOSS project of the EU 5 th FWP. The experiment was carried out according to a scenario selected in favour of methane formation. Degradation of control rod and fuel bundle took place at temperatures approx. 2000 oC, cooling down of the bundle was performed in steam atmosphere. The gas composition measurement indicated no methane production during the experiment. The on-line measured data are collected into a database and are available for code validation and development.(author)

  2. Appendix A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, M. S.; Brincker, Rune; Heshe, Gert

    1999-01-01

    In this appendix a brief summary of experiments on reinforced concrete beams in three-point bending performed at Aalborg University is given. The aim of the investigation is to determine the full load-deflection curves for different beam sizes, different types of concrete and different amounts...

  3. Appendix B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, F. A.; Brincker, Rune

    1999-01-01

    In this appendix the failure behaviour of lightly reinforced concrete beams is investigated. A numerical model based on the fictitious crack approach according to Hillerborg [1] is established in order to estimate the load-deflection curve for lightly reinforced concrete beams. The debonding...

  4. Appendix C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, F. A.; Henriksen, M. S.; Brincker, Rune

    1999-01-01

    In this appendix a model is formulated for the rotational capacity of reinforced concrete beams assuming rebar tension failure. The model is based on a classical approach and establishes the load-deflection curve of a reinforced concrete beam. The rotational capacity is then obtained as the area...

  5. The Role of Leukotriene B4 in Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ohnishi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukotriene B4 (LTB4 is a lipid mediator with potent chemoattractant properties and that is rapidly generated from activated innate immune cells such as neutrophils, macrophages, and mast cells. Elevated levels of LTB4 have been reported in various allergic diseases and these levels have been related to disease activity and response to treatment. Recent studies using LTB4 receptor-1 (BLT1 antagonists or BLT1-deficient mice have revealed that ligation of BLT1 by LTB4 is important for the activation and recruitment of inflammatory cells including neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes/macrophages, mast cells, dendritic cells, and more recently, effector T cells to inflamed tissues in various inflammatory diseases. The LTB4/BLT1 pathway appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of severe persistent asthma, aspirin- and exercise-induced asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis together with other mediators including cysteinyl leukotrienes, cytokines, and chemokines. LTB4 production is in general resistant to corticosteroid treatment. In fact, corticosteroids can upregulate BLT1 expression on corticosteroid-resistant inflammatory cells such as neutrophils, monocytes, and effector memory CD8+ T cells. As a result, this corticosteroid-resistant LTB4/BLT1 pathway may contribute to the development of inflammation in allergic diseases that do not respond to the introduction of corticosteroids. Inhibition of this pathway has potential therapeutic benefit in various allergic diseases that have involvement of corticosteroid-insensitivity.

  6. The leukotriene B4-leukotriene B4 receptor axis promotes cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury by modulating neutrophil recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bo; Lin, Yuli; Ma, Shuai; Zheng, Yin; Yang, Xuguang; Li, Bingji; Yu, Wenyan; Xu, Qingqing; Liu, Tingyan; Hao, Chuanming; He, Rui; Ding, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Cisplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent and widely used in treatment of various solid organ malignancies, including head and neck, ovarian, and testicular cancers. However, the induction of acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of its main side effects. Leukotriene B 4 receptor 1 (BLT1) mediates the majority of physiological effects of leukotriene B 4 (LTB 4 ), a potent lipid chemoattractant generated at inflammation sites, but the role of the LTB 4 -BLT1 axis in cisplatin-induced AKI remains unknown. Here we found upregulated LTB 4 synthesis and BLT1 expression in the kidney after cisplatin administration. Cisplatin was found to directly upregulate gene expression of leukotriene A 4 hydrolase and stimulate LTB 4 production in renal tubular epithelial cells. Reduced kidney structural/functional damage, inflammation, and apoptosis were observed in BLT1 -/- mice, as well as in wild-type mice treated with the LTA4H inhibitor SC-57461A and the BLT1 antagonist U-75302. Neutrophils were likely the target of this pathway, as BLT1 absence induced a significant decrease in infiltrating neutrophils in the kidney. Adoptive transfer of neutrophils from wild-type mice restored kidney injury in BLT1 -/- mice following cisplatin challenge. Thus, the LTB 4 -BLT1 axis contributes to cisplatin-induced AKI by mediating kidney recruitment of neutrophils, which induce inflammation and apoptosis in the kidney. Hence, the LTB 4 -BLT1 axis could be a potential therapeutic target in cisplatin-induced AKI. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Neuregulin 1-ErbB4 signaling in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis regulates anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Fei; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Jian-Lin; Zou, Wen-Jun; Liang, Zhi-Ping; Bi, Lin-Lin; Liu, Ji-Hong; Kong, Ying; Huang, Chu-Qiang; Li, Xiao-Wen; Yang, Jian-Ming; Gao, Tian-Ming

    2016-08-04

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a nucleus defined as part of the extended amygdala, is involved in the expression of anxiety disorders. However, the regulatory mechanisms of BNST inhibitory activity that is involved in anxiety are unknown. Here, we showed that blocking neuregulin 1 (NRG1)-ErbB4 signaling in the BNST of mice, by either neutralizing endogenous NRG1 with ecto-Erbb4 or antagonizing the ErbB4 receptor with its specific inhibitor, produced anxiogenic responses. Interestingly, application of exogenous NRG1 into the BNST induced no anxiolytic effects, suggesting saturating activity of endogenous NRG1. While infusion of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline into the BNST also led to anxiety-related behaviors, it did not worsen the anxiogenic effects produced by blocking NRG1-ErbB4 signaling, suggesting possible involvement of GABAergic neurotransmission. Further, in vitro electrophysiological recordings showed that BNST NRG1-ErbB4 signaling regulated the presynaptic GABA release. Together, these results suggest that NRG1-ErbB4 signaling in the BNST may play an important role in regulating anxiety-like behaviors. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of an ErbB4 monoclonal antibody that blocks neuregulin-1-induced ErbB4 activation in cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, Shogo [Division of Gene Regulation, Institute for Advanced Medical Research, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Nakatani, Fumi [Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kinki University, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 Japan (Japan); Masuko, Kazue; Tsuchihashi, Kenji [Division of Gene Regulation, Institute for Advanced Medical Research, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Ueda, Shiho; Masuko, Takashi [Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kinki University, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 Japan (Japan); Saya, Hideyuki [Division of Gene Regulation, Institute for Advanced Medical Research, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Nagano, Osamu, E-mail: osmna@sb3.so-net.ne.jp [Division of Gene Regulation, Institute for Advanced Medical Research, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan)

    2016-01-29

    The use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for cancer therapy is one of the most important strategies for current cancer treatment. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, which regulates cancer cell proliferation, survival, and migration, is a major molecular target for antibody-based therapy. ErbB4/HER4, which contains a ligand-binding extracellular region, is activated by several ligands, including neuregulins (NRGs), heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, betacellulin and epiregulin. Although there are clinically approved antibodies for ErbB1 and ErbB2, there are no available therapeutic mAbs for ErbB4, and it is not known whether ErbB4 is a useful target for antibody-based cancer therapy. In this study, we developed an anti-ErbB4 mAb (clone P6-1) that suppresses NRG-dependent activation of ErbB4 and examined its effect on breast cancer cell proliferation in the extracellular matrix. - Highlights: • We newly generated four clones of human ErbB4 specific mAb. • ErbB4 mAb clone P6-1 blocks ErbB4 phosphorylation induced by NRG-1. • ErbB4 mAb clone P6-1 suppresses NRG-1-promoted breast cancer cells proliferation on three dimensional culture condition.

  9. Battery for ECT Related Cognitive Deficits (B4ECT-ReCoDe): development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Biju; Harihara, Shashidhara N; Nahar, Abhinav; Phutane, Vivek Haridas; Taksal, Aarati; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2013-06-01

    The use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in treatment of psychiatric disorders is associated with adverse cognitive effects. There is a need to develop a short assessment tool of cognitive functions during the course of ECT. This study aimed at developing and validating a short, sensitive battery to assess cognitive deficits associated with ECT in India. Battery for ECT Related Cognitive Deficits (B4ECT-ReCoDe), a brief cognitive battery (20-30 min) to assess verbal, visual, working and autobiographic memory, sustained attention, psychomotor speed and subjective memory impairment, was administered to 30 in-patients receiving bilateral ECT, one day after the 1st, 3rd and 6th ECT. Data was analysed using repeated measures analysis of variance and Pearson's correlation. Significant deficits were found in verbal, visual and autobiographic memory, psychomotor speed. Subjective experience of memory loss correlated positively with verbal memory impairment. B4ECT-ReCoDe, a brief, sensitive measure of cognitive impairments associated with ECT can be used in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. N-(2,4)-dinitrophenyl-L-arginine Interacts with EphB4 and Functions as an EphB4 Kinase Modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, Rhiannon L; Freywald, Andrew; Floriano, Wely B

    2015-10-01

    The erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma receptor B4 is a receptor tyrosine kinase whose expression is preserved in various malignancies, including colon, gastric, and breast carcinoma. Hepatocellular carcinoma receptor B4 presence in tumor cells and involvement in cancer suppression makes it a potential therapeutic target for activating compounds. Moreover, modulators of its activity also have a strong potential to be used in diagnosis and therapy monitoring. We used virtual ligand screening to identify novel hepatocellular carcinoma receptor B4 kinase modulators for experimental testing. Three independent assay platforms confirmed that dinitrophenyl-L-arginine is likely to affect the kinase activity of hepatocellular carcinoma receptor B4. An enzyme-coupled spectrophotometric assay has been used to examine this possibility and may prove to be useful for assessing other novel kinase modulator candidates. Overall, our observations suggest that dinitrophenyl-L-arginine has an activating effect on hepatocellular carcinoma receptor B4 and, therefore, more efficient derivatives may have therapeutic effects in tumors where hepatocellular carcinoma receptor B4 exhibits antimalignant properties. The hepatocellular carcinoma receptor B4-activating effect is discussed with respect to previously described mechanisms, using predicted and experimental structures for docked ligands. As a novel kinase activity modulator, dinitrophenyl-L-arginine may provide new insights into molecular mechanisms by which kinases are activated or regulated, and may serve as a lead compound for the generation of novel hepatocellular carcinoma receptor B4-activating therapeutic compounds. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. 26 CFR 1.475(b)-4 - Exemptions-transitional issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemptions-transitional issues. 1.475(b)-4 Section 1.475(b)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.475(b)-4 Exemptions—transitional issues. (a...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1092(b)-4T - Mixed straddles; mixed straddle account (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Mixed straddles; mixed straddle account (temporary). 1.1092(b)-4T Section 1.1092(b)-4T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1092(b)-4T...

  13. The effect of hydrogen on B4C coatings fabrication in inductively coupled plasma torch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. J. Guo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Boron carbide (B4C coatings are prepared by an RF inductively coupled plasma (ICP torch with different amounts of hydrogen introduced into the sheath gas. The effects of the added hydrogen on the characteristics of the plasma are diagnosed by optical emission spectroscopy and high speed photography. The effects on the melting of B4C particles in the plasma are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The microstructure of the B4C coatings was determined with SEM imaging and x-ray diffraction analysis. The results show that adding hydrogen to the sheath gas leads to plasma contraction, which results in higher gas temperature of plasma. It also enhances B4C particles spheroidizing and improves the compactness of B4C coatings. Plasma processing does not change the main phase of boron carbide. The obtained results on B4C coatings on Cu substrates allows for improving the B4C coatings fabrication process.

  14. Appendix A : literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This appendix contains a review of the literature and other background information : germane to the experimental and analytical research presented in subsequent appendices. Table : 1 lists the sections and topics contained in this appendix and those ...

  15. EphB4 localises to the nucleus of prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertens-Walker, Inga, E-mail: inga.mertenswalker@qut.edu.au [Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Woolloongabba, QLD (Australia); Australian Prostate Cancer Research Centre—Queensland, Translational Research Institute, 37 Kent Street, Woolloongabba 4102, QLD (Australia); Lisle, Jessica E. [Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Woolloongabba, QLD (Australia); Australian Prostate Cancer Research Centre—Queensland, Translational Research Institute, 37 Kent Street, Woolloongabba 4102, QLD (Australia); Nyberg, William A. [Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Woolloongabba, QLD (Australia); Stephens, Carson R. [Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Woolloongabba, QLD (Australia); Australian Prostate Cancer Research Centre—Queensland, Translational Research Institute, 37 Kent Street, Woolloongabba 4102, QLD (Australia); Burke, Leslie [Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Woolloongabba, QLD (Australia); Rutkowski, Raphael; Herington, Adrian C.; Stephenson, Sally-Anne [Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Woolloongabba, QLD (Australia); Australian Prostate Cancer Research Centre—Queensland, Translational Research Institute, 37 Kent Street, Woolloongabba 4102, QLD (Australia)

    2015-04-10

    The EphB4 receptor tyrosine kinase is over-expressed in a variety of different epithelial cancers including prostate where it has been shown to be involved in survival, migration and angiogenesis. We report here that EphB4 also resides in the nucleus of prostate cancer cell lines. We used in silico methods to identify a bipartite nuclear localisation signal (NLS) in the extracellular domain and a monopartite NLS sequence in the intracellular kinase domain of EphB4. To determine whether both putative NLS sequences were functional, fragments of the EphB4 sequence containing each NLS were cloned to create EphB4NLS-GFP fusion proteins. Localisation of both NLS-GFP proteins to the nuclei of transfected cells was observed, demonstrating that EphB4 contains two functional NLS sequences. Mutation of the key amino residues in both NLS sequences resulted in diminished nuclear accumulation. As nuclear translocation is often dependent on importins we confirmed that EphB4 and importin-α can interact. To assess if nuclear EphB4 could be implicated in gene regulatory functions potential EphB4-binding genomic loci were identified using chromatin immunoprecipitation and Lef1 was confirmed as a potential target of EphB4-mediated gene regulation. These novel findings add further complexity to the biology of this important cancer-associated receptor. - Highlights: • The EphB4 protein can be found in the nucleus of prostate cancer cell lines. • EphB4 contains two functional nuclear localisation signals. • Chromatin immunoprecipitation has identified potential genome sequences to which EphB4 binds. • Lef1 is a confirmed target for EphB4-mediated gene regulation.

  16. Microstructure Analysis of Neutron Absorber Al/B4C Metal Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure of Al/B4C metal matrix composites (MMCs used as neutron absorbers in both dry storage casks and wet storage pools of spent nuclear fuel was analyzed by SEM and TEM. A polishing method of a focused Ga+ ion beam was used to obtain an ideal sample surface with very low roughness, which was used to statistically analyze the distribution characteristics and size factor of B4C particles in the aluminum matrix. The area of B4C particles mainly ranged from 0 to 0.5 μm2, which was the proportion of 64.29%, 86.99% and 76.86% of total statistical results for the Al-15%B4C, Al-25%B4C and Al-30%B4C MMCs, respectively. The average area of B4C particles in the Al-15%B4C, Al-25%B4C and Al-30%B4C MMCs were about 1.396, 0.528 and 1.183 μm2, respectively. The nanoscale precipitates were analyzed by the element mappings in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM mode and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS mode, which included elliptic alloy precipitates with elemental Cu, Cr, Fe and Si, except for Al, and B4C nanoparticles with polygonal shape. The interface characteristics showed that the (021 crystal plane of B4C particle and (111 crystal plane of aluminum matrix grew together. The lattice misfit was about 1.68% for (111Al//(021B4C. The corrosion properties and corresponding mechanism of Al/B4C MMCs were investigated in an aqueous solution with 5000 ppm boric acid at 100 °C and atmospheric pressure, which showed that the mass increment rate was first decreased with increasing corrosion time and then increased.

  17. EphB4 localises to the nucleus of prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens-Walker, Inga; Lisle, Jessica E.; Nyberg, William A.; Stephens, Carson R.; Burke, Leslie; Rutkowski, Raphael; Herington, Adrian C.; Stephenson, Sally-Anne

    2015-01-01

    The EphB4 receptor tyrosine kinase is over-expressed in a variety of different epithelial cancers including prostate where it has been shown to be involved in survival, migration and angiogenesis. We report here that EphB4 also resides in the nucleus of prostate cancer cell lines. We used in silico methods to identify a bipartite nuclear localisation signal (NLS) in the extracellular domain and a monopartite NLS sequence in the intracellular kinase domain of EphB4. To determine whether both putative NLS sequences were functional, fragments of the EphB4 sequence containing each NLS were cloned to create EphB4NLS-GFP fusion proteins. Localisation of both NLS-GFP proteins to the nuclei of transfected cells was observed, demonstrating that EphB4 contains two functional NLS sequences. Mutation of the key amino residues in both NLS sequences resulted in diminished nuclear accumulation. As nuclear translocation is often dependent on importins we confirmed that EphB4 and importin-α can interact. To assess if nuclear EphB4 could be implicated in gene regulatory functions potential EphB4-binding genomic loci were identified using chromatin immunoprecipitation and Lef1 was confirmed as a potential target of EphB4-mediated gene regulation. These novel findings add further complexity to the biology of this important cancer-associated receptor. - Highlights: • The EphB4 protein can be found in the nucleus of prostate cancer cell lines. • EphB4 contains two functional nuclear localisation signals. • Chromatin immunoprecipitation has identified potential genome sequences to which EphB4 binds. • Lef1 is a confirmed target for EphB4-mediated gene regulation

  18. B4G local area: high level requirements and system design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Preben; Pajukoski, Kari; Raaf, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    A next generation Beyond 4G (B4G) radio access technology is expected to become available around 2020 in order to cope with the exponential increase of mobile data traffic. In this paper, research motivations and high level requirements for a B4G local area concept are discussed. Our suggestions...... on the design of the B4G system as well as on the choice of its key technology components are also presented....

  19. First-principles calculation of the indentation strength of FeB4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Sun, Hong; Chen, Changfeng

    2014-07-01

    A recent experiment [H. Y. Gou et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 157002 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.157002] reported a measured Vickers hardness of over 60 GPa for FeB4, placing it as a superhard material far above all other similar ultrahard transition-metal borides, such as ReB2,WB4, and especially CrB4, which has the same crystalline structure as that of FeB4 but a much lower measured Vickers hardness of around 23 GPa. This result, however, is contradicted by theoretical calculations that predict a smaller shear modulus for FeB4 than that of CrB4, indicating that FeB4 is softer than CrB4. Here we report first-principles calculations that aim to understand the stress response of FeB4 under indentation loadings and examine whether there exists a strain-stiffening effect that might enhance the indentation strength. Our results show that there is no strain stiffening in FeB4; instead, the normal pressure beneath the indenter drives a lateral structural expansion which further stretches and weakens the boron-boron and boron-iron bonds in addition to that caused by the shear deformation in Vickers indentation tests. This effect leads to a considerably reduced strength of FeB4, producing an ideal (i.e., an upper bound) indentation strength of 17 GPa that is lower than that (27 GPa) predicted for CrB4. The present results suggest that FeB4 is unlikely to be superhard and further experimental investigation is needed to clarify this issue.

  20. 29 CFR 2530.200b-4 - One-year break in service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false One-year break in service. 2530.200b-4 Section 2530.200b-4... General Provisions § 2530.200b-4 One-year break in service. (a) Computation period. (1) Under sections 202... that an employee incurs a one-year break in service for a computation period or periods if the employee...

  1. PARTICLE SIZE-DEPENDENT PULVERIZATION OF B4C AND GENERATION OF B4C/STS NANOPARTICLES USED FOR NEUTRON ABSORBING COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAEWOO KIM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pulverization of two different sized micro-B4C particles (∼10 μm and ∼150 μm was investigated using a STS based high energy ball milling system. Shapes, generation of the impurities, and reduction of the particle size dependent on milling time and initial particle size were investigated using various analytic tools including SEM-EDX, XRD, and ICP-MS. Most of impurity was produced during the early stage of milling, and impurity content became independent on the milling time after the saturation. The degree of particle size reduction was also dependent on the initial B4C size. It was found that the STS nanoparticles produced from milling is strongly bounded with the B4C particles forming the B4C/STS composite particles that can be used as a neutron absorbing nanocomposite. Based on the morphological evolution of the milled particles, a schematic pulverization model for the B4C particles was constructed.

  2. Effect of increased HoxB4 on human megakaryocytic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yiming [Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Program in Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Sullenbarger, Brent [Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Lasky, Larry C., E-mail: Lasky.4@osu.edu [Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Program in Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} HoxB4 overexpression in human TF1 cells increased the expression of CD61 and CD41a. {yields} HoxB4 fusion protein enhanced megakaryocytic development of CD34{sup +} cord blood cells. {yields} Ectopic HoxB4 increased Tpo receptor expression and decreased c-Myb expression. {yields} HoxB4 RNA silencing increased c-Myb expression and decreased Fli-1 expression. -- Abstract: In order to produce clinically useful quantities of platelets ex vivo we may need to firstly enhance early self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and/or megakaryocyte (Mk) progenitors. The homeodomain transcription factor HoxB4 has been shown to be an important regulator of stem cell renewal and hematopoiesis; however, its effect on megakaryopoiesis is unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of HoxB4 overexpression or RNA silencing on megakaryocytic development in the human TF1 progenitor cell line; we then used recombinant tPTD-HoxB4 fusion protein to study the effect of exogenous HoxB4 on megakaryocytic development of human CD34 positively-selected cord blood cells. We found that ectopic HoxB4 in TF1 cells increased the antigen expression of CD61and CD41a, increased the gene expression of thrombopoietin receptor (TpoR), Scl-1, Cyclin D1, Fog-1 and Fli-1 while it decreased c-Myb expression. HoxB4 RNA silencing in TF1 cells decreased the expression of CD61 and CD41a and decreased Fli-1 expression while it increased the expression of c-Myb. Recombinant tPTD-HoxB4 fusion protein increased the percentages and absolute numbers of CD41a and CD61 positive cells during megakaryocytic differentiation of CD34 positively-selected cord blood cells and increased the numbers of colony-forming unit-megakaryocyte (CFU-Mk). Adding tPTD-HoxB4 fusion protein increased the gene expression of TpoR, Cyclin D1, Fog-1 and Fli-1 while it inhibited c-Myb expression. Our data suggest that increased HoxB4 enhanced early megakaryocytic development in human TF1 cells and CD34

  3. Effect of increased HoxB4 on human megakaryocytic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Yiming; Sullenbarger, Brent; Lasky, Larry C.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → HoxB4 overexpression in human TF1 cells increased the expression of CD61 and CD41a. → HoxB4 fusion protein enhanced megakaryocytic development of CD34 + cord blood cells. → Ectopic HoxB4 increased Tpo receptor expression and decreased c-Myb expression. → HoxB4 RNA silencing increased c-Myb expression and decreased Fli-1 expression. -- Abstract: In order to produce clinically useful quantities of platelets ex vivo we may need to firstly enhance early self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and/or megakaryocyte (Mk) progenitors. The homeodomain transcription factor HoxB4 has been shown to be an important regulator of stem cell renewal and hematopoiesis; however, its effect on megakaryopoiesis is unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of HoxB4 overexpression or RNA silencing on megakaryocytic development in the human TF1 progenitor cell line; we then used recombinant tPTD-HoxB4 fusion protein to study the effect of exogenous HoxB4 on megakaryocytic development of human CD34 positively-selected cord blood cells. We found that ectopic HoxB4 in TF1 cells increased the antigen expression of CD61and CD41a, increased the gene expression of thrombopoietin receptor (TpoR), Scl-1, Cyclin D1, Fog-1 and Fli-1 while it decreased c-Myb expression. HoxB4 RNA silencing in TF1 cells decreased the expression of CD61 and CD41a and decreased Fli-1 expression while it increased the expression of c-Myb. Recombinant tPTD-HoxB4 fusion protein increased the percentages and absolute numbers of CD41a and CD61 positive cells during megakaryocytic differentiation of CD34 positively-selected cord blood cells and increased the numbers of colony-forming unit-megakaryocyte (CFU-Mk). Adding tPTD-HoxB4 fusion protein increased the gene expression of TpoR, Cyclin D1, Fog-1 and Fli-1 while it inhibited c-Myb expression. Our data suggest that increased HoxB4 enhanced early megakaryocytic development in human TF1 cells and CD34 positively-selected cord

  4. Heat release from B4C oxidation in steam and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belovsky, L.

    1996-01-01

    BWR and some PWR cores contain boron carbide (B 4 C) as neutron absorber. During a severe accident, the B 4 C can potentially react with steam under release of heat and hydrogen. Although models for B 4 C oxidation already exist in MELCOR and SCDAP/RELAP5, a development of a new model for another computer code seems to be difficult due to a missing comprehensive description of the current modelling methodology and scarce experimental data. The aim of this paper is to highlight the key points of the B 4 C oxidation using the existing available experimental data and to perform a simple heat balance analysis of the B 4 C/steam and B 4 C/air chemical reactions. The analysis of literature data shows that the B 4 C oxidation phenomenon is qualitatively well described below 1000 deg. C. However, no reliable data exist for the reaction kinetics especially above this temperature. It was found that the experimental results strongly depend on the experimental arrangement. The reaction heats, calculated in this study, indicate that the B 4 C oxidation is an exothermic reaction, releasing more heat in air than in steam. The formation of boric acids from the boron oxide increases the heat release from B 4 C by ∼ 10%, in the worst case. Although the total heat, released in a PWR core from the B 4 C oxidation, is probably much smaller than the heat released from the Zr/steam reaction, it is not excluded that the B 4 C oxidation can locally contribute to the damage of the control elements due to local overheating. Modelling of these phenomena is, however, very difficult due to the complex geometry of the liquefied control elements and due to absence of suitable data on the reaction kinetics. (author). 25 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  5. Inhibition of Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis by Soluble EphB4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Martiny-Baron

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available EphB receptors and their ephrinB ligands play a key role in the formation of a regular vascular system. Recent studies have also shown the involvement of Eph/ephrin interactions in malignant tumor progression and angiogenesis. We have generated soluble monomeric EphB4 (sEphB4-expressing A375 melanoma cells to study the effect of dominant negatively acting sEphB4 on tumor growth and angiogenesis. Soluble EphB4-expressing A375 tumors grown subcutaneously in nude mice show dramatically reduced tumor growth compared to control tumors. The proliferative capacity of sEphB4-expressing cells in monolayer culture is not altered. Yet, sEphB4-expressing A375 cells cannot establish proper cell-cell contacts in three-dimensional spheroids. However, sEphB4 transfectants have reduced proliferation and apoptosis rates when grown in three-dimensional culture in vitro or in subcutaneous tumors in vivo. Analysis of the vascular phenotype of the tumors revealed a reduction of intratumoral microvessel density in sEphB4-expressing tumors. Corresponding to these mouse experiments, a matched pair analysis of EphB4 and ephrinB2 expression in human colon carcinomas revealed significantly upregulated levels of EphB4 expression compared to adjacent normal tissue. Taken together, the data identify dual effects of sEphB4 on the tumor and the vascular compartment that collectively inhibit tumor growth.

  6. EphB4/EphrinB2 therapeutics in Rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E Randolph

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS is the most common soft tissue sarcoma affecting children and is often diagnosed with concurrent metastases. Unfortunately, few effective therapies have been discovered that improve the long-term survival rate for children with metastatic disease. Here we determined effectiveness of targeting the receptor tyrosine kinase, EphB4, in both alveolar and embryonal RMS either directly through the inhibitory antibody, VasG3, or indirectly by blocking both forward and reverse signaling of EphB4 binding to EphrinB2, cognate ligand of EphB4. Clinically, EphB4 expression in eRMS was correlated with longer survival. Experimentally, inhibition of EphB4 with VasG3 in both aRMS and eRMS orthotopic xenograft and allograft models failed to alter tumor progression. Inhibition of EphB4 forward signaling using soluble EphB4 protein fused with murine serum albumin failed to affect eRMS model tumor progression, but did moderately slow progression in murine aRMS. We conclude that inhibition of EphB4 signaling with these agents is not a viable monotherapy for rhabdomyosarcoma.

  7. Umifenovir effectively inhibits IL-10 dependent persistent Coxsackie B4 virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shilin; Zhi, Chenyang; Li, Hongrui; Huang, Dianshuai; Fan, Qingjie; Cui, Jiuwei; Liang, Chongyang

    2017-05-01

    Coxsackie virus cannot be completely eliminated due to restrictive replication and impaired immune response, thus causing persistent infection. IL-10 plays a decisive role in the course of persistent viral infection. Umifenovir is a broad-spectrum antiviral drug, with certain treatment effects on Coxsackie virus infection. Previously, we showed that in addition to inhibiting Coxsackie B4 (CVB4) infection, Umifenovir also down-regulates IL-10 induced by persistent CVB4 virus infection in vitro and in vivo. Here, BALB/c mouse spleen cells infected with CVB4 were used as a model to explore the mechanism by which Umifenovir affects IL-10 expression. We found that subcellular localization of p38 and MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) played a very important role in IL-10 secretion, and Umifenovir significantly prevented p38-MK2 complex from exiting the cell nucleus. This in turn blocked the biological functions of the latter pathway, and inhibited the high expression of IL-10 induced by CVB4. These findings suggest that Umifenovir is a potential anti-CVB4 drug; most importantly, Umifenovir could be used to treat IL-10 induced persistent viral infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Photocatalytic CO2 reduction over B4C/C3N4 with internal electric field under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Wang, Lei; Du, Quanchao; Wang, Zhiyong; Ma, Shuguo; Yu, Miao

    2016-02-15

    Boron carbide/graphitic carbon nitride (B4C/g-C3N4) p-n hetero-junction photocatalyst with an internal electric field was synthesized by a facile solvent evaporation method and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-Vis DRS), photoluminescence spectra (PL), etc. Photocatalytic activity of the composite B4C/g-C3N4 loaded with Pt co-catalyst was evaluated using CO2 conversion to CH4 with H2 as the hydrogen source and reductant under visible light irradiation. The coupling of p-type B4C with n-type g-C3N4 significantly improved the performance of photocatalytic CO2 reduction; with the optimum B4C mass fraction of 1/6, the composite photocatalyst showed approximately 6 and 8 times higher CH4 generation rate than g-C3N4 and B4C, respectively. The enhancement was attributed to efficient photo-excited electron/hole separation due to the formation of internal electric field at the p-B4C/n-C3N4 interface. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Duplication of Vermiform Appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Gulzar Ahmad; Reshi, Tarooq Ahmad; Rashid, Asiya

    2016-02-01

    The vermiform appendix is a tubular, narrow, worm-shaped part of the alimentary canal that lies near the ileocecal junction and communicates with the caecum. Duplication of the vermiform appendix is rare, with a reported incidence of 0.004 %. Till now, fewer than 100 cases have been reported. We present a case of an 8-year-old male child with duplex appendix who presented to the emergency department of our institution with features of acute appendicitis.

  10. Exoelectron emission from surface layer of Li2B4O7 glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Takamichi; Katsube, Shizuko; Yanagisawa, Hideo; Kikuchi, Riichi; Kawanishi, Masaharu.

    1984-01-01

    The thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TESS) of Li 2 B 4 O 7 glass ceramics was investigated for its application to the dosimetric use. It has been found the TSEE glow patterns of Li 2 B 4 O 7 glass ceramics and of the thin layer of LiF evaporated on Li 2 B 4 O 7 glass ceramics depend on the kind of radiations irradiated. The TSEE glow pattern of the duplicated structure sample indicated a possibility of determining the dose of each kind of radiation separately in the mixed radiation field. (author)

  11. Origin of modulated phases and magnetic hysteresis in TmB4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierschem, Keola; Sunku, Sai Swaroop; Kong, Tai; Ito, Toshimitsu; Canfield, Paul C.; Panagopoulos, Christos; Sengupta, Pinaki

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the low-temperature magnetic phases in TmB4 , a metallic quantum magnet on the geometrically frustrated Shastry-Sutherland lattice, using coordinated experimental and theoretical studies. Our results provide an explanation for the appearance of the intriguing fractional plateau in TmB4 and accompanying magnetic hysteresis. Together with observation of the bump in the half plateau, our results support the picture that the magnetization plateau structure in TmB4 is strongly influenced by the zero-field modulated phases. We present a phenomenological model to explain the appearance of the modulated phases and a microscopic Hamiltonian that captures the complete magnetic behavior of TmB4 .

  12. Study of influence content of TiB2 by reaction in situ B4C and TiC in mechanical properties on B4C ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, M.L. Ramos; Bressiani, J.C.; Gomide, R.G.; Andrade, F.A. de

    2012-01-01

    The low density of ceramic materials promoted a change in research lines in the defense field. Research efforts and development directed to obtaining products of high density sintered of Al2O3, SiC and B4C, using different routes, both traditional as innovative, led to promising initial results, which justify the convergence of skills for the consolidation of research lines and the nationalization that sintered components of B4C with characteristics and properties compatible with the technical requirements established for the ballistic application. The low density of boron carbide (2.52 g/cm 3 ) gives in the final product a weight approximately 30% lower than armor made of alumina (3.96 g/cm 3 ). (author)

  13. The mean grain size determination of boron carbide (B4C)-aluminium (Al) and boron carbide (B4C)-nickel (Ni) composites by ultrasonic velocity technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, Ridvan; Sarpuen, Ismail H.; Yalim, H. Ali; Erol, Ayhan; Ozdemir, Tuba; Tuncel, Sabri

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the mean grain size of ceramic-metal composites, made from boron carbide (B 4 C)-aluminium (Al)-nickel (Ni) powders, has been determined with ultrasonic velocity technique by using a 2 MHz transducer. An ultrasonic velocity-grain size master graph was plotted using a 4 MHz ultrasonic transducer. The results were compared to the mean grain size obtained from SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) images

  14. Kondo hybridization and quantum criticality in β -YbAlB4 by laser ARPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareille, Cédric; Suzuki, Shintaro; Nakayama, Mitsuhiro; Kuroda, Kenta; Nevidomskyy, Andriy H.; Matsumoto, Yosuke; Nakatsuji, Satoru; Kondo, Takeshi; Shin, Shik

    2018-01-01

    We report an angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) study of β -YbAlB4 , which is known to harbor unconventional quantum criticality (QC) without any tuning. We directly observe a quasiparticle peak (QP) emerging from hybridization, characterized by a binding energy and an onset of coherence both at about 4 meV. This value conforms with a previously observed reduced Kondo scale at about 40 K. Consistency with an earlier study of carriers in β -YbAlB4 via the Hall effect strongly suggests that this QP is responsible for the QC in β -YbAlB4 . A comparison with the sister polymorph α -YbAlB4 , which is not quantum critical at ambient pressure, further supports this result. Indeed, within the limitation of our instrumental resolution, our ARPES measurements do not show tangible sign of hybridization in this locally isomorphic system, while the conduction band we observe is essentially the same as in β -YbAlB4 . We therefore claim that we identified by ARPES the carriers responsible for the QC in β -YbAlB4 . The observed dispersion and the underlying hybridization of this QP are discussed in the context of existing theoretical models.

  15. Enhanced tensile strength and thermal conductivity in copper diamond composites with B4C coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Youhong; He, Linkai; Zhang, Chi; Meng, Qingnan; Liu, Baochang; Gao, Ke; Wen, Mao; Zheng, Weitao

    2017-09-06

    Boron carbide (B 4 C) coating on diamond particle is synthesized by heating diamond particles in a powder mix of H 3 BO 3 and B in Ar atmosphere. The composition, bond state and coverage fraction of boron carbide coating on diamond particles are investigated. The boron carbide coating favors to grow on diamond (100) surface rather than on diamond (111) surface. Cu matrix composites reinforced with B 4 C-coated diamond particles were made by powder metallurgy. The addition of B 4 C coating gave rise to a dense composite. The influence of B 4 C coating on both tensile strength and thermal conductivity of the composite were investigated. When the B 4 C fully covered on diamond particles, the composite exhibited a greatly increase in tensile strength (115 MPa) which was much higher than that for uncoated-diamond/Cu (60 MPa) composites. Meanwhile, a high thermal conductivity of 687 W/mK was achieved in the B 4 C-coated-diamond/Cu composites.

  16. Investigation of addition of B 4C particles coated by nano-TiB II on microstructure and mechanical behavior of Al-B 4C composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdizadeh, H.; Baharvandi, H. R.; Jebelli, F. B.; Ehsani, N.

    2007-07-01

    In this research, a casting system was designed for manufacturing Al-B 4C composites in 5, 10 and 15 vol.%B 4C, while two types of particles (non coated and coated with nano-TiB II by sol-gel method) were added at 800 and 1000°C. The resulting composites were tested for their mechanical properties and microstructure to study the effect of coating and temperature parameters. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength and hardness were higher in the case of coated particles in 1000°C, compared to the similar samples in 800°C and also the composites with non coated particles. It is also observed that these properties improve with increasing the fraction of particles (up to 10 vol.%). X-ray diffraction studies also confirmed the effective role of coating in appearing of boron carbide peak in diffraction patterns. Additionally, the distribution of B 4C particles in the matrix is found to be more uniform in samples with coated particles. The wetability of particles with molten alloy was also improved. In general, the results show that manufacturing these composites by vortex method in case of using non coated boron carbide powders is not successful, while coating with nano-TiB II and increasing casting temperature can improve the wetability and consequently the incorporation of particles.

  17. Study on the influence of the B4C layer thickness on the neutron flux and energy distribution shape in multi-electrode ionisation chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymińska, K; Maciak, M; Ośko, J; Tulik, P; Zielczyński, M; Gryziński, M A

    2014-10-01

    A model of a multi-electrode ionisation chamber, with polypropylene electrodes coated with a thin layer of B4C was created within Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNPX) and Fluktuierende Kaskade (FLUKA) codes. The influence of the layer thickness on neutron absorption in B4C and on the neutron spectra in the consecutive intra-electrode gas volumes has been studied using the MCNPX and FLUKA codes. The results will be used for designing the new type of the ionisation chamber. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Distinct EphB4-mediated mechanisms of apoptotic and resistance to dasatinib in human chronic myeloid leukemia and K562 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei-Hong; Huang, Bin-Tao; Zhang, Jian-Yu; Zeng, Qing-Chun

    2017-12-01

    To determine the role and mechanism of EphB4 in dasatinib (DAS) resistance in advanced chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), we explored the EphB4-mediated apoptotic and matrix microenvironment pathway in human CML and K562 cell lines. Heparinized bone marrow samples were obtained from enrolled five patients (identified as A to E and visits identified by number) at initial diagnosis (A1-E1) and in the DAS-resistance advanced phase (A2-E2). Meanwhile, highly DAS-resistant cells, named K562-R cells, were obtained from K562-W cells with increasing concentrations of DAS. Stable under-expressing EphB4 cells (K562-R-EphB4-sh) were obtained from K562-R cells by RNA interference. K562-W, K562-R and K562-R-EphB4-sh cells (10 8 ) were respectively injected subcutaneously on the dorsal surface of BALB/C female nude mice to establish the xenografts models. The mRNA/protein of EphB4 was overexpressed in the DAS-resistant A2-E2 in comparison with the A1-E1 human cell lines. Further, compared with K562-R cells, the expressions of EphB4 and p-Rac1/Cdc42 protein/mRNA were significantly downregulated in K562-R-EphB4-sh cells (P<0.01). K562-R cells showed the highest DAS resistance (IC50 10.54±0.67μg/ml), but K562-R-EphB4-sh cells became sensitive to DAS (IC50 1.02±0.1μg/ml, P<0.01). The expression of EphB4/p-RhoA/MCL-1 protein was gradually increased in the stimulating of EphrinB2-Fc, which partly made K562-R-EphB4-sh cells restore sensitivity to DAS (4.18±0.30μg/ml). Meanwhile, the K562-R-EphB4-sh xenografts group had relatively good efficacy compared to K562-R xenografts nude mice receiving the same dose of DAS. The analysis of xenografts tissue also suggested parallel results with the overexpression of EphB4/RhoA/ROCK1/PTEN/MCL-1 in K562-R xenografts, which decreased in the A2-R-EphB4-sh xenografts (P<0.01). The present study found that a new DAS resistance pathway of EphB4 overexpression was triggered by EphrinB2-Fc, which induced the resistance to DAS by activating RhoA/ROCK1

  19. Interface characterization of B4C-based multilayers by X-ray grazing-incidence reflectivity and diffuse scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Wang, Zhanshan; Zhu, Jingtao

    2013-05-01

    B4C-based multilayers have important applications for soft to hard X-rays. In this paper, X-ray grazing-incidence reflectivity and diffuse scattering, combining various analysis methods, were used to characterize the structure of B4C-based multilayers including layer thickness, density, interfacial roughness, interdiffusion, correlation length, etc. Quantitative results for W/B4C, Mo/B4C and La/B4C multilayers were compared. W/B4C multilayers show the sharpest interfaces and most stable structures. The roughness replications of La/B4C and Mo/B4C multilayers are not strong, and oxidations and structure expansions are found in the aging process. This work provides guidance for future fabrication and characterization of B4C-based multilayers.

  20. Wetting of B4C, TiC and graphite substrates by molten Mg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dan; Shen Ping; Shi Laixin; Jiang Qichuan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The wettability of TiC, B4C and C by molten Mg was determined using an improved sessile drop method. → A new method to evaluate the wetting behavior coupled with evaporation and reaction was proposed. → The bonding characteristics in the Mg/B4C, Mg/TiC and Mg/graphite systems were evaluated. - Abstract: The isotherm wetting of B 4 C, TiC and graphite substrates by molten Mg was studied in a flowing Ar atmosphere at 973-1173 K using an improved sessile drop method. The initial contact angles are in the ranges of 95-87 deg., 74-60 deg. and 142-124 deg., respectively, moderately depending on the temperature. All the systems are non-reactive in nature; however, the presence of impurity of free boron at the B 4 C surface gave rise to the chemical reaction with molten Mg and thus promoted the wettability to a certain degree. A new method was proposed to evaluate the wetting behavior coupled with evaporation and chemical reaction. Furthermore, based on the comparison of the work of adhesion and cohesion, the bonding in the Mg/B 4 C and Mg/TiC systems is presumably mainly chemical while that in the Mg/graphite system is physical.

  1. B4C-MODIFIED SiO2-PHENOLIC Composites for Enhanced Ablation Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maoyuan; Lu, Lin; Dai, Zhen; Hong, Yiqiang; Chen, Weiwei; Zhang, Yuping; Qiao, Yingjie

    In the present paper, the silica-phenolic composite (S-Ph) composites with different amount of B4C were prepared, and the ablation tests of these composites were carried out using oxygen-acetylene jet. The ablation process was systematically investigated. The addition of B4C with appropriate amount can efficiently improve the ablation resistance of S-Ph. The results showed that S-Ph containing B4C powder of 2wt.% exhibited the lowest linear and mass ablation rate. The influence mechanism for the results was analyzed deeply. The surface morphologies, phase composition, density and thermal conductivity of composites were characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Archimedes method, and thermal conductivity meter, respectively. The present investigation will provide a theoretical basis for the preparation of the ablation resistant material.

  2. Radiation defects in SrB4O7:Eu2+ crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavetskiy, R.P.; Dolzhenkova, E.F.; Tolmachev, A.V.; Parkhomenko, S.V.; Baumer, V.N.; Prosvirnin, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation-induced defects in SrB 4 O 7 :Eu 2+ (0.033 at.%) single crystal irradiated with γ and X-ray quanta has been studied. The induced optical absorption in the 400-700 nm region has been ascribed to F + centers. The Eu 2+ ions have been shown to act simultaneously as traps and as radiative recombination centers of charge carriers. Basing on the thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL), optical absorption and photoluminescence studies of SrB 4 O 7 :Eu 2+ crystals, a TSL mechanism has been proposed associated with the decay of F + centers being in non-equivalent crystallographic positions followed by radiative recombination of charge carriers on europium ions. Various positions of localization of the radiation-induced defects in the SrB 4 O 7 crystal structure have been discussed

  3. ErbB4 in laminated brain structures: a neurodevelopmental approach to schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gustavo Perez-Garcia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility genes for schizophrenia Neuregulin-1 (NRG1 and ErbB4 have critical functions during brain development and in the adult. Alterations in the ErbB4 signaling pathway cause a variety of neurodevelopmental defects including deficiencies in neuronal migration, synaptic plasticity and myelination. I have used the ErbB4-/- HER4heart KO mice to study the neurodevelopmental insults associated to deficiencies in the NRG1-ErbB4 signaling pathway and their potential implication with brain disorders such as schizophrenia, a chronic psychiatric disease affecting 1% of the population worldwide. ErbB4 deletion results in an array of neurodevelopmental deficits that are consistent with a schizophrenic model. First, similar defects appear in multiple brain structures, from the cortex to the cerebellum. Second, these defects affect multiple aspects of brain development, from deficits in neuronal migration to impairments in excitatory/inhibitory systems, including reductions in brain volume, cortical and cerebellar heteropias, alterations in number and distribution of specific subpopulations of interneurons, deficiencies in the astrocytic and oligodendrocytic lineages, and additional insults in major brain structures. This suggests that alterations in specific neurodevelopmental genes that play similar functions in multiple neuroanatomical structures might account for some of the symptomatology observed in schizophrenic patients, such as defects in cognition. ErbB4 mutation uncovers flaws in brain development that are compatible with a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia, and it establishes a comprehensive model to study the basis of the disorder before symptoms are detected in the adult.

  4. Short syntheses of enantiopure calystegine B-2, B-3, and B-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaanderup, Philip Robert; Madsen, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Calystegine B-2 B-3, and B-4 have been prepared in 5 steps from the benzyl protected methyl 6-iodoglycopyranosides of glucose, galactose and mannose, respectively, by using a zinc-mediated domino reaction followed by ring-closing olefin metathesis as the key steps.......Calystegine B-2 B-3, and B-4 have been prepared in 5 steps from the benzyl protected methyl 6-iodoglycopyranosides of glucose, galactose and mannose, respectively, by using a zinc-mediated domino reaction followed by ring-closing olefin metathesis as the key steps....

  5. Application of full factorial design to study the tribological properties of AA6061-B4C and AA6061-B4C-MoS2 composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monikandan V. V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study statistically analyzes the tribological properties of AA6061-10 wt. % B4C mono composite and AA6061-10 wt.% B4C-7.5 wt. % MoS2 hybrid composite. The tribological behavior of the composites was studied at atmospheric conditions using a pin-on-disk tribo-tester. The tribological experiments were conducted as per the full factorial design (FFD experimental scheme. The ANOVA analysis of the wear rate revealed that the three factors, A (MoS2 particles addition, B (applied load, and D (sliding distance presented the physical and statistical significance on the wear rate. The ANOVA analysis of the friction coefficient revealed that the factors B (applied load and C (sliding speed and interaction AB (interaction of MoS2 particles addition and applied load presented the physical and statistical significance on the friction coefficient. It is observed from the main effects plots of the wear rate and friction coefficient that the increase in the levels of factors B (applied load and D (sliding distance increased the wear rate and friction coefficient. However, the wear rate and friction coefficient decreased with the increase in the level of factor A (MoS2 particles addition.

  6. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Volume 1, Appendix F, Nevada Test Site and Oak Ridge Reservation Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    This volume addresses the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at two US Department of Energy sites, the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). These sites are being considered to provide a reasonable range of alternative settings at which future SNF management activities could be conducted. These locations are not currently involved in management of large quantities of SNF; NTS has none, and ORR has only small quantities. But NTS and ORR do offer experience and infrastructure for the handling, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and they do exemplify a broad spectrum of environmental parameters. This broad spectrum of environmental parameters will provide, a perspective on whether and how such location attributes may relate to potential environmental impacts. Consideration of these two sites will permit a programmatic decision to be based upon an assessment of the feasible options without bias, to the current storage sites. This volume is divided into four parts. Part One is the volume introduction. Part Two contains chapters one through five for the NTS, as well as references contained in chapter six. Part Three contains chapters one through five for the ORR, as well as references contained in chapter six. Part Four is summary information including the list of preparers, organizations contacted, acronyms, and abbreviations for both the NTS and the ORR. A Table of Contents, List of Figures, and List of Tables are included in parts Two, Three, and Four. This approach permitted the inclusion of both sites in one volume while maintaining consistent chapter numbering.

  7. 25 CFR Appendix C to Subpart C - Relative Need Distribution Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Funding Pt. 170, Subpt. C, App. C Appendix C to Subpart C... Construct (CTC), Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), and Population (POP). 1. What Is the Formula for the RNDF... methodology for calculating the Cost to Construct is explained in Appendix D of this subpart. 3. What Is the...

  8. Tricritical behavior in the ferromagnetic superconductor ErRh4B4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabtree, G.W.; Kalia, R.K.; Hinks, D.G.; Behroozi, F.; Tachiki, M.

    1985-08-01

    A new tricritical point on the phase boundary between the superconducting vortex phase and the normal paramagnetic phase of ErRh 4 B 4 is presented. The microscopic origin of the tricritical point and the expected tricritical behavior are briefly discussed

  9. Coxeter groups A4, B4 and D4 for two-qubit systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 247–260. Coxeter groups A4, B4 and D4 for two-qubit systems. RAMAZAN KOÇ1,∗. , M YAKUP HACIIBRAHIMO ˇGLU1 and MEHMET KOCA2 ... reflection matrices. The von Neumann entropy of each reduced density matrix is calculated. It is shown that these unitary matrix representations are naturally related to ...

  10. Effect of secondary phases on the properties of B4C-Al composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarikaya, M.; Pysik, A.J.; Ilsay, I.A.; Snowden, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    Various secondary phases form during the processing of B 4 C-Al composites depending on the processing variables. The type and distribution of these phases are indicated by the reactions which take place during the densification process. Microstructures of the samples prepared under different processing conditions are investigated and correlated with the mechanical properties

  11. TEM characterization of La/B4C multilayer systems by the geometric phase method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Häussler, D.; Spiecker, E.; Yang, S.; Jäger, W.; Störmer, M.; Bormann, R.; Zwicker, G.

    2005-01-01

    New La/B4C multilayer systems with layer thicknesses in the nanometer range have been deposited onto structured silicon (001) surfaces by magnetron sputtering and have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By applying a geometric phase method which has been originally

  12. On the Potential of Interference Rejection Combining in B4G Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavares, Fernando Menezes Leitão; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Mahmood, Nurul Huda

    2013-01-01

    Beyond 4th Generation (B4G) local area networks will be characterized by the dense uncoordinated deployment of small cells. This paper shows that inter-cell interference, which is a main limiting factor in such networks, can be effectively contained using Interference Rejection Combining (IRC) re...

  13. HoB4 at high pressure and low temperature: an experimental and theoretical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J. Staun; Waśkowska, A.; Gerward, Leif

    2011-01-01

    Single crystals of HoB4 have been grown and used for synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies at pressures up to 23GPa and temperatures down to 100K. The experimental bulk modulus 195 ± 6GPa is in good agreement with 188.4 and 198.2GPa values calculated in the LSDA and LSDA+U approximations...

  14. 26 CFR 1.851-3 - Rules applicable to section 851(b)(4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rules applicable to section 851(b)(4). 1.851-3 Section 1.851-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.851...

  15. Coxeter groups A4, B4 and D4 for two-qubit systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The Coxeter–Weyl groups W(A4), W(B4) and W(D4) have proven very useful for two-qubit systems in quantum information theory. A simple technique is employed to construct the unitary matrix representations of the groups, based on quaternionic transformation of the usual reflection matrices. The von Neumann ...

  16. Gaseous swelling of B4C and UO2 fuel: similarities and differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evdokimov, I.; Khoruzhii, O.; Kourtchatov, S.; Likhanskii, V.; Matweev, L.

    2001-01-01

    A major factor limiting the resource of control rods (CRs) for WWER-1000 reactors is their radiation damage. Radiation induced embrittlement of the CRs cladding, core swelling and gaseous internal pressure in CRs result in mechanical core-cladding interaction. This work is devoted to the physical analysis of processes that control the structural changes in neutron absorber elements with B 4 C under irradiation in water reactors. Particularly, the analysis of mechanisms of the helium porosity formation in B 4 C is undertaken. In view of the deficiency of experimental data on the subject, a fruitful approach to the problem is a comparative analysis of the swelling mechanisms in B 4 C absorber and UO 2 fuel. Using this similarity a phenomenological model of fission gas behavior in boron carbide is proposed. The model predictions for radial profile of 10 B burnup under influence of thermal and epithermal neutrons are compared with experimental results. The main results show that despite the external similarity of the process of fission gas accumulation in UO 2 and in B 4 C, phenomenology of gaseous swelling is much different for the fuel and the CR core. The reason for that difference is the distinction of physical conditions in irradiated fuel and CR core

  17. Fabrication and Tribological Behavior of Stir Cast Mg/B4C Metal Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amandeep; Bala, Niraj

    2017-10-01

    Magnesium-based metal matrix composites (MMMCs) have emerged as good alternative material to conventional materials due to their promising advanced properties. In the present work, magnesium-based metal matrix composites (MMMCs) reinforced with B4C particles were successfully fabricated by cost-effective conventional stir casting technique. MMMCs with an average particle size of 63 µm and different weight percent (wt pct) of B4C between 3 and 12 were fabricated. Wear tests were carried out using a pin-on-disk against a steel disk under dry sliding condition at loads that varied between 1 and 5 kg at fixed sliding velocity of 1 m/s. The wear data clearly showed that wear resistance of cast composites is better than that of unreinforced magnesium, which is attributed to dispersion hardening caused by carbide particles. An increase in wt pct of B4C showed the wear resistance and hardness to increase significantly. The wear rate and coefficient of friction increased with an increase in applied load. The SEM and EDS analysis of the worn surfaces delineated the dominant wear mechanisms to be abrasion, adhesion, and oxidation under the different sliding conditions. At lower loads, the wear mechanism transformed from severe abrasive wear in pure magnesium (Mg) to mild abrasion, slight delamination, and oxidation in the Mg/12 wt pct B4C fabricated composite. At higher loads, severe abrasion, adhesion, delamination, and oxidation were found to be the major wear mechanisms in pure Mg, whereas in the Mg/12 wt pct B4C fabricated composites the corresponding mechanisms were mild abrasion, mild adhesion, slight delamination, and oxidation.

  18. Induction of the PDH bypass and upregulation of the ALDH7B4 in plants treated with herbicides inhibiting amino acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Monreal, Miriam; Zabalza, Ana; Missihoun, Tagnon D; Dörmann, Peter; Bartels, Dorothea; Royuela, Mercedes

    2017-11-01

    Imazamox and glyphosate represent two classes of herbicides that inhibit the activity of acetohydroxyacid synthase in the branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway and the activity of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase in the aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathway, respectively. However, it is still unclear how imazamox and glyphosate lead to plant death. Both herbicides inhibit amino-acid biosynthesis and were found to induce ethanol fermentation in plants, but an Arabidopsis mutant deficient in alcohol dehydrogenase 1 was neither more susceptible nor more resistant than the wild-type to the herbicides. In this study, we investigated the effects of the amino acid biosynthesis inhibitors, imazamox and glyphosate, on the pyruvate dehydrogenase bypass reaction and fatty acid metabolism in A. thaliana. We found that the pyruvate dehydrogenase bypass was upregulated following the treatment by the two herbicides. Our results suggest that the Arabidopsis aldehyde dehydrogenase 7B4 gene might be participating in the pyruvate dehydrogenase bypass reaction. We evaluated the potential role of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 7B4 upon herbicide treatment in the plant defence mechanism. Plants that overexpressed the ALDH7B4 gene accumulated less soluble sugars, starch, and fatty acids and grew better than the wild-type after herbicide treatment. We discuss how the upregulation of the ALDH7B4 alleviates the effects of the herbicides, potentially through the detoxification of the metabolites produced in the pyruvate dehydrogenase bypass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 25 Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... meet the requirements of subparagraph (ii) of this paragraph. (iv) Clear plastic windows and signs... requirements of subparagraph (ii) of this paragraph. (iv) Clear plastic windows and signs, parts constructed in... percent methane and must be accurately metered. Prior to usage, the wet test meter must be properly...

  20. Hot Workability and Flow Characteristics of Aluminum-5 wt.% B4C Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangolu, S.; Rao, A. G.; Prabhu, N.; Deshmukh, V. P.; Kashyap, B. P.

    2014-04-01

    Flow behavior of aluminum-5 wt.% boron carbide (Al-B4C) composite was investigated by carrying out compression tests over a range of strain rates (10-4-100 s-1) and temperatures (200-500 °C). The flow stress data obtained from these tests at true strain 0.5 were used to develop processing map. The stable and instable flow regimes in the map were characterized by the microstructural examination using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron Backscattered Diffraction. The optimum condition for processing of Al-5%B4C composite was found to lie between 425 and 475 °C at the strain rate of around 10-4 s-1. A strain-compensated Sellars-McG Tegart constitutive equation was established to model high-temperature deformation behavior of the material.

  1. B4C protective coating under irradiation by QSPA-T intensive plasma fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzhinskij, O. I.; Barsuk, V. A.; Begrambekov, L. B.; Klimov, N. S.; Otroshchenko, V. G.; Putric, A. B.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of the QSPA-T pulsed plasma irradiation on the crystalline boron carbide B4C coating was examined. The duration of the rectangular plasma pulses was 0.5 ms with an interval of 5-10 min between pulses. The maximum power density in the central part of plasma stream was 1 GW/m2. The coating thickness varied from 20 to 40 μm on different surface areas. Modification of the surface layers and transformation of the coating at elevated temperature under plasma pulse irradiation during four successive series of impulses are described. It is shown that the boron carbide coating withstood the full cycle of tests under irradiation with 100 plasma pulses with peak power density of 1GW/m2. Constitutive surface deterioration was not detected and the boron carbide coating kept crystal structure B4C throughout the irradiation zone at the surface depth no less 2 μm.

  2. Modeling of wear behavior of Al/B4C composites produced by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Ismail; Bektas, Asli; Guel, Ferhat; Cinci, Hanifi

    2017-01-01

    Wear characteristics of composites, Al matrix reinforced with B 4 C particles percentages of 5, 10,15 and 20 produced by the powder metallurgy method were studied in this study. For this purpose, a mixture of Al and B 4 C powders were pressed under 650 MPa pressure and then sintered at 635 C. The analysis of hardness, density and microstructure was performed. The produced samples were worn using a pin-on-disk abrasion device under 10, 20 and 30 N load through 500, 800 and 1200 mesh SiC abrasive papers. The obtained wear values were implemented in an artificial neural network (ANN) model having three inputs and one output using feed forward backpropagation Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Thus, the optimum wear conditions and hardness values were determined.

  3. Effects of phthalates on the human corneal endothelial cell line B4G12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Tanja; Cao, Yi; Kjærgaard, Søren K.

    2012-01-01

    Phthalates are industrial chemicals used in many cosmetics. We evaluated an in vitro model for eye irritancy testing using the human corneal endothelial cell line B4G12. Cell proliferation and toxicity were assessed after exposing to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di-2......-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), and di-isononyl phthalate (DINP). Gene expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines were evaluated after exposure to DBP. Decreased cell proliferation was observed for the phthalates DBP, BBP, and DEHP, and cell...... line B4G12 may be a potential model for inflammatory eye irritancy testing of phthalates....

  4. Cr/B4C multilayer mirrors: Study of interfaces and X-ray reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcklen, C.; Soufli, R.; Dennetiere, D.; Polack, F.; Capitanio, B.; Gullikson, E.; Meltchakov, E.; Thomasset, M.; Jérome, A.; de Rossi, S.; Delmotte, F.

    2016-03-01

    We present an experimental study of the effect of layer interfaces on the x-ray reflectance in Cr/B4C multilayer interference coatings with layer thicknesses ranging from 0.7 nm to 5.4 nm. The multilayers were deposited by magnetron sputtering and by ion beam sputtering. Grazing incidence x-ray reflectometry, soft x-ray reflectometry, and transmission electron microscopy reveal asymmetric multilayer structures with a larger B4C-on-Cr interface, which we modeled with a 1-1.5 nm thick interfacial layer. Reflectance measurements in the vicinity of the Cr L2,3 absorption edge demonstrate fine structure that is not predicted by simulations using the currently tabulated refractive index (optical constants) values for Cr.

  5. On the phototransferred thermoluminescence in MgB4O7:Dy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    On exposure to ionizing radiations, the normal traps in MgB 4 0 7 :Dy can be emptied by the readout process only or by annealing at suitable temperatures, leaving the deep traps still intact. Subsequently, it is possible to repopulate the dosimetric peak by illuminating with u.v. light. Charge carriers released from the traps during the second readout give rise to a thermoluminescent output proportional to the ionizing radiation exposure and the u.v. radiant energy. This is called phototransferred thermoluminescence (PTTL). The PTTL method can be utilized for the reassessment of the initial γ-ray exposure. This paper presents the measurements of the intrinsic response of the commercially available MgB 4 0 7 :Dy to u.v. radiation, with a demonstration of its use for γ-ray dose re-estimation using the PTTL technique. (author)

  6. Antenatal and postnatal diagnosis of coxsackie b4 infection: case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Jennifer C; Schneider, Carol; Menticoglou, Savas; Herath, Jayantha; Del Bigio, Marc R

    2012-11-01

    Enteroviruses are a common cause of neonatal infection. In particular, Coxsackie B viruses are often associated with severe, fatal disease. The antenatal diagnosis of Coxsackie B viral infections is uncommon. We present a unique case of Coxsackie B4 virus ventriculitis and myocarditis causing fetal hydrops at 22 weeks gestation. Transmission was inferred by viral isolation from the amniotic fluid and by placental pathology. We also describe two additional cases of fatal neonatal Coxsackie B4 infection complicated by myocarditis and encephalitis with cerebral necrosis in a 4-day-old female and by myocarditis, spinal leptomeningitis, and hepatitis in a 4-day-old male. Transplacental acquisition of infection carries a poor prognosis. We propose that Coxsackie B virus should be considered in the investigation of nonimmune hydrops, particularly in the presence of cardiac dysfunction.

  7. Antenatal and Postnatal Diagnosis of Coxsackie B4 Infection: Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Hunt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Enteroviruses are a common cause of neonatal infection. In particular, Coxsackie B viruses are often associated with severe, fatal disease. The antenatal diagnosis of Coxsackie B viral infections is uncommon. We present a unique case of Coxsackie B4 virus ventriculitis and myocarditis causing fetal hydrops at 22 weeks gestation. Transmission was inferred by viral isolation from the amniotic fluid and by placental pathology. We also describe two additional cases of fatal neonatal Coxsackie B4 infection complicated by myocarditis and encephalitis with cerebral necrosis in a 4-day-old female and by myocarditis, spinal leptomeningitis, and hepatitis in a 4-day-old male. Transplacental acquisition of infection carries a poor prognosis. We propose that Coxsackie B virus should be considered in the investigation of nonimmune hydrops, particularly in the presence of cardiac dysfunction.

  8. Atomic structure and vibrational properties of icosahedral B$_4$C boron carbide

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzari, R.; Vast, N.; Besson, J. M.; Baroni, S.; Corso, A. Dal

    1999-01-01

    The atomic structure of icosahedral B$_4$C boron carbide is determined by comparing existing infra-red absorption and Raman diffusion measurements with the predictions of accurate {\\it ab initio} lattice-dynamical calculations performed for different structural models. This allows us to unambiguously determine the location of the carbon atom within the boron icosahedron, a task presently beyond X-ray and neutron diffraction ability. By examining the inter- and intra-icosahedral contributions ...

  9. ∆DNMT3B4-del Contributes to Aberrant DNA Methylation Patterns in Lung Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Z. Ma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant DNA methylation is a hallmark of cancer but mechanisms contributing to the abnormality remain elusive. We have previously shown that ∆DNMT3B is the predominantly expressed form of DNMT3B. In this study, we found that most of the lung cancer cell lines tested predominantly expressed DNMT3B isoforms without exons 21, 22 or both 21 and 22 (a region corresponding to the enzymatic domain of DNMT3B termed DNMT3B/∆DNMT3B-del. In normal bronchial epithelial cells, DNMT3B/ΔDNMT3B and DNMT3B/∆DNMT3B-del displayed equal levels of expression. In contrast, in patients with non-small cell lung cancer NSCLC, 111 (93% of the 119 tumors predominantly expressed DNMT3B/ΔDNMT3B-del, including 47 (39% tumors with no detectable DNMT3B/∆DNMT3B. Using a transgenic mouse model, we further demonstrated the biological impact of ∆DNMT3B4-del, the ∆DNMT3B-del isoform most abundantly expressed in NSCLC, in global DNA methylation patterns and lung tumorigenesis. Expression of ∆DNMT3B4-del in the mouse lungs resulted in an increased global DNA hypomethylation, focal DNA hypermethylation, epithelial hyperplastia and tumor formation when challenged with a tobacco carcinogen. Our results demonstrate ∆DNMT3B4-del as a critical factor in developing aberrant DNA methylation patterns during lung tumorigenesis and suggest that ∆DNMT3B4-del may be a target for lung cancer prevention.

  10. Production of Fumonisin B-2 and B-4 by Aspergillus niger on Grapes and Raisins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Thrane, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    The recent discovery of fumonisin production in Aspergillus niger, raises concerns about the presence of these mycotoxins in grapes and raisins as well as other commodities where A. niger is a frequent contaminant. Here we investigate the potential production of fumonisins in A. niger cultured...... on grapes and raisins. Sixty-six A. niger, 4 A. tubingensis, and 16 A. acidus strains isolated from raisins were tested for fumonisin production on laboratory media. Neither A. tubingensis nor A. acidus strains produced fumonisins, but 77% of A. niger strains did. None of the strains produced ochratoxin A....... Ten selected fumonisin producing A. niger strains were further able to produce fumonisin B2 and fumonisin B4 on grapes in the range 171−7841 μg fumonisin B2/kg and 14−1157 μg fumonisin B4/kg. Four selected strains were able to produce fumonisin B2 (5−6476 μg/kg) and fumonisin B4 (12−672 μg...

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of pressureless sintered B4C- C composite using phenolic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikravan, A.; Baharvandi, H. R.; Jebelli, F. B.; Abdizadeh, H.; Ehsani, N.

    2007-10-01

    Boron carbide is an extremely promising material for a variety of applications that require high hardness and good wear resistance. However, due to the very high sintering temperatures which are required for B4C densification, wide spread use of that is limited. Various solutions have been studied to modifying densification behavior of B4C. Pressureless sintering in the presence of different additives has been tried by researchers. The effect of additives such as TiB2, SiC, Al, B, ZrO2, talc and Si have been evaluated. It was shown that the densification and mechanical properties may be improved with sintering aids. The Effects of phenolic resin additive on the microstructure and mechanical properties of B4C were explained in this study. Experimental composition was batched corresponding from 0 to 10 wt% of the additive. All samples were sintered for 60 minutes at 2150°C. The heating and cooling rates were 10°C/min for all samples. It was found that below 7.5 wt% of phenolic resin additive, the density increased with additive increasing and above that, decreased by phenolic resin addition. Mechanical properties such as fracture toughness, strength and hardness increased as a result of densification enhancement.

  12. Evaluation of drilling Al/B4C composites with carbide drills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rıza Motorcu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, cutting forces and torque was evaluated through Taguchi Method (TM in the drilling of the high density B4C particle reinforced composites, which were produced through powder metallurgy-hot pressing method, with coated and uncoated carbide drills. Cutting speed (18, 25 and 35 m/min, feed rate (0.08, 0.112 and 0.16 mm/rev, coating properties (coated and uncoated and the amounts of particle reinforcement (5%, 10% and 15% B4C were used as the control factors. It was observed that the increased feed rate and particle reinforcement increased the axial force and torque, and decreased the cutting speed. The uncoated drills had a better performance than the coated drills. The amount of B4C reinforcement was observed to be the most effective parameter on the axial force and torque with the contribution ratios of 96.6% and 49.1%, respectively. Moreover, the correlation coefficients (R2 of the first order predictive equations developed for the axial force and torque were calculated as 0.895 and 0.854, respectively.

  13. Effects of Micro- and Nano-B4C Fillers on Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Ji Heon; Kim, Jae Woo; Uhm, Young Rang; Rhee, Chang Kyu

    2010-01-01

    Use of nuclear energy always requires safe and efficient transportation and storage of the radioactive wastes. In this regard, development of light and durable materials to shield various radiations is very important. In order to shield neutrons emitted from the spent nuclear fuel, a composite system of epoxy resin and B 4 C filler has been introduced. In this system, high concentration of hydrogen and boron in epoxy matrix can effectively attenuate high-energy neutrons and absorb thermal neutrons, respectively. However, adding fillers into the epoxy matrix has been known to deteriorate the mechanical properties of the epoxy composite because the volume occupied by fillers is equal to the loss volume of matrix resin and adhesion between the particles and the epoxy resin is in general poor. The deterioration of mechanical properties of the boron-epoxy composite makes its application as a neutron shielding material difficult. It should provide a mechanical reliability to endure exterior stresses including sudden deformation, friction and thermal shock, etc. Thus, it is a key issue in producing an epoxy-filler composite to suppress mechanical deterioration while maintaining the shielding capability simultaneously. In this study, micro- and nano-B 4 C particles were dispersed in the three-different epoxy matrix systems. The mechanical properties of the composites were compared with the pure epoxy resin to assess the change of mechanical deterioration. The effect of B 4 C particle size on the mechanical properties of the epoxy composites was also investigated

  14. Expression of the Blood-Group-Related Gene B4galnt2 Alters Susceptibility to Salmonella Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Rausch

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Glycans play important roles in host-microbe interactions. Tissue-specific expression patterns of the blood group glycosyltransferase β-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (B4galnt2 are variable in wild mouse populations, and loss of B4galnt2 expression is associated with altered intestinal microbiota. We hypothesized that variation in B4galnt2 expression alters susceptibility to intestinal pathogens. To test this, we challenged mice genetically engineered to express different B4galnt2 tissue-specific patterns with a Salmonella Typhimurium infection model. We found B4galnt2 intestinal expression was strongly associated with bacterial community composition and increased Salmonella susceptibility as evidenced by increased intestinal inflammatory cytokines and infiltrating immune cells. Fecal transfer experiments demonstrated a crucial role of the B4galnt2-dependent microbiota in conferring susceptibility to intestinal inflammation, while epithelial B4galnt2 expression facilitated epithelial invasion of S. Typhimurium. These data support a critical role for B4galnt2 in gastrointestinal infections. We speculate that B4galnt2-specific differences in host susceptibility to intestinal pathogens underlie the strong signatures of balancing selection observed at the B4galnt2 locus in wild mouse populations.

  15. Preparation and characterization of B4C coatings for advanced research light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Michael; Siewert, Frank; Sinn, Harald

    2016-01-01

    X-ray optical elements are required for beam transport at the current and upcoming free-electron lasers and synchrotron sources. An X-ray mirror is a combination of a substrate and a coating. The demand for large mirrors with single layers consisting of light or heavy elements has increased during the last few decades; surface finishing technology is currently able to process mirror lengths up to 1 m with microroughness at the sub-nanometre level. Additionally, thin-film fabrication is able to deposit a suitable single-layer material, such as boron carbide (B4C), some tens of nanometres thick. After deposition, the mirror should provide excellent X-ray optical properties with respect to coating thickness errors, microroughness values and slope errors; thereby enabling the mirror to transport the X-ray beam with high reflectivity, high beam flux and an undistorted wavefront to an experimental station. At the European XFEL, the technical specifications of the future mirrors are extraordinarily challenging. The acceptable shape error of the mirrors is below 2 nm along the whole length of 1 m. At the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG), amorphous layers of boron carbide with thicknesses in the range 30-60 nm were fabricated using the HZG sputtering facility, which is able to cover areas up to 1500 mm long by 120 mm wide in one step using rectangular B4C sputtering targets. The available deposition area is suitable for the specified X-ray mirror dimensions of upcoming advanced research light sources such as the European XFEL. The coatings produced were investigated by means of X-ray reflectometry and interference microscopy. The experimental results for the B4C layers are discussed according to thickness uniformity, density, microroughness and thermal stability. The variation of layer thickness in the tangential and sagittal directions was investigated in order to estimate the achieved level of uniformity over the whole deposition area, which is considerably

  16. Pso p27, a SERPINB3/B4-derived protein, is most likely a common autoantigen in chronic inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Ole-Jan; Lysvand, Hilde; Slupphaug, Geir

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases are characterized by chronic inflammatory reactions localized to an organ or organ-system. They are caused by loss of immunologic tolerance toward self-antigens, causing formation of autoantibodies that mistakenly attack their own body. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune skin disease in which the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this review, we present evidence accumulated through more than three decades that the serpin-derived protein Pso p27 is an autoantigen in psoriasis and probably also in other chronic inflammatory diseases. Pso p27 is derived from the serpin molecules SERPINB3 and SERPINB4 through non-canonical cleavage by mast cell chymase. In psoriasis, it is exclusively found in skin lesions and not in uninvolved skin. The serpins are cleaved into three fragments that remain associated as a Pso p27 complex with novel immunogenic properties and increased tendency to form large aggregates compared to native SERPINB3/B4. The amount of Pso p27 is directly correlated to disease activity, and through formation of complement activating immune-complexes, Pso p27 contribute to the inflammation in the skin lesions. SERPINB3/B4 are expressed in skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes, but normally absent in mast cells. Overexpression of the serpins may be induced by inflammation and hypoxia, resulting in mast cell uptake via yet unknown mechanisms. Here the generation and subsequent release of Pso p27 aggregates may promote an inflammatory loop that contributes to the chronicity of psoriasis and other autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hanford environmental analytical methods (methods as of March 1990). Appendix A3-R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Daniel, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    Techniques in use at the Hanford Reservation as of March, 1990 for the analysis of liquids and radioactive effluents are described. Limitations and applications of the techniques are included. This report is Appendix A3-R.

  18. Evolving role of 2B4/CD244 in T and NK cell responses during virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Noel Waggoner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM family receptor, 2B4/CD244, was first implicated in anti-viral immunity by the discovery that mutations of the SLAM-associated protein, SAP/SH2D1A, impaired 2B4-dependent stimulation of T and natural killer (NK cell anti-viral functions in X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP syndrome patients with uncontrolled Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infections. Engagement of 2B4 has been variably shown to either activate or inhibit lymphocytes which express this receptor. While SAP expression is required for stimulatory functions of 2B4 on lymphocytes, it remains unclear whether inhibitory signals derived from 2B4 can predominate even in the presence of SAP. Regardless, mounting evidence suggests that 2B4 expression by NK and CD8 T cells is altered by virus infection in mice as well as in humans, and 2B4-mediated signaling may be an important determinant of effective immune control of chronic virus infections. In this review, recent findings regarding the expression and function of 2B4 as well as SAP on T and NK cells during virus infection is discussed, with a focus on the role of 2B4-CD48 interactions in crosstalk between innate and adaptive immunity.

  19. ErbB4 localization to cardiac myocyte nuclei, and its role in myocyte DNA damage response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icli, Basak [Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Bharti, Ajit [Center of Molecular Stress Response Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Department of Medicine, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Pentassuglia, Laura; Peng, Xuyang [Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Sawyer, Douglas B., E-mail: douglas.b.sawyer@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ErbB4 localizes to cardiac myocyte nuclei as a full-length receptor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cardiac myocytes express predominantly JM-a/CYT-1 ErbB4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Myocyte p53 activation in response to doxorubicin requires ErbB4 activity. -- Abstract: The intracellular domain of ErbB4 receptor tyrosine kinase is known to translocate to the nucleus of cells where it can regulate p53 transcriptional activity. The purpose of this study was to examine whether ErbB4 can localize to the nucleus of adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVM), and regulate p53 in these cells. We demonstrate that ErbB4 does locate to the nucleus of cardiac myocytes as a full-length protein, although nuclear location occurs as a full-length protein that does not require Protein Kinase C or {gamma}-secretase activity. Consistent with this we found that only the non-cleavable JM-b isoform of ErbB4 is expressed in ARVM. Doxorubicin was used to examine ErbB4 role in regulation of a DNA damage response in ARVM. Doxorubicin induced p53 and p21 was suppressed by treatment with AG1478, an EGFR and ErbB4 kinase inhibitor, or suppression of ErbB4 expression with small interfering RNA. Thus ErbB4 localizes to the nucleus as a full-length protein, and plays a role in the DNA damage response induced by doxorubicin in cardiac myocytes.

  20. FXR induces the UGT2B4 enzyme in hepatocytes: a potential mechanism of negative feedback control of FXR activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Olivier; Torra, Ines Pineda; Sirvent, Audrey; Claudel, Thierry; Blanquart, Christophe; Duran-Sandoval, Daniel; Kuipers, Folkert; Kosykh, Vladimir; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Staels, Bart

    2003-06-01

    Bile acids are essential for bile formation and intestinal absorption of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins. However, the intrinsic toxicity of hydrophobic bile acids demands a tight control of their intracellular concentrations. Bile acids are ligands for the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) that regulates the expression of genes controlling bile acid synthesis and transport. The human uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 2B4 (UGT2B4) converts hydrophobic bile acids into more hydrophilic glucuronide derivatives. In this study, we identify UGT2B4 as an FXR target gene. Human hepatocytes or hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells were treated with chenodeoxycholic acid or the synthetic FXR agonist GW4064, and the levels of UGT2B4 messenger RNA, protein, and activity were determined by using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and glucuronidation assays. Treatment of hepatocytes and HepG2 cells with FXR agonists resulted in an increase of UGT2B4 messenger RNA, protein, and activity. A bile acid response element in the UGT2B4 promoter (B4-BARE) to which FXR, but not retinoid X receptor, binds, was identified by site-directed mutagenesis, electromobility shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Retinoid X receptor activation abolished the induction of UGT2B4 expression and inhibited binding of FXR to the B4-BARE, suggesting that retinoid X receptor modulates FXR target gene activation. Overexpression of UGT2B4 in HepG2 cells resulted in the attenuation of bile acid induction of the FXR target gene small heterodimeric partner. These data suggest that UGT2B4 gene induction by bile acids contributes to a feed-forward reduction of bile acid toxicity and a decrease of the activity of these biological FXR activators.

  1. Consolidation of B4C-TaB2 eutectic composites by spark plasma sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Demirskyi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The in situ synthesis/consolidation of B4C-TaB2 eutectic composites by spark plasma sintering (SPS is reported. The microstructure–property relations were determined for composites with the B4C-TaB2 eutectic composition as functions of TaB2 content, and TaB2-TaB2 interlamellar spacing. A clear maximum in fracture toughness was identified (∼4.5 MPa m1/2 for eutectic composites with interlamellar spacing between 0.9 and 1.1 μm. The composites with the hypereutectic composition of 40 mol.% TaB2 obtained by SPS exhibited lower Vickers hardness (25–26 GPa but higher indentation fracture toughness (up to 4.9 MPa m1/2 than eutectic composites with 30–35 mol.% of TaB2.

  2. La/B(4)C multilayer mirrors with an additional wavelength suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naujok, Philipp; Yulin, Sergiy; Bianco, Anna; Mahne, Nicola; Kaiser, Norbert; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2015-02-23

    In this paper, the authors report on La/B(4)C multilayer mirrors designed for an incidence angle of 45° with both maximum reflectivity at a wavelength of 6.7 nm and reflectivity suppression at a wavelength of 20.1 nm. These mirrors were deposited for the EIS-TIMER at the FERMI@Elettra Free Electron Laser. The multilayer structure and optical properties were characterized using grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry with Cu-K(α) radiation and EUV reflectometry in the spectral region of 6.5 - 21.0 nm. An anti-reflective coating designed at the wavelength of 20.1 nm had to be deposited on top of the high reflective La/B(4)C multilayer mirror optimized at a wavelength of 6.7 nm. Measured reflectivities of 53.4% at the wavelength of 6.72 nm and 0.15% at the wavelength of 20.1 nm were simultaneously achieved. It is shown that the reflectivity loss at the wavelength of 6.7 nm due to the utilization of antireflective coating designed at the wavelength of 20.1 nm can be minimized up to 1.0%.

  3. Arterial shear stress reduces eph-b4 expression in adult human veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Model, Lynn S; Hall, Michael R; Wong, Daniel J; Muto, Akihito; Kondo, Yuka; Ziegler, Kenneth R; Feigel, Amanda; Quint, Clay; Niklason, Laura; Dardik, Alan

    2014-09-01

    Vein graft adaptation to the arterial environment is characterized by loss of venous identity, with reduced Ephrin type-B receptor 4 (Eph-B4) expression but without increased Ephrin-B2 expression. We examined changes of vessel identity of human saphenous veins in a flow circuit in which shear stress could be precisely controlled. Medium circulated at arterial or venous magnitudes of laminar shear stress for 24 hours; histologic, protein, and RNA analyses of vein segments were performed. Vein endothelium remained viable and functional, with platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-expressing cells on the luminal surface. Venous Eph-B4 expression diminished (p = .002), Ephrin-B2 expression was not induced (p = .268), and expression of osteopontin (p = .002) was increased with exposure to arterial magnitudes of shear stress. Similar changes were not found in veins placed under venous flow or static conditions. These data show that human saphenous veins remain viable during ex vivo application of shear stress in a bioreactor, without loss of the venous endothelium. Arterial magnitudes of shear stress cause loss of venous identity without gain of arterial identity in human veins perfused ex vivo. Shear stress alone, without immunologic or hormonal influence, is capable of inducing changes in vessel identity and, specifically, loss of venous identity.

  4. Production and characterization of compounds based on MgB4O7 for application in dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Luiza Freire de

    2016-01-01

    Many materials with luminescent properties are used for ionizing radiation dosimetry through the thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) techniques. Detectors based on lithium fluoride (LiF), calcium sulphate (CaSO 4 ) and aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ), doped or codoped with various elements, are the TL or OSL commercial dosimeters most widely used currently. However, several researches are focused to the development of new TL /OSL materials in intention to enhance the dosimetric properties, in view that no TL/OSL dosimeter has all the ideal characteristics for monitoring the radiation. In this context, magnesium tetraborate (MgB 4 O 7 ), which has been presented in the literature as a material for dosimetry TL, was investigated in this work. As there are no reports on the structural characterization of this material or regarding to its applicability on OSL dosimetry, the proposal of the present work was to develop compounds based on MgB 4 O 7 , with different doping, by solid state synthesis. It was made the structural, optical, TL and OSL characterization of the compound to verify it feasibility for application on radiation dosimetry. Initially, it was determined the calcination temperature and time for MgB 4 O 7 formation, with the use of thermal analyses and x ray diffraction. The ideal calcination was found at 900 °C for 7 hours. It were produced , in powder form, the compounds: MgB 4 O 7 , MgB 4 O 7 :Dy, MgB 4 O 7 :Dy,Li, MgB 4 O 7 :Ce, MgB 4 O 7 :Ce,Li, MgB 4 O 7 :Nd and MgB 4 O 7 :Nd,Li. For TL and OSL analyses it were produced pellets sintering at 950 °C for 2 hours. The radioluminescence (RL) analyses of MgB 4 O 7 :Dy and MgB 4 O 7 :Dy,Li shows wavelength emissions at 490, 590, 670 and 760 nm. For MgB 4 O 7 :Ce and MgB 4 O 7 :Ce,Li RL was observed wide emission band in the ultraviolet region. For the MgB 4 O 7 :Nd and MgB 4 O 7 :Nd,Li RL were not observed emission from the ultraviolet to infrared. With the results obtained from

  5. Appendix C: GLEES Macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. C. Kondratieff

    1994-01-01

    This Appendix identifies macroinvertebrate species found in streams and lakes at GLEES during a preliminary qualitative survey conducted in the summer of 1988 by Dr. Boris Kondratieff. The littoral zones of each lake and each stream were sampled by hand-picking and with a triangle net. Insect voucher specimens are maintained in the Gillette Entomological Museum at...

  6. 29 CFR 2520.104b-4 - Alternative methods of compliance for furnishing the summary plan description and summaries of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative methods of compliance for furnishing the summary plan description and summaries of material modifications of a pension plan to a retired participant, a separated participant with vested benefits, and a beneficiary receiving benefits. 2520.104b-4 Section 2520.104b-4 Labor Regulations Relating to...

  7. Thermoelastic properties of ScB2, TiB2, YB4 and HoB4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waskowska, A.; Gerward, L.; Staun Olsen, J.

    2011-01-01

    (4)GPa). No pressure-induced phase transformations are observed in any of the above borides up to about 20GPa. A continuous temperature-driven orthorhombic distortion is observed for HoB4 below 285K. Values of the thermal expansion coefficient are reported for ScB2 and HoB4 at 293, 200 and 100K...

  8. Enhancement of dispersion and adhesion of B4C particles in epoxy resin using direct ultrasonic excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Jiheon; Kim, Jaewoo; Bae, Yeonjoo; Seo, Young Soo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Enhanced adhesion and dispersion of B 4 C particles in epoxy resin was achieved. → FTIR spectrum was used for examination of B 4 C adhesion with epoxy resin. → Direct ultrasonic excitation causes enhanced surface treatment of B 4 C. → We developed an epoxy based neutron shield with higher mechanical properties. - Abstract: Enhancement of the mechanical properties of the B 4 C/epoxy composites, which is used as a neutron shield for spent nuclear fuel cask, was achieved by direct ultrasonic dispersion of the B 4 C particles in the hardener using an immersed horn, while those prepared without direct ultrasonic dispersion showed insufficient adhesion as well as some agglomerates in the epoxy resin. Degrees of agglomeration and adhesion were analyzed by means of the SEM images and the FTIR peaks belong to C-C stretching mode of the hardener ring, which was lowered and flattened by van der Waals interaction between the B 4 C particles and the hardener ring substituent. The tensile strength of the B 4 C/epoxy composites prepared by direct ultrasonic dispersion was maintained (or increased) compared to that for the neat epoxy matrix, while those prepared without ultrasonic dispersion were degraded significantly. Consequently, direct ultrasonic dispersion process developed in this investigation could achieve uniform dispersion as well as strong adhesion of the B 4 C particles in/with the epoxy matrix enhancing the material properties without any chemical treatment resulting unwanted impurities.

  9. 32 CFR Appendix E to Subpart M of... - References

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References E Appendix E to Subpart M of Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND...—References Army Regulations referenced in this subpart may be obtained from National Technical Information...

  10. 2 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - General Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General Principles A Appendix A to Part 230 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR... Principles General Principles Table of Contents A. Basic Considerations 1. Composition of total costs 2...

  11. 32 CFR Appendix F to Subpart M of... - Abbreviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abbreviations F Appendix F to Subpart M of Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS...—Abbreviations AAOArea Access Officer ARArmy Regulation CBRCCamp Bonneville Range Control DEHDirector of...

  12. [Association of cytochrome P450 2B4 with molecular chaperones in heterological expression in E coli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prozorovskiĭ, T V; Schunck, W H; Archakov, A I

    2001-01-01

    To produce a water-soluble form of microsomal P450 2B4, fusion proteins with glutathione-S-transpherase were genetically engineered. Specific proteolitic sites recognized by Factor Xa and Thrombin have been introduced into N-terminus of P450 2B4 (46-49), lacking signal anchor sequence (2-27). It was supposed that proteolysis at this site could give the possibility to produce protein lacking hydrophobic N-terminus sequence (1-49). However, it was shown that given region in P450 2B4 his resistant against specific proteinase action. Positive result has been obtained at specific proteolysis with IgA endoproteinase, recognizing the native sequence PPGP (31-34) in P450 2B4. Thus, at first time truncated form of cytochrome 2B4, lacking its 33 N-terminal amino acid residues has been created. It was found that the expression of genetically engineered variants of GST-2B4 in Escherichia coli is accompanied by tight complex formation with molecular chaperones GroEL and DnaK. Dissociation of the complex occurred after proteolysis in: linker sequence (position 6-7) between C-terminal part of GST domain and N-terminal part of 2B4, and also before N-terminal methionine 2B4 and at position 33-34 (2B4). These results suggest the possibility that interaction with a GroEL/DnaK molecular chaperones may be requirement for correct folding of eukaryotic cytochrome 2B4 during its biosynthesis in E. coli.

  13. EphB4 Regulates Self-Renewal, Proliferation and Neuronal Differentiation of Human Embryonic Neural Stem Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: EphB4 belongs to the largest family of Eph receptor tyrosine kinases. It contributes to a variety of pathological progresses of cancer malignancy. However, little is known about its role in neural stem cells (NSCs. This study examined whether EphB4 is required for proliferation and differentiation of human embryonic neural stem cells (hNSCs in vitro. Methods: We up- and down-regulated EphB4 expression in hNSCs using lentiviral over-expression and shRNA knockdown constructs and then investigated the influence of EphB4 on the properties of hNSCs. Results: Our results show that shRNA-mediated EphB4 reduction profoundly impaired hNSCs self-renewal and proliferation. Furthermore, detection of differentiation revealed that knockdown of EphB4 inhibited hNSCs differentiation towards a neuronal lineage and promoted hNSCs differentiation to glial cells. In contrast, EphB4 overexpression promoted hNSCs self-renewal and proliferation, further induced hNSCs differentiation towards a neuronal lineage and inhibited hNSCs differentiation to glial cells. Moreover, we found that EphB4 regulates cell proliferation mediated by the Abl-CyclinD1 pathway. Conclusion: These studies provide strong evidence that fine tuning of EphB4 expression is crucial for the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of hNSCs, suggesting that EphB4 might be an interesting target for overcoming some of the therapeutic limitations of neuronal loss in brain diseases.

  14. Down-Regulation of Neuregulin1/ErbB4 Signaling in the Hippocampus Is Critical for Learning and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jia; Geng, Fei; Gao, Feng; Chen, Yi-Hua; Liu, Ji-Hong; Wu, Jian-Lin; Lan, Yu-Jie; Zeng, Yuan-Ning; Li, Xiao-Wen; Yang, Jian-Ming; Gao, Tian-Ming

    2017-08-01

    Hippocampal function is important for learning and memory, and dysfunction of the hippocampus has been linked to the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. Neuregulin1 (NRG1) and ErbB4, two susceptibility genes for schizophrenia, reportedly modulate long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal Schaffer collateral (SC)-CA1 synapses. However, little is known regarding the contribution of hippocampal NRG1/ErbB4 signaling to learning and memory function. Here, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to assess the mRNA and protein levels of NRG1 and ErbB4. Pharmacological and genetic approaches were used to manipulate NRG1/ErbB4 signaling, following which learning and memory behaviors were evaluated using the Morris water maze, Y-maze test, and the novel object recognition test. Spatial learning was found to reduce hippocampal NRG1 and ErbB4 expression. The blockade of NRG1/ErbB4 signaling in hippocampal CA1, either by neutralizing endogenous NRG1 or inhibiting/ablating ErbB4 receptor activity, enhanced hippocampus-dependent spatial learning, spatial working memory, and novel object recognition memory. Accordingly, administration of exogenous NRG1 impaired those functions. More importantly, the specific ablation of ErbB4 in parvalbumin interneurons also improved learning and memory performance. The manipulation of NRG1/ErbB4 signaling in the present study revealed that NRG1/ErbB4 activity in the hippocampus is critical for learning and memory. These findings might provide novel insights on the pathophysiological mechanisms of schizophrenia and a new target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, which is characterized by a progressive decline in cognitive function.

  15. The vermiform appendix: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Andrew; Muhleman, Mitchel; Gielecki, Jerzy; Matusz, Petru; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2013-10-01

    New research on the vermiform appendix has shed light on its function. In further understanding the function of the appendix, this information should not negatively impact the clinical judgment in the event of appendicitis. Although the appendix and its pathology have been noted for centuries, it still presents a challenge in the operating room. The most common emergency surgical procedure performed is an appendectomy. Its highly variable position within the abdomen can cause confusion for clinicians. However, improved imaging modalities have heightened the physician's ability to diagnose disease of this organ. This article reviews germane literature regarding the human vermiform appendix. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effect of detergent binding on cytochrome P450 2B4 structure as analyzed by X-ray crystallography and deuterium-exchange mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manish B; Jang, Hyun-Hee; Wilderman, P Ross; Lee, David; Li, Sheng; Zhang, Qinghai; Stout, C David; Halpert, James R

    2016-09-01

    Multiple crystal structures of CYP2B4 have demonstrated the binding of the detergent 5-cyclohexyl-1-pentyl-β-D-maltoside (CYMAL-5) in a peripheral pocket located adjacent to the active site. To explore the consequences of detergent binding, X-ray crystal structures of the peripheral pocket mutant CYP2B4 F202W were solved in the presence of hexaethylene glycol monooctyl ether (C8E6) and CYMAL-5. The structure in the presence of CYMAL-5 illustrated a closed conformation indistinguishable from the previously solved wild-type. In contrast, the F202W structure in the presence of C8E6 revealed a detergent molecule that coordinated the heme-iron and extended to the protein surface through the substrate access channel 2f. Despite the overall structural similarity of these detergent complexes, remarkable differences were observed in the A, A', and H helices, the F-G cassette, the C-D and β4 loop region. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (DXMS) was employed to probe these differences and to test the effect of detergents in solution. The presence of either detergent increased the H/D exchange rate across the plastic regions, and the results obtained by DXMS in solution were consistent in general with the relevant structural snapshots. The study provides insight into effect of detergent binding and the interpretation of associated conformational dynamics of CYP2B4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Validation of the FACT-B+4-UL questionnaire and exploration of its predictive value in women submitted to surgery for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Ortega, Juan Alfonso; Millán Gómez, Ana Pilar; Ribeiro González, Marisa; Martínez Piró, Pilar; Jiménez Anula, Juan; Sánchez Andújar, María Belén

    2017-06-21

    The early detection of upper limb complications is important in women operated on for breast cancer. The "FACT-B+4-UL" questionnaire, a specific variant of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B) is available among others to measure the upper limb function. The Spanish version of the upper limb subscale of the FACT-B+4 was validated in a prospective cohort of 201 women operated on for breast cancer (factor analysis, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity and sensitivity to change were determined). Its predictive capacity of subsequent lymphoedema and other complications in the upper limb was explored using logistic regression. This subscale is unifactorial and has a great internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.87), its test-retest reliability and construct validity are strong (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.986; Pearson's R with "Quick DASH": 0.81) as is its sensitivity to change. It didn't predict the onset of lymphedema. Its predictive capacity for other upper limb complications is low. FACT-B+4-UL is useful in measuring upper limb disability in women surgically treated for breast cancer; but it does not predict the onset of lymphoedema and its predictive capacity for others complications in the upper limb is low. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of academic exam stress on nasal leukotriene B4 and vascular endothelial growth factor in asthma and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueba, Ana; Ryan, Matthew W; Vogel, Pia D; Ritz, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    To examine the effect of final exam stress on the concentrations of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the upper airways among healthy and asthmatic individuals. Nasal samples were collected from 12 individuals with asthma and 23 healthy controls early and late in a final exam period, and during a low-stress period in the semester. We determined LTB4 and VEGF concentrations using Enzyme-Linked Immunoassays. Mixed effects analysis of variance models showed that asthmatic participants with allergies in contrast to healthy individuals experienced a decrease in nasal LTB4 during the final exam period as compared to mid-semester (low stress period). There were no significant changes in nasal VEGF across the observation period. Changes in nasal LTB4 and VEGF were not associated with salivary cortisol, exhaled nitric oxide, or spirometric lung function. Our results suggest that nasal LTB4 concentrations change in periods of psychological stress for asthmatic individuals with allergies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ceramic composite resistors of B4C modified by TIO2 and glass phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimiec, E.; Zaraska, W.; Stobiecki, T.

    1998-01-01

    Technical progress in the manufacturing technology of composite materials resulted in arising of new generation of bulk resistors, resistant to high levels of overloads and high temperature. These resistors can be applied in extremely heavy working conditions, for instance in cooperation with ignition circuits. The resistors investigated in our research were performed on the basis of ceramic composite consisted of semiconductor boron carbide B 4 C as conductive phase, aluminium oxide Al 2 O 3 and non-alkali glass as insulators and titanium dioxide TiO 2 . The technological procedure of the fabrication of resistors and the results of the tests, such as temperature dependence of the electrical resistance exploitation trials, are presented. (author)

  20. A polyethylene-B4C based concrete for enhanced neutron shielding at neutron research facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, D. D.; Cooper-Jensen, C. P.; Perrey, H.; Fissum, K.; Rofors, E.; Scherzinger, J.; Bentley, P. M.

    2017-07-01

    We present the development of a specialized concrete for neutron shielding at neutron research facilities, based on the addition of hydrogen atoms in the form of polyethylene and also B4C for enhancing the neutron capture properties of the concrete. We show information on the mechanical properties of the concrete and the neutronics, in particular its relevance to modern spallation neutron sources, such as the European Spallation Source (ESS), currently under construction in Lund, Sweden. The new concrete exhibits a 15% lower mass density, a compressible strength of 50% relative to a standard concrete and a significant increase in performance of shielding against MeV neutrons and lower energies. The concrete could find application at the ESS in for example common shielding components, individual beamline shielding and instrument caves. Initial neutronic tests of the concrete, carried out at Lund University, have also verified the performance in the MeV neutron energy range and the results are presented.

  1. Electrochemistry in molten borates (Na2B4O7). Electroanalytical study of oxidoreducing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregori de Pinochet, Ida de

    1978-01-01

    The results of a study developing suitable electroanalytical means of investigation such as linear sweep voltametry and chronopotentiometry in molten borates are described. It has been shown that the reduction of U (VI) to U (V) proceeds reversibly at a platinum electrode. The diffusion coefficient for the U (VI) species at 800 0 C and the activation energy of diffusion are respectively 4 10 -7 cm 2 s -1 and (34,8+-0,8) k cal mol -1 . UO 2 is an insoluble oxide in this fused salt. Electrochemical studies of As (V) and Cu (II) show a two step reduction process at a platinum electrode. According to the solvent system definitions, the 'acid-base' equilibrium B 4 O 7 2- reversible 2 BO 2 - + B 2 O 3 is characterised at 820 0 C by the constant Ksub(D)=10sup(0,4)molsup(3)kgsup(-3) estimated by potentiometric study at a boron electrode [fr

  2. Optimization of laser cladding of cold spray coatings with B4C and Ni powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomin, V. M.; Golyshev, A. A.; Malikov, A. G.; Orishich, A. M.; Filippov, A. A.; Ryashin, N. S.

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, a combined method is considered for the production of a metal-matrix composite coating based on Ni and B4C. The coating is created by consistently applied methods: cold spray and laser cladding. The conditions of obtaining cermet layers are investigated depending on the parameters of laser cladding and cold spray. It is shown that the laser track structure significantly changes in accordance to the size of ceramic particles ranging 3-75 µm and its concentration. It is shown that the most perspective layers for additive manufacturing could be obtain from cold spray coatings with ceramic concentrations more than 50% by weight treated in the heat-conductivity laser mode.

  3. Moessbauer spectroscopy in nanocrystalline Fe88Zr7B4Cu1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, I.

    1995-01-01

    Local structural changes during the crystallization process of initially amorphous Fe 88 Zr 7 B 4 Cu 1 (at %) have been investigated by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy at room temperature. In the as-cast state, no ferromagnetic phase has been detected. The crystallization process has been found to consist of two steps. In the first step (after annealing up to 500-650 C), precipitation of α-Fe (47-59%) takes place. The remaining amorphous matrix evolves to a ferromagnetic phase, although a small fraction of non-ferromagnetic phase (5-8%) is also detected during the crystallization process. Annealing at more elevated temperatures completely crystallizes the amorphous phase and three new crystalline subspectra are found. Correlations between the soft magnetic properties and these local structural changes are also discussed. ((orig.))

  4. Production of fumonisins B2 and B4 in Tolypocladium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Møller, Kirsten Amalie; von Freiesleben, Pernille; Labuda, Roman; Varga, Elisabeth; Sulyok, Michael; Kubátová, Alena; Thrane, Ulf; Andersen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2011-09-01

    Tolypocladium inflatum is known primarily for its production of the cyclosporines that are used as an immunosuppressive drug. However, we report here the production of the carcinogenic fumonisins B(2) and B(4) by this biotechnologically relevant fungal genus. These mycotoxins were detected in 11 strains tested from three species: Tolypocladium inflatum, T. cylindrosporum, and T. geodes. Production of fumonisins by Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus niger is highly medium- and temperature-dependent, so the effect of these parameters on fumonisin production by three T. inflatum strains was studied. Maximum production was achieved on media with high sugar content incubated at 25-30°C. Since these results demonstrate that fumonisin production could be widespread within the genus Tolypocladium, the potential contamination of commercial cyclosporine preparations with fumonisins needs to be investigated.

  5. Structural and electronic properties of Li(2)b(4)O(7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mazharul M; Maslyuk, Volodymyr V; Bredow, Thomas; Minot, Christian

    2005-07-21

    The reliability of various quantum-chemical approaches for the calculation of bulk properties of lithium tetraborate Li(2)B(4)O(7) was examined. Lattice parameters and the electronic structure obtained with density-functional theory (DFT), with DFT-Hartree-Fock (HF) hybrid methods, and with the semiempirical method MSINDO were compared to available experimental data. We also compared the results at DFT level using different wave functions, either based on linear combinations of atom-centered orbitals (LCAO), or on plane waves, as implemented in the crystalline orbital programs CRYSTAL and VASP. The basis set dependence of calculated properties was investigated for the LCAO method. In the plane wave approach ultrasoft pseudopotentials (US PP), and projector-augmented wave (PAW) potentials were used to represent the core electrons. For all methods under consideration, the calculated Li(2)B(4)O(7) structure parameters are close to each other and agree within a few percent with measured values. A more pronounced method dependence was found for the band structure, the band gap and the cohesive energy. Closest agreement between theoretical and experimental results for the band gap was obtained with the DFT-HF hybrid methods while pure DFT methods underestimate and HF based methods overestimate the measured value. It was found that the calculated band gap strongly depends on the atomic basis set in the LCAO approach. The description of the core electrons considerably affects the cohesive energy obtained with the plane wave approach. Atomic charges based on a Mulliken analysis were compared to effective charges obtained from Raman spectroscopy. Electron density maps are used to analyze the character of B-O and Li-O interactions.

  6. The role of anti-NHba antibody in bactericidal activity elicited by the meningococcal serogroup B vaccine, MenB-4C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Elizabeth; Lujan, Eduardo; Giuntini, Serena; Vu, David M; Granoff, Dan M

    2017-07-24

    MenB-4C (Bexsero®) is a multicomponent serogroup B meningococcal vaccine. For vaccine licensure, efficacy was inferred from serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) against three antigen-specific indicator strains. The bactericidal role of antibody to the fourth vaccine antigen, Neisserial Heparin binding antigen (NHba), is incompletely understood. We identified nine adults immunized with two or three doses of MenB-4C who had sufficient volumes of sera and >3-fold increases in SBA titer against a strain with high NHba expression, which was mismatched with the other three MenB-4C antigens that elicit SBA. Using 1month-post-immunization sera we measured the effect of depletion of anti-NHba and/or anti-Factor H binding protein (FHbp) antibodies on SBA. Against three strains matched with the vaccine only for NHba, depletion of anti-NHba decreased SBA titers by an average of 43-79% compared to mock-adsorbed sera (Pvaccine antigen), depletion of anti-FHbp antibodies also decreased SBA by 45-64% (Pvaccine antigen, depletion of anti-NHba decreased SBA by an average of 26%, compared to mock-adsorbed sera (Panti-FHbp antibody decreased SBA by 92% (PAnti-NHba antibody can contribute to SBA elicited by MenB-4C, particularly in concert with anti-FHbp antibody. However, some high NHba-expressing strains are resistant, even with an exact match between the amino acid sequence of the vaccine and strain antigens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermoluminescence and radioluminescence properties of tissue equivalent Cu-doped Li2B4O7 for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Z, E.; Furetta, C.; Marcazzo, J.; Santiago, M.; Guarneros, C.; Pacio, M.; Palomino, R.

    2015-10-01

    Thermoluminescence (Tl) and radioluminescence (Rl) properties of lithium tetraborate (Li 2 B 4 O 7 ) doped with different concentration of copper (0.25, 0.5, 1 wt %) under gamma and beta irradiation has been investigated. The feasibility of using this borate in radiation dosimetry at low doses has been evaluated. Tissue equivalent Li 2 B 4 O 7 was prepared by solid state reaction using mixing stoichiometric compositions of lithium carbonate (Li 2 CO 3 ) and boric acid (H 3 BO 3 ) and a solution of CuCl 2 as dopant. The glow curve, of the most efficient copper doped borate (Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu 0.5 wt %), shows a main stable peak centered at 225 degrees C and a second low temperature peak centered at 80 degrees C. The low temperature peak disappears completely after 24 hours of storage in darkness and at room temperature or after an annealing at 120 degrees C for 10 seconds. The main peak of the Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu remains constant. The Tl response of Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu shows good linearity in the analyzed dose range. The stability and repeatability of Rl signals of the borate have been studied and the Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu (0.5 wt %) shown the higher Rl emission and a stable and repetitive response. Results show that Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu has prospects to be used in gamma and beta radiation dosimetry. (Author)

  8. High-temperature characteristics of 20MnB4 and 30MnB4 micro-addition cold upsetting steels and C45 and C70 high-carbon-steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sawicki

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the high-temperature plasticity characteristics of 20MnB4 and 30MnB4 with micro-additives, intended for cold upsetting and high-carbon steels C45 and C70 in the “solid phase-liquid” during heating and cooling. The investigation was conducted to determine the plastic formability of the examined alloy under hot plastic working conditions. Experiments were carried out on the simulator Gleeble 3800 with the aim of determining the susceptibility of 20MnB4, 30MnB4, C45 and C70 steels to cracking at high temperature. The nil strength (NST, nil ductility (NDT and ductility recovery temperatures (DRT, and the fracture toughness factor and the BRT (brittleness temperature range have been determined.

  9. Thermoluminescence Material Li2B4O7:Cu,Ag,P For Dosimeter In The Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui The Huy; Vo Thu Ha; Bui Minh Ly; Vu Xuan Quang

    2008-01-01

    The material Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu has effective atomic number 7.3. This value is equal to one of soft tissue, which is an important factor for radiotherapy dosimetry. However, there is a difficult technological problem and so it is used under the powder form in bags. In order to increase sensitivity and capability reuse, we have prepared Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu,Ag,P. Primarily we have successfully prepared this material in pellet form with 2 times more sensitive than Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu. (author)

  10. Comparison of microstructural and mechanical properties of Al–TiC, Al–B4C and Al–TiC–B4C composites prepared by casting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazaheri, Y.; Meratian, M.; Emadi, R.; Najarian, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, production of Al–10%TiC, Al–10% B 4 C, Al–5%TiC–5%B 4 C (volume fraction) composites by casting techniques were studied. However, casting techniques suffers from poor incorporation and distribution of the reinforcement particles in the matrix. These problems become especially significant as the reinforcement size decreases due to greater agglomeration tendency and reduced wettability of the particles with the melt. Microstructure characterization of the composite samples was investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD).The results showed heat treatment of B 4 C particles and addition of TiC particles with the flux improved the wettability and incorporation of reinforcement particles into melt. Mechanical characterization of samples showed that maximum hardness had belonged to Al–5%TiC–5%B 4 C composite, maximum yield and tensile strength had belonged to Al–10%B 4 C composite and maximum elongation had belonged to Al–10%TiC composite. Furthermore, wear properties of composites revealed the better behavior for Al–B 4 C composite.

  11. Investigation on microstructural and mechanical properties of B4C–aluminum matrix composites prepared by microwave sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Ghasali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available B4C reinforced aluminum composites were fabricated by microwave heating of the mixture of B4C (10, 15 and 20 wt% and aluminum powders at 650, 750, 850 and 950 °C. The effect of different amounts of B4C on the microstructure and mechanical properties of aluminum matrix was examined. The maximum bending (238 ± 10 MPa and compressive strength (330 ± 10 MPa values were measured for composites sintered at 950 and 750 °C, respectively. The maximum hardness (112 Vickers was measured for Al–20 wt% B4C composite sintered at 850 °C. XRD investigations showed the decomposition of boron carbide and also the formation of Al3BC by heating the composites at 850 °C. SEM micrographs showed uniform distribution of reinforcement particles in Al matrix.

  12. Spectral characterisation of aperiodic normal-incidence Sb/B4C multilayer mirrors for the λ < 124 Å range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnyakov, E. A.; Kopylets, I. A.; Kondratenko, V. V.; Kolesnikov, A. O.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Ragozin, E. N.; Shatokhin, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    Three broadband aperiodic Sb/B4C multilayer mirrors were synthesised for the purposes of soft X-ray optics and spectroscopy in the wavelength range beyond the L-edge of Si (λ matrix with 13 × 13 μm sized pixels). The experimental spectra are compared with theoretical calculations. The effect of lower antimony and B4C layer densities on the reflection spectra is discussed.

  13. PMCA4 (ATP2B4 mutation in familial spastic paraplegia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaoxin Li

    Full Text Available Familial spastic paraplegia (FSP is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized primarily by progressive lower limb spasticity and weakness. More than 50 disease loci have been described with different modes of inheritance. In this study, we identified a novel missense mutation (c.803G>A, p.R268Q in the plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA4, or ATP2B4 gene in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant FSP using whole-exome sequencing and confirmed with Sanger sequencing. This mutation co-segregated with the phenotype in the six family members studied and is predicted to be pathogenic when multiple deleteriousness predictions were combined. This novel R268Q mutation was not present in over 7,000 subjects in public databases, and over 1,000 Han Chinese in our database. Prediction of potential functional consequence of R268Q mutation on PMCA4 by computational modeling revealed that this mutation is located in protein aggregation-prone segment susceptible to protein misfolding. Analysis for thermodynamic protein stability indicated that this mutation destabilizes the PMCA4 protein structure with higher folding free energy. As PMCA4 functions to maintain neuronal calcium homeostasis, our result showed that calcium dysregulation may be associated with the pathogenesis of FSP.

  14. Machinability Studies on Turning Al 6061alloy with 10% Reinforcement of B4C on MMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivathsan A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum Boron Carbide Metal Matrix Composites (Al-MMC have revolutionized aeronautical and automobile industries, in the recent times due to their exceptional mechanical and physical properties. However it is seen that the machinability of these composites is greatly reduced by the hardness of constituent reinforcement particles. Moreover these constituent reinforcement particles serve as disadvantage by increasing tool wear accompanying undesirable depression in life of tool. This paper presents the experimental investigations on turning of Al6061 matrix metal reinforced with 10 % by weight of boron carbide (B4Cp particles - which was fabricated using Stir casting method. Fabricated samples are turned on medium duty lathe of 2kW spindle power with Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD inserts of 1500 grade at various cutting conditions by varying parameters. Hence, parameters such as power consumed by main spindle, machined surface roughness and tool wear are studied and recorded. Furthermore, study results are supported using concurring images obtained from Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. It is observed that surface finish and power consumed for 1500 grade insert are comparatively better at higher cutting speeds. Additionally it is observed that tool wear is strongly dependent on abrasive hard reinforcement particles.

  15. Degradation and oxidation of B 4C control rod segments at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrück, M.

    2010-05-01

    Extensive series of test were performed of the degradation of boron carbide absorber rods and the oxidation of the resultant absorber melts. Various types of control rod segments made of commercial materials used in French 1300 MW PWRs were investigated in the temperature range between 800 °C and 1700 °C in a steam atmosphere. The gaseous reaction products were analyzed quantitatively by mass spectroscopy for evaluation of the oxidation rates. Extensive post-test examinations were performed by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy as well as EDX and Auger spectroscopy. Rapid melt formation due to eutectic interactions of stainless steel (cladding tube) and B 4C, on the one hand, and steel and Zircaloy-4 (guide tube), on the other hand, was observed at temperatures above 1250 °C. Complex multi-component, multi-phase melts were produced. ZrO 2 oxide scale on the outside kept the melt within the guide tube, thus preventing its early relocation and oxidation. Rapid oxidation of the absorber melts and remaining boron carbide pellets took place after failure of the protective oxide shell above 1450 °C. Only very little methane was produced in these tests which is of interest in fission product gas chemistry because of the production of organic iodine.

  16. Electrochemical Polishing Applications and EIS of a Vitamin B4-Based Ionic Liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wixtrom, Alex I.; Buhler, Jessica E.; Reece, Charles E.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M.

    2013-01-01

    Modern particle accelerators require minimal interior surface roughness for Niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Polishing of the Nb is currently achieved via electrochemical polishing with concentrated mixtures of sulfuric and hydrofluoric acids. This acid-based approach is effective at reducing the surface roughness to acceptable levels for SRF use, but due to acid-related hazards and extra costs (including safe disposal of used polishing solutions), an acid-free method would be preferable. This study focuses on an alternative electrochemical polishing method for Nb, using a novel ionic liquid solution containing choline chloride, also known as Vitamin B 4 (VB 4 ). Potentiostatic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was also performed on the VB4-based system. Nb polished using the VB4-based method was found to have a final surface roughness comparable to that achieved via the acid-based method, as assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). These findings indicate that acid-free VB 4 -based electrochemical polishing of Nb represents a promising replacement for acid-based methods of SRF cavity preparation

  17. Fine Structure Study of the Plasma Coatings B4C-Ni-P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, E. E.; Bezrukova, V. A.; Kuz'min, V. I.; Lozhkin, V. S.; Tutunkova, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    The article considers structure of coatings formed of the B4C-Ni-P powder. The coatings were deposited using air-plasma spraying with the unit for annular injection of powder. The pipes from steel 20 (0.2 % C) were used as a substrate. The structure and phase composition of the coatings were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. It is shown that high-density composite coatings consisting of boron carbide particles distributed in the nickel boride metal matrix are formed using air-plasma spraying. The areas with round inclusions characterized by the increased amount of nickel, phosphorus and boron are located around the boron carbide particles. Boron oxides and nickel oxides are also present in the coatings. Thin interlayers with amorphous-crystalline structure are formed around the boron carbide particles. The thickness of these interlayers does not exceed 1 μm. The metal matrix material represents areas with nanocrystalline structure and columnar crystals.

  18. Leukotriene B4 receptor 2 regulates the proliferation, migration, and barrier integrity of bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Shen, Juan; Yuan, Huimin; Chen, Fengling; Song, Huaidong; Qin, Hui; Li, Yanqin; Xu, Jiabo; Ye, Qing; Li, Shenxian; Saeki, Kazuko; Yokomizo, Takehiko

    2018-01-11

    The airway epithelium plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of asthma. The functions of leukotriene B4 receptor 2 (BLT2) on the airway epithelial cells remains unknown. In our study, BLT2 expression in 16HBE bronchial epithelial cells were manipulated by transfection with BLT2 overexpression plasmid or BLT2 small interference RNA. 16HBE cells were then exposed to BLT2 antagonist (LY255283) or BLT2 agonist (12(S)-hydroxyheptadeca-5Z,8E,10E-trienoic acid [12-HHT] or CAY10583). The results showed that BLT2 overexpression, 12-HHT stimulation, or CAY10583 treatment resulted in the enhanced proliferation and migration of 16HBE cells. In addition, BLT2 showed an inhibitory effect on epithelial permeability as illustrated by the measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and epithelial permeability, and a promoting effect on the levels of tight junction proteins (occludin and claudin-4) and phosphorylated p38 as demonstrated by real-time PCR and Western blotting analyses. These results suggest BLT2 as a key determinant of airway epithelial barrier integrity. On the contrary, RNAi-mediated knockdown or LY255283 treatment had reversed effects on the proliferation, migration, and epithelial barrier integrity. Together, our findings suggest the critical roles of BLT2 on the functions of bronchial epithelial cells and that BLT2 agonists are potential therapeutic agents for asthma treatment. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Grazing incidence Fe-line telescopes using W/B4C multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K. D.; Gorenstein, P.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1995-01-01

    The loss of throughput observed at higher energies for traditional grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes coated with high-Z elements can be partly countered by employing multilayers on the outermost reflectors. Using 8-keV reflectivity data from a periodic W/B4C multilayer, the expected performance...... of intermediate-sized telescopes of (1) the nested Kirkpatrick-Baez geometry and (2) the conical approximation to a nested Wolter-I geometry is computed. Depending on the multilayer design, the throughput was increased by a factor of 3 to 5 in a 1.5-keV wide band, or by 30% to 100% in a 3-keV-wide band. This gain...... is obtained at the expense of a 20% to 30% loss of throughput over the 2-to 4-keV band. These designs lend themselves well to astrophysics missions, such as spectroscopy of the H- and He-like iron emission lines (6.4 to 7.1 keV). The technology for multilayer coating, mounting, and configuring of the flat...

  20. Prostaglandin E2/leukotriene B4 balance induced by Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva favors Leishmania infantum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo-Santos, Théo; Prates, Deboraci Brito; França-Costa, Jaqueline; Luz, Nívea F; Andrade, Bruno B; Miranda, José Carlos; Brodskyn, Claudia I; Barral, Aldina; Bozza, Patrícia T; Borges, Valéria Matos

    2014-12-20

    Eicosanoids and sand fly saliva have a critical role in the Leishmania infection. Here, we evaluated the effect of Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland sonicate (SGS) on neutrophil and monocyte recruitment and activation of eicosanoid production in a murine model of inflammation. C57BL/6 mice were inoculated intraperitonealy with Lutzomyia longipalpis SGS or Leishmania infantum or both, followed by analyses of cell recruitment, parasite load and eicosanoid production. Intraperitoneal injection of Lutzomyia longipalpis SGS together with Leishmania infantum induced an early increased parasite viability in monocytes and neutrophils. L. longipalpis SGS increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), but reduced leukotriene B4 (LTB4) production ex vivo in peritoneal leukocytes. In addition, the pharmacological inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) with NS-398 decreased parasite viability inside macrophages during Leishmania infection in the presence of L. longipalpis SGS arguing that PGE2 production is associated with diminished parasite killing. These findings indicate that L. longipalpis SGS is a critical factor driving immune evasion of Leishmania through modulation of PGE2/LTB4 axis, which may represent an important mechanism on establishment of the infection.

  1. Analytical support for the B4C control rod test QUENCH-07

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homann, C.; Hering, W.; Fernandez Benitez, J.A.; Ortega Bernardo, M.

    2003-04-01

    Degradation of B 4 C absorber rods during a beyond design accident in a nuclear power reactor may be a safety concern. Among others, the integral test QUENCH-07 is performed in the FZK QUENCH facility and supported by analytical work within the Euratom Fifth Framework Programme on Nuclear Fission Safety to get a more profound database. Since the test differed substantially from previous QUENCH tests, much more work had to be done for pretest calculations than usual to guarantee the safety of the facility and to derive the test protocol. Several institutions shared in this work with different computer code systems, as used for nuclear reactor safety analyses. Due to this effort, problems could be identified and solved, leading to several modifications of the originally planned test conduct, until a feasible test protocol could be derived and recommended. All calculations showed the same trends. Especially the high temperatures and hence the small safety margin for the facility were a concern. In this report, contributions of various authors, engaged in this work, are presented. The test QUENCH-07 and the related computational support by the engaged institutions were co-financed by the European Community under the Euratom Fifth Framework Programme on Nuclear Fission Safety 1998 - 2002 (COLOSS Project, contract No. FIKS-CT-1999-00002). (orig.)

  2. Cutting Edge: 2B4-Mediated Coinhibition of CD4+ T Cells Underlies Mortality in Experimental Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Wen; Mittal, Rohit; Klingensmith, Nathan J; Burd, Eileen M; Terhorst, Cox; Martin, Greg S; Coopersmith, Craig M; Ford, Mandy L

    2017-09-15

    Sepsis is a leading cause of death in the United States, but the mechanisms underlying sepsis-induced immune dysregulation remain poorly understood. 2B4 (CD244, SLAM4) is a cosignaling molecule expressed predominantly on NK cells and memory CD8 + T cells that has been shown to regulate T cell function in models of viral infection and autoimmunity. In this article, we show that 2B4 signaling mediates sepsis lymphocyte dysfunction and mortality. 2B4 expression is increased on CD4 + T cells in septic animals and human patients at early time points. Importantly, genetic loss or pharmacologic inhibition of 2B4 significantly increased survival in a murine cecal ligation and puncture model. Further, CD4-specific conditional knockouts showed that 2B4 functions on CD4 + T cell populations in a cell-intrinsic manner and modulates adaptive and innate immune responses during sepsis. Our results illuminate a novel role for 2B4 coinhibitory signaling on CD4 + T cells in mediating immune dysregulation. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  3. Progress on B4C control rod modeling in RELAP/SCDAPSIM with application to quench and Phebus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Keisuke; Hohorst, Judith K.; Allison, Chris M.

    2014-01-01

    The RELAP/SCDAPSIM code is designed to predict the behavior of reactor systems during normal and accident conditions. RELAP/SCDAPSIM/MOD3.5 is an experimental version of the code with the most advanced fuel and severe accident behavior models and correlations. It includes modeling improvements that were specifically added to support (a) the ongoing experimental severe accident programs in Europe and Japan and (b) the analysis and assessment activities related to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPS. One of the improved models describes the behavior of cylindrical B 4 C control rods used in selected PWR designs and in integral experiments used to assess the heating and melting of PWR, BWR, and VVER assemblies. It replaces an older model that was originally developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in the mid- 1980's. It includes a combination of new and improved models and correlations to more accurately describe (a) eutectic reactions between Zircaloy, B 4 C, and stainless steel, (b) oxidation for B 4 C, Zircaloy, and stainless steel, and (c) the effects of the gap between the Zircaloy guide tube and the stainless steel sheath surrounding B 4 C pellets used in many control rod designs. This paper will discuss the development of the new model and validation of the model using the PHEBUS B 4 C test, FPT-3, and the KIT quench experiments with a central B 4 C control rod. (authors)

  4. PEGylation potentiates the effectiveness of an antagonistic peptide that targets the EphB4 receptor with nanomolar affinity.

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    Roberta Noberini

    Full Text Available The EphB4 receptor tyrosine kinase together with its preferred ligand, ephrin-B2, regulates a variety of physiological and pathological processes, including tumor progression, pathological forms of angiogenesis, cardiomyocyte differentiation and bone remodeling. We previously reported the identification of TNYL-RAW, a 15 amino acid-long peptide that binds to the ephrin-binding pocked of EphB4 with low nanomolar affinity and inhibits ephrin-B2 binding. Although ephrin-B2 interacts promiscuously with all the EphB receptors, the TNYL-RAW peptide is remarkably selective and only binds to EphB4. Therefore, this peptide is a useful tool for studying the biological functions of EphB4 and for imaging EphB4-expressing tumors. Furthermore, TNYL-RAW could be useful for treating pathologies involving EphB4-ephrin-B2 interaction. However, the peptide has a very short half-life in cell culture and in the mouse blood circulation due to proteolytic degradation and clearance by the kidneys and reticuloendothelial system. To overcome these limitations, we have modified TNYL-RAW by fusion with the Fc portion of human IgG1, complexation with streptavidin or covalent coupling to a 40 KDa branched polyethylene glycol (PEG polymer. These modified forms of TNYL-RAW all have greatly increased stability in cell culture, while retaining high binding affinity for EphB4. Furthermore, PEGylation most effectively increases peptide half-life in vivo. Consistent with increased stability, submicromolar concentrations of PEGylated TNYL-RAW effectively impair EphB4 activation by ephrin-B2 in cultured B16 melanoma cells as well as capillary-like tube formation and capillary sprouting in co-cultures of endothelial and epicardial mesothelial cells. Therefore, PEGylated TNYL-RAW may be useful for inhibiting pathological forms of angiogenesis through a novel mechanism involving disruption of EphB4-ephrin-B2 interactions between endothelial cells and supporting perivascular mesenchymal

  5. Biochemical and immunological characterization of a novel monoclonal antibody against mouse leukotriene B4 receptor 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Fumiyuki; Koga, Tomoaki; Saeki, Kazuko; Okuno, Toshiaki; Kazuno, Saiko; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) receptor 1 (BLT1) is a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in various leukocyte subsets; however, the precise expression of mouse BLT1 (mBLT1) has not been reported because a mBLT1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) has not been available. In this study, we present the successful establishment of a hybridoma cell line (clone 7A8) that produces a high-affinity mAb for mBLT1 by direct immunization of BLT1-deficient mice with mBLT1-overexpressing cells. The specificity of clone 7A8 was confirmed using mBLT1-overexpressing cells and mouse peripheral blood leukocytes that endogenously express BLT1. Clone 7A8 did not cross-react with human BLT1 or other G protein-coupled receptors, including human chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4. The 7A8 mAb binds to the second extracellular loop of mBLT1 and did not affect LTB4 binding or intracellular calcium mobilization by LTB4. The 7A8 mAb positively stained Gr-1-positive granulocytes, CD11b-positive granulocytes/monocytes, F4/80-positive monocytes, CCR2-high and CCR2-low monocyte subsets in the peripheral blood and a CD4-positive T cell subset, Th1 cells differentiated in vitro from naïve CD4-positive T cells. This mAb was able to detect Gr-1-positive granulocytes and monocytes in the spleens of naïve mice by immunohistochemistry. Finally, intraperitoneal administration of 7A8 mAb depleted granulocytes and monocytes in the peripheral blood. We have therefore succeeded in generating a high-affinity anti-mBLT1 mAb that is useful for analyzing mBLT1 expression in vitro and in vivo. PMID:28922396

  6. Biochemical and immunological characterization of a novel monoclonal antibody against mouse leukotriene B4 receptor 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiyuki Sasaki

    Full Text Available Leukotriene B4 (LTB4 receptor 1 (BLT1 is a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in various leukocyte subsets; however, the precise expression of mouse BLT1 (mBLT1 has not been reported because a mBLT1 monoclonal antibody (mAb has not been available. In this study, we present the successful establishment of a hybridoma cell line (clone 7A8 that produces a high-affinity mAb for mBLT1 by direct immunization of BLT1-deficient mice with mBLT1-overexpressing cells. The specificity of clone 7A8 was confirmed using mBLT1-overexpressing cells and mouse peripheral blood leukocytes that endogenously express BLT1. Clone 7A8 did not cross-react with human BLT1 or other G protein-coupled receptors, including human chemokine (C-X-C motif receptor 4. The 7A8 mAb binds to the second extracellular loop of mBLT1 and did not affect LTB4 binding or intracellular calcium mobilization by LTB4. The 7A8 mAb positively stained Gr-1-positive granulocytes, CD11b-positive granulocytes/monocytes, F4/80-positive monocytes, CCR2-high and CCR2-low monocyte subsets in the peripheral blood and a CD4-positive T cell subset, Th1 cells differentiated in vitro from naïve CD4-positive T cells. This mAb was able to detect Gr-1-positive granulocytes and monocytes in the spleens of naïve mice by immunohistochemistry. Finally, intraperitoneal administration of 7A8 mAb depleted granulocytes and monocytes in the peripheral blood. We have therefore succeeded in generating a high-affinity anti-mBLT1 mAb that is useful for analyzing mBLT1 expression in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Characterization of a chitinase with antifungal activity from a native Serratia marcescens B4A

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    Mandana Zarei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Chitinases have the ability of chitin digestion that constitutes a main compound of the cell wall in many of the phytopathogens such as fungi. In the following investigation, a novel chitinase with antifungal activity was characterized from a native Serratia marcescens B4A. Partially purified enzyme had an apparent molecular mass of 54 kDa. It indicated an optimum activity in pH 5 at 45ºC. Enzyme was stable in 55ºC for 20 min and at a pH range of 3-9 for 90 min at 25ºC. When the temperature was raised to 60ºC, it might affect the structure of enzymes lead to reduction of chitinase activity. Moreover, the Km and Vmax values for chitin were 8.3 mg/ml and 2.4 mmol/min, respectively. Additionally, the effect of some cations and chemical compounds were found to stimulate the chitinase activity. In addition, Iodoacetamide and Idoacetic acid did not inhibit enzyme activity, indicating that cysteine residues are not part of the catalytic site of chitinase. Finally, chitinase activity was further monitored by scanning electronic microscopy data in which progressive changes in chitin porosity appeared upon treatment with chitinase. This enzyme exhibited antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, Bipolaris sp, Alternaria raphani, Alternaria brassicicola, revealing a potential application for the industry with potentially exploitable significance. Fungal chitin shows some special features, in particular with respect to chemical structure. Difference in chitinolytic ability must result from the subsite structure in the enzyme binding cleft. This implies that why the enzyme didn't have significant antifungal activity against other Fungi.

  8. Studies on shallow traps in Li2B4O7:Eu,Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdowski, Winicjusz; Brylew, Kamil; Kaczmarek, Sławomir M.; Piwowarska, Danuta; Nakai, Yosuke; Tsuboi, Taiju; Huang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Li 2 B 4 O 7 (LTB) single crystals doped with 0.5 mol% Mn and 0.005 mol% Eu have been grown by the Czochralski method. The presence of Eu 3+ has been confirmed by photoluminescence spectra of non-irradiated crystals, whereas the presence of Mn 2+ by absorption spectra of gamma-irradiated ones, as well as by EPR measurements. Unlike in most thermoluminescence studies on pure and doped LTB, performed usually above 300 K, glow curves have been recorded between 10 and 300 K in order to focus the attention on shallow traps. A broad, intense glow peak is observed around 80 K, with three weaker peaks at 205, 255, and 280 K. Based on supplementary T max  − T stop experiments, the trap parameters have been derived assuming that the glow curve is in fact formed by a superposition of a double Gaussian band related to a quasi-continuous distribution of trapping levels, and several glow peaks produced by discrete traps. The nature of the traps is also discussed. - Highlights: • Radioluminescence spectra of LTB:Eu,Mn have been measured at various temperatures. • Glow curves of LTB:Eu,Mn have been recorded between 10 and 300 K. • Thermoluminescence studies have been extended with the T max  − T stop method. • Trap parameters related to particular glow peaks have been derived. • Besides discrete traps a quasi-continuous distribution has been found

  9. NLRP3 Inflammasome Deficiency Protects against Microbial Sepsis via Increased Lipoxin B4 Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seonmin; Nakahira, Kiichi; Dalli, Jesmond; Siempos, Ilias I; Norris, Paul C; Colas, Romain A; Moon, Jong-Seok; Shinohara, Masakazu; Hisata, Shu; Howrylak, Judie Ann; Suh, Gee-Young; Ryter, Stefan W; Serhan, Charles N; Choi, Augustine M K

    2017-09-15

    Sepsis, a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection, is a major public health concern with high mortality and morbidity. Although inflammatory responses triggered by infection are crucial for host defense against invading microbes, the excessive inflammation often causes tissue damage leading to organ dysfunction. Resolution of inflammation, an active immune process mediated by endogenous lipid mediators (LMs), is important to maintain host homeostasis. We sought to determine the role of the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing receptor, pyrin domain-containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in polymicrobial sepsis and regulation of LM biosynthesis. We performed cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) using mice lacking NLRP3 inflammasome-associated molecules to assess mortality. Inflammation was evaluated by using biologic fluids including plasma, bronchoalveolar, and peritoneal lavage fluid. Local acting LMs in peritoneal lavage fluid from polymicrobacterial septic mice were assessed by mass spectrometry-based metabololipidomics. Genetic deficiency of NLRP3 inhibited inflammatory responses and enhanced survival of CLP-induced septic mice. NLRP3 deficiency reduced proinflammatory LMs and increased proresolving LM, lipoxin B 4 (LXB 4 ) in septic mice, and in macrophages stimulated with LPS and ATP. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome induced caspase-7 cleavage and pyroptosis. Caspase-7 deficiency similarly reduced inflammation and mortality in CLP-induced sepsis, and increased LXB 4 production in vivo and in vitro. Exogenous application of LXB 4 reduced inflammation, pyroptosis, and mortality of mice after CLP. Genetic deficiency of NLRP3 promoted resolution of inflammation in polymicrobial sepsis by relieving caspase-7-dependent repression of LXB 4 biosynthesis, and increased survival potentially via LXB 4 production and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines.

  10. New coxsackievirus B4 genotype circulating in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China.

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    Xiaoling Tian

    Full Text Available Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD surveillance was initiated in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China in 2007, a crucial scrutiny for monitoring the prevalence of enterovirus serotypes associated with HFMD patients. However, this surveillance mostly focused on enterovirus 71 (EV-A71 and coxsackievirus A16; therefore, information on other enterovirus serotypes is limited. To identify the other circulating enterovirus serotypes in the HFMD outbreaks in Inner Mongolia in 2010, clinical samples from HFMD patients were investigated. Six coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4 strains were isolated and phylogenetic analyses of VP1 sequences were performed. Full-length genome sequences of two representative CVB4 isolates were acquired and similarity plot and bootscanning analyses were performed. The phylogenetic dendrogram indicated that all CVB4 strains could be divided into 5 genotypes (Genotypes I-V with high bootstrap support (90-100%. The CVB4 prototype strain (JVB was the sole member of genotype I. CVB4 strains belonging to genotype II, which were once common in Europe and the Americas, seemingly disappeared and gave way to genotype III and IV strains, which appear to be the dominant circulating strains in the world. All Chinese CVB4 strains belonged to Genotype V, a newly identified genotype supported by a high bootstrap value (100%, and are circulating only in mainland of China. Intertypic recombination occurred in the Chinese CVB4 strains with novel unknown serotype EV-B donor sequences. Two Chinese CVB4 strains had a virulent residue at position 129 of VP1, and one strain also had a virulent residue at position 16 of VP4. Increased surveillance is needed to monitor the emergence of new genetic lineages of enteroviruses in areas that are often associated with large-scale outbreaks. In addition, continued monitoring of enteroviruses by clinical surveillance and genetic characterization should be enhanced.

  11. Leukotriene B4 Enhances NOD2-Dependent Innate Response against Influenza Virus Infection.

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    Manon Le Bel

    Full Text Available Leukotriene B4 (LTB4, a central mediator of inflammation, is well known for its chemoattractant properties on effectors cells of the immune system. LTB4 also has the ability to control microbial infection by improving host innate defenses through the release of antimicrobial peptides and modulation of intracellular Toll-like receptors (TLRs expression in response to agonist challenge. In this report, we provide evidences that LTB4 acts on nucleotide-binging oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2 pathway to enhance immune response against influenza A infection. Infected mice receiving LTB4 show improved survival, lung architecture and reduced lung viral loads as compared to placebo-treated animals. NOD2 and its downstream adaptor protein IPS-1 have been found to be essential for LTB4-mediated effects against IAV infection, as absence of NOD2 or IPS-1 diminished its capacity to control viral infection. Treatment of IAV-infected mice with LTB4 induces an increased activation of IPS-1-IRF3 axis leading to an enhanced production of IFNβ in lungs of infected mice. LTB4 also has the ability to act on the RICK-NF-κB axis since administration of LTB4 to mice challenged with MDP markedly increases the secretion of IL-6 and TNFα in lungs of mice. TAK1 appears to be essential to the action of LTB4 on NOD2 pathway since pretreatment of MEFs with TAK1 inhibitor prior stimulation with IAV or MDP strongly abrogated the potentiating effects of LTB4 on both IFNβ and cytokine secretion. Together, our results demonstrate that LTB4, through its ability to activate TAK1, potentiates both IPS-1 and RICK axis of the NOD2 pathway to improve host innate responses.

  12. Clinical implications of diverticular disease of the appendix. Experience over the past 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcacuzco, Alberto A; Manrique, Alejandro; Calvo, Jorge; Loinaz, Carmelo; Justo, Iago; Caso, Oscar; Cambra, Felix; Fakih, Naim; Sanabria, Rebeca; Jimenez-Romero, Luis C

    2016-01-01

    Diverticular disease of the appendix is an uncommon condition, with an incidence from 0.004 to 2.1%. It usually occurs between the fourth or fifth decades of life, does not present gastrointestinal symptoms but only insidious abdominal pain. Patients usually delay consultation, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical features of diverticular disease of the appendix. A retrospective study of all patients undergoing appendectomy in a tertiary hospital between September 2003 and September 2013 was performed. During this period, 7,044 appendectomies were performed, and 42 cases of diverticular disease of the appendix were found, which represents an incidence of 0.59%. A total of 27 patients were male. The mean age was 46.6±21 years. The average hospital stay was 4.5 days. A perforated appendix was identified in 46% of patients. In 80% of the cases, a complementary imaging test was performed. The incidence of neoplastic disease with diverticulum of the appendix was 7.1%. Diverticular disease of the appendix is an incidental finding. In its acute phase, it presents as an acute appendicitis. The treatment of choice is appendectomy. It presents a higher risk of developing neoplastic disease of the appendix. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. The leukotriene B4 receptors BLT1 and BLT2 form an antagonistic sensitizing system in peripheral sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Sebastian; Sisignano, Marco; Kern, Katharina; Pierre, Sandra; Tunaru, Sorin; Jordan, Holger; Suo, Jing; Treutlein, Elsa-Marie; Angioni, Carlo; Ferreiros, Nerea; Leffler, Andreas; DeBruin, Natasja; Offermanns, Stefan; Geisslinger, Gerd; Scholich, Klaus

    2017-04-14

    Sensitization of the heat-activated ion channel transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) through lipids is a fundamental mechanism during inflammation-induced peripheral sensitization. Leukotriene B4 is a proinflammatory lipid mediator whose role in peripheral nociceptive sensitization is not well understood to date. Two major G-protein-coupled receptors for leukotriene B4 have been identified: the high-affinity receptor BLT1 and the low-affinity receptor BLT2. Transcriptional screening for the expression G-protein-coupled receptors in murine dorsal root ganglia showed that both receptors were among the highest expressed in dorsal root ganglia. Calcium imaging revealed a sensitization of TRPV1-mediated calcium increases in a relative narrow concentration range for leukotriene B4 (100-200 nm). Selective antagonists and neurons from knock-out mice demonstrated a BLT1-dependent sensitization of TRPV1-mediated calcium increases. Accordingly, leukotriene B4-induced thermal hyperalgesia was mediated through BLT1 and TRPV1 as shown using the respective knock-out mice. Importantly, higher leukotriene B4 concentrations (>0.5 μm) and BLT2 agonists abolished sensitization of the TRPV1-mediated calcium increases. Also, BLT2 activation inhibited protein kinase C- and protein kinase A-mediated sensitization processes through the phosphatase calcineurin. Consequently, a selective BLT2-receptor agonist increased thermal and mechanical withdrawal thresholds during zymosan-induced inflammation. In accordance with these data, immunohistochemical analysis showed that both leukotriene B4 receptors were expressed in peripheral sensory neurons. Thus, the data show that the two leukotriene B4 receptors have opposing roles in the sensitization of peripheral sensory neurons forming a self-restricting system. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Mucocele of the appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tovar, J; Teruel, D García; Castiñeiras, V Morales; Dehesa, A Sanjuanbenito; Quindós, P López; Molina, E Martínez

    2007-03-01

    Mucocele of the appendix is an infrequent event, representing 0.3%-0.7% of appendiceal pathology and 8% of appendiceal tumors. It is characterized by a located or diffuse distension of the appendix with a mucus-filled lumen. We describe 35 cases of mucocele of the appendix diagnosed at Ramón y Cajal Hospital between January 1985 and January 2006. A total of 21 males and 14 females with a mean age of 52.7 years are described. Most cases manifested as abdominal pain located in right iliac fossa, but 2 cases were incidental findings at CT-scan and 1 at ultrasonography, performed for other reasons. In 4 cases, mucocele coexisted with colorectal cancer and was an incidental finding during laparotomy performed for tumor resection. Ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) scan helped to achieve a correct diagnosis. Preoperative diagnosis of mucocele was achieved in 29% of the cases; 88% of patients underwent appendectomy, 2 had ileocecal resection, and 2 others underwent right hemicolectomy. Pathology revealed mucous hyperplasia in 34% of the cases, simple mucocele in 29%, cystadenoma in 31%, and cystadenocarcinoma in 2 patients. Two other patients developed adenocarcinoma of the cecum 12 and 33 months after surgery, and one patient developed pseudomyxoma peritonei after 62 months, causing his death. The pathologist is forced to do an exhaustive study, looking for inadvertent perforations that can change the good prognosis of mucocele. We recommend follow-up of all patients with mucoceles, because sometimes they are associated with colorectal neoplasms and recurrence as pseudomyxoma peritonei.

  15. Neuregulin repellent signaling via ErbB4 restricts GABAergic interneurons to migratory paths from ganglionic eminence to cortical destinations

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    Li Hao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cortical GABAergic interneurons (INs are generated in the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE and migrate tangentially into cortex. Because most, if not all, migrating MGE-derived INs express the neuregulin (NRG receptor, ErbB4, we investigated influences of Nrg1 isoforms and Nrg3 on IN migration through ventral telencephalon (vTel and within cortex. Results During IN migration, NRG expression domains and distributions of ErbB4-expressing, MGE-derived INs are complementary with minimal overlap, both in vTel and cortex. In wild-type mice, within fields of NRG expression, these INs are focused at positions of low or absent NRG expression. However, in ErbB4-/- HER4heart mutant mice in which INs lack ErbB4, these complementary patterns are degraded with considerable overlap evident between IN distribution and NRG expression domains. These findings suggest that NRGs are repellents for migrating ErbB4-expressing INs, a function supported by in vitro and in vivo experiments. First, in collagen co-cultures, MGE-derived cells preferentially migrate away from a source of secreted NRGs. Second, cells migrating from wild-type MGE explants on living forebrain slices from wild-type embryonic mice tend to avoid endogenous NRG expression domains, whereas this avoidance behavior is not exhibited by ErbB4-deficient cells migrating from MGE explants and instead they have a radial pattern with a more uniform distribution. Third, ectopic NRG expression in the IN migration pathway produced by in utero electroporation blocks IN migration and results in cortex distal to the blockade being largely devoid of INs. Finally, fewer INs reach cortex in ErbB4 mutants, indicating that NRG-ErbB4 signaling is required for directing IN migration from the MGE to cortex. Conclusions Our results show that NRGs act as repellents for migrating ErbB4-expressing, MGE-derived GABAergic INs and that the patterned expression of NRGs funnels INs as they migrate from the MGE

  16. Expression of the neuregulin receptor ErbB4 in the brain of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta.

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    Jörg Neddens

    Full Text Available We demonstrated recently that frontal cortical expression of the Neuregulin (NRG receptor ErbB4 is restricted to interneurons in rodents, macaques, and humans. However, little is known about protein expression patterns in other areas of the brain. In situ hybridization studies have shown high ErbB4 mRNA levels in various subcortical areas, suggesting that ErbB4 is also expressed in cell types other than cortical interneurons. Here, using highly-specific monoclonal antibodies, we provide the first extensive report of ErbB4 protein expression throughout the cerebrum of primates. We show that ErbB4 immunoreactivity is high in association cortices, intermediate in sensory cortices, and relatively low in motor cortices. The overall immunoreactivity in the hippocampal formation is intermediate, but is high in a subset of interneurons. We detected the highest overall immunoreactivity in distinct locations of the ventral hypothalamus, medial habenula, intercalated nuclei of the amygdala and structures of the ventral forebrain, such as the islands of Calleja, olfactory tubercle and ventral pallidum, and medium expression in the reticular thalamic nucleus. While this pattern is generally consistent with ErbB4 mRNA expression data, further investigations are needed to identify the exact cellular and subcellular sources of mRNA and protein expression in these areas. In contrast to in situ hybridization in rodents, we detected only low levels of ErbB4-immunoreactivity in mesencephalic dopaminergic nuclei but a diffuse pattern of immunofluorescence that was medium in the dorsal striatum and high in the ventral forebrain, suggesting that most ErbB4 protein in dopaminergic neurons could be transported to axons. We conclude that the NRG-ErbB4 signaling pathway can potentially influence many functional systems throughout the brain of primates, and suggest that major sites of action are areas of the "corticolimbic" network. This interpretation is functionally

  17. Low-pressure RF remote plasma cleaning of carbon-contaminated B4C-coated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Fernández, H.; Thomasset, M.; Sauthier, G.; Rogler, D.; Dietsch, R.; Barrett, R.; Carlino, V.; Pellegrin, E.

    2017-05-01

    Boron carbide (B4C) - due to its exceptional mechanical properties - is one of the few existing materials that can withstand the extremely high brilliance of the photon beam from free electron lasers (FELs) and is thus of considerable interest for optical applications in this field. However, as in the case of many other optics operated at modern accelerator-, plasma-, or laser-based light source facilities, B4C-coated optics are subject to ubiquitous carbon contaminations. These contaminations - that are presumably produced via cracking of CHx and CO2 molecules by photoelectrons emitted from the optical components - represent a serious issue for the operation of the pertinent high performance beamlines due to a severe reduction of photon flux and beam coherence, not necessarily restricted to the photon energy range of the carbon K-edge. Thus, a variety of B4C cleaning technologies have been developed at different laboratories with varying success [1]. Here, we present a study regarding the low-pressure RF plasma cleaning of a series of carbon-contaminated B4C test samples via an inductively coupled O2/Ar and Ar/H2 remote RF plasma produced using the IBSS GV10x plasma source following previous studies using the same RF plasma source [2, 3]. Results regarding the chemistry, morphology as well as other aspects of the B4C optical coatings and surfaces before and after the plasma cleaning process are reported.

  18. Evaluation of EphA2 and EphB4 as Targets for Image-Guided Colorectal Cancer Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammes, Marieke A; Prevoo, Hendrica A J M; Ter Horst, Meyke C; Groot, Stéphanie A; Van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Chan, Alan B; de Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee; Kuppen, Peter J K; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L; Pasquale, Elena B; Sier, Cornelis F M

    2017-02-03

    Targeted image-guided oncologic surgery (IGOS) relies on the recognition of cell surface-associated proteins, which should be abundantly present on tumor cells but preferably absent on cells in surrounding healthy tissue. The transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2, a member of the A class of the Eph receptor family, has been reported to be highly overexpressed in several tumor types including breast, lung, brain, prostate, and colon cancer and is considered amongst the most promising cell membrane-associated tumor antigens by the NIH. Another member of the Eph receptor family belonging to the B class, EphB4, has also been found to be upregulated in multiple cancer types. In this study, EphA2 and EphB4 are evaluated as targets for IGOS of colorectal cancer by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using a tissue microarray (TMA) consisting of 168 pairs of tumor and normal tissue. The IHC sections were scored for staining intensity and percentage of cells stained. The results show a significantly enhanced staining intensity and more widespread distribution in tumor tissue compared with adjacent normal tissue for EphA2 as well as EphB4. Based on its more consistently higher score in colorectal tumor tissue compared to normal tissue, EphB4 appears to be a promising candidate for IGOS of colorectal cancer. In vitro experiments using antibodies on human colon cancer cells confirmed the possibility of EphB4 as target for imaging.

  19. Resonant soft x-ray reflectivity of Me/B(4)C multilayers near the boron K edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksenzov, Dmitriy; Schlemper, Christoph; Pietsch, Ullrich

    2010-09-01

    Energy dependence of the optical constants of boron carbide in the short period Ru/B(4)C and Mo/B(4)C multilayers (MLs) are evaluated from complete reflectivity scans across the boron K edge using the energy-resolved photon-in-photon-out method. Differences between the refractive indices of the B(4)Cmaterial inside and close to the surface are obtained from the peak profile of the first order ML Bragg peak and the reflection profile near the critical angle of total external reflection close to the surface. Where a Mo/B(4)C ML with narrow barrier layers appears as a homogeneous ML at all energies, a Ru/B(4)C ML exhibits another chemical nature of boron at the surface compared to the bulk. From evaluation of the critical angle of total external reflection in the energy range between 184 and 186eV, we found an enriched concentration of metallic boron inside the Ru-rich layer at the surface, which is not visible in other energy ranges.

  20. Coatings for FEL optics: preparation and characterization of B4C and Pt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Michael; Siewert, Frank; Horstmann, Christian; Buchheim, Jana; Gwalt, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Large X-ray mirrors are required for beam transport at both present-day and future free-electron lasers (FELs) and synchrotron sources worldwide. The demand for large mirrors with lengths up to 1 m single layers consisting of light or heavy elements has increased during the last few decades. Accordingly, surface finishing technology is now able to produce large substrate lengths with micro-roughness on the sub-nanometer scale. At the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG), a 4.5 m-long sputtering facility enables us to deposit a desired single-layer material some tens of nanometers thick. For the European XFEL project, the shape error should be less than 2 nm over the whole 1 m X-ray mirror length to ensure the safe and efficient delivery of X-ray beams to the scientific instruments. The challenge is to achieve thin-film deposition on silicon substrates, benders and gratings without any change in mirror shape. Thin films of boron carbide and platinum with a thickness in the range 30-100 nm were manufactured using the HZG sputtering facility. This setup is able to cover areas of up to 1500 mm × 120 mm in one step using rectangular sputtering sources. The coatings produced were characterized using various thin-film methods. It was possible to improve the coating process to achieve a very high uniformity of the layer thickness. The movement of the substrate in front of the sputtering source has been optimized. A variation in B 4 C layer thickness below 1 nm (peak-to-valley) was achieved at a mean thickness of 51.8 nm over a deposition length of 1.5 m. In the case of Pt, reflectometry and micro-roughness measurements were performed. The uniformity in layer thickness was about 1 nm (peak-to-valley). The micro-roughness of the Pt layers showed no significant change in the coated state for layer thicknesses of 32 nm and 102 nm compared with the uncoated substrate state. The experimental results achieved will be discussed with regard to current

  1. Esculetin reduces leukotriene B4 level in plasma of rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Rzodkiewicz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin is a natural coumarin with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity. It acts as a potent inhibitor of lipoxygenases (5-LOX and 12-LOX and decreases the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9. Because both inhibition of lipoxygenases and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases are effective strategies in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, we investigated whether esculetin may be effective in adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Material and methods : The study was performed on male Lewis rats, in the adjuvant-induced arthritis model. Rats were divided into two groups: control (treated with 1% methylcellulose and experimental (treated with esculetin – 10 mg/kg ip.. The tested compound was administered for 5 consecutive days starting on the 21st day after induction of arthritis. Each group consisted of 7 animals. After 5 days of treatment, rats were anesthetized. The concentration of leukotriene B4 (LTB4 in plasma was determined by a competitive enzyme immunoassay. Results : The LTB4 level in plasma of rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis is increased in comparison to rats without inflammation (362 ±34 vs. 274 ±15 pg/ml, p < 0.01, respectively. Five-day treatment with esculetin in adjuvant-induced arthritis rats decreases the LTB4 level to a level comparable with rats without inflammation (284 ±23 pg/ml, p < 0.01. Conclusions : LTB4 is the most potent chemotactic agent influencing neutrophil migration into the joint. It is known that its level in serum of patients with active rheumatoid arthritis is increased and correlates with disease severity. Some other lipoxygenase inhibitors have already been tested as potential drug candidates in clinical and preclinical trials for rheumatoid arthritis (Zileuton, PF-4191834. Because esculetin decreases the LTB4 level in plasma of rats in adjuvant-induced arthritis, it may also be considered as an attractive

  2. Mechanical and Micro structural Characterization of Al-Al/B4C Laminated Composites Depending on Manufacturing Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göçer, A.; Nair, F.; Karamış, M. B.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, it is aimed to produce a layered composite structure with Al sheath and Al / B4C cored by extrusion technique and to characterize the mechanical and micro structure of the products. In the production of composite billets, powder in tube (PIT) method was used. In this method, Al7075 (ø 30 mm) tube is filled with Al2124 / B4C powder mixtures. The semi-finished composite billets were sintered at 500 ° C for 1 hour and extruded at the extrusion ratios of R = 14 R = 9 and R = 6.25 at the same temperature to obtain circular cross-section rods. The density changes, hardness distributions and sheath-core section ratios of these bars were determined. The changes of these values depending on the extrusion rate and B4C ratio were investigated. It is also revealed in the micro structure changes depending on these ratios.

  3. Optimization of Squeeze Casting Process Parameters Using Taguchi in LM13 Matrix B4C Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhil, K. T.; Arul, Sanjivi

    2018-02-01

    Aluminium metal matrix composite has widely used in aerospace and automobile industry due to its high strength to weight ratio. Aluminium LM13 matrix B4C reinforced composites are mainly manufactured by Squeeze casting process. The present work optimizes squeeze casting process parameters using Taguchi method. The control factors used for the experiments were Squeeze Pressure, Die Preheat Temperature and weight percentage of Boron Carbide (B4C) along with multiple performance characteristic of Hardness, Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) and Yield Strength (YS). The L27 orthogonal array was used for experimental design. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to determine the significant factor and found out that Squeeze pressure is the most significant factor followed by percentage of B4C.

  4. Appendix Invagination Mimicking Ileocecal Intussusception in a Pediatric Patient: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aybay, Muhsin Nuh; Erol, Seyit; Kaya, Hasan Emin; Guler, Ibrahim

    2016-11-01

    Appendix invagination is a rare cause of right lower quadrant abdominal pain. Clinical findings are not specific and can mimic a wide range of diseases. An 8-year-old girl was admitted with abdominal pain lasting for 2 weeks. Clinical and radiologic findings suggested ileocecal intussusception initially. A failed hydrostatic reduction attempt and subsequent abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography studies showed that the underlying pathology was invagination of the vermiform appendix. The patient was managed conservatively and spontaneous reduction was observed during follow-up. She underwent appendectomy 9 months later due to chronic appendicitis. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Appendix invagination should be kept in mind while evaluating patients with suspected ileocecal intussusception. In distinguishing between these two conditions, a blind-ending invaginating segment is an important clue in favor of appendix intussusception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical Significance of EphB4 and EphB6 Expression in Human Malignant and Benign Thyroid Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaginis, Constantinos; Alexandrou, Paraskevi; Poulaki, Elpida; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Troungos, Constantinos; Patsouris, Efstratios; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2016-04-01

    Ephrin receptors (Ephs) are frequently overexpressed in a wide variety of human malignant tumors, being associated with tumor growth, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of EphB4 and EphB6 protein expression in human malignant and benign thyroid lesions. EphB4 and EphB6 protein expression was assessed immunohistochemically on paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues obtained from 127 patients with benign (n = 71) and malignant (n = 56) thyroid lesions. Enhanced EphB4 and EphB6 expression was more frequently observed in malignant compared to benign thyroid lesions (p = 0.0508 and p = 0.0006, respectively). EphB4 and EphB6 expression also provided a distinct discrimination between papillary carcinoma and hyperplastic nodules (p = 0.0302 and p = 0.0013, respectively). In malignant thyroid lesions, enhanced EphB4 expression was significantly associated with larger tumor size (p = 0.0366). Enhanced EphB6 expression was significantly associated with larger tumor size (p = 0.0366), the presence of lymph node metastases (p = 0.0023), the presence of capsular (p = 0.0038), lymphatic (p = 0.0053) and vascular invasion (p = 0.0018) and increased risk of recurrence rate (p = 0.0038). The present study supported evidence that EphB4 and mainly EphB6 may participate in the malignant thyroid transformation, reinforcing their utility as useful biomarkers and possible therapeutic targets in this type of neoplasia.

  6. Development of Mg B4 O7:Dy thermoluminescent solid dosemeter for using on the thermal neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiens Junior, A.J.; Campos, L.L.; Todo, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The magnesium tetraborate doped with dysprosium (Mg B 4 O 7 :O y ) thermoluminescent phosphor is developed, containing boron, which boron 10 isotope has high cross section for thermal neutrons by 10 B (n,α) 7 Li reaction. The nitric acid concentration, the number of washing for removing the excess of boric acid, the powder granulation of Mg B 4 O 7 :O y , the percentage of teflon used as binder and the reproducibility of thermoluminescent answer are also presented. (C.G.C.)

  7. Thermal transformation of synthetic borax, Na2[B4O5(OH)4]x8H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullaev, G.K.

    1981-01-01

    Using the methods of high temperature roentgenography and derivatography thermal transformation of synthetic borax is studied. It is established that borax dehydration proceeds in four stages (50-80, 80-100, 100-150 and 150-500 deg C) with the formation of three intermediate crystalline hydrate forms (one stable and two unstable) and one final stable crystalline phase. The stable crystalline phases correspond to synthetic tincalconite Na 2 [B 4 O 5 (OH) 4 ]x3H 2 O and sodium tetraborate Na 2 B 4 O 7 . Thermal transformation of borax into tincalconite and sodium tetraborate is explained on the basis of their crystal structures [ru

  8. Intussusception of the vermiform appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Lowe, Richard A; Ibrahim, Sherine; Munthali, Lamios; Hasan, Fazal

    2015-07-16

    Appendicitis is a common presentation to an acute general surgical on call team. It can be a difficult diagnosis at times, particularly in sexually active young women, in whom it is often surgically challenging. This case is of a relatively straightforward diagnosis, taken for laparoscopic appendicectomy that resulted in performing an open right hemicolectomy for a necrotic, intussuscepted appendix. Histology ultimately revealed the cause of intussusception and resultant infarction of the appendix to be endometriosis. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Torsion of an appendix epiploica present at the vermiform appendix: a rare cause of acute abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Babar; Hasan, Noori

    2009-09-01

    An extremely rare case of torsion of an appendix epiploica attached to the vermiform appendix is reported in a 57-year-old male who presented with acute abdominal pain and tender right inguinal fossa. An infarcted appendix epiploica was seen attached near the tip of an otherwise unremarkable vermiform appendix through a narrow stalk. The histological examination revealed lobulated fibrofatty tissue showing congestion, acute inflammation and fat necrosis. The appendix was otherwise unremarkable.

  10. Peculiar features of metallurgical processes at plasma-arc spraying of coatings, made of steel wire with powder fillers B4C and B4C+ZrO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Георгій Михайлович Григоренко

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of metallurgical processes occurring in plasma-arc spraying between the steel shell and the carbide fillers of B4C and B4C cored wires with the addition of nanocrystalline ZrO2 powder has been analyzed. Iron-boron compounds alloyed with carbon are formed in ingots as a result of ferritiс coating of wire interacrion with fillers while the ferritic matrix contains boride and carboboride eutectics. Average microhardness of the carboboride compounds and the matrix is high – 17,78; 16,40 and 8,69; 9,95 GPa for the ingots with с B4C and B4C+ZrO2 respectively. The best quality coatings with low porosity (~1%, lamellar structure consisting of ferrite matrix reinforced with dispersed Fe borides, were obtained at a higher heat input (plasmatron current 240-250 A. The average amount of oxides in the coatings makes 15%. 0,5% addition of nanopowder ZrO2 accelerates dispersed iron-boron compounds forming, promotes their uniform distribution in the structure and improves coating microhardness up to 7,0 GPa. Application of the differential thermal analysis method to simulate the interaction processes between the steel shell and the filler during the heating of wire in the shielding gas makes it possible to promote formation of new phases (borides and carboborides of iron and to predict the phase composition of the coatings

  11. Nido-Carborane building-block reagents. 2. Bulky-substituent (alkyl)2C2B4H6 derivatives and (C6H5)2C2B4H6: synthesis and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyter, H.A. Jr.; Grimes, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    The preparation and chemistry of nido-2,3-R 2 C 2 C 2 B 4 H 6 carboranes in which R is n-butyl, isopentyl, n-hexyl, and phenyl was investigated in order to further assess the steric and electronic influence of the R groups on the properties of the nido-C 2 B 4 cage, especially with respect to metal complexation at the C 2 B 3 face and metal-promoted oxidative fusion. The three dialkyl derivatives were prepared from the corresponding dialkylacetylenes via reaction with B 5 H 9 and triethylamine, but the diphenyl compound could not be prepared in this manner and was obtained instead in a thermal reaction of B 5 H 9 with diphenylacetylene in the absence of amine. All four carboranes are readily bridge-deprotonated by NaH in THF, and the anions of the dialkyl species, on treatment with FeCl 2 and air oxidation, generate the respective R 4 C 4 B 8 H 8 carborane fusion products were R = n-C 4 H 9 , i-C 5 H 11 or n-C 6 H 13 . The diphenylcarborane anion Ph 2 C 2 B 4 H 5 - did not form detectable metal complexes with Fe 2+ , Co 2+ , or Ni 2+ , and no evidence of a Ph 4 C 4 B 8 H 8 fusion product has been found. Treatment of Ph 2 C 2 B 4 H 6 with Cr(CO) 6 did not lead to metal coordination of the phenyl rings, unlike (PhCH 2 ) 2 C 2 B 4 H 6 , which had previously been shown to form mono- and bis(tricarbonylchromium) complexes. However, the reaction of Ph 2 C 2 B 4 H 5 - , CoCl 2 , and (PhPCH 2 ) 2 did give 1,1-(Ph 2 PCH 2 ) 2 -1-Cl-1,2,3-Co(Ph 2 C 2 B 4 H 4 ), the only case in which metal complexation of the diphenylcarborane was observed. 14 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  12. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 230 - Issuance of Staff Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to Part 230 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) Pt. 230, App. D Appendix D to Part 230—Issuance of Staff... calculation tools or methods. ...

  13. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 213 - Issuance of Staff Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issuance of Staff Interpretations C Appendix C to Part 213 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... lessor's forms, statements, or calculation tools or methods. ...

  14. 25 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D - Cultural Resource and Environmental Requirements for the IRR Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cultural Resource and Environmental Requirements for the... LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities Pt. 170, Subpt. D, App. A Appendix A to Subpart D—Cultural Resource and...

  15. 12 CFR Appendix M2 to Part 226 - Actual Repayment Disclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. M2 Appendix M2 to Part 226—Actual Repayment... nearest whole year if the estimate contains a fractional year less than 0.5, and rounded up to the nearest...

  16. 12 CFR Appendix M1 to Part 226 - Generic Repayment Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Generic Repayment Estimates M1 Appendix M1 to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE... rounded down to the nearest whole year if the estimate contains a fractional year less than 0.5, and...

  17. UNIQUE 28 CM LONG VERMIFORM APPENDIX

    OpenAIRE

    Ravindra Kumar Boddeti; Roopa Kulkarni; Pradeep Kumar H Murudkar

    2013-01-01

    Vermiform appendix is a vestigial organ in human beings and situated at the ileocaecal junction. It opens into the caecum. It is a narrow tube of varying length. The normal, average length is about 5 cm to 10 cm. The longest vermiform appendix has been reported to be measuring about 25 cm. In the present case a long vermiform appendix was observed in female, formalin fixed, adult cadaver during the routine dissection for medical undergraduates. The Vermiform appendix was retrocaecal and exten...

  18. 7 CFR Exhibit B-4 to Subpart B of... - Letter for Notifying Applicants, Lenders and Holders and Borrowers of Unfavorable Decision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Used in Cases Involving Farmer Program Primary Loan Servicing Actions) B Exhibit B-4 to Subpart B of... AGRICULTURE PROGRAM REGULATIONS GENERAL Adverse Decisions and Administrative Appeals Pt. 1900, Subpt. B, Exh. B-4 Exhibit B-4 to Subpart B of Part 1900—Letter for Notifying Applicants, Lenders and Holders and...

  19. Waste-Management Education and Research Consortium (WERC) annual progress report, 1991--1992. Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-07

    This report contains the following appendices: Appendix A - Requirements for Undergraduate Level; Appendix B - Requirements for Graduate Level; Appendix C - Graduate Degree In Environmental Engineering; Appendix D - Non-degree Certificate Program; Appendix E - Curriculum for Associate Degree Program; Appendix F - Curriculum for NCC Program; Appendix G - Information 1991 Teleconference Series; Appendix H - Information on 1992 Teleconference Series; Appendix I - WERC interactive Television Courses; Appendix J - WERC Research Seminar Series; Appendix K - Sites for Hazardous/Radioactive Waste Management Series; Appendix L- Summary of Technology Development of the Second Year; Appendix M - List of Major Publications Resulting from WERC; Appendix N - Types of Equipment at WERC Laboratories.

  20. The glucuronyltransferase B4GAT1 is required for initiation of LARGE-mediated α-dystroglycan functional glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willer, Tobias; Inamori, Kei-Ichiro; Venzke, David; Harvey, Corinne; Morgensen, Greg; Hara, Yuji; Beltrán Valero de Bernabé, Daniel; Yu, Liping; Wright, Kevin M; Campbell, Kevin P

    2014-10-03

    Dystroglycan is a cell membrane receptor that organizes the basement membrane by binding ligands in the extracellular matrix. Proper glycosylation of the α-dystroglycan (α-DG) subunit is essential for these activities, and lack thereof results in neuromuscular disease. Currently, neither the glycan synthesis pathway nor the roles of many known or putative glycosyltransferases that are essential for this process are well understood. Here we show that FKRP, FKTN, TMEM5 and B4GAT1 (formerly known as B3GNT1) localize to the Golgi and contribute to the O-mannosyl post-phosphorylation modification of α-DG. Moreover, we assigned B4GAT1 a function as a xylose β1,4-glucuronyltransferase. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies confirmed that a glucuronic acid β1,4-xylose disaccharide synthesized by B4GAT1 acts as an acceptor primer that can be elongated by LARGE with the ligand-binding heteropolysaccharide. Our findings greatly broaden the understanding of α-DG glycosylation and provide mechanistic insight into why mutations in B4GAT1 disrupt dystroglycan function and cause disease.

  1. 76 FR 20506 - Technical Amendment to Rule 19b-4: Filings With Respect to Proposed Rule Changes by Self...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... anticipate that any competitive advantages or disadvantages would be created. List of Subjects in 17 CFR Part... that references to ``business day'' in Section 19(b) of the Exchange Act and Rule 19b-4 thereunder... business. DATES: Effective Date: April 13, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard Holley III...

  2. 26 CFR 1.367(b)-4 - Acquisition of foreign corporate stock or assets by a foreign corporation in certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) and any regulations thereunder. If any of the assets transferred are intangible assets, see section... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acquisition of foreign corporate stock or assets...) INCOME TAXES Effects on Corporation § 1.367(b)-4 Acquisition of foreign corporate stock or assets by a...

  3. 29 CFR 2550.408b-4 - Statutory exemption for investments in deposits of banks or similar financial institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....408b-4 Statutory exemption for investments in deposits of banks or similar financial institutions. (a... financial institution may make investments in deposits which bear a reasonable rate of interest in itself... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statutory exemption for investments in deposits of banks or...

  4. Cognitive reserve in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, A M; Stern, Y

    2011-06-01

    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer's disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer's disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and other age-related problems.

  5. Mucinous Neoplasms of the Vermiform Appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shu-Yuan

    2010-06-01

    Most epithelial neoplasms of the vermiform appendix are of mucinous type and can be stratified into 3 main diagnostic categories: (1) adenoma, (2) mucinous neoplasms of uncertain malignant potential or low-grade mucinous neoplasm, and (3) adenocarcinoma. Clinically, appendiceal mucinous adenomas and adenocarcinomas may present as right lower abdominal pain mimicking acute appendicitis, a mass, or pseudomyxoma peritonei. Nomenclature currently in use to describe and diagnose mucinous tumors of the appendix, particularly those of low morphologic grade, varies among surgical pathologists and centers, resulting in different histologic and clinical features being attributed to these entities in the literature. It may be of help, as already attempted by some investigators, to simply apply algorithmic parameters for such lesions (grade of the primary lesion, extensiveness and composite of extra-appendiceal involvement, and so forth), instead of adopting rigid classification categories. This approach allows for more objective data to be collected in hopes that it will provide a more nuanced understanding of the clinical behavior of the spectrum of mucinous appendiceal tumors. Remaining focused on histopathologic parameters of the primary and secondary sites of involvement may help in avoiding circular reasoning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Discovery of novel anti-angiogenesis agents. Part 7: Multitarget inhibitors of VEGFR-2, TIE-2 and EphB4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuansheng; Shan, Yuanyuan; Sun, Ying; Si, Ru; Liang, Liyuan; Pan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Binghe; Zhang, Jie

    2017-12-01

    Herein, we embarked on a structural optimization campaign aiming at the discovery of second generation anti-angiogenesis agents with our previously reported BPS-7 as lead compound. A library of 27 compounds has been afforded based on the highly conserved ATP-binding pocket of VEGFR-2, Tie-2, and EphB4. Several title compounds exhibited simultaneous inhibitory effects against three angiogenic RTKs. These compounds with a 'triplet' inhibition profile have been identified as novel anti-angiogenic and anticancer agents. The representative VDAU11 displayed prominent anti-angiogenic and anticancer potency and could be considered as a candidate for further optimization. These results indicate that N-(pyridin-2-yl)acrylamide could serve as a novel hinge-binding group of triple inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. The CHRNA5-A3-B4 Gene Cluster and Smoking: From Discovery to Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassi, Glenda; Taylor, Amy E; Timpson, Nicholas J; Kenny, Paul J; Mather, Robert J; Eisen, Tim; Munafò, Marcus R

    2016-12-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified associations between the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster and smoking heaviness and nicotine dependence. Studies in rodents have described the anatomical localisation and function of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) formed by the subunits encoded by this gene cluster. Further investigations that complemented these studies highlighted the variability of individuals' smoking behaviours and their ability to adjust nicotine intake. GWASs of smoking-related health outcomes have also identified this signal in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster. This insight underpins approaches to strengthen causal inference in observational data. Combining genetic and mechanistic studies of nicotine dependence and smoking heaviness may reveal novel targets for medication development. Validated targets can inform genetic therapeutic interventions for smoking cessation and tobacco-related diseases. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Congenital absence of the vermiform appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Aniruddha

    2012-09-01

    Agenesis of the vermiform appendix is very rare. The incidence is estimated to be one in 100,000 laparotomies for suspected appendicitis. During a routine dissection of the abdomen in a 60-year-old donated male cadaver, the vermiform appendix was found to be absent. The ileocaecal junction and retrocaecal area were thoroughly searched, but the vermiform appendix was not found or appeared to resemble a tubercle. This is likely the first reported case of agenesis of a vermiform appendix in India. This suggests the possibility that the human vermiform appendix would ultimately become rudimentary or absent in the course of evolution.

  9. Endoscopic imaging of the vermiform appendix (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlitsch, Arnulf; Puespoek, Andreas; Gasche, Christoph

    2014-12-01

    Chronic appendicitis may be detected in as many as 10% of patients with right lower quadrant pain. Although the appendiceal orifice is easily identified during colonoscopy, its lumen has not been investigated so far. To determine the feasibility of endoscopic appendix imaging to identify features of chronic appendicitis in patients with recurrent right lower quadrant pain. Prospective, proof-of-concept study. University-based tertiary referral hospital. Colonoscopy scheduled because of right lower quadrant pain. First, the appendix orifice was cannulated with a guidewire and a Jagtome. Next fluoroscopic imaging was performed by injection of contrast agent into the appendix orifice, and then a SpyGlass endoscope was inserted for imaging of the appendiceal mucosa and for biopsy. Patients were monitored 3 hours after investigation, with follow-up at 4 weeks. Cannulation rate. Thirteen patients were included. Endoscopic imaging of the appendix was successful in 9 of 13 patients (69%). In 10 patients, a guidewire was placed; in 7 patients, biopsy specimens were taken, revealing histological signs of inflammation in 5. In 4 patients, visible fecoliths were removed by flushing. All patients were discharged on the same day. No adverse events occurred. Three patients reported resolution of pain at follow-up. One patient with strictures at appendicoscopy underwent surgical appendectomy. Histology confirmed the findings of chronic appendicitis with fibrosis. Patient number limits power for analysis. Endoscopic imaging of the appendix is feasible, safe, and clinically useful in patients with suspected chronic appendicitis. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. NEOPLASTIC LESIONS OF THE APPENDIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bryk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to present the clinical observations of neoplastic lesions of the appendix (one carcinoid and two mucous cysts and to discuss various manners of treatment and prognosis. Material and methods: The authors of the following paper present a description of three cases of appendix tumours, two patients with a mucous cyst and a patient with carcinoid, against the background of all the appendectomies performed at the Clinical Department of General, Endocrine and Oncological Surgery of the Provincial Polyclinical Hospital in Kielce in the years 2005–2011. Results : Within the 7-year period, a total of 11 719 surgical operations have been performed, where 834 (7.1% were that of appendectomy. Among all of the removed vermiform appendixes, neoplastic lesions occurred in three cases constituting a mere 0.3% of all of the appendectomies performed within that period. In two of the cases there was a suspicion of mucous cysts before the surgical operation. In none of the above-mentioned cases was is possible to ultimately establish the diagnosis before the operation. The patients were subjected to a simple appendectomy. The patients are in good clinical health, with no signs of relapse. Conclusions : The presented cases of patients with appendix tumours illustrate the difficulty of preoperative detection of a neoplastic lesion. This is mainly due to a scantily symptomatic course or symptoms typical of appendicitis. In light of this, histopathological examination of each appendix should be treated as obligatory.

  11. Electron energy-loss and soft X-ray emission spectroscopy of electronic structure of MgB4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yohei; Saito, Taiki; Tsuchiya, Kohei; Terauchi, Masami; Saito, Hiroki; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2017-09-01

    The electronic structure of MgB4, with the characteristic crystal structure comprising one-dimensional pentagonal B6 cluster chain, was investigated using electron energy-loss spectroscopy and soft X-ray emission spectroscopy based on transmission electron microscopy. The dielectric function and density of state of unoccupied and occupied states were clarified experimentally for the first time. Although theoretical calculations has predicted MgB4 to be a semiconductor, the electron energy-loss spectrum in this study show a plasmon peak at 0.4 eV, which might be due to carrier electrons. Theoretical calculations suggested that the electronic states near the Fermi energy are localized along the one dimensional B6 cluster chain. Therefore, one-dimensional electric conductivity is expected.

  12. Transmission electron microscope studies of the chromium cast iron modified at use of B4C addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Labisz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of studies of the high alloy chromium cast iron with boron addition in form of the B4C phase powder are presented in this paper.The main field of interest is the identification of phases based on the transmission electron microscope study, occurred in this alloy aftersolidification process. The structure mainly consists of the austenite matrix and M7C3 carbide identified as the Cr7C3 phase.

  13. Epizootic of vesicular disease in pigs caused by coxsackievirus B4 in the Soviet Union in 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomakina, Natalia F; Shustova, Elena; Strizhakova, Olga M; Drexler, Felix; Lukashev, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) emerged around 1960 from a human enterovirus ancestor, coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5), and caused a series of epizootics in Europe and Asia. We characterized a coxsackievirus B4 strain that caused an epizootic involving 24 488 pigs in the Soviet Union in 1975. Phylogenetic evidence suggested that the swine virus emerged from a human ancestor between 1945 and 1975, almost simultaneously with the transfer of CVB5.

  14. Enhancement of thermal neutron attenuation of nano-B4C, -BN dispersed neutron shielding polymer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jaewoo; Lee, Byung-Chul; Uhm, Young Rang; Miller, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Preparation of B 4 C and BN nanopowders using a simple ball milling process. • Homogeneous dispersion and strong adhesion of nano-B 4 C and -BN with polymer matrix. • Enhancement of mechanical properties of the nanocomposites compared to their micro counterparts. • Enhancement of thermal neutron attenuation of the nanocomposites. - Abstract: Nano-sized boron carbide (B 4 C) and boron nitride (BN) powder were prepared using ball milling. Micro- and milled nano-powders were melt blended with high density polyethylene (HDPE) using a polymer mixer followed by hot pressing to fabricate sheet composites. The tensile and flexural strengths of HDPE nanocomposites were ∼20% higher than their micro counterparts, while those for latter decreased compared to neat HDPE. Thermal neutrons attenuation of the prepared HDPE nanocomposites was evaluated using a monochromatic ∼0.025 eV neutron beam. Thermal neutron attenuation of the HDPE nanocomposites was greatly enhanced compared to their micro counterparts at the same B-10 areal densities. Monte Carlo n-Particles (MCNP) simulations based on the lattice structure modeling also shows the similar filler size dependent thermal neutron absorption

  15. SERPINB3/B4 contributes to early inflammation and barrier dysfunction in an experimental murine model of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaprasad, Umasundari; Kinker, Kayla G; Ericksen, Mark B; Lindsey, Mark; Gibson, Aaron M; Bass, Stacey A; Hershey, Nicolas S; Deng, Jingyuan; Medvedovic, Mario; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K

    2015-01-01

    Serine proteases are critical for epidermal barrier homeostasis, and their aberrant expression and/or activity is associated with chronic skin diseases. Elevated levels of the serine protease inhibitors SERPINB3 and SERPINB4 are seen in patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. However, their mechanistic role in the skin is unknown. To evaluate the contribution of Serpinb3a (mouse homolog of SERPINB3 and SERPINB4) in atopic dermatitis, we examined the effect of topical Aspergillus fumigatus extract exposure in wild-type and Serpinb3a-null mice on transepidermal water loss (TEWL), sensitization, and inflammation. Allergen exposure induced Serpinb3a expression in the skin, along with increased TEWL, epidermal thickness, and skin inflammation, all of which were attenuated in the absence of Serpinb3a. Attenuated TEWL correlated with decreased expression of the pro-inflammatory marker S100A8. Silencing of SERPINB3/B4 in human keratinocytes decreased S100A8 expression, supporting a role for SERPINB3/B4 in the initiation of the acute inflammatory response. RNA-seq analysis following allergen exposure identified a network of pro-inflammatory genes induced in wild-type mice that was absent in Serpinb3a-null mice. In conclusion, Serpinb3a deficiency attenuates barrier dysfunction and the early inflammatory response following cutaneous allergen exposure, supporting a role for Serpinb3a (mice) and SERPINB3/B4 (humans) early in atopic dermatitis.

  16. PRESSURELESS SINTERING OF B4C-NANOTiB2 NANOCOMPOSITE BY ADDITION OF Fe AND Ni AS SINTERING AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Mohammadi Samani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available B4C and its composites with TiB2 as second phase continues to be extensively used as the preferred ceramic material in military applications as armor systems for absorbing and dissipating kinetic energy from high velocity projectiles. It also exhibits a high melting point (2427 °C, and high neutron absorption cross section. Pressureless sintering of the B 4C-nanoTiB2 nanocomposite using small amount of Fe and Ni (≤3 Wt% as sintering aids was investigated in order to clarify the role of Fe and Ni additions on the mechanical and microstructural properties of B4C-nanoTiB2 nanocomposites. Different amount of Fe and Ni, mainly 1 to 3 Wt% were added to the base material. Pressureless sintering was conducted at 2175, 2225 and 2300 °C. It was found that Addition of 3 Wt% Fe and 3 wt% Ni and sintering at 2300 °C resulted in improving the density of the samples to about 99% of theoretical density. The nanocomposite samples exhibited high density, hardness, and microstructural uniformity.

  17. In Situ Preparation and Thermoelectric Properties of B4C1- x -TiB2 Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bing; Martin, Hans-Peter; Michaelis, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    B4C1- x -TiB2 composites were prepared by in situ reactive spark plasma sintering of B4C with addition of nano-TiO2 powder. The effect of TiO2 addition on the sinterability of boron carbide was studied. The composition and the microstructure of the dense composites are characterized by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The studies show that the composites contain boron carbide and TiB2 phases with a homogeneous structure. In addition, the correlation between the composition and the thermoelectric properties was investigated. The electrical conductivity of the composite increased with increasing addition of TiO2, and the Seebeck coefficient decreased with TiO2 addition. The percolation threshold ø c for TiB2 in the B4C1- x -TiB2 system was found to be in the range of 0.139 to 0.189. The thermal conductivity was reduced in the whole measuring temperature range from 50°C to 800°C below ø c. Accordingly, a significant enhancement in the dimensionless figure of merit ZT of the composites was achieved compared with that of boron carbide without TiO2 addition, with ZT achieving its maximum value at 10 wt.% TiO2.

  18. COGNITIVE RESERVE IN AGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Adrienne M.; Stern, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer’s disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related problems. PMID:21222591

  19. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  20. Ovarian reserve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja

    2012-01-01

    2-5 of the menstrual cycle or during withdrawal bleeding, blood sampling and transvaginal sonography was performed. After adjusting for age, ovarian reserve parameters were lower among users than among non-users of hormonal contraception: serum AMH concentration by 29.8% (95% CI 19.9 to 38...... was observed between duration of hormonal-contraception use and ovarian reserve parameters. No dose-response relation was found between the dose of ethinyloestradiol and AMH or AFC. This study indicates that ovarian reserve markers are lower in women using sex steroids for contraception. Thus, AMH...... concentration and AFC may not retain their accuracy as predictors of ovarian reserve in women using hormonal contraception. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration is an indirect marker of the number of small follicles in the ovary and thereby the ovarian reserve. The AMH concentration is now widely...

  1. Streptococcus milleri in the appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, P M; Wilson, G

    1977-10-01

    The appendix was investigated as a possible habitat of Streptococcus milleri. Both normal and inflamed appendices were examined and the isolation rates compared. S. milleri was present in a quarter of the normal appendices and more than half of those associated with apendicitis--a difference that was statistically highly significant. The isolation rates throughout were indepencent of age. There was a pronounced connection between the presence of S. milleri in the appendix and the purulent manifestations of appendicitis. S. milleri was isolated from other abdominal sites associated with appendicitis. The frequency of isolation was increased by culture in an enrichment broth containing nalidixic acid and sulphadimidine.

  2. Skyline Reservation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Flight reservation application used for in-country flights by USAID and DoS staff in Afghanistan. The application is managed and maintained by the vendor and USAID...

  3. Appendix C: safety design rationale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, S.

    1985-01-01

    A brief discussion of the rationale for safety design of fusion plants is presented in the main text. Further detail safety considerations are presented in this appendix in the form of charts and tables. The author present some of the major safety criteria and other criteria used in blanket selection here

  4. Formation of silver nanoparticles in Li2B4O7-Ag2O and Li2B4O7-Gd2O3-Ag2O borate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiv, Volodymyr; Gamernyk, Roman; Teslyuk, Ihor

    2017-06-10

    Results of investigations of 98.0Li 2 B 4 O 7 -2.0Ag 2 O and 97.0Li 2 B 4 O 7 -2.0Ag 2 O-1.0Gd 2 O 3 glasses with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs), formed by thermal treatment in vacuum and in air, are presented. Intensive plasmon absorption bands, connected with Ag NPs, were observed in their optical transmission spectra. It is ascertained that in volumes of both glasses there is formed a small number of Ag NPs, whereas their main mass is concentrated near the surface of samples. The mechanism of Ag NPs formation is proposed. A conclusion is drawn that annealing in vacuum does not necessarily require the presence of reducing ions, whereas formation of nanoparticles at annealing in air is impossible without reducing agents. Structural defects play a decisive role in the Ag NPs nucleation process. Radii of formed Ag NPs are estimated by the half-width of plasmon bands, and by means of small-angle x-ray scattering.

  5. Radioimmunological detection of type-specific antibodies against polioviruses 1, 2 and 3 as well as the B4 Coxsackie virus. Radioimmunologischer Nachweis typenspezifischer Antikoerper gegen Poliovirus 1, 2 und 3 und gegen Coxsackievirus B4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartung Goetze, C.F.

    1985-06-27

    A simple radioimmunological procedure is described in which the qualitative and quantitative determination of serum antibodies against polioviruses 1, 2 and 3 and against the B4 Coxsackie virus is based on adsorption chromatography. It is comparable to the neutralisation test as regards sensitivity and specifity and has the additional advantage of being the faster, simplier and cheaper of those two methods. The radioactive labelling of the virsuses was achieved with types of 32 P or 3 H that had favourable half-lives and would thus permit the labelled compounds to be stored for prolonged periods of time. The immunological statuses and antibody titres of sera obtained from 45 female volunteers, where the vaccinations against polymyelitis had mostly been carried out by the oral route, showed remarkably little changes, which was evident from the fact that the proportion of study participants found to have antibodies against all three serological types was 91% in 1970 and still as large at 89% in 1983. When a total of 1016 sera were screened for Coxsackie virus B4, no age dependency could be determined for the age range between 5 and 35 years, nor were there any differences seen between the individual residential areas. (TRV).

  6. Deposition and characterization of B4C/CeO2 multilayers at 6.x nm extreme ultraviolet wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertsu, M. G.; Giglia, A.; Brose, S.; Park, D.; Wang, Z. S.; Mayer, J.; Juschkin, L.; Nicolosi, P.

    2016-03-01

    New multilayers of boron carbide/cerium dioxide (B4C/CeO2) combination on silicon (Si) substrate are manufactured to represent reflective-optics candidates for future lithography at 6.x nm wavelength. This is one of only a few attempts to make multilayers of this kind. Combination of several innovative experiments enables detailed study of optical properties, structural properties, and interface profiles of the multilayers in order to open up a room for further optimization of the manufacturing process. The interface profile is visualized by high-angle annular dark-field imaging which provides highly sensitive contrast to atomic number. Synchrotron based at-wavelength extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflectance measurements near the boron (B) absorption edge allow derivation of optical parameters with high sensitivity to local atom interactions. X-ray reflectivity measurements at Cu-Kalpha (8 keV ) determine the period of multilayers with high in-depth resolution. By combining these measurements and choosing robust nonlinear curve fitting algorithms, accuracy of the results has been significantly improved. It also enables a comprehensive characterization of multilayers. Interface diffusion is determined to be a major cause for the low reflectivity performance. Optical constants of B4C and CeO2 layers are derived in EUV wavelengths. Besides, optical properties and asymmetric thicknesses of inter-diffusion layers (interlayers) in EUV wavelengths near the boron edge are determined. Finally, ideal reflectivity of the B4C/CeO2 combination is calculated by using optical constants derived from the proposed measurements in order to evaluate the potentiality of the design.

  7. Atomic structure of icosahedral B4C boron carbide from a first principles analysis of NMR spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, F; Vast, N; Pickard, C J

    2001-08-20

    Density functional theory is demonstrated to reproduce the 13C and 11B NMR chemical shifts of icosahedral boron carbides with sufficient accuracy to extract previously unresolved structural information from experimental NMR spectra. B4C can be viewed as an arrangement of 3-atom linear chains and 12-atom icosahedra. According to our results, all the chains have a CBC structure. Most of the icosahedra have a B11C structure with the C atom placed in a polar site, and a few percent have a B (12) structure or a B10C2 structure with the two C atoms placed in two antipodal polar sites.

  8. Dwarfism with joint laxity in Friesian horses is associated with a splice site mutation in B4GALT7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leegwater, Peter A; Vos-Loohuis, Manon; Ducro, Bart J; Boegheim, Iris J; van Steenbeek, Frank G; Nijman, Isaac J; Monroe, Glen R; Bastiaansen, John W M; Dibbits, Bert W; van de Goor, Leanne H; Hellinga, Ids; Back, Willem; Schurink, Anouk

    2016-10-28

    Inbreeding and population bottlenecks in the ancestry of Friesian horses has led to health issues such as dwarfism. The limbs of dwarfs are short and the ribs are protruding inwards at the costochondral junction, while the head and back appear normal. A striking feature of the condition is the flexor tendon laxity that leads to hyperextension of the fetlock joints. The growth plates of dwarfs display disorganized and thickened chondrocyte columns. The aim of this study was to identify the gene defect that causes the recessively inherited trait in Friesian horses to understand the disease process at the molecular level. We have localized the genetic cause of the dwarfism phenotype by a genome wide approach to a 3 Mb region on the p-arm of equine chromosome 14. The DNA of two dwarfs and one control Friesian horse was sequenced completely and we identified the missense mutation ECA14:g.4535550C > T that cosegregated with the phenotype in all Friesians analyzed. The mutation leads to the amino acid substitution p.(Arg17Lys) of xylosylprotein beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase 7 encoded by B4GALT7. The protein is one of the enzymes that synthesize the tetrasaccharide linker between protein and glycosaminoglycan moieties of proteoglycans of the extracellular matrix. The mutation not only affects a conserved arginine codon but also the last nucleotide of the first exon of the gene and we show that it impedes splicing of the primary transcript in cultured fibroblasts from a heterozygous horse. As a result, the level of B4GALT7 mRNA in fibroblasts from a dwarf is only 2 % compared to normal levels. Mutations in B4GALT7 in humans are associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome progeroid type 1 and Larsen of Reunion Island syndrome. Growth retardation and ligamentous laxity are common manifestations of these syndromes. We suggest that the identified mutation of equine B4GALT7 leads to the typical dwarfism phenotype in Friesian horses due to deficient splicing of transcripts of

  9. Operation of the CESR-TA vertical beam size monitor at $E_{\\rm b}$=4 GeV

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, J. P.; Conolly, C.; Edwards, E.; Flanagan, J. W.; Fontes, E.; Heltsley, B. K.; Lyndaker, A.; Peterson, D. P.; Rider, N. T.; Rubin, D. L.; Seeley, R.; Shanks, J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe operation of the CESR-TA vertical beam size monitor (xBSM) with $e^\\pm$ beams with $E_{\\rm b}$=4 GeV. The xBSM measures vertical beam size by imaging synchrotron radiation x-rays through an optical element onto a detector array of 32 InGaAs photodiodes with 50 $\\mu$m pitch. The device has previously been successfully used to measure vertical beam sizes of 10-100 $\\mu$m on a bunch-by-bunch, turn-by-turn basis at $e^\\pm$ beam energies of $\\sim$2 GeV and source magnetic fields below ...

  10. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  11. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  12. Analysis and forecast of electrical distribution system materials. Final report. Volume III. Appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, C G

    1976-08-23

    These appendixes are referenced in Volume II of this report. They contain the detailed electrical distribution equipment requirements and input material requirements forecasts. Forecasts are given for three electric energy usage scenarios. Also included are data on worldwide reserves and demand for 30 raw materials required for the manufacture of electrical distribution equipment.

  13. 25 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C - IRR High Priority Project Scoring Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false IRR High Priority Project Scoring Matrix A Appendix A to Subpart C Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION...—IRR High Priority Project Scoring Matrix Score 10 5 3 1 0 Accident and fatality rate for candidate...

  14. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve and fts educational facilities are run by the Transvaal. Division of. Nature Conservation. ... tion and the education facilities provided. The former are utilized mainly by the general public ... artist Paul Bosman (already reviewed in the EEASA newsletter). The co-founders of the Foundation are.

  15. Session 7: Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.; Crockford, G.

    2001-01-01

    The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)

  16. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  17. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reserve, the total length being 66 km with six overnight huts. There are also the BokmakiePie. Nature Troil. and the Cheetah Interpretive Troil. which can be used by day visitors. The former has two loops, one of 10 km and another of 17 km. The. Cheetah Troil. is much shorter and various points of interest are interpreted en ...

  18. The Role of PPAR Receptors and Leukotriene B4 Receptors in Mediating the Effects of LY293111 in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease in which current therapies are inadequate. Separate lines of research have identified the 5-lipoxygenase/leukotriene B4 receptor pathway and the PPAR pathway as potential targets for prevention or treatment of this disease. LY293111 was originally designed as a potent leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist for treatment of inflammatory conditions. LY293111 was also known to have inhibitory effects on 5-lipoxygenase, which is upstream of the production of leukotrienes. LY293111 was shown to have potent anticancer effects in pancreatic cancer and several other solid malignancies, where it caused cell cycle arrest and marked apoptosis. Subsequently, it came to light that LY293111 exhibited PPAR agonist activity in addition to its effects on the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. This raises the question of which of the two targets is of greatest importance with regard to the anticancer effects of this agent. The evidence to date is not conclusive, but suggests that the effects of LY293111 may be mediated by both LTB4 receptors and PPAR.

  19. Fabrication of Al5083/B4C surface composite by friction stir processing and its tribological characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayana Yuvaraj

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Improved surface properties with the retainment of bulk properties are necessary for a component for enhanced wear characteristics. Friction stir processing (FSP is used to produce such surface composites. Fabrication of 5083 aluminum alloy with reinforced layers of boron carbide (B4C through FSP was carried out. Micro and nano sized B4C particles were used as reinforcements. The friction processed surface composite layer was analyzed through optical and scanning electron microscopical studies. The number of passes and the size of reinforcement play a vital role in the development of surface composites by FSP. Mechanical properties of the friction stir processed surface composites were evaluated through micro hardness and universal tensile tests. The results were compared with the properties of the base metal. The role of reinforcement and number of passes on properties were also evaluated. Tribological performance of the surface composites is tested through pin on disk test. The surface composite layer resulted in three passes with nano particle reinforcement exhibited better properties in hardness, tensile behavior and wear resistance compared to the behavior of the base metal.

  20. High-pressure phase transition makes B4.3C boron carbide a wide-gap semiconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hushur, Anwar; Manghnani, Murli H; Werheit, Helmut; Dera, Przemyslaw; Williams, Quentin

    2016-02-03

    Single-crystal B4.3C boron carbide is investigated through the pressure-dependence and inter-relation of atomic distances, optical properties and Raman-active phonons up to ~70 GPa. The anomalous pressure evolution of the gap width to higher energies is striking. This is obtained from observations of transparency, which most rapidly increases around 55 GPa. Full visible optical transparency is approached at pressures of  >60 GPa indicating that the band gap reaches ~3.5 eV; at high pressure, boron carbide is a wide-gap semiconductor. The reason is that the high concentration of structural defects controlling the electronic properties of boron carbide at ambient conditions initially decreases and finally vanishes at high pressures. The structural parameters and Raman-active phonons indicate a pressure-dependent phase transition in single-crystal (nat)B4.3C boron carbide near 40 GPa, likely related to structural changes in the C-B-C chains, while the basic icosahedral structure appears to be less affected.

  1. Influence of growth medium on cometabolic degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Sphingomonas sp. strain PheB4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong Yin; Wang Xiaowei [Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Guangzhou (China). State Key Lab. of Biocontrol; Futian-CityU Mangrove Research and Development Centre, Shenzhen (China). Futian National Nature Reserve; Luan Tiangang; Lan Chongyu [Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Guangzhou (China). State Key Lab. of Biocontrol; Tam, N.F.Y. [Futian-CityU Mangrove Research and Development Centre, Shenzhen (China). Futian National Nature Reserve; City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Biology and Chemistry

    2007-05-15

    The influence of growth medium on cometabolic degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated when Sphingomonas sp. strain PheB4 isolated from surface mangrove sediments was grown in either phenanthrene-containing mineral salts medium (PMSM) or nutrient broth (NB). The NB-grown culture exhibited a more rapid cometabolic degradation of single and mixed non-growth substrate PAHs compared to the PMSM-grown culture. The concentrations of PAH metabolites were also lower in NB-grown culture than in PMSM-grown culture, suggesting that NB-grown culture removed metabolites at a faster rate, particularly, for metabolites produced from cometabolic degradation of a binary mixture of PAHs. Cometabolic pathways of single PAH (anthracene, fluorene, or fluoranthene) in NB-grown culture showed similarity to that in PMSM-grown culture. However, cometabolic pathways of mixed PAHs were more diverse in NB-grown culture than that in PMSM-grown culture. These results indicated that nutrient rich medium was effective in enhancing cometabolic degradation of mixed PAHs concomitant with a rapid removal of metabolites, which could be useful for the bioremediation of mixed PAHs contaminated sites using Sphingomonas sp. strain PheB4. (orig.)

  2. Stability and normal incidence reflectivity of W/B4C multilayer mirror near the boron K absorption edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P N; Rai, S K; Nayak, M; Lodha, G S

    2013-09-01

    A multilayer structure consisting of alternate layers of W and B4C has been deposited using a magnetron sputtering system. The structure of the as-deposited and vacuum-annealed W/B4C multilayer sample has been characterized using grazing incidence x-ray reflectivity, grazing incidence diffraction, and the normal incidence reflectivity has been measured using synchrotron radiation. A two-layer model consisting of tungsten and boron carbide is presented. The multilayer structure was found to be stable after 800°C annealing. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements suggested that W is polycrystalline with small grain size. No signature of tungsten carbide or tungsten boride formation could be observed during the annealing treatments. A near normal incidence soft x-ray reflectivity (SXRR) of ~8.3% was obtained at 6.8 nm wavelength. A little drop (~1%) in SXRR after 800°C annealing suggested that there were no compositional changes within the layers during the annealing treatments.

  3. 12 CFR Appendix J to Part 226 - Annual Percentage Rate Computations for Closed-End Credit Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-End Credit Transactions J Appendix J to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. J... transactions. (2) Under the actuarial method, at the end of each unit-period (or fractional unit-period) the...

  4. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 229 - Routing Number Guide to Next-Day Availability Checks and Local Checks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Checks and Local Checks A Appendix A to Part 229 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS... Association. The routing number takes two forms: a fractional form and a nine-digit form. A paying bank...

  5. Cloning, Sequencing, and Expression in Escherichia coli of lcnB, a Third Bacteriocin Determinant from the Lactococcal Bacteriocin Plasmid p9B4-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belkum, Marco J. van; Kok, Jan; Venema, Gerhardus

    On the bacteriocin plasmid p9B4-6 of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris 9B4, a third bacteriocin determinant was identified. The genes encoding bacteriocin production and immunity resided on a 1.2-kb CelII-ScaI fragment and were located adjacent to one of two previously identified bacteriocin

  6. A comparison study on the densification behavior and mechanical properties of gelcast vs conventionally formed B4C sintered conventionally and by microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menchhofer, P.A.; Kiggans, J.O.; Morrow, M.S.; Schechter, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    The utilization of microwave energy for reaching high temperatures necessary to densify B 4 C powder is compared with conventional means of sintering by evaluating the mechanical properties after densification. Microwave energy has been shown to be an effective means for achieving high sintered densities, even though temperatures of ∼ 2,250 C are required. In this study, green preforms of B 4 C specimens were sintered by both conventional and microwave heating. This study also utilized an advanced forming method called ''Gelcasting'' developed at ORNL. Gelcasting is a fluid forming process whereby high solids suspensions of powders containing dissolved monomers are cast into a mold, then polymerized or ''gelled'' in situ. This investigation compares microstructures and mechanical properties of both Gelcast B 4 C and ''conventionally'' die-pressed B 4 C. The microstructures and final mechanical properties of B 4 C specimens are discussed

  7. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the vermiform appendix mimicking Meckel's diverticulum: Case report with literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Jae Min; Lim, Kyoung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) of the appendix are extremely rare. To date, only 15 cases have been reported in the English literature. Here, we present a new case of an appendiceal GIST with appendicitis. A 68-year-old man who complained of right lower abdominal tenderness underwent surgery for a cystic mass mimicking Meckel's diverticulum. Laparoscopy revealed a mass protruding from the proximal appendix with distal appendicitis. Complete resection with adequate margins was performed. Histology showed a spindle cell GIST without mitotic activity as well as a strong expression of CD117 and CD34. Primary appendiceal GIST occur at a very low rate and their symptoms are nonspecific. Accordingly, rare tumors of appendix including GISTs should be considered in the differential diagnosis of atypical symptoms or image findings. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  9. [Hypertrophy and coronary reserve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motz, W; Scheler, S

    2008-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy represents the structural mechanism of adaptation of the left ventricle as the answer of a chronic pressure overload in arterial hypertension. Initially an increment in left ventricular wall thickness occurs. In this stadium of "concentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress, LV ejection fraction and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium remain unchanged. In the further time course of disease LV dilatation will be present. In this phase of "excentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium rise and LV ejection fraction decreases. Patients with arterial hypertension frequently complain of angina pectoris. Angina pectoris and the positive exercise tolerance test or the positive myocardial scintigraphy are the consequence of the impaired coronary flow reserve. The coronary flow reserve is diminished due to structural and functional changes of the coronary circulation. ACE-inhibitors and AT1-receptor blockers cause a significant improvement of coronary flow reserve and regression of both left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis.

  10. Human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 2B4 and 2B7 Are Responsible for Naftopidil Glucuronidation in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-Wen Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Naftopidil (NAF is widely used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prevention of prostate cancer in elderly men. These patients receive a combination of drugs, which involves high risk for drug–drug interaction. NAF exhibits superior efficacy but must be administered at a much higher dosage than other therapeutic drugs. We previously showed that extensive glucuronidation of NAF enantiomers caused poor bioavailability. However, the metabolic pathway and mechanism of action of NAF enantiomer remain to be elucidated. The present study was performed to identify the human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs responsible for the glucuronidation of NAF enantiomers and to investigate the potential inhibition of UGT activity by NAF. The major metabolic sites examined were liver and kidney, which were compared with intestine. Screening of 12 recombinant UGTs showed that UGT2B7 primarily contributed to the metabolism of both enantiomers. Moreover, enzyme kinetics for R(+-NAF, UGT2B7 (mean Km, 21 μM; mean Vmax, 1043 pmol/min/mg showed significantly higher activity than observed for UGT2B4 and UGT1A9. UGT2B4 (mean Km, 55 μM; mean Vmax, 1976 pmol/min/mg and UGT2B7 (mean Km, 38 μM; mean Vmax, 1331 pmol/min/mg showed significantly higher catalysis of glucuronidation of S(--NAF than UGT1A9. In human liver microsomes, R(+-NAF and S(--NAF also inhibited UGT1A9: mean Ki values for R(+-NAF and S(--NAF were 10.0 μM and 11.5 μM, respectively. These data indicate that UGT2B7 was the principal enzyme mediating glucuronidation of R(+-NAF and S(--NAF. UGT2B4 plays the key role in the stereoselective metabolism of NAF enantiomers. R(+-NAF and S(--NAF may inhibit UGT1A9. Understanding the metabolism of NAF enantiomers, especially their interactions with metabolic enzymes, will help to elucidate potential drug–drug interactions and to optimize the administration of this medicine.

  11. B4GALNT2 (GALGT2) Gene Therapy Reduces Skeletal Muscle Pathology in the FKRP P448L Mouse Model of Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy 2I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul J; Xu, Rui; Martin, Paul T

    2016-09-01

    Overexpression of B4GALNT2 (previously GALGT2) inhibits the development of muscle pathology in mouse models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, congenital muscular dystrophy 1A, and limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2D. In these models, muscle GALGT2 overexpression induces the glycosylation of α dystroglycan with the cytotoxic T cell glycan and increases the overexpression of dystrophin and laminin α2 surrogates known to inhibit disease. Here, we show that GALGT2 gene therapy significantly reduces muscle pathology in FKRP P448Lneo(-) mice, a model for limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2I. rAAVrh74.MCK.GALGT2-treated FKRP P448Lneo(-) muscles showed reduced levels of centrally nucleated myofibers, reduced variance, increased size of myofiber diameters, reduced myofiber immunoglobulin G uptake, and reduced muscle wasting at 3 and 6 months after treatment. GALGT2 overexpression in FKRP P448Lneo(-) muscles did not cause substantial glycosylation of α dystroglycan with the cytotoxic T cell glycan or increased expression of dystrophin and laminin α2 surrogates in mature skeletal myofibers, but it increased the number of embryonic myosin-positive regenerating myofibers. These data demonstrate that GALGT2 overexpression can reduce the extent of muscle pathology in FKRP mutant muscles, but that it may do so via a mechanism that differs from its ability to induce surrogate gene expression. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. TL response of MgB4O7: Dy, Na in function of the gamma radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano, A.; Gonzalez, P.R.; Furetta, C.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In this work the obtained results of the irradiation of thermoluminescent dosemeters of MgB 4 O 7 ;Dy,Na, with gamma radiation of 137 Cs and 60 Co, in a dose interval between 0.2 mGy and 1000 Gy are presented. The regions of linearity, supralineality and of saturation of their TL response are shown. Its also show the results of the tests of sensitivity of these new dosemeters, its detection threshold, the reproducibility in its TL response to the radiation, as well as the stability of the information. It also determines their effective atomic number (Z eff ). The results show that these dosemeters are promissory to use them in the different medical applications of the radiation. (Author)

  13. Release of adenosine from human neutrophils stimulated by platelet activating factor, leukotriene B4 and opsonized zymosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sipka

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL stimulated by platelet activating factor (PAF, leukotriene B4 (LTB4 or opsonized zymosan (OZ released adenosine measured by thermospray high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry in the cell-free supernatants. Stimulation by PAF or LTB4 resulted in a bellshaped concentration-effect curve; 5 × 10−7 M PAF, 10−8 M LTB4 and 500 μg ml−1 OZ induced peak adenosine release, thus cytotoxic concentrations did not elevate adenosine level in the supernatants. Therefore adenosine release was characteristic of viable cells. As calculated from concentration-effect curves, the rank order of potency for adenosine release was PAF > LTB > OZ. These resuits suggest that adenosine, when bound specifically to membrane receptor sites, may initiate signal transduction, and, in co-operation with other inflammatory mediators, may modulate phagocyte function, e.g. production of chemoluminescence (CL.

  14. Study of coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity in single-crystal ErRh4B4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, S.K.; Crabtree, G.W.; Hinks, D.G.; Mook, H.

    1981-01-01

    Neutron diffraction and resistivity measurements on single crystals of ErRh 4 B 4 have revealed that both superconductivity and ferromagnetic order coexist in this material between 0.71 and 1.2 0 K. In this intermediate phase, a linear polarized modulated structure with a wavelength of approximately 100 A is observed. The modulated moment increases faster than the ferromagnetic moment down to 0.71 K and then disappears suddenly, with loss of superconductivity and a transition to a normal ferromagnetic state. This transition is accompanied by temperature hysteresis of about 60 mK. The same hysteresis, in the inverse sense, is exhibited by the ferromagnetic component. We interpret the intermediate phase as being one of coexisting normal ferromagnetic domains and superconducting sinusoidally ordered domains. Evidence of a small percentage of small ferromagnetic regions of size approx. 100 A is also seen in both the intermediate and ferromagnetic phases. 3 figures

  15. Reactivity and neutron flux measurements in IPEN/MB-01 reactor with B4C burnable poison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fer, Nelson Custodio; Moreira, Joao Manoel Losada

    2000-01-01

    Burnable poison rods, made of B 4 C- Al 2 O 3 pellets with 5.01 mg/cm 3 10 B concentration, have been manufactured for a set of experiments in the IPEN/MB-01 zero-power reactor. Several core parameters which are affected by the burnable poisons rods have been measured. The principal results, for the situation in which the burnable poison rods are located near the absorber rods of a control rod, are they cause a 29% rod worth shadowing, a reduction of 39% in the local void coefficient of reactivity, a reduction of 4.8% in the isothermal temperature coefficient of reactivity, and a reduction of 9% in the thermal neutron flux in the region where the burnable poison rods are located. These experimental results will be used for the validation of burnable poison calculation methods in the CTMSP. (author)

  16. Interleukin-8 and leukotriene B4 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from HIV-infected patients with bacterial pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, E; Vestbo, Jørgen; Benfield, T L

    1997-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are at increased risk of contracting bacterial infections, mainly pneumonia. Despite this, little is known about immunopathogenic mechanisms in HIV-related bacterial pneumonia. This paper investigates the presence of the neutrophil chemotactic...... mediators, interleukin-8 (IL_8) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4), in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from 27 HIV-infected patients with bacterial pneumonia. Significantly elevated levels of IL-8 were found in BAL fluid of patients with bacterial pneumonia [529 pg ml-1 (296-1161 pg ml-1)] compared to matched...... patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) [59 pg ml-1 (42-254 pg ml-1)] and healthy controls [58 pg ml-1 (37-82 pg ml-1)]. Levels of LTB4 were not elevated during bacterial pneumonia when compared to PCP patients and healthy controls. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between IL-8...

  17. Non-contact XUV metrology of Ru/B4C multilayer optics by means of Hartmann wavefront analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Lopez, Mabel; Dacasa, Hugo; Mahieu, Benoit; Lozano, Magali; Li, Lu; Zeitoun, Philippe; Bleiner, Davide

    2018-02-20

    Short-wavelength imaging, spectroscopy, and lithography scale down the characteristic length-scale to nanometers. This poses tight constraints on the optics finishing tolerances, which is often difficult to characterize. Indeed, even a tiny surface defect degrades the reflectivity and spatial projection of such optics. In this study, we demonstrate experimentally that a Hartmann wavefront sensor for extreme ultraviolet (XUV) wavelengths is an effective non-contact analytical method for inspecting the surface of multilayer optics. The experiment was carried out in a tabletop laboratory using a high-order harmonic generation as an XUV source. The wavefront sensor was used to measure the wavefront errors after the reflection of the XUV beam on a spherical Ru/B 4 C multilayer mirror, scanning a large surface of approximately 40 mm in diameter. The results showed that the technique detects the aberrations in the nanometer range.

  18. Effect of sintering temperature on microstructure and compressive strength of B4C-AlSi eutectic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinyun; Zha Wusheng; Liu Gaihua; Lan Jun; Feng Quanhe; Zou Congpei

    2008-01-01

    The block neutron absorber of B 4 C based on Al-Si eutectic alloy has been prepared by powder-metallurgy method. The effects of sinter temperature on microstructure, compressive strength, and ductility of sintered billets have been investigated. It has been shown that the sintering temperature decides sensitively the compressive strength and ductility of sintered billets. Sintered under 550, 555, 560, and 565 degree C, the billet shows different states, such as sub-sintered, best-sintered, over-sintered, and molten. Sintered under 550 degree C, the powder have not been metallurgically combined with each other. Beyond 560 degree C, the billets are molten. The 555 degree C is the best sintering temperature, under which the powder have been partly melted and the metallurgical combination has been occurred, then the billets have a better ductility. (authors)

  19. Specially designed B4C/SnO2 nanocomposite for photocatalysis: traditional ceramic with unique properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Paviter; Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Kulwinder; Singh, Bikramjeet; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Manjot; Krishnan, Unni; Kumar, Manjeet; Bala, Rajni; Kumar, Akshay

    2018-02-01

    Boron carbide: A traditional ceramic material shows unique properties when explored in nano-range. Specially designed boron-based nanocomposite has been synthesized by reflux method. The addition of SnO2 in base matrix increases the defect states in boron carbide and shows unique catalytic properties. The calculated texture coefficient and Nelson-Riley factor show that the synthesized nanocomposite has large number of defect states. Also this composite is explored for the first time for catalysis degradation of industrial used dyes. The degradation analysis of industrial pollutants such as Novacron red Huntsman (NRH) and methylene blue (MB) dye reveals that the composite is an efficient catalyst. Degradation study shows that 1 g/L catalyst concentration of B4C/SnO2 degrades NRH and MB dye up to approximately 97.38 and 79.41%, respectively, in 20 min under sunlight irradiation. This water-insoluble catalyst can be recovered and reused.

  20. Mucinous adenocarcinona of the appendix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Roberto Furst Crenitte

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of malignancy in the vermiform appendix is quite rare. The most common histological malignant neoplasia found in this tiny portion of the gastrointestinal tract is represented by the mucinous adenocarcinoma. This entity predominates in males around 50 years of age, and clinical presentation usually mimics or occurs along with an acute appendicitis. Early diagnosis is outside the rule since most cases at this stage are symptomless. The authors present the case of a 59-year-old female patient who looked for medical attention complaining of abdominal pain. Physical examination and laboratory workup were poor in diagnostic findings. The computed tomography images were compatible with the diagnosis of appendicitis and/or appendiceal neoplasia. The patient underwent a laparotomy and right hemicolectomy. The histological examination disclosed a moderately differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix stage T4a, N0, M0. The patient outcome was uneventful and was referred to an oncological center.

  1. Biochemical Analysis of CagE: A VirB4 Homologue of Helicobacter pylori Cag-T4SS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Shariq

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori are among the most successful human pathogens that harbour a distinct genomic segment called cag Pathogenicity Island (cag-PAI. This genomic segment codes for a type IV secretion system (Cag-T4SS related to the prototypical VirB/D4 system of Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Ag, a plant pathogen. Some of the components of Cag-T4SS share homology to that of VirB proteins including putative energy providing CagE (HP0544, the largest VirB4 homologue. In Ag, VirB4 is required for the assembly of the system, substrate translocation and pilus formation, however, very little is known about CagE. Here we have characterised the protein biochemically, genetically, and microscopically and report that CagE is an inner membrane associated active NTPase and has multiple interacting partners including the inner membrane proteins CagV and Cagβ. Through CagV it is connected to the outer membrane sub-complex proteins. Stability of CagE is not dependent on several of the cag-PAI proteins tested. However, localisation and stability of the pilus associated CagI, CagL and surface associated CagH are affected in its absence. Stability of the inner membrane associated energetic component Cagβ, a VirD4 homologue seems to be partially affected in its absence. Additionally, CagA failed to cross the membrane barriers in its absence and no IL-8 induction is observed under infection condition. These results thus suggest the importance of CagE in Cag-T4SS functions. In future it may help in deciphering the mechanism of substrate translocation by the system.

  2. Optical performance of W/B4C multilayer mirror in the soft x-ray region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, P. C.; Majhi, A.; Nayak, M.

    2018-03-01

    W/B4C x-ray multilayers (MLs) with 300 layer pairs and a period in the range of d = 2-1.6 nm are fabricated and investigated for the x-ray optical element in the soft x-ray regime. The structural analyses of the MLs are carried out by using hard x-ray reflectivity (HXR) measurements at 8.047 keV. Well-defined successive higher order Bragg peaks (up to 3rd order) in HXR data collected up to glancing incidence angles of ˜9° reveal a good quality of the periodic structure. The ML mirrors have an average interface width of ˜0.35 nm and have a compressive residual stress of ˜0.183 GPa and 0. 827 GPa for d = 1.62 nm and d = 1.98 nm, respectively. MLs maintain structural stability over a long time, with a slight increase in interface widths of the W layers by 0.1 nm due to self-diffusion. Soft x-ray reflectivity (SXR) performances are evaluated in the energy range of 650 to 1500 eV. At energy ˜ 1489 eV, measured reflectivities (energy resolution, ΔE) are ˜ 10% (19 eV) and 4.5% (13 eV) at glancing incident angles of 12.07° and 15° for MLs having periods of 1.98 nm and 1.62 nm, respectively. The optical performance from 1600 eV to 4500 eV is theoretically analysed by considering the measured structural parameters. The structure-stress-optical performance is correlated on the basis of the mechanism of film growth. The implications of W/B4C MLs are discussed, particularly with respect to the development of ML optics with high spectral selectivity and reflectance for soft x-ray instruments.

  3. Ballistic Impact Behavior of Nacre-Like Laminated Composites Consisting of B4C Tablets and Polyurea Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujicic, M.; Snipes, J. S.; Ramaswami, S.

    2016-03-01

    A nacre-like composite armor consisting of B4C tablets and polyurea matrix is modeled, and its ballistic impact behavior and penetration resistance (under a normal and a 15°-oblique impact by a solid right circular cylindrical projectile) were analyzed using a series of transient, nonlinear dynamic, finite-element analyses. Nacre is a biological material constituting the innermost layer of the shells of gastropods and bivalves. It consists of polygonal tablets of aragonite, tessellated to form individual layers and having the adjacent layers as well as the tablets within a layer bonded by a biopolymer. Due to its highly complex hierarchical microstructure, nacre possesses an outstanding combination of mechanical properties, the properties which are far superior to the ones that are predicted using the homogenization techniques such as the rule of mixtures. The results of the transient nonlinear dynamic analysis pertaining to the ballistic impact response and the penetration resistance of the modeled nacre-like armor are compared with their counterparts for the B4C single-block armor having an identical areal density. Furthermore, the effect of various nacre microstructural features (e.g., surface profiling, micron-scale asperities, mineral bridges between the overlapping tablets lying in adjacent layers) on the ballistic penetration resistance of the nacre-like composite armor is investigated in order to identify an optimal nacre-like composite-armor architecture having the largest penetration resistance. The results obtained clearly show that a nacre-like armor possesses a superior penetration resistance relative to its monolithic counterpart, and that the nacre microstructural features considered play a critical role in the armor penetration resistance.

  4. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  5. Duplication of appendix: an accidental finding

    OpenAIRE

    Varshney, Manoranjan; Shahid, Mohammad; Maheshwari, Veena; Mubeen, Aysha; Gaur, Kavita

    2011-01-01

    Duplication of appendix is extremely rare anomaly. The reported incidence is 0.004–0.009%. In most of the cases the finding is accidental. Here the authors are presenting a case of type A duplex appendix in a 25-year male patient.

  6. Interval Appendicectomy and Management of Appendix Mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wholly conservative management without interval appendicectomy was instituted for 13 patients diagnosed as having appendix mass between 1998 and 2002 in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Within three days of admission, one patient developed clinical features of ruptured appendix and ...

  7. Necrotizing arteritis of the appendix

    OpenAIRE

    Ciudad Cavero, Adriana; Purón del Aguila, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    In the pathological study of prophylactically removed appendices or appendicular present clinical pictures , you may find lesions of necrotizing arteritis. In 1932 , Plaut (13 ) described for the first time , this appendix necrotizing lesion at the level of small arteries and arterioles , as a specific and focal manifestation. From then until now , several authors have presented their contribution in this regard, sometimes describing the injury, individual personality , and others , relating ...

  8. Susceptibility of Meningococcal Strains Responsible for Two Serogroup B Outbreaks on U.S. University Campuses to Serum Bactericidal Activity Elicited by the MenB-4C Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Raffaella; Beernink, Peter T; Giuntini, Serena; Granoff, Dan M

    2015-12-01

    In 2013 and 2014, two U.S. universities had meningococcal serogroup B outbreaks (a total of 14 cases) caused by strains from two different clonal complexes. To control the outbreaks, students were immunized with a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine (Novartis) that was not yet licensed in the United States. The vaccine (referred to as MenB-4C) contains four components capable of eliciting bactericidal activity. Both outbreak strains had high expression levels of two of the vaccine antigens (subfamily B factor H binding protein [FHbp] and neisserial heparin binding antigen [NHba]); the university B outbreak strain also had moderate expression of a third antigen, NadA. We investigated the bactericidal activity of sera from mice immunized with FHbp, NHba, or NadA and sera from MenB-4C-immunized infant macaques and an adult human. The postimmunization bactericidal activity of the macaque or human serum against isolates from university B with FHbp identification (ID) 1 that exactly matched the vaccine FHbp sequence variant was 8- to 21-fold higher than that against isolates from university A with FHbp ID 276 (96% identity to the vaccine antigen). Based on the bactericidal activity of mouse antisera to FHbp, NadA, or NHba and macaque or human postimmunization serum that had been depleted of anti-FHbp antibody, the bactericidal activity against both outbreak strains largely or entirely resulted from antibodies to FHbp. Thus, despite the high level of strain expression of FHbp from a subfamily that matched the vaccine antigen, there can be large differences in anti-FHbp bactericidal activity induced by MenB-4C vaccination. Further, strains with moderate to high NadA and/or NHba expression can be resistant to anti-NadA or anti-NHba bactericidal activity elicited by MenB-4C vaccination. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Are uranium reserves adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Against a backdrop of growing concerns about global warming and geopolitical pressures on fossil energies, especially natural gas and oil, interest in nuclear power has revived considerably. Conscious of its addiction to oil and reeling from a series of gigantic blackouts, the United States, in the words of its president, must 'aggressively move forward with the construction of nuclear power plants'. Some European countries have approved new power plant construction (Finland and France), while the more reserved ones (Belgium, Germany and Sweden) have begun to show a change in attitude. Asia, meanwhile, is host to the planet's largest number of potential nuclear construction projects in this first half of the 21. century. All these signs point to a sharp rise in uranium consumption, the basic fuel for these plants. But are there enough resources to support a nuclear revival on a planetary scale? The publication of the Red Book on uranium in late May 2006 was an opportunity for Thierry Dujardin, Deputy Director of Science and Development at the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency, to take stock of resources. He gives his opinion in this paper

  10. Rapid Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Based on Flocculation and Reduction of an Exopolysaccharide from Arthrobacter sp. B4: Its Antimicrobial Activity and Phytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yumei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were rapidly synthesized using an exopolysaccharide from Arthrobacter sp. B4 (B4-EPS. The optimum condition for AgNPs synthesis was under the concentration of 5 g/L B4-EPS and 1 mM AgNO3 at 80°C between pH 7.0 and 8.0. The resulting AgNPs displayed a face-centred-cubic structure with the size range from 9 nm to 72 nm. Further analysis showed that flocculation and reduction of B4-EPS played a pivotal role in the formation of AgNPs. Furthermore, these nanoparticles exhibited great stability, excellent antimicrobial activity, and low phytotoxicity. The aforementioned data provide a feasible and efficient approach for green synthesis of AgNPs using microbial polysaccharides with flocculation and reduction activity, which will be promising in medical filed.

  11. 17 CFR 240.3b-4 - Definition of “foreign government,” “foreign issuer” and “foreign private issuer”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... government,â âforeign issuerâ and âforeign private issuerâ. 240.3b-4 Section 240.3b-4 Commodity and... Definition of “foreign government,” “foreign issuer” and “foreign private issuer”. (a) The term foreign... country. (c) The term foreign private issuer means any foreign issuer other than a foreign government...

  12. Duplex vermiform appendix: case report of a ruptured second appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, John R; Weppner, Justin L; Paugh, James C

    2008-09-01

    Although the finding of appendiceal duplication is uncommon, its misdiagnosis and mismanagement may yield poor clinical outcomes and serious medicolegal consequences. Laparoscopic surgical exploration was performed on a 17-year-old male patient with right lower quadrant pain and a history of a previous appendectomy. Inspection of the cecum revealed a second appendix, which was retrocecal, ruptured, and gangrenous. Appendiceal duplication should be considered in all cases of lower abdominal pain, and careful inspection of the cecum for appendiceal anomalies should be performed. The Cave-Wallbridge classification system will be presented to assist surgeons in diagnosing appendiceal duplications.

  13. Protection against type 1 diabetes upon Coxsackievirus B4 infection and iNKT-cell stimulation: role of suppressive macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazarian, Liana; Diana, Julien; Beaudoin, Lucie; Larsson, Pär G; Puri, Raj K; van Rooijen, Nico; Flodström-Tullberg, Malin; Lehuen, Agnès

    2013-11-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells belong to the innate immune system and exercise a dual role as potent regulators of autoimmunity and participate in responses against different pathogens. They have been shown to prevent type 1 diabetes development and to promote antiviral responses. Many studies in the implication of environmental factors on the etiology of type 1 diabetes have suggested a link between enteroviral infections and the development of this disease. This study of the pancreatropic enterovirus Coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4) shows that although infection accelerated type 1 diabetes development in a subset of proinsulin 2-deficient NOD mice, the activation of iNKT cells by a specific agonist, α-galactosylceramide, at the time of infection inhibited the disease. Diabetes development was associated with the infiltration of pancreatic islets by inflammatory macrophages, producing high levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α and activation of anti-islet T cells. On the contrary, macrophages infiltrating the islets after CVB4 infection and iNKT-cell stimulation expressed a number of suppressive enzymes, among which indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase was sufficient to inhibit anti-islet T-cell response and to prevent diabetes. This study highlights the critical interaction between virus and the immune system in the acceleration or prevention of type 1 diabetes.

  14. Hypercholesterolemia Increases the Production of Leukotriene B4 in Neutrophils by Enhancing the Nuclear Localization of 5-Lipoxygenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Feng Lai

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Neutrophils can synthesize leukotriene B4 (LTB4 by activating the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOsignaling pathway. LTB4 is a pro-inflammatory mediator associated with the etiology and progression of atherosclerosis. It can increase function and number of neutrophils in an autocrine manner. Since hypercholesterolemia is associated with an increase in the number and function of neutrophils, we hypothesized that this effect could be mediated through increased production of LTB4 in neutrophils. Methods/Results: Hypercholesterolemia was modeled in Wistar rats by feeding them with a high cholesterol diet. The induction of hypercholesterolemia caused an increase in the plasma levels of LTB4, following lipopolysaccharide stimulation. This effect was recapitulated in vitro, both in the presence and absence of stimulation with the activator of 5-LO, A23187. Neutrophils in hypercholesterolemia rats expressed similar total levels of 5-LO as control rats, but displayed increased nuclear localization of 5-LO, as well as elevated levels of phosphorylated 5-LO and ERK1/2. In vitro, MβCD/cholesterol complexes enriched cholesterol in neutrophils, resulted in similar changes in 5-LO/LTB4. In addition, these alterations could be inhibited with the ERK inhibitor PD98059. Conclusion: Hypercholesterolemia increases LTB4 production in neutrophils by increasing the nuclear localization of 5-LO, which is the result of its phosphorylation by activated ERK1/2.

  15. Laser induced fluorescence of TiD: analysis of the B4Γ-X4Φ transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielsson, M

    2007-01-01

    A titanium hollow cathode lamp in combination with a dye laser and a monochromator has been used to resolve the laser-induced fluorescence of the TiD molecule. This has enabled the extension of the earlier rotational analysis of the (0,0) band of the B 4 Γ-X 4 Φ transition. In addition, the (1,1) band and part of the (2,2) band have been observed and analyzed. All earlier works on the TiD and TiH molecules concern the (0,0) band. The present work is the first to report experimentally determined equilibrium constants for TiD. For the ground state X 4 Φ the principal parameters are (in cm -1 ) A e =33.075, B e =2.7804, D e =6.819x10 -5 and α e =0.0466. By using the isotope relationships the corresponding equilibrium parameters for the TiH molecule are given

  16. Evidence for eosinophil recruitment, leukotriene B4 production and mast cell hyperplasia following Toxocara canis infection in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Carlos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that eosinophilia is a key pathogenetic component of toxocariasis. The objective of the present study was to determine if there is an association between peritoneal and blood eosinophil influx, mast cell hyperplasia and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 production after Toxocara canis infection. Oral inoculation of 56-day-old Wistar rats (N = 5-7 per group with 1000 embryonated eggs containing third-stage (L3 T. canis larvae led to a robust accumulation of total leukocytes in blood beginning on day 3 and peaking on day 18, mainly characterized by eosinophils and accompanied by higher serum LTB4 levels. At that time, we also noted increased eosinophil numbers in the peritoneal cavity. In addition, we observed increased peritoneal mast cell number in the peritoneal cavity, which correlated with the time course of eosinophilia during toxocariasis. We also demonstrated that mast cell hyperplasia in the intestines and lungs began soon after the T. canis larvae migrated to these compartments, reaching maximal levels on day 24, which correlated with the complete elimination of the parasite. Therefore, mast cells appear to be involved in peritoneal and blood eosinophil infiltration through an LTB4-dependent mechanism following T. canis infection in rats. Our data also demonstrate a tight association between larval migratory stages and intestinal and pulmonary mast cell hyperplasia in the toxocariasis model.

  17. PDGFRA, HSD17B4 and HMGB2 are potential therapeutic targets in polycystic ovarian syndrome and breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huiyu; Han, Yong; Lou, Jiaying; Zhang, Hongxian; Zhao, Yue; Győrffy, Balázs; Li, Rong

    2017-01-01

    To explore the key genes associated with both PCOS and breast cancer, we overlapped the synchronously differently expressed genes in two obese insulin-resistant GEO datasets in muscle tissue and genes exert essential roles in breast cancer prognosis together base on the following reasons: (1) Androgens excess is believed to contribute to the onset of both PCOS and breast cancer. (2) PCOS is usually complicated with metabolic symptoms, such as obesity and insulin-resistance. (3) Muscle is the main place where energy metabolism and material metabolism take place. Consequently, 53 genes were found, functionally enriched in pathways such as pyruvate metabolism, muscle system process and development of primary male sexual characteristics etc. We further lay our eyes on genes correlated with male sexual characteristics, which may be involved in the onset of both PCOS and breast cancer. Three genes were indicated to be associated with this process, including hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 4/HSD17B4, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, alpha polypeptide/PDGFRA and high-mobility group box 2/HMGB2. Gene-drug interaction network about the three genes were then constructed. Drugs or chemicals that contribute to correcting the disorder of lipid metabolism were detected to restore the abnormal expression of the three genes in PCOS, such as simvastatin, bezafibrate, fenofibrate et al, which provide further choices for managing patients with PCOS. PMID:29050221

  18. Properties of B4C in the shocked state for pressures up to 1.5 TPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamp, Andrew; Zurek, Eva; Ogitsu, Tadashi; Fratanduono, Dayne E.; Hamel, Sebastien

    2017-05-01

    Density functional theory calculations using the quasiharmonic approximation have been used to calculate the solid Hugoniot of two polytypes of boron carbide up to 100 GPa. Under the assumption that segregation into the elemental phases occurs around the pressure that the B11Cp (CBC) polytype becomes thermodynamically unstable with respect to boron and carbon, two discontinuities in the Hugoniot, one at 50 GPa and one at 90-100 GPa, are predicted. The former is a result of phase segregation, and the latter a phase transition within boron. First-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulations were employed to calculate the liquid Hugoniot of B4C up to 1.5 TPa, and the results are compared to recent experiments carried out at the Omega Laser Facility up to 700 GPa [D. E. Fratanduono, Phys. Rev. B 94, 184107 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.94.184107]. A generally good agreement between theory and experiment was observed. Analysis of the FPMD simulations provides evidence for an amorphous, but covalently bound, fluid below 438 GPa, and an atomistic fluid at higher pressures and temperatures.

  19. Characterization of Carbon-Contaminated B4C-Coated Optics after Chemically Selective Cleaning with Low-Pressure RF Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Fernández, H; Rogler, D; Sauthier, G; Thomasset, M; Dietsch, R; Carlino, V; Pellegrin, E

    2018-01-22

    Boron carbide (B 4 C) is one of the few materials that is expected to be most resilient with respect to the extremely high brilliance of the photon beam generated by free electron lasers (FELs) and is thus of considerable interest for optical applications in this field. However, as in the case of many other optics operated at light source facilities, B 4 C-coated optics are subject to ubiquitous carbon contaminations. Carbon contaminations represent a serious issue for the operation of FEL beamlines due to severe reduction of photon flux, beam coherence, creation of destructive interference, and scattering losses. A variety of B 4 C cleaning technologies were developed at different laboratories with varying success. We present a study regarding the low-pressure RF plasma cleaning of carbon contaminated B 4 C test samples via inductively coupled O 2 /Ar, H 2 /Ar, and pure O 2 RF plasma produced following previous studies using the same ibss GV10x downstream plasma source. Results regarding the chemistry, morphology as well as other aspects of the B 4 C optical coating before and after the plasma cleaning are reported. We conclude that among the above plasma processes only plasma based on pure O 2 feedstock gas exhibits the required chemical selectivity for maintaining the integrity of the B 4 C optical coatings.

  20. First-principles investigation of neutron-irradiation-induced point defects in B4C, a neutron absorber for sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yan; Yoshida, Katsumi; Yano, Toyohiko

    2018-05-01

    Boron carbide (B4C) is a leading candidate neutron absorber material for sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactors owing to its excellent neutron-capture capability. The formation and migration energies of the neutron-irradiation-induced defects, including vacancies, neutron-capture reaction products, and knocked-out atoms were studied by density functional theory calculations. The vacancy-type defects tend to migrate to the C–B–C chains of B4C, which indicates that the icosahedral cage structures of B4C have strong resistance to neutron irradiation. We found that lithium and helium atoms had significantly lower migration barriers along the rhombohedral (111) plane of B4C than perpendicular to this plane. This implies that the helium and lithium interstitials tended to follow a two-dimensional diffusion regime in B4C at low temperatures which explains the formation of flat disk like helium bubbles experimentally observed in B4C pellets after neutron irradiation. The knocked-out atoms are considered to be annihilated by the recombination of the close pairs of self-interstitials and vacancies.

  1. Appendix - A small scale research review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund

    A small scale research review This appendix provides an analysis of a small scale search for empirical studies regarding the efficacy of adult teacher training. The appendix is a part of a paper delivered at the ASEM conference, June 2009, Bergisch Gladbach, Germany. The paper tries to shed light...... training? This will be illustrated by describing a research design in progress at the National Centre of Competence Development, DK, regarding a program where teachers are taught Cooperative Learning as a pedagogical and didactical method. This appendix concerns the first question. In search for empiric results concerning: What do...

  2. Production of enniatins A, A1, B, B1, B4, J1 by Fusarium tricinctum in solid corn culture: structural analysis and effects on mitochondrial respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Valentina; Randazzo, Antonio; Meca, Giuseppe; Moretti, Antonio; Cascone, Annunziata; Eriksson, Ove; Novellino, Ettore; Ritieni, Alberto

    2013-10-15

    Enniatins (ENs) are secondary fungal metabolites with hexadepsipeptidic chemical structure and they possess a number of potent biological activities that can contaminate several kind of food and foodstuffs increasing the exposure risk for consumers. ENs are produced by several Fusariun strains including Fusarium subglutinans, Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium tricinctum. Production of a mixture of ENs was performed by culturing F. tricinctum ITEM 9496 on white corn as substrate. The solid culture components were dried and subsequently extracted with water/methanol (50/50 v/v, 0.5% NaCl), homogenised, filtered, extracted by ethyl acetate and analysed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (LC-DAD). The crude extract was first separated by low pressure liquid chromatography (LPLC) and then further purified by liquid chromatography (LC), resulting in six compounds with a purity higher than 95% as calculated by (1)H NMR, and with a yield of 30-300mg per compound. The chemical structures of the ENs were determined by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The biological activity of the resulting ENs was determined using a mitochondrial respiration test. We discovered that all the ENs studied induced an increase in the mitochondrial respiration resulting in uncoupling of the oxidative phosphorylation. This effect was most likely due to flux of K(+) ions into the mitochondrial matrix. The order of potency of the ENs derivatives was: A1>B1>B>A>B4>J1. These results suggest a correlation between the chemical structures and bioactivity and confirm the severe risks for human associated with consumption of enniatins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Deletion of Galgt2 (B4Galnt2) reduces muscle growth in response to acute injury and increases muscle inflammation and pathology in dystrophin-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Singhal, Neha; Serinagaoglu, Yelda; Chandrasekharan, Kumaran; Joshi, Mandar; Bauer, John A; Janssen, Paulus M L; Martin, Paul T

    2015-10-01

    Transgenic overexpression of Galgt2 (official name B4Galnt2) in skeletal muscle stimulates the glycosylation of α dystroglycan (αDG) and the up-regulation of laminin α2 and dystrophin surrogates known to inhibit muscle pathology in mouse models of congenital muscular dystrophy 1A and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Skeletal muscle Galgt2 gene expression is also normally increased in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy compared with the wild-type mice. To assess whether this increased endogenous Galgt2 expression could affect disease, we quantified muscular dystrophy measures in mdx mice deleted for Galgt2 (Galgt2(-/-)mdx). Galgt2(-/-) mdx mice had increased heart and skeletal muscle pathology and inflammation, and also worsened cardiac function, relative to age-matched mdx mice. Deletion of Galgt2 in wild-type mice also slowed skeletal muscle growth in response to acute muscle injury. In each instance where Galgt2 expression was elevated (developing muscle, regenerating muscle, and dystrophic muscle), Galgt2-dependent glycosylation of αDG was also increased. Overexpression of Galgt2 failed to inhibit skeletal muscle pathology in dystroglycan-deficient muscles, in contrast to previous studies in dystrophin-deficient mdx muscles. This study demonstrates that Galgt2 gene expression and glycosylation of αDG are dynamically regulated in muscle and that endogenous Galgt2 gene expression can ameliorate the extent of muscle pathology, inflammation, and dysfunction in mdx mice. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. HTLV-1 specific CD8+ T cell function augmented by blockade of 2B4/CD48 interaction in HTLV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibueze Chioma Ezinne

    Full Text Available CD8+ T cell response is important in the response to viral infections; this response though is regulated by inhibitory receptors. Expression of inhibitory receptors has been positively correlated with CD8+ T cell exhaustion; the consequent effect of simultaneous blockade of these inhibitory receptors on CD8+ T cell response in viral infections have been studied, however, the role of individual blockade of receptor-ligand pair is unclear. 2B4/CD48 interaction is involved in CD8+T cell regulation, its signal transducer SAP (signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM-associated protein is required for stimulatory function of 2B4/CD244 on lymphocytes hence, we analyzed 2B4/CD244 (natural killer cell receptor and SAP (signaling lymphocyte activation molecule(SLAM-associated protein on total CD8+ and HTLV-1 specific CD8+T cells in HTLV-1 infection and the effect of blockade of interaction with ligand CD48 on HTLV-1 specific CD8+ T cell function. We observed a high expression of 2B4/CD244 on CD8+ T cells relative to uninfected and further upregulation on HTLV-1 specific CD8+ T cells. 2B4+ CD8+ T cells exhibited more of an effector and terminally differentiated memory phenotype. Blockade of 2B4/CD48 interaction resulted in improvement in function via perforin expression and degranulation as measured by CD107a surface mobilization on HTLV-1 specific CD8+ T cells. In the light of these findings, we thus propose an inhibitory role for 2B4/CD48 interaction on CD8+T cell function.

  5. Villous adenoma of the distal appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J V; Thomas, M G; Kelly, S; Sutton, R

    1997-04-01

    Villous adenoma confined to the distal appendix has not been previously reported in conjunction with acute apendicitis. The presence of an adenoma indicates a need for further investigation due to an association with neoplasia elsewhere.

  6. The vermiform appendix: not a useless organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Aliya

    2004-04-01

    The appendix has often been seen more as a nuisance rather than an important part of the human anatomy. Early misconceptions have led to the indiscriminate removal of the appendix from the body. Long thought to be an evolutionary remnant of little significance to normal physiology, the appendix has more recently been identified as an important component of mammalian mucosal immune function, particularly B-lymphocyte-mediated immune responses and extrathymically derived T-lymphocytes. This structure helps in the proper movement and removal of waste matter in the digestive system, contains lymphatic vessels that regulate pathogens, and lastly, might even produce early defences that prevent deadly diseases. The appendix is one of the guardians of the internal environment of the body from the hostile external environment.

  7. Strategic Sealift. Summary of Workshop on Crewing the Ready Reserve Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    177 Strategic Selfi ~ft Appendix III Crewing the Ready Reserve Force-RADM Carl J. Selberlch, USN (Ret.), American President Lines, Ltd. We at APL as a...their work record through articles and discharges. These functions give rise to a potentially valuable manpower augmentation tool that could be made...community to this proposal, and trust it will be seen no as an invasion of privacy but solely as a tool to be made available to the unions to assist in

  8. Reserves for shutdown/dismantling and disposal in nuclear technology. Theses and recommendations on reform options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    The study on reserves for shutdown, dismantling and disposal of nuclear facilities covers the following topics: cost for shutdown, dismantling and disposal and amount and transparency of nuclear reserves, solution by y stock regulated by public law for long-term liabilities, and improvement of the protection in the event of insolvency for the remaining EVU reserves for short- and intermediate-term liabilities. The appendix includes estimations and empirical values for the cost of shutdown and dismantling, estimation of disposal costs, and a summary of Swiss studies on dismantling and disposal and transfer to Germany.

  9. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 203 - Form and Instructions for Completion of HMDA Loan/Application Register

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM HOME MORTGAGE DISCLOSURE (REGULATION C) Pt. 203, App. A Appendix A...—American Indian or Alaska Native Code 2—Asian Code 3—Black or African American Code 4—Native Hawaiian or...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 203 - Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Ethnicity, Race, and Sex B Appendix B to Part 203 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF... to Part 203—Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex I. Instructions on Collection of Data on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex You may list questions regarding the ethnicity, race, and sex...

  11. Hybridizing micro-Ti with nano-B4C particulates to improve the microstructural and mechanical characteristics of Mg–Ti composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sankaranarayanan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of hybridizing micron-sized titanium particles with nano-sized boron carbide particles on the microstructural and mechanical properties of Mg–Ti composite were investigated. Microstructural characterization revealed grain refinement attributed to the presence of uniformly distributed micro-Ti particles embedded with nano-B4C particulates. Electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD analyses of the Mg–(Ti + B4CBM hybrid composite showed relatively more localized recrystallized grains and lesser tensile twin fraction, when compared to Mg–Ti. The evaluation of mechanical properties indicated that the best combination of strength and ductility was observed in the Mg–(Ti + B4CBM hybrid composite. The superior properties of the Mg–(Ti + B4CBM hybrid composite when compared to Mg–Ti can be attributed to the presence of nano-reinforcement, the uniform distribution of the hybridized particles and the better interfacial bonding between the matrix and the reinforcement particles achieved by nano-B4C addition.

  12. 2B4 expression on natural killer cells increases in HIV-1 infected patients followed prospectively during highly active antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, S R; Ullum, H; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2005-01-01

    by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), low-level viraemia, proviral-DNA or immune activation in HIV-1 infected patients. A total of 101 HAART-treated HIV-1 infected patients with HIV-RNA copies/ml were followed prospectively for 24 months. HIV-RNA was investigated 3-monthly and 2B4...... expression on CD3- CD16+ NK cells and CD3+ CD8+ cells, proviral-DNA and plasma soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor (sTNFr)-II were investigated 6-monthly. For comparison, 2B4 expression was investigated in 20 healthy individuals. The concentration of 2B4+ NK cells was initially reduced in HIV-1 infected...... follow-up (both P DNA carrying cells and plasma sTNFrII were associated with reductions in the concentration of 2B4+ NK cells (all P HIV-RNA had no effect on 2B4 expression on NK cells or CD3+ CD8+ cells. These findings demonstrate that the concentration of 2B...

  13. Nuclear ErbB4 signaling through H3K9me3 is antagonized by EGFR-activated c-Src.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Kenichi; Fukumoto, Yasunori; Hasegawa, Hitomi; Abe, Kohei; Kubota, Shoichi; Aoyama, Kazumasa; Kubota, Sho; Nakayama, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2013-01-15

    The ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases comprises four members: epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ErbB1, HER2/ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4, and plays roles in signal transduction at the plasma membrane upon ligand stimulation. Stimulation with neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) cleaves ErbB4 and releases the ErbB4 intracellular domain (4ICD) that translocates into the nucleus to control gene expression. However, little is known about the regulation of 4ICD nuclear signaling through tyrosine phosphorylation. We show here that 4ICD nuclear signaling is antagonized by EGF-induced c-Src activation through EGFR. Generation of 4ICD by NRG-1 leads to increased levels of trimethylated histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9me3) in a manner dependent on the nuclear accumulation of 4ICD and its tyrosine kinase activity. Once EGF activates c-Src downstream of EGFR concomitantly with NRG-1-induced ErbB4 activation, c-Src associates with phospho-Tyr950 and phospho-Tyr1056 on 4ICD, thereby decreasing nuclear accumulation of 4ICD and inhibiting an increase of H3K9me3 levels. Moreover, 4ICD-induced transcriptional repression of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is inhibited by EGF-EGFR-Src signaling. Thus, our findings reveal c-Src-mediated inhibitory regulation of ErbB4 nuclear signaling upon EGFR activation.

  14. A phase III study of anti-B4-blocked ricin as adjuvant therapy post-autologous bone marrow transplant: CALGB 9254

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Richard R.; Grossbard, Michael L.; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Pecora, Andrew L.; Cassileth, Peter A.; Jung, Sin-Ho; Peterson, Bruce A.; Nadler, Lee M.; Freedman, Arnold; Bayer, Ruthee-Lu; Bartlett, Nancy L.; Hurd, David D.; Cheson, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Anti-B4-blocked ricin (anti-B4-bR) is a potent immunotoxin directed against the CD 19 antigen. Previous phase I and II studies suggested a possible role for anti-B4-bR as consolidation after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant. Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9254 is a phase III study which randomized 157 patients with B-cell lymphoma in complete remission following autologous transplant to treatment with anti-B4-bR or observation. With a median follow-up time for patients of 5.8 years, the median event-free survival for protocol treatment and observation are 2.1 and 2.9 years, respectively (p = 0.275). The median overall survival for treatment and observation are 6.1 years and not reached, respectively (p = 0.063). Therefore, no differences were found in event-free survival and overall survival between protocol treatment and observation, although there was a trend toward improved survival with observation. These data fail to support a role for anti-B4-bR as consolidative therapy after bone marrow transplant in patients with B-cell lymphoma. PMID:21275630

  15. TGF-β1 down-regulation of NKG2D/DAP10 and 2B4/SAP expression on human NK cells contributes to HBV persistence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Sun

    Full Text Available The mechanism underlying persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV infection remains unclear. We investigated the role of innate immune responses to persistent HBV infection in 154 HBV-infected patients and 95 healthy controls. The expression of NKG2D- and 2B4-activating receptors on NK cells was significantly decreased, and moreover, the expression of DAP10 and SAP, the intracellular adaptor proteins of NKG2D and 2B4 (respectively, were lower, which then impaired NK cell-mediated cytotoxic capacity and interferon-γ production. Higher concentrations of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1 were found in sera from persistently infected HBV patients. TGF-β1 down-regulated the expression of NKG2D and 2B4 on NK cells in our in vitro study, leading to an impairment of their effector functions. Anti-TGF-β1 antibodies could restore the expression of NKG2D and 2B4 on NK cells in vitro. Furthermore, TGF-β1 induced cell-cycle arrest in NK cells by up-regulating the expression of p15 and p21 in NK cells from immunotolerant (IT patients. We conclude that TGF-β1 may reduce the expression of NKG2D/DAP10 and 2B4/SAP, and those IT patients who are deficient in these double-activating signals have impaired NK cell function, which is correlated with persistent HBV infection.

  16. 13 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 113

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... International Trade Program Small Business Act, sec. 22 and Pub. L. 96-481. Service Corps of Retired Executives... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 113 A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 113 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION...

  17. 13 CFR Appendix A to Part 1171 - Appendix A to Part 1171

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... International Trade Program Small Business Act, section 22. Technical and Management Assistance Small Business... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appendix A to Part 1171 A Appendix A to Part 1171 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN...

  18. 13 CFR Appendix A to Part 112 - Appendix A to Part 112

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... development centers Small Business Act, sec. 21 and Pub. L. 96-302. International Trade Program Small Business... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appendix A to Part 112 A Appendix A to Part 112 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix I to Subpart B of... - Appendix I to Subpart B of Part 205

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appendix I to Subpart B of Part 205 I Appendix I to Subpart B of Part 205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks Pt...

  20. Table-like magnetocaloric effect of Fe88−xNdxCr8B4 composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, J.W.; Zheng, Z.G.; Zhong, X.C.; Franco, V.; Montemayor, R.; Liu, Z.W.; Zeng, D.C.

    2015-01-01

    The narrow working temperature range due to the sharp magnetic entropy change |ΔS M | peak and large thermal or magnetic hysteresis restricts the practical application of magnetocaloric materials. In this work, the table-like magnetocaloric effect (MCE) was obtained in the multilayer composite of Fe 88−x Nd x Cr 8 B 4 alloys with various Nd substitutions for Fe (x=5, 8, 10, 12, and 15), which were prepared by arc-melting followed by melt-spinning. The substation of Nd was found to enhance the glass-forming ability. For the alloys with Nd substitution from 5 at% to 15 at%, the Curie temperature (T C ) ranged from 322 K to 350 K and the peak value of |ΔS M | remained almost constant, 3.4–3.5 J/(kg K) under an applied field of 0–5 T. The composite with various Nd contents was prepared by stocking the ribbons layer by layer. The |ΔS M | of the composite approached a nearly constant value of ∼3.2 J/(kg K) in a field change of 0–5 T in a wide temperature span over 40 K, resulting in large refrigerant capacity value of >408 J/kg. This |ΔS M | value was much larger than the previous reported Fe-based amorphous composite Fe 78−x Ce x Si 4 Nb 5 B 12 Cu 1 . This composite can be used as the working material in the Ericsson-cycle magnetic regenerative refrigerator around room temperature. - Highlights: • The T C ranges from 322 K to 350 K when increasing Nd substitution from 5 to 15 at%. • |ΔS M | remains relatively constant, about 3.4–3.5 J/(kg K) under H=0–5 T. • RC decreases from 93 to 78 J/kg in a field change of 1.5 T when Nd increasing. • Table-like MCE ,|ΔS M | ~3.2J/kg K under 0–5 T, appeared in the composite. • A wide working temperature range (40 K) and enhanced RC (>408J/kg) were obtained in the composite

  1. Bone infected/inflamed conditions: Clinical experience with RP517, a Tc99m-leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroa, V.; Nicolini, J.; Camin, L.; Ughetti, R.; Velasquez, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Objectives: Tc 99m- RP517- is a receptor antagonist of Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) labelling predominantly neutrophils, in whole blood. The aim of this clinical trial was to obtain the best acquisition protocol and performance of this agent in detecting bone, joint and soft tissue infected / inflamed pathologies. Methods: RP517 was labelled with 15-20 mCi (555-740MBq) Tc99m per doses. Twenty-six patients studied (F 14, M 12) with range ages 19- 93, suspected of bone, joint and soft tissue infection (25) and one with fever of unknown origin (FUO). Laboratory data, anatomical images and one other scintiscan (MDP, Ga-67 or Tc99m- ciprofloxacin) were evaluated. Acquisition protocol: flow, 30 min, 1, 2, 3, 4 - 24h planar or Spect images as required. Results documented with histology, cultures or clinical follow up. Scans were classified as positive when abnormal uptake persisted in the 24h images or negative when positivity faded, or not detected in later images. Results: Labeling efficiency 86-90%. No adverse reactions encountered. Image protocol modified to a flow, 30 min, 4 and 24h images. Ten-fifteen % of in vivo leucocyte labelling at 1h. Early bile and intestinal excretion did not improve with cleansing enemas or food restrain. Late bone marrow activity is less visible than with in vitro leucocyte labeling. Only 16 patients had proven biopsies and cultures with coincident images in 8 True Positive; other 6 cases were True Negative, 2 False Negative (with positive Ga-67 and Tc99m-ciprofloxacin) and no False Positive. Sensitivity 80%, Specificity 100%. Conclusions: A kit should be produced in order to make it easily available. Pharmaceutically manipulation altering the excretion route could validate studies in abdominal infections and FUO that are now disesteemed. Protocol images must include 24h scans. Advantage of RP517 is the lack of cell labeling manipulation. Larger series must be studied to obtain statistics on joint bone and soft tissue infection

  2. Oak Ridge Reservation annual site environmental report for 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) consists of three major government-owned, contractor-operated facilities: the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and East Tennessee Technology Park. The ORR was established in the early 1940s as part of the Manhattan Project, a secret undertaking that produced materials for the first atomic bombs. The reservation’s role has evolved over the years, and it continues to adapt to meet the changing defense, energy, and research needs of the United States. Both the work carried out for the war effort and subsequent research, development, and production activities have involved, and continue to involve, the use of radiological and hazardous materials. The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report and supporting data are available at http://www.ornl.gov/sci/env_rpt or from the project director. This document is prepared annually to summarize environmental activities, primarily environmental monitoring activities, on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and within the ORR surroundings. The document fulfills the requirement of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting, for an annual summary of environmental data to characterize environmental performance. The environmental monitoring criteria are described in DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program. The results summarized in this report are based on data collected prior to and through 2008. This report is not intended to provide the results of all sampling on the ORR. Additional data collected for other site and regulatory purposes, such as environmental restoration/remedial investigation reports, waste management characterization sampling data, and environmental permit compliance data, are presented in other documents that have been prepared in accordance with applicable DOE guidance and/or laws and are referenced herein as appropriate. Corrections to the report for the previous year are found in Appendix

  3. No appendix necessary: Fecal transplants and antibiotics can resolve Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Tejas; Elderd, Bret D; Abbott, Karen C

    2018-04-07

    The appendix has been hypothesized to protect the colon against Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) by providing a continuous source of commensal bacteria that crowd out the potentially unhealthy bacteria and/or by contributing to defensive immune dynamics. Here, a series of deterministic systems comprised of ordinary differential equations, which treat the system as an ecological community of microorganisms, model the dynamics of colon microbiome. The first model includes migration of commensal bacteria from the appendix to the gut, while the second model expands this to also include immune dynamics. Simulations and simple analytic techniques are used to explore dynamics under biologically relevant parameters values. Both models exhibited bistability with steady states of a healthy state and of fulminant CDI. However, we find that the appendix size was much too small for migration to affect the stability of the system. Both models affirm the use of fecal transplants in conjunction with antibiotic use for CDI treatment, while the second model also suggests that anti-inflammatory drugs may protect against CDI. Ultimately, in general neither the appendiceal migration rate of commensal microbiota nor the boost to antibody production could exert an appreciable impact on the stability of the system, thus failing to support the proposed protective role of the appendix against CDI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. ONE OF THE LONGEST APPENDIX: A RARE CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkat Rao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The vermiform appendix is an organ that can have variable sizes. We are prompted to report here one of the longest appendix removed, measuring about 16cm in length. INTRODUCTION : The vermiform appendix is an organ that can vary in size, site, and presence, as well as in other clinical and functional aspects. We describe here one of the longest appendix removed, measuring about 16cm in length in a case of acute appendicitis

  5. Friction Stir Welding of Al-B4C Composite Fabricated by Accumulative Roll Bonding: Evaluation of Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Faradonbeh, Alireza; Shamanian, Morteza; Edris, Hossein; Paidar, Moslem; Bozkurt, Yahya

    2018-02-01

    In this investigation, friction stir welding (FSW) of Al-B4C composite fabricated by 10 cycles accumulative roll bonding was conducted. In order to investigate the influences of pin geometry on microstructure and mechanical properties, four different pin geometries (cylindrical, square, triangular and hexagonal) were selected. It was found that FSW parameters had a major effect on the fragmentation and distribution of reinforcement particles in stir zone. When the tool travel speed was increased, the distribution of B4C particles was become gradually uniform in the aluminum matrix. The effect of tool rotational speed on the peak temperature was determined to be greater than the tool travel speed. The attained data of tensile properties and microhardness tests showed that the tool travel speed had bilateral effect on the tensile strength. The maximum tensile joint efficiency was obtained as 238% for FSWed of Al-2%B4C composite to annealed base Al sheet.

  6. Influence of B4C-doping and high-energy ball milling on phase formation and critical current density of (Bi,Pb)-2223 HTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margiani, N. G.; Mumladze, G. A.; Adamia, Z. A.; Kuzanyan, A. S.; Zhghamadze, V. V.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the combined effects of B4C-doping and planetary ball milling on the phase evolution, microstructure and transport properties of Bi1.7Pb0.3Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy(B4C)x HTS with x = 0 ÷ 0.125 were studied through X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), resistivity and critical current density measurements. Obtained results have shown that B4C additive leads to the strong acceleration of high-Tc phase formation and substantial enhancement in Jc. High-energy ball milling seems to produce a more homogeneous distribution of refined doped particles in the (Bi,Pb)-2223 HTS which results in an improved intergranular flux pinning and better self-field Jc performance.

  7. Preparation and characteristics of epoxy/clay/B4C nanocomposite at high concentration of boron carbide for neutron shielding application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Mohammad Amin; Ahmadi, Seyed Javad; Outokesh, Mohammad; Adeli, Ruhollah; Mohammadi, Aghil

    2017-12-01

    In this research, the characteristics of the prepared samples in epoxy matrix by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), as well as scanning electron microscope (SEM) are evaluated. Meanwhile, the obtained mechanical properties of the specimen are investigated. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is also employed to evaluate the thermal degradation of manufactured nanocomposites. The thermal neutron absorption properties of nanocomposites containing 3 wt% of montmorillonite nanoclay (closite30B) have been studied experimentally, using an Am-Be point source. Mechanical tests reveal that the higher B4C concentrations, the more tensile strengths, but lower Young's modulus in all samples under consideration. TGA analysis also shows that thermal stability of the nanocomposite, increases in presence of B4C. Finally, neutron absorption analysis shows that increasing the B4C concentration leads to a nonlinearly build-up of neutron absorption cross section.

  8. Friction Stir Welding of Al-B4C Composite Fabricated by Accumulative Roll Bonding: Evaluation of Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Faradonbeh, Alireza; Shamanian, Morteza; Edris, Hossein; Paidar, Moslem; Bozkurt, Yahya

    2018-01-01

    In this investigation, friction stir welding (FSW) of Al-B4C composite fabricated by 10 cycles accumulative roll bonding was conducted. In order to investigate the influences of pin geometry on microstructure and mechanical properties, four different pin geometries (cylindrical, square, triangular and hexagonal) were selected. It was found that FSW parameters had a major effect on the fragmentation and distribution of reinforcement particles in stir zone. When the tool travel speed was increased, the distribution of B4C particles was become gradually uniform in the aluminum matrix. The effect of tool rotational speed on the peak temperature was determined to be greater than the tool travel speed. The attained data of tensile properties and microhardness tests showed that the tool travel speed had bilateral effect on the tensile strength. The maximum tensile joint efficiency was obtained as 238% for FSWed of Al-2%B4C composite to annealed base Al sheet.

  9. Evolution of Diterpene Metabolism: Sitka Spruce CYP720B4 Catalyzes Multiple Oxidations in Resin Acid Biosynthesis of Conifer Defense against Insects1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberger, Björn; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Hamberger, Britta; Séguin, Armand; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Diterpene resin acids (DRAs) are specialized (secondary) metabolites of the oleoresin defense of conifers produced by diterpene synthases and cytochrome P450s of the CYP720B family. The evolution of DRA metabolism shares common origins with the biosynthesis of ent-kaurenoic acid, which is highly conserved in general (primary) metabolism of gibberellin biosynthesis. Transcriptome mining in species of spruce (Picea) and pine (Pinus) revealed CYP720Bs of four distinct clades. We cloned a comprehensive set of 12 different Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) CYP720Bs as full-length cDNAs. Spatial expression profiles, methyl jasmonate induction, and transcript enrichment in terpenoid-producing resin ducts suggested a role of CYP720B4 in DRA biosynthesis. CYP720B4 was characterized as a multisubstrate, multifunctional enzyme by the formation of oxygenated diterpenoids in metabolically engineered yeast, yeast in vivo transformation of diterpene substrates, in vitro assays with CYP720B4 protein produced in Escherichia coli, and alteration of DRA profiles in RNA interference-suppressed spruce seedlings. CYP720B4 was active with 24 different diterpenoid substrates, catalyzing consecutive C-18 oxidations in the biosynthesis of an array of diterpene alcohols, aldehydes, and acids. CYP720B4 was most active in the formation of dehydroabietic acid, a compound associated with insect resistance of Sitka spruce. We identified patterns of convergent evolution of CYP720B4 in DRA metabolism and ent-kaurene oxidase CYP701 in gibberellin metabolism and revealed differences in the evolution of specialized and general diterpene metabolism in a gymnosperm. The genomic and functional characterization of the gymnosperm CYP720B family highlights that the evolution of specialized metabolism involves substantial diversification relative to conserved, general metabolism. PMID:21994349

  10. Evolution of diterpene metabolism: Sitka spruce CYP720B4 catalyzes multiple oxidations in resin acid biosynthesis of conifer defense against insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberger, Björn; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Hamberger, Britta; Séguin, Armand; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2011-12-01

    Diterpene resin acids (DRAs) are specialized (secondary) metabolites of the oleoresin defense of conifers produced by diterpene synthases and cytochrome P450s of the CYP720B family. The evolution of DRA metabolism shares common origins with the biosynthesis of ent-kaurenoic acid, which is highly conserved in general (primary) metabolism of gibberellin biosynthesis. Transcriptome mining in species of spruce (Picea) and pine (Pinus) revealed CYP720Bs of four distinct clades. We cloned a comprehensive set of 12 different Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) CYP720Bs as full-length cDNAs. Spatial expression profiles, methyl jasmonate induction, and transcript enrichment in terpenoid-producing resin ducts suggested a role of CYP720B4 in DRA biosynthesis. CYP720B4 was characterized as a multisubstrate, multifunctional enzyme by the formation of oxygenated diterpenoids in metabolically engineered yeast, yeast in vivo transformation of diterpene substrates, in vitro assays with CYP720B4 protein produced in Escherichia coli, and alteration of DRA profiles in RNA interference-suppressed spruce seedlings. CYP720B4 was active with 24 different diterpenoid substrates, catalyzing consecutive C-18 oxidations in the biosynthesis of an array of diterpene alcohols, aldehydes, and acids. CYP720B4 was most active in the formation of dehydroabietic acid, a compound associated with insect resistance of Sitka spruce. We identified patterns of convergent evolution of CYP720B4 in DRA metabolism and ent-kaurene oxidase CYP701 in gibberellin metabolism and revealed differences in the evolution of specialized and general diterpene metabolism in a gymnosperm. The genomic and functional characterization of the gymnosperm CYP720B family highlights that the evolution of specialized metabolism involves substantial diversification relative to conserved, general metabolism.

  11. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 135 - Extended Operations (ETOPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... this appendix, (after completing the wind calculation in G135.2.7(a)(2) of this appendix), the... anticipation of possible icing during the diversion: (i) Fuel that would be burned as a result of airframe... completing the wind calculation in paragraph G135.2.7(a)(2) of this appendix), the certificate holder must...

  12. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 275 - Obtaining Customer Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining Customer Authorization B Appendix B to... OF 1978 Pt. 275, App. B Appendix B to Part 275—Obtaining Customer Authorization A. A DoD law... feasible, obtain the customer's consent. B. Any authorization obtained under paragraph A. of this appendix...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 66 - Technical Support Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technical Support Document A Appendix A to Part 66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...—Technical Support Document Note: For text of appendix A see appendix A to part 67. ...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 66 - Instruction Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Instruction Manual B Appendix B to Part 66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Manual Note: For text of appendix B see appendix B to part 67. ...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 172 - Trefoil Symbol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trefoil Symbol B Appendix B to Part 172... SECURITY PLANS Pt. 172, App. B Appendix B to Part 172—Trefoil Symbol 1. Except as provided in paragraph 2 of this appendix, the trefoil symbol required for RADIOACTIVE labels and placards and required to be...

  16. Mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix: a case report | Alese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tumours of the appendix are emerging as diseases of increasing concern due to a rising incidence1. We present a case of mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix in an elderly patient. To our knowledge, this is the first report of mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix from Nigeria. Key Words: Appendiceal tumour, ...

  17. Management of appendix mass in a Nigerian rural district | Umunna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The traditional management of an appendix mass is conservative, followed by interval appendicectomy. Interval appendicectomy is now controversial. Aim: To present an experience with the management of appendix mass among a rural people in Nigeria. Methods: Patients presenting with appendix masses ...

  18. Microstructure and electrical properties of slug-type resistors based on B4C and TiC - ESCA - XPS and impedance spectroscopy investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimiec, E.; Zaraska, W.; Stobiecki, T.; Bak, W.; Starzyk, F.

    2000-01-01

    The microstructure and electrical properties of slug-type resistors based on B 4 C and TiC were investigated. From XPS measurements was deducted that Ti in TiO 2 is in intermediate oxidation number between Ti +4 and Ti +3 . The impedance of both type of resistors is independent on frequency in the range from 10 3 to 10 4 Hz, only very subtle differences above 10 4 Hz are observed. The metallic type conductivity in TiC and semiconducting in B 4 C was established. (author)

  19. Radioactive wastes. Management prospects. Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.

    2003-01-01

    These appendixes complete the article BN3661 entitled 'Radioactive wastes. Management prospects'. They develop the principles of the different separation processes under study and make a status of the conditioning matrices that are envisaged: 1 - principles of advanced separation (separation of U, Np, Pu, Tc and I; separation of Am and Cm in two extraction steps (Diamex and Sanex processes); separation of Am and Cm in a single extraction step (Paladin process); separation of Am and Cm (Sesame process); separation of Cs (Calixarene process); 2 - principles of separation in pyro-chemistry: separation under inert atmosphere (non-oxidizing); separation in oxidizing conditions; 3 - conditioning matrices under study for separate elements: objectives and methodology, matrices for iodine, for cesium and for actinides. (J.S.)

  20. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  1. 7 CFR Appendix B to Subpart E of... - Federal Reserve Statistical Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PREPAYMENT OF RUS GUARANTEED AND INSURED LOANS TO... “flower” bond. 15 Estimate of the yield on a recently offered, A-rated utility bond with a maturity of 30...

  2. 15 CFR Appendix II to Part 921 - Typology of National Estuarine Research Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vertical salinity gradients, and more rapid sedimentation. However, if the estuary mouth is restricted by... an estuary as it affects water exchange and its vertical range determines the extent of tidal flats... is drained from the land and measurably dilutes seawater to create a brackish condition. Freshwater...

  3. 14 CFR Appendix H to Part 23 - Installation of An Automatic Power Reserve (APR) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... failure, transmit signals, actuate fuel controls or power levers on operating engines, including power... power lever position; and (c) That shown to be free of hazardous engine response characteristics when...; (3) Prevent deactivation of the APR by manual adjustment of the power levers following an engine...

  4. EphB4 Tyrosine Kinase Stimulation Inhibits Growth of MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells in a Dose and Time Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Barneh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. EphB4 receptor tyrosine kinase is of diagnostic and therapeutic value due to its overexpression in breast tumors. Dual functions of tumor promotion and suppression have been reported for this receptor based on presence or absence of its ligand. To elucidate such discrepancy, we aimed to determine the effect of time- and dose-dependent stimulation of EphB4 on viability and invasion of breast cancer cells via recombinant ephrinB2-Fc. Methods. Cells were seeded into multiwell plates and were stimulated by various concentrations of preclustered ephrinB2-Fc. Cell viability was measured on days 3 and 6 following treatment using alamar-blue when cells were in different states of confluence. Results. Stimulation of cells with ephrinB2 did not pose any significant effect on cell viability before reaching confluence, while inhibition of cell growth was detected after 6 days when cells were in postconfluent state following a dose-dependent manner. EphrinB2 treatment did not affect tubular formation and invasion on matrigel. Conclusion. This study showed that EphB4 can differentially inhibit cells at post confluent state and that presence of ligand manifests growth-inhibitory properties of EphB4 receptor. It is concluded that growth inhibition has occurred possibly due to long treatment with ligand, a process which leads to receptor downregulation.

  5. Mean-field theory for the Tsub(c2)-minimum in the phase diagram of Ersub(1-x)Hosub(x)Rh4B4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, B.; Grewe, N.

    1981-01-01

    The experimentally observed shape of the phase boundary between the superconducting and the ferromagnetically ordered state in the reentrant ferromagnetic superconductor compound Ersub(1-x)Hosub(x)Rh 4 B 4 is explained within a simple Ginsburg-Landau mean field theory as resulting from a competition of two order parameters corresponding to the magnetic Ho- and Er-moments respectively. (author)

  6. Delineation of polar localization domains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens type IV secretion apparatus proteins VirB4 and VirB11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aditi; Das, Anath

    2014-10-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens transfers DNA and proteins to a plant cell through a type IV secretion apparatus assembled by the VirB proteins. All VirB proteins localized to a cell pole, although these conclusions are in dispute. To study subcellular location of the VirB proteins and to identify determinants of their subcellular location, we tagged two proteins, VirB4 and VirB11, with the visual marker green fluorescent protein (GFP) and studied localization of the fusion proteins by epifluorescence microscopy. Both GFP-VirB4 and GFP-VirB11 fusions localized to a single cell pole. GFP-VirB11 was also functional in DNA transfer. To identify the polar localization domains (PLDs) of VirB4 and VirB11, we analyzed fusions of GFP with smaller segments of the two proteins. Two noncontiguous regions in VirB4, residues 236-470 and 592-789, contain PLDs. The VirB11 PLD mapped to a 69 amino acid segment, residues 149-217, in the central region of the protein. These domains are probably involved in interactions that target the two proteins to a cell pole. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. 26 CFR 1.367(b)-4T - Acquisition of foreign corporate stock or assets by a foreign corporation in certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Corporation § 1.367(b)-4T Acquisition of foreign corporate stock or... treated, under section 318, as indirectly owning 100% of the CFC2 stock after the transaction, under... section 318, as indirectly owning 100% of CFC2 after the transaction, section 302(a) does not apply to the...

  8. Oxazolone Versus Macrocycle Structures for Leu-Enkephalin b(2)-b(4): Insights from Infrared Multiple-Photon Dissociation Spectroscopy and Gas-Phase Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X. A.; Steill, J. D.; Oomens, J.; Pollfer, N. C.

    2010-01-01

    The collision-induced dissociation (CID) products b(2)-b(4) from Leu-enkephalin are examined with infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IR-MPD) spectroscopy and gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX). Infrared spectroscopy reveals that b(2) exclusively adopts oxazolone structures, protonated

  9. Impact of B4C capping layer for extreme ultraviolet mask on the sensitivity of patterned mask inspection using a projection electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Susumu; Hirano, Ryoichi; Amano, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Hidehiro

    2014-10-01

    The inspection sensitivity of a patterned extreme ultraviolet mask with B4C-capped multilayer (ML) was investigated using a simulated projection electron microscope (PEM) image. Extrusion and intrusion defects with 16-nm size were detected with their intensity of >10 times the standard deviation of the background level on a half-pitch 64-nm line-and-space pattern. The defect detection sensitivity in this case was higher than that of a Ru-capped ML sample and has a potential to meet the requirement for beyond 16-nm node generation from the standpoint of patterned mask inspection using the PEM technique. These results indicate that the B4C capping layer, besides its good durability, has an advantage for high sensitivity of patterned mask inspection. The optimal condition of the incident beam energy was found to be 500 and 1,000 eV for the samples of B4C-capped ML and B4C-buffered Ru-capped ML, respectively. The sensitivity of defect detection was strongly affected by the difference of secondary electron emission coefficients (SEECs) between the absorber layer and capping layer. However, the small incident beam energy was found to be preferable when the SEEC difference was relatively high.

  10. Impact of B4C capping layer for EUV mask on the sensitivity of patterned mask inspection using projection electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Susumu; Hirano, Ryoichi; Amano, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Hidehiro

    2014-10-01

    The inspection sensitivity of a patterned extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask with B4C capped multilayer (ML) was investigated using a simulated projection electron microscope (PEM) image. Extrusion and intrusion defects with 16 nm in size were detected with their intensity of > 10 times the standard deviation of the background level on a half-pitch (hp) 64 nm line and space pattern. The defect detection sensitivity in this case was higher than that of Ru capped ML sample, and has a potential to meet the requirement for beyond 16 nm node generation from the standpoint of patterned mask inspection using the PEM technique. These results indicate that B4C capping layer besides its good durability has an advantage for high sensitivity of patterned mask inspection. The optimal condition of the incident beam energy was found to be 500 and 1000 eV for the samples of B4C capped ML and B4C buffered Ru capped ML, respectively. The sensitivity of defect detection was strongly affected by the difference of secondary electron emission coefficients (SEECs) between the absorber layer and capping layer. However, severely scattered electrons near the pattern edge become a source of noise and then they block the effect of large SEEC difference. Thus, the small incident beam energy was found to be preferable when the SEEC difference was relatively high.

  11. Stratification by Smoking Status Reveals an Association of CHRNA5-A3-B4 Genotype with Body Mass Index in Never Smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, A.E.; Morris, R.W.; Fluharty, M.E.; Bjorngaard, J.H.; Asvold, B.O.; Gabrielsen, M.E.; Campbell, A.; Marioni, R.; Kumari, M.; Hällfors, J.; Männistö, S.; Marques-Vidal, P.; Kaakinen, M.; Cavadino, A.; Postmus, I.; Husemoen, L.L.N.; Skaaby, T.; Ahluwalia, T.S.; Treur, J.L.; Willemsen, G.; Dale, C.; Wannamethee, S.G.; Lahti, J.; Palotie, A.; Räikkönen, K.; Kisialiou, A.; McConnachie, A.; Padmanabhan, S.; Wong, A.; Dalgard, C.; Paternoster, L.; Ben-Shlomo, Y.; Tyrrell, J.; Horwood, L.J.; Fergusson, D.; Kennedy, M.A.; Frayling, T.M.; Nohr, E.A.; Christiansen, L.; Ohm Kyvik, K.; Kuh, D; Watt, G.; Eriksson, J.; Whincup, P.H.; Vink, J.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Davey Smith, G.; Lawlor, D.; Linneberg, A.; Ford, I.; Jukema, J.W.; Power, C.; Hyppönen, E.; Järvelin, M.R.; Preisig, M.; Borodulin, K.; Kaprio, J.; Kivimaki, M.; Smith, B.H.; Hayward, C.; Romundstad, P.R.; Sørensen, T.I.A.; Munafo, M.R.; Sattar, N.

    2014-01-01

    We previously used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster associated with heaviness of smoking within smokers to confirm the causal effect of smoking in reducing body mass index (BMI) in a Mendelian randomisation analysis. While seeking to extend these findings in a

  12. Stratification by smoking status reveals an association of CHRNA5-A3-B4 genotype with body mass index in never smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, A.E.; Morris, R.W.; Fluharty, M.E.; Björngaard, J.H.; Asvold, B.A.; Gabrielsen, M.E.; Campbell, A.; Marioni, R.E.; Kumari, M.; Hallfors, J.; Mannisto, S.; Marques-Vidal, P.; Kaakinen, M.; Cavadino, A.; Postmus, I.; Husemoen, L.L.N.; Skaaby, T.; Ahluwalia, T.V.S.; Treur, J.L.; Willemsen, G.; Dale, C.E.; Wannamethee, S.G.; Lahti, J.; Palotie, A.; Raikkonen, K.; Kisialiou, A.; McConnachie, A.; Padmanabhan, S.; Wong, A.; Dalgard, C.; Paternoster, L.; Ben-Shlomo, Y.; Tyrrell, J.; Horwood, J.; Fergusson, D.M.; Kennedy, M.A.; Frayling, T.; Nohr, E.A.; Christiansen, L.; Kyvik, K.O.; Kuh, D.; Watt, G.; Eriksson, J.; Whincup, P.H.; Vink, J.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Smith, G.D.; Lawlor, D.A.; Linneberg, A.; Ford, I.; Jukema, J.W.; Power, C.; Hypponen, E.; Jarvelin, M.R.; Preisig, M.; Borodulin, K.; Kaprio, J.; Kivimaki, M.; Smith, B.H.; Hayward, C.; Romundstad, P.R.; Sorensen, T.I.A.; Munafò, M.R.; Sattar, N.

    2014-01-01

    We previously used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster associated with heaviness of smoking within smokers to confirm the causal effect of smoking in reducing body mass index (BMI) in a Mendelian randomisation analysis. While seeking to extend these findings in a

  13. Mapping of interaction between cytochrome P450 2B4 and cytochrome b5: the first evidence of two mutual orientations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šulc, Miroslav; Ječmen, Tomáš; Šnajdrová, Renata; Novák, Petr; Martínek, V.; Hodek, P.; Stiborová, M.; Hudeček, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2012), s. 101-107 ISSN 0172-780X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/12/0627 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cytochrome P450 2B4 * protein-protein interaction * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.932, year: 2012

  14. Heat treatment effect on the microstructure, tensile properties and dry sliding wear behavior of A356-10%B4C cast composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashgari, H.R.; Zangeneh, Sh.; Shahmir, H.; Saghafi, M.; Emamy, M.

    2010-01-01

    In present paper, an attempt was made to examine the influence of T6 heat treatment (solution treatment at 540 o C for 5 h, quenching in hot water and artificial aging at 170 o C for 8 h) on the microstructure, tensile properties and dry sliding wear behavior of A356-10%B 4 C cast composites. The composite ingots were made by stir casting process. In this work, the matrix alloy and composite were characterized by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, tensile tests and conventional pin-on-disk experiment. The obtained results showed that in Al-B 4 C composite, T6 treatment was a dominant factor on the hardness improvement in comparison with hardness increasing due to the addition of B 4 C hard particles. In addition, T6 treatment can contribute to the strong bonding between B 4 C and matrix alloy and also it can change eutectic silicon morphology from acicular to near spherical. This case can lead to higher strength and wear properties of heat treated metal matrix composites in comparison with unheat treated state. Observation of worn surfaces indicated detachment of mechanically mixed layer which can primarily due to the delamination wear mechanism under higher applied load.

  15. NK cell cytotoxicity mediated by 2B4 and NTB-A is dependent on SAP acting downstream of receptor phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eMeinke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 2B4 (CD244 and NK-T-B-antigen (NTB-A, CD352 are activating receptors on human NK cells and belong to the family of SLAM-related receptors. Engagement of these receptors leads to phosphorylation of their cytoplasmic tails and recruitment of the adapter proteins SAP and EAT-2. X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP is a severe immunodeficiency that results from mutations in the SAP gene. 2B4 and NTB-A-mediated cytotoxicity are abrogated in XLP NK cells. To elucidate the molecular basis for this defect we analyzed early signaling events in SAP knockdown cells. Similar to XLP NK cells, knockdown of SAP in primary human NK cells leads to a reduction of 2B4 and NTB-A-mediated cytotoxicity. We found that early signaling events such as raft recruitment and receptor phosphorylation are not affected by the absence of SAP, indicating the defect in the absence of SAP is downstream of these events. In addition, knockdown of EAT-2 does not impair 2B4 or NTB-A-mediated cytotoxicity. Surprisingly, EAT-2 recruitment to both receptors is abrogated in the absence of SAP, revealing a novel cooperativity between these adapters.

  16. Stratification by smoking status reveals an association of CHRNA5-A3-B4 genotype with body mass index in never smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Amy E; Morris, Richard W; Fluharty, Meg E

    2014-01-01

    We previously used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster associated with heaviness of smoking within smokers to confirm the causal effect of smoking in reducing body mass index (BMI) in a Mendelian randomisation analysis. While seeking to extend these findings in...

  17. Lack of Associations of CHRNA5-A3-B4 Genetic Variants with Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcomes in Caucasian Smokers despite Associations with Baseline Smoking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel F Tyndale

    Full Text Available CHRNA5-A3-B4 variants, rs16969968, rs588765 and rs578776, are consistently associated with tobacco consumption among smokers, but the association with smoking cessation is less consistent. Among the studies that reported significant associations with cessation, the effects were observed in smokers treated with placebo treatment in some studies and conversely in those receiving active pharmacological therapy (bupropion and nicotine replacement therapies in others. Thus, it remains unclear whether CHRNA5-A3-B4 is a useful marker for optimizing smoking cessation. Using data from 654 Caucasian smokers treated with placebo, nicotine patch or varenicline, we investigated whether CHRNA5-A3-B4 variants were associated with smoking cessation outcomes, and whether there were significant genotype-by-treatment or haplotype-by-treatment interactions. We observed no significant associations between CHRNA5-A3-B4 variants and smoking cessation, despite replicating previous associations with baseline tobacco consumption. At end of treatment the effect size on smoking cessation in the placebo, patch and varenicline groups for rs16969968 [GG vs. GA+AA] was OR = 0.66 (P = 0.23, OR = 1.01 (P = 0.99, and OR = 1.30 (P = 0.36 respectively, of rs588765 [CC vs. CT+TT] was OR = 0.96 (P = 0.90, OR = 0.84 (P = 0.58, and OR = 0.74 (P = 0.29 respectively, and for rs578776 [GG vs. GA+AA] on smoking cessation was OR = 1.02 (P = 0.95, OR = 0.75 (P = 0.35, and OR = 1.20 (P = 0.51 respectively. Furthermore, we observed no associations with cessation using the CHRNA5-A3-B4 haplotype (constructed using rs16969968 and rs588765, nor did we observe any significant genotype-by-treatment interactions, with or without adjusting for the rate of nicotine metabolism (all P>0.05. We also observed no significant genetic associations with 6 month or 12 month smoking abstinence. In conclusion, we found no association between CHRNA5-A3-B4 variants and smoking cessation rates in this clinical

  18. Dry sliding tribological behavior and mechanical properties of Al2024–5 wt.%B4C nanocomposite produced by mechanical milling and hot extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdollahi, Alireza; Alizadeh, Ali; Baharvandi, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanostructured Al2024 and Al2024–B 4 C nanocomposite prepared via mechanical milling. • The milled powders formed by hot pressing and then exposed to hot extrusion. • Tribological behavior and mechanical properties of samples were investigated. • Al2024–B 4 C nanocomposite showed a better wear resistance and mechanical properties. - Abstract: In this paper, tribological behavior and mechanical properties of nanostructured Al2024 alloy produced by mechanical milling and hot extrusion were investigated before and after adding B 4 C particles. Mechanical milling was used to synthesize the nanostructured Al2024 in attrition mill under argon atmosphere up to 50 h. A similar process was used to produce Al2024–5 wt.%B 4 C composite powder. The milled powders were formed by hot pressing and then were exposed to hot extrusion in 750 °C with extrusion ratio of 10:1. To study the microstructure of milled powders and hot extruded samples, optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) were used. The mechanical properties of samples were also compared together using tension, compression and hardness tests. The wear properties of samples were studied using pin-on-disk apparatus under a 20 N load. The results show that mechanical milling decreases the size of aluminum matrix grains to less than 100 nm. The results of mechanical and wear tests also indicate that mechanical milling and adding B 4 C particles increase strength, hardness and wear resistance of Al2024 and decrease its ductility remarkably

  19. Bifid vermiform appendix: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Ewen A; Jagadeesan, Jayaraman; Fasih, Tarannum; Mercer-Jones, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Appendiceal anomalies are extremely rare: they have a reported incidence of between 0.004% and 0.009% of appendectomy specimens. The authors report a case of a patient who was found to have 2 appendices at emergency laparotomy, review the classification system used, and discuss the potential clinical pitfalls of similar cases. A 23-year-old man was admitted as an emergency with abdominal pain and vomiting. The operative finding was of a bifid appendix. One appendix was grossly gangrenous and lacked a mesoappendix, whereas the other had a mesoappendix and appeared macroscopically normal. The appendices shared a common base that arose from the cecum in the typical anatomical position. No other intra-abdominal malformations were present at inspection during laparotomy. Histology confirmed features of gangrenous appendicitis. His postoperative recovery was uneventful, and he was discharged after 4 days. Although rare, it is important for several reasons that surgeons are aware of the potential anatomical anomalies and malpositions of the vermiform appendix: first, a missed second appendix may result in serious clinical and medico-legal consequences; second, a double appendix can be confused with other intra-abdominal conditions; and finally, they can be associated with other congenital abnormalities.

  20. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nuclear, uranium, reserves, sustainability, independence; Nucleaire, Uranium, reserves, durabilite, independance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acket, C

    2007-06-15

    In order to evaluate the energy independence concerning the nuclear energy, the author takes the state of the art about the uranium. He details the fuel needs, the reserves on the base of the today available techniques, the reserves on the base of the future techniques and concludes positively on the energy independence for the nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  2. Crohn's disease limited to the vermiform appendix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin; Andersen, J C

    1987-01-01

    Thirteen cases of Crohn's disease confined to the vermiform appendix were seen during a 12-year period. They constituted 16.9% of patients with primary resection of the bowel for Crohn's disease in the same period, but only 0.4% of the cases of acute appendicitis. In 10 of the 13 cases there was ......Thirteen cases of Crohn's disease confined to the vermiform appendix were seen during a 12-year period. They constituted 16.9% of patients with primary resection of the bowel for Crohn's disease in the same period, but only 0.4% of the cases of acute appendicitis. In 10 of the 13 cases...... to approach that of recurrence after resection in other parts of the intestines. Collective review of this and three other relatively large case series gave an estimated recurrence rate of 3.5%. We conclude that in Crohn's disease initially confined to the appendix the course appears to be indolent....

  3. Appendix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Thulin, Mats

    2009-01-01

    A taxonomic and floristic account of all the additional or new species in Etyhiopia and/or Eritrea that have been discovered while Vols 2 - 7 of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea were being published.......A taxonomic and floristic account of all the additional or new species in Etyhiopia and/or Eritrea that have been discovered while Vols 2 - 7 of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea were being published....

  4. Appendix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a database on international nuclear trade started in 1986 at the UCLA Center for International and Strategic Affairs (CISA). The basic premise underlying the CISA database is that the core of the problem with respect to knowledge of the behavior of the emerging nuclear supplier states is less one of data availability and more one of systematic data collection and analysis. The major problem is that the data are scattered throughout different nuclear energy, trade, and financial publications---many of which are exceedingly expensive and not readily available even at major research libraries. Moreover, with the exception of data on power reactors, the information is not reported in a format that facilitates comparative analysis over time or across states. The CISA database is designed to remedy these deficiencies

  5. Appendix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Thulin, Mats

    2009-01-01

    A taxonomic and floristic account of all the additional or new species in Etyhiopia and/or Eritrea that have been discovered while Vols 2 - 7 of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea were being published....

  6. Appendix to Power Dissipation in Division

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    This document is an appendix to the paper: Wei Liu and Alberto Nannarelli, ”Power Dissipation in Division”, Proc. of 42nd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, October 2008. The purpose of the document is to provide the necessary information for the implementation of the archite......This document is an appendix to the paper: Wei Liu and Alberto Nannarelli, ”Power Dissipation in Division”, Proc. of 42nd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, October 2008. The purpose of the document is to provide the necessary information for the implementation...

  7. Youth Problems on Indian Reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Ruth M., Ed.

    Juvenile delinquency was identified as the major problem affecting youth on Indian reservations. Causes for delinquency which were discussed included culture conflict, expectation of failure, unemployment, failure of homes and parents, discrimination, inadequate education, off-reservation schools, and alcoholism. Needs identified by tribal leaders…

  8. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  9. Near-net shape manufacture of B4C–Co and ZrC–Co composites by slip casting and pressureless sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz, Angel L.; Leal, Victor Manuel Candelario; Moreno, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    Fabrication of near-net shaped B4C–Co and ZrC–Co composites by slip casting and pressureless sintering is described. It is shown how B4C–Co and ZrC–Co concentrated suspensions can be prepared by aqueous colloidal processing, and optimized (in terms of pH, deflocculant contents, and sonication time......) to have a shear-thinning rheological behaviour suitable for the near-net shaping of the corresponding cermet compacts by slip casting. It is also demonstrated that the robust, highly-dense compacts so obtained have a uniform green microstructure without macro-defects or gradient density, and which can...... is given for these observations, and general implications are discussed for the near-net shape manufacture of these and similar carbide-metal composites for use in engineering applications....

  10. Investigation of the microstructure of Ni and B4C ceramic-metal mixtures obtained by cold spray coating and followed by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, A. A.; Fomin, V. M.; Orishich, A. M.; Malikov, A. G.; Ryashin, N. S.; Golyshev, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    In the present work, a combined method is considered for the production of a metal-matrix composite coating based on Ni and B4C. The coating is created by consistently applied methods: cold spray and laser cladding. Main focus of this work aimed to microstructure of coatings, element content and morphology of laser tracks. At this stage, the authors focused on the interaction of the laser unit with the substance without affecting the layer-growing technology products. It is shown that coating has deformed particles of nickel and the significantly decreased content of ceramic particles B4C after cold spray. After laser cladding there are no boundaries between nickel and dramatically changes in ceramic particles.

  11. Optical properties of boron carbide near the boron K edge evaluated by soft-x-ray reflectometry from a Ru/B(4)C multilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksenzov, Dmitriy; Panzner, Tobias; Schlemper, Christoph; Morawe, Christian; Pietsch, Ullrich

    2009-12-10

    Soft-x-ray Bragg reflection from two Ru/B(4)C multilayers with 10 and 63 periods was used for independent determination of both real and imaginary parts of the refractive index n = 1 - delta + ibeta close to the boron K edge (approximately 188 eV). Prior to soft x-ray measurements, the structural parameters of the multilayers were determined by x-ray reflectometry using hard x rays. For the 63-period sample, the optical properties based on the predictions made for elemental boron major deviations were found close to the K edge of boron for the 10-period sample explained by chemical bonding of boron to B(4)C and various boron oxides.

  12. Exome sequencing identified rare variants in genes HSPG2 and ATP2B4 in a family segregating developmental dysplasia of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, Sulman; Albalawi, Alia M; Alharby, Essa; Khoshhal, Khalid I

    2017-03-21

    Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a common pathological condition of the musculoskeletal system in infants which results in a congenital and developmental malformation of the hip joint. DDH is a spectrum of pathologies affecting the infant hip ranging from asymptomatic subtle radiographic signs through mild instability to frank dislocations with acetabular dysplasia. A Saudi family with three affected individuals with DDH was identified and genetic analysis was performed to detect the possible genetic defect(s) underlying DDH in the affected members of the family. We performed whole genome genotyping using Illumina HumanOmni 2.5 M array and whole exome sequencing (WES) using Nextera Rapid capture kit and Illumina NextSeq500 instrument in four individuals of a family with DDH. SNP data analysis did not identify any runs of homozygosity and copy number variations. Identity-by-descent (IBD) analysis on whole genome genotyping data identified a shared haplotypes on chromosome 1 in affected individuals. An analysis of the WES data identified rare heterozygous variants in HSPG2 and ATP2B4 genes in the affected individuals. Multiple prediction software predicted that the variants identified are damaging. Moreover, in silico analysis showed that HSPG2 regulates ATP2B4 expression using a variety of transcription factors. Our results indicate that there might be a functional epistatic interaction between HSPG2 and ATP2B4, and DDH in the family studied is due to a combined effect of both variants. These variants are also present in the asymptomatic mother suggesting that the variants in HSPG2 and ATP2B4 are incompletely penetrant. This study provides the first evidence of digenic inheritance of DDH in a family and extends the spectrum of genetic heterogeneity in this human disorder.

  13. COMPARISON OF SELECTIVE AND NON SELECTIVE CYCLO-OXYGENASE 2 INHIBITORS IN EXPERIMENTAL COLITIS EXACERBATION: role of leukotriene B4 and superoxide dismutase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wander BREGANÓ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are considered one of the most important causes of reactivation of inflammatory bowel disease. With regard to selective cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitors, the results are controversial in experimental colitis as well as in human studies. Objectives The aim this study is to compare nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs effects, selective and non selective cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitors, in experimental colitis and contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms which nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs provoke colitis exacerbation. Methods Six groups of rats: without colitis, with colitis, and colitis treated with celecoxib, ketoprofen, indometacin or diclofenac. Survival rates, hemoglobin, plasmatic albumin, colonic tissue of interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, prostaglandin E2, catalase, superoxide dismutase, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, chemiluminescence induced by tert-butil hydroperoxides, and tissue and plasmatic leukotriene B4 were determined. Results The groups treated with diclofenac or indometacin presented lower survival rates, hemoglobin and albumin, higher tissue and plasmatic leukotriene B4 and tissue superoxide dismutase than the group treated with celecoxib. Ketoprofen presented an intermediary behavior between diclofenac/indometacin and celecoxib, concerning to survival rate and albumin. The groups without colitis, with colitis and with colitis treated with celecoxib showed leukotriene B4 and superoxide dismutase lower levels than the groups treated with nonselective cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitors. Conclusions Diclofenac and indometacin presented the highest degree of induced colitis exacerbation with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, celecoxib did not show colitis exacerbation, and ketoprofen presented an intermediary behavior between diclofenac/indometacin and celecoxib. These results suggest that leukotriene B4 and superoxide dismutase can be

  14. Redefining the progeroid form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: report of the fourth patient with B4GALT7 deficiency and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Michael H; Stoler, Joan; Lui, Julian; Nilsson, Ola; Bianchi, Diana W; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Dauber, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Proteoglycans are a component of the extracellular matrix and are critical for cellular and tissue function. Mutations in proteoglycan components and enzymes involved in proteoglycan synthesis have been implicated in several growth disorders, with common features including short stature and skeletal dysplasia. For example, mutations in B4GALT7, a gene whose protein product catalyzes proteoglycan synthesis, have been associated with the rare progeroid variant of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Here, we conducted exome sequencing in a patient with a previously undiagnosed growth disorder and identified compound heterozygous mutations in B4GALT7. This patient is just the fourth individual with genetically confirmed progeroid variant of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. The mutations include a previously characterized c.808C>T p.Arg270Cys substitution, and a novel c.122T>C p.Leu41Pro substitution. We demonstrate that the novel mutation caused decreased levels of the enzyme, supporting the pathogenicity of the mutation. Our report identifies a novel mutation in B4GALT7 causing the progeroid variant of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and contributes an extensive phenotypic characterization of a patient with the syndrome. We also reviewed the previous literature in addition to the present patient, and conclude that the key features associated with B4GALT7 deficiency are short stature, developmental anomalies of the forearm bones and elbow, and bowing of the extremities, in addition to the classic features of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. This report helps define the phenotype of the progeroid variant of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and furthers our understanding of the effect of proteoglycan defects in growth disorders. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Isolation and characterization of CYP6B4, a furanocoumarin-inducible cytochrome P450 from a polyphagous caterpillar (Lepidoptera:papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, C F; Berenbaum, M R; Schuler, M A

    1997-05-01

    Papilio glaucus (tiger swallowtail) is a generalist that rarely encounters plants containing furanocoumarins yet is constitutively capable of metabolizing low levels of these highly toxic allelochemicals. In larvae of this species, metabolism of linear (xanthotoxin, bergapten), and angular (angelicin, sphondin), furanocoumarins can be induced up to 30-fold by the presence of xanthotoxin in their diet. Degenerate primers corresponding to conserved amino acid sequences in three insect P450s, Musca domestica (CYP6A1), Drosophila melanogaster (CYP6A2) and Papilio polyxenes (CYP6B1), were used to clone xanthotoxin-induced P450 transcripts from P. glaucus larvae by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) strategy. Positive clones encoding the highly conserved F--G-R-C-G P450 signature motif were used to isolate a full-length CYP6B4v1 cDNA from a P. glaucus xanthotoxin-induced cDNA library. Sequence comparisons indicate the P. glaucus CYP6B4v1 protein sequence is 63% and 61% identical, respectively, to the P. polyxenes furanocoumarin-inducible CYP6B1v1 and CYP6B3v1 proteins. Northern analysis indicates that CYP6B4 and related transcripts are highly induced in response to xanthotoxin. Baculovirus-mediated expression of the CYP6B4v1 protein in lepidopteran cell lines demonstrates that this P450 isozyme metabolizes isopimpinellin, imperatorin, and bergapten at high rates, xanthotoxin and psoralen at intermediate rates and angelicin, sphondin, and trioxsalen only at very low rates.

  16. Mixing thermodynamic properties of 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [b4mpy][BF{sub 4}] with water and with an alkan-1ol (methanol to pentanol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)], E-mail: jortega@dip.ulpgc.es; Vreekamp, R.; Penco, E.; Marrero, E. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica de Fluidos, Parque Cientifico-Tecnologico, Campus Universitario de Tafira, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35071-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    This article presents a study of the behaviour in solution of 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [b4mpy][BF{sub 4}] in water and in the first five alkanols of the series methanol to pentan-1-ol. The excess enthalpies, H{sub m}{sup E} and volumes, V{sub m}{sup E} were determined at the temperatures (298.15 and 318.15) K. At these temperatures, the [b4mpy][BF{sub 4}] was completely miscible in water, methanol, and ethanol, but only partially miscible in the other alkanols. A solubility study was carried out and the (liquid + liquid) equilibria of the ([b4mpy][BF{sub 4}] + alkanol) systems were experimentally determined, evaluating zones of complete miscibility and determining the UCST in each case. The mixtures with water gave positive values of H{sub m}{sup E} and V{sub m}{sup E}, being also positive the changes of these quantities with temperature. The mixtures with alkanols gave values of H{sub m}{sup E}>0 and V{sub m}{sup E}<0, and for these binary mixtures (dH{sub m}{sup E}/dT){sub p}>0 and (dV{sub m}{sup E}/dT){sub p}<0. For all cases, results were interpreted and compared with data obtained in mixtures with another isomer [b3mpy][BF{sub 4}]. Excess properties were correlated with a suitable equation and the area and volume parameters were calculated for [b4mpy][BF{sub 4}].

  17. A Comparative Study on SiC-B4C-Si Cermet Prepared by Pressureless Sintering and Spark Plasma Sintering Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahani, P.; Karak, S. K.; Mishra, B.; Chakravarty, D.; Chaira, D.

    2016-06-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC)-boron carbide (B4C) based cermets were doped with 5, 10, and 20 wt pct Silicon (Si) and their sinterability and properties were investigated for conventional sintering at 2223 K (1950 °C) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 1623 K (1350 °C). An average particle size of ~3 µm was obtained after 10 hours of milling. There is an enhancement of Vickers microhardness in the 10 wt pct Si sample from 18.10 in conventional sintering to 27.80 GPa for SPS. The relative density, microhardness, and indentation fracture toughness of the composition SiC60(B4C)30Si10 fabricated by SPS are 98 pct, 27.80 GPa, and 3.8 MPa m1/2, respectively. The novelty of the present study is to tailor the wettability and ductility of the cermet by addition of Si into the SiC-B4C matrix. Better densification with improved properties is achieved for cermets consolidated by SPS at lower temperatures than conventional sintering.

  18. Energy transfer in Pr3+ and Mn2+ co-doped SrB6O10 and SrB4O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yonghu; Yan Wuzhao; Shi Chaoshu

    2007-01-01

    The luminescent properties of Pr 3+ and Mn 2+ -doped SrB 6 O 10 and SrB 4 O 7 powder samples were investigated from the point of view of energy transfer between Pr 3+ and Mn 2+ . The emission from the 1 S 0 level of Pr 3+ was found in the SrB 6 O 10 :Pr 3+ sample as well as in the SrB 4 O 7 :Pr 3+ sample, indicating the 1 S 0 level is below the lowest 4f5d energy level in these hosts. The spectral overlaps between the emission spectra of Pr 3+ -doped samples and the excitation spectra of Mn 2+ -doped sample were found in both kinds of strontium borates. These spectral overlaps are in favor of the energy transfer from Pr 3+ to Mn 2+ . However, in the emission spectra of the SrB 6 O 10 :Pr 3+ , Mn 2+ , no indication of energy transfer was observed, though the emission spectra of SrB 4 O 7 :Pr 3+ , Mn 2+ did show evidence of energy transfer from Pr 3+ to Mn 2+ . The possible reasons were discussed

  19. A Tri-modal 2024 Al -B4C composites with super-high strength and ductility: Effect of coarse-grained aluminum fraction on mechanical behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Abdollahi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ultrafine grained 2024 Al alloy based B4C particles reinforced composite was produced by mechanical milling and hot extrusion. Mechanical milling was used to synthesize the nanostructured Al2024 in attrition mill under argon atmosphere up to 50h. A similar process was used to produce Al2024-5%wt. B4C composite powder. To produce trimodal composites, milled powders were combined with coarse grained aluminum in 30 and 50 wt% and then were exposed to hot extrusion at 570°C. The microstructure of hot extruded samples were studied by optical microscope, Transmission electron microscope (TEM and scanning electron microscope (SEM equipped with EDS spectroscopy. The mechanical properties of samples were compared by using tensile, compression and hardness tests. The results showed that the strength, after 50 h milling and addition of 5wt% B4C, increased from 340 to 582 MPa and the hardness increased from 87 HBN to 173 HBN, but the elongation decreased from 14 to 0.5%. By adding the coarse-grained aluminum powder, the strength and hardness decreased slightly, but the increases in return. Ductility increase is the result of increase in dislocation movements and strength increase is the result of restriction in plastic deformation by nanostructured regions. Furthermore, the strength and hardness of trimodal composites were higher, but their ductility was lower.

  20. Production of Al-Ti-B grain refining master alloys from Na2B4O7 and K2TiF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birol, Yuecel

    2008-01-01

    It is very desirable to replace the KBF 4 salt in the popular 'halide salt' process to reduce the volume of fluoride salts to be added to molten aluminium in the production of Al-Ti-B grain refiners. Being over 2 times richer in B, Na 2 B 4 O 7 is a promising replacement for KBF 4 , and is used in the present work to produce Al-Ti-B grain refiner master alloys. A fraction of the aluminide particles were entrapped in the spent salt giving a relatively lower Ti recovery when KBF 4 was replaced by Na 2 B 4 O 7 . The grain refining performance of the Al-Ti-B grain refiner alloy thus produced was nevertheless acceptable. The spent salt became too viscous with the oxides, aluminides and borides to be removed by decanting when Na 2 B 4 O 7 .5H 2 O was used to supply boron. The viscous spent salt, entrained in the grain refiner alloy, did not only impair its performance, but also hurt the fluidity of the molten alloy and made pouring difficult

  1. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  2. Cognitive Reserve Scale and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene León

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construct of cognitive reserve attempts to explain why some individuals with brain impairment, and some people during normal ageing, can solve cognitive tasks better than expected. This study aimed to estimate cognitive reserve in a healthy sample of people aged 65 years and over, with special attention to its influence on cognitive performance. For this purpose, it used the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS and a neuropsychological battery that included tests of attention and memory. The results revealed that women obtained higher total CRS raw scores than men. Moreover, the CRS predicted the learning curve, short-term and long-term memory, but not attentional and working memory performance. Thus, the CRS offers a new proxy of cognitive reserve based on cognitively stimulating activities performed by healthy elderly people. Following an active lifestyle throughout life was associated with better intellectual performance and positive effects on relevant aspects of quality of life.

  3. Fractional Reserve Banking: Some Quibbles

    OpenAIRE

    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David

    2010-01-01

    We explore several unaddressed issues in George Selgin’s (1988) claim that the best monetary system to maintain monetary equilibrium is a fractional reserve free banking one. The claim that adverse clearing balances would limit credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking system is more troublesome than previously reckoned. Both lengthened clearing periods and interbank agreements render credit expansion unrestrained. “The theory of free banking” confuses increases in money held with...

  4. Resolving the titer of murine cytomegalovirus by plaque assay using the M2-10B4 cell line and a low viscosity overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) is increasingly used as an infectious model to investigate host-pathogen interactions in mice. Detailed methods have been published for using primary murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) for preparing stocks and determining viral titers of MCMV. For determining the titer of MCMV by plaque assay, these methods rely on a high viscosity media that restricts viral spreading through the supernatant of the culture, but is also usually too viscous to pipet. Moreover, MEFs must be repeatedly generated and can vary widely from batch-to-batch in purity, proliferation rates, and the development of senescence. In contrast, the M2-10B4 bone marrow stromal cell line (ATCC # CRL-1972), which is also permissive for MCMV, has been reported to produce high-titer stocks of MCMV and has the considerable advantages of growing rapidly and consistently. However, detailed methods using these cells have not been published. Methods We modified existing protocols to use M2-10B4 cells for measuring MCMV titers by plaque assay. Results We found that MCMV plaques could be easily resolved on monolayers of M2-10B4 cells. Moreover, plaques formed normally even when cultures of M2-10B4 cells were less than 50% confluent on the day of infection, as long as we also used a reduced viscosity overlay. Conclusions Overall, our protocol enabled us to use a consistent cell line to assess viral titers, rather than repeatedly producing primary MEFs. It also allowed us to start the assay with 4-fold fewer cells than would be required to generate a confluent monolayer, reducing the lead-time prior to the start of the assay. Finally, the reduced viscosity CMC could be handled by pipet and did not need to be pre-mixed with media, thus increasing its shelf-life and ease-of-use. We describe our results here, along with detailed protocols for the use of the M2-10B4 cell lines to determine the titer and grow stocks of MCMV. PMID:24742045

  5. The environmental survey manual: Appendix D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance to the Survey and Sampling and Analysis teams that conduct the one-time Environmental Survey of the major US Department of Energy operating facilities. This appendix contains procedures for chemical analysis of organics, inorganics, and radioisotopes

  6. Primary lymphoma of appendix: Ultrasound finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotillos Parra, V.E.; Belda Serrano, J.; Mota Castilla, A.; Falomir Gil, G.; Abreu Maqueda, V.; Trigueris Sanchez, M.; Hernandez Barcelo, J.E.; Martinez Diaz, F.

    1994-01-01

    We present an uncommon case of primary lymphoma of the appendix in a patient who complained of discomfort in lower right quadrant. The findings revealed by ultrasound, barium enema and CT scan are reported and the diagnostic aspects of this appendiceal tumor and others are discussed. (Author) 6 refs

  7. Energy 21. Preconditions and results. Appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This appendix comprises the following 5 scenarios: Reference scenario for electricity and district heating supply; Action plan scenario for electricity and district heat supply; Energy balances for reference and action plan scenarios; Investments and operating costs for user installations; Projection of CO{sub 2} emissions from the transport sector. (EG)

  8. Pilot plant environmental conditions (OPDD Appendix C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, C.M.; Whitson, M.E.; Coggi, J.V.

    1978-08-15

    This is Appendix C to the Pilot Plant Overall Plant design description document for the 10-MW pilot central receiver plant to be located at Barstow, California. The environmental design criteria to be used for plant design day performance, operational limits, and survival environmental limits are specified. Data are presented on insolation, wind, temperature, and other meteorological conditions. (WHK)

  9. 76 FR 30250 - Share Insurance and Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... should update its website regarding the share insurance coverage for noninterest-bearing transaction... share insurance coverage and the conditions under which it is available. NCUA will update its website in... APPENDIX 0 1. The authority citation for Part 745 continues to read as follows: Authority: 12 U.S.C. 1752(5...

  10. report appendix | Overview | Publications | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Report on University Science Education. APPENDIX: LIST OF 1994 PANEL MEMBERS. V. G. Bhide (now deceased); J. Chandrasekhar; M. K. Chandrashekaran; S. Datta Gupta; B. M. Deb; R. Gadagkar; N. Mukunda; A. Sitaram; V. Srinivas; R. Srinivasan; M. Vidyasagar ...

  11. Clinicopathological review of surgically removed appendix in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babatunde M. Duduyemi

    2014-09-17

    Sep 17, 2014 ... Appendix;. Appendicectomy;. Histology. Abstract Background: Acute appendicitis is a disease of the young presenting in children and early adolescents although no age group is exempt. It is the most common cause of acute surgical abdomen worldwide. This clinicopathological study aims to determine the ...

  12. Acute appendicitis in a duplicated appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulidis, Grigorios; Symeonidis, Dimitrios; Spyridakis, Michail; Koukoulis, Georgios; Manolakis, Anastasios; Triantafylidis, Georgios; Tepetes, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Double appendix represents an extremely rare and commonly “missed” diagnosis, often with life threatening consequences. PRESENTATION OF CASE In this case report we present an interesting case of operative treatment of acute appendicitis in a doubled vermiform appendix stemming operative pitfalls. A 23-year-old female was admitted to the emergency room department complaining of diffuse abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting over the past 36 h. As soon as the diagnosis of acute appendicitis was established a laparotomy via a McBurney incision was decided. Intraoperative findings included the presence of mild quantity of free fluid and surprisingly a thin non-inflamed appendiceal process. It was the preoperative ultrasound findings suggestive of acute appendicitis that dictated a more thorough investigation of the lower abdomen that led to the discovery of a second retrocecal inflamed appendix. Formal appendectomy was then performed for both processes. The patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged on the fourth postoperative day. DISCUSSION Double appendix represents a challenging clinical scenario in cases of right lower quadrant pain. CONCLUSION Life threatening consequences with legal extensions can arise from the incomplete removal of both stumps. PMID:22922359

  13. Reserve Retirement Equality: Treating Reserves Fairly While Saving Taxpayer Dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    rata .121 For example, a Reserve who performs the equivalent of five years of active duty, will receive one-fourth the retired pay of his active duty...4,225 per month.124 But because reserve-retirement benefits are based on pro rata years of service, this officer’s years of service for retirement...purposes are 3,146 retirement points divided by 360.125 This results in 8.74 years pro rata years of service.126 His retirement benefits thus are

  14. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.

    2008-09-15

    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  15. TORSION OF THE VERMIFORM APPENDIX: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Imtiaz Wani

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Torsion of the vermiform appendix is a rare condition with few cases reported in the literature. Various factors predispose to torsion. Various factors predispose to torsion. We report a case of primary torsion of the vermiform appendix. The clinical presentation was indistinguishable from acute appendicitis and the diagnosis was made at operation. Appendix was preileal in position and the direction of torsion was anticlockwise. There was intrinsic torsion with no obvious factor for torsion identified. Appendectomy was performed.

  16. Growing of caecum and vermiform appendix during the fetal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malas, M A; Gökçimen, A; Sulak, O

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the growing of the caecum and the vermiform appendix during the fetal period in human fetuses and the relation between growing and shape of the caecum and the localization of the vermiform appendix. 40 male and 40 female externally normal-looking fetuses were studied between 10 and 40 weeks of gestation and were subdivided into fetuses of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters and full-term fetuses. The parameters of interest included covering of the caecum with peritoneum, shape of the caecum (long tube, symmetric saccule, asymmetric saccule, extremely large right side--atypical), axial length and width of the caecum localization of the vermiform appendix, length of vermiform appendix and length of the meso-appendix. There was a difference in covering of the caecum with peritoneum between males and females; the caecum was predominantly tube shaped during the fetal period, with the asymmetric saccule towards the end of the fetal period; the localization of the vermiform appendix was subcaecal (39%) during the fetal period and postileal (34%) in female fetuses and subcaecal (48%) in male fetuses--the localization of the vermiform appendix changed according to the caecum shape during the fetal period; we found significant differences in the measurements of vermiform appendix, meso-appendix, and caecum among 1st-, 2nd-, and 3rd-trimester fetuses and full-term fetuses. There was an increase in the measurements for vermiform appendix, meso-appendix, and caecum with increasing gestational age; the localization of the vermiform appendix depended on the shape of the caecum, was different from that of adults and different between sexes, and there was also a significant difference in covering of the caecum with peritoneum between both sexes. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Improved Effectiveness of Reserve Forces During Reserve Duty Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadaway, Harry H.

    The problem areas of motivation, job enrichment, recruiting, and retention are addressed from the viewpoint of the behavioral scientist. Special attention is given to relating job enrichment and motivation techniques, as successfully demonstrated in industry, to the United State Army Reserve. Research method utilized was a literature review…

  18. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial

  19. Cerebral correlates of cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Lawrence J; Staff, Roger T; Fox, Helen C; Murray, Alison D

    2016-01-30

    Cognitive reserve is a hypothetical concept introduced to explain discrepancies between severity of clinical dementia syndromes and the extent of dementia pathology. We examined cognitive reserve in a research programme that followed up a non-clinical sample born in 1921 or 1936 and IQ-tested age 11 years in 1932 or 1947. Structural MRI exams were acquired in about 50% of the sample from whom a subsample were recruited into an additional fMRI study. Here, we summarise findings from seven inter-related studies. These support an understanding of cognitive reserve as a balance between positive life course activity-driven experiences and the negative effects of brain pathologies including cerebrovascular disease and total and regional brain volume loss. Hypothesised structural equation models illustrate the relative causal effects of these positive and negative contributions. Cognitive reserve is considered in the context of choice of interventions to prevent dementia and the opposing effects of cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer like brain appearances. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  1. Environmental Compliance Assessment Army Reserve (ECAAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Comprehensive Planning BEE Bioenvironmental Engineer BOD Biological Oxygen Demand CAA Clean Air Act CELDS Computer-Aided Environmental Legislative Data System...Diquat, Endrin, Endothall, Glyphosate , Hexachlorobenzene, Hexachlorocyclopentadiene, Oxamyl (Vydate), Picloram, Simazine, 2,3,7,8,-TCDD (Dioxin), Antimony...reportable 40 CFR 302.4 in Appendix 7-1 have bee reported. (IX2) quantities of hazardous substances shall be Verify that a procedure is in place for

  2. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  3. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  4. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...... balancing measure, which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the electricity demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR...

  5. Laparoscopic management of a drain site evisceration of the vermiform appendix, a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidjane, Anisse; Tabeti, Benali; Boudjenan Serradj, Nabil; Bensafir, Salim; Ikhlef, Nacim; Benmaarouf, Noureddine

    2018-01-01

    Peritoneal cavity drainage is not riskless and several publications reported drain induced complications. However, till this day, abdominal drainage is still a subject of divergence between necessity and usual operative practice. We describe in this publication an exceptional complication of drainage, which is the drain site evisceration of the appendix. We report the case of a 47-years-old patient, initially operated for perforated ulcer peritonitis, in whom an evisceration occured 48h after the removal of an intraperitoneal drain placed in the Douglas pouch, the physical examination predicated the presence of a herniated omentum fringe, as a precaution a laparoscopic exploration was performed and revealed that the eviscerated organ was the vermiform appendix, then a two trocars appendectomy was performed and the orifice of the evisceration was safely closed. Since the first description in 1995, only seven cases were reported in the literature, we propose a new management of the drain site evisceration of the appendix, including laparoscopic exploration, and both side control of the drain site defect closure, our technique seems safer. The laparoscopic approaches must have a place in the management of the drain site eviscerations. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. MiR-193b, downregulated in Ewing Sarcoma, targets the ErbB4 oncogene to inhibit anchorage-independent growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Moore

    Full Text Available Ewing Sarcoma is an aggressive, oncofusion-driven, malignant neoplasm of bone and soft tissue affecting predominantly children and young adults. Seeking to identify potential novel therapeutic targets/agents for this disease, our previous studies uncovered microRNAs regulated by EWS/Fli1, the most common oncofusion, with growth modulatory properties. In the present study, we sought to identify EWS/Fli1-repressed, growth suppressive, microRNAs potentially amenable to replacement in Ewing Sarcoma cells. Eight microRNAs (143, 153, 184, 193b, 195, 203, 206 and 223 were selected for evaluation as EWS/Fli1-repressed and underexpressed in Ewing Sarcoma cells, and reported to be growth suppressive in other pediatric or/and adult cancers. The selected miRs, and appropriate non-targeting controls, were introduced into two different Ewing Sarcoma cell lines (A673 and SK-ES-1, and effects on growth were examined using a high and low-density growth assay. MiR-193b was growth inhibitory in both assays and cell lines. In subsequent analyses, we found that stable overexpression of miR-193b also inhibits anchorage-independent growth in both A673 and SK-ES-1 cells. We further show that miR-193b negatively regulates expression of the ErbB4 oncogene in A673 and SK-ES-1 cells, and that depletion of ErbB4 is itself inhibitory to anchorage-independent growth in the same cell lines. Together, our studies show that the EWS/Fli1-repressed miR-193b is growth suppressive in Ewing Sarcoma, and identify ErbB4 as a target gene and candidate mediator of this growth suppression.

  7. Attenuated bioluminescent Brucella melitensis mutants GR019 (virB4), GR024 (galE), and GR026 (BMEI1090-BMEI1091) confer protection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajashekara, Gireesh; Glover, David A; Banai, Menachem; O'Callaghan, David; Splitter, Gary A

    2006-05-01

    In vivo bioluminescence imaging is a persuasive approach to investigate a number of issues in microbial pathogenesis. Previously, we have applied bioluminescence imaging to gain greater insight into Brucella melitensis pathogenesis. Endowing Brucella with bioluminescence allowed direct visualization of bacterial dissemination, pattern of tissue localization, and the contribution of Brucella genes to virulence. In this report, we describe the pathogenicity of three attenuated bioluminescent B. melitensis mutants, GR019 (virB4), GR024 (galE), and GR026 (BMEI1090-BMEI1091), and the dynamics of bioluminescent virulent bacterial infection following vaccination with these mutants. The virB4, galE, and BMEI1090-BMEI1091 mutants were attenuated in interferon regulatory factor 1-deficient (IRF-1(-/-)) mice; however, only the GR019 (virB4) mutant was attenuated in cultured macrophages. Therefore, in vivo imaging provides a comprehensive approach to identify virulence genes that are relevant to in vivo pathogenesis. Our results provide greater insights into the role of galE in virulence and also suggest that BMEI1090 and downstream genes constitute a novel set of genes involved in Brucella virulence. Survival of the vaccine strain in the host for a critical period is important for effective Brucella vaccines. The galE mutant induced no changes in liver and spleen but localized chronically in the tail and protected IRF-1(-/-) and wild-type mice from virulent challenge, implying that this mutant may serve as a potential vaccine candidate in future studies and that the direct visualization of Brucella may provide insight into selection of improved vaccine candidates.

  8. 77 FR 40253 - Reserve Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    .... The commentators represented Rural Development employees who work with the Multi-Family Housing Direct... their annual over-inflated tax bills and assessments. As a result, rent income funding that could be..., as rents cannot be raised to an amount that will cover all current and future reserve expenses...

  9. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Togeby, Mikael; Østergaard, Jacob

    This report summaries the research outcomes of the project ‘Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)’, which has received the support from Energinet.dk’s PSO program, Grant no. 2005-2-6380. The objective of this project is to investigate the technology of using electricity demands for providing...

  10. MICROWAVE SYNTHESIS OF B4C–Al2O3 COMPOSITE IN A MECHANICALLY ACTIVATED Al/B2O3/C POWDER MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyar Shaker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available B4C–Al2O3 composite powder was produced by aluminothermic reduction in Al/B2O3/C system. In this research, microwave heating technique was used to synthesize desired composite. The ball milling of powder mixtures was performed in order to study the effect of mechanical activation on the synthesis process. The synthesis mechanism in this system was investigated by examining the corresponding binary sub-reactions. The self-sustaining reduction of boron oxide by Al was recognized to be the triggering step in overall reaction.

  11. Immobilization of Rhodococcus erythropolis B4 on radiation crosslinked poly(vinylpyrrolidone) hydrogel: Application to the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djefal-Kerrar, A. [Division of Nuclear Applications, Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon BP-399 Alger-gare, Algiers (Algeria)], E-mail: kerasdjef@yahoo.fr; Gais, S.; Ouallouche, K.; Nacer Khodja, A.; Mahlous, M. [Division of Nuclear Applications, Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon BP-399 Alger-gare, Algiers (Algeria); Hacene, H. [Biological Sciences Institute, Science and Technology University Houari Boumediene, Algiers (Algeria)

    2007-12-15

    A poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) hydrogel crosslinked by gamma radiation was used to immobilize, by adsorption, Rhodococcus erythropolis B4 strain. Immobilized cells were tested for their capacity to degrade naphthalene and anthracene, under aerobic conditions. The results showed that, the strain fixed is capable of growing in the presence of naphthalene or anthracene as a unique source of carbon. It was also shown that, the fixed strain can be preserved by freeze-drying for further use. The biodegradation capacity was improved during the second use.

  12. Stratification by Smoking Status Reveals an Association of CHRNA5-A3-B4 Genotype with Body Mass Index in Never Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Amy E.; Morris, Richard W.; Fluharty, Meg E.; Bjorngaard, Johan H.; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Gabrielsen, Maiken E.; Campbell, Archie; Marioni, Riccardo; Kumari, Meena; Hällfors, Jenni; Männistö, Satu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Kaakinen, Marika; Cavadino, Alana; Postmus, Iris

    2014-01-01

    We previously used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster associated with heaviness of smoking within smokers to confirm the causal effect of smoking in reducing body mass index (BMI) in a Mendelian randomisation analysis. While seeking to extend these findings in a larger sample we found that this SNP is associated with 0.74% lower body mass index (BMI) per minor allele in current smokers (95% CI -0.97 to -0.51, P = 2.00 × 10(-10)), but also unexpectedly foun...

  13. Enterococcus faecalis PrgJ, a VirB4-Like ATPase, Mediates pCF10 Conjugative Transfer through Substrate Binding

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Feng; Alvarez-Martinez, Cristina; Chen, Yuqing; Choi, Kyoung-Jae; Yeo, Hye-Jeong; Christie, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The Enterococcus faecalis prg and pcf genes of plasmid pCF10 encode a type IV secretion system (T4SS) required for conjugative transfer. PrgJ is a member of the VirB4 family of ATPases that are universally associated with T4SSs. Here, we report that purified PrgJ dimers displayed ATP binding and hydrolysis activities. A PrgJ nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) binding site mutation (K471E) slightly diminished ATP binding but abolished ATP hydrolysis in vitro and blocked pCF10 transfer in vivo. As s...

  14. Immobilization of Rhodococcus erythropolis B4 on radiation crosslinked poly(vinylpyrrolidone) hydrogel: Application to the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djefal-Kerrar, A.; Gais, S.; Ouallouche, K.; Nacer Khodja, A.; Mahlous, M.; Hacène, H.

    2007-12-01

    A poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) hydrogel crosslinked by gamma radiation was used to immobilize, by adsorption, Rhodococcus erythropolis B4 strain. Immobilized cells were tested for their capacity to degrade naphthalene and anthracene, under aerobic conditions. The results showed that, the strain fixed is capable of growing in the presence of naphthalene or anthracene as a unique source of carbon. It was also shown that, the fixed strain can be preserved by freeze-drying for further use. The biodegradation capacity was improved during the second use.

  15. Immobilization of Rhodococcus erythropolis B4 on radiation crosslinked poly(vinylpyrrolidone) hydrogel: Application to the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djefal-Kerrar, A.; Gais, S.; Ouallouche, K.; Nacer Khodja, A.; Mahlous, M.; Hacene, H.

    2007-01-01

    A poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) hydrogel crosslinked by gamma radiation was used to immobilize, by adsorption, Rhodococcus erythropolis B4 strain. Immobilized cells were tested for their capacity to degrade naphthalene and anthracene, under aerobic conditions. The results showed that, the strain fixed is capable of growing in the presence of naphthalene or anthracene as a unique source of carbon. It was also shown that, the fixed strain can be preserved by freeze-drying for further use. The biodegradation capacity was improved during the second use

  16. Uranium reserves and exploration activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meehan, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    The strategy that ERDA plans to employ regarding resource appraisal is outlined. All types of uranium occurrences will be evaluated as sources of domestic ore reserves. Industry's exploration efforts will be compiled. These data will include information on land acquisition and costs, footage drilled and costs, estimates of exploration activities and expenditures, exploration for non-sandstone deposits, exploration in non-established areas, and foreign exploration plans and costs. Typical data in each of these areas are given

  17. Gas reserves, discoveries and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniere, A.

    2006-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2004, new discoveries, located mostly in the Asia/Pacific region, permitted a 71% produced reserve replacement rate. The Middle East and the offshore sector represent a growing proportion of world gas production Non-conventional gas resources are substantial but are not exploited to any significant extent, except in the United States, where they account for 30% of U.S. gas production. (author)

  18. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  19. Indian Reserves: Canada's Developing Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Musto, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    Indian reserves are the most visible reminder of the separation of aboriginal people from the rest of Canada and other Canadians. Illness patterns and social conditions in Native communities closely parallel those in developing nations. While they continue to have a large burden of infectious diseases, these groups also have an increased incidence of chronic and lifestyle diseases as well as environment-related conditions. Similarities can be seen in urban areas between immigrants from abroad...

  20. Effect of Cutting Parameters on Thrust Force and Surface Roughness in Drilling of Al-2219/B4C/Gr Metal Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindranath, V. M.; Basavarajappa, G. S. Shiva Shankar S.; Suresh, R.

    2016-09-01

    In aluminium matrix composites, reinforcement of hard ceramic particle present inside the matrix which causes tool wear, high cutting forces and poor surface finish during machining. This paper focuses on effect of cutting parameters on thrust force, surface roughness and burr height during drilling of MMCs. In the present work, discuss the influence of spindle speed and feed rate on drilling the pure base alloy (Al-2219), mono composite (Al- 2219+8% B4C) and hybrid composite (Al-2219+8%B4C+3%Gr). The composites were fabricated using liquid metallurgy route. The drilling experiments were conducted by CNC machine with TiN coated HSS tool, M42 (Cobalt grade) and carbide tools at various spindle speeds and feed rates. The thrust force, surface roughness and burr height of the drilled hole were investigated in mono composite and hybrid composite containing graphite particles, the experimental results show that the feed rate has more influence on thrust force and surface roughness. Lesser thrust force and discontinuous chips were produced during machining of hybrid composites when compared with mono and base alloy during drilling process. It is due to solid lubricant property of graphite which reduces the lesser thrust force, burr height and lower surface roughness. When machining with Carbide tool at low feed and high speeds good surface finish was obtained compared to other two types of cutting tool materials.

  1. Advanced first-principles theory of superconductivity including both lattice vibrations and spin fluctuations: The case of FeB4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekaert, J.; Aperis, A.; Partoens, B.; Oppeneer, P. M.; Milošević, M. V.

    2018-01-01

    We present an advanced method to study spin fluctuations in superconductors quantitatively and entirely from first principles. This method can be generally applied to materials where electron-phonon coupling and spin fluctuations coexist. We employ it here to examine the recently synthesized superconductor iron tetraboride (FeB4) with experimental Tc˜2.4 K [H. Gou et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 157002 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.157002]. We prove that FeB4 is particularly prone to ferromagnetic spin fluctuations due to the presence of iron, resulting in a large Stoner interaction strength, I =1.5 eV, as calculated from first principles. The other important factor is its Fermi surface that consists of three separate sheets, among which two are nested ellipsoids. The resulting susceptibility has a ferromagnetic peak around q =0 , from which we calculated the repulsive interaction between Cooper pair electrons using the random phase approximation. Subsequently, we combined the electron-phonon interaction calculated from first principles with the spin fluctuation interaction in fully anisotropic Eliashberg theory calculations. We show that the resulting superconducting gap spectrum is conventional, yet very strongly depleted due to coupling to the spin fluctuations. The critical temperature decreases from Tc=41 K, if they are not taken into account, to Tc=1.7 K, in good agreement with the experimental value.

  2. Sliding-wear resistance of pure near fully-dense B4C under lubrication with water, diesel fuel, and paraffin oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz, Angel L.; Leal, Victor Manuel Candelario; Borrero-López, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    The sliding-wear resistance of pure near fully-dense B4C is investigated, and the wear mode/mechanisms identified, under lubrication with water, diesel fuel, and paraffin oil. It is found that the wear is mild in the three cases, with specific wear rates (SWRs) of 10−16–10−17 m3/N m. Nonetheless......, the wear resistance of the B4C ceramic is one order of magnitude greater under oil lubrication (1016 N m/m3) than under water lubrication (1015 N m/m3), and twice as great for the specific case of paraffin oil than diesel fuel, attributable to the lubricant’s viscosity. It is also found that the wear mode...... is always abrasion, and that the wear mechanisms are plastic deformation and localized fracture with grain pullout. However, in agreement with the macro-wear data, the severity of the wear damage is lower under lubrication with paraffin oil, followed by diesel fuel, and lastly water. Finally...

  3. Narrow groove and restricted anchors of MHC class I molecule BF2*0401 plus peptide transporter restriction can explain disease susceptibility of B4 chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Chen, Yong; Qi, Jianxun; Gao, Feng; Liu, Yanjie; Liu, Jun; Zhou, Xuyu; Kaufman, Jim; Xia, Chun; Gao, George F

    2012-11-01

    The MHC has genetic associations with many diseases, often due to differences in presentation of antigenic peptides by polymorphic MHC molecules to T lymphocytes of the immune system. In chickens, only a single classical class I molecule in each MHC haplotype is expressed well due to coevolution with the polymorphic TAPs which means that resistance and susceptibility to infectious pathogens are particularly easy to observe. Previously, structures of chicken MHC class I molecule BF2*2101 from B21 haplotype showed an unusually large peptide-binding groove that accommodates a broad spectrum of peptides to present as epitopes to CTLs, explaining the MHC-determined resistance of B21 chickens to Marek's disease. In this study, we report the crystal structure of BF2*0401 from the B4 (also known as B13) haplotype, showing a highly positively charged surface hitherto unobserved in other MHC molecules, as well as a remarkably narrow groove due to the allele-specific residues with bulky side chains. Together, these properties limit the number of epitope peptides that can bind this class I molecule. However, peptide-binding assays show that in vitro, BF2*0401 can bind a wider variety of peptides than are found on the surface of B4 cells. Thus, a combination of the specificities of the polymorphic TAP and the MHC results in a very limited set of BF2*0401 peptides with negatively charged anchors to be presented to T lymphocytes.

  4. Crohn's disease limited to the vermiform appendix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin; Andersen, J C

    1987-01-01

    Thirteen cases of Crohn's disease confined to the vermiform appendix were seen during a 12-year period. They constituted 16.9% of patients with primary resection of the bowel for Crohn's disease in the same period, but only 0.4% of the cases of acute appendicitis. In 10 of the 13 cases...... to approach that of recurrence after resection in other parts of the intestines. Collective review of this and three other relatively large case series gave an estimated recurrence rate of 3.5%. We conclude that in Crohn's disease initially confined to the appendix the course appears to be indolent....... there was marked fibrous thickening of the appendiceal wall, and in 11 there were epithelioid cell granulomas. Appendectomy was performed in all cases. None had postoperative fistula or later manifestations of the disease within the observation time averaging 6.3 years. The recurrence rate was previously believed...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 178 - Specifications for Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specifications for Steel A Appendix A to Part 178.... 178, App. A Appendix A to Part 178—Specifications for Steel Table 1 [Open-hearth, basic oxygen, or electric steel of uniform quality. The following chemical composition limits are based on ladle analysis...

  6. 25 CFR Appendix B to Part 276 - Financial Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial Reporting Requirements B Appendix B to Part 276...—Financial Reporting Requirements A. Purpose and scope. This appendix prescribes requirements for grantee to report financial information to the Bureau and to request advances and reimbursement when a letter-of...

  7. 31 CFR Appendix D to Part 359 - Tax Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... amended. The bonds are also subject to Federal and State estate, inheritance, gift, or other excise taxes... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tax Considerations D Appendix D to..., SERIES I Pt. 359, App. D Appendix D to Part 359—Tax Considerations 1. What are some general tax...

  8. 31 CFR Appendix to Part 351 - Tax Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... estate or inheritance taxes. (See 31 U.S.C. 3124.) 2. What reporting methods are available for savings... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tax Considerations Appendix to Part.... 351, App. A Appendix to Part 351—Tax Considerations 1. What are some general tax considerations...

  9. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 505 - References

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References A Appendix A to Part 505 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 505, App. A Appendix A to Part 505—References (a) The Privacy Act of...

  10. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 806 - References

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References A Appendix A to Part 806 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM Pt. 806, App. A Appendix A to Part 806—References Title 5, United States Code, Section...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - References

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References A Appendix A to Subpart A of...) AMBIENT AIR MONITORING REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT METHODS General Provisions Pt. 53, Subpt. A, App. A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 53—References (1) American National Standard Quality Systems—Model for...

  12. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 513 - References

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References A Appendix A to Part 513 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS INDEBTEDNESS OF MILITARY PERSONNEL Pt. 513, App. A Appendix A to Part 513—References Section I...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - References

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References A Appendix A to Subpart C of...) AMBIENT AIR MONITORING REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT METHODS Procedures for Determining Comparability Between Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, App. A Appendix A to Subpart C of Part 53...

  14. 44 CFR Appendix A to Part 18 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 18 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 18, App. A Appendix A to Part 18—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and Cooperative Agreements The...

  15. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 411 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 411 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 411, App. A Appendix A to Part 411—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts...

  16. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 604 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to... NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 604, App. A Appendix A to Part 604—Certification Regarding Lobbying... and submit Standard Form-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with its...

  17. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 712 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to... RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 712, App. A Appendix A to Part 712—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification... and submit Standard Form-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with its...

  18. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 93 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 93 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 93, App. A Appendix A to Part 93—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and Cooperative Agreements The...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 601 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 601 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 601, App. A Appendix A to Part 601—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans...

  20. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 519 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 519 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 519, App. A Appendix A to Part 519—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and...

  1. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 93 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to... ON LOBBYING Pt. 93, App. A Appendix A to Part 93—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for... Standard Form-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with its instructions. (3) The...

  2. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 1158 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 1158, App. A Appendix A to Part 1158—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and...

  3. 6 CFR Appendix A to Part 9 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to... LOBBYING Pt. 9, App. A Appendix A to Part 9—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts... Standard Form—LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with its instructions. (3) The...

  4. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 1168 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 1168, App. A Appendix A to Part 1168—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants...

  5. 34 CFR Appendix A to Part 82 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 82 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 82, App. A Appendix A to Part 82—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants...

  6. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 1230 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to... AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 1230, App. A Appendix A to Part 1230—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and Cooperative Agreements The...

  7. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 1271 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix... ON LOBBYING Pt. 1271, App. A Appendix A to Part 1271—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification... and submit Standard Form-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with its...

  8. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 138 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 138 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 138, App. A Appendix A to Part 138—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants...

  9. 20 CFR Appendix A to Part 438 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 438 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 438, App. A Appendix A to Part 438—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans...

  10. 18 CFR Appendix A to Part 1315 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 1315 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 1315, App. A Appendix A to Part 1315—Certification Regarding Lobbying... and submit Standard Form-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with its...

  11. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 311 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 311 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 311, App. A Appendix A to Part 311—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and Cooperative...

  12. 7 CFR Appendix A to Part 3018 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part... OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 3018, App. A Appendix A to Part 3018—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and Cooperative Agreements The...

  13. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 227 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 227 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 227, App. A Appendix A to Part 227—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts...

  14. 38 CFR Appendix A to Part 45 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 45 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 45, App. A Appendix A to Part 45—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and Cooperative Agreements The undersigned certifies...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 20 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 20 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 20, App. A Appendix A to Part 20—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants...

  16. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 28 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to... AGREEMENT REGULATIONS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 28, App. A Appendix A to Part 28—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and Cooperative Agreements The undersigned...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 227 - Noise Exposure Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Noise Exposure Computation A Appendix A to Part...—Noise Exposure Computation This appendix is mandatory. I. Computation of Employee Noise Exposure A... because they are sometimes necessary for the computation of noise dose. In the above table the duration...

  18. 16 CFR Appendix E to Part 305 - Room Air Conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Room Air Conditioners E Appendix E to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE... Appendix E to Part 305—Room Air Conditioners Range Information Manufacturer's rated cooling capacity in Btu...

  19. Torsion of the vermiform appendix: A case report | Wani | Internet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Torsion of the vermiform appendix is a rare condition with few cases reported in the literature. Various factors predispose to torsion. Various factors predispose to torsion. We report a case of primary torsion of the vermiform appendix. The clinical presentation was indistinguishable from acute appendicitis and the diagnosis ...

  20. 12 CFR Appendix F to Part 360 - Customer File Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customer File Structure F Appendix F to Part... POLICY RESOLUTION AND RECEIVERSHIP RULES Pt. 360, App. F Appendix F to Part 360—Customer File Structure This is the structure of the data file to provide to the FDIC information related to each customer who...

  1. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 155 - Additional Procedural Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional Procedural Guidance A Appendix A to Part 155 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE SECURITY DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL PERSONNEL SECURITY CLEARANCE PROGRAM Pt. 155, App. A Appendix A to Part 155—Additional Procedural...

  2. Pathways for School Finance in California. Technical Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Heather; Sonstelie, Jon; Weston, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This is a technical appendix for the report, "Pathways for School Finance in California" (ED515651). "Pathways for School Finance in California" simulates alternatives to California's current school finance system. This appendix provides more information about the revenues used in those simulations. The first section describes…

  3. 14 CFR Appendix H to Part 121 - Advanced Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advanced Simulation H Appendix H to Part... Simulation This appendix provides guidelines and a means for achieving flightcrew training in advanced... simulator, as appropriate. Advanced Simulation Training Program For an operator to conduct Level C or D...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 67 - Technical Support Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technical Support Document A Appendix A to Part 67 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...—Technical Support Document Note: EPA will make copies of appendix A available from: Director, Stationary...

  5. 31 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examples A Appendix A to Subpart C of... A to Subpart C of Part 29—Examples This appendix contains sample calculations of Federal Benefit Payments in a variety of situations. Optional Retirement Examples Example 1: No Unused Sick Leave A. In...

  6. 43 CFR Appendix B to Part 2 - Internet Addresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internet Addresses B Appendix B to Part 2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior RECORDS AND TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT Pt. 2, App. B Appendix B to Part 2—Internet Addresses 1. Department of the Interior (DOI) Home...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix H to Part 73 - Weapons Qualification Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weapons Qualification Criteria H Appendix H to Part 73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Pt. 73, App. H Appendix H to Part 73—Weapons Qualification Criteria The B-27 Target or a target of equivalent...

  8. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 160 - Sample Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FINANCIAL INFORMATION Pt. 160, App. B Appendix B to Part 160—Sample Clauses This appendix only applies to... clause is accurate for each institution that uses the notice. Note that disclosure of certain information... nonaffiliated third parties. A-1—Categories of Information You Collect (All Institutions) You may use this...

  9. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 420 - Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk Analysis C Appendix C to Part 420... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Pt. 420, App. C Appendix C to Part 420—Risk Analysis (a... risk is minimal. (2) An applicant shall perform a risk analysis when a populated area is located within...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 835 - Surface Contamination Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Surface Contamination Values D Appendix D to Part 835...—Surface Contamination Values The data presented in appendix D are to be used in identifying the need for posting of contamination and high contamination areas in accordance with § 835.603(e) and (f) and...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 67 - Instruction Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Instruction Manual B Appendix B to Part 67 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Manual Note: EPA will make copies of appendix B available from: Director, Stationary Source Compliance...

  12. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 806 - Abbreviations and Acronyms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations and Acronyms B Appendix B to Part 806 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM Pt. 806, App. B Appendix B to Part 806—Abbreviations and...

  13. 31 CFR Appendix to Part 341 - Tables of Redemption Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tables of Redemption Values Appendix... RETIREMENT PLAN BONDS Pt. 341, App. Appendix to Part 341—Tables of Redemption Values Table of Redemption Values Providing an Investment Yield of 33/4 Percent per Annum for Bonds Bearing Issue Dates Beginning...

  14. 48 CFR Appendix to Part 1252 - Tar Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tar Matrix Appendix to Part 1252 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Pt. 1252, App. Appendix to Part 1252—Tar Matrix ER27DE05.000...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 423 - 126 Priority Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true 126 Priority Pollutants A Appendix A to Part 423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS STEAM ELECTRIC POWER GENERATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pt. 423, App. A Appendix A to Part 423—126...

  16. Exposition concerning small windmills. Appendix to main report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This appendix to the main report entitled ''Exposition Concerning Small Windmills'' includes background information on the report, profiles of the participating companies and of those visited in Denmark and abroad, questionnaires and interview schemes sent to the participating companies, surveys of producers of Danish and foreign producers of small windmills and an appendix to the economical calculations found within the report. (AB)

  17. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 14 - Consumer Grievance Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer Grievance Process A Appendix A to Part 14 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE Pt. 14, App. A Appendix A to Part 14—Consumer Grievance Process Any consumer who...

  18. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 192 - Checklist for Commanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Checklist for Commanders A Appendix A to Part 192 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EQUAL OPPORTUNITY IN OFF-BASE HOUSING Pt. 192, App. A Appendix A to Part 192—Checklist for...

  19. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 147 - Curriculum Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Curriculum Requirements A Appendix A to... to Part 147—Curriculum Requirements This appendix defines terms used in appendices B, C, and D of this part, and describes the levels of proficiency at which items under each subject in each curriculum...

  20. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 500 - Qualifying International Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Qualifying International Institutions A Appendix A to Part 500 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS Pt. 500, App. A Appendix A to Part 500...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 50 - Fracture Toughness Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fracture Toughness Requirements G Appendix G to Part 50..., App. G Appendix G to Part 50—Fracture Toughness Requirements I. Introduction and scope. II. Definitions. III. Fracture toughness tests. IV. Fracture toughness requirements. I. Introduction and Scope...

  2. Significance of acquired diverticular disease of the vermiform appendix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenbach, Klaus; Hjorth, Sofie Vetli; Engel, Ulla

    2012-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of acquired diverticulum of the appendix (DA), including incipient forms and its possible significance as a marker of local/regional neoplasms.......To assess the prevalence of acquired diverticulum of the appendix (DA), including incipient forms and its possible significance as a marker of local/regional neoplasms....

  3. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 73 - Reportable Safeguards Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reportable Safeguards Events G Appendix G to Part 73.... G Appendix G to Part 73—Reportable Safeguards Events Pursuant to the provisions of 10 CFR 73.71 (b... shall report or record, as appropriate, the following safeguards events. I. Events to be reported within...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 70 - Reportable Safety Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reportable Safety Events A Appendix A to Part 70 Energy... Appendix A to Part 70—Reportable Safety Events Licensees must comply with reporting requirements in this... report: (a) One hour reports. Events to be reported to the NRC Operations Center within 1 hour of...

  5. Appendix B - GPRA06 biomass program documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    This appendix discusses the assumptions and methods employed in the biomass benefits analysis that is part of the fiscal year 2006 GPRA benefits analysis for all of the Department of Energy’s Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) research and deployment programs. The biomass benefits analysis focuses on the benefits of future achievements by the program and excludes retrospective benefits and benefits resulting from industry’s own initiative and funding.

  6. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  7. Brain reserve and cognitive reserve in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Maria A.; Leavitt, Victoria M.; Riccitelli, Gianna; Comi, Giancarlo; DeLuca, John; Filippi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We first tested the brain reserve (BR) hypothesis in multiple sclerosis (MS) by examining whether larger maximal lifetime brain volume (MLBV; determined by genetics) protects against disease-related cognitive impairment, and then investigated whether cognitive reserve (CR) gained through life experience (intellectually enriching leisure activities) protects against cognitive decline independently of MLBV (BR). Methods: Sixty-two patients with MS (41 relapsing-remitting MS, 21 secondary progressive MS) received MRIs to estimate BR (MLBV, estimated with intracranial volume [ICV]) and disease burden (T2 lesion load; atrophy of gray matter, white matter, thalamus, and hippocampus). Early-life cognitive leisure was measured as a source of CR. We assessed cognitive status with tasks of cognitive efficiency and memory. Hierarchical regressions were used to investigate whether higher BR (ICV) protects against cognitive impairment, and whether higher CR (leisure) independently protects against cognitive impairment over and above BR. Results: Cognitive status was positively associated with ICV (R2 = 0.066, p = 0.017). An ICV × disease burden interaction (R2 = 0.050, p = 0.030) revealed that larger ICV attenuated the impact of disease burden on cognition. Controlling for BR, higher education (R2 = 0.047, p = 0.030) and leisure (R2 = 0.090, p = 0.001) predicted better cognition. A leisure × disease burden interaction (R2 = 0.037, p = 0.030) showed that leisure independently attenuated the impact of disease burden on cognition. Follow-up analyses revealed that BR protected against cognitive inefficiency, not memory deficits, whereas CR was more protective against memory deficits than cognitive inefficiency. Conclusion: We provide evidence of BR in MS, and show that CR independently protects against disease-related cognitive decline over and above BR. Lifestyle choices protect against cognitive impairment independently of genetic factors outside of one's control

  8. Coxsackievirus B4 as a Causative Agent of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1: Is There a Role of Inefficiently Treated Drinking Water and Sewage in Virus Spreading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Senousy, Waled M; Abdel-Moneim, Adel; Abdel-Latif, Mahmoud; El-Hefnawy, Mohamed H; Khalil, Rehab G

    2018-03-01

    for isolation of separate EV isolates from treated and untreated water and sewage samples. Characterization of the EV amplicons by RT-PCR followed by sequencing of these isolates revealed high homology (97%) with human coxsackievirus B4 (CV B4) in 60% of the isolates, while the rest of the isolates belonged to poliovirus type 1 and type 2 vaccine strains. On the other hand, characterization of the EV amplicons by RT-PCR followed by sequencing for T1D-EV + children specimens indicated that all samples contained CV B4 with the same sequence characterized in the environmental samples. CV B4-contaminated drinking water or treated sewage may play a role as a causative agent of T1D in children.

  9. Electrical Discharge Machining of Al (6351-5% SiC-10% B4C Hybrid Composite: A Grey Relational Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suresh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present experimental work is to optimize the electrical discharge machining (EDM parameters of aluminum alloy (Al 6351 matrix reinforced with 5 wt.% silicon carbide (SiC and 10 wt.% boron carbide (B4C particles fabricated through the stir casting route. Multiresponse optimization was carried out through grey relational analysis (GRA with an objective to minimize the machining characteristics, namely electrode wear ratio (EWR, surface roughness (SR and power consumption (PC. The optimal combination of input parameters is identified, which shows the significant enhancement in process characteristics. Contributions of each machining parameter to the responses are calculated using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The result shows that the pulse current contributes more (83.94% to affecting the combined output responses.

  10. Utilizing alkoxyphenyl substituents for side-chain engineering of efficient benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b ']dithiophene-based small molecule organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Zhengkun; Chen, Weichao; Qiu, Meng

    2015-01-01

    A new two-dimensional (2D) conjugated small molecule, namely DCA3TBDTP, with an alkoxyphenyl substituted benzo[1,2-b: 4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) unit as the central core, octyl cyanoacetate as the end-capped groups and terthiophene as the pi-linked bridge, was designed and synthesized for solution-processed......-gap (1.82 eV) and a high decomposition temperature (362 degrees C). By applying the simple solution spin-coating fabrication process, the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) OSCs based on DCA3TBDTP and [6,6]-phenyl-C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) exhibited a good power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4...

  11. Using remote-sensing and the Simple Biosphere model (SiB4) to analyze the seasonality and productivity of the terrestrial biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseman, M.; Denning, S.; Baker, I. T.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the variability and seasonality of carbon fluxes from the terrestrial biosphere is integral to understanding the mechanisms and drivers of the global carbon cycle. However, there are many regions across the globe where in situ observations are sparse, such as the Amazon rainforest and the African Sahel. The latest version of the Simple-Biosphere model (SiB4) predicts a suite of biophysical variables such as terrestrial carbon flux (GPP), solar induced fluorescence (SIF), fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR), and leaf area index (LAI). By comparing modeled values to a suite of satellite and in situ observations we produce a robust analysis of the seasonality and productivity of the terrestrial biosphere in a variety of biome types across the globe.

  12. Thermoluminescence studies of manganese doped calcium tetraborate (CaB4O7:Mn) nanocrystal synthesized by co-precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani Haghiri, Maryam; Saion, Elias; wan Abdullah, Wan Saffiey; Soltani, Nayereh; Hashim, Mansor; Navasery, Manizheh; Shafaei, Mohammad Ali

    2013-09-01

    Manganese (Mn) doped bone-equivalent calcium tetraborate (CaB4O7) nanocrystals were synthesized using co-precipitation and thermal treatment techniques. The synthesized nanophosphors are found to possess the monoclinic structure and have the particle size about 9 nm. They showed good luminescence quantum efficiency and enough potential for radiation dose measurement in medical and industrial purposes. The variation of dopant concentrations was investigated from 0.1 to 2 mol% and it was found that the optimal concentration of 1.4 mol% Mn has the highest sensitivity among other concentrations. The results revealed that Mn enhance the thermoluminescence (TL) sensitivity about 80 times higher than the un-doped samples at 1 kGy and the TL response over a wide range of doses from 0.05 Gy to 2.0 kGy increased linearly with increasing the absorbed dose.

  13. Localization of MOs and electronic populations in closo-carboranes 1, 5-C2B3H5 and 1,6-C2B4H6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    We have analyzed the electronic populations of chemical bonds and atoms in the highly symmetric closo-carboranes 1,5-C 2 B 3 H 5 (I) and 1,6-C 2 B 4 H 6 (II). The overlap populations σ/sub XY/ are compared with the corresponding Mulliken indices. We note substantial nonadditivity of the populations σ/sub XY/ for closed three-center bonds BCB' and the closeness of the total overlap populations σ/sub t/ to its maximum value. We have established the localization of the natural MOs on the bonds CH, BH, and BCB', and for molecule I also on the CBC' bonds. The effects of conjugation of bonds in the closo-carborane polyhedron are apparent in the linear dependence of these MOs. The corresponding nonorthogonal hybrid AOs of carbon and boron are also linearly dependent. We have formulated the concept of unshared population of an atom

  14. Z' reservation at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    Montagna, G.; Piccinini, F.; Renard, F.M.; Verzegnassi, C.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the possibility that one extra Z\\equiv Z' exists with arbitrary mass and fermion couplings that do not violate (charged) lepton universality. We show that, in such a situation, a functional relationship is generated between the \\underline{deviations} from the SM values of three leptonic observables of two-fermion production at future e^+e^- colliders that is completely independent of the values of the Z' mass and couplings. This selects a certain region in the 3-d space of the deviations that is \\underline{characteristic} of the model (Z' "reservation"). As a specific and relevant example, we show the picture that would emerge at LEP2 under realistic experimental conditions.

  15. Serum Bactericidal Antibody Responses of Adults Immunized with the MenB-4C Vaccine against Genetically Diverse Serogroup B Meningococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntini, Serena; Lujan, Eduardo; Gibani, Malick M.; Dold, Christina; Rollier, Christine S.; Pollard, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT MenB-4C is a meningococcal vaccine for the prevention of serogroup B disease. The vaccine contains factor H binding protein (FHbp) and three other antigens that can elicit serum bactericidal antibodies (SBA). For vaccine licensure, efficacy was inferred from the SBA responses against three antigen-specific indicator strains. The relation between those results and broad protection against circulating genetically diverse strains is not known. Twenty adults were immunized with two doses of MenB-4C given 1 to 2 months apart. SBA activity against 3 reference strains and 15 serogroup B test strains (6 from college outbreaks) was measured. Compared to the preimmunization titers, 70%, 95%, and 95% of subjects had ≥4-fold increases in the titers of anti-PorA P1.4, anti-NadA, and anti-FHbp antibodies against the reference strains, respectively. In contrast, only 25 to 45% of the subjects had ≥4-fold increases in responses to 10 of the 15 test strains, including 8 that expressed one to three of the antigens in the vaccine. At 1 month, the majority of subjects with <4-fold titer increases had serum titers of ≥1:4, which are considered sufficient for protection. However, the titers against four strains declined to <1:4 by 4 to 6 months in one-third to greater than 50% of the subjects tested. Clinically relevant isolates are often more resistant to SBA than the indicator strains used to measure antigen-specific SBA. A working model is that the percentage of subjects with titers of ≥1:4 at 1 month postimmunization correlates with short-term protection against that strain, whereas the percentage of subjects with ≥4-fold titer increases represents a more robust response. (The protocol used at the Oxford Vaccine Group has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT02398396.) PMID:27847367

  16. Enterococcus faecalis PrgJ, a VirB4-like ATPase, mediates pCF10 conjugative transfer through substrate binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Alvarez-Martinez, Cristina; Chen, Yuqing; Choi, Kyoung-Jae; Yeo, Hye-Jeong; Christie, Peter J

    2012-08-01

    The Enterococcus faecalis prg and pcf genes of plasmid pCF10 encode a type IV secretion system (T4SS) required for conjugative transfer. PrgJ is a member of the VirB4 family of ATPases that are universally associated with T4SSs. Here, we report that purified PrgJ dimers displayed ATP binding and hydrolysis activities. A PrgJ nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) binding site mutation (K471E) slightly diminished ATP binding but abolished ATP hydrolysis in vitro and blocked pCF10 transfer in vivo. As shown with affinity pulldown assays, PrgJ and the K471E mutant protein interacted with the substrate receptor PcfC and with relaxase PcfG and accessory factor PcfF, which together form the relaxosome at the oriT sequence to initiate plasmid processing. The purified PrgJ and K471E proteins also bound single- and double-stranded DNA substrates without sequence specificity in vitro, and both PrgJ derivatives bound pCF10 in vivo by a mechanism dependent on an intact oriT sequence and cosynthesis of PcfC, PcfF, and PcfG, as shown by a formaldehyde-cross-linking assay. Our findings support a model in which the PcfC receptor coordinates with the PrgJ ATPase to drive early steps of pCF10 processing/transfer: (i) PcfC first binds the pCF10 relaxosome through contacts with PcfF, PcfG, and DNA; (ii) PcfC delivers the plasmid substrate to PrgJ; and (iii) PrgJ catalyzes substrate transfer to the membrane translocase. Substrate engagement with a VirB4-like subunit has not been previously described; consequently, our studies point to a novel function for these signature T4SS ATPases in mediating early steps of type IV secretion.

  17. Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate induced cross-neutralizing antibody against subgenotypes B1, B4, B5 and C4A in adult volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Hsiang Chou

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 has caused several epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD in Asia. No effective EV71 vaccine is available. A randomized and open-label phase I clinical study registered with ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT01268787, aims to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate (EV71vac at 5- and 10-µg doses. In this study we report the cross-neutralizing antibody responses from each volunteer against different subgenotypes of EV71 and CVA16.Sixty eligible healthy adults were recruited and vaccinated. Blood samples were obtained on day 0, 21 and 42 and tested against B1, B4, B5, C2, C4A, C4B and CVA16 for cross-neutralizing antibody responses.The immunogenicity of both 5- and 10- µg doses were found to be very similar. Approximately 45% of the participants had 4-fold increase in Nt, but there was no further increase in Nt after the second dose. EV71vac induced very strong cross-neutralizing antibody responses in >85% of volunteers without pre-existing Nt against subgenotype B1, B5 and C4A. EV71vac elicited weak cross-neutralizing antibody responses (∼20% of participants against a C4B and Coxsackie virus A16. Over 90% of vaccinated volunteers did not develop cross-neutralizing antibody responses (Nt<8 against a C2 strain. EV71vac can boost and significantly enhance the neutralizing antibody responses in volunteers who already had pre-vaccination antibodies against EV71 and/or CVA16.EV71vac is efficient in eliciting cross-neutralizing antibody responses against EV71 subgenotypes B1, B4, B5, and C4A, and provides the rationale for its evaluation in phase II clinical trials.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01268787.

  18. Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report for 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2010-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report is prepared animally and presents summary environmental data to (1) characterize environmental performance, (2) summarize environmental occurrences reported during the year, (3) confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and (4) highlight significant program activities. The report fulfills the requirement contained in DOE Order 231.1 A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting (DOE 2004) that an integrated annual site environmental report be prepared. The results summarized in this report are based on data collected prior to and through 2009. This report is not intended to nor does it present the results of all environmental monitoring associated with the ORR. Data collected for other site and regulatory purposes, such as environmental restoration/remedial investigation reports, waste management characterization sampling data, and environmental permit compliance data, are presented in other documents that have been prepared in accordance with applicable DOE guidance and/or laws and are referenced herein as appropriate. Appendix A to this report identifies corrections to the 2008 report. Appendix B contains a glossary of technical terms that may be useful for understanding the terminology used in this document. Environmental monitoring on the ORR consists primarily of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring involves the collection and analysis of samples or measurements of liquid and gaseous effluents at the points of release to the environment; these measurements allow the quantification and official reporting of contaminant levels, assessment of radiation and chemical exposures to the public, and demonstration of compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements. Environmental surveillance consists of direct measurements and collection and analysis of samples taken from the site and its environs exclusive of effluents

  19. Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report for 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Sharon D [ORNL; Loffman, Regis S [ORNL

    2010-10-01

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report is prepared annually and presents summary environmental data to (1) characterize environmental performance, (2) summarize environmental occurrences reported during the year, (3) confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and (4) highlight significant program activities. The report fulfills the requirement contained in DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting (DOE 2004) that an integrated annual site environmental report be prepared. The results summarized in this report are based on data collected prior to and through 2009. This report is not intended to nor does it present the results of all environmental monitoring associated with the ORR. Data collected for other site and regulatory purposes, such as environmental restoration/remedial investigation reports, waste management characterization sampling data, and environmental permit compliance data, are presented in other documents that have been prepared in accordance with applicable DOE guidance and/or laws and are referenced herein as appropriate. Appendix A to this report identifies corrections for the 2008 report. Appendix B contains a glossary of technical terms that may be useful for understanding the terminology used in this document. Environmental monitoring on the ORR consists primarily of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring involves the collection and analysis of samples or measurements of liquid and gaseous effluents at the points of release to the environment; these measurements allow the quantification and official reporting of contaminant levels, assessment of radiation and chemical exposures to the public, and demonstration of compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements. Environmental surveillance consists of direct measurements and collection and analysis of samples taken from the site and its environs exclusive of effluents

  20. Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Sharon D [ORNL

    2011-10-01

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report is prepared annually and presents summary environmental data to (1) characterize environmental performance, (2) summarize environmental occurrences reported during the year, (3) confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and (4) highlight significant program activities. The report fulfills the requirement contained in DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting (DOE 2004) that an integrated annual site environmental report be prepared. The results summarized in this report are based on data collected prior to and through 2010. This report is not intended to nor does it present the results of all environmental monitoring associated with the ORR. Data collected for other site and regulatory purposes, such as environmental restoration/remedial investigation reports, waste management characterization sampling data, and environmental permit compliance data, are presented in other documents that have been prepared in accordance with applicable DOE guidance and/or laws and are referenced herein as appropriate. Appendix A to this report identifies corrections to the 2009 report. Appendix B contains a glossary of technical terms that may be useful for understanding the terminology used in this document. Environmental monitoring on the ORR consists primarily of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring involves the collection and analysis of samples or measurements of liquid and gaseous effluents at the points of release to the environment; these measurements allow the quantification and official reporting of contaminant levels, assessment of radiation and chemical exposures to the public, and demonstration of compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements. Environmental surveillance consists of direct measurements and collection and analysis of samples taken from the site and its environs exclusive of effluents

  1. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 151 - Appendix I to Part 151

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Pt. 151, App. I Appendix I to Part 151 [Lists of Advisory Circulars incorporated by § 151.72: (a) Circulars available free of charge.] Number Subject AC 150/5300-3 Adaptation of..., and Hazardous Areas on Airports. AC 150/5340-13 High Intensity Lighting System. AC 150/5340-14 Economy...

  2. 43 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - Appendix B to Subpart A of Part 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Race, Color, or National Origin Pt. 17, Subpt. A, App. B Appendix B to Subpart A of Part 17 The following statutes authorize Federal financial assistance limited to individuals of a particular race, color.... Adult Vocational Training Act (70 Stat. 986, 25 U.S.C. 309). 3. Vocational and Trade School Act (48 Stat...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix I to Subpart B of... - Appendix I to Subpart B of Part 1139

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, App. I Appendix I to Subpart B of Part 1139 Excerpt from National Bus Traffic Association's brief (pages 18-23) in I&S M-29089 increased bus passenger... Motor Carriers of Passengers At the conclusion of the hearing in this proceeding, the Administrative Law...

  4. T1 bright appendix sign to exclude acute appendicitis in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ilah; An, Chansik; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Chung, Yong Eun

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of the T1 bright appendix sign for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in pregnant women. This retrospective study included 125 pregnant women with suspected appendicitis who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The T1 bright appendix sign was defined as a high intensity signal filling more than half length of the appendix on T1-weighted imaging. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the T1 bright appendix sign for normal appendix identification were calculated in all patients and in those with borderline-sized appendices (6-7 mm). The T1 bright appendix sign was seen in 51% of patients with normal appendices, but only in 4.5% of patients with acute appendicitis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the T1 bright appendix sign for normal appendix diagnosis were 44.9%, 95.5%, 97.6%, and 30.0%, respectively. All four patients with borderline sized appendix with appendicitis showed negative T1 bright appendix sign. The T1 bright appendix sign is a specific finding for the diagnosis of a normal appendix in pregnant women with suspected acute appendicitis. • Magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly used in emergency settings. • Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdomen. • Magnetic resonance imaging is widely used in pregnant population. • T1 bright appendix sign can be a specific sign representing normal appendix.

  5. 47 CFR Appendix I to Subpart E of... - A Procedure for Calculating PCS Signal Levels at Microwave Receivers (Appendix E of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... at Microwave Receivers (Appendix E of the Memorandum Opinion and Order) I Appendix I to Subpart E of...—A Procedure for Calculating PCS Signal Levels at Microwave Receivers (Appendix E of the Memorandum... microwave operations from a PCS operation will be based on the sum of signals received at a microwave...

  6. Prevalence and clinical implications of diverticulosis of the vermiform appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käser, Samuel Andreas; Willi, Niels; Maurer, Christoph Andreas

    2013-08-01

    The epidemiology and the aetiology of inflammatory diseases of the vermiform appendix remain poorly understood. The prevalence of appendiceal diverticulosis and diverticulitis in patients undergoing appendectomy for suspected acute appendicitis was investigated. A retrospective study was completed on patients who underwent appendectomy for suspected acute appendicitis. Pathology reports of all patients were screened for diverticula of the vermiform appendix. Patients with either diverticulitis of the vermiform appendix or normal appendicitis were compared. Out of two sets of consecutive patients (n = 1073), nine (0.8%) were identified with diverticulosis of the vermiform appendix. Two of these patients had diverticulitis of the vermiform appendix without appendicitis, three had diverticulitis with consecutive localized appendicitis, and four had proper acute appendicitis with a noninflamed diverticulum of the vermiform appendix. One patient had perforated appendicitis. Two patients had an obstructing neuroendocrine carcinoid which may have caused diverticular formation. Diverticula of the vermiform appendix are rare. If inflamed, they mimic acute appendicitis and are treated by appendectomy. If not inflamed, and diagnosed intraoperatively, incidental appendectomy is recommended.

  7. Lengths and Positions of the Vermiform Appendix among Sudanese Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab I. El-Amin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objective: The anatomy of vermiform appendix displays great variations in length and position between different populations. The reports relating these variations to a specific etiological factor are few. This study aims to describe the positions and lengths of vermiform appendix among Sudanese cadavers. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out in Omdurman Teaching Hospital Morgue and Omdurman Islamic University-Sudan. Sixty Sudanese cadavers (30 male and 30 female, were dissected in the period from June 2013 to June 2014. The positions and the lengths of vermiform appendix were measured in millimeters. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results: The cadavers’ age ranged between 20 to 80 years according to their medico-legal reports. Retrocaecal position was mainly observed in 60%, pelvic in 35%, post-ileal in 3.3%, and pre-ileal in 1.7%. The lengths of the appendix was found < 69 mm in 23.3%, 70-110 mm in 60%, and > 110 mm in 16.7%, also the study showed insignificant difference between the lengths and ages (p < 0.08, and between males and females (p = 0.23. Age was the influencing factor for the positions of vermiform appendixes (p = 0.04. Conclusion: The study showed that the commonest lengths of the appendix were 70-110 mm while the common position was retrocaecal regardless to age or gender. This data should be considered in surgical removal of the inflamed appendix.

  8. [Perforation of the appendix and observation of Enterobius vermicularis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou-Jensen, Katrine; Antipina, Elena Nikolaevna; Brisling, Steffen Kirstein; Azawi, Nessn

    2014-12-15

    A nine-year-old girl was admitted to the paediatric ward due to fever and lower abdomen pain through a day. Acute laparoscopic exploration showed a large necrotic perforation at the distal end of the appendix. During the appendectomy multiple small, live Enterobius vermicularis (pinworms) were observed. The patient was admitted for three days of observation and received relevant treatment with intravenous antibiotics and antihelminthic treatment. The histology showed numerous pinworms in the lumen of the appendix and invasion of the pinworms of the submucosal layer and the wall of the appendix.

  9. Autoamputation of the Appendix in a Chronic Adnexal Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Michele Markey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoamputation of the appendix has rarely been described in the literature. We present a case of a pelvic mass, thought to be a dermoid cyst based on preoperative imaging. After surgical removal and pathological examination, the mass was found to be a chronic pelvic abscess containing the right adnexa as well as an autoamputated vermiform appendix. Differentiating between gynecologic and gastrointestinal disease preoperatively can be difficult and often a definitive diagnosis cannot be made until surgical exploration and pathological review. However, to our knowledge, this is the first described case of a chronic pelvic abscess containing an autoamputated vermiform appendix.

  10. Goblet cell carcinoid of the vermiform appendix - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptaszyński, Konrad; Bartczak, Artur; Kołodziej, Blanka; Szczepkowski, Marek

    2012-12-01

    Goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) is a rare neuroendocrine tumor of the vermiform appendix with uncertain clinical behavior. It was first described by Gagné and Subbuswamy in 1969 and 1974, respectively. The tumor occurs almost exclusively in the vermiform appendix. We present a case of a 60-year-old female, who was referred to the Bielanski Hospital with signs and symptoms of acute appendicitis. Microscopic examination of the appendix showed features of acute appendicitis, however scattered groups of cells with clear cytoplasm as well as strands of single cells with no evidence of atypia were seen. The patient underwent a right hemicolectomy due to the diagnosis of GCC.

  11. Duplication of the vermiform appendix in an adult patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K H

    2014-07-01

    Duplication of the appendix is extremely rare. A 69-year-old woman was admitted with a 2-day history of right lower quadrant abdominal pain. Physical examination was consistent with acute appendicitis. Ultrasonography and colonoscopy gave a clinical impression of an inflammatory appendiceal mucocoele. Operative findings were an enlarged and inflamed appendix with distal cystic changes. Laparoscopic wedge resection of the caecum was performed. A tubular structure with a true lumen was found in the appendix. Haematoxylin and eosin staining and trichrome staining showed both structures had a true mucosa and a muscular layer. The duplication in this case does not belong to any of the previously described types of duplication.

  12. Detección del antígeno Tn en tumores epiteliales con la lectina de Vicia villosa isolectina B4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Limpias

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. Los epítopes T, Tn y sTn, se expresan en un alto porcentaje de tumores epiteliales y pueden detectarse con anticuerpos monoclonales y lectinas. Objetivo. Evaluar diferencias de expresión del antígeno Tn en cortes histológicos de epitelios no neoplásicos y tumores epiteliales mediante isolectina B4 de Vicia villosa. Material y métodos. Se evaluaron semicuantitativamente localización, intensidad y porcentaje de expresión del antígeno en carcinomas in-situ e infiltrantes y epitelios no neoplásicos de cérvix, seno y urotelio, mediante isolectina B4. Resultados La expresión de Tn en cérvix predominó en membrana de células no neoplásicas y citoplasma de células tumorales; su intensidad fue mayor en carcinomas in-situ e infiltrantes comparado con epitelio no neoplásico aunque en este el porcentaje de expresión fue mayor. En seno, la expresión de Tn fue predominantemente citoplasmática con intensidad similar, el porcentaje de expresión fué mayor en carcinomas ductales in-situ e infiltrantes. En urotelio no neoplásico y tumoral la expresión de Tn predominó en citoplasma; la intensidad y el porcentaje de expresión fueron mayores en neoplasias no invasivas de bajo y alto grado, mientras que en urotelio no neoplásico fue baja y no hubo tendencia definida en tumores infiltrantes. Conclusiones. La detección del antígeno Tn mediante la lectina VVB4 mostró una mayor extensión de marcación en carcinomas ductales de seno en relación con el epitelio no neoplásico, pero no mostró una tendencia definida entre el tejido normal, ni diferentes etapas del desarrollo de los tumores de cérvix y urotelio. Estos hallazgos pueden atribuirse a la heterogeneidad de los procesos carcinogénicos o a que la especificidad de la lectina VVB4 no está restringida a este antígeno.

  13. Lipoxin A4 and lipoxin B4 stimulate the release but not the oxygenation of arachidonic acid in human neutrophils: Dissociation between lipid remodeling and adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigam, S.; Fiore, S.; Luscinskas, F.W.; Serhan, C.N. (Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The profiles of actions of lipoxin A4 (LXA4) and lipoxin B4 (LXB4), two lipoxygenase-derived eicosanoids, were examined with human neutrophils. At nanomolar concentrations, LXA4 and LXB4 each stimulated the release of (1-14C)arachidonic acid from esterified sources in neutrophils. Lipoxin-induced release of (1-14C)arachidonic acid was both dose- and time-dependent and was comparable to that induced by the chemotactic peptide f-met-leu-phe. Time-course studies revealed that lipoxin A4 and lipoxin B4 each induced a biphasic release of (1-14C)arachidonic acid, which was evident within seconds (5-15 sec) in its initial phase and minutes (greater than 30 sec) in the second phase. In contrast, the all-trans isomers of LXA4 and LXB4 did not provoke (1-14C)AA release. Lipoxin-induced release of arachidonic acid was inhibited by prior treatment of the cells with pertussis toxin but not by its beta-oligomers, suggesting the involvement of guaninine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins in this event. Dual radiolabeling of neutrophil phospholipid classes with (1-14C)arachidonic acid and (3H)palmitic acid showed that phosphatidylcholine was a major source of lipoxin-induced release of (1-14C)arachidonic acid. They also demonstrated that lipoxins rapidly stimulate both formation of phosphatidic acid as well as phospholipid remodeling. Although both LXA4 and LXB4 (10(-8)-10(-6) M) stimulated the release of (1-14C)arachidonic acid, neither compound evoked its oxygenation by either the 5- or 15-lipoxygenase pathways (including the formation of LTB4, 20-COOH-LTB4, 5-HETE, or 15-HETE). LXA4 and LXB4 (10(-7) M) each stimulated the elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ as monitored with Fura 2-loaded cells, albeit to a lesser extent than equimolar concentrations of FMLP. Neither lipoxin altered the binding of (3H)LTB4 to its receptor on neutrophils.

  14. The mechanism of thermal explosion (TE) synthesis of TiC–TiB2 particulate locally reinforced steel matrix composites from an Al–Ti–B4C system via a TE-casting route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Binglin; Shen Ping; Cao Xueqiang; Jiang Qichuan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We successfully fabricated TiC–TiB 2 locally reinforced steel matrix composites. ► We investigated the product microstructure and formation mechanism of TiC and TiB 2 . ► The formation mechanism during casting is dependent on B 4 C particle size. ► Fe melt promotes the full dissociation of remnant B 4 C particles during casting. ► The relationship between the mechanisms in the ERF and during casting was proposed. - Abstract: TiC–TiB 2 particulate locally reinforced steel matrix composites were fabricated by a novel TE-casting route from an Al–Ti–B 4 C system with various B 4 C particle sizes. The formation mechanism of TiC and TiB 2 in the locally reinforced regions was investigated. The results showed that TiC and TiB 2 are formed and precipitated from Al–Ti–B–C melt resulting from the dissociation of B 4 C into Al–Ti melt when the concentrations of B and C atoms in the Al–Ti–B–C melt become saturated. However, in the case of coarse B 4 C powders (≥40 μm) used, the primary reaction in the Al–Ti–B–C melt is quite limited due to the poor dissociation of B 4 C. The poured steel melt infiltrates into the primary reaction product and thus leads to the formation of Al–Fe–Ti–B–C melt, thanks to the favorable reaction of molten Fe with remnant B 4 C, and then TiC and TiB 2 are further formed and precipitated from the saturated Al–Fe–Ti–B–C melt. The relationship between the mechanisms of thermal explosion (TE) synthesis of TiC and TiB 2 in the electric resistance furnace and during casting was proposed.

  15. Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]Dithiophene-6,7-Difluoroquinoxaline Small Molecule Donors with >8% BHJ Solar Cell Efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Ru-Ze

    2017-07-14

    Solution-processable small molecule (SM) donors are promising alternatives to their polymer counterparts in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. While SM donors with favorable spectral absorption, self-assembly patterns, optimum thin-film morphologies, and high carrier mobilities in optimized donor–acceptor blends are required to further BHJ device efficiencies, material structure governs each one of those attributes. As a result, the rational design of SM donors with gradually improved BHJ solar cell efficiencies must concurrently address: (i) bandgap tuning and optimization of spectral absorption (inherent to the SM main chain) and (ii) pendant-group substitution promoting structural order and mediating morphological effects. In this paper, the rational pendant-group substitution in benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene–6,7-difluoroquinoxaline SMs is shown to be an effective approach to narrowing the optical gap (Eopt) of the SM donors (SM1 and SM2), without altering their propensity to order and form favorable thin-film BHJ morphologies with PC71BM. Systematic device examinations show that power conversion efficiencies >8% and open-circuit voltages (VOC) nearing 1 V can be achieved with the narrow-gap SM donor analog (SM2, Eopt = 1.6 eV) and that charge transport in optimized BHJ solar cells proceeds with minimal, nearly trap-free recombination. Detailed device simulations, light intensity dependence, and transient photocurrent analyses emphasize how carrier recombination impacts BHJ device performance upon optimization of active layer thickness and morphology.

  16. Novel computational methodologies for structural modeling of spacious ligand binding sites of G-protein-coupled receptors: development and application to human leukotriene B4 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishino, Yoko; Harada, Takanori

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method to predict the activated structures of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with high accuracy, while aiming for the use of the predicted 3D structures in in silico virtual screening in the future. We propose a new method for modeling GPCR thermal fluctuations, where conformation changes of the proteins are modeled by combining fluctuations on multiple time scales. The core idea of the method is that a molecular dynamics simulation is used to calculate average 3D coordinates of all atoms of a GPCR protein against heat fluctuation on the picosecond or nanosecond time scale, and then evolutionary computation including receptor-ligand docking simulations functions to determine the rotation angle of each helix of a GPCR protein as a movement on a longer time scale. The method was validated using human leukotriene B4 receptor BLT1 as a sample GPCR. Our study demonstrated that the proposed method was able to derive the appropriate 3D structure of the active-state GPCR which docks with its agonists.

  17. Coxsackie B4 virus infection of β cells and natural killer cell insulitis in recent-onset type 1 diabetic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotta, Francesco; Censini, Stefano; van Halteren, Astrid G. S.; Marselli, Lorella; Masini, Matilde; Dionisi, Sabrina; Mosca, Franco; Boggi, Ugo; Muda, Andrea Onetti; Prato, Stefano Del; Elliott, John F.; Covacci, Antonello; Rappuoli, Rino; Roep, Bart O.; Marchetti, Piero

    2007-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is characterized by T cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells. Several studies have suggested an association between Coxsackie enterovirus seroconversion and onset of disease. However, a direct link between β cell viral infection and islet inflammation has not been established. We analyzed pancreatic tissue from six type 1 diabetic and 26 control organ donors. Immunohistochemical, electron microscopy, whole-genome ex vivo nucleotide sequencing, cell culture, and immunological studies demonstrated Coxsackie B4 enterovirus in specimens from three of the six diabetic patients. Infection was specific of β cells, which showed nondestructive islet inflammation mediated mainly by natural killer cells. Islets from enterovirus-positive samples displayed reduced insulin secretion in response to glucose and other secretagogues. In addition, virus extracted from positive islets was able to infect β cells from human islets of nondiabetic donors, causing viral inclusions and signs of pyknosis. None of the control organ donors showed signs of viral infection. These studies provide direct evidence that enterovirus can infect β cells in patients with type 1 diabetes and that infection is associated with inflammation and functional impairment. PMID:17360338

  18. Coxsackie B4 virus infection of beta cells and natural killer cell insulitis in recent-onset type 1 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotta, Francesco; Censini, Stefano; van Halteren, Astrid G S; Marselli, Lorella; Masini, Matilde; Dionisi, Sabrina; Mosca, Franco; Boggi, Ugo; Muda, Andrea Onetti; Del Prato, Stefano; Elliott, John F; Covacci, Antonello; Rappuoli, Rino; Roep, Bart O; Marchetti, Piero

    2007-03-20

    Type 1 diabetes is characterized by T cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Several studies have suggested an association between Coxsackie enterovirus seroconversion and onset of disease. However, a direct link between beta cell viral infection and islet inflammation has not been established. We analyzed pancreatic tissue from six type 1 diabetic and 26 control organ donors. Immunohistochemical, electron microscopy, whole-genome ex vivo nucleotide sequencing, cell culture, and immunological studies demonstrated Coxsackie B4 enterovirus in specimens from three of the six diabetic patients. Infection was specific of beta cells, which showed nondestructive islet inflammation mediated mainly by natural killer cells. Islets from enterovirus-positive samples displayed reduced insulin secretion in response to glucose and other secretagogues. In addition, virus extracted from positive islets was able to infect beta cells from human islets of nondiabetic donors, causing viral inclusions and signs of pyknosis. None of the control organ donors showed signs of viral infection. These studies provide direct evidence that enterovirus can infect beta cells in patients with type 1 diabetes and that infection is associated with inflammation and functional impairment.

  19. Novel Computational Methodologies for Structural Modeling of Spacious Ligand Binding Sites of G-Protein-Coupled Receptors: Development and Application to Human Leukotriene B4 Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Ishino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel method to predict the activated structures of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs with high accuracy, while aiming for the use of the predicted 3D structures in in silico virtual screening in the future. We propose a new method for modeling GPCR thermal fluctuations, where conformation changes of the proteins are modeled by combining fluctuations on multiple time scales. The core idea of the method is that a molecular dynamics simulation is used to calculate average 3D coordinates of all atoms of a GPCR protein against heat fluctuation on the picosecond or nanosecond time scale, and then evolutionary computation including receptor-ligand docking simulations functions to determine the rotation angle of each helix of a GPCR protein as a movement on a longer time scale. The method was validated using human leukotriene B4 receptor BLT1 as a sample GPCR. Our study demonstrated that the proposed method was able to derive the appropriate 3D structure of the active-state GPCR which docks with its agonists.

  20. Reactivity determination of the Al2O3-B4C burnable poison as a function of its concentration in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giada, Marino Reis

    2005-01-01

    Burnable poison rods made of Al 2 O 3 -B 4 C pellets with different concentrations of 10 B have been manufactured for a set of experiments in the IPEN/MB-01 zero-power reactor. The experiments evaluated the reactivity of the burnable poison rods as a function of the 10 B concentration, and the shadowing effect on the control rod reactivity worth as a function of the distance between the burnable position rods and the control rod. The results showed that the burnable poison rods have a non-linear behavior as function of the 10 B concentration, starting to reach an asymptotic value for concentrations higher than 7 g/cm 3 of 10 B. The shadowing effect on the control rods was substantial. When the burnable poison rods were beside the control rod, its reactivity worth decreased as much as 30 %, and when they were 10,5 cm distant, the control rod worth decreased by 7 %. The MCNP results for the burnable poison reactivity effects agreed within experimental errors with the measured values. (author)

  1. Stratification by smoking status reveals an association of CHRNA5-A3-B4 genotype with body mass index in never smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Amy E; Morris, Richard W; Fluharty, Meg E; Bjorngaard, Johan H; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Gabrielsen, Maiken E; Campbell, Archie; Marioni, Riccardo; Kumari, Meena; Hällfors, Jenni; Männistö, Satu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Kaakinen, Marika; Cavadino, Alana; Postmus, Iris; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Skaaby, Tea; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Treur, Jorien L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Dale, Caroline; Wannamethee, S Goya; Lahti, Jari; Palotie, Aarno; Räikkönen, Katri; Kisialiou, Aliaksei; McConnachie, Alex; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Wong, Andrew; Dalgård, Christine; Paternoster, Lavinia; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Tyrrell, Jessica; Horwood, John; Fergusson, David M; Kennedy, Martin A; Frayling, Tim; Nohr, Ellen A; Christiansen, Lene; Ohm Kyvik, Kirsten; Kuh, Diana; Watt, Graham; Eriksson, Johan; Whincup, Peter H; Vink, Jacqueline M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Davey Smith, George; Lawlor, Debbie; Linneberg, Allan; Ford, Ian; Jukema, J Wouter; Power, Christine; Hyppönen, Elina; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Preisig, Martin; Borodulin, Katja; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kivimaki, Mika; Smith, Blair H; Hayward, Caroline; Romundstad, Pål R; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Munafò, Marcus R; Sattar, Naveed

    2014-12-01

    We previously used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster associated with heaviness of smoking within smokers to confirm the causal effect of smoking in reducing body mass index (BMI) in a Mendelian randomisation analysis. While seeking to extend these findings in a larger sample we found that this SNP is associated with 0.74% lower body mass index (BMI) per minor allele in current smokers (95% CI -0.97 to -0.51, P = 2.00 × 10(-10)), but also unexpectedly found that it was associated with 0.35% higher BMI in never smokers (95% CI +0.18 to +0.52, P = 6.38 × 10(-5)). An interaction test confirmed that these estimates differed from each other (P = 4.95 × 10(-13)). This difference in effects suggests the variant influences BMI both via pathways unrelated to smoking, and via the weight-reducing effects of smoking. It would therefore be essentially undetectable in an unstratified genome-wide association study of BMI, given the opposite association with BMI in never and current smokers. This demonstrates that novel associations may be obscured by hidden population sub-structure. Stratification on well-characterized environmental factors known to impact on health outcomes may therefore reveal novel genetic associations.

  2. The PerR-Regulated P1B-4-Type ATPase (PmtA) Acts as a Ferrous Iron Efflux Pump in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew G; Ong, Cheryl-Lynn Y; Djoko, Karrera Y; West, Nicholas P; Davies, Mark R; McEwan, Alastair G; Walker, Mark J

    2017-06-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus [GAS]) is an obligate human pathogen responsible for a broad spectrum of human disease. GAS has a requirement for metal homeostasis within the human host and, as such, tightly modulates metal uptake and efflux during infection. Metal acquisition systems are required to combat metal sequestration by the host, while metal efflux systems are essential to protect against metal overload poisoning. Here, we investigated the function of PmtA ( P erR-regulated m etal t ransporter A ), a P 1B-4 -type ATPase efflux pump, in invasive GAS M1T1 strain 5448. We reveal that PmtA functions as a ferrous iron [Fe(II)] efflux system. In the presence of high Fe(II) concentrations, the 5448Δ pmtA deletion mutant exhibited diminished growth and accumulated 5-fold-higher levels of intracellular Fe(II) than did the wild type and the complemented mutant. The 5448Δ pmtA deletion mutant also showed enhanced susceptibility to killing by the Fe-dependent antibiotic streptonigrin as well as increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and superoxide. We suggest that the PerR-mediated control of Fe(II) efflux by PmtA is important for bacterial defense against oxidative stress. PmtA represents an exemplar for an Fe(II) efflux system in a host-adapted Gram-positive bacterial pathogen. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Distinct cellular sources of hepoxilin A3 and leukotriene B4 are used to coordinate bacterial-induced neutrophil transepithelial migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Michael A; Pirzai, Waheed; Yonker, Lael M; Morisseau, Christophe; Gronert, Karsten; Hurley, Bryan P

    2015-02-01

    Neutrophilic infiltration is a leading contributor to pathology in a number of pulmonary disease states, including cystic fibrosis. Hepoxilin A3 (HXA3) is a chemotactic eicosanoid shown to mediate the transepithelial passage of neutrophils in response to infection in several model systems and at multiple mucosal surfaces. Another well-known eicosanoid mediating general neutrophil chemotaxis is leukotriene B4 (LTB4). We sought to distinguish the roles of each eicosanoid in the context of infection of lung epithelial monolayers by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using human and mouse in vitro transwell model systems, we used a combination of biosynthetic inhibitors, receptor antagonists, as well as mutant sources of neutrophils to assess the contribution of each chemoattractant in driving neutrophil transepithelial migration. We found that following chemotaxis to epithelial-derived HXA3 signals, neutrophil-derived LTB4 is required to amplify the magnitude of neutrophil migration. LTB4 signaling is not required for migration to HXA3 signals, but LTB4 generation by migrated neutrophils plays a significant role in augmenting the initial HXA3-mediated migration. We conclude that HXA3 and LTB4 serve independent roles to collectively coordinate an effective neutrophilic transepithelial migratory response. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  4. Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene-Pyrido[3,4-b]pyrazine Small-Molecule Donors for Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wolf, Jannic Sebastian

    2016-01-22

    We report on the synthesis, material properties and BHJ solar cell characteristics of a set of π-conjugated small-molecule (SM) donors composed of benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene (BDT) and pyrido[3,4-b]pyrazine (PP) units – examining the perspectives of alkyl-substituted PP acceptor motifs in SM designs. In these systems (SM1-4), both the type of side chains derived from the PP motifs and the presence of ring-substituents on BDT critically impact (i) molecular packing, and (ii) thin-film morphologies and charge transport in BHJ solar cells. With the appropriate side-chain pattern, the ring-substituted analogue SM4 stands out: achieving efficiencies of ca. 6.5% with PC71BM, and fine-scale morphologies comparable to those obtained with some of the best-performing polymer donors in BHJ solar cells. 1H-1H DQ-SQ NMR analyses are used to examine the distinct self-assembly pattern of SM4, expected to factor into the development of the BHJ morphology.

  5. Leukotriene-B4 concentrations in exhaled breath condensate and lung function after thirty minutes of breathing technically dried compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Birger; Struck, Niclas; Mutzbauer, Till S; Schotte, Ulrich; Langfeldt, Norbert; Tetzlaff, Kay

    2002-01-01

    In previous studies it had been shown that leukotriene-B4 [LTB4] concentrations in the exhaled breath mirror the inflammatory activity of the airways if the respiratory tract has been exposed to occupational hazards. In diving the respiratory tract is exposed to cold and dry air and the nasopharynx, as the site of breathing-gas warming and humidification, is bypassed. The aim of the present study was to obtain LTB4-concentrations in the exhaled breath and spirometric data of 17 healthy subjects before and after thirty minutes of technically dried air breathing at normobar ambient pressure. The exhaled breath was collected non-invasively, via a permanently cooled expiration tube. The condensate was measured by a standard enzyme immunoassay for LTB4. Lung function values (FVC, FEV1, MEF 25, MEF 50) were simultaneously obtained by spirometry. The measured pre- and post-exposure LTB4- concentrations as well as the lung function values were in the normal range. The present data gave no evidence for any inflammatory activity in the subjects' airways after thirty minutes breathing technically dried air.

  6. Origin of (0 0 1) orientation and superlattice structure identification in L10-FePt/B4C multilayer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Xie, Jian; Wang, Yi; Wang, Hanbin; Liu, Xiang; Ye, Cong; Wang, Hao

    2015-12-01

    (0 0 1) textured L10 FePt/B4C multilayer thin films have been prepared on amorphous substrates by magnetron sputtering. High resolution transmission electron microscopy investigation indicates that the Fe and Pt atoms stacked alternately along the c-axis of L10 FePt, confirming the formation of the superlattice structure of L10-ordered FePt. The internal stress calculation and geometrical phase analysis confirm the existence of the in-plane tensile strain in the L10 FePt thin films. The diffusion of the B and C atoms into the FePt layers results in expansion of the FePt unit cells in the interfaces, which induces an in-plane tensile strain in the adjacent deep parts of FePt layer. Such an in-plane tensile strain creates a favorable condition for the FePt films to stabilize the (0 0 1) texture because it relaxes the ordering strain energy of FePt during phase transformation.

  7. Stratification by smoking status reveals an association of CHRNA5-A3-B4 genotype with body mass index in never smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E Taylor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We previously used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster associated with heaviness of smoking within smokers to confirm the causal effect of smoking in reducing body mass index (BMI in a Mendelian randomisation analysis. While seeking to extend these findings in a larger sample we found that this SNP is associated with 0.74% lower body mass index (BMI per minor allele in current smokers (95% CI -0.97 to -0.51, P = 2.00 × 10(-10, but also unexpectedly found that it was associated with 0.35% higher BMI in never smokers (95% CI +0.18 to +0.52, P = 6.38 × 10(-5. An interaction test confirmed that these estimates differed from each other (P = 4.95 × 10(-13. This difference in effects suggests the variant influences BMI both via pathways unrelated to smoking, and via the weight-reducing effects of smoking. It would therefore be essentially undetectable in an unstratified genome-wide association study of BMI, given the opposite association with BMI in never and current smokers. This demonstrates that novel associations may be obscured by hidden population sub-structure. Stratification on well-characterized environmental factors known to impact on health outcomes may therefore reveal novel genetic associations.

  8. Federal Reserve System Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... [The Regulatory Plan and Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions] [Federal Reserve System Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] Part XXI Federal Reserve System Semiannual Regulatory Agenda... Flexibility Agenda AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Semiannual regulatory...

  9. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart S of... - Decompression Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Underground Construction, Caissons, Cofferdams and Compressed Air Pt. 1926, Subpt. S, App. A Appendix A to Subpart S of Part 1926...

  10. 42 CFR Appendix to Subpart F of... - Required Consent Form

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    ... Sterilizations Pt. 441, Subpt. F, App. Appendix to Subpart F of Part 441—Required Consent Form Notice: Your... Hispanic origin); Hispanic; Asian or Pacific Islander; American Indian or Alaskan native; or White (not of...

  11. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 635 - Species Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga Bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus Blue shark, Prionace glauca Bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus Dolphin fish, Coryphaena hippurus Oceanic whitetip shark, Carcharhinus longimanus..., Thunnus albacares Table 3 of Appendix A to Part 635-Demersal Species Atlantic sharpnose shark...

  12. Appendix : airborne incidents : an econometric analysis of severity

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    2014-12-19

    This is the Appendix for Airborne Incidents: An Econometric Analysis of Severity Report. : Airborne loss of separation incidents occur when an aircraft breaches the defined separation limit (vertical and/or horizontal) with another aircraft or terrai...

  13. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 290 - Audit Working Papers

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    2010-07-01

    .... 290, App. D Appendix D to Part 290—Audit Working Papers (a) Definition (1) Audit working papers... permanent file on each contractor is a central repository of information gathered during the course of an...

  14. RMP Guidance for Warehouses - Appendix D: OSHA Guidance on PSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This text is taken directly from OSHA's appendix C to the Process Safety Management standard (29 CFR 1910.119). Compiled information required by this standard, including material safety data sheets (MSDS), is essential to process hazards analysis (PHA).

  15. Ingested metallic foreign body lodged in the appendix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Sarkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old child ingested a metallic screw 3 months prior to admission. At laparotomy, the foreign body was found to be lodged inside the vermiform appendix, and was removed by appendicectomy.

  16. Histomorphometric study of lumen of human vermiform appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Khalil, M; Sultana, S Z; Jahan, M K; Shafiquzzaman, M; Parvin, B; Islam, M T

    2012-01-01

    This study was done to find out the histomorphometry of lumen of vermiform appendix in Bangladeshi people. Total 100 fresh appendixes were collected for morphometric study of different age and sex during postmortem examination in the autopsy laboratory of Forensic Medicine Department of Mymensingh Medical College. This cross sectional descriptive study was done by convenient sampling technique. For convenience of differentiating the luminal diameter of vermiform appendix in relation to age and sex, findings were classified in four groups. Group A was up to 20 years, Group B 21-35 years, Group C 36-55 years and Group D 56-70 years. In the study the maximum diameter was in group A of female (87.00 μm) and minimum was (4.70 μm) in group B of female. The mean luminal diameter of vermiform appendix was more in female (60.71 μm) than in male (60.11 μm).

  17. Nondestructive verification and assay systems for spent fuels. Technical appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, D.D.; Phillips, J.R.; Baker, M.P.

    1982-04-01

    Six technical appendixes are presented that provide important supporting technical information for the study of the application of nondestructive measurements to spent-fuel storage. Each appendix addresses a particular technical subject in a reasonably self-contained fashion. Appendix A is a comparison of spent-fuel data predicted by reactor operators with measured data from reprocessors. This comparison indicates a rather high level of uncertainty in previous burnup calculations. Appendix B describes a series of nondestructive measurements at the GE-Morris Operation Spent-Fuel Storage Facility. This series of experiments successfully demonstrated a technique for reproducible positioning of fuel assemblies for nondestructive measurement. The experimental results indicate the importance of measuring the axial and angular burnup profiles of irradiated fuel assemblies for quantitative determination of spent-fuel parameters. Appendix C is a reasonably comprehensive bibliography of reports and symposia papers on spent-fuel nondestructive measurements to April 1981. Appendix D is a compendium of spent-fuel calculations that includes isotope production and depletion calculations using the EPRI-CINDER code, calculations of neutron and gamma-ray source terms, and correlations of these sources with burnup and plutonium content. Appendix E describes the pulsed-neutron technique and its potential application to spent-fuel measurements. Although not yet developed, the technique holds the promise of providing separate measurements of the uranium and plutonium fissile isotopes. Appendix F describes the experimental program and facilities at Los Alamos for the development of spent-fuel nondestructive measurement systems. Measurements are reported showing that the active neutron method is sensitive to the replacement of a single fuel rod with a dummy rod in an unirradiated uranium fuel assembly.

  18. [Volvulus of the vermiform appendix. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza-Herrera, Carlos; Cortés-García, Ricardo; Velasco-Soria, Luis; Godoy-Esquivel, Arturo Hermilo; Escobar-Izquierdo, Moisés Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    Vermiform appendix torsion is a very rare condition, with only 25 cases recorded in the international literature. This patient is the second case registered in our country. A seven year-old female patient suddenly developed crampy central abdominal pain that gradually localized in the right lower quadrant. She had vomiting, but no fever. On examination there were acute abdominal signs and during surgical exploration vermiform appendix torsion was founded. The patient underwent appendectomy with an uneventful recovery.

  19. Secondary Torsion of Vermiform Appendix with Mucinous Cystadenoma

    OpenAIRE

    Maki Kitagawa; Tatsuya Kotani; Takeshi Yamano; Hideaki Tsurudome; Tomoya Hatakeyama; Yoshiaki Kuriu; Hiroshi Nishi; Masaharu Yabe

    2007-01-01

    Torsion of the vermiform appendix is a rare disorder, which causes abdominal symptoms indistinguishable from acute appendicitis. We report a case (a 34-year-old male) of secondary torsion of the vermiform appendix with mucinous cystadenoma. This case was characterized by mild inflammatory responses, pentazocine-resistant abdominal pain, and appendiceal tumor, which was not enhanced by the contrast medium on computed tomography presumably because of reduced blood flow by the torsion. These fin...

  20. Visualization of the normal appendix with MR enterography in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovanlikaya, Arzu; Rosenbaum, Daniel; Brill, Paula W. [Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Mazumdar, Madhu; Dunning, Allison [Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Public Health, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging may provide a radiation-sparing alternative to CT in diagnosing appendicitis in children in whom US is equivocal. However, comparability with CT in the detection of the appendix remains to be established. To determine the detection rate of the normal appendix in children on oral and IV contrast-enhanced MRI. MR imaging of 58 patients who had previously undergone MR enterography was retrospectively reviewed. Detection rate, body mass index, age and gender were recorded. The normal appendix was detected in 28 cases (48 %), with greatest detection rate on the axial fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) sequence. Children in whom the appendix was detected had significantly higher BMI compared to children in whom the appendix was not seen. Neither age nor gender demonstrated a significant association with detection rate. The detection rate of the normal appendix in children on oral and IV contrast-enhanced MRI was 48 %, which is comparable to detection rates on CT, as well as to previously reported detection rates on MR imaging with neither oral nor IV contrast agents. These findings may serve to guide the development of MRI protocols for pediatric appendicitis. (orig.)