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Sample records for reservation analytical methods

  1. Analytical methods under emergency conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlet, J.

    1983-01-01

    This lecture discusses methods for the radiochemical determination of internal contamination of the body under emergency conditions, here defined as a situation in which results on internal radioactive contamination are needed quickly. The purpose of speed is to determine the necessity for medical treatment to increase the natural elimination rate. Analytical methods discussed include whole-body counting, organ counting, wound monitoring, and excreta analysis. 12 references

  2. Decision analytic methods in RODOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzenko, V.; French, S.

    1996-01-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident, RODOS seeks to provide decision support at all levels ranging from the largely descriptive to providing a detailed evaluation of the benefits and disadvantages of various countermeasure strategies and ranking them according to the societal preferences as perceived by the decision makers. To achieve this, it must draw upon several decision analytic methods and bring them together in a coherent manner so that the guidance offered to decision makers is consistent from one stage of an accident to the next. The methods used draw upon multi-attribute value and utility theories

  3. Analytical methods used at model facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, N.S.

    1984-01-01

    A description of analytical methods used at the model LEU Fuel Fabrication Facility is presented. The methods include gravimetric uranium analysis, isotopic analysis, fluorimetric analysis, and emission spectroscopy

  4. Reactor Section standard analytical methods. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowden, D.

    1954-07-01

    the Standard Analytical Methods manual was prepared for the purpose of consolidating and standardizing all current analytical methods and procedures used in the Reactor Section for routine chemical analyses. All procedures are established in accordance with accepted practice and the general analytical methods specified by the Engineering Department. These procedures are specifically adapted to the requirements of the water treatment process and related operations. The methods included in this manual are organized alphabetically within the following five sections which correspond to the various phases of the analytical control program in which these analyses are to be used: water analyses, essential material analyses, cotton plug analyses boiler water analyses, and miscellaneous control analyses.

  5. HTGR analytical methods and design verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neylan, A.J.; Northup, T.E.

    1982-05-01

    Analytical methods for the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) include development, update, verification, documentation, and maintenance of all computer codes for HTGR design and analysis. This paper presents selected nuclear, structural mechanics, seismic, and systems analytical methods related to the HTGR core. This paper also reviews design verification tests in the reactor core, reactor internals, steam generator, and thermal barrier

  6. Finite analytic method for modeling variably saturated flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zaiyong; Wang, Wenke; Gong, Chengcheng; Yeh, Tian-Chyi Jim; Wang, Zhoufeng; Wang, Yu-Li; Chen, Li

    2018-04-15

    This paper develops a finite analytic method (FAM) for solving the two-dimensional Richards' equation. The FAM incorporates the analytic solution in local elements to formulate the algebraic representation of the partial differential equation of unsaturated flow so as to effectively control both numerical oscillation and dispersion. The FAM model is then verified using four examples, in which the numerical solutions are compared with analytical solutions, solutions from VSAFT2, and observational data from a field experiment. These numerical experiments show that the method is not only accurate but also efficient, when compared with other numerical methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analytical methods of radwaste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, C.M.

    1994-10-01

    In view of the need to carry out more extensive studies on the design of newly proposed methods for the treatment of radioactive wastes collected at PNRI, this study is aimed to provide a guide in the characterization of wastes which is a preparatory step for a well-planned waste processing. (auth.). 8 refs

  8. 7 CFR 91.23 - Analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-2417. (i) Standard Analytical Methods of the Member Companies of Corn Industries Research Foundation... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS...

  9. A New Method to Study Analytic Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ming Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new method to study analytic inequalities involving n variables. Regarding its applications, we proved some well-known inequalities and improved Carleman's inequality.

  10. Analytical and computational methods in electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Garg, Ramesh

    2008-01-01

    This authoritative resource offers you clear and complete explanation of this essential electromagnetics knowledge, providing you with the analytical background you need to understand such key approaches as MoM (method of moments), FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) and FEM (Finite Element Method), and Green's functions. This comprehensive book includes all math necessary to master the material.

  11. Mathematical methods for physical and analytical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Goodson, David Z

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical Methods for Physical and Analytical Chemistry presents mathematical and statistical methods to students of chemistry at the intermediate, post-calculus level. The content includes a review of general calculus; a review of numerical techniques often omitted from calculus courses, such as cubic splines and Newton's method; a detailed treatment of statistical methods for experimental data analysis; complex numbers; extrapolation; linear algebra; and differential equations. With numerous example problems and helpful anecdotes, this text gives chemistry students the mathematical

  12. 7 CFR 93.13 - Analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Corn and Other Oilseeds § 93.13 Analytical methods. Official analyses for peanuts, nuts, corn, oilseeds, and related vegetable oils are found in the following..., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632. (c) Analyst's Instruction for Aflatoxin (August 1994), S&T Instruction...

  13. Biodiesel Analytical Methods: August 2002--January 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gerpen, J.; Shanks, B.; Pruszko, R.; Clements, D.; Knothe, G.

    2004-07-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines that is receiving great attention worldwide. The material contained in this book is intended to provide the reader with information about biodiesel engines and fuels, analytical methods used to measure fuel properties, and specifications for biodiesel quality control.

  14. Analytic methods to generate integrable mappings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-10-22

    Oct 22, 2015 ... Systematic analytic methods of deriving integrable mappings from integrable nonlinear ordinary differential, differential-difference and lattice equations are presented. More specifically, we explain how to derive integrable mappings through four different techniques namely,. dis-cretization technique,; Lax ...

  15. Numerical and analytical methods with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Bober, William; Masory, Oren

    2013-01-01

    Numerical and Analytical Methods with MATLAB® presents extensive coverage of the MATLAB programming language for engineers. It demonstrates how the built-in functions of MATLAB can be used to solve systems of linear equations, ODEs, roots of transcendental equations, statistical problems, optimization problems, control systems problems, and stress analysis problems. These built-in functions are essentially black boxes to students. By combining MATLAB with basic numerical and analytical techniques, the mystery of what these black boxes might contain is somewhat alleviated. This classroom-tested

  16. Prioritizing pesticide compounds for analytical methods development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Julia E.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a periodic need to re-evaluate pesticide compounds in terms of priorities for inclusion in monitoring and studies and, thus, must also assess the current analytical capabilities for pesticide detection. To meet this need, a strategy has been developed to prioritize pesticides and degradates for analytical methods development. Screening procedures were developed to separately prioritize pesticide compounds in water and sediment. The procedures evaluate pesticide compounds in existing USGS analytical methods for water and sediment and compounds for which recent agricultural-use information was available. Measured occurrence (detection frequency and concentrations) in water and sediment, predicted concentrations in water and predicted likelihood of occurrence in sediment, potential toxicity to aquatic life or humans, and priorities of other agencies or organizations, regulatory or otherwise, were considered. Several existing strategies for prioritizing chemicals for various purposes were reviewed, including those that identify and prioritize persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic compounds, and those that determine candidates for future regulation of drinking-water contaminants. The systematic procedures developed and used in this study rely on concepts common to many previously established strategies. The evaluation of pesticide compounds resulted in the classification of compounds into three groups: Tier 1 for high priority compounds, Tier 2 for moderate priority compounds, and Tier 3 for low priority compounds. For water, a total of 247 pesticide compounds were classified as Tier 1 and, thus, are high priority for inclusion in analytical methods for monitoring and studies. Of these, about three-quarters are included in some USGS analytical method; however, many of these compounds are included on research methods that are expensive and for which there are few data on environmental samples. The remaining quarter of Tier 1

  17. Analytical detection methods for irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    The present publication is a review of scientific literature on the analytical identification of foods treated with ionizing radiation and the quantitative determination of absorbed dose of radiation. Because of the extremely low level of chemical changes resulting from irradiation or because of the lack of specificity to irradiation of any chemical changes, a few methods of quantitative determination of absorbed dose have shown promise until now. On the other hand, the present review has identified several possible methods, which could be used, following further research and testing, for the identification of irradiated foods. An IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Analytical Detection Methods for Irradiation Treatment of Food ('ADMIT'), established in 1990, is currently investigating many of the methods cited in the present document. Refs and tab

  18. Workshop on Analytical Methods in Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Jurečková, Jana; Maciak, Matúš; Pešta, Michal

    2017-01-01

    This volume collects authoritative contributions on analytical methods and mathematical statistics. The methods presented include resampling techniques; the minimization of divergence; estimation theory and regression, eventually under shape or other constraints or long memory; and iterative approximations when the optimal solution is difficult to achieve. It also investigates probability distributions with respect to their stability, heavy-tailness, Fisher information and other aspects, both asymptotically and non-asymptotically. The book not only presents the latest mathematical and statistical methods and their extensions, but also offers solutions to real-world problems including option pricing. The selected, peer-reviewed contributions were originally presented at the workshop on Analytical Methods in Statistics, AMISTAT 2015, held in Prague, Czech Republic, November 10-13, 2015.

  19. Nuclear analytical methods for platinum group elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    Platinum group elements (PGE) are of special interest for analytical research due to their economic importance like chemical peculiarities as catalysts, medical applications as anticancer drugs, and possible environmental detrimental impact as exhaust from automobile catalyzers. Natural levels of PGE are so low in concentration that most of the current analytical techniques approach their limit of detection capacity. In addition, Ru, Rh, Pd, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt analyses still constitute a challenge in accuracy and precision of quantification in natural matrices. Nuclear analytical techniques, such as neutron activation analysis, X ray fluorescence, or proton-induced X ray emission (PIXE), which are generally considered as reference methods for many analytical problems, are useful as well. However, due to methodological restrictions, they can, in most cases, only be applied after pre-concentration and under special irradiation conditions. This report was prepared following a coordinated research project and a consultants meeting addressing the subject from different viewpoints. The experts involved suggested to discuss the issue according to the (1) application, hence, the concentration levels encountered, and (2) method applied for analysis. Each of the different fields of application needs special consideration for sample preparation, PGE pre-concentration, and determination. Additionally, each analytical method requires special attention regarding the sensitivity and sample type. Quality assurance/quality control aspects are considered towards the end of the report. It is intended to provide the reader of this publication with state-of-the-art information on the various aspects of PGE analysis and to advise which technique might be most suitable for a particular analytical problem related to platinum group elements. In particular, many case studies described in detail from the authors' laboratory experience might help to decide which way to go. As in many cases

  20. Comparison of nuclear analytical methods with competitive methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    The use of nuclear analytical techniques, especially neutron activation analysis, already have a 50 year old history. Today several sensitive and accurate, non-nuclear trace element analytical techniques are available and new methods are continuously developed. The IAEA is supporting the development of nuclear analytical laboratories in its Member States. In order to be able to advise the developing countries which methods to use in different applications, it is important to know the present status and development trends of nuclear analytical methods, what are their benefits, drawbacks and recommended fields of application, compared with other, non-nuclear techniques. In order to get an answer to these questions the IAEA convened this Advisory Group Meeting. This volume is the outcome of the presentations and discussions of the meeting. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 21 papers. Refs, figs, tabs

  1. Modern methods in analytical acoustics lecture notes

    CERN Document Server

    Crighton, D G; Williams, J E Ffowcs; Heckl, M; Leppington, F G

    1992-01-01

    Modern Methods in Analytical Acoustics considers topics fundamental to the understanding of noise, vibration and fluid mechanisms. The series of lectures on which this material is based began by some twenty five years ago and has been developed and expanded ever since. Acknowledged experts in the field have given this course many times in Europe and the USA. Although the scope of the course has widened considerably, the primary aim of teaching analytical techniques of acoustics alongside specific areas of wave motion and unsteady fluid mechanisms remains. The distinguished authors of this volume are drawn from Departments of Acoustics, Engineering of Applied Mathematics in Berlin, Cambridge and London. Their intention is to reach a wider audience of all those concerned with acoustic analysis than has been able to attend the course.

  2. Big data analytics methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, BLS; Rao, SB

    2016-01-01

    This book has a collection of articles written by Big Data experts to describe some of the cutting-edge methods and applications from their respective areas of interest, and provides the reader with a detailed overview of the field of Big Data Analytics as it is practiced today. The chapters cover technical aspects of key areas that generate and use Big Data such as management and finance; medicine and healthcare; genome, cytome and microbiome; graphs and networks; Internet of Things; Big Data standards; bench-marking of systems; and others. In addition to different applications, key algorithmic approaches such as graph partitioning, clustering and finite mixture modelling of high-dimensional data are also covered. The varied collection of themes in this volume introduces the reader to the richness of the emerging field of Big Data Analytics.

  3. Directory of Analytical Methods, Department 1820

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whan, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Materials Characterization Department performs chemical, physical, and thermophysical analyses in support of programs throughout the Laboratories. The department has a wide variety of techniques and instruments staffed by experienced personnel available for these analyses, and we strive to maintain near state-of-the-art technology by continued updates. We have prepared this Directory of Analytical Methods in order to acquaint you with our capabilities and to help you identify personnel who can assist with your analytical needs. The descriptions of the various capabilities are requester-oriented and have been limited in length and detail. Emphasis has been placed on applications and limitations with notations of estimated analysis time and alternative or related techniques. A short, simplified discussion of underlying principles is also presented along with references if more detail is desired. The contents of this document have been organized in the order: bulky analysis, microanalysis, surface analysis, optical and thermal property measurements

  4. The Emergence of the Analytical Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    2012-01-01

    accountability, visibility and documentation. It is argued that pedagogy is generated as a sequential and unit-specified way of working on the production of ‘the learning child’, forming a time- and material-optimising approach. Hereby, the nursery teacher, as a daily scientific researcher, comes to serve...... the nation by an ongoing observational intervention, producing the learning foundation for the entrepreneurial citizen, and thus the nation as a knowledge society in a globalised world. This is what this article terms the emergence of the analytical method....

  5. Analytical chromatography. Methods, instrumentation and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashin, Ya I; Yashin, A Ya

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-art and the prospects in the development of main methods of analytical chromatography, viz., gas, high performance liquid and ion chromatographic techniques, are characterised. Achievements of the past 10-15 years in the theory and general methodology of chromatography and also in the development of new sorbents, columns and chromatographic instruments are outlined. The use of chromatography in the environmental control, biology, medicine, pharmaceutics, and also for monitoring the quality of foodstuffs and products of chemical, petrochemical and gas industries, etc. is considered.

  6. Analytical N beam position monitor method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegscheider, A.; Langner, A.; Tomás, R.; Franchi, A.

    2017-11-01

    Measurement and correction of focusing errors is of great importance for performance and machine protection of circular accelerators. Furthermore LHC needs to provide equal luminosities to the experiments ATLAS and CMS. High demands are also set on the speed of the optics commissioning, as the foreseen operation with β*-leveling on luminosity will require many operational optics. A fast measurement of the β -function around a storage ring is usually done by using the measured phase advance between three consecutive beam position monitors (BPMs). A recent extension of this established technique, called the N-BPM method, was successfully applied for optics measurements at CERN, ALBA, and ESRF. We present here an improved algorithm that uses analytical calculations for both random and systematic errors and takes into account the presence of quadrupole, sextupole, and BPM misalignments, in addition to quadrupolar field errors. This new scheme, called the analytical N-BPM method, is much faster, further improves the measurement accuracy, and is applicable to very pushed beam optics where the existing numerical N-BPM method tends to fail.

  7. Determination of elements by nuclear analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, H P; Görner, W; Hedrich, M

    2001-01-01

    The working principle of nuclear analytical methods (NAMs) is not influenced by the chemical bond. Consequently, they are independent counterparts to the well-known chemical procedures. NAMs obey fundamental laws or can be described and understood thoroughly. This qualifies them as candidates for reference methods. Although following similar nuclear reaction schemes, they comprise bulk analyzing capability (neutron and photon activation analysis) as well as detection power in surface near regions of solids (ion beam techniques). Prominent features of NAMs are sensitivity, selectivity, multielement determination and linearity of the calibration function covering a concentration range of several orders of magnitude. Moreover, ion beam techniques allow depth profiling with nm-resolution in several cases while the ion microprobe additionally offers a lateral resolution in the micron-scale. As NAMs require expensive apparatus (nuclear reactor, accelerator in radioactive control areas) their availability is restricted to a small number of suitably equipped institutes. However, they are able to solve complex analytical tasks, take part in key comparisons and play an essential role in the certification of reference materials.

  8. Analytical Methods in Tracing Honey Authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifković, Jelena; Andrić, Filip; Ristivojević, Petar; Guzelmeric, Etil; Yesilada, Erdem

    2017-07-01

    Honey is a precious natural product that is marketed with a wide range of nutritional and medicinal properties. However, it is also a product subjected to frequent adulteration through mislabeling and mixing with cheaper and lower-quality honeys and various sugar syrups. In that sense, honey authentication regarding its genuine botanical and geographical origins, as well as the detection of any adulteration, is essential in order to protect consumer health and to avoid competition that could create a destabilized market. Various analytical techniques have been developed to detect adulterations in honey, including measuring the ratios of stable isotopes (mostly 13C/12C) and the use of different spectroscopic, chromatographic, and electrochemical methods. This review aims to provide a cross-section of contemporary analytical methods used for the determination of honey authenticity in order to help the scientific community engaged in the field of honey chemistry make appropriate choices and select the best applications that should lead to improvements in the detection and elimination of fraudulent practices in honey manufacturing.

  9. Radiochemical methods. Analytical chemistry by open learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geary, W.J.; James, A.M. (ed.)

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the analytical uses of radioactive isotopes within the context of radiochemistry as a whole. It is designed for scientists with relatively little background knowledge of the subject. Thus the initial emphasis is on developing the basic concepts of radioactive decay, particularly as they affect the potential usage of radioisotopes. Discussion of the properties of various types of radiation, and of factors such as half-life, is related to practical considerations such as counting and preparation methods, and handling/disposal problems. Practical aspects are then considered in more detail, and the various radioanalytical methods are outlined with particular reference to their applicability. The approach is 'user friendly' and the use of self assessment questions allows the reader to test his/her understanding of individual sections easily. For those who wish to develop their knowledge further, a reading list is provided.

  10. Analytical methods to assess nanoparticle toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Bryce J; Love, Sara A; Braun, Katherine L; Haynes, Christy L

    2009-03-01

    During the past 20 years, improvements in nanoscale materials synthesis and characterization have given scientists great control over the fabrication of materials with features between 1 and 100 nm, unlocking many unique size-dependent properties and, thus, promising many new and/or improved technologies. Recent years have found the integration of such materials into commercial goods; a current estimate suggests there are over 800 nanoparticle-containing consumer products (The Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies Consumer Products Inventory, , accessed Oct. 2008), accounting for 147 billion USD in products in 2007 (Nanomaterials state of the market Q3 2008: stealth success, broad impact, Lux Research Inc., New York, NY, 2008). Despite this increase in the prevalence of engineered nanomaterials, there is little known about their potential impacts on environmental health and safety. The field of nanotoxicology has formed in response to this lack of information and resulted in a flurry of research studies. Nanotoxicology relies on many analytical methods for the characterization of nanomaterials as well as their impacts on in vitro and in vivo function. This review provides a critical overview of these techniques from the perspective of an analytical chemist, and is intended to be used as a reference for scientists interested in conducting nanotoxicological research as well as those interested in nanotoxicological assay development.

  11. Analytic Method for Computing Instrument Pointing Jitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, David

    2003-01-01

    A new method of calculating the root-mean-square (rms) pointing jitter of a scientific instrument (e.g., a camera, radar antenna, or telescope) is introduced based on a state-space concept. In comparison with the prior method of calculating the rms pointing jitter, the present method involves significantly less computation. The rms pointing jitter of an instrument (the square root of the jitter variance shown in the figure) is an important physical quantity which impacts the design of the instrument, its actuators, controls, sensory components, and sensor- output-sampling circuitry. Using the Sirlin, San Martin, and Lucke definition of pointing jitter, the prior method of computing the rms pointing jitter involves a frequency-domain integral of a rational polynomial multiplied by a transcendental weighting function, necessitating the use of numerical-integration techniques. In practice, numerical integration complicates the problem of calculating the rms pointing error. In contrast, the state-space method provides exact analytic expressions that can be evaluated without numerical integration.

  12. Current analytical methods for plant auxin quantification--A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfírio, Sara; Gomes da Silva, Marco D R; Peixe, Augusto; Cabrita, Maria J; Azadi, Parastoo

    2016-01-01

    Plant hormones, and especially auxins, are low molecular weight compounds highly involved in the control of plant growth and development. Auxins are also broadly used in horticulture, as part of vegetative plant propagation protocols, allowing the cloning of genotypes of interest. Over the years, large efforts have been put in the development of more sensitive and precise methods of analysis and quantification of plant hormone levels in plant tissues. Although analytical techniques have evolved, and new methods have been implemented, sample preparation is still the limiting step of auxin analysis. In this review, the current methods of auxin analysis are discussed. Sample preparation procedures, including extraction, purification and derivatization, are reviewed and compared. The different analytical techniques, ranging from chromatographic and mass spectrometry methods to immunoassays and electrokinetic methods, as well as other types of detection are also discussed. Considering that auxin analysis mirrors the evolution in analytical chemistry, the number of publications describing new and/or improved methods is always increasing and we considered appropriate to update the available information. For that reason, this article aims to review the current advances in auxin analysis, and thus only reports from the past 15 years will be covered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Analytical method for Buddleja colorants in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, H; Kuze, N; Ichi, T; Koda, T

    2001-04-01

    Buddleja yellow colorant derived from Buddleja officinalis Maxim. has recently been approved for use as a new kind of natural colorant for food additives in China. In order to distinguish Buddleja yellow colorant from other yellow colorants, two known phenylpropanoid glycosides, acteoside (= verbascoside) and poliumoside, were isolated from the colorant as marker substances for Buddleja yellow colorant. Poliumoside has not been detected in B. officinalis Maxim. previously. These phenylpropanoid glycosides were not detected in the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis or in the stamens of the flowers of Crocus sativus L., which also contain crocetin derivatives as coloring components, using a photodiode array and mass chromatograms. Thus, an analytical HPLC method was developed to distinguish foods that have been colored with yellow colorants containing crocetin derivatives, using phenylpropanoid glycosides as markers.

  14. Hanford environmental analytical methods: Methods as of March 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Daniel, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    This paper from the analytical laboratories at Hanford describes the method used to measure pH of single-shell tank core samples. Sludge or solid samples are mixed with deionized water. The pH electrode used combines both a sensor and reference electrode in one unit. The meter amplifies the input signal from the electrode and displays the pH visually

  15. Microgenetic Learning Analytics Methods: Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghababyan, Ani; Martin, Taylor; Janisiewicz, Philip; Close, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Learning analytics is an emerging discipline and, as such, benefits from new tools and methodological approaches. This work reviews and summarizes our workshop on microgenetic data analysis techniques using R, held at the second annual Learning Analytics Summer Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on 30 June 2014. Specifically, this paper…

  16. 7 CFR 94.4 - Analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS...) FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM), AOAC INTERNATIONAL, 481 North Frederick Avenue, Suite 500...

  17. Are deterministic methods suitable for short term reserve planning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorspools, Kris R.; D'haeseleer, William D.

    2005-01-01

    Although deterministic methods for establishing minutes reserve (such as the N-1 reserve or the percentage reserve) ignore the stochastic nature of reliability issues, they are commonly used in energy modelling as well as in practical applications. In order to check the validity of such methods, two test procedures are developed. The first checks if the N-1 reserve is a logical fixed value for minutes reserve. The second test procedure investigates whether deterministic methods can realise a stable reliability that is independent of demand. In both evaluations, the loss-of-load expectation is used as the objective stochastic criterion. The first test shows no particular reason to choose the largest unit as minutes reserve. The expected jump in reliability, resulting in low reliability for reserve margins lower than the largest unit and high reliability above, is not observed. The second test shows that both the N-1 reserve and the percentage reserve methods do not provide a stable reliability level that is independent of power demand. For the N-1 reserve, the reliability increases with decreasing maximum demand. For the percentage reserve, the reliability decreases with decreasing demand. The answer to the question raised in the title, therefore, has to be that the probability based methods are to be preferred over the deterministic methods

  18. 40 CFR 425.03 - Sulfide analytical methods and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 425.03 Sulfide analytical methods and applicability. (a) The potassium ferricyanide titration method... ferricyanide titration method for the determination of sulfide in wastewaters discharged by plants operating in... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfide analytical methods and...

  19. Sensor Network Information Analytical Methods: Analysis of Similarities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Sensor Network information engineering literature, few references focus on the definition and design of Sensor Network information analytical methods. Among those that do are Munson, et al. and the ISO standards on functional size analysis. To avoid inconsistent vocabulary and potentially incorrect interpretation of data, Sensor Network information analytical methods must be better designed, including definitions, analysis principles, analysis rules, and base units. This paper analyzes the similarities and differences across three different views of analytical methods, and uses a process proposed for the design of Sensor Network information analytical methods to analyze two examples of such methods selected from the literature.

  20. An interactive website for analytical method comparison and bias estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Burak; Tuncel, Ayse F; Holmes, Earle W; Holmes, Daniel T

    2017-12-01

    Regulatory standards mandate laboratories to perform studies to ensure accuracy and reliability of their test results. Method comparison and bias estimation are important components of these studies. We developed an interactive website for evaluating the relative performance of two analytical methods using R programming language tools. The website can be accessed at https://bahar.shinyapps.io/method_compare/. The site has an easy-to-use interface that allows both copy-pasting and manual entry of data. It also allows selection of a regression model and creation of regression and difference plots. Available regression models include Ordinary Least Squares, Weighted-Ordinary Least Squares, Deming, Weighted-Deming, Passing-Bablok and Passing-Bablok for large datasets. The server processes the data and generates downloadable reports in PDF or HTML format. Our website provides clinical laboratories a practical way to assess the relative performance of two analytical methods. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Selectivity in analytical chemistry: two interpretations for univariate methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorkó, Zsanett; Verbić, Tatjana; Horvai, George

    2015-01-01

    Selectivity is extremely important in analytical chemistry but its definition is elusive despite continued efforts by professional organizations and individual scientists. This paper shows that the existing selectivity concepts for univariate analytical methods broadly fall in two classes: selectivity concepts based on measurement error and concepts based on response surfaces (the response surface being the 3D plot of the univariate signal as a function of analyte and interferent concentration, respectively). The strengths and weaknesses of the different definitions are analyzed and contradictions between them unveiled. The error based selectivity is very general and very safe but its application to a range of samples (as opposed to a single sample) requires the knowledge of some constraint about the possible sample compositions. The selectivity concepts based on the response surface are easily applied to linear response surfaces but may lead to difficulties and counterintuitive results when applied to nonlinear response surfaces. A particular advantage of this class of selectivity is that with linear response surfaces it can provide a concentration independent measure of selectivity. In contrast, the error based selectivity concept allows only yes/no type decision about selectivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nonlinear ordinary differential equations analytical approximation and numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The book discusses the solutions to nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using analytical and numerical approximation methods. Recently, analytical approximation methods have been largely used in solving linear and nonlinear lower-order ODEs. It also discusses using these methods to solve some strong nonlinear ODEs. There are two chapters devoted to solving nonlinear ODEs using numerical methods, as in practice high-dimensional systems of nonlinear ODEs that cannot be solved by analytical approximate methods are common. Moreover, it studies analytical and numerical techniques for the treatment of parameter-depending ODEs. The book explains various methods for solving nonlinear-oscillator and structural-system problems, including the energy balance method, harmonic balance method, amplitude frequency formulation, variational iteration method, homotopy perturbation method, iteration perturbation method, homotopy analysis method, simple and multiple shooting method, and the nonlinear stabilized march...

  3. A comparison of direct and indirect analytical methods of computing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first step in the analysis of gravity anomalies for mineral exploration is the extraction of residual gravity anomalies from the observed gravity anomalies. This can be achieved by graphical or analytical methods. Generally, direct and indirect analytical methods are considered better than graphical methods. Telford et al ...

  4. Ore reserve estimation: a summary of principles and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.

    1985-01-01

    The mining industry has experienced substantial improvements with the increasing utilization of computerized and electronic devices throughout the last few years. In the ore reserve estimation field the main methods have undergone recent advances in order to improve their overall efficiency. This paper presents the three main groups of ore reserve estimation methods presently used worldwide: Conventional, Statistical and Geostatistical, and elaborates a detaited description and comparative analysis of each. The Conventional Methods are the oldest, less complex and most employed ones. The Geostatistical Methods are the most recent precise and more complex ones. The Statistical Methods are intermediate to the others in complexity, diffusion and chronological order. (D.J.M.) [pt

  5. Integer programming methods for reserve selection and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Haight; Stephanie A. Snyder

    2009-01-01

    How many nature reserves should there be? Where should they be located? Which places have highest priority for protection? Conservation biologists, economists, and operations researchers have been developing quantitative methods to address these questions since the 1980s.

  6. Recent developments in analytical detection methods for radiation processed foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jilan

    1993-01-01

    A short summary of the programmes of 'ADMIT' (FAO/IAEA) and the developments in analytical detection methods for radiation processed foods has been given. It is suggested that for promoting the commercialization of radiation processed foods and controlling its quality, one must pay more attention to the study of analytical detection methods of irradiated food

  7. An Analytical Procedure for the Equipercentile Method of Equating Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Carl A.; Prichard, Mark A.

    Prior use of the equipercentile method of test equating was based on a graphic procedure which is tedious, subject to smoothing errors, and non-analytical. Recognition of the equipercentile method as a curve-fitting procedure for two cumulative percentage distributions leads to a proposed analytical solution to the problem through use of linear…

  8. Reactive Power Compensation Method Considering Minimum Effective Reactive Power Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yiyu; Zhang, Kai; Pu, Zhang; Li, Xuenan; Zuo, Xianghong; Zhen, Jiao; Sudan, Teng

    2017-05-01

    According to the calculation model of minimum generator reactive power reserve of power system voltage stability under the premise of the guarantee, the reactive power management system with reactive power compensation combined generator, the formation of a multi-objective optimization problem, propose a reactive power reserve is considered the minimum generator reactive power compensation optimization method. This method through the improvement of the objective function and constraint conditions, when the system load growth, relying solely on reactive power generation system can not meet the requirement of safe operation, increase the reactive power reserve to solve the problem of minimum generator reactive power compensation in the case of load node.

  9. The evolution of analytical chemistry methods in foodomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Monica; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2016-01-08

    The methodologies of food analysis have greatly evolved over the past 100 years, from basic assays based on solution chemistry to those relying on the modern instrumental platforms. Today, the development and optimization of integrated analytical approaches based on different techniques to study at molecular level the chemical composition of a food may allow to define a 'food fingerprint', valuable to assess nutritional value, safety and quality, authenticity and security of foods. This comprehensive strategy, defined foodomics, includes emerging work areas such as food chemistry, phytochemistry, advanced analytical techniques, biosensors and bioinformatics. Integrated approaches can help to elucidate some critical issues in food analysis, but also to face the new challenges of a globalized world: security, sustainability and food productions in response to environmental world-wide changes. They include the development of powerful analytical methods to ensure the origin and quality of food, as well as the discovery of biomarkers to identify potential food safety problems. In the area of nutrition, the future challenge is to identify, through specific biomarkers, individual peculiarities that allow early diagnosis and then a personalized prognosis and diet for patients with food-related disorders. Far from the aim of an exhaustive review of the abundant literature dedicated to the applications of omic sciences in food analysis, we will explore how classical approaches, such as those used in chemistry and biochemistry, have evolved to intersect with the new omics technologies to produce a progress in our understanding of the complexity of foods. Perhaps most importantly, a key objective of the review will be to explore the development of simple and robust methods for a fully applied use of omics data in food science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An Iteration Method Generating Analytical Solutions for Blasius Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Beong In

    2011-01-01

    We derive a new iteration method for finding solution of the generalized Blasius problem. This method results in the analytical series solutions which are consistent with the existing series solutions for some special cases.

  11. Application of analytical methods in authentication and adulteration of honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Amna Jabbar; Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Rahman, Atta-Ur-

    2017-02-15

    Honey is synthesized from flower nectar and it is famous for its tremendous therapeutic potential since ancient times. Many factors influence the basic properties of honey including the nectar-providing plant species, bee species, geographic area, and harvesting conditions. Quality and composition of honey is also affected by many other factors, such as overfeeding of bees with sucrose, harvesting prior to maturity, and adulteration with sugar syrups. Due to the complex nature of honey, it is often challenging to authenticate the purity and quality by using common methods such as physicochemical parameters and more specialized procedures need to be developed. This article reviews the literature (between 2000 and 2016) on the use of analytical techniques, mainly NMR spectroscopy, for authentication of honey, its botanical and geographical origin, and adulteration by sugar syrups. NMR is a powerful technique and can be used as a fingerprinting technique to compare various samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of aluminum by four analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, T.J.; Smetana, K.M.

    1975-11-01

    Four procedures have been developed for determining the aluminum concentration in basic matrices. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) was the routine method of analysis. Citrate was required to complex the aluminum and eliminate matrix effects. AAS was the least accurate of the four methods studied and was adversely affected by high aluminum concentrations. The Fluoride Electrode Method was the most accurate and precise of the four methods. A Gran's Plot determination was used to determine the end point and average standard recovery was 100% +- 2%. The Thermometric Titration Method was the fastest method for determining aluminum and could also determine hydroxide concentration at the same time. Standard recoveries were 100% +- 5%. The pH Electrode Method also measures aluminum and hydroxide content simultaneously, but is less accurate and more time consuming that the thermal titration. Samples were analyzed using all four methods and results were compared to determine the strengths and weaknesses of each. On the basis of these comparisons, conclusions were drawn concerning the application of each method to our laboratory needs

  13. Learner Language Analytic Methods and Pedagogical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Bronwen

    2010-01-01

    Methods for analysing interlanguage have long aimed to capture learner language in its own right. By surveying the cognitive methods of Error Analysis, Obligatory Occasion Analysis and Frequency Analysis, this paper traces reformulations to attain this goal. The paper then focuses on Emergence Analysis, which fine-tunes learner language analysis…

  14. On Comparison of Stochastic Reserving Methods with Bootstrapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liivika Tee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the well-known stochastic reserve estimation methods on the basis of generalized linear models, such as the (over-dispersed Poisson model, the gamma model and the log-normal model. For the likely variability of the claims reserve, bootstrap method is considered. In the bootstrapping framework, we discuss the choice of residuals, namely the Pearson residuals, the deviance residuals and the Anscombe residuals. In addition, several possible residual adjustments are discussed and compared in a case study. We carry out a practical implementation and comparison of methods using real-life insurance data to estimate reserves and their prediction errors. We propose to consider proper scoring rules for model validation, and the assessments will be drawn from an extensive case study.

  15. Analytical method for establishing indentation rolling resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gładysiewicz, Lech; Konieczna, Martyna

    2018-01-01

    Belt conveyors are highly reliable machines able to work in special operating conditions. Harsh environment, long distance of transporting and great mass of transported martials are cause of high energy usage. That is why research in the field of belt conveyor transportation nowadays focuses on reducing the power consumption without lowering their efficiency. In this paper, previous methods for testing rolling resistance are described, and new method designed by authors was presented. New method of testing rolling resistance is quite simple and inexpensive. Moreover it allows to conduct the experimental tests of the impact of different parameters on the value of indentation rolling resistance such as core design, cover thickness, ambient temperature, idler travel frequency, or load value as well. Finally results of tests of relationship between rolling resistance and idler travel frequency and between rolling resistance and idler travel speed was presented.

  16. ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR CALCULATING FAN AERODYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dostal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results obtained between 2010 and 2014 in the field of fan aerodynamics at the Department of Composite Technology at the VZLÚ aerospace research and experimental institute in Prague – Letnany. The need for rapid and accurate methods for the preliminary design of blade machinery led to the creation of a mathematical model based on the basic laws of turbomachine aerodynamics. The mathematical model, the derivation of which is briefly described below, has been encoded in a computer programme, which enables the theoretical characteristics of a fan of the designed geometry to be determined rapidly. The validity of the mathematical model is assessed continuously by measuring model fans in the measuring unit, which was developed and manufactured specifically for this purpose. The paper also presents a comparison between measured characteristics and characteristics determined by the mathematical model as the basis for a discussion on possible causes of measured deviations and calculation deviations.

  17. Chronobiological methods of human body self-regulation reserve evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Zaguskin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims Chronodiagnostical methods for evaluating reserve and unfavourable responses of human cardiac function and under prolonged stress load. Materials and methods 24-h ECG R–R interval recording of Holter-monitoring ECG recording and 1-h IPI and RespI recordings of healthy young and elderly subjects, post- MI patients, subjects suffered from chronic cerebral ischemia leading to a cognitive decline, healthy subjects following post-stress load, as well as R– R intervals recordings of the AHA ECG database of heart failure and AF. Chronodiagnostics, using non-linear symbolic dynamics method and redundancy quotient of ECG PI, RespI and R– R intervals; differential temperature survey to evaluate cellular immunity; biocontrolled laser therapy. Results Self-regulation reserve reduction of oxygen transfer body systems and increase in unfavourable response probability under stress load are accompanied by the amplitude and fluctuation increase of redundancy quotient in the ECG IPI, RespI and R–R intervals, as well as increase of hierarchical desynchronosis with dominating sympathicotonia and vagotonia, decrease in cellular immunity, reduction in rate spectrum of the ECG IPI and R–R intervals. Conclusion Symbolic dynamics method provides distinction between age-related and abnormal changes in hierarchy of cardiac rhythms. The amplitude and fluctuation increase of redundancy quotient indicates the increase of control intensity with oxygen transfer body systems and predicts the reduction of self-regulation reserve in cardiac rhythms and unfavourable response probability.

  18. Quality control and analytical methods for baculovirus-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldão, António; Vicente, Tiago; Peixoto, Cristina; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M

    2011-07-01

    Recombinant baculoviruses (rBac) are used for many different applications, ranging from bio-insecticides to the production of heterologous proteins, high-throughput screening of gene functions, drug delivery, in vitro assembly studies, design of antiviral drugs, bio-weapons, building blocks for electronics, biosensors and chemistry, and recently as a delivery system in gene therapy. Independent of the application, the quality, quantity and purity of rBac-based products are pre-requisites demanded by regulatory authorities for product licensing. To guarantee maximization utility, it is necessary to delineate optimized production schemes either using trial-and-error experimental setups ("brute force" approach) or rational design of experiments by aid of in silico mathematical models (Systems Biology approach). For that, one must define all of the main steps in the overall process, identify the main bioengineering issues affecting each individual step and implement, if required, accurate analytical methods for product characterization. In this review, current challenges for quality control (QC) technologies for up- and down-stream processing of rBac-based products are addressed. In addition, a collection of QC methods for monitoring/control of the production of rBac derived products are presented as well as innovative technologies for faster process optimization and more detailed product characterization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative Analytical Methods for the Measurment of Chlorine Dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Unmesh Jeetendra

    2002-01-01

    Four commercially available methods used for the analysis of low-level Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2) concentrations in drinking water were evaluated for accuracy and precision and ranked according to cost, efficiency and ease of the methods under several conditions that might be encountered at water treatment plants. The different analytical methods included: 1.The DPD (N, N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine) method 2.Lissamine Green B (LGB) wet-chemical method 3.Palintest® kit LGB 4.A...

  20. Analytical methods for quantitation of prenylated flavonoids from hops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    The female flowers of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) are used as a flavoring agent in the brewing industry. There is growing interest in possible health benefits of hops, particularly as estrogenic and chemopreventive agents. Among the possible active constituents, most of the attention has focused on prenylated flavonoids, which can chemically be classified as prenylated chalcones and prenylated flavanones. Among chalcones, xanthohumol (XN) and desmethylxanthohumol (DMX) have been the most studied, while among flavanones, 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) and 6-prenylnaringenin (6-PN) have received the most attention. Because of the interest in medicinal properties of prenylated flavonoids, there is demand for accurate, reproducible and sensitive analytical methods to quantify these compounds in various matrices. Such methods are needed, for example, for quality control and standardization of hop extracts, measurement of the content of prenylated flavonoids in beer, and to determine pharmacokinetic properties of prenylated flavonoids in animals and humans. This review summarizes currently available analytical methods for quantitative analysis of the major prenylated flavonoids, with an emphasis on the LC-MS and LC-MS-MS methods and their recent applications to biomedical research on hops. This review covers all methods in which prenylated flavonoids have been measured, either as the primary analytes or as a part of a larger group of analytes. The review also discusses methodological issues relating to the quantitative analysis of these compounds regardless of the chosen analytical approach. PMID:24077106

  1. Development of quality-by-design analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Frederick G; Kord, Alireza S

    2011-03-01

    Quality-by-design (QbD) is a systematic approach to drug development, which begins with predefined objectives, and uses science and risk management approaches to gain product and process understanding and ultimately process control. The concept of QbD can be extended to analytical methods. QbD mandates the definition of a goal for the method, and emphasizes thorough evaluation and scouting of alternative methods in a systematic way to obtain optimal method performance. Candidate methods are then carefully assessed in a structured manner for risks, and are challenged to determine if robustness and ruggedness criteria are satisfied. As a result of these studies, the method performance can be understood and improved if necessary, and a control strategy can be defined to manage risk and ensure the method performs as desired when validated and deployed. In this review, the current state of analytical QbD in the industry is detailed with examples of the application of analytical QbD principles to a range of analytical methods, including high-performance liquid chromatography, Karl Fischer titration for moisture content, vibrational spectroscopy for chemical identification, quantitative color measurement, and trace analysis for genotoxic impurities. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Development and Validation of Analytical Method for Losartan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development and Validation of Analytical Method for Losartan-Copper Complex Using UV-Vis Spectrophotometry. ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Purpose: To develop a new spectrophotometric method for the analysis of losartan potassium in pharmaceutical formulations by making its complex with ...

  3. Analytic methods for field induced tunneling in quantum wells with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electric field induced tunneling is studied in three different types of quantum wells by solving time-independent effective mass equation in analytic methods based on three different Airy function approaches. Comparison of different Airy function methods indicates that they are identical and connected to each other by the ...

  4. A simple regularization method for stable analytic continuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chu-Li; Dou, Fang-Fang; Feng, Xiao-Li; Qian, Zhi

    2008-12-01

    The problems of analytic continuation are frequently encountered in many practical applications. These problems are well known to be severely ill-posed and therefore several regularization methods have been suggested for solving them. In this paper we consider the problem of analytic continuation of the analytic function f(z) = f(x + iy) on a strip domain \\Omega=\\{z=x+iy\\in {\\bb C}|x\\in{\\bb R},|y|\\leq y_0\\} , where the data are given only on the line y = 0. We use a very simple and convenient method—the Fourier regularization method to solve this problem. Some sharp error estimates between the exact solution and its approximation are given and numerical examples show the method works effectively. The project is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 10671085, 10571079 and 10726017).

  5. Hanford Environmental Analytical Methods (methods as of March 1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Daniel, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    Techniques in use at the Hanford Reservation as of March, 1990 for the analysis of liquids, organic wastes, soils, and sediments, are described. Limitations and applications of the techniques are included

  6. Hanford environmental analytical methods (methods as of March 1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Daniel, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    Techniques in use at the Hanford Reservation as of March, 1990 for the analysis of liquids and radioactive effluents are described. Limitations and applications of the techniques are included. This report is Appendix A3-R

  7. Teaching Analytical Method Transfer through Developing and Validating Then Transferring Dissolution Testing Methods for Pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimaru, Irene; Koether, Marina; Chichester, Kimberly; Eaton, Lafayette

    2017-01-01

    Analytical method transfer (AMT) and dissolution testing are important topics required in industry that should be taught in analytical chemistry courses. Undergraduate students in senior level analytical chemistry laboratory courses at Kennesaw State University (KSU) and St. John Fisher College (SJFC) participated in development, validation, and…

  8. Rigid inclusions-Comparison between analytical and numerical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Perez, R.; Melentijevic, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares different analytical methods for analysis of rigid inclusions with finite element modeling. First of all, the load transfer in the distribution layer is analyzed for its different thicknesses and different inclusion grids to define the range between results obtained by analytical and numerical methods. The interaction between the soft soil and the inclusion in the estimation of settlements is studied as well. Considering different stiffness of the soft soil, settlements obtained analytical and numerically are compared. The influence of the soft soil modulus of elasticity on the neutral point depth was also performed by finite elements. This depth has a great importance for the definition of the total length of rigid inclusion. (Author)

  9. Analytical Methods for Detonation Residues of Insensitive Munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Marianne E.

    2016-01-01

    Analytical methods are described for the analysis of post-detonation residues from insensitive munitions. Standard methods were verified or modified to obtain the mass of residues deposited per round. In addition, a rapid chromatographic separation was developed and used to measure the mass of NTO (3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one), NQ (nitroguanidine) and DNAN (2,4-dinitroanisole). The HILIC (hydrophilic-interaction chromatography) separation described here uses a trifunctionally-bonded amide phase to retain the polar analytes. The eluent is 75/25 v/v acetonitrile/water acidified with acetic acid, which is also suitable for LC/MS applications. Analytical runtime was three minutes. Solid phase extraction and LC/MS conditions are also described.

  10. SPANDOM - source projection analytic nodal discrete ordinates method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hyeong; Cho, Nam Zin

    1994-01-01

    We describe a new discrete ordinates nodal method for the two-dimensional transport equation. We solve the discrete ordinates equation analytically after the source term is projected and represented in polynomials. The method is applied to two fast reactor benchmark problems and compared with the TWOHEX code. The results indicate that the present method accurately predicts not only multiplication factor but also flux distribution

  11. An analytical software for NAA by using K0-method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Jingye; Chen Da; Tu Jing; Chenweishi; Zhang Wenshou; Wang Daohua

    2003-01-01

    An analytical software has been designed for a personal computer in DOS environment to do reactor NAA by using K 0 -method. The system has functions of radionuclide identification, f and α calculation, K 0 -value calculation, quantitative calculation of elemental concentrations, nuclides' data management, experiment design, computer simulation etc. The analytical methods used in this system include absolute method, relative method and K 0 -method. Using this system, three gamma-ray spectra for NAA of Au, Zr samples and GBW07107 rock standard sample have been analyzed. The analysis results are in agreement with the certified results in the scope of uncertainties and the f and α values at the irradiation site in the UZrH pulse reactor are 36.6 and 0.044 respectively. (author)

  12. Literature Review on Processing and Analytical Methods for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report The purpose of this report was to survey the open literature to determine the current state of the science regarding the processing and analytical methods currently available for recovery of F. tularensis from water and soil matrices, and to determine what gaps remain in the collective knowledge concerning F. tularensis identification from environmental samples.

  13. Frontier in nanoscale flows fractional calculus and analytical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Roland; Liu, Hong-yan

    2014-01-01

    This ebook covers the basic properties of nanoscale flows, and various analytical and numerical methods for nanoscale flows and environmental flows. This ebook is a good reference not only for audience of the journal, but also for various communities in mathematics, nanotechnology and environmental science.

  14. An Analytical Method For The Solution Of Reactor Dynamic Equations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics ... One of the challenges of modelling nuclear reactor dynamics on microcomputers is that of finding robust techniques which guarantee the required level of accuracy and at ... In this paper, an analytical method for the solution of nuclear reactor dynamic equations is presented.

  15. Prediction of polymer flooding performance using an analytical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Czek Hoong; Mariyamni Awang; Foo Kok Wai

    2001-01-01

    The study investigated the applicability of an analytical method developed by El-Khatib in polymer flooding. Results from a simulator UTCHEM and experiments were compared with the El-Khatib prediction method. In general, by assuming a constant viscosity polymer injection, the method gave much higher recovery values than the simulation runs and the experiments. A modification of the method gave better correlation, albeit only oil production. Investigation is continuing on modifying the method so that a better overall fit can be obtained for polymer flooding. (Author)

  16. Use of scientometrics to assess nuclear and other analytical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    Scientometrics involves the use of quantitative methods to investigate science viewed as an information process. Scientometric studies can be useful in ascertaining which methods have been most employed for various analytical determinations as well as for predicting which methods will continue to be used in the immediate future and which appear to be losing favor with the analytical community. Published papers in the technical literature are the primary source materials for scientometric studies; statistical methods and computer techniques are the tools. Recent studies have included growth and trends in prompt nuclear analysis impact of research published in a technical journal, and institutional and national representation, speakers and topics at several IAEA conferences, at modern trends in activation analysis conferences, and at other non-nuclear oriented conferences. Attempts have also been made to predict future growth of various topics and techniques. 13 refs., 4 figs., 17 tabs.

  17. Use of scientometrics to assess nuclear and other analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    Scientometrics involves the use of quantitative methods to investigate science viewed as an information process. Scientometric studies can be useful in ascertaining which methods have been most employed for various analytical determinations as well as for predicting which methods will continue to be used in the immediate future and which appear to be losing favor with the analytical community. Published papers in the technical literature are the primary source materials for scientometric studies; statistical methods and computer techniques are the tools. Recent studies have included growth and trends in prompt nuclear analysis impact of research published in a technical journal, and institutional and national representation, speakers and topics at several IAEA conferences, at modern trends in activation analysis conferences, and at other non-nuclear oriented conferences. Attempts have also been made to predict future growth of various topics and techniques. 13 refs., 4 figs., 17 tabs

  18. Long-Term Prediction of Satellite Orbit Using Analytical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Cheol Yoon

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A long-term prediction algorithm of geostationary orbit was developed using the analytical method. The perturbation force models include geopotential upto fifth order and degree and luni-solar gravitation, and solar radiation pressure. All of the perturbation effects were analyzed by secular variations, short-period variations, and long-period variations for equinoctial elements such as the semi-major axis, eccentricity vector, inclination vector, and mean longitude of the satellite. Result of the analytical orbit propagator was compared with that of the cowell orbit propagator for the KOREASAT. The comparison indicated that the analytical solution could predict the semi-major axis with an accuarcy of better than ~35meters over a period of 3 month.

  19. Theological Predication, Doctrinal Location, and Method in Analytic Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Ryan S.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Theological method is situated properly in relation to a range of doctrinal commitments, especially commitments located in the doctrines of God, creation, and theological anthropology. In this article, I use Thomas Aquinas’s account of theological predication to illustrate this doctrinal and methodological interconnection. Then, I describe the methodological commitments of analytic theology as they have been articulated by its advocates and argue that analytic theology should embrace an explicitly theological methodology. This requires taking seriously the proper ends of theology and the varied means used by theologians in the Christian theological tradition. I argue that analytic theologians should nurture attentiveness to theology’s chief end (the visio Dei and the corresponding goals of faithful worship and personal formation, the doctrinal order in which specific doctrinal questions find their proper context and location (beginning from and ending with the doctrine of God, and the practices that facilitate good theological judgment-making (prayer and contemplation.

  20. Analytical Methods of Decoupling the Automotive Engine Torque Roll Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    JEONG, TAESEOK; SINGH, RAJENDRA

    2000-06-01

    This paper analytically examines the multi-dimensional mounting schemes of an automotive engine-gearbox system when excited by oscillating torques. In particular, the issue of torque roll axis decoupling is analyzed in significant detail since it is poorly understood. New dynamic decoupling axioms are presented an d compared with the conventional elastic axis mounting and focalization methods. A linear time-invariant system assumption is made in addition to a proportionally damped system. Only rigid-body modes of the powertrain are considered and the chassis elements are assumed to be rigid. Several simplified physical systems are considered and new closed-form solutions for symmetric and asymmetric engine-mounting systems are developed. These clearly explain the design concepts for the 4-point mounting scheme. Our analytical solutions match with the existing design formulations that are only applicable to symmetric geometries. Spectra for all six rigid-body motions are predicted using the alternate decoupling methods and the closed-form solutions are verified. Also, our method is validated by comparing modal solutions with prior experimental and analytical studies. Parametric design studies are carried out to illustrate the methodology. Chief contributions of this research include the development of new or refined analytical models and closed-form solutions along with improved design strategies for the torque roll axis decoupling.

  1. Sampling and analytical methods for atmospheric reduced sulphur compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Lícia P. S.; Campos, Vânia P.

    2008-01-01

    This work presents a review of sampling and analytical methods that can be applied to atmospheric traces of reduced sulphur compounds (RSC) in the atmosphere. Sampling methodology involving discontinuous methods with preconcentration is mostly used. For the most part, adsorption on solids and cryogenic capture are applied as a procedure. The analysis of these compounds has been done mainly by gas chromatography with FPD, fluorescence and spectrophotometry. Advantages and disadvantages of the ...

  2. Analytical Methods for the Quantification of Histamine and Histamine Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bähre, Heike; Kaever, Volkhard

    2017-01-01

    The endogenous metabolite histamine (HA) is synthesized in various mammalian cells but can also be ingested from exogenous sources. It is involved in a plethora of physiological and pathophysiological processes. So far, four different HA receptors (H 1 R-H 4 R) have been described and numerous HAR antagonists have been developed. Contemporary investigations regarding the various roles of HA and its main metabolites have been hampered by the lack of highly specific and sensitive analytic methods for all of these analytes. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is the method of choice for identification and sensitive quantification of many low-molecular weight endogenous metabolites. In this chapter, different methodological aspects of HA quantification as well as recommendations for LC-MS/MS methods suitable for analysis of HA and its main metabolites are summarized.

  3. Validation of analytical methods based on accuracy profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Max

    2007-07-27

    Validation is a very living field in analytical chemistry as illustrated by the numerous publications addressing this topic. But, there is some ambiguity in this concept and the abundant vocabulary often does not help the analytical chemist. This paper presents a new method based on the fitness-for-purpose approach of the validation. It consists in building a graphical decision-making tool, called the accuracy profile. Using measurements collected under reproducibility or intermediate precision condition, it allows computing an interval where a known proportion of future measurements will be located. When comparing this interval to an acceptability interval defined by the result end-user it is possible to simply decide whether a method is valid or not. The fundamentals of this method are presented starting from an accepted definition of validation. An example of application illustrates how validation can be experimentally organized and conclusion made.

  4. Developments and retrospectives in Lie theory geometric and analytic methods

    CERN Document Server

    Penkov, Ivan; Wolf, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This volume reviews and updates a prominent series of workshops in representation/Lie theory, and reflects the widespread influence of those  workshops in such areas as harmonic analysis, representation theory, differential geometry, algebraic geometry, and mathematical physics.  Many of the contributors have had leading roles in both the classical and modern developments of Lie theory and its applications. This Work, entitled Developments and Retrospectives in Lie Theory, and comprising 26 articles, is organized in two volumes: Algebraic Methods and Geometric and Analytic Methods. This is the Geometric and Analytic Methods volume. The Lie Theory Workshop series, founded by Joe Wolf and Ivan Penkov and joined shortly thereafter by Geoff Mason, has been running for over two decades. Travel to the workshops has usually been supported by the NSF, and local universities have provided hospitality. The workshop talks have been seminal in describing new perspectives in the field covering broad areas of current re...

  5. Nuclear and nuclear related analytical methods applied in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Ion V.; Gheboianu, Anca; Bancuta, Iulian; Cimpoca, G. V; Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana; Oros Calin; Frontasyeva, Marina; Petre, Marian; Dulama, Ioana; Vlaicu, G.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Analytical Methods can be used for research activities on environmental studies like water quality assessment, pesticide residues, global climatic change (transboundary), pollution and remediation. Heavy metal pollution is a problem associated with areas of intensive industrial activity. In this work the moss bio monitoring technique was employed to study the atmospheric deposition in Dambovita County Romania. Also, there were used complementary nuclear and atomic analytical methods: Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). These high sensitivity analysis methods were used to determine the chemical composition of some samples of mosses placed in different areas with different pollution industrial sources. The concentrations of Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn were determined. The concentration of Fe from the same samples was determined using all these methods and we obtained a very good agreement, in statistical limits, which demonstrate the capability of these analytical methods to be applied on a large spectrum of environmental samples with the same results. (authors)

  6. FORECASTING PILE SETTLEMENT ON CLAYSTONE USING NUMERICAL AND ANALYTICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarev Andrey Budimirovich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of designing pile foundations on claystones is reviewed. The purpose of this paper is comparative analysis of the analytical and numerical methods for forecasting the settlement of piles on claystones. The following tasks were solved during the study: 1 The existing researches of pile settlement are analyzed; 2 The characteristics of experimental studies and the parameters for numerical modeling are presented, methods of field research of single piles’ operation are described; 3 Calculation of single pile settlement is performed using numerical methods in the software package Plaxis 2D and analytical method according to the requirements SP 24.13330.2011; 4 Experimental data is compared with the results of analytical and numerical calculations; 5 Basing on these results recommendations for forecasting pile settlement on claystone are presented. Much attention is paid to the calculation of pile settlement considering the impacted areas in ground space beside pile and the comparison with the results of field experiments. Basing on the obtained results, for the prediction of settlement of single pile on claystone the authors recommend using the analytical method considered in SP 24.13330.2011 with account for the impacted areas in ground space beside driven pile. In the case of forecasting the settlement of single pile on claystone by numerical methods in Plaxis 2D the authors recommend using the Hardening Soil model considering the impacted areas in ground space beside the driven pile. The analyses of the results and calculations are presented for examination and verification; therefore it is necessary to continue the research work of deep foundation at another experimental sites to improve the reliability of the calculation of pile foundation settlement. The work is of great interest for geotechnical engineers engaged in research, design and construction of pile foundations.

  7. Customizing computational methods for visual analytics with big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Jaegul; Park, Haesun

    2013-01-01

    The volume of available data has been growing exponentially, increasing data problem's complexity and obscurity. In response, visual analytics (VA) has gained attention, yet its solutions haven't scaled well for big data. Computational methods can improve VA's scalability by giving users compact, meaningful information about the input data. However, the significant computation time these methods require hinders real-time interactive visualization of big data. By addressing crucial discrepancies between these methods and VA regarding precision and convergence, researchers have proposed ways to customize them for VA. These approaches, which include low-precision computation and iteration-level interactive visualization, ensure real-time interactive VA for big data.

  8. OVERVIEW OF VALIDATION, BASIC CONCEPTS AND ANALYTICAL METHOD PROCESS VALIDATION

    OpenAIRE

    Indu Gurram* , M.V.S.Kavitha, M.V.Nagabhushnam, Brahmaiah Bonthagara, D.Nagarjuna Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Quality is the primordial intention to any industry and its products manufactured. Multiple views on obtaining such quality are the current interest in the pharmaceutical industry. Validation is the art of designing and practicing the designed steps alongside with the documentation. Validation and quality assurance will go hand in hand, ensuring the through quality for the products. When analytical method is utilized to generate results about the characteristics of drug related samples it is ...

  9. Comparative analysis of methods for real-time analytical control of chemotherapies preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, Christophe; Cassard, Bruno; Caudron, Eric; Prognon, Patrice; Havard, Laurent

    2015-10-15

    Control of chemotherapies preparations are now an obligation in France, though analytical control is compulsory. Several methods are available and none of them is presumed as ideal. We wanted to compare them so as to determine which one could be the best choice. We compared non analytical (visual and video-assisted, gravimetric) and analytical (HPLC/FIA, UV/FT-IR, UV/Raman, Raman) methods thanks to our experience and a SWOT analysis. The results of the analysis show great differences between the techniques, but as expected none us them is without defects. However they can probably be used in synergy. Overall for the pharmacist willing to get involved, the implementation of the control for chemotherapies preparations must be widely anticipated, with the listing of every parameter, and remains according to us an analyst's job. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental design and multiple response optimization. Using the desirability function in analytical methods development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candioti, Luciana Vera; De Zan, María M; Cámara, María S; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2014-06-01

    A review about the application of response surface methodology (RSM) when several responses have to be simultaneously optimized in the field of analytical methods development is presented. Several critical issues like response transformation, multiple response optimization and modeling with least squares and artificial neural networks are discussed. Most recent analytical applications are presented in the context of analytLaboratorio de Control de Calidad de Medicamentos (LCCM), Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, C.C. 242, S3000ZAA Santa Fe, ArgentinaLaboratorio de Control de Calidad de Medicamentos (LCCM), Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, C.C. 242, S3000ZAA Santa Fe, Argentinaical methods development, especially in multiple response optimization procedures using the desirability function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Benchmark Comparison of Cloud Analytics Methods Applied to Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Chris; Little, Mike; Huang, Thomas; Jacob, Joseph; Yang, Phil; Kuo, Kwo-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing has the potential to bring high performance computing capabilities to the average science researcher. However, in order to take full advantage of cloud capabilities, the science data used in the analysis must often be reorganized. This typically involves sharding the data across multiple nodes to enable relatively fine-grained parallelism. This can be either via cloud-based file systems or cloud-enabled databases such as Cassandra, Rasdaman or SciDB. Since storing an extra copy of data leads to increased cost and data management complexity, NASA is interested in determining the benefits and costs of various cloud analytics methods for real Earth Observation cases. Accordingly, NASA's Earth Science Technology Office and Earth Science Data and Information Systems project have teamed with cloud analytics practitioners to run a benchmark comparison on cloud analytics methods using the same input data and analysis algorithms. We have particularly looked at analysis algorithms that work over long time series, because these are particularly intractable for many Earth Observation datasets which typically store data with one or just a few time steps per file. This post will present side-by-side cost and performance results for several common Earth observation analysis operations.

  12. Benchmark Comparison of Cloud Analytics Methods Applied to Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, C.; Little, M. M.; Huang, T.; Jacob, J. C.; Yang, C. P.; Kuo, K. S.

    2016-12-01

    Cloud computing has the potential to bring high performance computing capabilities to the average science researcher. However, in order to take full advantage of cloud capabilities, the science data used in the analysis must often be reorganized. This typically involves sharding the data across multiple nodes to enable relatively fine-grained parallelism. This can be either via cloud-based filesystems or cloud-enabled databases such as Cassandra, Rasdaman or SciDB. Since storing an extra copy of data leads to increased cost and data management complexity, NASA is interested in determining the benefits and costs of various cloud analytics methods for real Earth Observation cases. Accordingly, NASA's Earth Science Technology Office and Earth Science Data and Information Systems project have teamed with cloud analytics practitioners to run a benchmark comparison on cloud analytics methods using the same input data and analysis algorithms. We have particularly looked at analysis algorithms that work over long time series, because these are particularly intractable for many Earth Observation datasets which typically store data with one or just a few time steps per file. This post will present side-by-side cost and performance results for several common Earth observation analysis operations.

  13. Analytical method to determine flexoelectric coupling coefficient at nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Pei, Yongmao; Hong, Jiawang; Fang, Daining

    2016-03-01

    Flexoelectricity is defined as the coupling between the strain gradient and polarization, which is expected to be remarkable at nanoscale. However, measuring the flexoelectricity at nanoscale is challenging. In the present work, an analytical method for measuring the flexoelectric coupling coefficient based on nanocompression technique is proposed. It is found that the flexoelectricity can induce stiffness softening of the dielectric nano-cone-frustum. This phenomenon becomes more significant when the sample size decreases or the half cone angle increases. This method avoids measuring the electric polarization or current at nanoscale with dynamical loading, which can be beneficial to the flexoelectric measurement at nanoscale and design of flexoelectric nanodevices.

  14. Comparison of analytical methods for calculation of wind loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minderman, Donald J.; Schultz, Larry L.

    1989-01-01

    The following analysis is a comparison of analytical methods for calculation of wind load pressures. The analytical methods specified in ASCE Paper No. 3269, ANSI A58.1-1982, the Standard Building Code, and the Uniform Building Code were analyzed using various hurricane speeds to determine the differences in the calculated results. The winds used for the analysis ranged from 100 mph to 125 mph and applied inland from the shoreline of a large open body of water (i.e., an enormous lake or the ocean) a distance of 1500 feet or ten times the height of the building or structure considered. For a building or structure less than or equal to 250 feet in height acted upon by a wind greater than or equal to 115 mph, it was determined that the method specified in ANSI A58.1-1982 calculates a larger wind load pressure than the other methods. For a building or structure between 250 feet and 500 feet tall acted upon by a wind rangind from 100 mph to 110 mph, there is no clear choice of which method to use; for these cases, factors that must be considered are the steady-state or peak wind velocity, the geographic location, the distance from a large open body of water, and the expected design life and its risk factor.

  15. Analytical Methods for Mycotoxin Detection in Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chee Wei; Chung, Gerald; Chan, Sheot Harn

    2017-10-03

    Aflatoxins B 1 (AFB 1 ) and B₂ (AFB₂) and G 1 and G₂ remain the top mycotoxins routinely analyzed and monitored by Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) national laboratories primarily for food safety regulation in the major food commodities, nuts and spices. LC tandem fluorescence detection (LC–fluorescence) represents a current mainstream analytical method, with a progressive migration to a primary method by LC tandem MS (MS/MS) for the next half decade. Annual proficiency testing (PT) is conducted by ASEAN Food Reference Laboratories (AFRLs) for mycotoxin testing as part of capability building in national laboratories, with the scope of PT materials spanning from naturally mycotoxin-contaminated spices and nuts in the early 2010s to the recent contamination of corn flour in 2017 for total aflatoxin assay development. The merits of the mainstream LC–fluorescence method are witnessed by a significant improvement ( P < 0.05) in PT z -score passing rates (≤2) from 11.8 to 79.2% for AFB 1 , 23.5 to 83.3% for AFB₂, and 23.5 to 79.2% for total aflatoxins in the last 5 years. This paper discusses the journey of ASEAN national laboratories in analytical testing through AFRLs, and the progressive collective adoption of a multimycotoxin LC-MS/MS method aided by an isotopic dilution assay as a future primary method for safer food commodities.

  16. A nonlinear analytic function expansion nodal method for transient calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Han Gyn; Park, Sang Yoon; Cho, Byung Oh; Zee, Sung Quun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The nonlinear analytic function expansion nodal (AFEN) method is applied to the solution of the time-dependent neutron diffusion equation. Since the AFEN method requires both the particular solution and the homogeneous solution to the transient fixed source problem, the derivation of the solution method is focused on finding the particular solution efficiently. To avoid complicated particular solutions, the source distribution is approximated by quadratic polynomials and the transient source is constructed such that the error due to the quadratic approximation is minimized, In addition, this paper presents a new two-node solution scheme that is derived by imposing the constraint of current continuity at the interface corner points. The method is verified through a series of application to the NEACRP PWR rod ejection benchmark problems. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  17. Analytical methods for toxic gases from thermal degradation of polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, M.-T. S.

    1977-01-01

    Toxic gases evolved from the thermal oxidative degradation of synthetic or natural polymers in small laboratory chambers or in large scale fire tests are measured by several different analytical methods. Gas detector tubes are used for fast on-site detection of suspect toxic gases. The infrared spectroscopic method is an excellent qualitative and quantitative analysis for some toxic gases. Permanent gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and ethylene, can be quantitatively determined by gas chromatography. Highly toxic and corrosive gases such as nitrogen oxides, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen chloride and sulfur dioxide should be passed into a scrubbing solution for subsequent analysis by either specific ion electrodes or spectrophotometric methods. Low-concentration toxic organic vapors can be concentrated in a cold trap and then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The limitations of different methods are discussed.

  18. Evolution of microbiological analytical methods for dairy industry needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele eSohier

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, culture-based methods have been used to enumerate microbial populations in dairy products. Recent developments in molecular methods now enable faster and more sensitive analyses than classical microbiology procedures. These molecular tools allow a detailed characterization of cell physiological states and bacterial fitness and thus, offer new perspectives to integration of microbial physiology monitoring to improve industrial processes. This review summarizes the methods described to enumerate and characterize physiological states of technological microbiota in dairy products, and discusses the current deficiencies in relation to the industry’s needs. Recent studies show that PCR-based methods can successfully be applied to quantify fermenting microbes and probiotics in dairy products. Flow cytometry and omics technologies also show interesting analytical potentialities. However, they still suffer from a lack of validation and standardization for quality control analyses, as reflected by the absence of performance studies and official international standards.

  19. Reducing waste generation and radiation exposure by analytical method modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1996-10-01

    The primary goal of an analytical support laboratory has traditionally been to provide accurate data in a timely and cost effective fashion. Added to this goal is now the need to provide the same high quality data while generating as little waste as possible. At the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), we have modified and reengineered several methods to decrease generated waste and hence reduce radiation exposure. These method changes involved improving detection limits (which decreased the amount of sample required for analysis), decreasing reaction and analysis time, decreasing the size of experimental set-ups, recycling spent solvent and reagents, and replacing some methods. These changes had the additional benefits of reducing employee radiation exposure and exposure to hazardous chemicals. In all cases, the precision, accuracy, and detection limits were equal to or better than the replaced method. Most of the changes required little or no expenditure of funds. This paper describes these changes and discusses some of their applications.

  20. ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR KINETIC STUDIES OF BIOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS: A REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiwei; Bi, Cong; Li, Zhao; Podariu, Maria; Hage, David S.

    2015-01-01

    The rates at which biological interactions occur can provide important information concerning the mechanism and behavior of these processes in living systems. This review discusses several analytical methods that can be used to examine the kinetics of biological interactions. These techniques include common or traditional methods such as stopped-flow analysis and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, as well as alternative methods based on affinity chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. The general principles and theory behind these approaches are examined, and it is shown how each technique can be utilized to provide information on the kinetics of biological interactions. Examples of applications are also given for each method. In addition, a discussion is provided on the relative advantages or potential limitations of each technique regarding its use in kinetic studies. PMID:25700721

  1. Simulation of Lamb wave reflections at plate edges using the semi-analytical finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Z A B; Gabbert, U

    2012-09-01

    In typical Lamb wave simulation practices, effects of plate edge reflections are often not considered in order to simplify the wave signal interpretations. Methods that are based on infinite plates such as the semi-analytical finite element method is effective in simulating Lamb waves as it excludes the effect of plate edges. However, the inclusion of plate edges in a finite plate could render this method inapplicable, especially for transient response simulations. Here, by applying the ratio of Lamb mode reflections at plate edges, and representing the reflection at plate edges using infinite plate solutions, the semi-analytical finite element method can be applied for transient response simulation, even when the plate is no longer infinite. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Analytical method for thermal stress analysis of plasma facing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, J.H.; Bolt, H.

    2001-01-01

    The thermo-mechanical response of plasma facing materials (PFMs) to heat loads from the fusion plasma is one of the crucial issues in fusion technology. In this work, a fully analytical description of the thermal stress distribution in armour tiles of plasma facing components is presented which is expected to occur under typical high heat flux (HHF) loads. The method of stress superposition is applied considering the temperature gradient and thermal expansion mismatch. Several combinations of PFMs and heat sink metals are analysed and compared. In the framework of the present theoretical model, plastic flow and the effect of residual stress can be quantitatively assessed. Possible failure features are discussed

  3. Analytical method for thermal stress analysis of plasma facing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, J. H.; Bolt, H.

    2001-10-01

    The thermo-mechanical response of plasma facing materials (PFMs) to heat loads from the fusion plasma is one of the crucial issues in fusion technology. In this work, a fully analytical description of the thermal stress distribution in armour tiles of plasma facing components is presented which is expected to occur under typical high heat flux (HHF) loads. The method of stress superposition is applied considering the temperature gradient and thermal expansion mismatch. Several combinations of PFMs and heat sink metals are analysed and compared. In the framework of the present theoretical model, plastic flow and the effect of residual stress can be quantitatively assessed. Possible failure features are discussed.

  4. Higher geometry an introduction to advanced methods in analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, Frederick S

    2005-01-01

    For students of mathematics with a sound background in analytic geometry and some knowledge of determinants, this volume has long been among the best available expositions of advanced work on projective and algebraic geometry. Developed from Professor Woods' lectures at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, it bridges the gap between intermediate studies in the field and highly specialized works.With exceptional thoroughness, it presents the most important general concepts and methods of advanced algebraic geometry (as distinguished from differential geometry). It offers a thorough study

  5. Analytical Method to Estimate the Complex Permittivity of Oil Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Su

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an analytical method to estimate the complex dielectric constant of liquids is presented. The method is based on the measurement of the transmission coefficient in an embedded microstrip line loaded with a complementary split ring resonator (CSRR, which is etched in the ground plane. From this response, the dielectric constant and loss tangent of the liquid under test (LUT can be extracted, provided that the CSRR is surrounded by such LUT, and the liquid level extends beyond the region where the electromagnetic fields generated by the CSRR are present. For that purpose, a liquid container acting as a pool is added to the structure. The main advantage of this method, which is validated from the measurement of the complex dielectric constant of olive and castor oil, is that reference samples for calibration are not required.

  6. Analytical method of spectra calculations in the Bargmann representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciejewski, Andrzej J., E-mail: maciejka@astro.ia.uz.zgora.pl [J. Kepler Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, Licealna 9, PL-65-417 Zielona Góra (Poland); Przybylska, Maria, E-mail: M.Przybylska@if.uz.zgora.pl [Institute of Physics, University of Zielona Góra, Licealna 9, 65-417 Zielona Góra (Poland); Stachowiak, Tomasz, E-mail: stachowiak@cft.edu.pl [Center for Theoretical Physics PAS, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-10-24

    We formulate a universal method for solving an arbitrary quantum system which, in the Bargmann representation, is described by a system of linear equations with one independent variable, such as one- and multi-photon Rabi models, or N level systems interacting with a single mode of the electromagnetic field and their various generalizations. We explain three types of conditions that determine the spectrum and show their usage for two deformations of the Rabi model. We prove that the spectra of both models are just zeros of transcendental functions, which in one case are given explicitly in terms of confluent Heun functions. - Highlights: • Analytical method of spectrum determination in Bargmann representation is proposed. • Three types of conditions determining spectrum are identified. • Method to two generalizations of the Rabi system is applied.

  7. Analytical recovery of protozoan enumeration methods: have drinking water QMRA models corrected or created bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, P J; Emelko, M B; Thompson, M E

    2013-05-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a tool to evaluate the potential implications of pathogens in a water supply or other media and is of increasing interest to regulators. In the case of potentially pathogenic protozoa (e.g. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts), it is well known that the methods used to enumerate (oo)cysts in samples of water and other media can have low and highly variable analytical recovery. In these applications, QMRA has evolved from ignoring analytical recovery to addressing it in point-estimates of risk, and then to addressing variation of analytical recovery in Monte Carlo risk assessments. Often, variation of analytical recovery is addressed in exposure assessment by dividing concentration values that were obtained without consideration of analytical recovery by random beta-distributed recovery values. A simple mathematical proof is provided to demonstrate that this conventional approach to address non-constant analytical recovery in drinking water QMRA will lead to overestimation of mean pathogen concentrations. The bias, which can exceed an order of magnitude, is greatest when low analytical recovery values are common. A simulated dataset is analyzed using a diverse set of approaches to obtain distributions representing temporal variation in the oocyst concentration, and mean annual risk is then computed from each concentration distribution using a simple risk model. This illustrative example demonstrates that the bias associated with mishandling non-constant analytical recovery and non-detect samples can cause drinking water systems to be erroneously classified as surpassing risk thresholds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A semi-analytical method for simulating matrix diffusion in numerical transport models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falta, Ronald W; Wang, Wenwen

    2017-02-01

    A semi-analytical approximation for transient matrix diffusion is developed for use in numerical contaminant transport simulators. This method is an adaptation and extension of the heat conduction method of Vinsome and Westerveld (1980) used to simulate heat losses during thermally enhanced oil recovery. The semi-analytical method is used in place of discretization of the low permeability materials, and it represents the concentration profile in the low permeability materials with a fitting function that is adjusted in each element at each time-step. The resulting matrix diffusion fluxes are added to the numerical model as linear concentration-dependent source/sink terms. Since only the high permeability zones need to be discretized, the numerical formulation is extremely efficient compared to traditional approaches that require discretization of both the high and low permeability zones. The semi-analytical method compares favorably with the analytical solution for transient one-dimensional diffusion with first order decay, with a two-layer aquifer/aquitard solution, with the solution for transport in a fracture with matrix diffusion and decay, and with a fully numerical solution for transport in a thin sand zone bounded by clay with variable decay rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analytic moment method calculations of the drift wave spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, D.R.; Molvig, K.

    1985-11-01

    A derivation and approximate solution of renormalized mode coupling equations describing the turbulent drift wave spectrum is presented. Arguments are given which indicate that a weak turbulence formulation of the spectrum equations fails for a system with negative dissipation. The inadequacy of the weak turbulence theory is circumvented by utilizing a renormalized formation. An analytic moment method is developed to approximate the solution of the nonlinear spectrum integral equations. The solution method employs trial functions to reduce the integral equations to algebraic equations in basic parameters describing the spectrum. An approximate solution of the spectrum equations is first obtained for a mode dissipation with known solution, and second for an electron dissipation in the NSA

  10. Introduction to Analytical Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Cam Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, J J

    2013-01-01

    Modern design methods of Automotive Cam Design require the computation of a range of parameters. This book provides a logical sequence of steps for the derivation of the relevant equations from first principles, for the more widely used cam mechanisms. Although originally derived for use in high performance engines, this work is equally applicable to the design of mass produced automotive and other internal combustion engines.   Introduction to Analytical Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Cam Mechanisms provides the equations necessary for the design of cam lift curves with an associated smooth acceleration curve. The equations are derived for the kinematics and kinetics of all the mechanisms considered, together with those for cam curvature and oil entrainment velocity. This permits the cam shape, all loads, and contact stresses to be evaluated, and the relevant tribology to be assessed. The effects of asymmetry on the manufacture of cams for finger follower and offset translating curved followers is ...

  11. Potentialities and possible applications of a new analytical method (PIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinho, A.G. de; Montenegro, E.C.; Barros Leite, C.V. de; Baptista, G.B.; Paschoa, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    In 1970, a new method was introduced for trace analysis, namely, the X-ray emission induced by charged particles (PIXE). It has been shown that when protons in the few MeV range are used for the excitation of inner shell electrons and solid state detectors for the detection of the characteristic X-rays, we dispose of a powerful multi-elemental analytical tool of high sensitivity. In contrast to activation spectrometry, this is an in beam technique, irradiation and measuring being performed at the same time. The foundations of the method are described experimental arrangements and problems related to beam transport, target preparation an spectrum analysis. A detailed discussion on precision, accuracy and sensitivity is presented. Applications in biology, medicine, environmental and materials sciences are discussed. (Author) [pt

  12. Analytical methods validation of processes control in injectable antitumor agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Penna, Caridad Margarita; Cunill Semanat, Edel; Cartaya Morales, Mayra; Diaz de Arma, Anyisela; Curbelo Fonte, Yusleydis

    2010-01-01

    Alternative analytical methods were validated for the process control of 500 mg florouacil, 50 mg doxorrubicin and 50 mg methotrexate by spectrophotometry because of they are more simple and economic allowint to control the drugs quality in process analysis control. Calibration curves of fluorouracil, doxorrubicin and methotrexate were plotted in interval from 60 to 140%, where there were linear with correlation coefficients similar to 0.9998, 0.9999 and 0.9999, respectively; statistical text for intercept and slope were considered as non-significant. Recoveries of 99.97, 99.98 and 99.35% were achieved, respectively in study concentration interval and Cochran and t-Student tests were also non-significant. Methods were specific, linear, precises and exacts in interval of study concentrations

  13. GenoSets: visual analytic methods for comparative genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora A Cain

    Full Text Available Many important questions in biology are, fundamentally, comparative, and this extends to our analysis of a growing number of sequenced genomes. Existing genomic analysis tools are often organized around literal views of genomes as linear strings. Even when information is highly condensed, these views grow cumbersome as larger numbers of genomes are added. Data aggregation and summarization methods from the field of visual analytics can provide abstracted comparative views, suitable for sifting large multi-genome datasets to identify critical similarities and differences. We introduce a software system for visual analysis of comparative genomics data. The system automates the process of data integration, and provides the analysis platform to identify and explore features of interest within these large datasets. GenoSets borrows techniques from business intelligence and visual analytics to provide a rich interface of interactive visualizations supported by a multi-dimensional data warehouse. In GenoSets, visual analytic approaches are used to enable querying based on orthology, functional assignment, and taxonomic or user-defined groupings of genomes. GenoSets links this information together with coordinated, interactive visualizations for both detailed and high-level categorical analysis of summarized data. GenoSets has been designed to simplify the exploration of multiple genome datasets and to facilitate reasoning about genomic comparisons. Case examples are included showing the use of this system in the analysis of 12 Brucella genomes. GenoSets software and the case study dataset are freely available at http://genosets.uncc.edu. We demonstrate that the integration of genomic data using a coordinated multiple view approach can simplify the exploration of large comparative genomic data sets, and facilitate reasoning about comparisons and features of interest.

  14. A finite volume method for cylindrical heat conduction problems based on local analytical solution

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wang

    2012-10-01

    A new finite volume method for cylindrical heat conduction problems based on local analytical solution is proposed in this paper with detailed derivation. The calculation results of this new method are compared with the traditional second-order finite volume method. The newly proposed method is more accurate than conventional ones, even though the discretized expression of this proposed method is slightly more complex than the second-order central finite volume method, making it cost more calculation time on the same grids. Numerical result shows that the total CPU time of the new method is significantly less than conventional methods for achieving the same level of accuracy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. USING ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP METHOD IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Cengiz

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Rural development is a body of economical and social policies towards improving living conditions in rural areas through enabling rural population to utilize economical, social, cultural and technological blessing of city life in place, without migrating. As it is understood from this description, rural development is a very broad concept. Therefore, in development efforts problem should be stated clearly, analyzed and many criterias should be evaluated by experts. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method can be utilized at there stages of development efforts. AHP methods is one of multi-criteria decision method. After degrading a problem in smaller pieces, relative importance and level of importance of two compared elements are determined. It allows evaluation of quality and quantity factors. At the same time, it permits utilization of ideas of many experts and use them in decision process. Because mentioned features of AHP method, it could be used in rural development works. In this article, cultural factors, one of the important components of rural development is often ignored in many studies, were evaluated as an example. As a result of these applications and evaluations, it is concluded that AHP method could be helpful in rural development efforts.

  16. Comparative study of the geostatistical ore reserve estimation method over the conventional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.C.; Knudsen, H.P.

    1975-01-01

    Part I contains a comprehensive treatment of the comparative study of the geostatistical ore reserve estimation method over the conventional methods. The conventional methods chosen for comparison were: (a) the polygon method, (b) the inverse of the distance squared method, and (c) a method similar to (b) but allowing different weights in different directions. Briefly, the overall result from this comparative study is in favor of the use of geostatistics in most cases because the method has lived up to its theoretical claims. A good exposition on the theory of geostatistics, the adopted study procedures, conclusions and recommended future research are given in Part I. Part II of this report contains the results of the second and the third study objectives, which are to assess the potential benefits that can be derived by the introduction of the geostatistical method to the current state-of-the-art in uranium reserve estimation method and to be instrumental in generating the acceptance of the new method by practitioners through illustrative examples, assuming its superiority and practicality. These are given in the form of illustrative examples on the use of geostatistics and the accompanying computer program user's guide

  17. An Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources Solution for Plane Wave Scattering by Impedance Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2004-01-01

    Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solutions for plane wave scattering by circular impedance cylinders are derived by transformation of the exact eigenfunction series solutions employing the Hankel function wave transformation. The analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solution thus obtained...

  18. Reserves of reproducibility and accuracy of spectrochemical methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britske, M.Eh.; Slabodenyuk, I.V.

    1982-01-01

    Reproducibility and accuracy of analysis by methods of absorption and emission flame spectroscopy are practically adequate under the conditions of comparability of detection limits. The basic part of error is contributed by fluctuations of free atom concentration in the flame torch. An instrumental error and a part of er-- ror, contributed by random fluctations of flame temperature, can be practically neglected. Further improvement of the reproducibility can be achieved at the expense of stabilization of aerozol generation or by using the internal standard technique in the work on two-channel spectrometers. Dispersions for the both techniques are compared on the example of indium determination

  19. Computational and analytical methods in nonlinear fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James

    1993-09-01

    The central focus of the program was on the application and development of modern analytical and computational methods to the solution of nonlinear problems in fluid dynamics and reactive gas dynamics. The research was carried out within the Division of Engineering Mathematics in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics and principally involved Professors P.A. Blythe, E. Varley and J.D.A. Walker. In addition. the program involved various international collaborations. Professor Blythe completed work on reactive gas dynamics with Professor D. Crighton FRS of Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. Professor Walker and his students carried out joint work with Professor F.T. Smith, of University College London, on various problems in unsteady flow and turbulent boundary layers.

  20. Laser induced uranium fluorescence as an analytical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutman, I.

    1985-01-01

    A laser induced fluorescence system was developed to measure uranium trace level amounts in aqueous solution with reliable and simple materials and electronics. A nitrogen pulsed laser was built with the storage energy capacitor directly coupled to laser tube electrodes as a transmission line device. This laser operated at 3Hz repetition rate with peak intensity around 21 Kw and temporal width of 4.5 x 10 -9 s. A sample compartment made of rigid PVC and a photomultiplier housing of aluminium were constructed and assembled forming a single integrated device. As a result of this prototype system we made several analytical measurements with U dissolved in nitric acid to obtain a calibration curve. We obtained a straight line from a plot of U concentration versus fluorescence intensity fitted by a least square method that produced a regression coefficient of 0.994. The lower limit of U determination was 30 ppb -+ 3.5%. (Author) [pt

  1. Analytical methods and problems for the diamides type of extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuillerdier, C.; Nigond, L.; Musikas, C.; Vitart, H.; Hoel, P.

    1989-01-01

    Diamides of carboxylic acids and especially malonamides are able to extract alpha emitters (including trivalent ions such as Am and Cm) contained in the wastes solutions of the nuclear industry. As they are completely incinerable and easy to purify, they could be an alternative to the mixture CMPO-TBP which is used in the TRUEX process. A large oxyalkyl radical enhances the distribution coefficients of americium in nitric acid sufficiently to permit the decontamination of wastes solutions in a classical mixers-settlers battery. Now researches are pursued with the aim of optimizing the formula of extractant, the influence of the structure of the extractant on its basicity and stability under radiolysis and hydrolysis is investigated. Analytical methods (potentiometry and NMR of C 13 ) have been developed for solvent titration and to evaluate the percentage of degradation and to identify some of the degradation products

  2. Nuclear analytical methods for trace element studies in calcified tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, M.A.; Chaudhry, M.N.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Various nuclear analytical methods have been developed and applied to determine the elemental composition of calcified tissues (teeth and bones). Fluorine was determined by prompt gamma activation analysis through the 19 F(p,ag) 16 O reaction. Carbon was measured by activation analysis with He-3 ions, and the technique of Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was applied to simultaneously determine Ca, P, and trace elements in well-documented teeth. Dental hard tissues, enamel, dentine, cement, and their junctions, as well as different parts of the same tissue, were examined separately. Furthermore, using a Proton Microprobe, we measured the surface distribution of F and other elements on and around carious lesions on the enamel. The depth profiles of F, and other elements, were also measured right up to the amelodentin junction

  3. Analytical methods used in plutonium purification cycles by trilaurylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.J.

    1965-01-01

    The utilisation of trilaurylamine as a solvent extractant for the purification of plutonium has entailed to perfect a set of analytical methods which involves, various techniques. The organic impurities of the solvent can be titrated by gas-liquid chromatography. The titration of the main degradation product, the di-laurylamine, can be accomplished also by spectro-colorimetry. Potentiometry is used for the analysis of the different salts of amine-nitrate-sulfate-bisulfate as also the extracted nitric acid. The determination of the nitrate in aqueous phase is carried out by constant current potentiometry. The range of application, the accuracy and the procedure of these analysis are related in the present report. (author) [fr

  4. Precision profiles and analytic reliability of radioimmunologic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaneva, Z.; Popova, Yu.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate and compare some methods for creation of 'precision profiles' (PP) and to clarify their possibilities for determining the analytical reliability of RIA. Only methods without complicated mathematical calculations has been used. The reproducibility in serums with a concentration of the determinable hormone in the whole range of the calibration curve has been studied. The radioimmunoassay has been performed with TSH-RIA set (ex East Germany), and comparative evaluations - with commercial sets of HOECHST (Germany) and AMERSHAM (GB). Three methods for obtaining the relationship concentration (IU/l) -reproducibility (C.V.,%) are used and a comparison is made of their corresponding profiles: preliminary rough profile, Rodbard-PP and Ekins-PP. It is concluded that the creation of a precision profile is obligatory and the method of its construction does not influence the relationship's course. PP allows to determine concentration range giving stable results which improves the efficiency of the analitical work. 16 refs., 4 figs

  5. Moxidectin residues in lamb tissues: Development and validation of analytical method by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bianchi A Cruz, Michelle; Fernandes, Maria A M; de C Braga, Patricia A; Monteiro, Alda L G; Daniel, Daniela; Reyes, Felix G R

    2018-01-01

    The development and validation of a throughput method for the quantitation of moxidectin residues in lamb target tissues (muscle, kidney, liver and fat) was conducted using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). To achieve higher recovery of the analyte from the matrices, a modified QuEChERS method was used for sample preparation. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 RRHD column with a mobile phase comprising 5mM ammonium formate solution +0.1% formic acid (A) and acetonitrile +0.1% formic acid (B) in a linear gradient program. Method validation was performed based on the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and VICH GL49. To quantify the analyte, matrix-matched analytical curves were constructed with spiked blank tissues, with a limit of quantitation of 5ngg -1 and limit of detection of 1.5ngg -1 for all matrices. The linearity, decision limit, detection capability accuracy, and inter- and intra-day repeatability of the method are reported. The method was successfully applied to incurred lamb tissue samples (muscle, liver, kidney and fat) in a concentration range from 5 to 200μgkg -1 , which demonstrated its suitability for monitoring moxidectin residues in lamb tissues in health surveillance programs, as well as for pharmacokinetics and residue depletion studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Analytical methods for the determination of personal care products in human samples: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Díaz, I; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A

    2014-11-01

    Personal care products (PCPs) are organic chemicals widely used in everyday human life. Nowadays, preservatives, UV-filters, antimicrobials and musk fragrances are widely used PCPs. Different studies have shown that some of these compounds can cause adverse health effects, such as genotoxicity, which could even lead to mutagenic or carcinogenic effects, or estrogenicity because of their endocrine disruption activity. Due to the absence of official monitoring protocols, there is an increasing demand of analytical methods that allow the determination of those compounds in human samples in order to obtain more information regarding their behavior and fate in the human body. The complexity of the biological matrices and the low concentration levels of these compounds make necessary the use of advanced sample treatment procedures that afford both, sample clean-up, to remove potentially interfering matrix components, as well as the concentration of analytes. In the present work, a review of the more recent analytical methods published in the scientific literature for the determination of PCPs in human fluids and tissue samples, is presented. The work focused on sample preparation and the analytical techniques employed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Groundwater Seepage Estimation into Amirkabir Tunnel Using Analytical Methods and DEM and SGR Method

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi Farhadian; Homayoon Katibeh

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, groundwater seepage into Amirkabir tunnel has been estimated using analytical and numerical methods for 14 different sections of the tunnel. Site Groundwater Rating (SGR) method also has been performed for qualitative and quantitative classification of the tunnel sections. The obtained results of above mentioned methods were compared together. The study shows reasonable accordance with results of the all methods unless for two sections of tunnel. In these t...

  8. Selenium contaminated waters: An overview of analytical methods, treatment options and recent advances in sorption methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sílvia; Ungureanu, Gabriela; Boaventura, Rui; Botelho, Cidália

    2015-07-15

    Selenium is an essential trace element for many organisms, including humans, but it is bioaccumulative and toxic at higher than homeostatic levels. Both selenium deficiency and toxicity are problems around the world. Mines, coal-fired power plants, oil refineries and agriculture are important examples of anthropogenic sources, generating contaminated waters and wastewaters. For reasons of human health and ecotoxicity, selenium concentration has to be controlled in drinking-water and in wastewater, as it is a potential pollutant of water bodies. This review article provides firstly a general overview about selenium distribution, sources, chemistry, toxicity and environmental impact. Analytical techniques used for Se determination and speciation and water and wastewater treatment options are reviewed. In particular, published works on adsorption as a treatment method for Se removal from aqueous solutions are critically analyzed. Recent published literature has given particular attention to the development and search for effective adsorbents, including low-cost alternative materials. Published works mostly consist in exploratory findings and laboratory-scale experiments. Binary metal oxides and LDHs (layered double hydroxides) have presented excellent adsorption capacities for selenium species. Unconventional sorbents (algae, agricultural wastes and other biomaterials), in raw or modified forms, have also led to very interesting results with the advantage of their availability and low-cost. Some directions to be considered in future works are also suggested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analytical methods associated with the recovery of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.

    1983-01-01

    This report summarizes various approaches made to the analysis of materials arising from the processing of Karoo deposits for uranium. These materials include head and residue samples, aqueous solutions and organic solvents and, finally, the precipitated cakes of the elements recovered, i.e. uranium, molybdenum, and arsenic. Analysis was required for these elements and also vanadium, carbon, sulphur, and carbonate in the head and residue samples. The concentration of uranium, molybdenum, and arsenic, other than in the precipitated cakes, ranges from 1 to 2000μg/g, and that of carbon, sulphur, and carbonate from 0,1 to 5 per cent. The analysis of cakes necessitates the determination of silver, arsenic, iron, copper, calcium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, lead, tin, titanium, and vanadium within the range 1 to 1000μg/g, and of sodium and silica within the range 10 to 20 000μg/g. The methods used include combustion methods for carbon, sulphur, and carbonate, and atomic-absorption, X-ray-fluorescence, and emission methods for the other analytes. The accuracy of the analysis is within 10 per cent

  10. Analytical resource assessment method for continuous (unconventional) oil and gas accumulations - The "ACCESS" Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, Robert A.; revised by Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) periodically assesses petroleum resources of areas within the United States and the world. The purpose of this report is to explain the development of an analytic probabilistic method and spreadsheet software system called Analytic Cell-Based Continuous Energy Spreadsheet System (ACCESS). The ACCESS method is based upon mathematical equations derived from probability theory. The ACCESS spreadsheet can be used to calculate estimates of the undeveloped oil, gas, and NGL (natural gas liquids) resources in a continuous-type assessment unit. An assessment unit is a mappable volume of rock in a total petroleum system. In this report, the geologic assessment model is defined first, the analytic probabilistic method is described second, and the spreadsheet ACCESS is described third. In this revised version of Open-File Report 00-044 , the text has been updated to reflect modifications that were made to the ACCESS program. Two versions of the program are added as appendixes.

  11. An analytical method for predicting postwildfire peak discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.

    2012-01-01

    An analytical method presented here that predicts postwildfire peak discharge was developed from analysis of paired rainfall and runoff measurements collected from selected burned basins. Data were collected from 19 mountainous basins burned by eight wildfires in different hydroclimatic regimes in the western United States (California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and South Dakota). Most of the data were collected for the year of the wildfire and for 3 to 4 years after the wildfire. These data provide some estimate of the changes with time of postwildfire peak discharges, which are known to be transient but have received little documentation. The only required inputs for the analytical method are the burned area and a quantitative measure of soil burn severity (change in the normalized burn ratio), which is derived from Landsat reflectance data and is available from either the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service or the U.S. Geological Survey. The method predicts the postwildfire peak discharge per unit burned area for the year of a wildfire, the first year after a wildfire, and the second year after a wildfire. It can be used at three levels of information depending on the data available to the user; each subsequent level requires either more data or more processing of the data. Level 1 requires only the burned area. Level 2 requires the burned area and the basin average value of the change in the normalized burn ratio. Level 3 requires the burned area and the calculation of the hydraulic functional connectivity, which is a variable that incorporates the sequence of soil burn severity along hillslope flow paths within the burned basin. Measurements indicate that the unit peak discharge response increases abruptly when the 30-minute maximum rainfall intensity is greater than about 5 millimeters per hour (0.2 inches per hour). This threshold may relate to a change in runoff generation from saturated-excess to infiltration-excess overland flow. The

  12. Measurement of company effectiveness using analytic network process method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran, Janjić; Zorana, Tanasić; Borut, Kosec

    2017-07-01

    The sustainable development of an organisation is monitored through the organisation's performance, which beforehand incorporates all stakeholders' requirements in its strategy. The strategic management concept enables organisations to monitor and evaluate their effectiveness along with efficiency by monitoring of the implementation of set strategic goals. In the process of monitoring and measuring effectiveness, an organisation can use multiple-criteria decision-making methods as help. This study uses the method of analytic network process (ANP) to define the weight factors of the mutual influences of all the important elements of an organisation's strategy. The calculation of an organisation's effectiveness is based on the weight factors and the degree of fulfilment of the goal values of the strategic map measures. New business conditions influence the changes in the importance of certain elements of an organisation's business in relation to competitive advantage on the market, and on the market, increasing emphasis is given to non-material resources in the process of selection of the organisation's most important measures.

  13. Measurement of company effectiveness using analytic network process method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Janjić

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development of an organisation is monitored through the organisation’s performance, which beforehand incorporates all stakeholders’ requirements in its strategy. The strategic management concept enables organisations to monitor and evaluate their effectiveness along with efficiency by monitoring of the implementation of set strategic goals. In the process of monitoring and measuring effectiveness, an organisation can use multiple-criteria decision-making methods as help. This study uses the method of analytic network process (ANP to define the weight factors of the mutual influences of all the important elements of an organisation’s strategy. The calculation of an organisation’s effectiveness is based on the weight factors and the degree of fulfilment of the goal values of the strategic map measures. New business conditions influence the changes in the importance of certain elements of an organisation’s business in relation to competitive advantage on the market, and on the market, increasing emphasis is given to non-material resources in the process of selection of the organisation’s most important measures.

  14. Analytic-numerical method of determining the freezing front location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Grzymkowski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of thermal processes combined with the reversible phase transitions of type: solid phase – liquid phase leads to formulation of the parabolic boundary problems with the moving boundary. Solution of such defined problem requires, most often, to use sophisticated numerical techniques and far advanced mathematical tools. Excellent illustration of the complexity of considered problems, as well as of the variety of approaches used for finding their solutions, gives the papers [1-4]. In the current paper, the authors present the, especially attractive from the engineer point of view, analytic-numerical method for finding the approximate solution of selected class of problems which can be reduced to the one-phase solidification problem of a plate with the unknown a priori, varying in time boundary of the region in which the solution is sought. Proposed method is based on the known formalism of initial expansion of the sought function describing the temperature field into the power series, some coefficients of which are determined with the aid of boundary conditions, and on the approximation of the function defining the location of freezing front with the broken line, parameters of which are numerically determined.

  15. Modern analytic methods applied to the art and archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenorio C, M. D.; Longoria G, L. C.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of diverse areas as the analytic chemistry, the history of the art and the archaeology has allowed the development of a variety of techniques used in archaeology, in conservation and restoration. These methods have been used to date objects, to determine the origin of the old materials and to reconstruct their use and to identify the degradation processes that affect the integrity of the art works. The objective of this chapter is to offer a general vision on the researches that have been realized in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in the field of cultural goods. A series of researches carried out in collaboration with national investigators and of the foreigner is described shortly, as well as with the great support of degree students and master in archaeology of the National School of Anthropology and History, since one of the goals that have is to diffuse the knowledge of the existence of these techniques among the young archaeologists, so that they have a wider vision of what they could use in an in mediate future and they can check hypothesis with scientific methods. (Author)

  16. Development of analytical methods for iodine speciation in fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaku, Yuichi; Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2007-01-01

    Analytical methods for physicochemical speciation of iodine in fresh water samples were developed to elucidate its behavior in the environment. The methods combined inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SEC) or capillary electrophoresis (CE). Freshwater samples were collected from Lake Towada and rivers surrounding the lake. After filtration through a 0.45 μm pore size membrane filter, iodine in the water samples was pre-concentrated with an ultra-filtration filter which had a cut-off size of 10 kDa. The fraction with molecular size over 10 kDa was concentrated to 100 times in the original water, and then introduced into the SEC-ICP-MS. Molecular size chromatograms of all river and lake water samples showed two peaks for iodine concentrations: 40 kDa and 20 kDa. The method for separately determining two valence states of inorganic iodine, I - and IO 3 - , was also developed using the CE-ICP-MS system and it was successfully applied to the fresh water samples. Analysis results of surface water samples in Lake Towada and rivers surrounding the lake indicated that the chemical form of inorganic iodine in all samples was IO 3 - . Additional lake water samples were collected from Lake O-ike-higashi in the Juni-ko area at Shirakami-Sanchi, which is a UNESCO natural world heritage. The lake has a strong thermocline during all seasons; its bottom layer is in a highly reductive state. Depth profiles of I - and IO 3 - clearly showed that I - was not detected in the surface layer, but it was predominant in the bottom layer, and vice versa for IO 3 - . As this separation method is rapid and sensitive, it will be widely used in the future. (author)

  17. Propulsion and launching analysis of variable-mass rockets by analytical methods

    OpenAIRE

    D.D. Ganji; M. Gorji; M. Hatami; A. Hasanpour; N. Khademzadeh

    2013-01-01

    In this study, applications of some analytical methods on nonlinear equation of the launching of a rocket with variable mass are investigated. Differential transformation method (DTM), homotopy perturbation method (HPM) and least square method (LSM) were applied and their results are compared with numerical solution. An excellent agreement with analytical methods and numerical ones is observed in the results and this reveals that analytical methods are effective and convenient. Also a paramet...

  18. Analytical one parameter method for PID motion controller settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Johannes; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper analytical expressions for PID-controllers settings for electromechanical motion systems are presented. It will be shown that by an adequate frequency domain oriented parametrization, the parameters of a PID-controller are analytically dependent on one variable only, the cross-over

  19. Oxcarbazepine: validation and application of an analytical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Rezende Enéas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxcarbazepine (OXC is an important anticonvulsant and mood stabilizing drug. A pharmacopoeial monograph for OXC is not yet available and therefore the development and validation of a new analytical method for quantification of this drug is essential. In the present study, a UV spectrophotometric method for the determination of OXC was developed. The various parameters, such as linearity, precision, accuracy and specificity, were studied according to International Conference on Harmonization Guidelines. Batches of 150 mg OXC capsules were prepared and analyzed using the validated UV method. The formulations were also evaluated for parameters including drug-excipient compatibility, flowability, uniformity of weight, disintegration time, assay, uniformity of content and the amount of drug dissolved during the first hour.Oxcarbazepina (OXC é um fármaco anticonvulsivante e estabilizante do humor. O desenvolvimento e validação de método analítico para quantificação da OXC são de fundamental importância devido à ausência de monografias farmacopéicas oficiais para esse fármaco. Nesse trabalho, um método espectrofotométrico UV para determinação da OXC foi desenvolvido. O método proposto foi validado seguindo os parâmetros de linearidade, precisão, exatidão e especificidade de acordo com as normas da Conferência Internacional de Harmonização. Cápsulas de OXC 150 mg foram preparadas e analisadas utilizando-se o método analítico validado. As formulações foram avaliadas com relação à compatibilidade fármaco-excipientes, fluidez, determinação de peso, tempo de desintegração, doseamento, uniformidade de conteúdo e quantidade do fármaco dissolvido após 60 minutos.

  20. The combination of four analytical methods to explore skeletal muscle metabolomics: Better coverage of metabolic pathways or a marketing argument?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, C; Patin, F; Bocca, C; Nadal-Desbarats, L; Bonnier, F; Reynier, P; Emond, P; Vourc'h, P; Joseph-Delafont, K; Corcia, P; Andres, C R; Blasco, H

    2018-01-30

    statistical analysis steps do not justify systematically combining analytical methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. AN ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR CHEMICAL SPECIATION OF SELENIUM IN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Luca

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is an essential microelement, sometimes redoubtable, through its beneficial role - risk depending on its concentration in the food chain, at low dose is an important nutrient in the life of humans and animals, contrary at high doses, it becomes toxic. Selenium may be find itself in the environment (soil, sediment, water in many forms (oxidized, reduced, organometallic which determine their mobility and toxicity. Determination of chemical speciation (identification of different chemical forms provides much more complete information for a better understanding of the behavior and the potential impact on the environment. In this work we present the results of methodological research on the extraction of sequential forms of selenium in the soil and the coupling of analytical methods capable of identifying very small amounts of selenium in soils An efficient scheme of sequential extractions forms of selenium (SES consisting in atomic absorption spectrometry coupled with hydride generation (HGAAS has been developed into five experimental steps, detailed in the paper. This operational scheme has been applied to the analysis of chemical speciation in the following areas: the Bărăgan Plain and Central Dobrogea of Romania.

  2. Analytical method to estimate resin cement diffusion into dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Ferraz, Larissa Cristina; Ubaldini, Adriana Lemos Mori; de Oliveira, Bruna Medeiros Bertol; Neto, Antonio Medina; Sato, Fracielle; Baesso, Mauro Luciano; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa

    2016-05-01

    This study analyzed the diffusion of two resin luting agents (resin cements) into dentin, with the aim of presenting an analytical method for estimating the thickness of the diffusion zone. Class V cavities were prepared in the buccal and lingual surfaces of molars (n=9). Indirect composite inlays were luted into the cavities with either a self-adhesive or a self-etch resin cement. The teeth were sectioned bucco-lingually and the cement-dentin interface was analyzed by using micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS) and scanning electron microscopy. Evolution of peak intensities of the Raman bands, collected from the functional groups corresponding to the resin monomer (C-O-C, 1113 cm-1) present in the cements, and the mineral content (P-O, 961 cm-1) in dentin were sigmoid shaped functions. A Boltzmann function (BF) was then fitted to the peaks encountered at 1113 cm-1 to estimate the resin cement diffusion into dentin. The BF identified a resin cement-dentin diffusion zone of 1.8±0.4 μm for the self-adhesive cement and 2.5±0.3 μm for the self-etch cement. This analysis allowed the authors to estimate the diffusion of the resin cements into the dentin. Fitting the MRS data to the BF contributed to and is relevant for future studies of the adhesive interface.

  3. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (third edition). Fourth supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-15

    The NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 3rd edition, was updated for the following chemicals: allyl-glycidyl-ether, 2-aminopyridine, aspartame, bromine, chlorine, n-butylamine, n-butyl-glycidyl-ether, carbon-dioxide, carbon-monoxide, chlorinated-camphene, chloroacetaldehyde, p-chlorophenol, crotonaldehyde, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, dinitro-o-cresol, ethyl-acetate, ethyl-formate, ethylenimine, sodium-fluoride, hydrogen-fluoride, cryolite, sodium-hexafluoroaluminate, formic-acid, hexachlorobutadiene, hydrogen-cyanide, hydrogen-sulfide, isopropyl-acetate, isopropyl-ether, isopropyl-glycidyl-ether, lead, lead-oxide, maleic-anhydride, methyl-acetate, methyl-acrylate, methyl-tert-butyl ether, methyl-cellosolve-acetate, methylcyclohexanol, 4,4'-methylenedianiline, monomethylaniline, monomethylhydrazine, nitric-oxide, p-nitroaniline, phenyl-ether, phenyl-ether-biphenyl mixture, phenyl-glycidyl-ether, phenylhydrazine, phosphine, ronnel, sulfuryl-fluoride, talc, tributyl-phosphate, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, trimellitic-anhydride, triorthocresyl-phosphate, triphenyl-phosphate, and vinyl-acetate.

  4. Analytical methods for waste minimisation in the convenience food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, R; Staikos, T; Rahimifard, S

    2009-04-01

    Waste creation in some sectors of the food industry is substantial, and while much of the used material is non-hazardous and biodegradable, it is often poorly dealt with and simply sent to landfill mixed with other types of waste. In this context, overproduction wastes were found in a number of cases to account for 20-40% of the material wastes generated by convenience food manufacturers (such as ready-meals and sandwiches), often simply just to meet the challenging demands placed on the manufacturer due to the short order reaction time provided by the supermarkets. Identifying specific classes of waste helps to minimise their creation, through consideration of what the materials constitute and why they were generated. This paper aims to provide means by which food industry wastes can be identified, and demonstrate these mechanisms through a practical example. The research reported in this paper investigated the various categories of waste and generated three analytical methods for the support of waste minimisation activities by food manufacturers. The waste classifications and analyses are intended to complement existing waste minimisation approaches and are described through consideration of a case study convenience food manufacturer that realised significant financial savings through waste measurement, analysis and reduction.

  5. Fuel Cycle Externalities: Analytical Methods and Issues, Report 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    that also have not been fully addressed. This document contains two types of papers that seek to fill part of this void. Some of the papers describe analytical methods that can be applied to one of the five steps of the damage function approach. The other papers discuss some of the complex issues that arise in trying to estimate externalities. This report, the second in a series of eight reports, is part of a joint study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commission of the European Communities (EC)* on the externalities of fuel cycles. Most of the papers in this report were originally written as working papers during the initial phases of this study. The papers provide descriptions of the (non-radiological) atmospheric dispersion modeling that the study uses; reviews much of the relevant literature on ecological and health effects, and on the economic valuation of those impacts; contains several papers on some of the more complex and contentious issues in estimating externalities; and describes a method for depicting the quality of scientific information that a study uses. The analytical methods and issues that this report discusses generally pertain to more than one of the fuel cycles, though not necessarily to all of them. The report is divided into six parts, each one focusing on a different subject area

  6. Estimating Fuel Cycle Externalities: Analytical Methods and Issues, Report 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-07-01

    of complex issues that also have not been fully addressed. This document contains two types of papers that seek to fill part of this void. Some of the papers describe analytical methods that can be applied to one of the five steps of the damage function approach. The other papers discuss some of the complex issues that arise in trying to estimate externalities. This report, the second in a series of eight reports, is part of a joint study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commission of the European Communities (EC)* on the externalities of fuel cycles. Most of the papers in this report were originally written as working papers during the initial phases of this study. The papers provide descriptions of the (non-radiological) atmospheric dispersion modeling that the study uses; reviews much of the relevant literature on ecological and health effects, and on the economic valuation of those impacts; contains several papers on some of the more complex and contentious issues in estimating externalities; and describes a method for depicting the quality of scientific information that a study uses. The analytical methods and issues that this report discusses generally pertain to more than one of the fuel cycles, though not necessarily to all of them. The report is divided into six parts, each one focusing on a different subject area.

  7. Analytical method of waste allocation in waste management systems: Concept, method and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, Francis C.

    2017-01-01

    Waste is not a rejected item to dispose anymore but increasingly a secondary resource to exploit, influencing waste allocation among treatment operations in a waste management (WM) system. The aim of this methodological paper is to present a new method for the assessment of the WM system, the “analytical method of the waste allocation process” (AMWAP), based on the concept of the “waste allocation process” defined as the aggregation of all processes of apportioning waste among alternative waste treatment operations inside or outside the spatial borders of a WM system. AMWAP contains a conceptual framework and an analytical approach. The conceptual framework includes, firstly, a descriptive model that focuses on the description and classification of the WM system. It includes, secondly, an explanatory model that serves to explain and to predict the operation of the WM system. The analytical approach consists of a step-by-step analysis for the empirical implementation of the conceptual framework. With its multiple purposes, AMWAP provides an innovative and objective modular method to analyse a WM system which may be integrated in the framework of impact assessment methods and environmental systems analysis tools. Its originality comes from the interdisciplinary analysis of the WAP and to develop the conceptual framework. AMWAP is applied in the framework of an illustrative case study on the household WM system of Geneva (Switzerland). It demonstrates that this method provides an in-depth and contextual knowledge of WM. - Highlights: • The study presents a new analytical method based on the waste allocation process. • The method provides an in-depth and contextual knowledge of the waste management system. • The paper provides a reproducible procedure for professionals, experts and academics. • It may be integrated into impact assessment or environmental system analysis tools. • An illustrative case study is provided based on household waste

  8. Analytical models approximating individual processes: a validation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, C; Degallier, N; Menkès, C E

    2010-12-01

    Upscaling population models from fine to coarse resolutions, in space, time and/or level of description, allows the derivation of fast and tractable models based on a thorough knowledge of individual processes. The validity of such approximations is generally tested only on a limited range of parameter sets. A more general validation test, over a range of parameters, is proposed; this would estimate the error induced by the approximation, using the original model's stochastic variability as a reference. This method is illustrated by three examples taken from the field of epidemics transmitted by vectors that bite in a temporally cyclical pattern, that illustrate the use of the method: to estimate if an approximation over- or under-fits the original model; to invalidate an approximation; to rank possible approximations for their qualities. As a result, the application of the validation method to this field emphasizes the need to account for the vectors' biology in epidemic prediction models and to validate these against finer scale models. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Analytic Method to Estimate Particle Acceleration in Flux Ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidoni, S. E.; Karpen, J. T.; DeVore, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism that accelerates particles to the energies required to produce the observed high-energy emission in solar flares is not well understood. Drake et al. (2006) proposed a kinetic mechanism for accelerating electrons in contracting magnetic islands formed by reconnection. In this model, particles that gyrate around magnetic field lines transit from island to island, increasing their energy by Fermi acceleration in those islands that are contracting. Based on these ideas, we present an analytic model to estimate the energy gain of particles orbiting around field lines inside a flux rope (2.5D magnetic island). We calculate the change in the velocity of the particles as the flux rope evolves in time. The method assumes a simple profile for the magnetic field of the evolving island; it can be applied to any case where flux ropes are formed. In our case, the flux-rope evolution is obtained from our recent high-resolution, compressible 2.5D MHD simulations of breakout eruptive flares. The simulations allow us to resolve in detail the generation and evolution of large-scale flux ropes as a result of sporadic and patchy reconnection in the flare current sheet. Our results show that the initial energy of particles can be increased by 2-5 times in a typical contracting island, before the island reconnects with the underlying arcade. Therefore, particles need to transit only from 3-7 islands to increase their energies by two orders of magnitude. These macroscopic regions, filled with a large number of particles, may explain the large observed rates of energetic electron production in flares. We conclude that this mechanism is a promising candidate for electron acceleration in flares, but further research is needed to extend our results to 3D flare conditions.

  10. Plastics in soil: Analytical methods and possible sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bläsing, Melanie; Amelung, Wulf

    2018-01-15

    At least 300 Mio t of plastic are produced annually, from which large parts end up in the environment, where it persists over decades, harms biota and enters the food chain. Yet, almost nothing is known about plastic pollution of soil; hence, the aims of this work are to review current knowledge on i) available methods for the quantification and identification of plastic in soil, ii) the quantity and possible input pathways of plastic into soil, (including first preliminary screening of plastic in compost), and iii) its fate in soil. Methods for plastic analyses in sediments can potentially be adjusted for application to soil; yet, the applicability of these methods for soil needs to be tested. Consequently, the current data base on soil pollution with plastic is still poor. Soils may receive plastic inputs via plastic mulching or the application of plastic containing soil amendments. In compost up to 2.38-1200mg plastic kg -1 have been found so far; the plastic concentration of sewage sludge varies between 1000 and 24,000 plastic items kg -1 . Also irrigation with untreated and treated wastewater (1000-627,000 and 0-125,000 plastic items m -3 , respectively) as well as flooding with lake water (0.82-4.42 plastic items m -3 ) or river water (0-13,751 items km -2 ) can provide major input pathways for plastic into soil. Additional sources comprise littering along roads and trails, illegal waste dumping, road runoff as well as atmospheric input. With these input pathways, plastic concentrations in soil might reach the per mill range of soil organic carbon. Most of plastic (especially >1μm) will presumably be retained in soil, where it persists for decades or longer. Accordingly, further research on the prevalence and fate of such synthetic polymers in soils is urgently warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hanford environmental analytical methods: Methods as of March 1990. Volume 3, Appendix A2-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Daniel, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    This paper from the analytical laboratories at Hanford describes the method used to measure pH of single-shell tank core samples. Sludge or solid samples are mixed with deionized water. The pH electrode used combines both a sensor and reference electrode in one unit. The meter amplifies the input signal from the electrode and displays the pH visually.

  12. 40 CFR 141.25 - Analytical methods for radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 141.25 Section 141.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Monitoring and Analytical Requirements... Spectrometry 901.1 p. 92 7120, 7120-97 D4785-93, 00a 4.5.2.3 Radioactive Strontium 89, 90 Radiochemical 905.0 p...

  13. Analytical methods in sphingolipidomics: Quantitative and profiling approaches in food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Núria; Herrero, Pol; Mariné, Sílvia; Nadal, Pedro; Ras, Maria Rosa; Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Arola, Lluís

    2016-01-08

    In recent years, sphingolipidomics has emerged as an interesting omic science that encompasses the study of the full sphingolipidome characterization, content, structure and activity in cells, tissues or organisms. Like other omics, it has the potential to impact biomarker discovery, drug development and systems biology knowledge. Concretely, dietary food sphingolipids have gained considerable importance due to their extensively reported bioactivity. Because of the complexity of this lipid family and their diversity among foods, powerful analytical methodologies are needed for their study. The analytical tools developed in the past have been improved with the enormous advances made in recent years in mass spectrometry (MS) and chromatography, which allow the convenient and sensitive identification and quantitation of sphingolipid classes and form the basis of current sphingolipidomics methodologies. In addition, novel hyphenated nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) strategies, new ionization strategies, and MS imaging are outlined as promising technologies to shape the future of sphingolipid analyses. This review traces the analytical methods of sphingolipidomics in food analysis concerning sample extraction, chromatographic separation, the identification and quantification of sphingolipids by MS and their structural elucidation by NMR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Laser: a Tool for Optimization and Enhancement of Analytical Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preisler, Jan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In this work, we use lasers to enhance possibilities of laser desorption methods and to optimize coating procedure for capillary electrophoresis (CE). We use several different instrumental arrangements to characterize matrix-assisted laser desorption (MALD) at atmospheric pressure and in vacuum. In imaging mode, 488-nm argon-ion laser beam is deflected by two acousto-optic deflectors to scan plumes desorbed at atmospheric pressure via absorption. All absorbing species, including neutral molecules, are monitored. Interesting features, e.g. differences between the initial plume and subsequent plumes desorbed from the same spot, or the formation of two plumes from one laser shot are observed. Total plume absorbance can be correlated with the acoustic signal generated by the desorption event. A model equation for the plume velocity as a function of time is proposed. Alternatively, the use of a static laser beam for observation enables reliable determination of plume velocities even when they are very high. Static scattering detection reveals negative influence of particle spallation on MS signal. Ion formation during MALD was monitored using 193-nm light to photodissociate a portion of insulin ion plume. These results define the optimal conditions for desorbing analytes from matrices, as opposed to achieving a compromise between efficient desorption and efficient ionization as is practiced in mass spectrometry. In CE experiment, we examined changes in a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) coating by continuously monitoring the electroosmotic flow (EOF) in a fused-silica capillary during electrophoresis. An imaging CCD camera was used to follow the motion of a fluorescent neutral marker zone along the length of the capillary excited by 488-nm Ar-ion laser. The PEO coating was shown to reduce the velocity of EOF by more than an order of magnitude compared to a bare capillary at pH 7.0. The coating protocol was important, especially at an intermediate pH of 7.7. The increase of p

  15. Sulfathiazole: analytical methods for quantification in seawater and macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leston, Sara; Nebot, Carolina; Nunes, Margarida; Cepeda, Alberto; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Ramos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The awareness of the interconnection between pharmaceutical residues, human health, and aquaculture has highlighted the concern with the potential harmful effects it can induce. Furthermore, to better understand the consequences more research is needed and to achieve that new methodologies on the detection and quantification of pharmaceuticals are necessary. Antibiotics are a major class of drugs included in the designation of emerging contaminants, representing a high risk to natural ecosystems. Among the most prescribed are sulfonamides, with sulfathiazole being the selected compound to be investigated in this study. In the environment, macroalgae are an important group of producers, continuously exposed to contaminants, with a significant role in the trophic web. Due to these characteristics are already under scope for the possibility of being used as bioindicators. The present study describes two new methodologies based on liquid chromatography for the determination of sulfathiazole in seawater and in the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca. Results show both methods were validated according to international standards, with MS/MS detection showing more sensitivity as expected with LODs of 2.79ng/g and 1.40ng/mL for algae and seawater, respectively. As for UV detection the values presented were respectively 2.83μg/g and 2.88μg/mL, making it more suitable for samples originated in more contaminated sites. The methods were also applied to experimental data with success with results showing macroalgae have potential use as indicators of contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Analytical investigation of AlCl[3]/SO[2]Cl[2] catholyte materials for secondary fuze reserve batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Paul Charles; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Segall, Judith M.; Malizia, Louis A., Jr.; Cherry, Brian Ray; Andrews, Nicholas L.; Clark, Nancy H.; Alam, Todd Michael; Ingersoll, David T.; Tallant, David Robert; Simpson, Regina Lynn; Boyle, Timothy J.; Garcia, Manuel Joseph

    2004-05-01

    Exploration of the fundamental chemical behavior of the AlCl{sub 3}/SO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} catholyte system for the ARDEC Self-Destruct Fuze Reserve Battery Project under accelerated aging conditions was completed using a variety of analytical tools. Four different molecular species were identified in this solution, three of which are major. The relative concentrations of the molecular species formed were found to depend on aging time, initial concentrations, and storage temperature, with each variable affecting the kinetics and thermodynamics of this complex reaction system. We also evaluated the effect of water on the system, and determined that it does not play a role in dictating the observed molecular species present in solution. The first Al-containing species formed was identified as the dimer [Al({mu}-Cl)Cl{sub 2}]{sub 2}, and was found to be in equilibrium with the monomer, AlCl{sub 3}. The second species formed in the reaction scheme was identified by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies as [Cl{sub 2}Al({mu}-O{sub 2}SCl)]{sub 2} (I), a scrambled AlCl{sub 3}{center_dot}SO{sub 2} adduct. The SO{sub 2}(g) present, as well as CL{sub 2}(g), was formed through decomposition of SO{sub 2}CL{sub 2}. The SO{sub 2}(g) generated was readily consumed by AlCl{sub 3} to form the adduct 1 which was experimentally verified when 1 was also isolated from the reaction of SO{sub 2}(g) and AlCl {sub 3}. The third species found was tentatively identified as a compound having the general formula {l_brace}[Al(O)Cl{sub 2}][OSCl{sub 2}]{r_brace}{sub n}. This was based on {sup 27}Al NMR data that revealed a species with tetrahedrally coordinated Al metal centers with increased oxygen coordination and the fact that the precipitate, or gel, that forms over time was shown by Raman spectroscopic studies to possess a component that is consistent with SOCl{sub 2}. The precursor to the precipitate should have similar constituents, thus the assignment of {l_brace}[Al(O)Cl{sub 2}][OSCl{sub 2

  17. Analytical method for the identification and assay of 12 phthalates in cosmetic products: application of the ISO 12787 international standard "Cosmetics-Analytical methods-Validation criteria for analytical results using chromatographic techniques".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Pascal; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Bousquet, Claudine; Quoirez, Audrey; Civade, Corinne; Bonnet, Pierre-Antoine

    2012-08-31

    Esters of phthalic acid, more commonly named phthalates, may be present in cosmetic products as ingredients or contaminants. Their presence as contaminant can be due to the manufacturing process, to raw materials used or to the migration of phthalates from packaging when plastic (polyvinyl chloride--PVC) is used. 8 phthalates (DBP, DEHP, BBP, DMEP, DnPP, DiPP, DPP, and DiBP), classified H360 or H361, are forbidden in cosmetics according to the European regulation on cosmetics 1223/2009. A GC/MS method was developed for the assay of 12 phthalates in cosmetics, including the 8 phthalates regulated. Analyses are carried out on a GC/MS system with electron impact ionization mode (EI). The separation of phthalates is obtained on a cross-linked 5%-phenyl/95%-dimethylpolysiloxane capillary column 30 m × 0.25 mm (i.d.) × 0.25 mm film thickness using a temperature gradient. Phthalate quantification is performed by external calibration using an internal standard. Validation elements obtained on standard solutions, highlight a satisfactory system conformity (resolution>1.5), a common quantification limit at 0.25 ng injected, an acceptable linearity between 0.5 μg mL⁻¹ and 5.0 μg mL⁻¹ as well as a precision and an accuracy in agreement with in-house specifications. Cosmetic samples ready for analytical injection are analyzed after a dilution in ethanol whereas more complex cosmetic matrices, like milks and creams, are assayed after a liquid/liquid extraction using ter-butyl methyl ether (TBME). Depending on the type of cosmetics analyzed, the common limits of quantification for the 12 phthalates were set at 0.5 or 2.5 μg g⁻¹. All samples were assayed using the analytical approach described in the ISO 12787 international standard "Cosmetics-Analytical methods-Validation criteria for analytical results using chromatographic techniques". This analytical protocol is particularly adapted when it is not possible to make reconstituted sample matrices. Copyright © 2012

  18. Using Program Package NSPCG to Analyze the Trunk Reservation Service Protection Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Vincent A.; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    1994-01-01

    Unlike certain service protection methods for mixed traffic streams, such as the class-limitation method, the trunk reservation scheme cannot be based on a product form property of a stationary probability distribution vector. Rather, the analysis of the trunk reservation scheme requires solving...

  19. Introduction to Validation of Analytical Methods: Potentiometric Determination of CO[subscript 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipólito-Nájera, A. Ricardo; Moya-Hernandez, M. Rosario; Gomez-Balderas, Rodolfo; Rojas-Hernandez, Alberto; Romero-Romo, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Validation of analytical methods is a fundamental subject for chemical analysts working in chemical industries. These methods are also relevant for pharmaceutical enterprises, biotechnology firms, analytical service laboratories, government departments, and regulatory agencies. Therefore, for undergraduate students enrolled in majors in the field…

  20. A comparison between analytic and numerical methods for modelling automotive dissipative silencers with mean flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, R.

    2009-08-01

    Identifying an appropriate method for modelling automotive dissipative silencers normally requires one to choose between analytic and numerical methods. It is common in the literature to justify the choice of an analytic method based on the assumption that equivalent numerical techniques are more computationally expensive. The validity of this assumption is investigated here, and the relative speed and accuracy of two analytic methods are compared to two numerical methods for a uniform dissipative silencer that contains a bulk reacting porous material separated from a mean gas flow by a perforated pipe. The numerical methods are developed here with a view to speeding up transmission loss computation, and are based on a mode matching scheme and a hybrid finite element method. The results presented demonstrate excellent agreement between the analytic and numerical models provided a sufficient number of propagating acoustic modes are retained. However, the numerical mode matching method is shown to be the fastest method, significantly outperforming an equivalent analytic technique. Moreover, the hybrid finite element method is demonstrated to be as fast as the analytic technique. Accordingly, both numerical techniques deliver fast and accurate predictions and are capable of outperforming equivalent analytic methods for automotive dissipative silencers.

  1. Analytical methods for the evaluation of melamine contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Stuart L; Gupta, Abhay; Khan, Mansoor A

    2014-02-01

    There is an urgent need for the analysis of melamine in the global pharmaceutical supply chain to detect economically motivated adulteration or unintentional contamination using a simple, nondestructive analytical technique that confirms the extent of adulteration in a shorter time period. In this work, different analytical techniques (thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), FT-Raman, and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy) were evaluated for their ability to detect a range of melamine levels in gelatin. While FT-IR and FT-Raman provided qualitative assessment of melamine contamination or adulteration, powder X-ray diffraction and NIR were able to detect and quantify the presence of melamine at levels as low as 1.0% w/w. Multivariate analysis of the NIR data yielded the most accurate model when three principal components were used. Data were pretreated using standard normal variate transformation to remove multiplicative interferences of scatter and particle size. The model had a root-mean-square error of calibration of 2.4 (R(2) = 0.99) and root-mean square error of prediction of 2.5 (R(2) = 0.96). The value of the paired t test for actual and predicted samples (1%-50% w/w) was 0.448 (p 5), further indicating the robustness of the model. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Analytical Method (M) - Metabolonote | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us Metabol...lsdba.nbdc01324-003 Description of data contents Information about methods of instrumental analysis. Data file File name: metabol...onote_analytical_method.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/metabolonote/LATEST/metabol...://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/metabolonote_analytical_method#en Data acquisition method - Data anal...his Database Site Policy | Contact Us Analytical Method (M) - Metabolonote | LSDB Archive ...

  3. Improvement of organization and audit methods of production reserves at the enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Skrypnyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current research deals with the scientific substantiation of theoretical positions and development of practical recommendations for improving the organization and audit methodology of production reserves at an enterprise. The authors apply the methods of specification. Testing, analysis, synthesis, generalization are the basis for the improvement of the organization and audit methodology of production reserves at an enterprise. The researchers formulate the goals, objectives, information sources and basic methods used in the audit of production reserves. The article examines the main stages of the audit of production reserves and the methodology of its implementation. The algorithm of auditing of production reserves is defined. The paper examines the basic working papers of the auditor for auditing of production reserves such as the test on internal control of production reserves, the audit plan of production reserves, the audit program of production reserves, the comparative statement of inventory resultsof capital assets. These documents, in their turn, will increase the level of control and improve the quality of audit operations with production reserves. The article determines the common errors that occur during operations with production reserves tand you can avoid the errors using the developed plan, program and audit working papers used to conduct the audit of production reserves.

  4. Examination of fast reactor fuels, FBR analytical quality assurance standards and methods, and analytical methods development: irradiation tests. Progress report, April 1--June 30, 1976, and FY 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.D.

    1976-08-01

    Characterization of unirradiated and irradiated LMFBR fuels by analytical chemistry methods will continue, and additional methods will be modified and mechanized for hot cell application. Macro- and microexaminations will be made on fuel and cladding using the shielded electron microprobe, emission spectrograph, radiochemistry, gamma scanner, mass spectrometers, and other analytical facilities. New capabilities will be developed in gamma scanning, analyses to assess spatial distributions of fuel and fission products, mass spectrometric measurements of burnup and fission gas constituents and other chemical analyses. Microstructural analyses of unirradiated and irradiated materials will continue using optical and electron microscopy and autoradiographic and x-ray techniques. Analytical quality assurance standards tasks are designed to assure the quality of the chemical characterizations necessary to evaluate reactor components relative to specifications. Tasks include: (1) the preparation and distribution of calibration materials and quality control samples for use in quality assurance surveillance programs, (2) the development of and the guidance in the use of quality assurance programs for sampling and analysis, (3) the development of improved methods of analysis, and (4) the preparation of continuously updated analytical method manuals. Reliable analytical methods development for the measurement of burnup, oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio, and various gases in irradiated fuels is described

  5. A manual of analytical methods used at MINTEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoch, H.; Dixon, K.

    1983-01-01

    The manual deals with various methods for a wide range of elemental analysis. Some of the methods that are used, include atomic absorption spectroscopy, optical emission spectroscopy and x-ray fluoresence spectroscopy. The basic charateristics of the method are given and the procedures are recorded step by step. One of the sections deals with methods associated with the recovery of uranium

  6. Intercalibration of analytical methods on marine environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    The analytical results reported by the 55 laboratories from 29 countries participating in this intercomparison have enabled to certify the concentration of 16 elements (As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se, Sr, Zn) in the mussel homogenate MA-M-2/TM. Information values could be established for 6 additional elements (Ag, Au, Cl, Pb, Sb, Sc). The atomic absorption spectroscopy was predominantly used in this intercomparison (45% of all determinations). It was followed by neutron activation analysis (28%), atomic emission spectroscopy (15%) and X-ray fluorescence (5%). The total number of outliers was moderate: 11.7% of all results. The number of outlying results by participating laboratories varied between 0 and 6

  7. Calculation of leaky Lamb waves with a semi-analytical finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takahiro; Inoue, Daisuke

    2014-08-01

    A semi-analytical finite element method (SAFE) has been widely used for calculating dispersion curves and mode shapes of guided waves as well as transient waves in a bar like structures. Although guided wave inspection is often conducted for water-loaded plates and pipes, most of the SAFE techniques have not been extended to a plate with leaky media. This study describes leaky Lamb wave calculation with the SAFE. We formulated a new solution using a feature that a single Lamb wave mode generates a harmonic plane wave in leaky media. Dispersion curves obtained with the SAFE agreed well with the previous theoretical studies, which represents that the SAFE calculation was conducted with sufficient accuracy. Moreover, we discussed dispersion curves, attenuation curves, and displacement distributions for total transmission modes and leaky plate modes in a single side and both two side water-loaded plate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Using multiple analytical methods to improve phylogenetic hypotheses in Minaria (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Patrícia Luz; Rapini, Alessandro; Silva, Uiara Catharina Soares E; Berg, Cássio van den

    2012-12-01

    Metastelmatinae is a neotropical subtribe of Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae), comprising 13 genera and around 260 species whose phylogenetic relationships are often unresolved or incongruent between plastid and nuclear datasets. The genus Minaria is one of the first lineages to emerge in the Metastelmatinae and is highly supported based on plastid markers. It comprises 21 species, most of which are endemic to small areas with open vegetation in the Espinhaço Range, Brazil. In the work presented here, we use plastid (rps16, trnH-psbA, trnS-trnG, and trnD-trnT) and nuclear (ITS and ETS) datasets to investigate the relationships within Minaria. We show that the three methods mostly used in phylogenetic studies, namely, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian Inference, have different performances and that a pluralistic analytical approach combining results from them can increase tree resolution and clade confidence, providing valuable phylogenetic information. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation by perturbative and analytical method of electronic properties of square quantum well under electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kemal BAHAR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of applied electric field on the isolated square quantum well was investigated by analytic and perturbative method. The energy eigen values and wave functions in quantum well were found by perturbative method. Later, the electric field effects were investigated by analytic method, the results of perturbative and analytic method were compared. As well as both of results fit with each other, it was observed that externally applied electric field changed importantly electronic properties of the system.

  10. Development and Validation of Analytical Method for Losartan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To develop a new spectrophotometric method for the analysis of losartan potassium in pharmaceutical formulations by making its complex with copper. Method: A coloured complex based on UV/Vis spectroscopic method was developed for the determination of losartan potassium concentration in pharmaceutical ...

  11. Description of JNC's analytical method and its performance for FBR cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, M.

    2000-01-01

    The description of JNC's analytical method and its performance for FBR cores includes: an outline of JNC's Analytical System Compared with ERANOS; a standard data base for FBR Nuclear Design in JNC; JUPITER Critical Experiment; details of Analytical Method and Its Effects on JUPITER; performance of JNC Analytical System (effective multiplication factor k eff , control rod worth, and sodium void reactivity); design accuracy of a 600 MWe-class FBR Core. JNC developed a consistent analytical system for FBR core evaluation, based on JENDL library, f-table method, and three dimensional diffusion/transport theory, which includes comprehensive sensitivity tools to improve the prediction accuracy of core parameters. JNC system was verified by analysis of JUPITER critical experiment, and other facilities. Its performance can be judged quite satisfactory for FBR-core design work, though there is room for further improvement, such as more detailed treatment of cross-section resonance regions

  12. Application of an analytical method for solution of thermal hydraulic conservation equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakory, M.R. [Simulation, Systems & Services Technologies Company (S3 Technologies), Columbia, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    An analytical method has been developed and applied for solution of two-phase flow conservation equations. The test results for application of the model for simulation of BWR transients are presented and compared with the results obtained from application of the explicit method for integration of conservation equations. The test results show that with application of the analytical method for integration of conservation equations, the Courant limitation associated with explicit Euler method of integration was eliminated. The results obtained from application of the analytical method (with large time steps) agreed well with the results obtained from application of explicit method of integration (with time steps smaller than the size imposed by Courant limitation). The results demonstrate that application of the analytical approach significantly improves the numerical stability and computational efficiency.

  13. New U.S. Geological Survey Method for the Assessment of Reserve Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Attanasi, E.D.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Freeman, P.A.; Gautier, Donald L.; Le, Phuong A.; Ryder, Robert T.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Verma, Mahendra K.

    2011-01-01

    Reserve growth is defined as the estimated increases in quantities of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids that have the potential to be added to remaining reserves in discovered accumulations through extension, revision, improved recovery efficiency, and additions of new pools or reservoirs. A new U.S. Geological Survey method was developed to assess the reserve-growth potential of technically recoverable crude oil and natural gas to be added to reserves under proven technology currently in practice within the trend or play, or which reasonably can be extrapolated from geologically similar trends or plays. This method currently is in use to assess potential additions to reserves in discovered fields of the United States. The new approach involves (1) individual analysis of selected large accumulations that contribute most to reserve growth, and (2) conventional statistical modeling of reserve growth in remaining accumulations. This report will focus on the individual accumulation analysis. In the past, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated reserve growth by statistical methods using historical recoverable-quantity data. Those statistical methods were based on growth rates averaged by the number of years since accumulation discovery. Accumulations in mature petroleum provinces with volumetrically significant reserve growth, however, bias statistical models of the data; therefore, accumulations with significant reserve growth are best analyzed separately from those with less significant reserve growth. Large (greater than 500 million barrels) and older (with respect to year of discovery) oil accumulations increase in size at greater rates late in their development history in contrast to more recently discovered accumulations that achieve most growth early in their development history. Such differences greatly affect the statistical methods commonly used to forecast reserve growth. The individual accumulation-analysis method involves estimating the in

  14. Downstream processing and chromatography based analytical methods for production of vaccines, gene therapy vectors, and bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramberger, Petra; Urbas, Lidija; Štrancar, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Downstream processing of nanoplexes (viruses, virus-like particles, bacteriophages) is characterized by complexity of the starting material, number of purification methods to choose from, regulations that are setting the frame for the final product and analytical methods for upstream and downstream monitoring. This review gives an overview on the nanoplex downstream challenges and chromatography based analytical methods for efficient monitoring of the nanoplex production. PMID:25751122

  15. An Analytical Method for Measuring Competence in Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Marcos, Ana; Alba-Elías, Fernando; Ordieres-Meré, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a competence assessment method in project management that is based on participants' performance and value creation. It seeks to close an existing gap in competence assessment in higher education. The proposed method relies on information and communication technology (ICT) tools and combines Project Management…

  16. Analytical Method Details (MS) - Metabolonote | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us Metabol...l Analysis information). Data file File name: metabolonote_analytical_method_details.zip File URL: ftp://ftp....biosciencedbc.jp/archive/metabolonote/LATEST/metabolonote_analytical_method_details.zip File size: 73 KB Si...mple search URL http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/metabolonote_analytica...cription Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Analytical Method Details (MS) - Metabolonote | LSDB Archive ...

  17. Validation of methods performance for routine biochemistry analytes at Cobas 6000 analyzer series module c501.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supak Smolcic, Vesna; Bilic-Zulle, Lidija; Fisic, Elizabeta

    2011-01-01

    Cobas 6000 (Roche, Germany) is biochemistry analyzer for spectrophotometric, immunoturbidimetric and ion-selective determination of biochemical analytes. Hereby we present analytical validation with emphasis on method performance judgment for routine operation. Validation was made for 30 analytes (metabolites, enzymes, trace elements, specific proteins and electrolytes). Research included determination of within-run (N = 20) and between-run imprecision (N = 30), inaccuracy (N = 30) and method comparison with routine analyzer (Beckman Coulter AU640) (N = 50). For validation of complete analytical process we calculated total error (TE). Results were judged according to quality specification criteria given by European Working Group. Within-run imprecision CVs were all below 5% except for cholesterol, triglycerides, IgA and IgM. Between-run CVs for all analytes were below 10%. Analytes that did not meet the required specifications for imprecision were: total protein, albumin, calcium, sodium, chloride, immunoglobulins and HDL cholesterol. Analytes that did not fulfill requirements for inaccuracy were: total protein, calcium, sodium and chloride. Analytes that deviated from quality specifications for total error were: total protein, albumin, calcium, sodium, chloride and IgM. Passing-Bablok regression analysis provided linear equation and 95% confidence interval for intercept and slope. Complete accordance with routine analyzer Beckman Coulter AU640 showed small number of analytes. Other analytes showed small proportional and/or small constant difference and therefore need to be adjusted for routine operation. Regarding low CV values, tested analyzer has satisfactory accuracy and precision and is extremely stable. Except for analytes that are coherent on both analyzers, some analytes require adjustments of slope and intercept for complete accordance.

  18. Manual of analytical methods for the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greulich, K.A.; Gray, C.E. (comp.)

    1991-08-01

    This Manual is compiled from techniques used in the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The procedures are similar to those used in other laboratories devoted to industrial hygiene practices. Some of the methods are standard; some, modified to suit our needs; and still others, developed at Sandia. The authors have attempted to present all methods in a simple and concise manner but in sufficient detail to make them readily usable. It is not to be inferred that these methods are universal for any type of sample, but they have been found very reliable for the types of samples mentioned.

  19. Analytic method for calculating properties of random walks on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhirsch, I.; Gefen, Y.

    1986-01-01

    A method for calculating the properties of discrete random walks on networks is presented. The method divides complex networks into simpler units whose contribution to the mean first-passage time is calculated. The simplified network is then further iterated. The method is demonstrated by calculating mean first-passage times on a segment, a segment with a single dangling bond, a segment with many dangling bonds, and a looplike structure. The results are analyzed and related to the applicability of the Einstein relation between conductance and diffusion.

  20. Manual of analytical methods for the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greulich, K.A.; Gray, C.E.

    1991-08-01

    This Manual is compiled from techniques used in the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The procedures are similar to those used in other laboratories devoted to industrial hygiene practices. Some of the methods are standard; some, modified to suit our needs; and still others, developed at Sandia. The authors have attempted to present all methods in a simple and concise manner but in sufficient detail to make them readily usable. It is not to be inferred that these methods are universal for any type of sample, but they have been found very reliable for the types of samples mentioned

  1. Analytical Evaluation of Beam Deformation Problem Using Approximate Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Kimiaeifar, A.; Domairry, G.

    2010-01-01

    The beam deformation equation has very wide applications in structural engineering. As a differential equation, it has its own problem concerning existence, uniqueness and methods of solutions. Often, original forms of governing differential equations used in engineering problems are simplified...

  2. 40 CFR 136.6 - Method modifications and analytical requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... must be dechlorinated prior to the addition of such salts. (iii) If the characteristics of a wastewater... matrices; as described in the ATP Protocol, after validation in nine distinct matrices, the method may be...

  3. EVALUATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR DETERMINING PESTICIDES IN BABY FOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three extraction methods and two detection techniques for determining pesticides in baby food were evaluated. The extraction techniques examined were supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), enhanced solvent extraction (ESE), and solid phase extraction (SPE). The detection techni...

  4. A simple analytic method for estimating T2 in the knee from DESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsson, B; Chaudhari, A S; Gold, G E; Hargreaves, B A

    2017-05-01

    To introduce a simple analytical formula for estimating T 2 from a single Double-Echo in Steady-State (DESS) scan. Extended Phase Graph (EPG) modeling was used to develop a straightforward linear approximation of the relationship between the two DESS signals, enabling accurate T 2 estimation from one DESS scan. Simulations were performed to demonstrate cancellation of different echo pathways to validate this simple model. The resulting analytic formula was compared to previous methods for T 2 estimation using DESS and fast spin-echo scans in agar phantoms and knee cartilage in three volunteers and three patients. The DESS approach allows 3D (256×256×44) T 2 -mapping with fat suppression in scan times of 3-4min. The simulations demonstrated that the model approximates the true signal very well. If the T 1 is within 20% of the assumed T 1 , the T 2 estimation error was shown to be less than 5% for typical scans. The inherent residual error in the model was demonstrated to be small both due to signal decay and opposing signal contributions. The estimated T 2 from the linear relationship agrees well with reference scans, both for the phantoms and in vivo. The method resulted in less underestimation of T 2 than previous single-scan approaches, with processing times 60 times faster than using a numerical fit. A simplified relationship between the two DESS signals allows for rapid 3D T 2 quantification with DESS that is accurate, yet also simple. The simplicity of the method allows for immediate T 2 estimation in cartilage during the MRI examination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A fast analytical method for the addition of random variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senna, V.; Milidiu, R.L.; Fleming, P.V.; Salles, M.R.; Oliveira, L.F.S. de

    1982-01-01

    Using the minimal cut sets representation of a fault tree, a new approach to the method of moments is proposed in order to estimate confidence bounds to the top event probability. The method utilizes two or three moments either to fit a distribution (the normal and lognormal families) or to evaluate bounds from standard inequalities (e.g. Markov, Tchebycheff, etc.). Examples indicate that the results obtained by the lognormal family are in good agreement with those obtained by Monte Carlo simulation. (Author) [pt

  6. Cluster Analytical Method of Fault Risk Analysis in Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaľčonok, German; Horalová Kalinová, Michaela

    2016-12-01

    In providing safety functions, the proposal of safety functions of control systems is an important part of a risk reduction strategy. In the specification of security requirements, it is necessary to determine and document individual characteristics and the desired performance level for each safety. This article presents the results of the experiment cluster analysis. The results of the experiment prove that the methods of cluster analysis provide a suitable tool for analyzing the reliability of safety systems analysis. Regarding the increasing complexity of the systems, we can state that the application of these methods in the subject area is a good choice.

  7. Fast analytical method for the addition of random variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senna, V.; Milidiu, R.L.; Fleming, P.V.; Salles, M.R.; Oliveria, L.F.S.

    1983-01-01

    Using the minimal cut sets representation of a fault tree, a new approach to the method of moments is proposed in order to estimate confidence bounds to the top event probability. The method utilizes two or three moments either to fit a distribution (the normal and lognormal families) or to evaluate bounds from standard inequalities (e.g. Markov, Tchebycheff, etc.) Examples indicate that the results obtained by the log-normal family are in good agreement with those obtained by Monte Carlo simulation

  8. New Analytical Method for the Determination of Metronidazole in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Metronidazole was extracted from human plasma through one step of protein precipitation by methanol using carbamazepine as internal standard (IS). After centrifugation of the plasma sample, the supernatant layer was separated and injected into HPLC system using Eclipse XDB-phenyl column. The mobile ...

  9. An Analytical framework of social learning facilitated by participatory methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholz, G.; Dewulf, A.; Pahl-Wostl, C.

    2014-01-01

    Social learning among different stakeholders is often a goal in problem solving contexts such as environmental management. Participatory methods (e.g., group model-building and role playing games) are frequently assumed to stimulate social learning. Yet understanding if and why this assumption is

  10. Analytic comparison of time- and frequency-domain electromagnetic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyer, C.H.

    1980-01-01

    The time- and frequency-domain methods of electromagnetic geophysical prospecting are compared to determine the similarities and differences and to recommend system choices for particular field situations. Only the wire-loop configuration is considered, as this array is quite standard in geothermal prospecting. Comparisons are carried out using hardware and physical considerations, a large catalog of 3-layer model curves, 2D-3D model calculations, and by comparing Fourier transforms and layered inversions of field data from the Randsburg KGRA in California. The results generally indicate that frequency-domain methods offer better resolution and more practical hardware design for long-offset shallow applications. They also have a much better backup in terms of modelling tools for interpretation and history of experience. Transient methods are better suited for deeper probing, for both long- and short-offset applications. Frequency-domain methods are limited by the primary field, which is subject to distortion from near-surface inhomogeneites; this is also the case for early-time transients. Transient measurements in late time are limited by ambient electromagnetic noise and dynamic range of receiving equipment.

  11. Analytic Method for Pressure Recovery in Truncated Diffusers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prediction method is presented for the static pressure recovery in subsonic axisymmetric truncated conical diffusers. In the analysis, a turbulent boundary layer is assumed at the diffuser inlet and a potential core exists throughout the flow. When flow separation occurs, this approach cannot be used to predict the maximum ...

  12. Approximate Analytic Solutions for the Two-Phase Stefan Problem Using the Adomian Decomposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ying Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An Adomian decomposition method (ADM is applied to solve a two-phase Stefan problem that describes the pure metal solidification process. In contrast to traditional analytical methods, ADM avoids complex mathematical derivations and does not require coordinate transformation for elimination of the unknown moving boundary. Based on polynomial approximations for some known and unknown boundary functions, approximate analytic solutions for the model with undetermined coefficients are obtained using ADM. Substitution of these expressions into other equations and boundary conditions of the model generates some function identities with the undetermined coefficients. By determining these coefficients, approximate analytic solutions for the model are obtained. A concrete example of the solution shows that this method can easily be implemented in MATLAB and has a fast convergence rate. This is an efficient method for finding approximate analytic solutions for the Stefan and the inverse Stefan problems.

  13. Evaluating the Sustainability of Nature Reserves Using an Ecological Footprint Method: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoman Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nature reserves are established to protect ecosystems and rare flora and fauna. However, with the rapid development of the social economy, many nature reserves are facing enormous pressures from human activities. The assessment of the sustainability of nature reserves is a fundamental task for the planning and management of such areas. In this study, the sustainability of China’s 319 national nature reserves (NRRs was evaluated based on an ecological footprint (EF method. The results indicated that the per capita ecological footprints of all national nature reserves increased 85.86% from 2000 to 2010. Meanwhile, the per capita biocapacity (BC of all national nature reserves increased slightly, with a rate of increase of 1.79%. The ‘traffic light’ method was adopted to identify the sustainability status of those national nature reserves. It was found that currently (2010 45% of NRRs were in the condition of ecological deficit. In terms of dynamic changes in EF and BC, only 16% of NRRs were sustainable. The 124 national nature reserves that were in the red light state were mainly distributed in Anhui Province, Chongqing City, Hunan, Guizhou, Fujian, Shandong Province, and Inner Mongolia. The percentage of nature reserves at the red light state in these areas were 83.3%, 66.7%, 64.7%, 62.5%, 58.3%, 57.1%, and 56.5%, respectively. The reserves in the red light state should be included in the priority concern level and should be strictly controlled in terms of population growth and the intensity of exploitation. The results of this study will provide more effective data for reference and for decision making support in nature reserve protection.

  14. Multi Blending Technology (MBT): mineral processing method for increasing added value of marginal reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustinus, E. T. S.

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia's position on the path of ring of fire makes it rich in mineral resources. Nevertheless, in the past, the exploitation of Indonesian mineral resources was uncontrolled resulting in environmental degradation and marginal reserves. Exploitation of excessive mineral resources is very detrimental to the state. Reflecting on the occasion, the management and utilization of Indonesia's mineral resources need to be good in mining practice. The problem is how to utilize the mineral reserve resources effectively and efficiently. Utilization of marginal reserves requires new technologies and processing methods because the old processing methods are inadequate. This paper gives a result of Multi Blending Technology (MBT) Method. The underlying concept is not to do the extraction or refinement but processing through the formulation of raw materials by adding an additive and produce a new material called functional materials. Application of this method becomes important to be summarized into a scientific paper in a book form, so that the information can spread across multiple print media and become focused on and optimized. This book is expected to be used as a reference for stakeholder providing added value to environmentally marginal reserves in Indonesia. The conclusions are that Multi Blending Technology (MBT) Method can be used as a strategy to increase added values effectively and efficiently to marginal reserve minerals and that Multi Blending Technology (MBT) method has been applied to forsterite, Atapulgite Synthesis, Zeoceramic, GEM, MPMO, SMAC and Geomaterial.

  15. [Progress in sample preparation and analytical methods for trace polar small molecules in complex samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianchun; Luo, Xialin; Li, Gongke; Xiao, Xiaohua

    2015-09-01

    Small polar molecules such as nucleosides, amines, amino acids are important analytes in biological, food, environmental, and other fields. It is necessary to develop efficient sample preparation and sensitive analytical methods for rapid analysis of these polar small molecules in complex matrices. Some typical materials in sample preparation, including silica, polymer, carbon, boric acid and so on, are introduced in this paper. Meanwhile, the applications and developments of analytical methods of polar small molecules, such as reversed-phase liquid chromatography, hydrophilic interaction chromatography, etc., are also reviewed.

  16. A new robust method for the treatment of analytical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearton, D.C.G.

    1982-01-01

    A new robust method is proposed for the calculation of the median and the relative standard deviation for a set of data containing unsymmetrically placed outliers. Examples of the advantages of the new method are given, the findings being confirmed by Monte Carlo tests. At Mintek mass-spectrometric data are often unsymmetrical, and all outliers are often at one of the extremities, either all high or all low. In some instances the outliers can be seen visually, and would therefore be rejected on sight. However, when large sets of results are processed, such as those from mass-spectrometric, X-ray fluorescence, and neutron-activation analyses, or in fields such as the assignment of values to reference materials, the sets of results are often too large for visual inspection and are processed within the computer

  17. [Molecular epidemiology of infectious diseases: analytical methods and results interpretation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammarco, M L; Ripabelli, G; Tamburro, M

    2014-01-01

    Molecular typing and fingerprinting of microbial pathogens represent an essential tool for the epidemiological surveillance, outbreak detection and control of infectious diseases. Indeed, epidemiological investigation without genotyping data may not provide comprehensive information to allow the most appropriate interventions; despite this consideration, some barriers still hamper the routine application and interpretation of molecular typing data. In this paper, the most important methods currently used for characterization of pathogenic microorganisms for microbial source tracking and for the identification of clonal relationships among different isolates, are described according to their principles, advantages and limitations. Criteria for their evaluation and guidelines for the correct interpretation of results are also proposed. Molecular typing methods can be grouped into four categories based on different methodological principles, which include the characterization of restriction sites in genomic or plasmid DNA; the amplification of specific genetic targets; the restriction enzyme digestion and the subsequent amplification; sequence analysis. Although the development and the extensive use of molecular typing systems have greatly improved the understanding of the infectious diseases epidemiology, the rapid diversification, partial evaluation and lack of comparative data on the methods have raised significant questions about the selection of the most appropriate typing method, as well as difficulties for the lack of consensus about the interpretation of the results and nomenclature used for interpretation. Several criteria should be considered in order to evaluate the intrinsic performance and practical advantages of a typing system. However none of the available genotyping methods fully meets all these requirements. Therefore, the combined use of different approaches may lead to a more precise characterization and discrimination of isolates than a single

  18. A method of calculating the Jost function for analytic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakityansky, S.A.; Amos, K.

    1995-01-01

    A combination of the variable-constant and complex coordinate rotation methods is used to solve the two-body Schroedinger equation. The equation is replaced by a system of linear first-order differential equations, which enables one to perform direct calculation of the Jost function for all complex momenta of physical interest including the spectral points corresponding to bound and resonance states. 16 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  19. Diclofenac quantification: analytical attributes of a spectrophotometric method

    OpenAIRE

    Monzón, Celina M.; Delfino, Mario R.; Sarno, María del C.; Delfino, Mario R. (h)

    2011-01-01

    An spectrophotometric UV-visible technique used to quantify diclofenac and its application to pharmaceutical preparations is described, based on diclofenac oxidation by Fe(III) in the presence of ophenanthroline. The formation of tris (o-phenanthroline)-Fe(II) complex (ferroin) upon diclofenac reaction was investigated. Absorbance of ferroin complex was measured at 506 nm. This method was tested on 50 mg tablets. Operating with placebos, it was found that excipients do not interfere with the ...

  20. 7 CFR 981.47 - Method of establishing salable and reserve percentages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... terms of kernel weight) or the allocation quantity (marketable production plus almonds diverted to oil... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of establishing salable and reserve percentages... AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Volume Regulation § 981.47 Method of...

  1. Analytical methods applied to diverse types of Brazilian propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcucci Maria

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Propolis is a bee product, composed mainly of plant resins and beeswax, therefore its chemical composition varies due to the geographic and plant origins of these resins, as well as the species of bee. Brazil is an important supplier of propolis on the world market and, although green colored propolis from the southeast is the most known and studied, several other types of propolis from Apis mellifera and native stingless bees (also called cerumen can be found. Propolis is usually consumed as an extract, so the type of solvent and extractive procedures employed further affect its composition. Methods used for the extraction; analysis the percentage of resins, wax and insoluble material in crude propolis; determination of phenolic, flavonoid, amino acid and heavy metal contents are reviewed herein. Different chromatographic methods applied to the separation, identification and quantification of Brazilian propolis components and their relative strengths are discussed; as well as direct insertion mass spectrometry fingerprinting. Propolis has been used as a popular remedy for several centuries for a wide array of ailments. Its antimicrobial properties, present in propolis from different origins, have been extensively studied. But, more recently, anti-parasitic, anti-viral/immune stimulating, healing, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and analgesic activities of diverse types of Brazilian propolis have been evaluated. The most common methods employed and overviews of their relative results are presented.

  2. A Vocal-Based Analytical Method for Goose Behaviour Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Karstoft

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Since human-wildlife conflicts are increasing, the development of cost-effective methods for reducing damage or conflict levels is important in wildlife management. A wide range of devices to detect and deter animals causing conflict are used for this purpose, although their effectiveness is often highly variable, due to habituation to disruptive or disturbing stimuli. Automated recognition of behaviours could form a critical component of a system capable of altering the disruptive stimuli to avoid this. In this paper we present a novel method to automatically recognise goose behaviour based on vocalisations from flocks of free-living barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis. The geese were observed and recorded in a natural environment, using a shielded shotgun microphone. The classification used Support Vector Machines (SVMs, which had been trained with labeled data. Greenwood Function Cepstral Coefficients (GFCC were used as features for the pattern recognition algorithm, as they can be adjusted to the hearing capabilities of different species. Three behaviours are classified based in this approach, and the method achieves a good recognition of foraging behaviour (86–97% sensitivity, 89–98% precision and a reasonable recognition of flushing (79–86%, 66–80% and landing behaviour(73–91%, 79–92%. The Support Vector Machine has proven to be a robust classifier for this kind of classification, as generality and non-linearcapabilities are important. We conclude that vocalisations can be used to automatically detect behaviour of conflict wildlife species, and as such, may be used as an integrated part of awildlife management system.

  3. Applications of Nuclear Analytical Methods for High Tech Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, T.

    2013-01-01

    Silicon based semiconductor chip manufacturing is a worldwide high technology industry with numerous measurement issues. One of the major concerns in the semiconductor manufacturing is contamination such as the trace metal impurities. This concern is vividly illustrated by the fact that the manufacturing in this industry is done in ultra clean environment where the entire manufacturing facility or “Fab” is a clean room facility or each and every manufacturing tool is enclosed in a mini-environment Although semiconductor devices are fabricated on the surface of the Si wafers contamination in the bulk material is a major concern. Nuclear methods of analysis are uniquely suited for the contamination analysis in such a matrix. Many opportunities in the semiconductor manufacturing field exist for the nuclear methods to provide support services. Contamination analysis by NAA, depth profiles by NDP and prompt gamma analysis of H in thin films are a few examples. These needs are on-going and require commitment from the lab so that a manufacturing operation can rely on the delivery of these services when required

  4. An analytical method of estimating Value-at-Risk on the Belgrade Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obadović Milica D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents market risk evaluation for a portfolio consisting of shares that are continuously traded on the Belgrade Stock Exchange, by applying the Value-at-Risk model - the analytical method. It describes the manner of analytical method application and compares the results obtained by implementing this method at different confidence levels. Method verification was carried out on the basis of the failure rate that demonstrated the confidence level for which this method was acceptable in view of the given conditions.

  5. Colloids in PWR primary and secondary coolant. Innovative analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowotka, Karsten; Guillodo, Michael; Burchardt, Carsten; Geier, Roland; Lehr, Robert; Stellwag, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Transport and deposition of corrosion products in the colloid size range between 1 nm and 1 μm are important for heat transfer performance and corrosion in primary and secondary cooling circuits of LWRs. Direct analysis of the properties of small-sized colloids (< 0.45 μm) is difficult due to the pronounced change of the physicochemical properties of coolant samples in sampling lines. An innovative method, based on a filter cascade and developed in the AREVA Technical Center, named 'Colloid Catcher' (CC, patent pending), permits on-line measurements of the properties of corrosion products in the coolant of LWRs. CC measurements are complementary to classic trace analysis addressing the soluble content. Low and high temperature (up to 330°C) test sections are available, depending on our customer's needs. The CC contains differential pressure detectors at each of the three consecutive membrane filters which allow for an in-situ characterization without modification of the corrosion products chemical nature due to temperature changes and subsequent exposure to the atmosphere. With this method, a 'Colloid Fingerprint' of the test solution can be obtained, ideal for an assessment of the transport and deposition of corrosion products in laboratory and on-site studies. The on-line data can of course be complemented by post filtration membrane characterization by digestion and/or optical methods. The high temperature CC serves at the same time as a sampling point for grab samples, with good reproducibility thanks to continuous liquid flow. The CC has been designed to be deployable on laboratory or industrial cooling circuits. The CC test sections have been qualified using AREVA Technical Center's test loops. First test results obtained with the LT CC are presented. Laboratory data can be used to back up existing results and data of on-site measurement campaigns at BWR and PWR plants which were determined with a basic version of the LT CC

  6. Modelling of packet traffic with matrix analytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Allan T.

    1995-01-01

    vot reveal any adverse behaviour. In fact the observed traffic seemed very close to what would be expected from Poisson traffic. The Changeover/Changeback procedure in SS7, which is used to redirect traffic in case of link failure, has been analyzed. The transient behaviour during a Changeover...... scenario was modelled using Markovian models. The Ordinary Differential Equations arising from these models were solved numerically. The results obtained seemed very similar to those obtained using a different method in previous work by Akinpelu & Skoog 1985. Recent measurement studies of packet traffic...... is found by noting the close relationship with the expressions for the corresponding infinite queue. For the special case of a batch Poisson arrival process this observation makes it possible to express the queue length at an arbitrary in terms of the corresponding queue lengths for the infinite case....

  7. Using an analytical geometry method to improve tiltmeter data presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, W.-J.

    2000-01-01

    The tiltmeter is a useful tool for geologic and geotechnical applications. To obtain full benefit from the tiltmeter, easy and accurate data presentations should be used. Unfortunately, the most commonly used method for tilt data reduction now may yield inaccurate and low-resolution results. This article describes a simple, accurate, and high-resolution approach developed at the Illinois State Geological Survey for data reduction and presentation. The orientation of tiltplates is determined first by using a trigonometric relationship, followed by a matrix transformation, to obtain the true amount of rotation change of the tiltplate at any given time. The mathematical derivations used for the determination and transformation are then coded into an integrated PC application by adapting the capabilities of commercial spreadsheet, database, and graphics software. Examples of data presentation from tiltmeter applications in studies of landfill covers, characterizations of mine subsidence, and investigations of slope stability are also discussed.

  8. Manual of analytical methods for the Environmental Health Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, C.E.

    1975-06-01

    The manual contains four sections: absorption spectrophotometry; general radiochemical procedures; instrumental analysis; and calibration of field instruments. Included in the individual analyses using absorption spectrophotometry is one for total iodine in oil. Radiochemical procedures are given for: actinides in urine and water; 137 Cs in soil and vegetation; 137 Cs in soil, urine, vegetation, and water; enriched uranium in urine; gross beta activity in soil, urine, vegetation, and water; plutonium in urine and soil; 210 Po in urine and water; 24 Na in air, blood, urine, and water; 90 Sr in soil, vegetation, and water; tritium in urine, water, and on swipes; and total uranium on fallout trays and in soil, urine, and water. Among the individual instrumental analyses is a spectrographic method for determining beryllium in air samples and swipes. (U.S.)

  9. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 4, Organic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This interim notice covers the following: extractable organic halides in solids, total organic halides, analysis by gas chromatography/Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, hexadecane extracts for volatile organic compounds, GC/MS analysis of VOCs, GC/MS analysis of methanol extracts of cryogenic vapor samples, screening of semivolatile organic extracts, GPC cleanup for semivolatiles, sample preparation for GC/MS for semi-VOCs, analysis for pesticides/PCBs by GC with electron capture detection, sample preparation for pesticides/PCBs in water and soil sediment, report preparation, Florisil column cleanup for pesticide/PCBs, silica gel and acid-base partition cleanup of samples for semi-VOCs, concentrate acid wash cleanup, carbon determination in solids using Coulometrics` CO{sub 2} coulometer, determination of total carbon/total organic carbon/total inorganic carbon in radioactive liquids/soils/sludges by hot persulfate method, analysis of solids for carbonates using Coulometrics` Model 5011 coulometer, and soxhlet extraction.

  10. Analytical Quality by Design Approach to Test Method Development and Validation in Drug Substance Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. V. S. S. Raman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical industry has been emerging rapidly for the last decade by focusing on product Quality, Safety, and Efficacy. Pharmaceutical firms increased the number of product development by using scientific tools such as QbD (Quality by Design and PAT (Process Analytical Technology. ICH guidelines Q8 to Q11 have discussed QbD implementation in API synthetic process and formulation development. ICH Q11 guidelines clearly discussed QbD approach for API synthesis with examples. Generic companies are implementing QbD approach in formulation development and even it is mandatory for USFDA perspective. As of now there is no specific requirements for AQbD (Analytical Quality by Design and PAT in analytical development from all regulatory agencies. In this review, authors have discussed the implementation of QbD and AQbD simultaneously for API synthetic process and analytical methods development. AQbD key tools are identification of ATP (Analytical Target Profile, CQA (Critical Quality Attributes with risk assessment, Method Optimization and Development with DoE, MODR (method operable design region, Control Strategy, AQbD Method Validation, and Continuous Method Monitoring (CMM. Simultaneous implementation of QbD activities in synthetic and analytical development will provide the highest quality product by minimizing the risks and even it is very good input for PAT approach.

  11. Propulsion and launching analysis of variable-mass rockets by analytical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Ganji

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, applications of some analytical methods on nonlinear equation of the launching of a rocket with variable mass are investigated. Differential transformation method (DTM, homotopy perturbation method (HPM and least square method (LSM were applied and their results are compared with numerical solution. An excellent agreement with analytical methods and numerical ones is observed in the results and this reveals that analytical methods are effective and convenient. Also a parametric study is performed here which includes the effect of exhaust velocity (Ce, burn rate (BR of fuel and diameter of cylindrical rocket (d on the motion of a sample rocket, and contours for showing the sensitivity of these parameters are plotted. The main results indicate that the rocket velocity and altitude are increased with increasing the Ce and BR and decreased with increasing the rocket diameter and drag coefficient.

  12. A SIMPLE ANALYTICAL METHOD TO DETERMINE SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES' MEAN FREE PATH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, H.-Q.; Qin, G.

    2011-01-01

    To obtain the mean free path of solar energetic particles (SEPs) for a solar event, one usually has to fit time profiles of both flux and anisotropy from spacecraft observations to numerical simulations of SEPs' transport processes. This method can be called a simulation method. But a reasonably good fitting needs a lot of simulations, which demand a large amount of calculation resources. Sometimes, it is necessary to find an easy way to obtain the mean free path of SEPs quickly, for example, in space weather practice. Recently, Shalchi et al. provided an approximate analytical formula of SEPs' anisotropy time profile as a function of particles' mean free path for impulsive events. In this paper, we determine SEPs' mean free path by fitting the anisotropy time profiles from Shalchi et al.'s analytical formula to spacecraft observations. This new method can be called an analytical method. In addition, we obtain SEPs' mean free path with the traditional simulation methods. Finally, we compare the mean free path obtained with the simulation method to that of the analytical method to show that the analytical method, with some minor modifications, can give us a good, quick approximation of SEPs' mean free path for impulsive events.

  13. Analytical methods for 2,4-D (Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez G, M.S.M.

    1999-01-01

    The 2,4-D herbicide is one of the main pesticides for controlling the bad grass in crops such as the water undergrowth. In Mexico the allowed bound of this pesticide is 0.05 mg/l in water of 2,4-D so it is required to have methods trusts and exacts, which can used in order to detected low concentration of it. In this work we show some for the conventional techniques and for establishing the 2,4-D concentrations. The UV-Vis spectrometer and liquids chromatography due that they are the most common used nowadays. Beside, we introduce a now developed technique, which is based on the neutronic activation analysis. Though use of the UV-Vis spectrometer technique it was possible target the concentrations interval between 1 and 200 mg/l. In the liquids chromatography interval was between 0.1 and 0.9, and by the neutronic activation analysis the interval was between 0.01 and 200 mg/l. (Author)

  14. Current research, regulation, risk, analytical methods and monitoring results for nicarbazin in chicken meat: A perspective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacila, Danniele Miranda; Feddern, Vivian; Mafra, Luciana Igarashi; Scheuermann, Gerson Neudí; Molognoni, Luciano; Daguer, Heitor

    2017-09-01

    This review presents up-to-date information about current research on nicarbazin, one of the most used anticoccidials in poultry production. The focus is to elucidate regulation concerning nicarbazin, limits for its residues in food, how maximum residue limits in different countries are calculated regarding edible chicken tissues and the possible implications in human health. Analytical methods to extract and quantify this residue, expressed as dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) are presented and discussed, including qualitative screening and quantitative/confirmatory analytical methods. Monitoring results and occurrence of DNC residues in chicken meat are discussed. Additionally, the causes of eventual chicken meat contamination and possible solutions to reduce or eliminate DNC residue in tissues are also presented. The paper concludes with perspectives, the current state of DNC residue analysis and suggestions for future research, especially considering the gap in the study of residue recycling effect due to continuous chicken litter use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An introduction to clinical microeconomic analysis: purposes and analytic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, W S; Mauldin, P D; Becker, E R

    1994-06-01

    The recent concern with health care economics has fostered the development of a new discipline that is generally called clinical microeconomics. This is a discipline in which microeconomic methods are used to study the economics of specific medical therapies. It is possible to perform stand alone cost analyses, but more profound insight into the medical decision making process may be accomplished by combining cost studies with measures of outcome. This is most often accomplished with cost-effectiveness or cost-utility studies. In cost-effectiveness studies there is one measure of outcome, often death. In cost-utility studies there are multiple measures of outcome, which must be grouped together to give an overall picture of outcome or utility. There are theoretical limitations to the determination of utility that must be accepted to perform this type of analysis. A summary statement of outcome is quality adjusted life years (QALYs), which is utility time socially discounted survival. Discounting is used because people value a year of future life less than a year of present life. Costs are made up of in-hospital direct, professional, follow-up direct, and follow-up indirect costs. Direct costs are for medical services. Indirect costs reflect opportunity costs such as lost time at work. Cost estimates are often based on marginal costs, or the cost for one additional procedure of the same type. Finally an overall statistic may be generated as cost per unit increase in effectiveness, such as dollars per QALY.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Waste Tank Organic Safety Program: Analytical methods development. Progress report, FY 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.A.; Grant, K.E.

    1994-09-01

    The objectives of this task are to develop and document extraction and analysis methods for organics in waste tanks, and to extend these methods to the analysis of actual core samples to support the Waste Tank organic Safety Program. This report documents progress at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (a) during FY 1994 on methods development, the analysis of waste from Tank 241-C-103 (Tank C-103) and T-111, and the transfer of documented, developed analytical methods to personnel in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) and 222-S laboratory. This report is intended as an annual report, not a completed work

  17. Application of capability indices and control charts in the analytical method control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Alexis; Llabres Martinez, Matías

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we assessed the usefulness of control charts in combination with the process capability indices, C pm and C pk , in the control strategy of an analytical method. The traditional X-chart and moving range chart were used to monitor the analytical method over a 2-year period. The results confirmed that the analytical method is in-control and stable. Different criteria were used to establish the specifications limits (i.e. analyst requirements) for fixed method performance (i.e. method requirements). If the specification limits and control limits are equal in breadth, the method can be considered "capable" (C pm  = 1), but it does not satisfy the minimum method capability requirements proposed by Pearn and Shu (2003). Similar results were obtained using the C pk index. The method capability was also assessed as a function of method performance for fixed analyst requirements. The results indicate that the method does not meet the requirements of the analytical target approach. A real-example data of a SEC with light-scattering detection method was used as a model whereas previously published data were used to illustrate the applicability of the proposed approach. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Analytical chemistry in semiconductor manufacturing: Techniques, role of nuclear methods and need for quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This report is the result of a consultants meeting held in Gaithersburg, USA, 2-3 October 1987. The meeting was hosted by the National Bureau of Standards and Technology, and it was attended by 18 participants from Denmark, Finland, India, Japan, Norway, People's Republic of China and the USA. The purpose of the meeting was to assess the present status of analytical chemistry in semiconductor manufacturing, the role of nuclear analytical methods and the need for internationally organized quality control of the chemical analysis. The report contains the three presentations in full and a summary report of the discussions. Thus, it gives an overview of the need of analytical chemistry in manufacturing of silicon based devices, the use of nuclear analytical methods, and discusses the need for quality control. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Ernst Equation and Riemann Surfaces: Analytical and Numerical Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Frederick J [FJE Enterprises, 511 County Route 59, Potsdam, NY 13676 (United States)

    2007-06-18

    source can be represented by discontinuities in the metric tensor components. The first two chapters of this book are devoted to some basic ideas: in the introductory chapter 1 the authors discuss the concept of integrability, comparing the integrability of the vacuum Ernst equation with the integrability of nonlinear equations of Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) type, while in chapter 2 they describe various circumstances in which the vacuum Ernst equation has been determined to be relevant, not only in connection with gravitation but also, for example, in the construction of solutions of the self-dual Yang-Mills equations. It is also in this chapter that one of several equivalent linear systems for the Ernst equation is described. The next two chapters are devoted to Dmitry Korotkin's concept of algebro-geometric solutions of a linear system: in chapter 3 the structure of such solutions of the vacuum Ernst equation, which involve Riemann theta functions of hyperelliptic algebraic curves of any genus, is contrasted with the periodic structure of such solutions of the KdV equation. How such solutions can be obtained, for example, by solving a matrix Riemann-Hilbert problem and how the metric tensor of the associated spacetime can be evaluated is described in detail. In chapter 4 the asymptotic behaviour and the similarity structure of the general algebro-geometric solutions of the Ernst equation are described, and the relationship of such solutions to the perhaps more familiar multi-soliton solutions is discussed. The next three chapters are based upon the authors' own published research: in chapter 5 it is shown that a problem involving counter-rotating infinitely thin disks of matter can be solved in terms of genus two Riemann theta functions, while in chapter 6 the authors describe numerical methods that facilitate the construction of such solutions, and in chapter 7 three-dimensional graphs are displayed that depict all metrical fields of the associated spacetime

  20. Evaluation and selection of in-situ leaching mining method using analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Heyong; Tan Kaixuan; Liu Huizhen

    2007-01-01

    According to the complicated conditions and main influence factors of in-situ leaching min- ing, a model and processes of analytic hierarchy are established for evaluation and selection of in-situ leaching mining methods based on analytic hierarchy process. Taking a uranium mine in Xinjiang of China for example, the application of this model is presented. The results of analyses and calculation indicate that the acid leaching is the optimum project. (authors)

  1. Application of Statistical Methods to Activation Analytical Results near the Limit of Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Wanscher, B.

    1978-01-01

    Reporting actual numbers instead of upper limits for analytical results at or below the detection limit may produce reliable data when these numbers are subjected to appropriate statistical processing. Particularly in radiometric methods, such as activation analysis, where individual standard...... deviations of analytical results may be estimated, improved discrimination may be based on the Analysis of Precision. Actual experimental results from a study of the concentrations of arsenic in human skin demonstrate the power of this principle....

  2. A REVIEW: AN APPROACH TOWARDS THE ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR DETERMINATION OF NEWER DRUGS

    OpenAIRE

    Kirtimaya Mishra*, Dr. K. Balamurugan1, Dr. R. Suresh1

    2017-01-01

    In this present scenario for treating various diseases several new drugs were invented. Before launching to the market these drugs must undergo analytical validation process. In this review some of analytical techniques such as ultraviolet/ visible spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, capillary electrophoresis, and chromatographic methods (gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography), LC-MS, GC-MS, SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION, NMR, MASS Spectrophotometry LC/MS/MS LC/UV X-ray crystallo...

  3. Report to the Congress on alternative methods for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to fulfill the requirements of Public Law No. 101-46, approved June 30, 1989. The study describes and evaluates alternative methods for financing the future expansion of the Strategic petroleum Reserve (SPR), both to the current target level of 750 million barrels and to potential future levels of up to one billion barrels.

  4. MULTIPLE CRITERA METHODS WITH FOCUS ON ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS AND GROUP DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Zadnik-Stirn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Managing natural resources is a group multiple criteria decision making problem. In this paper the analytic hierarchy process is the chosen method for handling the natural resource problems. The one decision maker problem is discussed and, three methods: the eigenvector method, data envelopment analysis method, and logarithmic least squares method are presented for the derivation of the priority vector. Further, the group analytic hierarchy process is discussed and six methods for the aggregation of individual judgments or priorities: weighted arithmetic mean method, weighted geometric mean method, and four methods based on data envelopment analysis are compared. The case study on land use in Slovenia is applied. The conclusions review consistency, sensitivity analyses, and some future directions of research.

  5. Analytical method for reconstruction pin to pin of the nuclear power density distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, Paulo O.; Silva, Fernando C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.

    2013-01-01

    An accurate and efficient method for reconstructing pin to pin of the nuclear power density distribution, involving the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for two-dimensional neutron energy groups in homogeneous nodes, is presented. The boundary conditions used for analytic as solution are the four currents or fluxes on the surface of the node, which are obtained by Nodal Expansion Method (known as NEM) and four fluxes at the vertices of a node calculated using the finite difference method. The analytical solution found is the homogeneous distribution of neutron flux. Detailed distributions pin to pin inside a fuel assembly are estimated by the product of homogeneous flux distribution by local heterogeneous form function. Furthermore, the form functions of flux and power are used. The results obtained with this method have a good accuracy when compared with reference values. (author)

  6. Analytical method for reconstruction pin to pin of the nuclear power density distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Paulo O.; Silva, Fernando C.; Martinez, Aquilino S., E-mail: ppessoa@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: aquilino@imp.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    An accurate and efficient method for reconstructing pin to pin of the nuclear power density distribution, involving the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for two-dimensional neutron energy groups in homogeneous nodes, is presented. The boundary conditions used for analytic as solution are the four currents or fluxes on the surface of the node, which are obtained by Nodal Expansion Method (known as NEM) and four fluxes at the vertices of a node calculated using the finite difference method. The analytical solution found is the homogeneous distribution of neutron flux. Detailed distributions pin to pin inside a fuel assembly are estimated by the product of homogeneous flux distribution by local heterogeneous form function. Furthermore, the form functions of flux and power are used. The results obtained with this method have a good accuracy when compared with reference values. (author)

  7. Assessment of Two Analytical Methods in Solving the Linear and Nonlinear Elastic Beam Deformation Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Ganjavi, B.; Jeloudar, M. Ghanbari

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – In the last two decades with the rapid development of nonlinear science, there has appeared ever-increasing interest of scientists and engineers in the analytical techniques for nonlinear problems. This paper considers linear and nonlinear systems that are not only regarded as general...... boundary value problems, but also are used as mathematical models in viscoelastic and inelastic flows. The purpose of this paper is to present the application of the homotopy-perturbation method (HPM) and variational iteration method (VIM) to solve some boundary value problems in structural engineering...... and fluid mechanics. Design/methodology/approach – Two new but powerful analytical methods, namely, He's VIM and HPM, are introduced to solve some boundary value problems in structural engineering and fluid mechanics. Findings – Analytical solutions often fit under classical perturbation methods. However...

  8. Origin Determination and Differentiation of Gelatin Species of Bovine, Porcine, and Piscine through Analytical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Saadiye Eryılmaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin origin determination has been a crucial issue with respect to religion and health concerns. It is necessary to analyze the origin of gelatin with reliable methods to ensure not only consumer choices but also safety and legal requirements such as labeling. There are many analytical methods developed for detection and/or quantification of gelatin from different sources including bovine, porcine and piscine. These analytical methods can be divided into physicochemical, chromatographic, immunochemical, spectroscopic and molecular methods. Moreover, computational methods have been used in some cases consecutively to ensure sensitivity of the analytical methods. Every method has different advantages and limitations due to their own principles, applied food matrix and process conditions of material. The present review intends to give insight into novel analytical methods and perspectives that have been developed to differentiate porcine, bovine and piscine gelatins and to establish their authenticity. Almost every method can be succeeded in origin determination; however, it is a matter of sensitivity in that some researches fail to ensure sufficient differentiation.

  9. Analytical method comparisons for the accurate determination of PCBs in sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numata, M.; Yarita, T.; Aoyagi, Y.; Yamazaki, M.; Takatsu, A. [National Metrology Institute of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    National Metrology Institute of Japan in National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST) has been developing several matrix reference materials, for example, sediments, water and biological tissues, for the determinations of heavy metals and organometallic compounds. The matrix compositions of those certified reference materials (CRMs) are similar to compositions of actual samples, and those are useful for validating analytical procedures. ''Primary methods of measurements'' are essential to obtain accurate and SI-traceable certified values in the reference materials, because the methods have the highest quality of measurement. However, inappropriate analytical operations, such as incomplete extraction of analytes or crosscontamination during analytical procedures, will cause error of analytical results, even if one of the primary methods, isotope-dilution, is utilized. To avoid possible procedural bias for the certification of reference materials, we employ more than two analytical methods which have been optimized beforehand. Because the accurate determination of trace POPs in the environment is important to evaluate their risk, reliable CRMs are required by environmental chemists. Therefore, we have also been preparing matrix CRMs for the determination of POPs. To establish accurate analytical procedures for the certification of POPs, extraction is one of the critical steps as described above. In general, conventional extraction techniques for the determination of POPs, such as Soxhlet extraction (SOX) and saponification (SAP), have been characterized well, and introduced as official methods for environmental analysis. On the other hand, emerging techniques, such as microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), give higher recovery yields of analytes with relatively short extraction time and small amount of solvent, by reasons of the high

  10. Is residual memory variance a valid method for quantifying cognitive reserve? A longitudinal application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahodne, Laura B; Manly, Jennifer J; Brickman, Adam M; Narkhede, Atul; Griffith, Erica Y; Guzman, Vanessa A; Schupf, Nicole; Stern, Yaakov

    2015-10-01

    Cognitive reserve describes the mismatch between brain integrity and cognitive performance. Older adults with high cognitive reserve are more resilient to age-related brain pathology. Traditionally, cognitive reserve is indexed indirectly via static proxy variables (e.g., years of education). More recently, cross-sectional studies have suggested that reserve can be expressed as residual variance in episodic memory performance that remains after accounting for demographic factors and brain pathology (whole brain, hippocampal, and white matter hyperintensity volumes). The present study extends these methods to a longitudinal framework in a community-based cohort of 244 older adults who underwent two comprehensive neuropsychological and structural magnetic resonance imaging sessions over 4.6 years. On average, residual memory variance decreased over time, consistent with the idea that cognitive reserve is depleted over time. Individual differences in change in residual memory variance predicted incident dementia, independent of baseline residual memory variance. Multiple-group latent difference score models revealed tighter coupling between brain and language changes among individuals with decreasing residual memory variance. These results suggest that changes in residual memory variance may capture a dynamic aspect of cognitive reserve and could be a useful way to summarize individual cognitive responses to brain changes. Change in residual memory variance among initially non-demented older adults was a better predictor of incident dementia than residual memory variance measured at one time-point. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Investigation of Unbalanced Magnetic Force in Magnetic Geared Machine Using Analytical Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Liu, Xiao; Chen, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    The electromagnetic structure of the magnetic geared machine (MGM) may induce a significant unbalanced magnetic force (UMF). However, few methods have been developed to theoretically reveal the essential reasons for this issue in the MGM. In this paper, an analytical method based on an air...

  12. Flammable gas safety program. Analytical methods development: FY 1994 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.; Grant, K.; Hoopes, V.; Lerner, B.; Lucke, R.; Mong, G.; Rau, J.; Wahl, K.; Steele, R.

    1994-09-01

    This report describes the status of developing analytical methods to account for the organic components in Hanford waste tanks, with particular focus on tanks assigned to the Flammable Gas Watch List. The methods that have been developed are illustrated by their application to samples obtained from Tank 241-SY-101 (Tank 101-SY)

  13. On Approximate Analytical Solutions of Nonlinear Vibrations of Inextensible Beams using Parameter-Expansion Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimiaeifar, Amin; Lund, Erik; Thomsen, Ole Thybo

    2010-01-01

    In this work, an analytical method, which is referred to as Parameter-expansion Method is used to obtain the exact solution for the problem of nonlinear vibrations of an inextensible beam. It is shown that one term in the series expansion is sufficient to obtain a highly accurate solution, which...

  14. Analytical method for high resolution liquid chromatography for quality control French Macaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Penna, Caridad M; Torres Amaro, Leonid; Menendez Castillo, Rosa; Sanchez, Esther; Martinez Espinosa, Vivian; Gonzalez, Maria Lidia; Rodriguez, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Was developed and validated an analytical method for high resolution liquid chromatography applicable to quality control of drugs dry French Macaw (Senna alata L. Roxb.) With ultraviolet detection at 340 nm. The method for high resolution liquid chromatography used to quantify the sennosides A and B, main components, was validated and proved to be specific, linear, precise and accurate. (Author)

  15. EVALUATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR DETERMINING PESTICIDES IN BABY FOOD AND ADULT DUPLICATE-DIET SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determinations of pesticides in food are often complicated by the presence of fats and require multiple cleanup steps before analysis. Cost-effective analytical methods are needed for conducting large-scale exposure studies. We examined two extraction methods, supercritical flu...

  16. 2D Stabilised analytic signal method in DC pole-pole potential data ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Using analytic signal method, interpretation of pole-pole secondary electric potentials due to 2D conductive/resistive prisms is presented. The estimated parameters are the location, lateral extent or width and depth to top surface of the prism. Forward modelling is attempted by 2D-Finite. Difference method. The proposed ...

  17. Approximate Analytic and Numerical Solutions to Lane-Emden Equation via Fuzzy Modeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Gang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel algorithm, called variable weight fuzzy marginal linearization (VWFML method, is proposed. This method can supply approximate analytic and numerical solutions to Lane-Emden equations. And it is easy to be implemented and extended for solving other nonlinear differential equations. Numerical examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the developed technique.

  18. An Analytical Investigation of Three General Methods of Calculating Chemical-Equilibrium Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleznik, Frank J.; Gordon, Sanford

    1960-01-01

    The Brinkley, Huff, and White methods for chemical-equilibrium calculations were modified and extended in order to permit an analytical comparison. The extended forms of these methods permit condensed species as reaction products, include temperature as a variable in the iteration, and permit arbitrary estimates for the variables. It is analytically shown that the three extended methods can be placed in a form that is independent of components. In this form the Brinkley iteration is identical computationally to the White method, while the modified Huff method differs only'slightly from these two. The convergence rates of the modified Brinkley and White methods are identical; and, further, all three methods are guaranteed to converge and will ultimately converge quadratically. It is concluded that no one of the three methods offers any significant computational advantages over the other two.

  19. System and Method for Providing a Climate Data Analytic Services Application Programming Interface Distribution Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, John L. (Inventor); Duffy, Daniel Q. (Inventor); Tamkin, Glenn S. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A system, method and computer-readable storage devices for providing a climate data analytic services application programming interface distribution package. The example system can provide various components. The system provides a climate data analytic services application programming interface library that enables software applications running on a client device to invoke the capabilities of a climate data analytic service. The system provides a command-line interface that provides a means of interacting with a climate data analytic service by issuing commands directly to the system's server interface. The system provides sample programs that call on the capabilities of the application programming interface library and can be used as templates for the construction of new client applications. The system can also provide test utilities, build utilities, service integration utilities, and documentation.

  20. Analytical method for turbine blade temperature mapping to estimate a pyrometer input signal

    OpenAIRE

    MacKay, James D.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop a method to estimate local blade temperatures in a gas turbine for comparison with the output signal of an experimental pyrometer. The goal of the method is to provide a temperature measurement benchmark based on a knowledge of blade geometry and engine operating conditions. A survey of currently available methods is discussed including both experimental and analytical techniques.The purpose of this thesis is to develop a method to estim...

  1. Quantification of camalexin, a phytoalexin from Arabidopsis thaliana: a comparison of five analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Caryn; Dubery, Ian

    2011-12-15

    Camalexin is a phytoalexin of Arabidopsis thaliana and an important component of inducible defenses. Accurate quantification of low concentrations suffers from interference by structurally related metabolites. A. thaliana plants were induced with silver nitrate and camalexin was extracted using methanol and identified and quantified by (i) TLC as a blue fluorescent band, (ii) microtiter plate-based fluorescence spectroscopy, (iii) GC on a midpolar column coupled to flame ionization detection, (iv) C(18) HPLC coupled to a photodiode detector, and (v) UPLC coupled to a mass spectrometer detector. Standard curves over the range of 0.1-15 μg ml(-1) gave R(2) values from 0.996 to 0.999. The different methods were compared and evaluated for their ability to detect and quantify increasing concentrations (camalexin. Each of the techniques presented advantages and disadvantages with regard to accuracy, precision, interference, analytical sensitivity, and limits of detection. TLC is a good qualitative technique for the identification of camalexin and fluorescence spectroscopy is subject to quenching when performed on crude extracts. Comparable results were obtained with GC-FID, HPLC-PDA, and UPLC-MS, with UPLC-MS having the added advantage of short analysis times and detection based on accurate mass. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Occurrence of erythromycin residues in sheep milk. Validation of an analytical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mayor, M A; Paniagua-González, G; Soledad-Rodríguez, B; Garcinuño-Martínez, R M; Fernández-Hernando, P; Durand-Alegría, J S

    2015-04-01

    The paper describes a new and selective analytical sample treatment for quantitative extraction and preconcentration of erythromycin in presence of other macrolide antibiotics in sheep milk samples. The methodology is based on the use of a molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) employed as solid phase extraction sorbent (MISPE). The synthesized material by bulk polymerization using erythromycin (ERY) as template was evaluated as solid phase extraction sorbent, in a novel sample treatment technique that can be coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD). MIP selectivity was studied for other macrolide antibiotics with similar structures, such as tylosin (TYL), spiramycin (SPI), josamycin (JOS), roxithromycin (ROX) and ivermectin (IVER) getting recoveries for these interferents lower than 35%, for all cases except for ROX, which recoveries were around 85%. The variables affecting the molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) procedure were optimized to select the best conditions of selectivity and sensitivity to determine ERY at concentration levels established by EU legislation in sheep milk. Under the selected experimental conditions, quantification limit was 24.1 µg kg(-1). Recoveries were higher than 98%, with RSDs between 0.7% and 2%. The proposed MISPE-HPLC method was validated and successfully applied to ERY analysis in sheep milk samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An inter-laboratory comparison of different analytical methods for the determination of monomethylmercury in various soil and sediment samples: A platform for method improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Balogh, Steven J; Nollet, Yabing H; Matsuyama, Akito; Fajon, Vesna; Horvat, Milena; Tomiyasu, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    An inter-laboratory study was conducted to compare results from different analytical methods for monomethylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in 17 soil and sediment samples. The samples were collected from mercury-contaminated areas, including Minamata Bay and Kagoshima Bay in Japan, the Idrija mercury mine in Slovenia, and an artisanal small-scale gold mining area in Indonesia. The Hg in these samples comes from several different sources: industrial waste from an acetaldehyde production facility, volcanic activity, Hg mining activity, and artisanal and small-scale gold mining activity (ASGM). MeHg concentrations in all the samples were measured in four separate laboratories, using three different determination methods: Kagoshima University (Japan), using high-performance liquid chromatography-chemiluminescence detection (HPLC-CL); National Institute for Minamata Disease (Japan), using gas chromatography-electron capture detection; and Metropolitan Council Environmental Services (USA) and Jozef Stefan Institute (Slovenia), both using alkylation-gas chromatography-atomic fluorescence spectrometry detection. The methods gave comparable MeHg results for most of the samples tested, but for some samples, the results exhibited significant variability depending on the method used. The HPLC-CL method performed poorly when applied to samples with elevated sulfur concentrations, producing MeHg concentrations that were much lower than those from the other methods. Additional analytical work demonstrated the elimination of this sulfur interference when the method was modified to bind sulfur prior to the analytical step by using Hg 2+ as a masking agent. These results demonstrate the value of laboratory intercomparison exercises in contributing to the improvement of analytical methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Table Lookup Method for Exact Analytical Solutions of Nonlinear Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Juan-Juan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A table lookup method for solving nonlinear fractional partial differential equations (fPDEs is proposed in this paper. Looking up the corresponding tables, we can quickly obtain the exact analytical solutions of fPDEs by using this method. To illustrate the validity of the method, we apply it to construct the exact analytical solutions of four nonlinear fPDEs, namely, the time fractional simplified MCH equation, the space-time fractional combined KdV-mKdV equation, the (2+1-dimensional time fractional Zoomeron equation, and the space-time fractional ZKBBM equation. As a result, many new types of exact analytical solutions are obtained including triangular periodic solution, hyperbolic function solution, singular solution, multiple solitary wave solution, and Jacobi elliptic function solution.

  5. Simplified Analytical Methods to Analyze Lock Gates Submitted to Ship Collisions and Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buldgen Loic

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two simplified analytical methods to analyze lock gates submitted to two different accidental loads. The case of an impact involving a vessel is first investigated. In this situation, the resistance of the struck gate is evaluated by assuming a local and a global deforming mode. The super-element method is used in the first case, while an equivalent beam model is simultaneously introduced to capture the overall bending motion of the structure. The second accidental load considered in this paper is the seismic action, for which an analytical method is presented to evaluate the total hydrodynamic pressure applied on a lock gate during an earthquake, due account being taken of the fluid-structure interaction. For each of these two actions, numerical validations are presented and the analytical results are compared to finite-element solutions.

  6. Development of CAD implementing the algorithm of boundary elements’ numerical analytical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia V. Korniyenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Up to recent days the algorithms for numerical-analytical boundary elements method had been implemented with programs written in MATLAB environment language. Each program had a local character, i.e. used to solve a particular problem: calculation of beam, frame, arch, etc. Constructing matrices in these programs was carried out “manually” therefore being time-consuming. The research was purposed onto a reasoned choice of programming language for new CAD development, allows to implement algorithm of numerical analytical boundary elements method and to create visualization tools for initial objects and calculation results. Research conducted shows that among wide variety of programming languages the most efficient one for CAD development, employing the numerical analytical boundary elements method algorithm, is the Java language. This language provides tools not only for development of calculating CAD part, but also to build the graphic interface for geometrical models construction and calculated results interpretation.

  7. Analysis of plasticizers in PVC medical devices: Performance comparison of eight analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, L; Bourdeaux, D; Pereira, B; Azaroual, N; Barthélémy, C; Breysse, C; Chennell, P; Cueff, R; Dine, T; Eljezi, T; Feutry, F; Genay, S; Kambia, N; Lecoeur, M; Masse, M; Odou, P; Radaniel, T; Simon, N; Vaccher, C; Verlhac, C; Yessad, M; Décaudin, B; Sautou, V

    2017-01-01

    A wide variety of medical devices (MDs) used in hospitals are made of flexible plasticized polyvinylchloride (PVC). Different plasticizers are present in variable amounts in the PVC matrix of the devices and can leach out into the infused solutions and may enter into contact with the patients. The ARMED 1 project aims to assess the migration of these plasticizers from medical devices and therefore the level of exposure in patients. For the first task of the project, eight methods were developed to directly detect and quantify the plasticizers in the PVC matrix of the MDs. We compared the overall performances of the analytical methods using standardized and validated criteria in order to provide the scientific community with the guidance and the technical specifications of each method for the intended application. We have shown that routine rapid screening could be performed directly on the MDs using the FTIR technique, with cost-effective analyses. LC techniques may also be used, but with limits and only with individual quantification of the main plasticizers expected in the PVC matrix. GC techniques, especially GC-MS, are both more specific and more sensitive than other techniques. NMR is a robust and specific technique to precisely discriminate all plasticizers in a MD but is limited by its cost and its low ability to detect and quantify plasticizer contamination, e.g. by DEHP. All these results have been confirmed by a real test, called the " blind test " carried out on 10 MD samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Possibilities of Utilizing the Method of Analytical Hierarchy Process Within the Strategy of Corporate Social Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieniková, Katarína; Hrdinová, Gabriela; Naňo, Tomáš; Sakál, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the analysis of the theory of corporate social responsibility, risk management and the exact method of analytic hierarchic process that is used in the decision-making processes. The Chapters 2 and 3 focus on presentation of the experience with the application of the method in formulating the stakeholders' strategic goals within the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and simultaneously its utilization in minimizing the environmental risks. The major benefit of this paper is the application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP).

  9. Progress in analytical methods for the detection of geographical origin and authenticity of tea (Camellia sinensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yuwei; Hu Guixian; Shao Shengzhi; Zhang Yongzhi; Zhang Yu; Zhu Jiahong; Yang Guiling; Zhang Zhiheng

    2013-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is one of the important agricultural products with obvious regional characteristics. Analytical methods are very important for the protection of geographical origin and authenticity of tea. The developments of analytical methods including stable isotope determination, multi-elements determination, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy, chemical fingerprint and others were reviewed. Major problems on tea origin and authenticity detection were discussed in this study, and some suggestions were also proposed which would be useful for the protection of geographical origin of tea in China. (authors)

  10. Study of Injection Molding Warpage Using Analytic Hierarchy Process and Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyi-Cheng Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study integrated Analytic Hierarchy Process and Taguchi method to investigate into injection molding warpage. The warpage important factor will be elected by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, the AHP hierarchy analysis factor from documents collected and aggregate out data, then through the expert questionnaire delete low weight factor. Finally, we used Taguchi quality engineering method to decide injection molding optimized combination factors. Furthermore, the paper used injection pressure, holding pressure, holding time, mold temperature to analyze four factors, three levels Taguchi design data. Moreover, the paper discussed the reaction of each factor on the S / N ratio and analysis of variance to obtain the best combination of minimal warpage.

  11. An analytical-numerical comprehensive method for optimizing the fringing magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Meiqin; Mao Naifeng

    1991-01-01

    The criterion of optimizing the fringing magnetic field is discussed, and an analytical-numerical comprehensive method for realizing the optimization is introduced. The method mentioned above consists of two parts, the analytical part calculates the field of the shims, which corrects the fringing magnetic field by using uniform magnetizing method; the numerical part fulfils the whole calculation of the field distribution by solving the equation of magnetic vector potential A within the region covered by arbitrary triangular meshes with the aid of finite difference method and successive over relaxation method. On the basis of the method, the optimization of the fringing magnetic field for a large-scale electromagnetic isotope separator is finished

  12. Research on the simultaneous multi-components analytical method for polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kang Sup; Song, Duk Young; Choi, Byung In; Kim, Kun Han; Eum, Chul Hun; Jeon, Chi Wan; Lee, Jung Hwa [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Dissolution properties for the several inorganic pollutants in soils have been studied and simultaneous multi-components analytical method has been established with using ICP/MS for 13 monitoring elements in order to protect water and soil environments. And addition, more effective new analytical methods have been studied for TPH(total petroleum hydrocarbon) and organophosphorus compounds in soils. Several inorganic pollutants were spiked to 3 kinds of fresh soils which were sand, clay, loam. The dissolution properties of the prepared samples were investigated under the various extracting conditions such as extracting time, acid concentration, particle size, etc. in order to take basic information about the process of extraction test and improvement of related analytical methods. As the results, dissolution properties were affected mainly by acid concentration in extraction procedure and mineral composition of soils. On the other hand, extracting time, sort of acids and particle size of soils has a little influence on the dissolution properties. Cd revealed very high dissolving efficiency and As was very low in whole extracting test. Current analytical methods for the determination of soils are based on the purge and trap for volatiles such as gasoline and solvent extraction for semivolatiles such as kerosene and diesel oils. These methods are not proper in cost and time. In addition to, there are potential for analyte contamination and some problems in pretreatment procedure. In this study , we have discussed simultaneous determination of TPH containing gasoline, kerosene, diesel oils and etc. And determination of Organophosphorus compounds in soils has studied. In this procedure, the application of ultrasonication methods and several extraction methods were compared. In the results of this study, we could take very low practical detection limit and good precision. Approved methods were suitable for the determination of oils and pesticides in soil at high and low

  13. Analytical methods used at IPR (Instituto de Pesquisas Radioativas - Minas Gerais, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murta, C.C.

    The analytical methods available at IPR (MG-Brazil) for the routine determination of uranium are described. These methods are: gravimetric analysis; fluorescence spectroscopy, voltametry, polarography, absorption spectroscopy, beta-and gamma-radiometric analysis, gamma spectroscopy, activation analysis, X-rays fluorescence analysis and delayed neutron analysis. Some additional methods for the study of mineral ores, such as X-rays diffractometry, emmission spectroscopy, thermal analysis, etc, are also discussed [pt

  14. Analytical method used for intermediate products in continuous distillation of furfural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.L.; Jia, M.; Wang, L.J.; Deng, Y.X.

    1981-01-01

    During distillation of furfural, analysis of main components in the crude furfural condensate and intermediate products is very important. Since furfural and methylfurfural are homologous and both furfural and acetone contain a carbonyl group, components in the sample must be separated before analysis. An improved analytical method has been studied, the accuracy and precision of which would meet the requirement of industrial standards. The analytical procedure was provided as follows: to determine the furfural content with gravimetric method of barbituric acid; to determine the methanol content with dichromate method after precipitating furfural and acetone, and distilling the liquid for analysis; and to determine the methylfurfural content with bromide-bromate method, which can be used only in the sample containing higher content of methylfurfural. For the sample in low content, the gas-liquid chromatographic method can be used. 7 references.

  15. Solution of the isotopic depletion equation using decomposition method and analytical solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prata, Fabiano S.; Silva, Fernando C.; Martinez, Aquilino S., E-mail: fprata@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: aquilino@lmp.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    In this paper an analytical calculation of the isotopic depletion equations is proposed, featuring a chain of major isotopes found in a typical PWR reactor. Part of this chain allows feedback reactions of (n,2n) type. The method is based on decoupling the equations describing feedback from the rest of the chain by using the decomposition method, with analytical solutions for the other isotopes present in the chain. The method was implemented in a PWR reactor simulation code, that makes use of the nodal expansion method (NEM) to solve the neutron diffusion equation, describing the spatial distribution of neutron flux inside the reactor core. Because isotopic depletion calculation module is the most computationally intensive process within simulation systems of nuclear reactor core, it is justified to look for a method that is both efficient and fast, with the objective of evaluating a larger number of core configurations in a short amount of time. (author)

  16. Solution of the isotopic depletion equation using decomposition method and analytical solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prata, Fabiano S.; Silva, Fernando C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an analytical calculation of the isotopic depletion equations is proposed, featuring a chain of major isotopes found in a typical PWR reactor. Part of this chain allows feedback reactions of (n,2n) type. The method is based on decoupling the equations describing feedback from the rest of the chain by using the decomposition method, with analytical solutions for the other isotopes present in the chain. The method was implemented in a PWR reactor simulation code, that makes use of the nodal expansion method (NEM) to solve the neutron diffusion equation, describing the spatial distribution of neutron flux inside the reactor core. Because isotopic depletion calculation module is the most computationally intensive process within simulation systems of nuclear reactor core, it is justified to look for a method that is both efficient and fast, with the objective of evaluating a larger number of core configurations in a short amount of time. (author)

  17. 2D Stabilised analytic signal method in DC pole-pole potential data ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Using analytic signal method, interpretation of pole-pole secondary electric potentials due to 2D conductive/resistive prisms is presented. ... residual separation to separate out residual anom- alies, which are interpreted for geological .... terms, which are used for the semi-quantitative interpretation. 6.1 Computation of ...

  18. Materials of the Second Sumy-Cracow-Muenster Symposium on Nuclear Analytical Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The applications of nuclear analytical methods in physico-chemical, biological and medical studies have been presented in large number of applications. Environmental, geological and biological materials have been analysed by means of neutron activation analysis, proton microprobe, x-ray diffraction, synchrotron radiation X-ray spectrum analysis, ESR and others

  19. Analytical methods for an elliptic singular perturbation problem In a circle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. Temme (Nico)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe consider an elliptic perturbation problem in a circle by using the analytical solution that is given by a Fourier series with coefficients in terms of modified Bessel functions. By using saddle point methods we construct asymptotic approximations with respect to a small parameter.

  20. New neutron-based isotopic analytical methods; An explorative study of resonance capture and incoherent scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perego, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    Two novel neutron-based analytical techniques have been treated in this thesis, Neutron Resonance Capture Analysis (NRCA), employing a pulsed neutron source, and Neutron Incoherent Scattering (NIS), making use of a cold neutron source. With the NRCA method isotopes are identified by the

  1. Semi-Analytical Weight Estimation Method for Fuselages with Oval Cross-Section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, R.; Hoogreef, M.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a semi-analytical method for the weight estimation of fuselages with an oval cross-section, applied to blended wing body aircraft. The weight estimation of the fuselage primary structure is based on a structural analysis of two-dimensional crosssections and it is completed by a

  2. Analytical Method to Calculate the DC Link Current Stress in Voltage Source Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh Vijaysinh; Bede, Lorand; Teodorescu, Remus

    2014-01-01

    for the applications with high line current ripple. The effect of the pulsewidth modulation (PWM) scheme on the rms value of the dc-link current is also studied and the analysis for continuous PWM and discontinuous PWM (DPWM) schemes is presented. The proposed analytical method is also verified experimentally....

  3. Nuclear analytical methods in teaching and research at the university of Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.

    1994-01-01

    An overview of the nuclear analytical methods opportunities at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign are given. Undergraduate and graduate level teaching and research are highlighted. The TRIGA reactor and neutron activation analysis facilities are described in the context of this role within an inter-disciplinary environment. (author)

  4. Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities for Entry-Level Business Analytics Positions: A Multi-Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegielski, Casey G.; Jones-Farmer, L. Allison

    2016-01-01

    It is impossible to deny the significant impact from the emergence of big data and business analytics on the fields of Information Technology, Quantitative Methods, and the Decision Sciences. Both industry and academia seek to hire talent in these areas with the hope of developing organizational competencies. This article describes a multi-method…

  5. Vertical equilibrium with sub-scale analytical methods for geological CO2 sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, S. E.

    2009-04-23

    Large-scale implementation of geological CO2 sequestration requires quantification of risk and leakage potential. One potentially important leakage pathway for the injected CO2 involves existing oil and gas wells. Wells are particularly important in North America, where more than a century of drilling has created millions of oil and gas wells. Models of CO 2 injection and leakage will involve large uncertainties in parameters associated with wells, and therefore a probabilistic framework is required. These models must be able to capture both the large-scale CO 2 plume associated with the injection and the small-scale leakage problem associated with localized flow along wells. Within a typical simulation domain, many hundreds of wells may exist. One effective modeling strategy combines both numerical and analytical models with a specific set of simplifying assumptions to produce an efficient numerical-analytical hybrid model. The model solves a set of governing equations derived by vertical averaging with assumptions of a macroscopic sharp interface and vertical equilibrium. These equations are solved numerically on a relatively coarse grid, with an analytical model embedded to solve for wellbore flow occurring at the sub-gridblock scale. This vertical equilibrium with sub-scale analytical method (VESA) combines the flexibility of a numerical method, allowing for heterogeneous and geologically complex systems, with the efficiency and accuracy of an analytical method, thereby eliminating expensive grid refinement for sub-scale features. Through a series of benchmark problems, we show that VESA compares well with traditional numerical simulations and to a semi-analytical model which applies to appropriately simple systems. We believe that the VESA model provides the necessary accuracy and efficiency for applications of risk analysis in many CO2 sequestration problems. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  6. An Analytical Method for the Abel Inversion of Asymmetrical Gaussian Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guosheng; Wan Baonian

    2007-01-01

    An analytical algorithm for fast calculation of the Abel inversion for density profile measurement in tokamak is developed. Based upon the assumptions that the particle source is negligibly small in the plasma core region, density profiles can be approximated by an asymmetrical Gaussian distribution controlled only by one parameter V 0 /D and V 0 /D is constant along the radial direction, the analytical algorithm is presented and examined against a testing profile. The validity is confirmed by benchmark with the standard Abel inversion method and the theoretical profile. The scope of application as well as the error analysis is also discussed in detail

  7. The riddle of Siegfried: exploring methods and psychological perspectives in analytical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Marco Heleno

    2016-02-01

    Jung's dream of the killing of Siegfried poses a riddle: why did the unconscious choose precisely Siegfried as the hero to be murdered? Jung himself declares that he does not know. This paper attempts to decipher this riddle using three distinct methodological approaches accepted by Jung, two of them in fact grounded in his theories of dream interpretation. Besides presenting some possible answers to the riddle of Siegfried, this interpretative reflection brings to light the discrepancy of the psychological perspectives created by the heterogeneity of methods within analytical psychology. © 2016, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  8. Comparison of potential method in analytic hierarchy process for multi-attribute of catering service companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Siti Salwana; Ahmad, Tahir; Awang, Siti Rahmah

    2017-08-01

    Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a method used in structuring, measuring and synthesizing criteria, in particular ranking of multiple criteria in decision making problems. On the other hand, Potential Method is a ranking procedure in which utilizes preference graph ς (V, A). Two nodes are adjacent if they are compared in a pairwise comparison whereby the assigned arc is oriented towards the more preferred node. In this paper Potential Method is used to solve problem on a catering service selection. The comparison of result by using Potential method is made with Extent Analysis. The Potential Method is found to produce the same rank as Extent Analysis in AHP.

  9. Three higher order analytical nodal methods for multigroup neutron diffusion equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guessous, Najib

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The highlight is to demonstrate efficiency of the three nodal methods developed in this work: PCANM-2, FANM-2 and RFANM-2. • It is proved that the third method is more competitive than the two others methods. • It is demonstrated that RFANM-2 can give very accurate results compared to others nodal methods from published works. - Abstract: This work presents three efficient higher order analytical nodal methods for the numerical solution of a two-dimensional multigroup neutron diffusion equation in Cartesian geometry based on the use of the successive polynomial-weighted transverse integrations technique to convert a one-group diffusion equation to a system of coupled one-dimensional ordinary differential equations. These equations are then solved analytically over each homogenized cell after adequate approximations of the resulting effective sources after transversal integrations. Coupling between the approximate transverse flux-moments is achieved by imposing uniqueness constraint on their moments values. Adjacent elements are coupled by enforcing continuity conditions on the flux and current moments at interfaces cells. The weighted cell-balance equations and current-continuity conditions are then used to derive the discrete equations. These methods are applied for solving numerically various 2D benchmark problems and theirs performances discussed. Numerical results demonstrates more efficiency for the third higher order analytical nodal method for which the alone unknowns considered are the transverse flux moments on the interfaces of the homogenized elements.

  10. Analytical synthetic methods of solution of neutron transport equation with diffusion theory approaches energy multigroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Pedro Gabriel B.; Leite, Michel C.A.; Barros, Ricardo C.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we developed a software to model and generate results in tables and graphs of one-dimensional neutron transport problems in multi-group formulation of energy. The numerical method we use to solve the problem of neutron diffusion is analytic, thus eliminating the truncation errors that appear in classical numerical methods, e.g., the method of finite differences. This numerical analytical method increases the computational efficiency, since they are not refined spatial discretization necessary because for any spatial discretization grids used, the numerical result generated for the same point of the domain remains unchanged unless the rounding errors of computational finite arithmetic. We chose to develop a computational application in MatLab platform for numerical computation and program interface is simple and easy with knobs. We consider important to model this neutron transport problem with a fixed source in the context of shielding calculations of radiation that protects the biosphere, and could be sensitive to ionizing radiation

  11. Determination of carbendazim, thiabendazole and fuberidazole using a net analyte signal-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Galera, M; Picón Zamora, D; Martínez Vidal, J L; Garrido Frenich, A; Espinosa-Mansilla, A; Muñoz de la Peña, A; Salinas López, F

    2003-05-01

    The net analyte signal (NAS)-based method HLA/GO, modification of the original hybrid linear analysis (HLA) method, has been used to determine carbendazim, fuberidazole and thiabendazole in water samples. This approach was used after a solid-phase extraction (SPE) step, using the native fluorescence emission spectra of real samples, previously standardized by piecewise direct standardization (PDS). The results obtained show that the modification of HLA performs in a similar way that partial least-squares method (PLS-1). The NAS concept was also used to calculate multivariate analytical figures of merit such as limit of detection, selectivity, sensitivity and analytical sensitivity (gamma(-1)). With this purpose, blanks of methanol and ternary mixtures, with the target analyte at low concentration and the other two ranging according to the calibration matrix, were used, with different results. Detection limits calculated in the last way are more realistic and show the influence of the other components in the sample. Selectivity for carbendazim is higher than the corresponding values for fuberidazole and thiabendazole, whereas sensitivity, as well as the values obtained for their detection limits, are lower for carbendazim, followed by thiabendazole and fuberidazole. Results obtained by modification of HLA vary in the same way that the ones obtained by PLS-1.

  12. Comprehension of complex biological processes by analytical methods: how far can we go using mass spectrometry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerner, C.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive understanding of complex biological processes is the basis for many biomedical issues of great relevance for modern society including risk assessment, drug development, quality control of industrial products and many more. Screening methods provide means for investigating biological samples without research hypothesis. However, the first boom of analytical screening efforts has passed and we again need to ask whether and how to apply screening methods. Mass spectrometry is a modern tool with unrivalled analytical capacities. This applies to all relevant characteristics of analytical methods such as specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, multiplicity and diversity of applications. Indeed, mass spectrometry qualifies to deal with complexity. Chronic inflammation is a common feature of almost all relevant diseases challenging our modern society; these diseases are apparently highly diverse and include arteriosclerosis, cancer, back pain, neurodegenerative diseases, depression and other. The complexity of mechanisms regulating chronic inflammation is the reason for the practical challenge to deal with it. The presentation shall give an overview of capabilities and limitations of the application of this analytical tool to solve critical questions with great relevance for our society. (author)

  13. Analytical methods and laboratory facility for the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.J.; Dewberry, R.A.; Lethco, A.J.; Denard, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the analytical methods, instruments, and laboratory that will support vitrification of defense waste. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is now being constructed at Savannah River Plant (SRP). Beginning in 1989, SRP high-level defense waste will be immobilized in borosilicate glass for disposal in a federal repository. The DWPF will contain an analytical laboratory for performing process control analyses. Additional analyses will be performed for process history and process diagnostics. The DWPF analytical facility will consist of a large shielded sampling cell, three shielded analytical cells, a laboratory for instrumental analysis and chemical separations, and a counting room. Special instrumentation is being designed for use in the analytical cells, including microwave drying/dissolution apparatus, and remote pipetting devices. The instrumentation laboratory will contain inductively coupled plasma, atomic absorption, Moessbauer spectrometers, a carbon analyzer, and ion chromatography equipment. Counting equipment will include intrinsic germanium detectors, scintillation counters, Phoswich alpha, beta, gamma detectors, and a low-energy photon detector

  14. A Multi-Projector Calibration Method for Virtual Reality Simulators with Analytically Defined Screens

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Portalés; Sergio Casas; Inmaculada Coma; Marcos Fernández

    2017-01-01

    The geometric calibration of projectors is a demanding task, particularly for the industry of virtual reality simulators. Different methods have been developed during the last decades to retrieve the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of projectors, most of them being based on planar homographies and some requiring an extended calibration process. The aim of our research work is to design a fast and user-friendly method to provide multi-projector calibration on analytically defined screens, w...

  15. A Multi-Projector Calibration Method for Virtual Reality Simulators with Analytically Defined Screens

    OpenAIRE

    Portalés Ricart, Cristina; Casas Yrurzum, Sergio; Coma Tatay, Inmaculada; Fernández Marín, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    The geometric calibration of projectors is a demanding task, particularly for the industry of virtual reality simulators. Different methods have been developed during the last decades to retrieve the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of projectors, most of them being based on planar homographies and some requiring an extended calibration process. The aim of our research work is to design a fast and user-friendly method to provide multi-projector calibration on analytically defined screens, w...

  16. Precision of a plutonium analytical method using solvent extraction and spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, P.G.; Jackson, D.D.; Niemczyk, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    The plutonium assay method was investigated that uses the plutonyl trinitrate tetrapropyl-ammonium ion-pair solvent extraction with spectrophotometry of the extract as a candidate method capable of providing robustness and precision. To identify and asses the effect of factors on the precision, we looked at sampling techniques, silver oxide oxidation conditions extraction time, extract stability, and temperature dependence of the extract analytical peak height and position. A precision of 0.12% was obtained. (author) 18 refs.; 2 figs

  17. Analytical methods for drinking water; Metodi di analisi per le acque destinate al consumo umano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottaviani, Massimo; Bonadonna, Lucia [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1997-03-01

    These analytical methods for drinking water were elaborated by the second Sub-commission of the Permanent study committee ex-article 9 of Italian Ministerial Decree (DM) of March 26, 1991, established at the Ministry of Health. The methods concern the chemical and microbiological parameters included in the C1, C2 and C3 controls of the Annex II of the Decree of the President of the Republic (DPR) 236/88.

  18. A Dynamic Calibration Method for Experimental and Analytical Hub Load Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This complex connectivity between the drive components was found to be very difficult to model using traditional finite- element methods...components of the ARES could be accurately modeled using finite- elements , modeling the connectivity between the components was found to be significantly...ARL-RP-0592 ● Mar 2017 US Army Research Laboratory A Dynamic Calibration Method for Experimental and Analytical Hub Load Comparison by Robert P

  19. International symposium on quality assurance for analytical methods in isotope hydrology. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    A large variety of isotopic techniques is available and commonly used in water resources investigations as well as in a wide range of other scientific fields. These techniques include the stable isotope analysis of light elements (H, C, N, O, S), activity measurements of radioactive isotopes at environmental level (3H, 14C, 3H/3He, 85Kr) as well as measurements of CFCs, SF6 and other chemical and isotopic tracers. They provide valuable tools for the assessment of scientific questions and the solution of practical problems. During the last decade, new analytical tools have significantly fostered the application of isotopic techniques in many new fields and caused a steep increase in the number of laboratories applying these methods. International trends in improved analytical quality and requirements for laboratory certification and accreditation have pushed issues of quality control and quality assurance to a high level of importance for the operation of isotope laboratories worldwide. The objectives of the symposium are to promote a wide exchange of information on key issues for high quality isotopic measurements. The main focus is on the analytical techniques and on all means to ensure high quality standards for isotopic measurements. Recent advances in analytical quality assurance and laboratory quality systems will be presented and discussed together with state-of-the-art techniques. The scope of the conference is to demonstrate the use of best laboratory practices in the following fields: calibration of measurements and traceability; interlaboratory comparisons; best laboratory practices for daily analyses of samples; quality control and statistical evaluation of results; calculation of uncertainty budgets; new analytical techniques; improvements in precision and accuracy of analytical methods; laboratory information management, databases and sample handling; laboratory quality systems and international guides. The 42 papers are indexed individually

  20. Fault feature analysis of cracked gear based on LOD and analytical-FE method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiateng; Yang, Yu; Yang, Xingkai; Cheng, Junsheng

    2018-01-01

    At present, there are two main ideas for gear fault diagnosis. One is the model-based gear dynamic analysis; the other is signal-based gear vibration diagnosis. In this paper, a method for fault feature analysis of gear crack is presented, which combines the advantages of dynamic modeling and signal processing. Firstly, a new time-frequency analysis method called local oscillatory-characteristic decomposition (LOD) is proposed, which has the attractive feature of extracting fault characteristic efficiently and accurately. Secondly, an analytical-finite element (analytical-FE) method which is called assist-stress intensity factor (assist-SIF) gear contact model, is put forward to calculate the time-varying mesh stiffness (TVMS) under different crack states. Based on the dynamic model of the gear system with 6 degrees of freedom, the dynamic simulation response was obtained for different tooth crack depths. For the dynamic model, the corresponding relation between the characteristic parameters and the degree of the tooth crack is established under a specific condition. On the basis of the methods mentioned above, a novel gear tooth root crack diagnosis method which combines the LOD with the analytical-FE is proposed. Furthermore, empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) are contrasted with the LOD by gear crack fault vibration signals. The analysis results indicate that the proposed method performs effectively and feasibility for the tooth crack stiffness calculation and the gear tooth crack fault diagnosis.

  1. Approximate Analytical Solutions of Fractional Perturbed Diffusion Equation by Reduced Differential Transform Method and the Homotopy Perturbation Method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhoujin Cui; Zisen Mao; Sujuan Yang; Pinneng Yu

    2013-01-01

    The approximate analytical solutions of differential equations with fractional time derivative are obtained with the help of a general framework of the reduced differential transform method (RDTM) and the homotopy perturbation method (HPM). RDTM technique does not require any discretization, linearization, or small perturbations and therefore it reduces significantly the numerical computation. Comparing the methodology (RDTM) with some known technique (HPM) shows that the present approach is ...

  2. Characteristics of uranium reserves and resource categories in Kazakhstan for various methods of extraction. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhelnov, V.P.

    1998-01-01

    During the previous meeting (April 1995), Kazakhstan's representative had indicated the problem connected to uranium resources of the same category that can be produced by different methods of mining (conventional and in situ leaching). To facilitate understanding on this discrepancies, a description on the methodology of preparing reserves and resources categories that was carried out during the USSR period, and still used in Kazakhstan, is shown in Table I. It should be kept in mind that in Kazakhstan, its large amount of uranium resources (more than 1 million tonnes) was estimated and explored in accordance to the methodology for in situ leaching type of uranium production. At present, the State Committee on Reserves of the Republic of Kazakhstan is in the process of preparing the new common minerals reserves and resources classification. The class categories (A, B, C1, C2, P1, P2 and P3) will remain the same. However, their characteristics are being changed significantly. Promulgation of the new classification is planned for the end of 1996. Based on this new classification, in 1997, they will prepare additional instructions for separate mineral commodities, uranium included, taking into consideration the recommendations of the IAEA's consultants meeting on this subject

  3. Mathematical model of complex technical asymmetric system based on numerical-analytical boundary elements method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina V. Lazareva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new mathematical model of asymmetric support structure frame type is built on the basis of numerical-analytical boundary elements method (BEM. To describe the design scheme used is the graph theory. Building the model taken into account is the effect of frame members restrained torsion, which presence is due to the fact that these elements are thin-walled. The built model represents a real object as a two-axle semi-trailer platform. To implement the BEM algorithm obtained are analytical expressions of the fundamental functions and vector load components. The effected calculations are based on the semi-trailer two different models, using finite elements and boundary elements methods. The analysis showed that the error between the results obtained on the basis of two numerical methods and experimental data is about 4%, that indicates the adequacy of the proposed mathematical model.

  4. Validation of an analytical method for quality control and stability study of 10 % Phenylephrine eyedrops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteagudo Licea, Raiza; Garcia Penna, Caridad Margarita; Botet Garcia, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Phenylephrine is used like mydiatric in eye examinations and other ophthalmic procedures. It is used as vasoconstrictor with local anesthetic agents. In present paper a high resolution liquid chromatography analytical method was validated to quality control and stability studies of 10 % Phenylephrine (eyedrops). Method was based in separation of active principle through a Lichrosorb RO-18 (5 μm) (250 x 4 mm) chromatography column with UV detection at 280 nm using a mobile phase composed by a non-gasified mixture of methanol distilled water (1:1) with 1.1 g of 1-sodium octane-sulphonate by liter adjusted to pH 3,0 with phosphoric acid at a flow speed of 1.0 mL/min. Analytical method was linear, accuracy, specific and exact in the interval of study concentrations

  5. Validation of analytical method for quality control of B12 Vitamin-10 000 injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botet Garcia, Martha; Garcia Penna, Caridad Margarita; Troche Concepcion, Yenilen; Cannizares Arencibia, Yanara; Moreno Correoso, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Analytical method reported by USA Pharmacopeia was validated for quality control of injectable B 1 2 Vitamin (10 000 U) by UV spectrophotometry because this is a simpler and low-cost method allowing quality control of finished product. Calibration curve was graphed at 60 to 140% interval, where it was linear with a correlation coefficient similar to 0, 9999; statistical test for interception and slope was considered non-significant. There was a recovery of 99.7 % in study concentrations interval where the Cochran (G) and Student(t) test were not significant too. Variation coefficient in repetition study was similar to 0.59 % for the 6 assayed replies, whereas in intermediate precision analysis, the Fisher and Student tests were not significant. Analytical method was linear, precise, specific and exact in study concentrations interval

  6. Analytical method validation for quality control and the study of the 50 mg Propylthiouracil stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes Bendoyro, Maria Olga; Garcia Penna, Caridad Margarita; Fernandez, Juan Lugones; Garcia Borges, Lisandra; Martinez Espinosa, Vivian

    2010-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography analytical method was developed and validated for the quality control and stability studies of 50 mg Propylthiouracil tablets. Method is based in active principle separation through a 100 RP-18 RP-18 (5 μm) (250 x 4 mm) Lichrospher chromatography with UV detection to 272 nm, using a mobile phase composed by a ungaseous mixture of a 0.025 M buffer solution-monobasic potassium phosphate to pH= 4,6 ad acetonitrile in a 80:20 ratio with a flux speed of 0,5 mL/min. Analytical method was linear, precise, specific and exact in the study concentrations interval

  7. Besifloxacin: A Critical Review of Its Characteristics, Properties, and Analytical Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tótoli, Eliane Gandolpho; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes

    2018-03-04

    Bacterial conjunctivitis has high impact on the health of the population, since it represents more than a third of ocular pathologies reported by health services worldwide. There is a high incidence of bacterial resistance to the antimicrobials most commonly used for the treatment of conjunctivitis. In this context, besifloxacin stands out, since it is a fluoroquinolone developed exclusively for topical ophthalmic use, presenting a low risk of developing resistance due to its reduced systemic exposure. Bausch & Lomb markets it as ophthalmic suspension, under the trade name Besivance™. Literature review on besifloxacin is presented, covering its pharmaceutical and clinical characteristics, and the analytical methods used to measure the drug in pharmaceutical products and biological samples. High performance liquid chromatography is the most used method for this purpose. A discussion on Green Chemistry is also presented, focusing the importance of the development of green analytical methods for the analysis of drugs.

  8. Ovarian reserve in women of late reproductive age by the method of treatment of PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketevan Beltadze

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS particularly is increased in adolescents. Very few longitudinal follow-up for assessment of ovarian reserve in women of late reproductive age with previously confirmed PCOS have been conducted, especially after its diagnosis and treatment in adolescence. Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare of the ovarian reserve of the women of late reproductive age by the method of treatment of PCOS in adolescence. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study in an unselected population was conducted from January to June 2014. A total of 123 women of late reproductive age were included. They had been diagnosed with PCOS between 1984 and 1990 when they were 13-18 yr. From these, first group of the study was consisted of 67 participants who underwent conservative treatment with antiandrogens and combined oral contraceptives and second group of the study was consisted of 56 participants after surgery (34-bilateral ovarian drilling and 22- ovarian wedge resection. At the time of investigation patients were 35-45 yr. The participants were collected via analysis of histories at primary diagnosis of PCOS in adolescence and at the time of the investigation analyses of reproductive hormones were conducted. Data were compared between the groups. Results: After conservative treatment PCOS women had higher levels of anti- mullerian hormone and lower follicle-stimulating hormone levels (p=0.02 and p=0.04, respectively. The number of antral follicles and mean ovarian volume were significantly greater also, than in women who underwent surgical treatment (p=0.03 and p=0.04, respectively. Conclusion: Our data suggest that PCOS patients who underwent conservative treatment have the better ovarian reserve than women who underwent surgical treatment of PCOS in adolescence.

  9. Analytical methods manual for the Mineral Resource Surveys Program, U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Belinda F.

    1996-01-01

    The analytical methods validated by the Mineral Resource Surveys Program, Geologic Division, is the subject of this manual. This edition replaces the methods portion of Open-File Report 90-668 published in 1990. Newer methods may be used which have been approved by the quality assurance (QA) project and are on file with the QA coordinator.This manual is intended primarily for use by laboratory scientists; this manual can also assist laboratory users to evaluate the data they receive. The analytical methods are written in a step by step approach so that they may be used as a training tool and provide detailed documentation of the procedures for quality assurance. A "Catalog of Services" is available for customer (submitter) use with brief listings of:the element(s)/species determined,method of determination,reference to cite,contact person,summary of the technique,and analyte concentration range.For a copy please contact the Branch office at (303) 236-1800 or fax (303) 236-3200.

  10. Analytical maximum-likelihood method to detect patterns in real networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squartini, Tiziano; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2011-01-01

    In order to detect patterns in real networks, randomized graph ensembles that preserve only part of the topology of an observed network are systematically used as fundamental null models. However, the generation of them is still problematic. Existing approaches are either computationally demanding and beyond analytic control or analytically accessible but highly approximate. Here, we propose a solution to this long-standing problem by introducing a fast method that allows one to obtain expectation values and standard deviations of any topological property analytically, for any binary, weighted, directed or undirected network. Remarkably, the time required to obtain the expectation value of any property analytically across the entire graph ensemble is as short as that required to compute the same property using the adjacency matrix of the single original network. Our method reveals that the null behavior of various correlation properties is different from what was believed previously, and is highly sensitive to the particular network considered. Moreover, our approach shows that important structural properties (such as the modularity used in community detection problems) are currently based on incorrect expressions, and provides the exact quantities that should replace them.

  11. An analytically based numerical method for computing view factors in real urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doo-Il; Woo, Ju-Wan; Lee, Sang-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    A view factor is an important morphological parameter used in parameterizing in-canyon radiative energy exchange process as well as in characterizing local climate over urban environments. For realistic representation of the in-canyon radiative processes, a complete set of view factors at the horizontal and vertical surfaces of urban facets is required. Various analytical and numerical methods have been suggested to determine the view factors for urban environments, but most of the methods provide only sky-view factor at the ground level of a specific location or assume simplified morphology of complex urban environments. In this study, a numerical method that can determine the sky-view factors ( ψ ga and ψ wa ) and wall-view factors ( ψ gw and ψ ww ) at the horizontal and vertical surfaces is presented for application to real urban morphology, which are derived from an analytical formulation of the view factor between two blackbody surfaces of arbitrary geometry. The established numerical method is validated against the analytical sky-view factor estimation for ideal street canyon geometries, showing a consolidate confidence in accuracy with errors of less than 0.2 %. Using a three-dimensional building database, the numerical method is also demonstrated to be applicable in determining the sky-view factors at the horizontal (roofs and roads) and vertical (walls) surfaces in real urban environments. The results suggest that the analytically based numerical method can be used for the radiative process parameterization of urban numerical models as well as for the characterization of local urban climate.

  12. Milk urea analytical result reliability and its methodical possibilities in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Říha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of milk urea concentration (MUC can be used in diagnosis of the energy–nitrogen metabolism of cows. There are more analytical methods for MUC estimation and there are also discussions about their result reliability. Aim of this work was to obtain information for MUC result reliability improvement. MUC and MUN (milk urea nitrogen were investigated in 5 milk sample sets and in 7 calibration/comparison experiments. The positions of reference and indirect methods were changed in experiments. There were following analytical methods for MUC or MUN (in mg.100 ml−1: – photometric method (PH, as reference based on paradimethylaminobenzaldehyde reaction; – method Ureakvant (UK, as reference based on difference measurement of the electrical conductivity change during ureolysis; – method Chemspec (CH based on photometrical measurement of ammonia concentration after ureolysis (as reference; – spectroscopic method in mid infrared range of spectrum (FT–MIR; indirect routine method. In all methodical combinations the correlation coefficients (r varied from 0.8803 to 0.9943 (P −1 and comparable values of repeatability (from 0.65 to 1.83 mg.100 ml−1 as compared to FT–MIR MUC or MUN methods (from 1.39 to 5.6 and from 0.76 to 1.92 mg.100 ml−1 in performed experiments.

  13. Hanford environmental analytical methods (methods as of March 1990). Appendix A3-R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Daniel, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    Techniques in use at the Hanford Reservation as of March, 1990 for the analysis of liquids and radioactive effluents are described. Limitations and applications of the techniques are included. This report is Appendix A3-R.

  14. A Reserve-based Method for Mitigating the Impact of Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krad, Ibrahim

    The fundamental operating paradigm of today's power systems is undergoing a significant shift. This is partially motivated by the increased desire for incorporating variable renewable energy resources into generation portfolios. While these generating technologies offer clean energy at zero marginal cost, i.e. no fuel costs, they also offer unique operating challenges for system operators. Perhaps the biggest operating challenge these resources introduce is accommodating their intermittent fuel source availability. For this reason, these generators increase the system-wide variability and uncertainty. As a result, system operators are revisiting traditional operating strategies to more efficiently incorporate these generation resources to maximize the benefit they provide while minimizing the challenges they introduce. One way system operators have accounted for system variability and uncertainty is through the use of operating reserves. Operating reserves can be simplified as excess capacity kept online during real time operations to help accommodate unforeseen fluctuations in demand. With new generation resources, a new class of operating reserves has emerged that is generally known as flexibility, or ramping, reserves. This new reserve class is meant to better position systems to mitigate severe ramping in the net load profile. The best way to define this new requirement is still under investigation. Typical requirement definitions focus on the additional uncertainty introduced by variable generation and there is room for improvement regarding explicit consideration for the variability they introduce. An exogenous reserve modification method is introduced in this report that can improve system reliability with minimal impacts on total system wide production costs. Another potential solution to this problem is to formulate the problem as a stochastic programming problem. The unit commitment and economic dispatch problems are typically formulated as deterministic

  15. A platform analytical quality by design (AQbD) approach for multiple UHPLC-UV and UHPLC-MS methods development for protein analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochling, Jianmei; Wu, Wei; Hua, Yimin; Guan, Qian; Castaneda-Merced, Juan

    2016-06-05

    A platform analytical quality by design approach for methods development is presented in this paper. This approach is not limited just to method development following the same logical Analytical quality by design (AQbD) process, it is also exploited across a range of applications in methods development with commonality in equipment and procedures. As demonstrated by the development process of 3 methods, the systematic approach strategy offers a thorough understanding of the method scientific strength. The knowledge gained from the UHPLC-UV peptide mapping method can be easily transferred to the UHPLC-MS oxidation method and the UHPLC-UV C-terminal heterogeneity methods of the same protein. In addition, the platform AQbD method development strategy ensures method robustness is built in during development. In early phases, a good method can generate reliable data for product development allowing confident decision making. Methods generated following the AQbD approach have great potential for avoiding extensive post-approval analytical method change. While in the commercial phase, high quality data ensures timely data release, reduced regulatory risk, and lowered lab operational cost. Moreover, large, reliable database and knowledge gained during AQbD method development provide strong justifications during regulatory filling for the selection of important parameters or parameter change needs for method validation, and help to justify for removal of unnecessary tests used for product specifications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF HYDROCARBON SEEPAGE DETECTION METHODS ON THE FORT PECK RESERVATION, NORTHEAST MONTANA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence M. Monson

    2003-06-30

    Surface exploration techniques have been employed in separate study areas on the Fort Peck Reservation in northeastern Montana. Anomalies associated with hydrocarbon seepage are documented in all three areas and a variety of surface exploration techniques can be compared. In a small area with established production, Head Gas and Thermal Desorption methods best match production; other methods also map depletion. In a moderate-size area that has prospects defined by 3D seismic data, Head Gas along with Microbial, Iodine, and Eh soil anomalies are all associated with the best hydrocarbon prospect. In a large area that contains many curvilinear patterns observed on Landsat images, that could represent micro-seepage chimneys, results are inconclusive. Reconnaissance mapping using Magnetic Susceptibility has identified a potential prospect; subsequent Soil Gas and Head Gas surveys suggest hydrocarbon potential. In the final year of this project the principle contractor, the Fort Peck Tribes, completed a second survey in the Wicape 3D Seismic Prospect Area (also known as Area 6 in Phase I of the project) and sampled several Landsat image features contained in the Smoke Creek Aeromag Anomaly Area (also known as Area 1 in Phase II of the project). Methods determined to be most useful in Phases I and II, were employed in this final Phase III of the study. The Southwest Wicape seismic anomaly was only partially confirmed. The abundant curvilinears proposed to be possible hydrocarbon micro-seepage chimneys in the Smoke Creek Area were not conclusively verified as such. Insufficient sampling of background data precludes affirmative identification of these mostly topographic Landsat features as gas induced soil and vegetation anomalies. However relatively higher light gas concentrations were found associated with some of the curvilinears. Based on the findings of this work the Assiniboine & Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Reservation intend to utilize surface hydrocarbon

  17. Formulation and Development of a Validated UV-Spectrophotometric Analytical Method of Rutin Tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad N. Abualhasan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rutin is available in some foods, fruits, and vegetables. It has various beneficial medical effects making it useful in the treatment of various diseases. Rutin is available in different oral dosage forms such as tablets or capsules, widely available in the market. Rutin and many herbal medicines lack quality control due to unavailability of analytical methods. In this study, we formulated rutin tablet and studied its stability using a simple developed analytical method. The dissolution profile of our formulated tablet was also inspected. The results showed that our developed method was linear (R2=0.999, precise (% RSD = 0.026, and accurate (% recovery = 98.55–103.34. The formulated rutin tablet was stable under accelerated conditions as well as room temperature for 150 days (% assay > 91.69. The dissolution profile over 45 minutes of our formulated tablet showed a better dissolution (26.5% compared with the internationally marketed Rutin® tablet (18.5%. This study can serve as a guideline to companies that manufacture herbal products to improve their formulated herbs and apply validated analytical methods to check the quality of their product.

  18. Analytical design method of a device for ultrasonic elliptical vibration cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weihai; Yu, Deping; Zhang, Min; Ye, Fengfei; Yao, Jin

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasonic elliptical vibration cutting (UEVC) is effective in ultraprecision diamond cutting of hard-brittle materials and ferrous metals. However, its design is quite empirical and tedious. This paper proposes an analytical design method for developing the UEVC device which works at the Flexural-Flexural complex-mode to generate the elliptical vibration. For such UEVC device, the resonant frequencies of the two flexural vibrations are required to be the same. In addition, the nodal points of the two flexural vibrations should be coincident so that the device can be clamped without affecting the vibrations. Based on the proposed analytical design method, an UEVC device was first designed. Modal analysis of the designed UEVC device was performed by using the finite element method, which shows that the resonant frequencies coincide well with the targeted ones. Then a prototype UEVC device was fabricated, and its vibration characteristics were measured by an impedance analyzer and a laser displacement sensor. Experimental results indicate that the designed UEVC device can generate elliptical vibration with the resonant frequencies closed to the target ones. In addition, the vibration trajectory can be precisely tuned by adjusting the phase difference and the amplitude of the applied voltage. Simulation and experimental results validated the effectiveness of the analytical design method.

  19. Comparison of the calculated neutron noise using finite differences and the Analytical Nodal Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Viktor; Demazière, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Numerical neutron noise calculations for a commercial PWR. ► Comparison using finite differences and the Analytical Nodal Method. ► Little gain for the higher cost of more advanced methods. ► Finite difference adequate for neutron noise calculations. - Abstract: In this paper, a comparison of the calculated neutron noise, i.e. the fluctuation of the neutron flux around its average value assuming that all processes are stationary, is conducted, where the neutron noise is calculated using finite differences alone and with finite differences where the Analytical Nodal Method is used to correct the neutron currents, respectively. It is seen that the lower the frequency of the noise source, the larger difference between the two solutions. The main conclusion from this work is that the gain of calculating the neutron noise using the more sophisticated Analytical Nodal Method compared to the increase of the corresponding computational burden is too little to motivate the use of the ANM.

  20. Characteristics, Properties and Analytical Methods of Amoxicillin: A Review with Green Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marco, Bianca Aparecida; Natori, Jéssica Sayuri Hisano; Fanelli, Stefany; Tótoli, Eliane Gandolpho; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes

    2017-05-04

    Bacterial infections are the second leading cause of global mortality. Considering this fact, it is extremely important studying the antimicrobial agents. Amoxicillin is an antimicrobial agent that belongs to the class of penicillins; it has bactericidal activity and is widely used in the Brazilian health system. In literature, some analytical methods are found for the identification and quantification of this penicillin, which are essential for its quality control, which ensures maintaining the product characteristics, therapeutic efficacy and patient's safety. Thus, this study presents a brief literature review on amoxicillin and the analytical methods developed for the analysis of this drug in official and scientific papers. The major analytical methods found were high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultra-performance liquid chromatography (U-HPLC), capillary electrophoresis and iodometry and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform. It is essential to note that most of the developed methods used toxic and hazardous solvents, which makes necessary industries and researchers choose to develop environmental-friendly techniques to provide enhanced benefits to environment and staff.

  1. A Semi-Analytical Method for the PDFs of A Ship Rolling in Random Oblique Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-qin; Liu, Ya-liu; Xu, Wan-hai; Li, Yan; Tang, You-gang

    2018-03-01

    The PDFs (probability density functions) and probability of a ship rolling under the random parametric and forced excitations were studied by a semi-analytical method. The rolling motion equation of the ship in random oblique waves was established. The righting arm obtained by the numerical simulation was approximately fitted by an analytical function. The irregular waves were decomposed into two Gauss stationary random processes, and the CARMA (2, 1) model was used to fit the spectral density function of parametric and forced excitations. The stochastic energy envelope averaging method was used to solve the PDFs and the probability. The validity of the semi-analytical method was verified by the Monte Carlo method. The C11 ship was taken as an example, and the influences of the system parameters on the PDFs and probability were analyzed. The results show that the probability of ship rolling is affected by the characteristic wave height, wave length, and the heading angle. In order to provide proper advice for the ship's manoeuvring, the parametric excitations should be considered appropriately when the ship navigates in the oblique seas.

  2. An analytical method for PID controller tuning with specified gain and phase margins for integral plus time delay processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wuhua; Xiao, Gaoxi; Li, Xiumin

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, an analytical method is proposed for proportional-integral/proportional-derivative/proportional-integral-derivative (PI/PD/PID) controller tuning with specified gain and phase margins (GPMs) for integral plus time delay (IPTD) processes. Explicit formulas are also obtained for estimating the GPMs resulting from given PI/PD/PID controllers. The proposed method indicates a general form of the PID parameters and unifies a large number of existing rules as PI/PD/PID controller tuning with various GPM specifications. The GPMs realized by existing PID tuning rules are computed and documented as a reference for control engineers to tune the PID controllers. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of Compton-scatter imaging with an analytical simulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin C.; Redler, Gage; Templeton, Alistair; Bernard, Damian; Turian, Julius V.; Chu, James C. H.

    2018-01-01

    By collimating the photons scattered when a megavoltage therapy beam interacts with the patient, a Compton-scatter image may be formed without the delivery of an extra dose. To characterize and assess the potential of the technique, an analytical model for simulating scatter images was developed and validated against Monte Carlo (MC). For three phantoms, the scatter images collected during irradiation with a 6 MV flattening-filter-free therapy beam were simulated. Images, profiles, and spectra were compared for different phantoms and different irradiation angles. The proposed analytical method simulates accurate scatter images up to 1000 times faster than MC. Minor differences between MC and analytical simulated images are attributed to limitations in the isotropic superposition/convolution algorithm used to analytically model multiple-order scattering. For a detector placed at 90° relative to the treatment beam, the simulated scattered photon energy spectrum peaks at 140-220 keV, and 40-50% of the photons are the result of multiple scattering. The high energy photons originate at the beam entrance. Increasing the angle between source and detector increases the average energy of the collected photons and decreases the relative contribution of multiple scattered photons. Multiple scattered photons cause blurring in the image. For an ideal 5 mm diameter pinhole collimator placed 18.5 cm from the isocenter, 10 cGy of deposited dose (2 Hz imaging rate for 1200 MU min-1 treatment delivery) is expected to generate an average 1000 photons per mm2 at the detector. For the considered lung tumor CT phantom, the contrast is high enough to clearly identify the lung tumor in the scatter image. Increasing the treatment beam size perpendicular to the detector plane decreases the contrast, although the scatter subject contrast is expected to be greater than the megavoltage transmission image contrast. With the analytical method, real-time tumor tracking may be possible

  4. Analytical methods for determination of terbinafine hydrochloride in pharmaceuticals and biological materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaiah Kanakapura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Terbinafine is a new powerful antifungal agent indicated for both oral and topical treatment of mycosessince. It is highly effective in the treatment of determatomycoses. The chemical and pharmaceutical analysis of the drug requires effective analytical methods for quality control and pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies. Ever since it was introduced as an effective antifungal agent, many methods have been developed and validated for its assay in pharmaceuticals and biological materials. This article reviews the various methods reported during the last 25 years.

  5. Selection of analytical methods for mixed waste analysis at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morant, P.M.

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the process that the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) and contractor laboratories use to select appropriate or develop new or modified analytical methods. These methods are needed to provide reliable mixed waste characterization data that meet project-specific quality assurance (QA) requirements while also meeting health and safety standards for handling radioactive materials. This process will provide the technical basis for DOE`s analysis of mixed waste and support requests for regulatory approval of these new methods when they are used to satisfy the regulatory requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1992).

  6. Approximate analytical solution of diffusion equation with fractional time derivative using optimal homotopy analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Das

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, optimal homotopy-analysis method is used to obtain approximate analytic solution of the time-fractional diffusion equation with a given initial condition. The fractional derivatives are considered in the Caputo sense. Unlike usual Homotopy analysis method, this method contains at the most three convergence control parameters which describe the faster convergence of the solution. Effects of parameters on the convergence of the approximate series solution by minimizing the averaged residual error with the proper choices of parameters are calculated numerically and presented through graphs and tables for different particular cases.

  7. SRC-I demonstration plant analytical laboratory methods manual. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klusaritz, M.L.; Tewari, K.C.; Tiedge, W.F.; Skinner, R.W.; Znaimer, S.

    1983-03-01

    This manual is a compilation of analytical procedures required for operation of a Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC-I) demonstration or commercial plant. Each method reproduced in full includes a detailed procedure, a list of equipment and reagents, safety precautions, and, where possible, a precision statement. Procedures for the laboratory's environmental and industrial hygiene modules are not included. Required American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods are cited, and ICRC's suggested modifications to these methods for handling coal-derived products are provided.

  8. Free and Forced Vibration Analysis of an Infilled Steel Frame: Experimental, Numerical, and Analytical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Hariri-Ardebili

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural frames with masonry infill panels make up a significant portion of the buildings constructed in earthquake-prone areas prior to the developing of the seismic design standards. In this paper, the effects of masonry panels on the vibration response of an infilled steel-frame building are investigated. Various ambient and steady state forced vibration tests are carried out to realize the dynamic characteristics of the system. 3D finite element models of the building with and without infill panels are provided based on marcomodeling theorem. A set of analytical approximate formulas are also derived to estimate the vibrational period. The natural frequencies of the building are computed using numerical, analytical, and experimental methods. The results show that neglecting the effect of infill panels leads to considerable error. Moreover, it is shown that there is good agreement among the results obtained by the three methods considering the effect of infill panels.

  9. Analytical Methods for the Determination of Rosuvastatin in Pharmaceutical Formulations and Biological Fluids: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ângelo, Marilene Lopes; Moreira, Fernanda de Lima; Morais Ruela, André Luís; Santos, Ana Laura Araújo; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes; de Araújo, Magali Benjamim

    2018-07-04

    Rosuvastatin calcium (ROS), ( Figure 1 ) belongs to the "statins" group, which is the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor. This drug is indicated for dyslipidemias treatment and can help to decrease the level of "bad cholesterol" and can consequently reduce the development of atherosclerosis and the risk of heart diseases. ROS was developed by Astra-Zeneca and it was approved in 2003 by the FDA in the United States. In 2015, under the trade name Crestor®, it was the fourth largest selling drug in the United States with sales above $5 billion. This study presents a literature review of analytical methods for the quantification of ROS in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids. The major analytical methods described in this study for ROS were spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to ultraviolet (UV) detection, and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

  10. Environmental equity research: review with focus on outdoor air pollution research methods and analytic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qun; Chen, Dongmei; Buzzelli, Michael; Aronson, Kristan J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review environmental equity research on outdoor air pollution and, specifically, methods and tools used in research, published in English, with the aim of recommending the best methods and analytic tools. English language publications from 2000 to 2012 were identified in Google Scholar, Ovid MEDLINE, and PubMed. Research methodologies and results were reviewed and potential deficiencies and knowledge gaps identified. The publications show that exposure to outdoor air pollution differs by social factors, but findings are inconsistent in Canada. In terms of study designs, most were small and ecological and therefore prone to the ecological fallacy. Newer tools such as geographic information systems, modeling, and biomarkers offer improved precision in exposure measurement. Higher-quality research using large, individual-based samples and more precise analytic tools are needed to provide better evidence for policy-making to reduce environmental inequities.

  11. Application of nuclear analytical methods to heavy metal pollution studies of estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, B.; Junge, W.; Knoth, J.; Michaelis, W.; Pepelnik, R.; Schwenke, H.

    1984-01-01

    Important objectives of heavy metal pollution studies of estuaries are the understanding of the transport phenomena in these complex ecosystems and the discovery of the pollution history and the geochemical background. Such studies require high precision and accuracy of the analytical methods. Moreover, pronounced spatial heterogeneities and temporal variabilities that are typical for estuaries necessitate the analysis of a great number of samples if relevant results are to be obtained. Both requirements can economically be fulfilled by a proper combination of analytical methods. Applications of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis with total reflection of the exciting beam at the sample support and of neutron activation analysis with both thermal and fast neutrons are reported in the light of pollution studies performed in the Lower Elbe River. (orig.)

  12. Abstracts book of 4. Poznan Analytical Seminar on Modern Methods of Sample Preparation and Trace Amounts Determination of Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The 4. Poznan Analytical Seminar on Modern Methods of Sample Preparation and Trace Amounts Determination of Elements has been held in Poznan 27-28 April 1995. The new versions of analytical methods have been presented for quantitative determination of trace elements in biological, environmental and geological materials. Also the number of special techniques for sample preparation enables achievement the best precision of analytical results have been shown and discussed

  13. Results of an interlaboratory comparison of analytical methods for contaminants of emerging concern in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderford, Brett J; Drewes, Jörg E; Eaton, Andrew; Guo, Yingbo C; Haghani, Ali; Hoppe-Jones, Christiane; Schluesener, Michael P; Snyder, Shane A; Ternes, Thomas; Wood, Curtis J

    2014-01-07

    An evaluation of existing analytical methods used to measure contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) was performed through an interlaboratory comparison involving 25 research and commercial laboratories. In total, 52 methods were used in the single-blind study to determine method accuracy and comparability for 22 target compounds, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and steroid hormones, all at ng/L levels in surface and drinking water. Method biases ranged from caffeine, NP, OP, and triclosan had false positive rates >15%. In addition, some methods reported false positives for 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethynylestradiol in unspiked drinking water and deionized water, respectively, at levels higher than published predicted no-effect concentrations for these compounds in the environment. False negative rates were also generally contamination, misinterpretation of background interferences, and/or inappropriate setting of detection/quantification levels for analysis at low ng/L levels. The results of both comparisons were collectively assessed to identify parameters that resulted in the best overall method performance. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with the calibration technique of isotope dilution were able to accurately quantify most compounds with an average bias of <10% for both matrixes. These findings suggest that this method of analysis is suitable at environmentally relevant levels for most of the compounds studied. This work underscores the need for robust, standardized analytical methods for CECs to improve data quality, increase comparability between studies, and help reduce false positive and false negative rates.

  14. Developing automated analytical methods for scientific environments using LabVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Christoph; Armenta, Sergio; Lendl, Bernhard

    2010-01-15

    The development of new analytical techniques often requires the building of specially designed devices, each requiring its own dedicated control software. Especially in the research and development phase, LabVIEW has proven to be one highly useful tool for developing this software. Yet, it is still common practice to develop individual solutions for different instruments. In contrast to this, we present here a single LabVIEW-based program that can be directly applied to various analytical tasks without having to change the program code. Driven by a set of simple script commands, it can control a whole range of instruments, from valves and pumps to full-scale spectrometers. Fluid sample (pre-)treatment and separation procedures can thus be flexibly coupled to a wide range of analytical detection methods. Here, the capabilities of the program have been demonstrated by using it for the control of both a sequential injection analysis - capillary electrophoresis (SIA-CE) system with UV detection, and an analytical setup for studying the inhibition of enzymatic reactions using a SIA system with FTIR detection.

  15. Analytical Method of Malculation of the Current and Torque a Reluctance Stepper Motor via Fourier Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Zaskalicky

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Reluctance stepper motors are becoming to be very attractive transducer to conversion of electric signal to the mechanical position. Due to its simple construction is reluctance machine considered a very reliable machine which not requiring any maintenance. Present paper proposes a mathematical method of an analytical calculus of a phase current and electromagnetic torque of the motor via Fourier series. Saturation effect and winding reluctance are neglected.

  16. Analytical Treatment of Higher-Order Graphs: A Path Ordinal Method for Solving Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Kamal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Analytical treatment of the composition of higher-order graphs representing linear relations between variables is developed. A path formalism to deal with problems in graph theory is introduced. It is shown how paths in the composed graph representing individual contributions to variables relation can be enumerated and represented by ordinals. The method allows for one to extract partial information and gives an alternative to classical graph approach.

  17. Validation of the analytical method for sodium dichloroisocyanurate aimed at drinking water disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Alvarez, Luis Octavio; Alejo Cisneros, Pedro; Garcia Pereira, Reynaldo; Campos Valdez, Doraily

    2014-01-01

    Cuba has developed the first effervescent 3.5 mg sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets as a non-therapeutic active principle. This ingredient releases certain amount of chlorine when dissolved into a litre of water and it can cause adequate disinfection of drinking water ready to be taken after 30 min. Developing and validating an analytical iodometric method applicable to the quality control of effervescent 3.5 mg sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets

  18. CO2 Leakage, Storage and Injection Monitoring by Using Experimental, Numerical and Analytical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Namdar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The maintaining environment is priority to any plan in human life. It is planned for monitoring CO2 injection, storage and leakage by using geophysical, numerical and analytical methods in seismic zone. In this regard the mineralogy, chemical composite, lithology, seismic wave propagation, small earthquake, accelerating natural earthquake, thermal stress-strain modeling, ground movement level and fault activation will be consider. It is expected to better understand CO2 leakage, storage and injection process and problems.

  19. Method and apparatus for continuous fluid leak monitoring and detection in analytical instruments and instrument systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Karl K [Pasco, WA; Moore, Ronald J [West Richland, WA

    2010-07-13

    A method and device are disclosed that provide for detection of fluid leaks in analytical instruments and instrument systems. The leak detection device includes a collection tube, a fluid absorbing material, and a circuit that electrically couples to an indicator device. When assembled, the leak detection device detects and monitors for fluid leaks, providing a preselected response in conjunction with the indicator device when contacted by a fluid.

  20. Analytical Method Used to Calculate Pile Foundations with the Widening Up on a Horizontal Static Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupchikova, N. V.; Kurbatskiy, E. N.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the analytical research solutions for the work pile foundations with surface broadening and inclined side faces in the ground array, based on the properties of Fourier transform of finite functions. The comparative analysis of the calculation results using the suggested method for prismatic piles, piles with surface broadening prismatic with precast piles and end walls with precast wedges on the surface is described.

  1. An analytical method for determining the temperature dependent moisture diffusivities of pumpkin seeds during drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can, Ahmet [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Trakya, 22030 Edirne (Turkey)

    2007-02-15

    This paper presents an analytical method, which determines the moisture diffusion coefficients for the natural and forced convection hot air drying of pumpkin seeds and their temperature dependence. In order to obtain scientific data, the pumpkin seed drying process was investigated under both natural and forced hot air convection regimes. This paper presents the experimental results in which the drying air was heated by solar energy. (author)

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYTICAL METHODS IN METABOLOMICS FOR THE STUDY OF HEREDITARY AND ACQUIRED GENETIC DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Arvonio, Raffaele

    2011-01-01

    METABOLOMICS AND MASS SPECTROMETRY The research project take place in the branch of metabolomics, which involves the systematic study of the metabolites present in a cell and in this area MS, thanks to its potential to carry out controlled experiments of fragmentation, plays a role as a key methodology for identification of various metabolites. The work of thesis project is focused on the analytical methods development for the diagnosis of metabolic diseases and is divided as follows: ...

  3. Topology Optimization Design of 3D Continuum Structure with Reserved Hole Based on Variable Density Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Shiye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An objective function defined by minimum compliance of topology optimization for 3D continuum structure was established to search optimal material distribution constrained by the predetermined volume restriction. Based on the improved SIMP (solid isotropic microstructures with penalization model and the new sensitivity filtering technique, basic iteration equations of 3D finite element analysis were deduced and solved by optimization criterion method. All the above procedures were written in MATLAB programming language, and the topology optimization design examples of 3D continuum structure with reserved hole were examined repeatedly by observing various indexes, including compliance, maximum displacement, and density index. The influence of mesh, penalty factors, and filter radius on the topology results was analyzed. Computational results showed that the finer or coarser the mesh number was, the larger the compliance, maximum displacement, and density index would be. When the filtering radius was larger than 1.0, the topology shape no longer appeared as a chessboard problem, thus suggesting that the presented sensitivity filtering method was valid. The penalty factor should be an integer because iteration steps increased greatly when it is a noninteger. The above modified variable density method could provide technical routes for topology optimization design of more complex 3D continuum structures in the future.

  4. Analytic Methods for Evaluating Patterns of Multiple Congenital Anomalies in Birth Defect Registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Evans, Jane A; Lupo, Philip J

    2018-01-15

    It is estimated that 20 to 30% of infants with birth defects have two or more birth defects. Among these infants with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), co-occurring anomalies may represent either chance (i.e., unrelated etiologies) or pathogenically associated patterns of anomalies. While some MCA patterns have been recognized and described (e.g., known syndromes), others have not been identified or characterized. Elucidating these patterns may result in a better understanding of the etiologies of these MCAs. This article reviews the literature with regard to analytic methods that have been used to evaluate patterns of MCAs, in particular those using birth defect registry data. A popular method for MCA assessment involves a comparison of the observed to expected ratio for a given combination of MCAs, or one of several modified versions of this comparison. Other methods include use of numerical taxonomy or other clustering techniques, multiple regression analysis, and log-linear analysis. Advantages and disadvantages of these approaches, as well as specific applications, were outlined. Despite the availability of multiple analytic approaches, relatively few MCA combinations have been assessed. The availability of large birth defects registries and computing resources that allow for automated, big data strategies for prioritizing MCA patterns may provide for new avenues for better understanding co-occurrence of birth defects. Thus, the selection of an analytic approach may depend on several considerations. Birth Defects Research 110:5-11, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. An Analytical Model for CMUTs with Square Multilayer Membranes Using the Ritz Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT multilayer membrane plays an important role in the performance metrics including the transmitting efficiency and the receiving sensitivity. However, there are few studies of the multilayer membranes. Some analytical models simplify the multilayer membrane as monolayer, which results in inaccuracies. This paper presents a new analytical model for CMUTs with multilayer membranes, which can rapidly and accurately predict static deflection and response frequency of the multilayer membrane under external pressures. The derivation is based on the Ritz method and Hamilton’s principle. The mathematical relationships between the external pressure, static deflection, and response frequency are obtained. Relevant residual stress compensation method is derived. The model has been verified for three-layer and double-layer CMUT membranes by comparing its results with finite element method (FEM simulations, experimental data, and other monolayer models that treat CMUTs as monolayer plates/membranes. For three-layer CMUT membranes, the relative errors are ranging from 0.71%–3.51% for the static deflection profiles, and 0.35%–4.96% for the response frequencies, respectively. For the double-layer CMUT membrane, the relative error with residual stress compensation is 4.14% for the central deflection, and −1.17% for the response frequencies, respectively. This proposed analytical model can serve as a reliable reference and an accurate tool for CMUT design and optimization.

  6. Simulation of an Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer Array by Using Analytical Method and FDTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuedong Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we developed a method based on FEM and FDTD for the study of an Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer Array (EMAT. This paper presents a new analytical solution to the eddy current problem for the meander coil used in an EMAT, which is adapted from the classic Deeds and Dodd solution originally intended for circular coils. The analytical solution resulting from this novel adaptation exploits the large radius extrapolation and shows several advantages over the finite element method (FEM, especially in the higher frequency regime. The calculated Lorentz force density from the analytical EM solver is then coupled to the ultrasonic simulations, which exploit the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD method to describe the propagation of ultrasound waves, in particular for Rayleigh waves. Radiation pattern obtained with Hilbert transform on time-domain waveforms is proposed to characterise the sensor in terms of its beam directivity and field distribution along the steering angle, which can produce performance parameters for an EMAT array, facilitating the optimum design of such sensors.

  7. A first course in ordinary differential equations analytical and numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a modern introduction to analytical and numerical techniques for solving ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Contrary to the traditional format—the theorem-and-proof format—the book is focusing on analytical and numerical methods. The book supplies a variety of problems and examples, ranging from the elementary to the advanced level, to introduce and study the mathematics of ODEs. The analytical part of the book deals with solution techniques for scalar first-order and second-order linear ODEs, and systems of linear ODEs—with a special focus on the Laplace transform, operator techniques and power series solutions. In the numerical part, theoretical and practical aspects of Runge-Kutta methods for solving initial-value problems and shooting methods for linear two-point boundary-value problems are considered. The book is intended as a primary text for courses on the theory of ODEs and numerical treatment of ODEs for advanced undergraduate and early graduate students. It is assumed t...

  8. A novel analytical approximation technique for highly nonlinear oscillators based on the energy balance method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Alal Hosen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, a novel analytical approximation technique has been proposed based on the energy balance method (EBM to obtain approximate periodic solutions for the focus generalized highly nonlinear oscillators. The expressions of the natural frequency-amplitude relationship are obtained using a novel analytical way. The accuracy of the proposed method is investigated on three benchmark oscillatory problems, namely, the simple relativistic oscillator, the stretched elastic wire oscillator (with a mass attached to its midpoint and the Duffing-relativistic oscillator. For an initial oscillation amplitude A0 = 100, the maximal relative errors of natural frequency found in three oscillators are 2.1637%, 0.0001% and 1.201%, respectively, which are much lower than the errors found using the existing methods. It is highly remarkable that an excellent accuracy of the approximate natural frequency has been found which is valid for the whole range of large values of oscillation amplitude as compared with the exact ones. Very simple solution procedure and high accuracy that is found in three benchmark problems reveal the novelty, reliability and wider applicability of the proposed analytical approximation technique.

  9. Hanford environmental analytical methods (methods as of March 1990). Appendix A3-O and Appendix A3-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goheen, S.D.; McCulloch, M.; Daniel, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    Information is provided on the techniques employed towards the chemical analysis of volatile, semi-volatile matter, pesticides and PCB`s at the Hanford Reservation. Sample preparation methods are included.

  10. Effect of variable lorentz forces on nanofluid flow in movable parallel plates utilizing analytical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Hosseinzadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the examination of the effect of Brownian motion and thermophoresis phenomenon and Lewis number on MHD nanofluid flow along with the heat transfer between two parallel plates. Utilizing a suitable transformation for the velocity, temperature and concentration, the basic governing equations of the flow, heat and mass transfer were reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations. After the governing equation is derived; various analytical methods such as Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM, Collocation Method (CM and Finite Element Method (FEM are applied to deal with the problem. The obtained Results revealed that Collocation Method (CM has an excellent agreement with Finite Element numerical method, so it can be a proper analytical method for solving the problem. Then the influence of the following parameters is investigated: Brownian motion parameter (Nb, thermophoresis parameter (Nt, Squeeze number (S, Hartmann number (M and Lewis number (Le on non-dimensional temperature, velocity and nanoparticle concentration. The results indicated that increasing the Brownian motion parameter would cause an increase in temperature profile while the effect of increasing Brownian motion on concentration profile is vice versa, moreover, by increasing the Thermophoresis parameter we would have a decreases in temperature profile and an increase in concentration profile.

  11. Analytical and numerical methods for computing electron partial intensities in the case of multilayer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas’ev, Victor P.; Efremenko, Dmitry S.; Kaplya, Pavel S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The OKG-model is extended to finite thickness layers. • An efficient matrix technique for computing partial intensities is proposed. • Good agreement is obtained for computed partial intensities and experimental data. - Abstract: We present two novel methods for computing energy spectra and angular distributions of electrons emitted from multi-layer solids. They are based on the Ambartsumian–Chandrasekhar (AC) equations obtained by using the invariant imbedding method. The first method is analytical and relies on a linearization of AC equations and the use of the small-angle approximation. The corresponding solution is in good agreement with that computed by using the Oswald–Kasper–Gaukler (OKG) model, which is extended to the case of layers of finite thickness. The second method is based on the discrete ordinate formalism and relies on a transformation of the AC equations to the algebraic Ricatti and Lyapunov equations, which are solved by using the backward differential formula. Unlike the previous approach, this method can handle both linear and nonlinear equations. We analyze the applicability of the proposed methods to practical problems of computing REELS spectra. To demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methods, several computational examples are considered. Obtained numerical and analytical solutions show good agreement with the experimental data and Monte-Carlo simulations. In addition, the impact of nonlinear terms in the Ambartsumian–Chandrasekhar equations is analyzed.

  12. Analytical Method and Semianalytical Method for Analysis of Scattering by Anisotropic Sphere: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of methods for the electromagnetic scattering by an anisotropic sphere has been reviewed. Two main methods, angular expansion method and T-matrix method, which are widely used for the anisotropic sphere, are expressed in Cartesian coordinate firstly. The comparison of those and the further exploration on the scattering field are illustrated afterwards. Based on the most general form concluded by variable separation method, the coupled electric field and magnetic field of radial anisotropic sphere can be derived. By simplifying the condition, simpler case of uniaxial anisotropic media is expressed with confirmed coefficients for the internal and external field. Details of significant phenomenon are presented.

  13. An Analytical Method to Determine the Response of a Micro Capacitive Pressure Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Simha

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The response of a capacitive pressure sensor is generally represented by a fourth order partial differential equation which is complex to solve and does not possess an exact solution. Several attempts have been made earlier through various techniques such as the Galerkin method, Finite Difference Method etc. In this paper an attempt has been made to develop a simple approximate analytical approach to determine the response of a capacitive pressure sensor whose diaphragm is designed to undergo very small deflections (typically less than 25 % of the thickness. The non-uniform gap between the electrodes is mathematically expressed as a combination of the initial gap between the electrodes (in the undeformed state and a displacement function in (x, y. The proposed displacement function is then utilized in evaluating the capacitance as a function of the applied pressure. The results obtained from the analytical approach are benchmarked against those obtained from COMSOL Multiphysics®, a popular Finite Element Analysis tool in the MEMS industry. It is observed that the results obtained from COMSOL Multiphysics® and those from the analytical approach are in good agreement with a maximum deviation of about 3.38 %.

  14. Finite-analytic numerical method for unsteady two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.-J.; Chen, H.-C.

    1984-01-01

    A finite analytic (FA) numerical solution is developed for unsteady two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The FA method utilizes the analytic solution in a small local element to formulate the algebraic representation of partial differential equations. The combination of linear and exponential functions that satisfy the governing equation is adopted as the boundary function, thereby improving the accuracy of the finite analytic solution. Two flows, one a starting cavity flow and the other a vortex shedding flow behind a rectangular block, are solved by the FA method. The starting square cavity flow is solved for Reynolds number of 400, 1000, and 2000 to show the accuracy and stability of the FA solution. The FA solution for flow over a rectangular block (H x H/4) predicts the Strouhal number for Reynolds numbers of 100 and 500 to be 0.156 and 0.125. Details of the flow patterns are given. In addition to streamlines and vorticity distribution, rest-streamlines are given to illustrate the vortex motion downstream of the block.

  15. Analytical derivatives of the individual state energies in ensemble density functional theory method. I. General formalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, Michael; Liu, Fang; Martínez, Todd J

    2017-07-21

    The state-averaged (SA) spin restricted ensemble referenced Kohn-Sham (REKS) method and its state interaction (SI) extension, SI-SA-REKS, enable one to describe correctly the shape of the ground and excited potential energy surfaces of molecules undergoing bond breaking/bond formation reactions including features such as conical intersections crucial for theoretical modeling of non-adiabatic reactions. Until recently, application of the SA-REKS and SI-SA-REKS methods to modeling the dynamics of such reactions was obstructed due to the lack of the analytical energy derivatives. In this work, the analytical derivatives of the individual SA-REKS and SI-SA-REKS energies are derived. The final analytic gradient expressions are formulated entirely in terms of traces of matrix products and are presented in the form convenient for implementation in the traditional quantum chemical codes employing basis set expansions of the molecular orbitals. The implementation and benchmarking of the derived formalism will be described in a subsequent article of this series.

  16. An analytic method for S-expansion involving resonance and reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipinza, M.C.; Penafiel, D.M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); DISAT, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Torino (Italy); Lingua, F. [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Ravera, L. [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    In this paper we describe an analytic method able to give the multiplication table(s) of the set(s) involved in an S-expansion process (with either resonance or 0{sub S}-resonant-reduction) for reaching a target Lie (super)algebra from a starting one, after having properly chosen the partitions over subspaces of the considered (super)algebras. This analytic method gives us a simple set of expressions to find the subset decomposition of the set(s) involved in the process. Then, we use the information coming from both the initial (super)algebra and the target one for reaching the multiplication table(s) of the mentioned set(s). Finally, we check associativity with an auxiliary computational algorithm, in order to understand whether the obtained set(s) can describe semigroup(s) or just abelian set(s) connecting two (super)algebras. We also give some interesting examples of application, which check and corroborate our analytic procedure and also generalize some result already presented in the literature. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. The Methodical Instrumentarium for Analytical Monitoring of Markets for High-Tech Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaelian Suren G.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at clarifying the essential characteristics of high-tech products and specifying the features of analytical monitoring of markets for high-tech products. The conceptual approaches to interpretation of the essence of high-tech products as a basic concept in the categorical apparatus for researching the systemic and complex processes of technological development have been clarified. The most efficient instruments for assessing innovation processes in the high-tech sphere have been systematized. The methodical instrumentarium for analytical monitoring of the markets for high-tech products has been clarified. The terminology of a high-tech product has been clarified in order to formulate the methodical instrumentarium for analytical monitoring of market for high-tech products. It has been determined that «high-tech products» are the original basic concept in the categorical apparatus for researching the systemic and complex processes of the high-tech market that needs to be concretized. Conceptual approaches to the essence of high-tech products have been systematized.

  18. Origins, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Analytical Methods and Safety of Cortex Moutan (Paeonia suffruticosa Andrew): A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; He, Chunnian; Peng, Yong; Chen, Feihu; Xiao, Peigen

    2017-06-07

    Cortex Moutan (CM), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, is commonly used for treating various diseases in China and other eastern Asian countries. Recorded in Pharmacopeias of several countries, CM is now drawing increasing attention and under extensive studies in various fields. Phytochemical studies indicate that CM contains many valuable secondary metabolites, such as monoterpene glycosides and phenols. Ample evidence from pharmacological researches suggest that CM has a wide spectrum of activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, anti-diabetic, cardiovascular protective, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective effects. Moreover, various analytical methods were established for the quality evaluation and safety control of CM. This review synopsizes updated information concerning the origins, phytochemistry, pharmacology, analytical method and safety of CM, aiming to provide favorable references for modern CM research and application. In conclusion, continuing pharmacological investigations concerning CM should be conducted to unravel its pharmacological mechanisms. Further researches are necessary to obtain comprehensive and applicable analytical approach for quality evaluation and establish harmonized criteria of CM.

  19. An analytical method for the investigation of instability of a collisionless plasma in strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, V.U.

    1993-01-01

    An analytical method for the investigation of special types of dispersion relations is presented. In particular, analysis of the propagation of small-amplitude hydromagnetic waves in a collisionless plasma in a strong magnetic field leads to such dispersion relations. The fifth-degree dispersion relation corresponding to a particular case is considered. The necessary stability condition for a steady state and conditions for the degeneration of small-amplitude waves are derived. A comparison with other methods for the analysis of similar dispersion relations is also presented. (author)

  20. Numerical analytic continuation by a mollification method based on Hermite function expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenyu

    2012-04-01

    The numerical analytic continuation of a function f(z) = f(x + iy) on a strip is discussed in this paper. Data are only given approximately on the real axis. A mollification method based on expanded Hermite functions has been introduced to deal with the ill-posedness of the problem. We have shown that the mollification parameter can be chosen by a discrepancy principle and a corresponding error estimate has also been obtained. Numerical tests are given to show the effectiveness of the method.

  1. An analytical solution for the nonlinear energy spectrum equation by the decomposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulart, A [Universidade Federal do Pampa, Av. Tiaraju810, 97546-550 Alegrete, RS (Brazil); Vilhena, M T M B de; Bodmann, B E J [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Osvaldo Aranha 99/4, 90460-900 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Moreira, D [Universidade Federal do Pampa, Rua Carlos Barbosa S/N, 96412-420 Bage, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: bardo.bodmann@ufrgs.br

    2008-10-24

    We discuss the isotropic turbulence decay and solve the energy density spectrum (EDS) equation considering the inertial transfer energy and viscosity terms, using the Heisenberg parameterization. In the present approach, buoyant and shear terms are neglected and turbulence is assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic. The nonlinear integro-differential equation is solved by Adomian's generic decomposition method, which yields an analytical recursive expression and upon truncation gives an approximate solution. We show the resulting EDS and the time-dependent decay of the intensity of the turbulent kinetic energy. Our results prove consistent the Heisenberg parameterization for the transfer term of the inertial energy. The analytical character of the solution permits a validation of the nonlinear details of the physical model.

  2. Field sampling and selecting on-site analytical methods for explosives in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, A.B.; Craig, H.D.; Jenkins, T.F.; Sisk, W.E.

    1996-12-01

    A large number of defense-related sites are contaminated with elevated levels of secondary explosives. Levels of contamination range from barely detectable to levels above 10% that need special handling because of the detonation potential. Characterization of explosives-contaminated sites is particularly difficult because of the very heterogeneous distribution of contamination in the environment and within samples. To improve site characterization, several options exist including collecting more samples, providing on-site analytical data to help direct the investigation, compositing samples, improving homogenization of the samples, and extracting larger samples. This publication is intended to provide guidance to Remedial Project Managers regarding field sampling and on-site analytical methods for detecting and quantifying secondary explosive compounds in soils, and is not intended to include discussions of the safety issues associated with sites contaminated with explosive residues.

  3. Laboratory analytical methods for the determination of the hydrocarbon status of soils (a review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikovskii, Yu. I.; Korotkov, L. A.; Smirnova, M. A.; Kovach, R. G.

    2017-10-01

    Laboratory analytical methods suitable for the determination of the hydrocarbon status of soils (a specific soil characteristic involving information on the total content and qualitative features of soluble (bitumoid) carbonaceous substances and individual hydrocarbons (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkanes, etc.) in bitumoid, as well as the composition and content of hydrocarbon gases) have been considered. Among different physicochemical methods of study, attention is focused on the methods suitable for the wide use. Luminescence-bituminological analysis, low-temperature spectrofluorimetry (Shpolskii spectroscopy), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography, chromatography-mass spectrometry, and some other methods have been characterized, as well as sample preparation features. Advantages and limitations of each of these methods are described; their efficiency, instrumental complexity, analysis duration, and accuracy are assessed.

  4. Laboratory Techniques in Geology: Embedding Analytical Methods into the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedke, S. J.; Johnson, E. A.; Kearns, L. E.; Mazza, S. E.; Gazel, E.

    2014-12-01

    Paid summer REU experiences successfully engage undergraduate students in research and encourage them to continue to graduate school and scientific careers. However these programs only accommodate a limited number of students due to funding constraints, faculty time commitments, and limited access to needed instrumentation. At JMU, the Department of Geology and Environmental Science has embedded undergraduate research into the curriculum. Each student fulfilling a BS in Geology or a BA in Earth Science completes 3 credits of research, including a 1-credit course on scientific communication, 2 credits of research or internship, followed by a presentation of that research. Our department has successfully acquired many analytical instruments and now has an XRD, SEM/EDS, FTIR, handheld Raman, AA, ion chromatograph, and an IRMS. To give as many students as possible an overview to the scientific uses and operation methods for these instruments, we revived a laboratory methods course that includes theory and practical use of instrumentation at JMU, plus XRF sample preparation and analysis training at Virginia Tech during a 1-day field trip. In addition to practical training, projects included analytical concepts such as evaluating analytical vs. natural uncertainty, determining error on multiple measurements, signal-to-noise ratio, and evaluating data quality. State funding through the 4-VA program helped pay for analytical supplies and support for students to complete research projects over the summer or during the next academic year using instrumentation from the course. This course exemplifies an alternative path to broadening participation in undergraduate research and creating stronger partnerships between PUI's and research universities.

  5. Novel analytical methods for characterising binding media and protective coatings in artworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenech-Carbo, Maria Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Since the first reported analytical studies and technical examinations of art and archaeological objects conducted in the late 18th century, analytical techniques and methods applied to the study of artworks have constantly grown. Among the materials composing the art object, organic compounds used as binding media or protective coatings have attracted the attention of the conservation profession given their noticeable ability for undergoing morphological and chemical changes on ageing. Thus, the aim of this paper is to review the most recent advances in the identification and determination of organic compounds present in art and art conservation materials. Immunofluorescence techniques have been proposed in recent decades as an alternative to the classical and simpler microchemical tests. Besides, a variety of instrumental techniques have also been improved in an attempt to enhance the sensitivity, repeatability and accuracy of the analytical results. Spectroscopic techniques, such as UV-vis, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, have been coupled with light microscopes for these purposes. Synchrotron radiation FTIR microspectroscopy has also been successfully applied to the analysis of artworks. Mass spectrometry has also been increasingly used as a detector system coupled with a chromatographic device. Chromatographic methods have also improved in recent years. Paper and thin layer chromatographic techniques have been progressively replaced with gas chromatography (GC), pyrolysis-GC, high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. More complex proteomics hyphenated techniques, such as nano-liquid chromatography-nano-electrospray ionisation/collision quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry, have been recently applied to the identification and determination of proteinaceous binders. Microbeam analytical techniques have also been incorporated into the list of advanced instrumental techniques for art conservation purposes. Finally, a number

  6. Characterization of Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Oils: The Importance of Solvent Selection for Analytical Method Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, Jack R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ware, Anne E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-25

    Two catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) oils (bottom/heavy fraction) were analyzed in various solvents that are used in common analytical methods (nuclear magnetic resonance - NMR, gas chromatography - GC, gel permeation chromatography - GPC, thermogravimetric analysis - TGA) for oil characterization and speciation. A more accurate analysis of the CFP oils can be obtained by identification and exploitation of solvent miscibility characteristics. Acetone and tetrahydrofuran can be used to completely solubilize CFP oils for analysis by GC and tetrahydrofuran can be used for traditional organic GPC analysis of the oils. DMSO-d6 can be used to solubilize CFP oils for analysis by 13C NMR. The fractionation of oils into solvents that did not completely solubilize the whole oils showed that miscibility can be related to the oil properties. This allows for solvent selection based on physico-chemical properties of the oils. However, based on semi-quantitative comparisons of the GC chromatograms, the organic solvent fractionation schemes did not speciate the oils based on specific analyte type. On the other hand, chlorinated solvents did fractionate the oils based on analyte size to a certain degree. Unfortunately, like raw pyrolysis oil, the matrix of the CFP oils is complicated and is not amenable to simple liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) or solvent fractionation to separate the oils based on the chemical and/or physical properties of individual components. For reliable analyses, for each analytical method used, it is critical that the bio-oil sample is both completely soluble and also not likely to react with the chosen solvent. The adoption of the standardized solvent selection protocols presented here will allow for greater reproducibility of analysis across different users and facilities.

  7. Semi-analytical method for calculating aeroelastic effect of profiled rod flying at high velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-jun Ning

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The key technique of a kinetic energy rod (KER warhead is to control the flight attitude of rods. The rods are usually designed to different shapes. A new conceptual KER named profiled rod which has large L/D ratio is described in this paper. The elastic dynamic equations of this profiled rod flying at high velocity after detonation are set up on the basis of Euler-Bernoulli beam, and the aeroelastic deformation of profiled rod is calculated by semi-analytical method for calculating the vibration characteristics of variable cross-section beam. In addition, the aeroelastic deformation of the undeformed profiled rod and the aeroelastic deformation of deformed profiled rod which is caused by the detonation of explosive are simulated by computational fluid dynamic and finite element method (CFD/FEM, respectively. A satisfactory agreement of these two methods is obtained by the comparison of two methods. The results show that the semi-analytical method for calculating the vibration characteristics of variable cross-section beam is applied to analyze the aeroelastic deformation of profiled rod flying at high velocity.

  8. Simplex and duplex event-specific analytical methods for functional biotech maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong-Hun; Kim, Su-Jeong; Yi, Bu-Young

    2009-08-26

    Analytical methods are very important in the control of genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling systems or living modified organism (LMO) management for biotech crops. Event-specific primers and probes were developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis for biotech maize event 3272 and LY 038 on the basis of the 3' flanking regions, respectively. The qualitative primers confirmed the specificity by a single PCR product and sensitivity to 0.05% as a limit of detection (LOD). Simplex and duplex quantitative methods were also developed using TaqMan real-time PCR. One synthetic plasmid was constructed from two taxon-specific DNA sequences of maize and two event-specific 3' flanking DNA sequences of event 3272 and LY 038 as reference molecules. In-house validation of the quantitative methods was performed using six levels of mixing samples, from 0.1 to 10.0%. As a result, the biases from the true value and the relative deviations were all within the range of +/-30%. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) of the quantitative methods were all 0.1% for simplex real-time PCRs of event 3272 and LY 038 and 0.5% for duplex real-time PCR of LY 038. This study reports that event-specific analytical methods were applicable for qualitative and quantitative analysis for biotech maize event 3272 and LY 038.

  9. Determination of uranium in soil samples by different analytical extraction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knopke, J.; Sachse, R.

    1986-01-01

    As an approach for the development of a suitable analytic method for determining the uranium in soil that can be taken up by plants, the following analytical extraction methods are compared: 5M HNO 3 , HF for determination of uranium content, 0.05M MgCl 2 , and malate. The tests are made with various concentrations and extraction temperatures. MgCl 2 and malate leave the grain size spectrum of the soil samples untouched, other than the HNO 3 or HF method, and thus avoid the artificial weathering of the minerals and the resulting uranium release. The correlation of uranium content in soil and plant serves as a measure of evaluating the reliability of a method with regard to the uranium available for uptake. The method using malate is far better in terms of reliability under certain reaction conditions. This is why organic acids are classified to be suitable for determination of the uranium available for uptake by plants. (orig./PW) [de

  10. Long-term variability in sugarcane bagasse feedstock compositional methods: sources and magnitude of analytical variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, David W; Sluiter, Justin B; Sluiter, Amie; Payne, Courtney; Crocker, David P; Tao, Ling; Wolfrum, Ed

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to find economical, carbon-neutral transportation fuels, biomass feedstock compositional analysis methods are used to monitor, compare, and improve biofuel conversion processes. These methods are empirical, and the analytical variability seen in the feedstock compositional data propagates into variability in the conversion yields, component balances, mass balances, and ultimately the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). We report the average composition and standard deviations of 119 individually extracted National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) bagasse [Reference Material (RM) 8491] run by seven analysts over 7 years. Two additional datasets, using bulk-extracted bagasse (containing 58 and 291 replicates each), were examined to separate out the effects of batch, analyst, sugar recovery standard calculation method, and extractions from the total analytical variability seen in the individually extracted dataset. We believe this is the world's largest NIST bagasse compositional analysis dataset and it provides unique insight into the long-term analytical variability. Understanding the long-term variability of the feedstock analysis will help determine the minimum difference that can be detected in yield, mass balance, and efficiency calculations. The long-term data show consistent bagasse component values through time and by different analysts. This suggests that the standard compositional analysis methods were performed consistently and that the bagasse RM itself remained unchanged during this time period. The long-term variability seen here is generally higher than short-term variabilities. It is worth noting that the effect of short-term or long-term feedstock compositional variability on MESP is small, about $0.03 per gallon. The long-term analysis variabilities reported here are plausible minimum values for these methods, though not necessarily average or expected variabilities. We must emphasize the importance of training and good

  11. Multigroup, spatial kinetics for MOX-fueled LWRs based on harmonic analytical nodal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guobing

    2000-10-01

    There has been substantial evidence during the last several years that the core neutronics methods that have been developed for uranium fueled LWRs do not perform satisfactorily when applied to the same cores fueled with mixed oxide, or more generally to heterogeneous cores with very different neutron spectra. A two-dimensional, 97 group MOX benchmark problem was developed and applied to analyze deficiencies of the current generation of LWR analysis methods. The errors in the current two group, coarse mesh nodal diffusion methods were described in terms of four primary effects: (1) a homogenization effect, (2) a spatial discretization effect, (3) a group collapsing effect, and (4) a transport effect. The specific objective of the research here was to address the first three of these effects with the development of a four energy group advanced nodal method. Several methods have been proposed over the last several years for extending the current class of nodal methods to four energy groups. A Taylor series analysis was performed of the order of error in the various analytic nodal methods proposed. The analysis showed that the harmonic part of the error dominated in the Taylor expansion and it was therefore prudent to retain the harmonic solution in all four energy groups. A new nodal kernel referred to as the Harmonic Analytic Nodal Method (HANM) was developed and implemented within the framework of the nonlinear nodal method. HANM was applied to a MOX benchmark problem and results were compared to a 97 group reference solution. The errors in the two group solution were reduced by about 50% through the application of a four group HANM with minimal increase in the computational burden.

  12. Changes in the Concentrations of Corticoid Metabolites – The Effect of Stress, Diet and Analytical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Dušková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A precisely measured corticoid level is important for decision-making in daily clinical practice. These levels can be influenced in the pre-analytical phase, when the effect of stress, timing, and diet can be important. The aim of this study was to elucidate optimal conditions for blood sampling as well as the choice of analytical methods, which they will be used in measuring of corticoids. By studying ten women, we focused on the influences of the stress of cannulation and a large lunchtime meal on cortisol, cortisone, aldosterone and corticosterone levels. We further compared results of cortisol measurements from RIA and LC-MS/MS. Stress from cannulation caused increase of cortisol, cortisone and corticosterone already, when the cannula was being inserted. This indicates that this increase is stimulated by fear of the blood withdrawing rather, than just by the needle insertion itself. The effect of stress on corticosterone disappeared after an hour, while effect on other corticoids was still apparent. Concerning the lunchtime meal, we found an increase in all measured corticoids between 11 and 12 o’clock. After the food, there were marked decreases in cortisone and aldosterone, while declining levels of cortisol and corticosterone had rather plateaus. We compared cortisol in 90 plasma samples measured by a commercial RIA kit and the LC-MS/MS method. Results from both methods showed a strong correlation (r=0.85. When measuring corticoid metabolites, the chosen analytical method, eliminating stress factors, and precisely timed blood sampling considering the daily rhythm and food intake are critical.

  13. Analytical solutions of convection–diffusion problems by combining Laplace transform method and homotopy perturbation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Gupta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to present a user friendly numerical algorithm based on homotopy perturbation transform method for solving various linear and nonlinear convection-diffusion problems arising in physical phenomena where particles, energy, or other physical quantities are transferred inside a physical system due to two processes: diffusion and convection. The homotopy perturbation transform method is a combined form of the homotopy perturbation method and Laplace transform method. The nonlinear terms can be easily obtained by the use of He’s polynomials. The technique presents an accurate methodology to solve many types of partial differential equations The approximate solutions obtained by proposed scheme in a wide range of the problem’s domain were compared with those results obtained from the actual solutions. The comparison shows a precise agreement between the results.

  14. A new spinning reserve requirement forecast method for deregulated electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjady, Nima; Keynia, Farshid

    2010-01-01

    Ancillary services are necessary for maintaining the security and reliability of power systems and constitute an important part of trade in competitive electricity markets. Spinning Reserve (SR) is one of the most important ancillary services for saving power system stability and integrity in response to contingencies and disturbances that continuously occur in the power systems. Hence, an accurate day-ahead forecast of SR requirement helps the Independent System Operator (ISO) to conduct a reliable and economic operation of the power system. However, SR signal has complex, non-stationary and volatile behavior along the time domain and depends greatly on system load. In this paper, a new hybrid forecast engine is proposed for SR requirement prediction. The proposed forecast engine has an iterative training mechanism composed of Levenberg-Marquadt (LM) learning algorithm and Real Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA), implemented on the Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural network. The proposed forecast methodology is examined by means of real data of Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) electricity market and the California ISO (CAISO) controlled grid. The obtained forecast results are presented and compared with those of the other SR forecast methods. (author)

  15. Application of the invariant embedding method to analytically solvable transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlberg, Malin

    2005-05-01

    The applicability and performance of the invariant embedding method for calculating various transport quantities is investigated in this thesis. The invariant embedding method is a technique to calculate the reflected or transmitted fluxes in homogeneous half-spaces and slabs, without the need for solving for the flux inside the medium. In return, the embedding equations become non-linear, and in practical cases they need to be solved by numerical methods. There are, however, fast and effective iterative methods available for this purpose. The objective of this thesis is to investigate the performance of these iterative methods in model problems, in which also an exact analytical solution can be obtained. Some of these analytical solutions are also new, hence their derivation constitutes a part of the thesis work. The cases investigated in the thesis all concern the calculation of reflected fluxes from half-spaces. The first problem treated was the calculation of the energy spectrum of reflected (sputtered) particles from a multiplying medium, where the multiplication arises from recoil production (i.e. like binary fission), when bombarded by o flux of monoenergetic particles of the same type. Both constant cross sections and energy dependent cross sections with a power law dependence were used in the calculations. The second class of problems concerned the calculation of the path length distribution of reflected particles from a medium without multiplication. It is an interesting new observation that the distribution of the path length travelled in the medium before reflection can be calculated with invariant embedding methods, which actually do not solve the flux distribution in the medium. We have tested the accuracy and the convergence properties of the embedding method also for this case. Finally, very recently a theory of connecting the infinite and half-space medium solutions by embedding-like integral equations was developed and reported in the literature

  16. Analytical solutions for solute transport in groundwater and riverine flow using Green's Function Method and pertinent coordinate transformation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanskrityayn, Abhishek; Suk, Heejun; Kumar, Naveen

    2017-04-01

    In this study, analytical solutions of one-dimensional pollutant transport originating from instantaneous and continuous point sources were developed in groundwater and riverine flow using both Green's Function Method (GFM) and pertinent coordinate transformation method. Dispersion coefficient and flow velocity are considered spatially and temporally dependent. The spatial dependence of the velocity is linear, non-homogeneous and that of dispersion coefficient is square of that of velocity, while the temporal dependence is considered linear, exponentially and asymptotically decelerating and accelerating. Our proposed analytical solutions are derived for three different situations depending on variations of dispersion coefficient and velocity, respectively which can represent real physical processes occurring in groundwater and riverine systems. First case refers to steady solute transport situation in steady flow in which dispersion coefficient and velocity are only spatially dependent. The second case represents transient solute transport in steady flow in which dispersion coefficient is spatially and temporally dependent while the velocity is spatially dependent. Finally, the third case indicates transient solute transport in unsteady flow in which both dispersion coefficient and velocity are spatially and temporally dependent. The present paper demonstrates the concentration distribution behavior from a point source in realistically occurring flow domains of hydrological systems including groundwater and riverine water in which the dispersivity of pollutant's mass is affected by heterogeneity of the medium as well as by other factors like velocity fluctuations, while velocity is influenced by water table slope and recharge rate. Such capabilities give the proposed method's superiority about application of various hydrological problems to be solved over other previously existing analytical solutions. Especially, to author's knowledge, any other solution doesn

  17. A Review of Extraction and Analytical Methods for the Determination of Tartrazine (E 102) in Foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovina, Kobun; Siddiquee, Shafiquzzaman; Shaarani, Sharifudin Md

    2017-07-04

    Tartrazine is an azo food dye, which is orange-colored and water soluble. It is usually used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and textiles. Tartrazine has the potential to cause an adverse health effect on humans, such as hyperactivity in children, allergy, and asthma. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additive and EU Scientific Committee for Food have standardized the acceptable daily intake for tartrazine that is 7.5 mg kg -1 body weight. Many researchers have detected the presence of tartrazine for monitoring the quality and safety of food products. In this review paper, we highlighted various tartrazine detection and extraction methods. Some of the analytical methods are available such as high-performance liquid chromatography, electrochemical sensor, thin-layer chromatography, spectrophotometry, capillary electrophoresis, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Also, we discuss following extraction steps: liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, membrane filtration, cloud point extraction, and other extraction method. In addition, a brief overview is presented explaining the synthesis process and metabolism of tartrazine and the maximum permitted level in different countries. This review paper will give an insight into different extraction and analytical methods for the determination of tartrazine in healthy foods, which will attract the attention of public toward food safety and quality, and also the interest of food industry and government bodies.

  18. Evaluation of FTIR-based analytical methods for the analysis of simulated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebagay, T.V.; Cash, R.J.; Dodd, D.A.; Lockrem, L.L.; Meacham, J.E.; Winkelman, W.D.

    1994-01-01

    Three FTIR-based analytical methods that have potential to characterize simulated waste tank materials have been evaluated. These include: (1) fiber optics, (2) modular transfer optic using light guides equipped with non-contact sampling peripherals, and (3) photoacoustic spectroscopy. Pertinent instrumentation and experimental procedures for each method are described. The results show that the near-infrared (NIR) region of the infrared spectrum is the region of choice for the measurement of moisture in waste simulants. Differentiation of the NIR spectrum, as a preprocessing steps, will improve the analytical result. Preliminary data indicate that prominent combination bands of water and the first overtone band of the ferrocyanide stretching vibration may be utilized to measure water and ferrocyanide species simultaneously. Both near-infrared and mid-infrared spectra must be collected, however, to measure ferrocyanide species unambiguously and accurately. For ease of sample handling and the potential for field or waste tank deployment, the FTIR-Fiber Optic method is preferred over the other two methods. Modular transfer optic using light guides and photoacoustic spectroscopy may be used as backup systems and for the validation of the fiber optic data

  19. Performances of analytical methods for freshwater analysis assessed through intercomparison exercises. II. Major ions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert MUNTAU

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available From 1991 to 1997, nine intercomparison exercises on rainwater and freshwater samples were held in the framework of an activity connecting laboratories participating in different projects (Environmental studies in the Mediterranean basin, Italian network for the study of wet deposition, Acidification of mountain lakes, Limnological studies of Lake Léman, Monitoring of atmospheric deposition in forests. The number of participants increased from 72 in 1991 to 177 in 1997. Among the measured variables (pH, conductivity, alkalinity, major ions and nutrients, Ca, Mg, Na, K, ammonium, sulphate, chloride and nitrate are considered in this paper. The methods commonly used by the laboratories involved in the exercises are compared for precision, and an estimate of the performance of each method at different concentrations is made. The results show that some of the participating laboratories use analytical methods which are not reliable for the concentration values occurring in freshwater and/or in rainwater. However, outliers are also produced by laboratories using well-performing methods, indicating the importance of introducing analytical control procedures.

  20. A Multi-Projector Calibration Method for Virtual Reality Simulators with Analytically Defined Screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Portalés

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The geometric calibration of projectors is a demanding task, particularly for the industry of virtual reality simulators. Different methods have been developed during the last decades to retrieve the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of projectors, most of them being based on planar homographies and some requiring an extended calibration process. The aim of our research work is to design a fast and user-friendly method to provide multi-projector calibration on analytically defined screens, where a sample is shown for a virtual reality Formula 1 simulator that has a cylindrical screen. The proposed method results from the combination of surveying, photogrammetry and image processing approaches, and has been designed by considering the spatial restrictions of virtual reality simulators. The method has been validated from a mathematical point of view, and the complete system—which is currently installed in a shopping mall in Spain—has been tested by different users.

  1. Macro vs. Micro Methods in Non-Life Claims Reserving (an Econometric Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Charpentier

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, actuaries have used run-off triangles to estimate reserve (“macro” models, on aggregated data. However, it is possible to model payments related to individual claims. If those models provide similar estimations, we investigate uncertainty related to reserves with “macro” and “micro” models. We study theoretical properties of econometric models (Gaussian, Poisson and quasi-Poisson on individual data, and clustered data. Finally, applications in claims reserving are considered.

  2. Comparison of Three Analytical Methods for Separation of Mineral and Chelated Fraction from an Adulterated Zn-EDTA Fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.; Qazi, M.A.; Khan, N.A.; Mian, S.M.; Ahmed, N.; Ahmed, N.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Different analytical procedures are being employed in the world to quantify the chelated portion in a Zn-EDTA fertilizer. Agriculture Department, Government of the Punjab is following Shahid's analytical method in this regard. This method is based on Ion-chromatography (IC) that separates the mineral zinc (Zn) from an adulterated Zn-EDTA fertilizer sample i.e. mixture of mineral and chelated Zn fractions. To find out its effectiveness and suitability, this comparative study was carried out by analyzing adulterated, non-adulterated Zn-EDTA standard and Zn-EDTA samples taken from market in thrice following three methods namely Shahid's (IC) analytical method, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric (AAS) method based on the principle of precipitating the mineral Zn fraction at high pH value by using alkali solution of suitable concentration and analysis of filtrate containing only chelated fraction and Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method FM-841 respectively. Adulterated Zn-EDTA samples were prepared by mixing of known quantity of mineral Zn with chelated Zn-EDTA standard. The results showed that Shahid's analytical method and AAS method, both successfully estimated the chelated fraction. The AOAC FM-841 method was insensitive to put a ceiling on the mineral fraction hence did not furnish the reliable results. The Shahid's analytical method was selected being equallyeffective to produce reliable results both for solid and liquid Zn-EDTA samples. The AAS method was comparable in only liquid samples. (author)

  3. An Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources Solution for Plane Wave Scattering by Impedance Cylinders - A Reference Solution for the Numerical Method of Auxiliary Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2004-01-01

    To facilitate the validation of the numerical Method of Auxiliary Sources an analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solution is derived in this paper. The Analytical solution is valid for transverse magnetic, and electric, plane wave scattering by circular impedance Cylinders, and it is derived b...

  4. Analytical Methods for Quantification of Vitamin D and Implications for Research and Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Caroline S; Lammert, Frank; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2018-02-01

    A plethora of contradictory research surrounds vitamin D and its influence on health and disease. This may, in part, result from analytical difficulties with regard to measuring vitamin D metabolites in serum. Indeed, variation exists between analytical techniques and assays used for the determination of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Research studies into the effects of vitamin D on clinical endpoints rely heavily on the accurate assessment of vitamin D status. This has important implications, as findings from vitamin D-related studies to date may potentially have been hampered by the quantification techniques used. Likewise, healthcare professionals are increasingly incorporating vitamin D testing and supplementation regimens into their practice, and measurement errors may be also confounding the clinical decisions. Importantly, the Vitamin D Standardisation Programme is an initiative that aims to standardise the measurement of vitamin D metabolites. Such a programme is anticipated to eliminate the inaccuracies surrounding vitamin D quantification. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  5. Simplified Analytical Method for Optimized Initial Shape Analysis of Self-Anchored Suspension Bridges and Its Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Rag Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A simplified analytical method providing accurate unstrained lengths of all structural elements is proposed to find the optimized initial state of self-anchored suspension bridges under dead loads. For this, equilibrium equations of the main girder and the main cable system are derived and solved by evaluating the self-weights of cable members using unstrained cable lengths and iteratively updating both the horizontal tension component and the vertical profile of the main cable. Furthermore, to demonstrate the validity of the simplified analytical method, the unstrained element length method (ULM is applied to suspension bridge models based on the unstressed lengths of both cable and frame members calculated from the analytical method. Through numerical examples, it is demonstrated that the proposed analytical method can indeed provide an optimized initial solution by showing that both the simplified method and the nonlinear FE procedure lead to practically identical initial configurations with only localized small bending moment distributions.

  6. Analytical methods used for the authentication of food of animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ouissam; Zadravec, Manuela; Baeten, Vincent; Mikuš, Tomislav; Lešić, Tina; Vulić, Ana; Prpić, Jelena; Jemeršić, Lorena; Pleadin, Jelka

    2018-04-25

    Since adulteration can have serious consequences on human health, it affects market growth by destroying consumer confidence. Therefore, authentication of food is important for food processors, retailers and consumers, but also for regulatory authorities. However, a complex nature of food and an increase in types of adulterants make their detection difficult, so that food authentication often poses a challenge. This review focuses on analytical approaches to authentication of food of animal origin, with an emphasis put on determination of specific ingredients, geographical origin and adulteration by virtue of substitution. This review highlights a current overview of the application of target approaches in cases when the compound of interest is known and non-target approaches for screening issues. Papers cited herein mainly concern milk, cheese, meat and honey. Moreover, advantages, disadvantages as well as challenges regarding the use of both approaches in official food control but also in food industry are investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of analytical methods for the determination of trace elements in sediment with Neutron ActivAtion method (NAA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sang Ho; Kim, Jae Jin; Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha

    2005-01-01

    The analytical methods for the determination of major elements (Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg) in sediment have been investigated with ICP-MS. The analytical results of major elements with Cool ICP-MS were much better than those with normal ICP-MS. The analytical results were compared with those of NAA. NAA were a little superior to ICP-MS for the determination of major elements in sediment, and NAA is a non-destructive analytical method. The analytical methods for the determination of minor elements (Cr, Ce, U, Co, Pb, As, Se) in sediment have been also studied with ICP-MS. The analytical results by standard calibration with ICP-MS were not accurate due to matrix interferences. Thus, internal standard method was applied, then the analytical results for minor element with ICP-MS were greatly improved. The analytical results obtained by ICP-MS were compared with those obtained by NAA. It showed that the two analytical methods have great capabilities for the determination of minor elements in sediments

  8. Analytical X-ray microscopy using laboratory sources: Method and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulveryck, J.M.; Odof, S.; Patat, J.M.; Mouze, D.

    2000-01-01

    The implementation of X-ray imaging techniques (X-Ray Projection Microscopy or X-Ray Microtomography) for analytical purpose with laboratory equipment is not easily obtainable, due to the use of polychromatic X-ray sources. To overcome this drawback, we propose here a mathematical technique based upon the calculation of the X-ray emission spectra and the knowledge of the spectral response of the camera. For example, we show that the composition of a ternary sample can be deduced from two images measurements recorded from two primary radiation. The accuracy of the method is discussed

  9. A Comparison of Two Approaches for the Ruggedness Testing of an Analytical Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maestroni, Britt

    2016-01-01

    As part of an initiative under the “Red Analitica de Latino America y el Caribe” (RALACA) network the FAO/IAEA Food and Environmental Protection Laboratory validated a multi-residue method for pesticides in potato. One of the parameters to be assessed was the intra laboratory robustness or ruggedness. The objective of this work was to implement a worked example for RALACA laboratories to test for the robustness (ruggedness) of an analytical method. As a conclusion to this study, it is evident that there is a need for harmonization of the definition of the terms robustness/ruggedness, the limits, the methodology and the statistical treatment of the generated data. A worked example for RALACA laboratories to test for the robustness (ruggedness) of an analytical method will soon be posted on the RALACA website (www.red-ralaca.net). This study was carried out with collaborators from LVA (Austria), University of Antwerp (Belgium), University of Leuwen (The Netherlands), Universidad de la Republica (Uruguay) and Agilent technologies.

  10. Selection and authentication of botanical materials for the development of analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applequist, Wendy L; Miller, James S

    2013-05-01

    Herbal products, for example botanical dietary supplements, are widely used. Analytical methods are needed to ensure that botanical ingredients used in commercial products are correctly identified and that research materials are of adequate quality and are sufficiently characterized to enable research to be interpreted and replicated. Adulteration of botanical material in commerce is common for some species. The development of analytical methods for specific botanicals, and accurate reporting of research results, depend critically on correct identification of test materials. Conscious efforts must therefore be made to ensure that the botanical identity of test materials is rigorously confirmed and documented through preservation of vouchers, and that their geographic origin and handling are appropriate. Use of material with an associated herbarium voucher that can be botanically identified is always ideal. Indirect methods of authenticating bulk material in commerce, for example use of organoleptic, anatomical, chemical, or molecular characteristics, are not always acceptable for the chemist's purposes. Familiarity with botanical and pharmacognostic literature is necessary to determine what potential adulterants exist and how they may be distinguished.

  11. Analytical methods applied to the study of lattice gauge and spin theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreo, Adriana.

    1985-01-01

    A study of interactions between quarks and gluons is presented. Certain difficulties of the quantum chromodynamics to explain the behaviour of quarks has given origin to the technique of lattice gauge theories. First the phase diagrams of the discrete space-time theories are studied. The analysis of the phase diagrams is made by numerical and analytical methods. The following items were investigated and studied: a) A variational technique was proposed to obtain very accurated values for the ground and first excited state energy of the analyzed theory; b) A mean-field-like approximation for lattice spin models in the link formulation which is a generalization of the mean-plaquette technique was developed; c) A new method to study lattice gauge theories at finite temperature was proposed. For the first time, a non-abelian model was studied with analytical methods; d) An abelian lattice gauge theory with fermionic matter at the strong coupling limit was analyzed. Interesting results applicable to non-abelian gauge theories were obtained. (M.E.L.) [es

  12. Problem of the Moving Boundary in Continuous Casting Solved by The Analytic-Numerical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzymkowski R.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of thermal processes combined with the reversible phase transitions of type: solid phase - liquid phase leads to formulation of the parabolic or elliptic moving boundary problem. Solution of such defined problem requires, most often, to use some sophisticated numerical techniques and far advanced mathematical tools. The paper presents an analytic-numerical method, especially attractive from the engineer’s point of view, applied for finding the approximate solutions of the selected class of problems which can be reduced to the one-phase solidification problem of a plate with the unknown a priori, varying in time boundary of the region in which the solution is sought. Proposed method is based on the known formalism of initial expansion of a sought function, describing the field of temperature, into the power series, some coefficients of which are determined with the aid of boundary conditions, and on the approximation of a function defining the freezing front location with the broken line, parameters of which are determined numerically. The method represents a combination of the analytical and numerical techniques and seems to be an effective and relatively easy in using tool for solving problems of considered kind.

  13. Problem of the Moving Boundary in Continuous Casting Solved by the Analytic-Numerical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Grzymkowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of thermal processes combined with the reversible phase transitions of type: solid phase – liquid phase leads to formulation of the parabolic or elliptic moving boundary problem. Solution of such defined problem requires, most often, to use some sophisticated numerical techniques and far advanced mathematical tools. The paper presents an analytic-numerical method, especially attractive from the engineer’s point of view, applied for finding the approximate solutions of the selected class of problems which can be reduced to the one-phase solidification problem of a plate with the unknown a priori, varying in time boundary of the region in which the solution is sought. Proposed method is based on the known formalism of initial expansion of a sought function, describing the field of temperature, into the power series, some coefficients of which are determined with the aid of boundary conditions, and on the approximation of a function defining the freezing front location with the broken line, parameters of which are determined numerically. The method represents a combination of the analytical and numerical techniques and seems to be an effective and relatively easy in using tool for solving problems of considered kind.

  14. A shipboard comparison of analytic methods for ballast water compliance monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradie, Johanna; Broeg, Katja; Gianoli, Claudio; He, Jianjun; Heitmüller, Susanne; Curto, Alberto Lo; Nakata, Akiko; Rolke, Manfred; Schillak, Lothar; Stehouwer, Peter; Vanden Byllaardt, Julie; Veldhuis, Marcel; Welschmeyer, Nick; Younan, Lawrence; Zaake, André; Bailey, Sarah

    2018-03-01

    Promising approaches for indicative analysis of ballast water samples have been developed that require study in the field to examine their utility for determining compliance with the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments. To address this gap, a voyage was undertaken on board the RV Meteor, sailing the North Atlantic Ocean from Mindelo (Cape Verde) to Hamburg (Germany) during June 4-15, 2015. Trials were conducted on local sea water taken up by the ship's ballast system at multiple locations along the trip, including open ocean, North Sea, and coastal water, to evaluate a number of analytic methods that measure the numeric concentration or biomass of viable organisms according to two size categories (≥ 50 μm in minimum dimension: 7 techniques, ≥ 10 μm and scientific approaches (e.g. flow cytometry). Several promising indicative methods were identified that showed high correlation with microscopy, but allow much quicker processing and require less expert knowledge. This study is the first to concurrently use a large number of analytic tools to examine a variety of ballast water samples on board an operational ship in the field. Results are useful to identify the merits of each method and can serve as a basis for further improvement and development of tools and methodologies for ballast water compliance monitoring.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ANALYTICAL METHOD TO EVALUATE THE INTEGRITY OF A CALANDRIA TUBE IN THE CASE OF PRESSURE TUBE RUPTURE

    OpenAIRE

    森下 善嗣

    1990-01-01

    An analytical method which consists of two‐dimensional thermal‐hydraulic analysis and three‐dimensional structural analysis has been proposed to evaluate the integrity of a calandria tube in the case of pressure tube rupture in a pressure tube type reactor.In order to validate the method,experiments were carried out with coaxially arranged double tubes simulating a pressure tube and a calandria tube.Experimental data were also comparedwith analytical results with the proposed method.

  16. Determination of Matric Suction and Saturation Degree for Unsaturated Soils, Comparative Study - Numerical Method versus Analytical Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiorean, Vasile-Florin

    2017-10-01

    Matric suction is a soil parameter which influences the behaviour of unsaturated soils in both terms of shear strength and permeability. It is a necessary aspect to know the variation of matric suction in unsaturated soil zone for solving geotechnical issues like unsaturated soil slopes stability or bearing capacity for unsaturated foundation ground. Mathematical expression of the dependency between soil moisture content and it’s matric suction (soil water characteristic curve) has a powerful character of nonlinearity. This paper presents two methods to determine the variation of matric suction along the depth included between groundwater level and soil level. First method is an analytical approach to emphasize one direction steady state unsaturated infiltration phenomenon that occurs between the groundwater level and the soil level. There were simulated three different situations in terms of border conditions: precipitations (inflow conditions on ground surface), evaporation (outflow conditions on ground surface), and perfect equilibrium (no flow on ground surface). Numerical method is finite element method used for steady state, two-dimensional, unsaturated infiltration calculus. Regarding boundary conditions there were simulated identical situations as in analytical approach. For both methods, was adopted the equation proposed by van Genuchten-Mualen (1980) for mathematical expression of soil water characteristic curve. Also for the unsaturated soil permeability prediction model was adopted the equation proposed by van Genuchten-Mualen. The fitting parameters of these models were adopted according to RETC 6.02 software in function of soil type. The analyses were performed in both methods for three major soil types: clay, silt and sand. For each soil type were concluded analyses for three situations in terms of border conditions applied on soil surface: inflow, outflow, and no flow. The obtained results are presented in order to highlight the differences

  17. Analytical methods for analysis of neutron cross sections of amino acids and proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voi, Dante L.; Ferreira, Francisco de O.; Nunes, Rogerio Chaffin; Carvalheira, Luciana, E-mail: dante@ien.gov.br, E-mail: fferreira@ien.gov.br, E-mail: Chaffin@ien.gov.br, E-mail: luciana@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Hélio F. da, E-mail: helionutro@gmail.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IPPMG/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Pediatria

    2017-07-01

    Two unpublished analytical processes were developed at IEN-CNEN-RJ for the analysis of neutron cross sections of chemical compounds and complex molecules, the method of data parceling and grouping (P and G) and the method of data equivalence and similarity (E and S) of cross-sections. The former allows the division of a complex compound or molecule so that the parts can be manipulated to construct a value of neutron cross section for the compound or the entire molecule. The second method allows by comparison obtain values of neutron cross-sections of specific parts of the compound or molecule, as the amino acid radicals or its parts. The processes were tested for the determination of neutron cross-sections of the 20 human amino acids and a small database was built for future use in the construction of neutron cross-sections of proteins and other components of the human being cells, also in other industrial applications. (author)

  18. Analytical methods for analysis of neutron cross sections of amino acids and proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voi, Dante L.; Ferreira, Francisco de O.; Nunes, Rogerio Chaffin; Carvalheira, Luciana; Rocha, Hélio F. da

    2017-01-01

    Two unpublished analytical processes were developed at IEN-CNEN-RJ for the analysis of neutron cross sections of chemical compounds and complex molecules, the method of data parceling and grouping (P and G) and the method of data equivalence and similarity (E and S) of cross-sections. The former allows the division of a complex compound or molecule so that the parts can be manipulated to construct a value of neutron cross section for the compound or the entire molecule. The second method allows by comparison obtain values of neutron cross-sections of specific parts of the compound or molecule, as the amino acid radicals or its parts. The processes were tested for the determination of neutron cross-sections of the 20 human amino acids and a small database was built for future use in the construction of neutron cross-sections of proteins and other components of the human being cells, also in other industrial applications. (author)

  19. On the selection of optimized carbon nano tube synthesis method using analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besharati, M. K.; Afaghi Khatibi, A.; Akbari, M.

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from the early and late industrializes shows that technology, as the commercial application of scientific knowledge, has been a major driver of industrial and economic development. International technology transfer is now being recognized as having played an important role in the development of the most successful late industrializes of the second half of the twentieth Century. Our society stands to be significantly influenced by carbon nano tubes, shaped by nano tube applications in every aspect, just as silicon-based technology still shapes society today. Nano tubes can be formed in various structures using several different processing methods. In this paper, the synthesis methods used to produce nano tubes in industrial or laboratory scales are discussed and a comparison is made. A technical feasibility study is conducted by using the multi criteria decision-making model, namely Analytic Hierarchy Process. The article ends with a discussion of selecting the best method of Technology Transferring of Carbon Nano tubes to Iran

  20. Suitability of analytical methods to measure solubility for the purpose of nanoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantra, Ratna; Bouwmeester, Hans; Bolea, Eduardo; Rey-Castro, Carlos; David, Calin A; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Jarman, John; Laborda, Francisco; Laloy, Julie; Robinson, Kenneth N; Undas, Anna K; van der Zande, Meike

    2016-01-01

    Solubility is an important physicochemical parameter in nanoregulation. If nanomaterial is completely soluble, then from a risk assessment point of view, its disposal can be treated much in the same way as "ordinary" chemicals, which will simplify testing and characterisation regimes. This review assesses potential techniques for the measurement of nanomaterial solubility and evaluates the performance against a set of analytical criteria (based on satisfying the requirements as governed by the cosmetic regulation as well as the need to quantify the concentration of free (hydrated) ions). Our findings show that no universal method exists. A complementary approach is thus recommended, to comprise an atomic spectrometry-based method in conjunction with an electrochemical (or colorimetric) method. This article shows that although some techniques are more commonly used than others, a huge research gap remains, related with the need to ensure data reliability.

  1. Continuous Analytical Performances Monitoring at the On-Site Laboratory through Proficiency, Inter-Laboratory Testing and Inter-Comparison Analytical Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhamel, G.; Decaillon, J.-G.; Dashdondog, S.; Kim, C.-K.; Toervenyi, A.; Hara, S.; Kato, S.; Kawaguchi, T.; Matsuzawa, K.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2008, as one measure to strengthen its quality management system, the On-Site Laboratory for nuclear safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant, has increased its participation in domestic and international proficiency and inter-laboratory testing for the purpose of determining analytical method accuracy, precision and robustness but also to support method development and improvement. This paper provides a description of the testing and its scheduling. It presents the way the testing was optimized to cover most of the analytical methods at the OSL. The paper presents the methodology used for the evaluation of the obtained results based on Analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results are discussed with respect to random, systematic and long term systematic error. (author)

  2. Simple analytical technique for liquid scintillation counting of environmental carbon-14 using gel suspension method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okai, Tomio; Wakabayashi, Genichiro; Nagao, Kenjiro; Matoba, Masaru; Ohura, Hirotaka; Momoshima, Noriyuki; Kawamura, Hidehisa

    2000-01-01

    A simple analytical technique for liquid scintillation counting of environmental 14 C was developed. Commercially available gelling agent, N-lauroyl-L -glutamic -α,γ-dibutylamide, was used for the gel-formation of the samples (gel suspension method) and for the subsequent liquid scintillation counting of 14 C in the form of CaCO 3 . Our procedure for sample preparation is much simpler than that of the conventional methods and requires no special equipment. Self absorption, stability and reproducibility of gel suspension samples were investigated in order to evaluate the characteristics of the gel suspension method for 14 C activity measurement. The self absorption factor is about 70% and slightly decrease as CaCO 3 weight increase. This is considered to be mainly due to the absorption of β-rays and scintillation light by the CaCO 3 sample itself. No change of the counting rate for the gel suspension sample was observed for more than 2 years after the sample preparation. Four samples were used for checking the reproducibility of the sample preparation method. The same values were obtained for the counting rate of 24 C activity within the counting error. No change of the counting rate was observed for the 're-gelated' sample. These results show that the gel suspension method is appropriate for the 14 C activity measurement by the liquid scintillation counting method and useful for a long-term preservation of the sample for repeated measurement. The above analytical technique was applied to actual environmental samples in Fukuoka prefecture, Japan. Results obtained were comparable with those by other researchers and appear to be reasonable. Therefore, the newly developed technique is useful for the routine monitoring of environmental 14 C. (author)

  3. Recent Trends in Analytical Methods to Determine New Psychoactive Substances in Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Pellegrini, Manuela; García-Algar, Oscar; Marinelli, Enrico; Zaami, Simona

    2017-01-01

    New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) belong to several chemical classes, including phenethylamines, piperazines, synthetic cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids. Development and validation of analytical methods for the determination of NPS both in traditional and alternative matrices is of crucial importance to study drug metabolism and to associate consumption to clinical outcomes and eventual intoxication symptoms. Among different biological matrices, hair is the one with the widest time window to investigate drug-related history and demonstrate past intake. The aim of this paper was to overview the trends of the rapidly evolving analytical methods for the determination of NPS in hair and the usefulness of these methods when applied to real cases. A number of rapid and sensitive methods for the determination of NPS in hair matrix has been recently published, most of them using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Hair digestion and subsequent solid phase extraction or liquid-liquid extraction were described as well as extraction in organic solvents. For most of the methods limits of quantification at picogram per milligram hair were obtained. The measured concentrations for most of the NPS in real samples were in the range of picograms of drug per milligram of hair. Interpretation of the results and lack of cut-off values for the discrimination between chronic consumption and occasional use or external contamination are still challenging. Methods for the determination of NPS in hair are continually emerging to include as many NPS as possible due to the great demand for their detection. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Approximate Analytical Solutions of Fractional Perturbed Diffusion Equation by Reduced Differential Transform Method and the Homotopy Perturbation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhoujin Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The approximate analytical solutions of differential equations with fractional time derivative are obtained with the help of a general framework of the reduced differential transform method (RDTM and the homotopy perturbation method (HPM. RDTM technique does not require any discretization, linearization, or small perturbations and therefore it reduces significantly the numerical computation. Comparing the methodology (RDTM with some known technique (HPM shows that the present approach is effective and powerful. The numerical calculations are carried out when the initial conditions in the form of periodic functions and the results are depicted through graphs. The two different cases have studied and proved that the method is extremely effective due to its simplistic approach and performance.

  5. Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Lestiani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem. The objectives of this study are to apply the nuclear analytical techniques to airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung, to assess the accuracy and to ensure the reliable of analytical results through the comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA and particles induced X-ray emission (PIXE. Particle samples in the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 ranges have been collected in Bandung twice a week for 24 hours using a Gent stacked filter unit. The result showed that generally there was a systematic difference between INAA and PIXE results, which the values obtained by PIXE were lower than values determined by INAA. INAA is generally more sensitive and reliable than PIXE for Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Fe, Br and I, therefore INAA data are preffered, while PIXE usually gives better precision than INAA for Mg, K, Ca, Ti and Zn. Nevertheless, both techniques provide reliable results and complement to each other. INAA is still a prospective method, while PIXE with the special capabilities is a promising tool that could contribute and complement the lack of NAA in determination of lead, sulphur and silicon. The combination of INAA and PIXE can advantageously be used in air pollution studies to extend the number of important elements measured as key elements in source apportionment.

  6. CRMS vegetation analytical team framework: Methods for collection, development, and use of vegetation response variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretini, Kari F.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Krauss, Ken W.; Steyer, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    This document identifies the main objectives of the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) vegetation analytical team, which are to provide (1) collection and development methods for vegetation response variables and (2) the ways in which these response variables will be used to evaluate restoration project effectiveness. The vegetation parameters (that is, response variables) collected in CRMS and other coastal restoration projects funded under the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) are identified, and the field collection methods for these parameters are summarized. Existing knowledge on community and plant responses to changes in environmental drivers (for example, flooding and salinity) from published literature and from the CRMS and CWPPRA monitoring dataset are used to develop a suite of indices to assess wetland condition in coastal Louisiana. Two indices, the floristic quality index (FQI) and a productivity index, are described for herbaceous and forested vegetation. The FQI for herbaceous vegetation is tested with a long-term dataset from a CWPPRA marsh creation project. Example graphics for this index are provided and discussed. The other indices, an FQI for forest vegetation (that is, trees and shrubs) and productivity indices for herbaceous and forest vegetation, are proposed but not tested. New response variables may be added or current response variables removed as data become available and as our understanding of restoration success indicators develops. Once indices are fully developed, each will be used by the vegetation analytical team to assess and evaluate CRMS/CWPPRA project and program effectiveness. The vegetation analytical teams plan to summarize their results in the form of written reports and/or graphics and present these items to CRMS Federal and State sponsors, restoration project managers, landowners, and other data users for their input.

  7. Habitat characterization of the Tortugas Ecological Reserve south using photographic and quadrat methods.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We supply habitat characterization data along a single randomly oriented transect at each of 16 sampling stations in the Tortugas South Ecological Reserve. This...

  8. Orthogonal analytical methods for botanical standardization: determination of green tea catechins by qNMR and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, José G; Gödecke, Tanja; Lankin, David C; Jaki, Birgit U; McAlpine, James B; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F

    2014-05-01

    The development of analytical methods for parallel characterization of multiple phytoconstituents is essential to advance the quality control of herbal products. While chemical standardization is commonly carried out by targeted analysis using gas or liquid chromatography-based methods, more universal approaches based on quantitative (1)H NMR (qHNMR) measurements are being used increasingly in the multi-targeted assessment of these complex mixtures. The present study describes the development of a 1D qHNMR-based method for simultaneous identification and quantification of green tea constituents. This approach utilizes computer-assisted (1)H iterative Full Spin Analysis (HiFSA) and enables rapid profiling of seven catechins in commercial green tea extracts. The qHNMR results were cross-validated against quantitative profiles obtained with an orthogonal LC-MS/MS method. The relative strengths and weaknesses of both approaches are discussed, with special emphasis on the role of identical reference standards in qualitative and quantitative analyses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in food products: analytical methods to define nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ruud J B; van Bemmel, Greet; Herrera-Rivera, Zahira; Helsper, Hans P F G; Marvin, Hans J P; Weigel, Stefan; Tromp, Peter C; Oomen, Agnes G; Rietveld, Anton G; Bouwmeester, Hans

    2014-07-09

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a common food additive used to enhance the white color, brightness, and sometimes flavor of a variety of food products. In this study 7 food grade TiO2 materials (E171), 24 food products, and 3 personal care products were investigated for their TiO2 content and the number-based size distribution of TiO2 particles present in these products. Three principally different methods have been used to determine the number-based size distribution of TiO2 particles: electron microscopy, asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation combined with inductively coupled mass spectrometry, and single-particle inductively coupled mass spectrometry. The results show that all E171 materials have similar size distributions with primary particle sizes in the range of 60-300 nm. Depending on the analytical method used, 10-15% of the particles in these materials had sizes below 100 nm. In 24 of the 27 foods and personal care products detectable amounts of titanium were found ranging from 0.02 to 9.0 mg TiO2/g product. The number-based size distributions for TiO2 particles in the food and personal care products showed that 5-10% of the particles in these products had sizes below 100 nm, comparable to that found in the E171 materials. Comparable size distributions were found using the three principally different analytical methods. Although the applied methods are considered state of the art, they showed practical size limits for TiO2 particles in the range of 20-50 nm, which may introduce a significant bias in the size distribution because particles <20 nm are excluded. This shows the inability of current state of the art methods to support the European Union recommendation for the definition of nanomaterials.

  10. Investigation of potential analytical methods for redox control of the vitrification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, D.S.

    1985-11-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate several analytical techniques to measure ferrous/ferric ratios in simulated and radioactive nuclear waste glasses for eventual redox control of the vitrification process. Redox control will minimize the melt foaming that occurs under highly oxidizing conditions and the metal precipitation that occurs under highly reducing conditions. The analytical method selected must have a rapid response for production problems with minimal complexity and analyst involvement. The wet-chemistry, Moessbauer spectroscopy, glass color analysis, and ion chromatography techniques were explored, with particular emphasis being placed on the Moessbauer technique. In general, all of these methods can be used for nonradioactive samples. The Moessbauer method can readily analyze glasses containing uranium and thorium. A shielded container was designed and built to analyze fully radioactive glasses with the Moessbauer spectrometer in a hot cell environment. However, analyses conducted with radioactive waste glasses containing 90 Sr and 137 Cs were unsuccessful, presumably due to background radiation problems caused by the samples. The color of glass powder can be used to analyze the ferrous/ferric ratio for low chromium glasses, but this method may not be as precise as the others. Ion chromatography was only tested on nonradioactive glasses, but this technique appears to have the required precision due to its analysis of both Fe +2 and Fe +3 and its anticipated adaptability for radioactivity samples. This development would be similar to procedures already in use for shielded inductively coupled plasma emission (ICP) spectrometry. Development of the ion chromatography method is therefore recommended; conventional wet-chemistry is recommended as a backup procedure

  11. The fitness for purpose of analytical methods applied to fluorimetric uranium determination in water matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinman, Ana; Giustina, Daniel; Mondini, Julia; Diodat, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper describes the steps which should be followed by a laboratory in order to validate the fluorimetric method for natural uranium in water matrix. The validation of an analytical method is a necessary requirement prior accreditation under Standard norm ISO/IEC 17025, of a non normalized method. Different analytical techniques differ in a sort of variables to be validated. Depending on the chemical process, measurement technique, matrix type, data fitting and measurement efficiency, a laboratory must set up experiments to verify reliability of data, through the application of several statistical tests and by participating in Quality Programs (QP) organized by reference laboratories such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), National Physics Laboratory (NPL), or Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML). However, the participation in QP not only involves international reference laboratories, but also, the national ones which are able to prove proficiency to the Argentinean Accreditation Board. The parameters that the ARN laboratory had to validate in the fluorimetric method to fit in accordance with Eurachem guide and IUPAC definitions, are: Detection Limit, Quantification Limit, Precision, Intra laboratory Precision, Reproducibility Limit, Repeatability Limit, Linear Range and Robustness. Assays to fit the above parameters were designed on the bases of statistics requirements, and a detailed data treatment is presented together with the respective tests in order to show the parameters validated. As a final conclusion, the uranium determination by fluorimetry is a reliable method for direct measurement to meet radioprotection requirements in water matrix, within its linear range which is fixed every time a calibration is carried out at the beginning of the analysis. The detection limit ( depending on blank standard deviation and slope) varies between 3 ug U and 5 ug U which yields minimum detectable concentrations (MDC) of

  12. An Analytical Method for Determining the Load Distribution of Single-Column Multibolt Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirut Konkong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of geometric variables on the bolt load distributions of a cold-formed steel bolt connection. The study was conducted using an experimental test, finite element analysis, and an analytical method. The experimental study was performed using single-lap shear testing of a concentrically loaded bolt connection fabricated from G550 cold-formed steel. Finite element analysis with shell elements was used to model the cold-formed steel plate while solid elements were used to model the bolt fastener for the purpose of studying the structural behavior of the bolt connections. Material nonlinearities, contact problems, and a geometric nonlinearity procedure were used to predict the failure behavior of the bolt connections. The analytical method was generated using the spring model. The bolt-plate interaction stiffness was newly proposed which was verified by the experiment and finite element model. It was applied to examine the effect of geometric variables on the single-column multibolt connection. The effects were studied of varying bolt diameter, plate thickness, and the plate thickness ratio (t2/t1 on the bolt load distribution. The results of the parametric study showed that the t2/t1 ratio controlled the efficiency of the bolt load distribution more than the other parameters studied.

  13. Development of a Framework for Sustainable Outsourcing: Analytic Balanced Scorecard Method (A-BSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio De Felice

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many enterprises choose to outsource its non-core business to other enterprises to reduce cost and increase the efficiency. Many enterprises choose to outsource their supply chain management (SCM and leave it to a third-party organization in order to improve their services. The paper proposes an integrated and multicriteria tool useful to monitor and to improve performance in an outsourced supply chain. The Analytic Balanced Scorecard method (A-BSC is proposed as an effective method useful to analyze strategic performance within an outsourced supply chain. The aim of the paper is to present the integration of two methodologies: Balanced Scorecard, a multiple perspective framework for performance assessment, and Analytic Hierarchy Process, a decision-making tool used to prioritize multiple performance perspectives and to generate a unified metric. The development of the framework is aimed to provide a performance analysis to achieve better sustainability performance of supply chain. A real case study concerning a typical value chain is presented.

  14. An analytical method for predicting the geometrical and optical properties of the human lens under accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheil, Conor J.; Bahrami, Mehdi; Goncharov, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    We present an analytical method to describe the accommodative changes in the human crystalline lens. The method is based on the geometry-invariant lens model, in which the gradient-index (GRIN) iso-indicial contours are coupled to the external shape. This feature ensures that any given number of iso-indicial contours does not change with accommodation, which preserves the optical integrity of the GRIN structure. The coupling also enables us to define the GRIN structure if the radii and asphericities of the external lens surfaces are known. As an example, the accommodative changes in lenticular radii and central thickness were taken from the literature, while the asphericities of the external surfaces were derived analytically by adhering to the basic physical conditions of constant lens volume and its axial position. The resulting changes in lens geometry are consistent with experimental data, and the optical properties are in line with expected values for optical power and spherical aberration. The aim of the paper is to provide an anatomically and optically accurate lens model that is valid for 3 mm pupils and can be used as a new tool for better understanding of accommodation. PMID:24877022

  15. An analytical method to compute comet cloud formation efficiency and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasser, Ramon; Duncan, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    A quick analytical method is presented for calculating comet cloud formation efficiency in the case of a single planet or multiple-planet system for planets that are not too eccentric ( e p ≲ 0.3). A method to calculate the fraction of comets that stay under the control of each planet is also presented, as well as a way to determine the efficiency in different star cluster environments. The location of the planet(s) in mass-semi-major axis space to form a comet cloud is constrained based on the conditions developed by Tremaine (1993) together with estimates of the likelyhood of passing comets between planets; and, in the case of a single, eccentric planet, the additional constraint that it is, by itself, able to accelerate material to relative encounter velocity U ~ 0.4 within the age of the stellar system without sweeping up the majority of the material beforehand. For a single planet, it turns out the efficiency is mainly a function of planetary mass and semi-major axis of the planet and density of the stellar environment. The theory has been applied to some extrasolar systems and compared to numerical simulations for both these systems and the Solar System, as well as a diffusion scheme based on the energy kick distribution of Everhart (Astron J 73:1039 1052, 1968). The analytic results are in good agreement with the simulations.

  16. On New Families of Integrals in Analytical Studies of Superconductors within the Conformal Transformation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Gonczarek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that, by applying the conformal transformation method, strongly correlated superconducting systems can be discussed in terms of the Fermi liquid with a variable density of states function. Within this approach, it is possible to formulate and carry out purely analytical study based on a set of fundamental equations. After presenting the mathematical structure of the s-wave superconducting gap and other quantitative characteristics of superconductors, we evaluate and discuss integrals inherent in fundamental equations describing superconducting systems. The results presented here extend the approach formulated by Abrikosov and Maki, which was restricted to the first-order expansion. A few infinite families of integrals are derived and allow us to express the fundamental equations by means of analytical formulas. They can be then exploited in order to find quantitative characteristics of superconducting systems by the method of successive approximations. We show that the results can be applied in studies of high-Tc superconductors and other superconducting materials of the new generation.

  17. Assessing the Sustainability of Decentralized Renewable Energy Systems: A Comprehensive Framework with Analytical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Katre

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of models of Decentralized Renewable Energy (DRE systems, particularly for rural electrification, is growing globally. Most approaches to assess the sustainability of these solutions beyond simple techno-economic considerations are comparative in nature, and only allow us to evaluate performance within a set of other interventions. This leaves a gap in our understanding of the conditions for a specific model to be sustainable and whether its replication is likely to succeed. The approach suggested develops a framework to evaluate the sustainability of specific models for energy access individually and proposes analytical methods to illustrate its use. It combines the multi-dimensional analysis over five sustainability dimensions and the Multi-Tier Framework (MTF to assess technical sustainability, extending MTF’s rigorous scoring methodology to the other dimensions. The scores are based on qualitative and quantitative data collected from key stakeholders, taking into account different perspectives and aims. The framework and analytical methods are exemplified using a subset of data collected in over 40 off-grid DRE systems utilizing a common community ownership and hybrid financial structure. The proposed methodology can be used to understand the sustainability conditions of a given approach to energy access and can therefore be used by practitioners and policy makers to develop strategies and guide policies to roll out effective solutions.

  18. Determination of perfluorinated compounds in human plasma and serum standard reference materials using independent analytical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiner, Jessica L. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Analytical Chemistry Division, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); National Institute of Standards and Technology, Analytical Chemistry Division, Hollings Marine Laboratory, Charleston, SC (United States); Phinney, Karen W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Analytical Chemistry Division, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Keller, Jennifer M. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Analytical Chemistry Division, Hollings Marine Laboratory, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in three National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) (SRMs 1950 Metabolites in Human Plasma, SRM 1957 Organic Contaminants in Non-fortified Human Serum, and SRM 1958 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum) using two analytical approaches. The methods offer some independence, with two extraction types and two liquid chromatographic separation methods. The first extraction method investigated the acidification of the sample followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a weak anion exchange cartridge. The second method used an acetonitrile extraction followed by SPE using a graphitized non-porous carbon cartridge. The extracts were separated using a reversed-phase C{sub 8} stationary phase and a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) stationary phase. Measured values from both methods for the two human serum SRMs, 1957 and 1958, agreed with reference values on the Certificates of Analysis. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) values were obtained for the first time in human plasma SRM 1950 with good reproducibility among the methods (below 5% relative standard deviation). The nominal mass interference from taurodeoxycholic acid, which has caused over estimation of the amount of PFOS in biological samples, was separated from PFOS using the PFP stationary phase. Other PFCs were also detected in SRM 1950 and are reported. SRM 1950 can be used as a control material for human biomonitoring studies and as an aid to develop new measurement methods. (orig.)

  19. Simple analytical methods for computing the gravity-wave contribution to the cosmic background radiation anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.

    1996-01-01

    We present two simple analytical methods for computing the gravity-wave contribution to the cosmic background radiation (CBR) anisotropy in inflationary models; one method uses a time-dependent transfer function, the other methods uses an approximate gravity-mode function which is a simple combination of the lowest order spherical Bessel functions. We compare the CBR anisotropy tensor multipole spectrum computed using our methods with the previous result of the highly accurate numerical method, the open-quote open-quote Boltzmann close-quote close-quote method. Our time-dependent transfer function is more accurate than the time-independent transfer function found by Turner, White, and Lindsey; however, we find that the transfer function method is only good for l approx-lt 120. Using our approximate gravity-wave mode function, we obtain much better accuracy; the tensor multipole spectrum we find differs by less than 2% for l approx-lt 50, less than 10% for l approx-lt 120, and less than 20% for l≤300 from the open-quote open-quote Boltzmann close-quote close-quote result. Our approximate graviton mode function should be quite useful in studying tensor perturbations from inflationary models. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  20. An Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources Solution for Plane Wave Scattering by Impedance Cylinders - A Reference Solution for the Numerical Method of Auxiliary Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2004-01-01

    To facilitate the validation of the numerical Method of Auxiliary Sources an analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solution is derived in this paper. The Analytical solution is valid for transverse magnetic, and electric, plane wave scattering by circular impedance Cylinders, and it is derived...... of the numerical Method of Auxiliary Sources for a range of scattering configurations....... with their singularities at different positions away from the origin. The transformation necessitates a truncation of the wave transformation but the inaccuracy introduced hereby is shown to be negligible. The analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solution is employed as a reference to investigate the accuracy...

  1. Analytical methods in untargeted metabolomics: state of the art in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnald eAlonso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics comprises the methods and techniques that are used to measure the small molecule composition of biofluids and tissues, and is actually one of the most rapidly evolving research fields. The determination of the metabolomic profile –the metabolome- has multiple applications in many biological sciences, including the developing of new diagnostic tools in medicine. Recent technological advances in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and mass spectrometry (MS are significantly improving our capacity to obtain more data from each biological sample. Consequently, there is a need for fast and accurate statistical and bioinformatic tools that can deal with the complexity and volume of the data generated in metabolomic studies. In this review we provide an update of the most commonly used analytical methods in metabolomics, starting from raw data processing and ending with pathway analysis and biomarker identification. Finally, the integration of metabolomic profiles with molecular data from other high throughput biotechnologies is also reviewed.

  2. Volatilization of volatile organic compounds from showers—I. Analytical method and quantitative assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancrède, M.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Wilson, R.

    To provide data to test mathematical models developed to predict human exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) volatilizing from showers, an analytical method was developed to analyze the simultaneous volatilization of VOCs in the water and humid air of showers. Five VOCs with a wide range of Henry's law constants were used. Experiments, conducted in a full-scale shower, were performed at initial water concentrations nearing tap water VOC concentrations (a few μgλ -1). VOCs in water and humid air samples were concentrated by purge-and-trap, thermally desorbed from a Tenax trap and analyzed with a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector. The fraction of the VOCs volatilized from showers at various water temperatures and flow rates were calculated. Mass-balane equations indicated the presence of sinks of VOCs in the experimental shower other than those due to the airflow. An experimental method to measure the residence time of the water in the shower is presented.

  3. Methods used by Elsam for monitoring precision and accuracy of analytical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinnerskov Jensen, J. [Soenderjyllands Hoejspaendingsvaerk, Faelleskemikerne, Aabenraa (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    Performing round robins at regular intervals is the primary method used by ELsam for monitoring precision and accuracy of analytical results. The firs round robin was started in 1974, and today 5 round robins are running. These are focused on: boiler water and steam, lubricating oils, coal, ion chromatography and dissolved gases in transformer oils. Besides the power plant laboratories in Elsam, the participants are power plant laboratories from the rest of Denmark, industrial and commercial laboratories in Denmark, and finally foreign laboratories. The calculated standard deviations or reproducibilities are compared with acceptable values. These values originate from ISO, ASTM and the like, or from own experiences. Besides providing the laboratories with a tool to check their momentary performance, the round robins are vary suitable for evaluating systematic developments on a long term basis. By splitting up the uncertainty according to methods, sample preparation/analysis, etc., knowledge can be extracted from the round robins for use in many other situations. (au)

  4. The application of analytical methods to the study of Pareto - optimal control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research articles - - methods of multicriteria optimization and their application for parametric synthesis of double-circuit control systems in conditions of inconsistency of individual criteria. The basis for solving multicriteria problems is a fundamental principle of a multi-criteria choice - the principle of the Edgeworth - Pareto. Getting Pareto - optimal variants due to inconsistency of individual criteria does not mean reaching a final decision. Set these options only offers the designer (DM.An important issue when using traditional numerical methods is their computational cost. An example is the use of methods of sounding the parameter space, including with use of uniform grids and uniformly distributed sequences. Very complex computational task is the application of computer methods of approximation bounds of Pareto.The purpose of this work is the development of a fairly simple search methods of Pareto - optimal solutions for the case of the criteria set out in the analytical form.The proposed solution is based on the study of the properties of the analytical dependences of criteria. The case is not covered so far in the literature, namely, the topology of the task, in which no touch of indifference curves (lines level. It is shown that for such tasks may be earmarked for compromise solutions. Prepositional use of the angular position of antigradient to the indifference curves in the parameter space relative to the coordinate axes. Formulated propositions on the characteristics of comonotonicity and contramonotonicity and angular characteristics of antigradient to determine Pareto optimal solutions. Considers the General algorithm of calculation: determine the scope of permissible values of parameters; investigates properties comonotonicity and contraventanas; to build an equal level (indifference curves; determined touch type: single sided (task is not strictly multicriteria or bilateral (objective relates to the Pareto

  5. New analytical solutions for conformable fractional PDEs arising in mathematical physics by exp-function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasbozan, Orkun; Çenesiz, Yücel; Kurt, Ali; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2017-11-01

    Modelling of physical systems mathematically, produces nonlinear evolution equations. Most of the physical systems in nature are intrinsically nonlinear, therefore modelling such systems mathematically leads us to nonlinear evolution equations. The analysis of the wave solutions corresponding to the nonlinear partial differential equations (NPDEs), has a vital role for studying the nonlinear physical events. This article is written with the intention of finding the wave solutions of Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov and Klein-Gordon equations. For this purpose, the exp-function method, which is based on a series of exponential functions, is employed as a tool. This method is an useful and suitable tool to obtain the analytical solutions of a considerable number of nonlinear FDEs within a conformable derivative.

  6. Nonlinear PTO Effect on Performance of Vertical Axisymmetric Wave Energy Converter Using Semi-Analytical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ming

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The wave energy, as a clean and non-pollution renewable energy sources, has become a hot research topic at home and abroad and is likely to become a new industry in the future. In this article, to effectively extract and maximize the energy from ocean waves, a vertical axisymmetric wave energy converter (WEC was presented according to investigating of the advantages and disadvantages of the current WEC. The linear and quadratic equations in frequency-domain for the reactive controlled single-point converter property under regular waves condition are proposed for an efficient power take-off (PTO. A method of damping coefficients, theoretical added mass and exciting force are calculated with the analytical method which is in use of the series expansion of eigen functions. The loads of optimal reactive and resistive, the amplitudes of corresponding oscillation, and the width ratios of energy capture are determined approximately and discussed in numerical results.

  7. Analytic Method on Characteristic Parameters of Bacteria in Water by Multiwavelength Transmission Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxia Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytic method together with the Mie scattering theory and Beer-Lambert law is proposed for the characteristic parameter determination of bacterial cells (Escherichia coli 10389 from multiwavelength transmission spectroscopy measurements. We calculate the structural parameters of E. coli cells, and compared with the microscopy, the relative error of cell volume is 7.90%, the cell number is compared with those obtained by plate counting, the relative error is l.02%, and the nucleic content and protein content of single E. coli cells are consistent with the data reported elsewhere. The proposed method can obtain characteristic parameters of bacteria as an excellent candidate for the rapid detection and identification of bacteria in the water.

  8. INTEGRATING DATA ANALYTICS AND SIMULATION METHODS TO SUPPORT MANUFACTURING DECISION MAKING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibira, Deogratias; Hatim, Qais; Kumara, Soundar; Shao, Guodong

    2015-12-01

    Modern manufacturing systems are installed with smart devices such as sensors that monitor system performance and collect data to manage uncertainties in their operations. However, multiple parameters and variables affect system performance, making it impossible for a human to make informed decisions without systematic methodologies and tools. Further, the large volume and variety of streaming data collected is beyond simulation analysis alone. Simulation models are run with well-prepared data. Novel approaches, combining different methods, are needed to use this data for making guided decisions. This paper proposes a methodology whereby parameters that most affect system performance are extracted from the data using data analytics methods. These parameters are used to develop scenarios for simulation inputs; system optimizations are performed on simulation data outputs. A case study of a machine shop demonstrates the proposed methodology. This paper also reviews candidate standards for data collection, simulation, and systems interfaces.

  9. Development and use of a sampling and analytical method for azodicarbonamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenholz, S H; Neumeister, C E

    1987-05-01

    Azodicarbonamide is a medium temperature blowing agent used in the production of foamed polymers. Because of worker concern over health effects associated with its use, researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted two health hazard evaluations. This paper describes the health concerns, the sampling and analytical method used, the environments sampled and the results of these surveys. Environmental samples were collected on Teflon filters for total dust and airborne concentration of azodicarbonamide. Analysis was accomplished by high performance liquid chromatography with identification and quantitation by UV detector response ratioing. Use of this method provided the sensitivity and specificity to analyze airborne azodicarbonamide concentrations and allowed evaluation of a workplace environment for a respiratory health hazard.

  10. A novel approach to evaluate soil heat flux calculation: An analytical review of nine methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhongming; Russell, Eric S.; Missik, Justine E. C.; Huang, Maoyi; Chen, Xingyuan; Strickland, Chris E.; Clayton, Ray; Arntzen, Evan; Ma, Yulong; Liu, Heping

    2017-07-01

    There are no direct methods to evaluate calculated soil heat flux (SHF) at the surface (G0). Instead, validation and cross evaluation of methods for calculating G0 usually rely on the conventional calorimetric method or the degree of the surface energy balance closure. However, there is uncertainty in the calorimetric method itself, and factors apart from G0 also contribute to nonclosure of the surface energy balance. Here we used a novel approach to evaluate nine different methods for calculating SHF, including the calorimetric method and methods based on analytical solutions of the heat diffusion equation. The SHF (Gz) measured by a self-calibrating SHF plate at a depth of z = 5 cm below the surface (hereafter Gm_5cm) was deployed as a reference. Each SHF calculation method was assessed by comparing the calculated Gz at the same depth (hereafter Gc_5cm) with Gm_5cm. The calorimetric method and simple measurement method performed best in determining Gc_5cm but still underestimated Gm_5cm by 19% during the daytime. Possible causes for this underestimation include errors and uncertainties in SHF measurements and soil thermal properties, as well as the phase lag between Gc_5cm and Gm_5cm. Our results indicate that the calorimetric method achieves the most accurate SHF estimates if self-calibrating SHF plates are deployed at two depths (e.g., 5 cm and 10 cm), soil temperature and water content measurements are made in a few depths between the two plates, and soil thermal properties are accurately quantified.

  11. An analytical method for well-formed workflow/Petri net verification of classical soundness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clempner Julio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider workflow nets as dynamical systems governed by ordinary difference equations described by a particular class of Petri nets. Workflow nets are a formal model of business processes. Well-formed business processes correspond to sound workflow nets. Even if it seems necessary to require the soundness of workflow nets, there exist business processes with conditional behavior that will not necessarily satisfy the soundness property. In this sense, we propose an analytical method for showing that a workflow net satisfies the classical soundness property using a Petri net. To present our statement, we use Lyapunov stability theory to tackle the classical soundness verification problem for a class of dynamical systems described by Petri nets. This class of Petri nets allows a dynamical model representation that can be expressed in terms of difference equations. As a result, by applying Lyapunov theory, the classical soundness property for workflow nets is solved proving that the Petri net representation is stable. We show that a finite and non-blocking workflow net satisfies the sound property if and only if its corresponding PN is stable, i.e., given the incidence matrix A of the corresponding PN, there exists a Փ strictly positive m vector such that AՓ≤ 0. The key contribution of the paper is the analytical method itself that satisfies part of the definition of the classical soundness requirements. The method is designed for practical applications, guarantees that anomalies can be detected without domain knowledge, and can be easily implemented into existing commercial systems that do not support the verification of workflows. The validity of the proposed method is successfully demonstrated by application examples.

  12. parallelMCMCcombine: an R package for bayesian methods for big data and analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnikov, Alexey; Conlon, Erin M

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in big data and analytics research have provided a wealth of large data sets that are too big to be analyzed in their entirety, due to restrictions on computer memory or storage size. New Bayesian methods have been developed for data sets that are large only due to large sample sizes. These methods partition big data sets into subsets and perform independent Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analyses on the subsets. The methods then combine the independent subset posterior samples to estimate a posterior density given the full data set. These approaches were shown to be effective for Bayesian models including logistic regression models, Gaussian mixture models and hierarchical models. Here, we introduce the R package parallelMCMCcombine which carries out four of these techniques for combining independent subset posterior samples. We illustrate each of the methods using a Bayesian logistic regression model for simulation data and a Bayesian Gamma model for real data; we also demonstrate features and capabilities of the R package. The package assumes the user has carried out the Bayesian analysis and has produced the independent subposterior samples outside of the package. The methods are primarily suited to models with unknown parameters of fixed dimension that exist in continuous parameter spaces. We envision this tool will allow researchers to explore the various methods for their specific applications and will assist future progress in this rapidly developing field.

  13. Comparation of fundamental analytical methods for quantitative determination of copper(IIion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ačanski Marijana M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper is a ductile metal with excellent electrical conductivity, and finds extensive use as an electrical conductor, heat conductor, as a building material, and as a component of various alloys. In this work accuracy of methods for quantitative determination (gravimetric and titrimetric methods of analysis of copper(II ion was studied. Gravimetric methods do not require a calibration or standardization step (as all other analytical procedures except coulometry do because the results are calculated directly from the experimental data and molar masses. Thus, when only one or two samples are to be analyzed, a gravimetric procedure may be the method of choice because it involves less time and effort than a procedure that requires preparation of standards and calibration. In this work in gravimetric analysis the concentration of copper(II ion is established through the measurement of a mass of CuSCN and CuO. Titrimetric methods is a process in which a standard reagent is added to a solution of an analyze until the reaction between the analyze and reagent is judged to be complete. In this work in titrimetric analysis the concentration of copper(II ion is established through the measurement of a volume of different standard reagents: Km, Na2S2O3 and AgNO3. Results were discussed individually and mutually with the aspect of exactility, reproductivity and rapidity. Relative error was calculated for all methods.

  14. Analytical Solution of Nonlinear Dynamics of a Self-Igniting Reaction-Diffusion System Using Modified Adomian Decomposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Shirly Peace

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of the dynamics of the self-ignition of a reaction-diffusion system is studied in this paper. An approximate analytical method (modified Adomian decomposition method is used to solve nonlinear differential equations under steady-state condition. Analytical expressions for concentrations of the gas reactant and the temperature have been derived for Lewis number (Le and parameters β, γ, and ϕ2. Furthermore, in this work, the numerical simulation of the problem is also reported using MATLAB program. An agreement between analytical and numerical results is noted.

  15. Improvement of Methods for Detection of Signs of Errors and Omissions in the Financial Statements Based on Analytical Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Kostyantyn Bezverkhiy

    2014-01-01

    Analytical work within enterprises aimed to prevent omissions of financial reporting data should play a leading role in the work program of accountant, analyst and auditor. The article is devoted to the improvement of methods for detection signs of errors and omissions in the financial statements by applying analytical procedures. It was established that the main issues at implementation of the concept of financial statements control in the enterprise are the lack of adopted methods to detect...

  16. Utilizing global data to estimate analytical performance on the Sigma scale: A global comparative analysis of methods, instruments, and manufacturers through external quality assurance and proficiency testing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgard, Sten A

    2016-06-01

    To assess the analytical performance of instruments and methods through external quality assessment and proficiency testing data on the Sigma scale. A representative report from five different EQA/PT programs around the world (2 US, 1 Canadian, 1 UK, and 1 Australasian) was accessed. The instrument group standard deviations were used as surrogate estimates of instrument imprecision. Performance specifications from the US CLIA proficiency testing criteria were used to establish a common quality goal. Then Sigma-metrics were calculated to grade the analytical performance. Different methods have different Sigma-metrics for each analyte reviewed. Summary Sigma-metrics estimate the percentage of the chemistry analytes that are expected to perform above Five Sigma, which is where optimized QC design can be implemented. The range of performance varies from 37% to 88%, exhibiting significant differentiation between instruments and manufacturers. Median Sigmas for the different manufacturers in three analytes (albumin, glucose, sodium) showed significant differentiation. Chemistry tests are not commodities. Quality varies significantly from manufacturer to manufacturer, instrument to instrument, and method to method. The Sigma-assessments from multiple EQA/PT programs provide more insight into the performance of methods and instruments than any single program by itself. It is possible to produce a ranking of performance by manufacturer, instrument and individual method. Laboratories seeking optimal instrumentation would do well to consult this data as part of their decision-making process. To confirm that these assessments are stable and reliable, a longer term study should be conducted that examines more results over a longer time period. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analytical quality assurance in veterinary drug residue analysis methods: matrix effects determination and monitoring for sulfonamides analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Rodrigo Barcellos; Rübensam, Gabriel; Jank, Louise; Barreto, Fabiano; Peralba, Maria do Carmo Ruaro; Pizzolato, Tânia Mara; Silvia Díaz-Cruz, M; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-01

    In residue analysis of veterinary drugs in foodstuff, matrix effects are one of the most critical points. This work present a discuss considering approaches used to estimate, minimize and monitoring matrix effects in bioanalytical methods. Qualitative and quantitative methods for estimation of matrix effects such as post-column infusion, slopes ratios analysis, calibration curves (mathematical and statistical analysis) and control chart monitoring are discussed using real data. Matrix effects varying in a wide range depending of the analyte and the sample preparation method: pressurized liquid extraction for liver samples show matrix effects from 15.5 to 59.2% while a ultrasound-assisted extraction provide values from 21.7 to 64.3%. The matrix influence was also evaluated: for sulfamethazine analysis, losses of signal were varying from -37 to -96% for fish and eggs, respectively. Advantages and drawbacks are also discussed considering a workflow for matrix effects assessment proposed and applied to real data from sulfonamides residues analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Waste minimization methods for treating analytical instrumentation effluents at the source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, J.A.; Barnhart, C.

    1995-01-01

    The primary goal of this project was to reduce the amount of hazardous waste being generated by the Savannah River Siste Defense Waste Processing Technology-analytical Laboratory (DWPT-AL). A detailed characterization study was performed on 12 of the liquid effluent streams generated within the DWPT-AL. Two of the streams were not hazardous, and are now being collected separately from the 10 hazardous streams. A secondary goal of the project was to develop in-line methods using primarily adsorption/ion exchange columns to treat liquid effluent as it emerges from the analytical instrument as a slow, dripping flow. Samples from the 10 hazardous streams were treated by adsorption in an experimental apparatus that resembled an in-line or at source column apparatus. The layered adsorbent bed contained activated carbon and ion exchange resin. The column technique did not work on the first three samples of the spectroscopy waste stream, but worked well on the next three samples which were treated in a different column. It was determined that an unusual form of mercury was present in the first three samples. Similarly, two samples of a combined waste stream were rendered nonhazardous, but the last two samples contained acetylnitrile that prevented analysis. The characteristics of these streams changed from the initial characterization study; therefore, continual, in-deptch stream characterization is the key to making this project successful

  19. Scenarios and analytical methods for UF6 releases at NRC-licensed fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siman-Tov, M.; Dykstra, J.; Holt, D.D.; Huxtable, W.P.; Just, R.A.; Williams, W.R.

    1984-06-01

    This report identifies and discusses potential scenarios for the accidental release of UF 6 at NRC-licensed UF 6 production and fuel fabrication facilities based on a literature review, site visits, and DOE enrichment plant experience. Analytical tools needed for evaluating source terms for such releases are discussed, and the applicability of existing methods is reviewed. Accident scenarios are discussed under the broad headings of cylinder failures, UF 6 process system failures, nuclear criticality events, and operator errors and are categorized by location, release source, phase of UF 6 prior to release, release flow characteristics, release causes, initiating events, and UF 6 inventory at risk. At least three types of releases are identified for further examination: (1) a release from a liquid-filled cylinder outdoors, (2) a release from a pigtail or cylinder in a steam chest, (3) an indoor release from either (a) a pigtail or liquid-filled cylinder or (b) other indoor source depending on facility design and operating procedures. Indoor release phenomena may be analyzed to determine input terms for a ventilation model by using a time-dependent homogeneous compartment model or a more complex hydrodynamic model if time-dependent, spatial variations in concentrations, temperature, and pressure are important. Analytical tools for modeling directed jets and explosive releases are discussed as well as some of the complex phenomena to be considered in analyzing UF 6 releases both indoors and outdoors

  20. The contribution of analytical detection methods to the enforcement of good irradiation practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlermann, D.A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) is a generally accepted principle combining several features in order to achieve the optimal quality. In other words, GMP is observed if every possible measure is taken to contribute to the best possible quality of the end product. In this sense, Good Irradiation Practice (GIP) may be understood as one of the many elements of GMP dealing especially with aspects of processing food using ionising radiation. On the contrary the operator of an irradiation facility may consider GIP as the central idea including that GMP - in this case excluding the radiation aspects - is observed in addition to GIP standards. Regardless of this theoretical dispute, it is obvious that food irradiation requires classical GMP to be applied without exception and that good practice is also applied in radiation processing. The main interest in analytical methods for the identification of radiation processed food arose from the need to enforce the ban on this process, to verify correct labelling, or to ensure that it is used only for the very limited number of application which are permitted. In this field, identification methods already introduced into the official food inspection systems have contributed considerably towards making evident several cases of the fraudulent application of radiation processing. At present, as radiation processing of food is becoming more and more accepted, the number of national clearances is increasing and the European Community is preparing for a Directive to harmonise the food laws of the member states with regard to food irradiation. Therefore, it should be considered how the analytical detection methods which have been developed could contribute to enforcing good manufacturing practices, once the main goal ceases to be the suppression of this process. (author)

  1. Validation of analytical methods for the stability studies of naproxen suppositories for infant and adult use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Hernandez, Yaslenis; Suarez Perez, Yania; Garcia Pulpeiro, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Analytical and validating studies were performed in this paper, with a view to using them in the stability studies of the future formulations of naproxen suppositories for children and adults. The most influential factors in the naproxen stability were determined, that is, the major degradation occurred in acid medium, oxidative medium and by light action. One high-performance liquid chromatography-based method was evaluated, which proved to be adequate to quantify naproxen in suppositories and was selective against degradation products. The quantification limit was 3,480 μg, so it was valid for these studies. Additionally, the parameters specificity for stability, detection and quantification limits were evaluated for the direct semi-aqueous acid-base method, which was formerly validated for the quality control and showed satisfactory results. Nevertheless, the volumetric methods were not regarded as stability indicators; therefore, this method will be used along with the chromatographic methods of choice, that is, thin-layer chromatography and highperformance liquid chromatography, to determine the degradation products

  2. An analytical geometric calibration method for circular cone-beam geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingyan; Tsui, Benjamin M W

    2013-09-01

    This work is a continuation of our previous work on geometric calibration in the circular cone-beam geometry. It is well known that seven parameters completely describe such a geometry in either flat-panel X-ray computed tomography or single pinhole SPECT imaging. Previously we developed a graphical procedure to determine the detector in-plane rotation angle independently of the other six parameters. Using the discovered geometrical relationships, in this paper we determine the remaining six parameters using the cone-beam projections of a minimum of three point objects. Our method is analytical. It makes use of the parameters of the fitted ellipse from the calibration data. The parameter estimation is accurate in the noise-free case or when there is moderate projection data truncation or shorter calibration scan range ( ≤ 360°). We perform numerical evaluations to study the robustness of the proposed method under different projection noise levels and using different data acquisition ranges. Using a full 360° scan range, the estimation accuracy and precision of our method are comparable or superior to previous methods. Using a shorter acquisition range, there may be bias in the ellipse parameters obtained by simple algebraic fitting methods. This bias will propagate to the estimated geometric parameters. Such bias can be mostly eliminated by using a more sophisticated fitting algorithm. At the same noise level, the geometric parameter estimation accuracies are comparable, but the estimation precision degrades, as the acquisition range becomes shorter.

  3. Development and validation of HPLC analytical method for quantitative determination of metronidazole in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safdar, K.A.; Shyum, S.B.; Usman, S.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a simple, rapid and sensitive reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) analytical method with UV detection system for the quantitative determination of metronidazole in human plasma. The chromatographic separation was performed by using C18 RP column (250mm X 4.6mm, 5 meu m) as stationary phase and 0.01M potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffered at pH 3.0 and acetonitrile (83:17, v/v) as mobile phase at flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The UV detection was carried out at 320nm. The method was validated as per the US FDA guideline for bioanalytical method validation and was found to be selective without interferences from mobile phase components, impurities and biological matrix. The method found to be linear over the concentration range of 0.2812 meu g/ml to 18.0 meu g/ml (r2 = 0.9987) with adequate level of accuracy and precision. The samples were found to be stable under various recommended laboratory and storage conditions. Therefore, the method can be used with adequate level of confidence and assurance for bioavailability, bioequivalence and other pharmacokinetic studies of metronidazole in human. (author)

  4. Critical assessment of three high performance liquid chromatography analytical methods for food carotenoid quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, M Graça; Oliveira, Luísa; Camões, M Filomena G F C; Nunes, Baltazar; Versloot, Pieter; Hulshof, Paul J M

    2010-05-21

    Three sets of extraction/saponification/HPLC conditions for food carotenoid quantification were technically and economically compared. Samples were analysed for carotenoids alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, and zeaxanthin. All methods demonstrated good performance in the analysis of a composite food standard reference material for the analytes they are applicable to. Methods using two serial connected C(18) columns and a mobile phase based on acetonitrile, achieved a better carotenoid separation than the method using a mobile phase based on methanol and one C(18)-column. Carotenoids from leafy green vegetable matrices appeared to be better extracted with a mixture of methanol and tetrahydrofuran than with tetrahydrofuran alone. Costs of carotenoid determination in foods were lower for the method with mobile phase based on methanol. However for some food matrices and in the case of E-Z isomer separations, this was not technically satisfactory. Food extraction with methanol and tetrahydrofuran with direct evaporation of these solvents, and saponification (when needed) using pyrogallol as antioxidant, combined with a HPLC system using a slight gradient mobile phase based on acetonitrile and a stationary phase composed by two serial connected C(18) columns was the most technically and economically favourable method. 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Application of analytic hierarchy process method in the evaluation of managers of industrial enterprises in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Jurík

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of employees in industrial enterprises is a problem, because evaluators often make decisions based on subjective feelings. The objective approach is missing in the evaluation of employees. Objective approach during evaluation of employees can be achieved by applying the method of Analytic Hierarchy Process. We applied the method in the field of HR management in three enterprises in Slovakia. For the first time, we used the method in an enterprise in selection process of the position of HR worker, where on the basis of the criteria, we recommended the most suitable candidate for the enterprise. The second was the application of the method in the enterprise for evaluating managers, where the enterprise needed to identify qualitative differences between managers and then determine, in which fields the employees must improve. The third application was the creation of a methodology for evaluating the competencies of managers in enterprise. In the above-mentioned enterprise, there was defined a competency model, which served as a system of criteria for evaluation, and by the application of method, quality of managers was able to be expressed by the synthetic indicator.

  6. Analytical method of seafloor crustal deformation corresponding to the large scale ocean current region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, K.; Tadokoro, K.; Matsuhiro, K.

    2015-12-01

    We monitor seafloor crustal deformation at two observation points (south and north of Nankai Trough (TOA and TCA)) across the Nankai Trough, Japan, from 2013 to 2015. A ocean current flows frequently above our points called the Kuroshio current that has temperature difference perpendicular to the flow axis down to 1000 m in depths. Sound speed in the water depends on temperature (Del Grosso, 1974). Determination of seafloor benchmark position (SBP) has a bias when the sound speed structure includes a horizontal inhomogeneity (HI) in large-scale ocean current area. This bias is caused by trade-off between estimated spatial-temporal variation of sound speed structure and SBP. In this study, we propose a new observation system and analytical method, which directly observe the HI of sound speed derived from Underway CTD (UCTD) measurement and we introduce the HI to analytical method. We performed the observation in May 2015. We measured acoustic ranging during marine navigation on a circle with radius of 2 miles. At the same time, we observed six UCTD measurements down to 700 m in depths at both points. We use analytical method of Ikuta et al. (2008) for determination of SBP and adopt estimated HI of sound speed structure from UCTD measurements. We use the following equation to adopt the HI model: S(t,x,X)=S(t)+ΔS(R(X)+ar(x,X)), where S(t,x,X) is the spatial-temporal variation of slowness but spatial variation is the uniform during the observation period, S(t) is the estimated temporal variation of sound speed structure following Ikuta et al. (2008), ΔS is the horizontal gradient of slowness estimated from UCTD measurement, R(x) is the distance of a ship from center of three SBPs, r(x,X) is the distance between ship position and benchmark position, a is the ratio of layer of HI for the whole depth, x is the ship position, and X is the benchmark position. SBP adopted the HI model is determined 74.9 cm toward N17.4˚E at TCA and 90.0 cm toward N7.8˚E at TOA. The

  7. The application of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in uranium mine mining method of the optimal selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Zhongyin; Kuang Zhengping; Qiu Huiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Analytic hierarchy process, AHP, is a combination of qualitative and quantitative, systematic and hierarchical analysis method. Basic decision theory of analytic hierarchy process is applied in this article, with a project example in north Guangdong region as the research object, the in-situ mining method optimization choose hierarchical analysis model is established and the analysis method, The results show that, the AHP model for mining method selecting model was reliable, optimization results were conformity with the actual use of the in-situ mining method, and it has better practicability. (authors)

  8. Evaluation of methods to prepare samples of leafy green vegetables for preenrichment with the Bacteriological Analytical Manual Salmonella culture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Andrew Patrick; Gill, Vikas Singh; Irvin, Kari Anne; Wang, Hua; Hammack, Thomas Seyliard

    2012-02-01

    Three sample preparation procedures, soak, stomach, and blend, were evaluated using the Bacteriological Analytical Manual Salmonella culture method with eight types of leafy green produce. In the soak method, test portions were added to lactose broth without homogenization; in the stomach method, test portions were stomached with lactose broth; and in the blend method, test portions were blended with lactose broth. Twenty artificially contaminated test portions were analyzed with each procedure in individual experimental trials. The number of test portions identified as positive were compared among the procedures. Statistically significant differences were identified with Fisher's exact two-tailed F test (P < 0.05). Where differences did occur (P < 0.05), the soak procedure was the most effective or was at least as effective as homogenization by either blending or stomaching. Statistically significant differences most frequently occurred with romaine lettuce and cabbage; for these items, blending was significantly less effective than the soak procedure. Overall, for all of the produce types examined, results showed that the soak procedure was more effective than either of the homogenization procedures in recovering Salmonella from leafy green produce. Of the 540 test portions examined by each sample preparation method, 344 were positive for the presence of Salmonella by soaking, 293 by stomaching, and 232 by blending. We recommend that the soak procedure replace homogenization for the analysis of leafy green produce because the soak procedure is more productive than homogenization by either blending or stomaching of the leafy green produce types as reported herein.

  9. Analytical Method of Electro-Magnetic Induction by a Four-Terminal Parameter and its Application to Pipeline Induced Voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ametani, Akihiro

    This paper has proposed an analytical method of solving electromagnetically induced voltages and currents on a pipeline and/or on a communication line from a power line. The method is based on a solution of a differential equation expressing the electromagnetic induction on a distributed line system, and is formulated in the same manner as a four-terminal parameter circuit equation by introducing an ideal induced current which is given as the ratio of the induced voltage and the induced circuit impedance. The application of the method is exactly the same as that of an well-known two-port circuit analysis. The method is applied to induced voltages on a pipeline. Analytical results evaluated by the method are compared with EMTP simulation results, and the accuracy of the method is confirmed to be high. Also, a qualitative characteristic of the induced voltages is made clear based on the analytical results of various grounding resistances, including currents and circuit composition.

  10. 3D analytical method for the external dynamics of ship collisions and investigation of the coefficient of restitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Junfeng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The analytical method for predicting the dynamic responses of a ship in a collision scenario features speed and accuracy,and the external dynamics constitute an important part. A 3D simplified analytical method is implemented by MATLAB and used to calculate the energy dissipation of ship-ship collisions. The results obtained by the proposed method are then compared with those of a 2D simplified analytical method. The total dissipated energy can be obtained through the proposed analytical method, and the influence of the collision heights,angles and locations on the dissipated energy is discussed on that basis. Furthermore,the effects of restitution on the conservative coefficients and the effects of conservative coefficients on energy dissipation are discussed. It is concluded that the proposed 3D analysis yields a lesser energy dissipation than that of the 2D analysis,and the collision height has a significant influence on the dissipated energy. In using the proposed simplified method,it is not safe to simplify the conservative coefficient as zero when the collision angle is greater than 90 degrees. In the future research, to get more accurate energy dissipation, it is a good way to adopt the 3D simplified analytical method instead of the 2D method.

  11. Pulsed voltage electrospray ion source and method for preventing analyte electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertesz, Vilmos [Knoxville, TN; Van Berkel, Gary [Clinton, TN

    2011-12-27

    An electrospray ion source and method of operation includes the application of pulsed voltage to prevent electrolysis of analytes with a low electrochemical potential. The electrospray ion source can include an emitter, a counter electrode, and a power supply. The emitter can include a liquid conduit, a primary working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, and a spray tip, where the liquid conduit and the working electrode are in liquid communication. The counter electrode can be proximate to, but separated from, the spray tip. The power system can supply voltage to the working electrode in the form of a pulse wave, where the pulse wave oscillates between at least an energized voltage and a relaxation voltage. The relaxation duration of the relaxation voltage can range from 1 millisecond to 35 milliseconds. The pulse duration of the energized voltage can be less than 1 millisecond and the frequency of the pulse wave can range from 30 to 800 Hz.

  12. Analytical-numerical method for treatment of turbulent diffusion of particles in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsov, L.J.

    1976-01-01

    This work deals with the problem of air pollution around a stationary punctual source. For description of air pollution from a punctual source a mathematical model is suggested, and for calculation of effluents concentration an analytical-numerical algorithm is given. In addition to the analitical treatment the mathematical model is far more flexible and complete. Eddy diffusivity is represented by an arbitrary function, and an arbitrary wind velocity profile ahs been proposed. The apsorption of the ground is introduced through a variable apsorption coefficient, and the sedimentation through the mean velocity of deposition. To determine the movement of particles a parabolic equation of diffusion is used. The method has been tested through calculation of effluents concentration for different values of physical parameters

  13. Polynomial approach method to solve the neutron point kinetics equations with use of the analytic continuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumelero, Fernanda; Petersen, Claudio Zen; Goncalves, Glenio Aguiar; Schramm, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report a solution to solve the Neutron Point Kinetics Equations applying the Polynomial Approach Method. The main idea is to expand the neutron density and delayed neutron precursors as a power series considering the reactivity as an arbitrary function of the time in a relatively short time interval around an ordinary point. In the first interval one applies the initial conditions and the analytical continuation is used to determine the solutions of the next intervals. A genuine error control is developed based on an analogy with the Rest Theorem. For illustration, we also report simulations for different approaches types (linear, quadratic and cubic). The results obtained by numerical simulations for linear approximation are compared with results in the literature.

  14. Use of decision analytic methods in nuclear safety. An international survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.; Pulkkinen, U.

    1996-12-01

    This report reviews applications of formal decision analysis methods in resolving nuclear safety related issues. The review is based on selected published reports and a questionnaire sent to the members of the Principal Working Group 5 on risk analysis (PWG5) of OECD/NEA/CSNI. In the report, decision analysis methodology is shortly described. The applications discussed in this review are related to probabilistic safety goals of safety criteria, operational safety management, nuclear waste management and emergency management. The experiences from the application decision analysis methodology have been mainly positive. The advantages provided by the decision analytical thinking are the structured view over the problem under consideration and the explicit statements on uncertainties, values and preferences. The decision analysis methodology is rather mature to be applied in solution of nuclear safety issues. Although the applications have been mainly research oriented, it can be expected that the practical use of the methodology shall be more common in future. (orig.) (27 refs.)

  15. Analytic expressions of amplitudes by the cross-ratio identity method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Kang [Zhejiang University, Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics, Hangzhou (China)

    2017-06-15

    In order to obtain the analytic expression of an amplitude from a generic CHY-integrand, a new algorithm based on the so-called cross-ratio identities has been proposed recently. In this paper, we apply this new approach to a variety of theories including the non-linear sigma model, special Galileon theory, pure Yang-Mills theory, pure gravity, Born-Infeld theory, Dirac-Born-Infeld theory and its extension, Yang-Mills-scalar theory, and Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. CHY-integrands of these theories which contain higher-order poles can be calculated conveniently by using the cross-ratio identity method, and all results above have been verified numerically. (orig.)

  16. Analytical Methods for the Determination of Heavy Metals in the Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffan, I.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals in textile wastewater represent a major environmental problem, and are a potential danger to human health when present on textiles. Furthermore, the presence of some metals influences the production of textiles. Heavy metals are often used as oxidizing agents, as metal complex dyes, dye stripping agents, fastness improvers, and finishers. Thus, they act as hazardous sources throughout entire textile processing. Toxic effects of heavy metals on humans are well documented. Therefore, it is important to monitor heavy metals throughout the entire production. Today, maximum permissible values for metals in textiles are given by different regulations, according to which the heavy metals have to be determined both qualitatively and quantitatively. Several analytical procedures for the determination of heavy metals were tested for their application on textiles. The advantages and disadvantages of TLC, UV-VIS, GF-AAS, ICP-OES, and ICP-MS methods are discussed.

  17. A simplified presentation of the multigroup analytic nodal method in 2-D Cartesian geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, Alain

    2008-01-01

    The nodal diffusion algorithms used in many production reactor simulation codes are originating from a common ancestry developed in the 1970s, the analytic nodal method (ANM) of the QUANDRY code. However, this original presentation of the ANM is complex and makes difficult the calculation of the nodal coupling matrices. Moreover, QUANDRY is limited to two-energy groups and its generalization to more groups appears laborious. We are presenting a simplified implementation of the ANM requiring only limited programming work. This formulation is consistent with the initial QUANDRY implementation and is easily generalizable to arbitrary G-group problems. A Matlab script is provided to highlight the simplicity of our presentation. For the sake of clarity, our implementation is limited to G-group, 2-D Cartesian geometry

  18. Polynomial approach method to solve the neutron point kinetics equations with use of the analytic continuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumelero, Fernanda; Petersen, Claudio Zen; Goncalves, Glenio Aguiar [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Capao do Leao, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Modelagem Matematica; Schramm, Marcelo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica

    2016-12-15

    In this work, we report a solution to solve the Neutron Point Kinetics Equations applying the Polynomial Approach Method. The main idea is to expand the neutron density and delayed neutron precursors as a power series considering the reactivity as an arbitrary function of the time in a relatively short time interval around an ordinary point. In the first interval one applies the initial conditions and the analytical continuation is used to determine the solutions of the next intervals. A genuine error control is developed based on an analogy with the Rest Theorem. For illustration, we also report simulations for different approaches types (linear, quadratic and cubic). The results obtained by numerical simulations for linear approximation are compared with results in the literature.

  19. Stakeholder prioritization of zoonoses in Japan with analytic hierarchy process method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadohira, M; Hill, G; Yoshizaki, R; Ota, S; Yoshikawa, Y

    2015-05-01

    There exists an urgent need to develop iterative risk assessment strategies of zoonotic diseases. The aim of this study is to develop a method of prioritizing 98 zoonoses derived from animal pathogens in Japan and to involve four major groups of stakeholders: researchers, physicians, public health officials, and citizens. We used a combination of risk profiling and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Profiling risk was accomplished with semi-quantitative analysis of existing public health data. AHP data collection was performed by administering questionnaires to the four stakeholder groups. Results showed that researchers and public health officials focused on case fatality as the chief important factor, while physicians and citizens placed more weight on diagnosis and prevention, respectively. Most of the six top-ranked diseases were similar among all stakeholders. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, severe acute respiratory syndrome, and Ebola fever were ranked first, second, and third, respectively.

  20. ICP-MS: Analytical Method for Identification and Detection of Elemental Impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Mohini; Kumar, Kapil; Anghore, Durgadas; Rawal, Ravindra K

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this article is to review and discuss the currently used quantitative analytical method ICP-MS, which is used for quality control of pharmaceutical products. ICP-MS technique has several applications such as determination of single elements, multi element analysis in synthetic drugs, heavy metals in environmental water, trace element content of selected fertilizers and dairy manures. ICP-MS is also used for determination of toxic and essential elements in different varieties of food samples and metal pollutant present in the environment. The pharmaceuticals may generate impurities at various stages of development, transportation and storage which make them risky to be administered. Thus, it is essential that these impurities must be detected and quantified. ICP-MS plays an important function in the recognition and revealing of elemental impurities. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Accelerator based nuclear analytical methods for trace element studies in materials- calcified tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhri, M. Anwar

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Various nuclear analytical methods have been developed and applied to determine the elemental composition of calcified tissues (teeth and bones). Fluorine was determined by prompt gamma activation analysis through the 19 F(p,αγ) 16 O reaction. Carbon was measured by activation analysis with He-3 ions, and the technique of Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was applied to simultaneously determine Ca, P, and trace elements in well-documented teeth. Dental hard tissues: enamel, dentine, cementum, and their junctions, as well as different parts of the same tissue, were examined separately. Furthermore, using a Proton Microprobe, we measured the surface distribution of F and other elements on and around carious lesions on the enamel. The depth profiles of F, and other elements, were also measured right up to the amelodentin junction. (author)

  2. Metformin: A Review of Characteristics, Properties, Analytical Methods and Impact in the Green Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Trindade, Mariana Teixeira; Kogawa, Ana Carolina; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes

    2018-01-02

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered a public health problem. The initial treatment consists of improving the lifestyle and making changes in the diet. When these changes are not enough, the use of medication becomes necessary. The metformin aims to reduce the hepatic production of glucose and is the preferred treatment for type 2. The objective is to survey the characteristics and properties of metformin, as well as hold a discussion on the existing analytical methods to green chemistry and their impacts for both the operator and the environment. For the survey, data searches were conducted by scientific papers in the literature as well as in official compendium. The characteristics and properties are shown, also, methods using liquid chromatography techniques, titration, absorption spectrophotometry in the ultraviolet and the infrared region. Most of the methods presented are not green chemistry oriented. It is necessary the awareness of everyone involved in the optimization of the methods applied through the implementation of green chemistry to determine the metformin.

  3. An analytical method based on multipole moment expansion to calculate the flux distribution in Gammacell-220

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, P.; Ataenia, V.; Shafiei, S.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the flux of photons inside the irradiation cell of the Gammacell-220 is calculated using an analytical method based on multipole moment expansion. The flux of the photons inside the irradiation cell is introduced as the function of monopole, dipoles and quadruples in the Cartesian coordinate system. For the source distribution of the Gammacell-220, the values of the multipole moments are specified by direct integrating. To confirm the validation of the presented methods, the flux distribution inside the irradiation cell was determined utilizing MCNP simulations as well as experimental measurements. To measure the flux inside the irradiation cell, Amber dosimeters were employed. The calculated values of the flux were in agreement with the values obtained by simulations and measurements, especially in the central zones of the irradiation cell. In order to show that the present method is a good approximation to determine the flux in the irradiation cell, the values of the multipole moments were obtained by fitting the simulation and experimental data using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The present method leads to reasonable results for the all source distribution even without any symmetry which makes it a powerful tool for the source load planning.

  4. Analytical Method To Detect and Quantify Avocatin B in Hass Avocado Seed and Pulp Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nawaz; Smith, Richard W; Henao, Juan J Aristizabal; Stark, Ken D; Spagnuolo, Paul A

    2018-03-22

    Avocatin B, an avocado-derived compound mixture, was demonstrated recently to possess potent anticancer activity by selectively targeting and eliminating leukemia stem cells. Avocatin B is a mixture of avocadene and avocadyne, two 17-carbon polyhydroxylated fatty alcohols (PFAs), first discovered in avocado seeds; their quantities in avocado pulp are unknown. Analytical methods to detect avocado seed PFAs have utilized NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS; both of these lack quantitative capacity and accuracy. Herein, we report a sensitive LC-MS method for the quantitation of avocadene and avocadyne in avocado seed and pulp. The method has a reliable and linear response range of 0.1-50 μM (0.03-17.2 ng/μL) for both avocadene and avocadyne ( r 2 > 0.990) with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 0.1 μM. The intra- and interassay accuracy and precision of the quality control (QC) samples at LLOQ showed ≤18.2% percentage error and ≤14.4% coefficient of variation (CV). The intra- and interassay accuracy and precision for QC samples at low and high concentrations were well below 10% error and CV. This method was successfully applied to quantify avocadene and avocadyne in total lipid extracts of Hass avocado pulp and seed matter.

  5. A New Method for Earth Observation Data Analytics Based on Symbolic Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Pesaresi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work introduces a new classification method in the remote sensing domain, suitably adapted to dealing with the challenges posed by the big data processing and analytics framework. The method is based on symbolic learning techniques, and it is designed to work in complex and information-abundant environments, where relationships among different data layers are assessed in model-free and computationally-effective modalities. The two main stages of the method are the data reduction-sequencing and the association analysis. The former refers to data representation; the latter searches for systematic relationships between data instances derived from images and spatial information encoded in supervisory signals. Subsequently, a new measure named the evidence-based normalized differential index, inspired by the probability-based family of objective interestingness measures, evaluates these associations. Additional information about the computational complexity of the classification algorithm and some critical remarks are briefly introduced. An application of land cover mapping where the input image features are morphological and radiometric descriptors demonstrates the capacity of the method; in this instructive application, a subset of eight classes from the Corine Land Cover is used as the reference source to guide the training phase.

  6. Analytical method by high resolution liquid chromatography for the determination of carbamazepine in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Aleman, Narda M; Calero Carbonell, Jorge E; Padron Yaquis, Alejandro S; Izquierdo Lozano, Julio C

    2007-01-01

    One of the requirements to develop the studies of bioavailability and bioequivalence is to have analytic methodologies validated for the work with samples in biological fluids. A method was developed by high resolution liquid chromatography for the determination of carbamazepine in human plasma. A mixture of hydrogen phosphate of sodium: acetonitrile (65:35) adjusted to pH= 3.3 with phosphoric acid, flow of 1.2 mL/min and ultraviolet detection at 210 nm, was used as mobile phase. Propylparabene was used as an internal standard. According to the established regulations for the validation of the methods in biological fluids, the following parameters were studied: stability of the samples, lineality, specificity, precision, accuracy and limit of detection and quantification. The method proved to be specific and sensitive with a detection and quantification limit of 0.9 and 1.0 ng, respectively. The method was lineal, precise and exact in the range of concentrations of 1. 07 at 12.67 μg/mL. The mean recovery was not statistically different from 100.0 %. The analito in the proposed biological matrix remained in the studied period. The methodology described in this work is applied in our case to the study that evaluates the bioavailability and bioequivalence of a Cuban formulation of carbamazepine in healthy volunteers. (Author)

  7. Analytical Investigation for In Situ Stress Measurement with Rheological Stress Recovery Method and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quansheng Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ stress is one of the most important parameters in underground engineering. Due to the difficulty and weakness of current stress measurement methods in deep soft rock, a new one, rheological stress recovery (RSR method, to determine three-dimensional stress tensor is developed. It is supposed that rock stresses will recover gradually with time and can be measured by embedding transducers into the borehole. In order to explore the relationship between the measured recovery stress and the initial stress, analytical solutions are developed for the stress measurement process with RSR method in a viscoelastic surrounding rock. The results showed that the measured recovery stress would be more close to the initial stress if the rock mass has a better rheological property, and the property of grouting material should be close to that of rock mass. Then, the RSR method, as well as overcoring technique, was carried out to measure the in situ stresses in Pingdingshan Number 1 coal mines in Henan Province, China. The stress measurement results are basically in the same order, and the major principal stresses are approximately in the direction of NW-SE, which correlates well with the stress regime of Pingdingshan zone known from the tectonic movement history.

  8. Development of a multi-residue analytical method, based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, for the simultaneous determination of 46 micro-contaminants in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Bester, Kai; Sauter, Martin

    2010-10-15

    A multi-residue analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatographic separation, electrospray ionization with tandem mass spectrometric detection (HPLC/MS-MS) was developed for the simultaneous analysis of 46 basic, neutral and acidic compounds covering a wide range of polarity (logK(OW)MQL) in surface and seawater ranged from 1.2 to 28 ng/L, in wastewater from 5.0 to 160 ng/L, respectively. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the method, river water, treated wastewater and seawater were analyzed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analytic methods for the calculation of the electronic structure of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, G.K.; Harrison, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Andersen's atomic-sphere approximation has been utilized with approximations based upon linear-combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) theory to obtain approximate energy-band parameters for solids. Simple analytic expressions for the bandwidth and position of the band center have been derived that require only free-atom wave functions evaluated at the Wigner-Seitz atomic-sphere radius. For convenience, the method has been named the atomic surface method (ASM). The following simple analytic expressions for the band parameters have been derived from the ASM: (i) The bandwidth is equal to the product of h 2 /m, the gradient of the electron density at the atomic-sphere radius, and the surface area of the sphere; (ii) the average band energy is shifted from the atomic-term-value energy by an amount given by the product of the bandwidth, electron density at the atomic-sphere radius, and atomic-sphere volume. The theory has been applied without adjustable parameters to the transition metals and f-shell metals with use of tabulated Hartree-Fock wave functions and is in reasonable agreement with full band-structure calculations. The same analysis is applied to atomic core states under compression and is also in reasonable agreement with complete band-structure calculations. The 2s and 2p states of Na and Al have been calculated to the point where they merge with the conduction band as free-electron states. These bandwidths and shifts are also written in terms of the atomic term values by using the asymptotic form of the radial wave function. Finally, the LCAO energy bands of Ni are calculated with use of the ASM parameters

  10. Analytical method for determining rill detachment rate of purple soil as compared with that of loess soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-yan; Huang, Yu-han; Zhao, Yu; Mo, Bin; Mi, Hong-xing; Huang, Chi-hua

    2017-06-01

    Rill detachment is an important process in rill erosion. The rill detachment rate is the fundamental basis for determination of the parameters of a rill erosion model. In this paper, an analytical method was proposed to estimate the rill detachment rate. The method is based on the exact analytical solution of rill erosion to the differential equation of rill detachment. The rill sediment concentration distribution as a function of rill length was identified through laboratory experiments under different slope gradients and flow rates. The sediment concentration processes from experiments on loess and purple rills were considered to estimate the rill detachment rates of both soils analytically. They were respectively used as a function of rill length and sediment concentration. The analytical detachment rates were compared with the numerically determined values to verify the analytical methods. The rill detachment rates of the two soils under different flow rates and slope gradients estimated by the analytical method were further compared on the basis of detachment-sediment function and detachment-rill length function. Results indicated that the analytically estimated values were very close to the numerically estimated values. Numerical and analytical methods were equally useful for rill detachment rate estimation. Therefore, the analytical method was verified to be rational and applicable for the rapid determination of the rill detachment rates based on either sediment concentration or rill length. The analytical detachment values of purple and loess soils suggested that the detachment rates of loess soil were significantly and considerably higher than those of purple soil. The erosion potentials of loess soil were also significant higher than those of purple soil. The differences in the erosion of the two soils decreased as the slope gradient and flow rate increased. These observations implied that the degree of loess soil erosion was greater than that of purple

  11. Monitoring environmental risk in fibrous minerals in New Caledonia: a comparison between different analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petriglieri, Jasmine Rita; Laporte-Magoni, Christine; Salvioli-Mariani, Emma; Gunkel-Grillon, Peggy; Tribaudino, Mario; Mantovani, Luciana; Bersani, Danilo; Lottici, Pier Paolo; Tomatis, Maura

    2017-04-01

    The New Caledonia is covered by ultrabasic units for more than a third of its surface, and it is one of the largest world producers of nickel ore. Mining activity, focused on extraction from lateritic ore deposits formed by the alteration of ultramafic rocks, must deal with the natural occurrence of asbestos and fibrous minerals. Almost all outcrops of geological units in open mines contain serpentine and amphibole, also as asbestos varieties (Lahondère, 2007). Owing to humid tropical to sub-tropical conditions, weathering processes and supergene mineralization are one of the main responsible for fibrogenesis of asbestos minerals. The presence of fibrous minerals in mining and storage sites requires attention due to public health problems and for the safety of the operators. In this context, the evaluation of risk and health hazard to prevent the effects due to exposition is closely linked to the formation, alteration and release of fibers into the environment. It has been demonstrated that different fibrous minerals have different toxicity (Fubini & Otero-Arean, 1999; Fubini & Fenoglio, 2007). An analytical strategy to discriminate and characterize, with certainty, the different varieties of the asbestiform phases is required to the establishment of an environmental monitoring system. We have therefore analyzed by different methods a set of about fifty asbestos sampled for mapping environmental risk in fibrous minerals in New Caledonia. The samples contain serpentines (chrysotile, antigorite) and amphibole (tremolite), all fibrous and have been sorted by their different degree of alteration. Data obtained with the more traditional mineralogical and petrological analytical techniques - such as optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, secondary electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), and transmission electron microscopy - have been completed by the employment of more specialized tools as phase contrast microscopy (PCM), Raman spectroscopy, and thermal analysis (DTA). Moreover

  12. Transient analysis of leaky Lamb waves with a semi-analytical finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Daisuke; Hayashi, Takahiro

    2015-09-01

    We previously formulated a semi-analytical finite element technique for Lamb waves in a plate surrounded by fluids and investigated the dispersion curves and wave structures for leaky Lamb waves. Herein, this technique is extended to the calculation of transient responses both in a plate and in fluids for dynamic loading on the plate surface. To gain fundamental insights into guided wave inspection for a water-filled pipe or tank, guided waves generated upon transient loading of a flat plate water-loaded on one side were analyzed. The results show that a quasi-Scholte mode propagating at the plate-water interface is useful for the long-range inspection of a water-loaded plate because of its non-attenuation and minimal dispersion; moreover, this mode has superior generation efficiency in the low-frequency range, while it is localized near the plate-water interface at higher frequencies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Analytical methods for the endocrine disruptor compounds determination in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Marcello; Sciascia, Francesco; Cifelli, Roberta; Malatesta, Luciano; Bruni, Pantaleone; Croce, Fausto

    2016-02-19

    The potential risk of exposure to different xenobiotics, which can modulate the endocrine system and represent a treat for the wellness of an increasing number of people, has recently drawn the attention of international environmental and health agencies. Several agents, characterized by structural diversity, may interfer with the normal endocrine functions that regulate cell growth, homeostasis and development. Substances such as pesticides, herbicides, plasticizers, metals, etc. having endocrine activity (EDCs) are used in agriculture and industry and are also used as drugs for humans and animals. A difficulty in the analytical determination of these substances is the complexity of the matrix in which they are present. In fact, the samples most frequently analyzed consist of groundwater and surface water, including influent and effluent of wastewater treatment plants and drinking water. In this review, several sample pretreatment protocols, assays and different instrumental techniques recently used in the EDCs determination have been considered. This review concludes with a paragraph in which the most recent hyphenated-instrument techniques are treated, highlighting their sensitivity and selectivity for the analyses of environmental water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Establishing a public health analytical service based on chemical methods for detecting and quantifying Pacific ciguatoxin in fish samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ian; Eaglesham, Geoffrey K; Poole, Sue; Graham, Glenn; Paulo, Carl; Wickramasinghe, Wasantha; Sadler, Ross; Shaw, Glen R

    2010-10-01

    A referee analysis method for the detection and quantification of Pacific ciguatoxins in fish flesh has recently been established by the public health analytical laboratory for the State of Queensland, Australia. Fifty-six fish samples were analysed, which included 10 fillets purchased as negative controls. P-CTX-1 was identified in 27 samples, and P-CTX-2 and P-CTX-3 were found in 26 of those samples. The range of P-CTX-1 concentrations was 0.04-11.4 microg/kg fish flesh; coefficient of variation from 90 replicate analyses was 7.4%. A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method utilising a rapid methanol extraction and clean-up is reliable and reproducible, with the detection limit at 0.03 microg/kg fish flesh. Some matrix effects are evident, with fish oil content a likely signal suppression factor. Species identification of samples by DNA sequence analysis revealed some evidence of fish substitution or inadvertent misidentification, which may have implications for the management and prevention of ciguatera poisoning. Blinded inspection of case notes from suspect ciguatera poisoning cases showed that reporting of ciguatera-related paraesthesias was highly predictable for the presence of ciguatoxins in analysed fish, with 13 of 14 expected cases having consumed fish that contained P-CTX-1 (p<0.001, Fishers Exact Test). Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation of an analytical method for the quantitative determination of selenium in bacterial biomass by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörschbächer, Ana Paula; Dullius, Anja; Dullius, Carlos Henrique; Bandt, Cassiano Ricardo; Kuhn, Daniel; Brietzke, Débora Tairini; Malmann Kuffel, Fernando José; Etgeton, Henrique Pretto; Altmayer, Taciélen; Gonçalves, Tamara Engelmann; Oreste, Eliézer Quadro; Ribeiro, Anderson Schwingel; de Souza, Claucia Fernanda Volken; Hoehne, Lucélia

    2018-07-30

    The present paper describes the validation of a spectrophotometry method involving molecular absorption in the visible ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) region for selenium (Se) determination in the bacterial biomass produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The method was found to be suitable for the target application and presented a linearity range from 0.025 to 0.250 mg/L Se. The angular and linear coefficients of the linear equation were 1.0678 and 0.0197 mg/L Se, respectively, and the linear correlation coefficient (R 2 ) was 0.9991. Analyte recovery exceeded 96% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) below 3%. The Se contents in LAB ranged from 0.01 to 20 mg/g. The Se contents in the bacterial biomass determined by UV-Vis were not significantly different (p > 0.05) those determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Thus, Se can be quantified in LAB biomass using this relatively simpler technique. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Benchmarking the invariant embedding method against analytical solutions in model transport problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahlberg Malin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the use of the invariant embedding method in a few model transport problems for which it is also possible to obtain an analytical solution. The use of the method is demonstrated in three different areas. The first is the calculation of the energy spectrum of sputtered particles from a scattering medium without absorption, where the multiplication (particle cascade is generated by recoil production. Both constant and energy dependent cross-sections with a power law dependence were treated. The second application concerns the calculation of the path length distribution of reflected particles from a medium without multiplication. This is a relatively novel application, since the embedding equations do not resolve the depth variable. The third application concerns the demonstration that solutions in an infinite medium and in a half-space are interrelated through embedding-like integral equations, by the solution of which the flux reflected from a half-space can be reconstructed from solutions in an infinite medium or vice versa. In all cases, the invariant embedding method proved to be robust, fast, and monotonically converging to the exact solutions.

  17. A Critical Review of Properties of Modafinil and Analytical, Bioanalytical Methods for its Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, B

    2016-11-01

    Modafinil is a synthetic molecule used for the treatment of narcolepsy. Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder, due to which people experience frequent excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Nevertheless, there are some concerns about modafnil quality control. The modafinil enantiomers are both biologically active. However, it has been reported that the pharmacological properties of the both enantiomers are different and that the S-enantiomer is eliminated three times faster than the R-enantiomer. Therefore, most of the pharmaceutical companies have shifted to produce armodafinil (R-enantiomer) instead of the racemate. This article discusses about the critical review of the literature, the impact of the use of modafinil in the treatment of narcolepsy patients and other diseases, its physicochemical properties, toxicological properties, synthetic methods, analytical and bioanalytical methods and challenges that remain in order to ensure the quality. This article mainly focused on review of process related impurities, enantiomeric separation, metabolites of modafinil in various biofluids and pharmaceutical formulations using HPLC, LC-MS, GC-MS, CE, HPTLC and spectrophotometric methods.

  18. Benchmarking the invariant embedding method against analytical solutions in model transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malin, Wahlberg; Imre, Pazsit

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the use of the invariant embedding method in a series of model transport problems, for which it is also possible to obtain an analytical solution. Due to the non-linear character of the embedding equations, their solution can only be obtained numerically. However, this can be done via a robust and effective iteration scheme. In return, the domain of applicability is far wider than the model problems investigated in this paper. The use of the invariant embedding method is demonstrated in three different areas. The first is the calculation of the energy spectrum of reflected (sputtered) particles from a multiplying medium, where the multiplication arises from recoil production. Both constant and energy dependent cross sections with a power law dependence were used in the calculations. The second application concerns the calculation of the path length distribution of reflected particles from a medium without multiplication. This is a relatively novel and unexpected application, since the embedding equations do not resolve the depth variable. The third application concerns the demonstration that solutions in an infinite medium and a half-space are interrelated through embedding-like integral equations, by the solution of which the reflected flux from a half-space can be reconstructed from solutions in an infinite medium or vice versa. In all cases the invariant embedding method proved to be robust, fast and monotonically converging to the exact solutions. (authors)

  19. Establishing the analytical procedure for acetate in water by ion chromatography method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Hong Thinh; Ha Lan Anh; Vo Thi Anh

    2015-01-01

    In recent studies of contamination sources of arsenic, ammonium, iron, organic carbon in groundwater, acetate is measured a lot because it is the main decomposition product of organic compounds from sediment into groundwater. In order to better support for the study of the origin and mobilization mechanism of the pollutants, acetate was studied analysis method in Isotopes Hydrology Laboratory using ion chromatography technique. Project Researchers used Ion Chromatography system - DX-600 including IonPac ICE-AS1 column for separating acetate and conductivity detector CD 25 to quantify acetate in water samples. The study results showed that project team has successfully developed analytical procedures of acetate in water with acetate’s retention time is 12 minutes, limit of detection (LOD) of the method was 0.01 ppm. The accuracy of the method was established by calculating the precision and bias of 10 analysis times of a standard sample at content levels 1 ppm and 8 ppm. The results of the 10 measurements are satisfiable about precision and bias with repeated standard deviation coefficient CVR were 1.3% and 0.2% and the recoveries R were 99.92% and 101.72%. (author)

  20. An analytical method to design the PID controller for the power control system of experimental nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Xinyuan; Li Fu; Huang Xiaojin; Zhang Liangju

    2004-01-01

    In order to make the design process for power control system of experimental nuclear reactor optimal, objective and analytical, an analytical design process which contains the model linearization, model reduction, theoretical design of PID controllers is discussed. This method is applied to the design of the power control system of an experimental nuclear reactor, the numerical simulation results prove that the design process is practical, and the control performance is satisfactory

  1. Finite analytic numerical method for three-dimensional fluid flow in heterogeneous porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Feng; Liu, Zhi-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Hong

    2014-12-01

    Understanding fluid flows in heterogeneous porous media is fundamental to applied geosciences. The wide connectivity variations in the natural aquifer or oil reservoirs make the equivalent permeability have strong spatial variations. When performing the simulations for subsurface flows, the permeabilities may have strong discontinuities across the interfaces between different grid cells. Utilizing the traditional numerical schemes to simulate flows in strong heterogeneous media, the refinement ratio for the grid cell needs to increase dramatically to get an accurate result. Recently, we proposed a finite analytic numerical scheme to solve the two-dimensional fluid flows in heterogeneous porous media. With only 2 × 2 or 3 × 3 subdivisions, this scheme can provide rather accurate solutions. In this paper, we develop the finite analytic numerical method for solving the three-dimensional fluid flows in heterogeneous porous media. For the rectangular grid system, it is generally proposed that the pressure gradient in a plane normal to the edge joining different permeability regions will tend to infinite as approaching the edge according to a typical power-law solution and the tangential derivate of the pressure along the edge must be of limited value due to the pressure continuity. Consequently, the three-dimensional flow will reduce to the two-dimensional one in the neighborhood around each edge. Such quasi-two-dimensional behavior is then applied to construct a finite analytic numerical scheme. Numerical examples show that the proposed scheme can provide rather accurate solutions with only 2 × 2 × 2 or 3 × 3 × 3 subdivisions and the convergent speed is independent of the permeability heterogeneity. Due to its high calculation efficiency, the proposed scheme is utilized to test the well known LLM (Landau, Lifshitz and Matheron) conjecture, which provides keq /kG = exp ⁡ (1/6σln⁡k2) for the isotropic log-normal porous medium. The numerical results do not

  2. Analytical chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivánková, Ludmila

    -, č. 22 (2011), s. 718-719 ISSN 1472-3395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : analytical chemistry * analytical methods * nanotechnologies Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://edition.pagesuite-professional.co.uk/launch.aspx?referral=other&pnum=&refresh=M0j83N1cQa91&EID=82bccec1-b05f-46f9-b085-701afc238b42&skip=

  3. Methods, software and datasets to verify DVH calculations against analytical values: Twenty years late(r)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelms, Benjamin [Canis Lupus LLC, Merrimac, Wisconsin 53561 (United States); Stambaugh, Cassandra [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Hunt, Dylan; Tonner, Brian; Zhang, Geoffrey; Feygelman, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.feygelman@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: The authors designed data, methods, and metrics that can serve as a standard, independent of any software package, to evaluate dose-volume histogram (DVH) calculation accuracy and detect limitations. The authors use simple geometrical objects at different orientations combined with dose grids of varying spatial resolution with linear 1D dose gradients; when combined, ground truth DVH curves can be calculated analytically in closed form to serve as the absolute standards. Methods: DICOM RT structure sets containing a small sphere, cylinder, and cone were created programmatically with axial plane spacing varying from 0.2 to 3 mm. Cylinders and cones were modeled in two different orientations with respect to the IEC 1217 Y axis. The contours were designed to stringently but methodically test voxelation methods required for DVH. Synthetic RT dose files were generated with 1D linear dose gradient and with grid resolution varying from 0.4 to 3 mm. Two commercial DVH algorithms—PINNACLE (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems) and PlanIQ (Sun Nuclear Corp.)—were tested against analytical values using custom, noncommercial analysis software. In Test 1, axial contour spacing was constant at 0.2 mm while dose grid resolution varied. In Tests 2 and 3, the dose grid resolution was matched to varying subsampled axial contours with spacing of 1, 2, and 3 mm, and difference analysis and metrics were employed: (1) histograms of the accuracy of various DVH parameters (total volume, D{sub max}, D{sub min}, and doses to % volume: D99, D95, D5, D1, D0.03 cm{sup 3}) and (2) volume errors extracted along the DVH curves were generated and summarized in tabular and graphical forms. Results: In Test 1, PINNACLE produced 52 deviations (15%) while PlanIQ produced 5 (1.5%). In Test 2, PINNACLE and PlanIQ differed from analytical by >3% in 93 (36%) and 18 (7%) times, respectively. Excluding D{sub min} and D{sub max} as least clinically relevant would result in 32 (15%) vs 5 (2

  4. No Impact of the Analytical Method Used for Determining Cystatin C on Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberer, Martin; Hoefele, Julia; Benz, Marcus R; Bökenkamp, Arend; Weber, Lutz T

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of inulin clearance is considered to be the gold standard for determining kidney function in children, but this method is time consuming and expensive. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is on the other hand easier to calculate by using various creatinine- and/or cystatin C (Cys C)-based formulas. However, for the determination of serum creatinine (Scr) and Cys C, different and non-interchangeable analytical methods exist. Given the fact that different analytical methods for the determination of creatinine and Cys C were used in order to validate existing GFR formulas, clinicians should be aware of the type used in their local laboratory. In this study, we compared GFR results calculated on the basis of different GFR formulas and either used Scr and Cys C values as determined by the analytical method originally employed for validation or values obtained by an alternative analytical method to evaluate any possible effects on the performance. Cys C values determined by means of an immunoturbidimetric assay were used for calculating the GFR using equations in which this analytical method had originally been used for validation. Additionally, these same values were then used in other GFR formulas that had originally been validated using a nephelometric immunoassay for determining Cys C. The effect of using either the compatible or the possibly incompatible analytical method for determining Cys C in the calculation of GFR was assessed in comparison with the GFR measured by creatinine clearance (CrCl). Unexpectedly, using GFR equations that employed Cys C values derived from a possibly incompatible analytical method did not result in a significant difference concerning the classification of patients as having normal or reduced GFR compared to the classification obtained on the basis of CrCl. Sensitivity and specificity were adequate. On the other hand, formulas using Cys C values derived from a compatible analytical method partly showed insufficient

  5. A preliminary study evaluating cardiac output measurement using Pressure Recording Analytical Method (PRAM) in anaesthetized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briganti, Angela; Evangelista, Flavia; Centonze, Paola; Rizzo, Annaliso; Bentivegna, Francesco; Crovace, Antonio; Staffieri, Francesco

    2018-03-06

    Haemodynamic variations normally occur in anaesthetized animals, in relation to the animal status, administered drugs, sympathetic and parasympathetic tone, fluid therapy and surgical stimulus. The possibility to measure some cardiovascular parameters, such as cardiac output (CO), during anaesthesia would be beneficial for both the anaesthesia management and its outcome. New techniques for the monitoring of CO are aimed at finding methods which are non invasive, accurate and with good trending ability, which can be used in a clinical setting. The aim of this study was to compare the Pressure Recording Analytical Method (PRAM) with the pulmonary artery thermodilution (TD) for the measurement of cardiac output in 6 anaesthetized critically ill dogs. Fifty-four pairs of CO measurements were obtained with a median (range) of 3.33 L/min (0.81-7.21) for PRAM-CO and 3.48 L/min (1.41-6.56) for TD-CO. The Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean bias of 0.17 L/min with limits of agreement (LoA) of - 0.46 to 0.81 L/min. The percentage error resulted 18.2%. The 4-quadrant plot analysis showed an acceptable concordance (93%) between the 2 methods. The polar plot showed a good trending ability with the mean angular bias of 3.9° and radial LoA ± 12.1°. The PRAM resulted in good precision, acceptable concordance and good trending ability for the measure of CO in the anaesthetized dog, representing a promising alternative to thermodilution for the measurement of CO. Among all the pulse contour methods available on the market it is the only one that does not require any calibration or adjustment of the measurement. Further studies are required to verify the ability of this method to accurately measure cardiac output even during unstable hemodynamic conditions.

  6. Methods, software and datasets to verify DVH calculations against analytical values: Twenty years late(r).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, Benjamin; Stambaugh, Cassandra; Hunt, Dylan; Tonner, Brian; Zhang, Geoffrey; Feygelman, Vladimir

    2015-08-01

    The authors designed data, methods, and metrics that can serve as a standard, independent of any software package, to evaluate dose-volume histogram (DVH) calculation accuracy and detect limitations. The authors use simple geometrical objects at different orientations combined with dose grids of varying spatial resolution with linear 1D dose gradients; when combined, ground truth DVH curves can be calculated analytically in closed form to serve as the absolute standards. dicom RT structure sets containing a small sphere, cylinder, and cone were created programmatically with axial plane spacing varying from 0.2 to 3 mm. Cylinders and cones were modeled in two different orientations with respect to the IEC 1217 Y axis. The contours were designed to stringently but methodically test voxelation methods required for DVH. Synthetic RT dose files were generated with 1D linear dose gradient and with grid resolution varying from 0.4 to 3 mm. Two commercial DVH algorithms-pinnacle (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems) and PlanIQ (Sun Nuclear Corp.)-were tested against analytical values using custom, noncommercial analysis software. In Test 1, axial contour spacing was constant at 0.2 mm while dose grid resolution varied. In Tests 2 and 3, the dose grid resolution was matched to varying subsampled axial contours with spacing of 1, 2, and 3 mm, and difference analysis and metrics were employed: (1) histograms of the accuracy of various DVH parameters (total volume, Dmax, Dmin, and doses to % volume: D99, D95, D5, D1, D0.03 cm(3)) and (2) volume errors extracted along the DVH curves were generated and summarized in tabular and graphical forms. In Test 1, pinnacle produced 52 deviations (15%) while PlanIQ produced 5 (1.5%). In Test 2, pinnacle and PlanIQ differed from analytical by >3% in 93 (36%) and 18 (7%) times, respectively. Excluding Dmin and Dmax as least clinically relevant would result in 32 (15%) vs 5 (2%) scored deviations for pinnacle vs PlanIQ in Test 1, while Test 2

  7. Toward a quality guide to facilitate the transference of analytical methods from research to testing laboratories: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisetty, Krisnha; Gumede, Njabulo Joyfull; Escuder-Gilabert, Laura; Sagrado, Salvador

    2009-01-01

    At present, there is no single viewpoint that defines QA strategies in analytical chemistry. On the other hand, there are no unique protocols defining a set of analytical tasks and decision criteria to be performed during the method development phase (e.g., by a single research laboratory) in order to facilitate the transference to the testing laboratories intending to adapt, validate, and routinely use this method. This study proposes general criteria, a priori valid for any developed method, recommended as a provisional quality guide containing the minimum internal tasks necessary to publish new analytical method results. As an application, the selection of some basic internal quality tasks and the corresponding accepted criteria are adapted to a concrete case study: indirect differential pulse polarographic determination of nitrate in water samples according to European Commission requisites. Extra tasks to be performed by testing laboratories are also outlined.

  8. Differentiating between analytical and diagnostic performance evaluation with a focus on the method comparison study and identification of bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatland, Bente; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Klenner, Stefanie

    2014-12-01

    Prior to introduction of a new method to the diagnostic laboratory, analytical performance must be validated to ensure operation within the manufacturer's specifications and/or within predetermined quality requirements. In addition, the new method may require diagnostic performance assessment to ensure it differentiates between diseased and nondiseased individuals as intended. These 2 phases of assessment, while complementary, are not equivalent and require a different set of experiments, statistical analyses, and interpretation. Studies of analytical performance typically include a method comparison experiment, the purpose of which is to identify bias (inaccuracy) of the "test" (or "index") method (new method) relative to a "comparative method" (established method). Analysis of method comparison data is facilitated by commercial software programs that present the statistical significance of identified bias; however, the clinical relevance of any bias also should be considered. Studies of diagnostic performance should not be pursued until analytical performance is fully characterized and may not be required for well-established tests or for those for which results are nonspecific (ie, not referable to a specific disease or condition). Diagnostic performance assessment may include assessment of sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, odds ratios, and/or likelihood ratios. The purpose of this review is to clarify differences between the assessment of analytical and diagnostic performance, and to explore the method comparison study and bias assessment from a perspective not addressed in prior veterinary articles. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  9. Review of analytical methods for the quantification of iodine in complex matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelor, C Phillip; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2011-09-19

    Iodine is an essential element of human nutrition. Nearly a third of the global population has insufficient iodine intake and is at risk of developing Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD). Most countries have iodine supplementation and monitoring programs. Urinary iodide (UI) is the biomarker used for epidemiological studies; only a few methods are currently used routinely for analysis. These methods either require expensive instrumentation with qualified personnel (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, instrumental nuclear activation analysis) or oxidative sample digestion to remove potential interferences prior to analysis by a kinetic colorimetric method originally introduced by Sandell and Kolthoff ~75 years ago. The Sandell-Kolthoff (S-K) method is based on the catalytic effect of iodide on the reaction between Ce(4+) and As(3+). No available technique fully fits the needs of developing countries; research into inexpensive reliable methods and instrumentation are needed. There have been multiple reviews of methods used for epidemiological studies and specific techniques. However, a general review of iodine determination on a wide-ranging set of complex matrices is not available. While this review is not comprehensive, we cover the principal developments since the original development of the S-K method. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Hybrid Numerical Method for Turbulent Mixing Layers. Degree awarded by Case Western Reserve Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.

    2001-01-01

    A hybrid method has been developed for simulations of compressible turbulent mixing layers. Such mixing layers dominate the flows in exhaust systems of modern day aircraft and also those of hypersonic vehicles currently under development. The method configurations in which a dominant structural feature provides an unsteady mechanism to drive the turbulent development in the mixing layer. The hybrid method uses a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) procedure to calculate wall bounded regions entering a mixing section, and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) procedure to calculate the mixing dominated regions. A numerical technique was developed to enable the use of the hybrid RANS-LES method on stretched, non-Cartesian grids. Closure for the RANS equations was obtained using the Cebeci-Smith algebraic turbulence model in conjunction with the wall-function approach of Ota and Goldberg. The wall-function approach enabled a continuous computational grid from the RANS regions to the LES region. The LES equations were closed using the Smagorinsky subgrid scale model. The hybrid RANS-LES method is applied to a benchmark compressible mixing layer experiment. Preliminary two dimensional calculations are used to investigate the effects of axial grid density and boundary conditions. Vortex shedding from the base region of a splitter plate separating the upstream flows was observed to eventually transition to turbulence. The location of the transition, however, was much further downstream than indicated by experiments. Actual LES calculations, performed in three spatial directions, also indicated vortex shedding, but the transition to turbulence was found to occur much closer to the beginning of the mixing section. which is in agreement with experimental observations. These calculations demonstrated that LES simulations must be performed in three dimensions. Comparisons of time-averaged axial velocities and turbulence intensities indicated reasonable agreement with experimental

  11. Development of an analytical microbial consortia method for enhancing performance monitoring at aerobic wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razban, Behrooz; Nelson, Kristina Y; McMartin, Dena W; Cullimore, D Roy; Wall, Michelle; Wang, Dunling

    2012-01-01

    An analytical method to produce profiles of bacterial biomass fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was developed employing rapid agitation followed by static incubation (RASI) using selective media of wastewater microbial communities. The results were compiled to produce a unique library for comparison and performance analysis at a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP). A total of 146 samples from the aerated WWTP, comprising 73 samples of each secondary and tertiary effluent, were included analyzed. For comparison purposes, all samples were evaluated via a similarity index (SI) with secondary effluents producing an SI of 0.88 with 2.7% variation and tertiary samples producing an SI 0.86 with 5.0% variation. The results also highlighted significant differences between the fatty acid profiles of the tertiary and secondary effluents indicating considerable shifts in the bacterial community profile between these treatment phases. The WWTP performance results using this method were highly replicable and reproducible indicating that the protocol has potential as a performance-monitoring tool for aerated WWTPs. The results quickly and accurately reflect shifts in dominant bacterial communities that result when processes operations and performance change.

  12. Application of multi attribute failure mode analysis of milk production using analytical hierarchy process method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucitra, A. L.

    2018-03-01

    Pusat Koperasi Induk Susu (PKIS) Sekar Tanjung, East Java is one of the modern dairy industries producing Ultra High Temperature (UHT) milk. A problem that often occurs in the production process in PKIS Sekar Tanjung is a mismatch between the production process and the predetermined standard. The purpose of applying Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was to identify the most potential cause of failure in the milk production process. Multi Attribute Failure Mode Analysis (MAFMA) method was used to eliminate or reduce the possibility of failure when viewed from the failure causes. This method integrates the severity, occurrence, detection, and expected cost criteria obtained from depth interview with the head of the production department as an expert. The AHP approach was used to formulate the priority ranking of the cause of failure in the milk production process. At level 1, the severity has the highest weight of 0.41 or 41% compared to other criteria. While at level 2, identifying failure in the UHT milk production process, the most potential cause was the average mixing temperature of more than 70 °C which was higher than the standard temperature (≤70 ° C). This failure cause has a contributes weight of 0.47 or 47% of all criteria Therefore, this study suggested the company to control the mixing temperature to minimise or eliminate the failure in this process.

  13. Remote access methods for exploratory data analysis and statistical modelling: Privacy-Preserving Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Ross; Carter, Chris; Donnelly, John B; O'Keefe, Christine M; Duncan, Jodie; Keighley, Tim; McAullay, Damien

    2008-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the challenge of enabling the use of confidential or private data for research and policy analysis, while protecting confidentiality and privacy by reducing the risk of disclosure of sensitive information. Traditional solutions to the problem of reducing disclosure risk include releasing de-identified data and modifying data before release. In this paper we discuss the alternative approach of using a remote analysis server which does not enable any data release, but instead is designed to deliver useful results of user-specified statistical analyses with a low risk of disclosure. The techniques described in this paper enable a user to conduct a wide range of methods in exploratory data analysis, regression and survival analysis, while at the same time reducing the risk that the user can read or infer any individual record attribute value. We illustrate our methods with examples from biostatistics using publicly available data. We have implemented our techniques into a software demonstrator called Privacy-Preserving Analytics (PPA), via a web-based interface to the R software. We believe that PPA may provide an effective balance between the competing goals of providing useful information and reducing disclosure risk in some situations.

  14. Analytic Perturbation Method for Estimating Ground Flash Fraction from Satellite Lightning Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William; Solakiewicz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    An analytic perturbation method is introduced for estimating the lightning ground flash fraction in a set of N lightning flashes observed by a satellite lightning mapper. The value of N is large, typically in the thousands, and the observations consist of the maximum optical group area produced by each flash. The method is tested using simulated observations that are based on Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data. National Lightning Detection NetworkTM (NLDN) data is used to determine the flash-type (ground or cloud) of the satellite-observed flashes, and provides the ground flash fraction truth for the simulation runs. It is found that the mean ground flash fraction retrieval errors are below 0.04 across the full range 0-1 under certain simulation conditions. In general, it is demonstrated that the retrieval errors depend on many factors (i.e., the number, N, of satellite observations, the magnitude of random and systematic measurement errors, and the number of samples used to form certain climate distributions employed in the model).

  15. Application of Dynamic Analysis in Semi-Analytical Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of dynamic responses are significantly important for the design, maintenance and rehabilitation of asphalt pavement. In order to evaluate the dynamic responses of asphalt pavement under moving loads, a specific computational program, SAFEM, was developed based on a semi-analytical finite element method. This method is three-dimensional and only requires a two-dimensional FE discretization by incorporating Fourier series in the third dimension. In this paper, the algorithm to apply the dynamic analysis to SAFEM was introduced in detail. Asphalt pavement models under moving loads were built in the SAFEM and commercial finite element software ABAQUS to verify the accuracy and efficiency of the SAFEM. The verification shows that the computational accuracy of SAFEM is high enough and its computational time is much shorter than ABAQUS. Moreover, experimental verification was carried out and the prediction derived from SAFEM is consistent with the measurement. Therefore, the SAFEM is feasible to reliably predict the dynamic response of asphalt pavement under moving loads, thus proving beneficial to road administration in assessing the pavement’s state.

  16. Projected Regression Methods for Inverting Fredholm Integrals: Formalism and Application to Analytical Continuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Louis-Francois; Neuberg, Richard; Hannah, Lauren A.; Millis, Andrew J.

    We present a machine learning-based statistical regression approach to the inversion of Fredholm integrals of the first kind by studying an important example for the quantum materials community, the analytical continuation problem of quantum many-body physics. It involves reconstructing the frequency dependence of physical excitation spectra from data obtained at specific points in the complex frequency plane. The approach provides a natural regularization in cases where the inverse of the Fredholm kernel is ill-conditioned and yields robust error metrics. The stability of the forward problem permits the construction of a large database of input-output pairs. Machine learning methods applied to this database generate approximate solutions which are projected onto the subspace of functions satisfying relevant constraints. We show that for low input noise the method performs as well or better than Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) under standard error metrics, and is substantially more robust to noise. We expect the methodology to be similarly effective for any problem involving a formally ill-conditioned inversion, provided that the forward problem can be efficiently solved. AJM was supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Subcontract No. 3F-3138 and LFA by the Columbia Univeristy IDS-ROADS project, UR009033-05 which also provided part support to RN and LH.

  17. Numerical-analytical method of calculating insulated double-glazed units deflection under climatic (internal load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plotnikov Aleksandr Aleksandrovich

    Full Text Available Glass unit consists of glasses hermetically-united together. The cavity of an insulating glass unit contains a fixed volume of air (gas. In the process of production regular air with atmospheric pressure and temperature is sealed inside a glass unit. During operation the atmospheric pressure is constantly changing, but the pressure inside remains constant (at a constant temperature. A change of temperature or of the external air pressure results in a pressure difference and therefore in a load on the glass panes. The action may exceed the usual load considerably. This pressure effects the glasses of the unit, deforms them, lowers the thermotechnical properties of glass units and can lead to their destruction. The action of the inside pressure can be seen all around as convex and concaved glasses, which destroys the architectural look of buildings. It is obvious that it is incorrect to calculate thin glass plates on such a load only by classical methods of strength of materials theory. In this case we need a special calculation method. The effects of a change in temperature, altitude or meteorological pressure are easily covered by the definition of an isochore pressure. This is necessary, to determine the change of pressure due to the temperature induced gas expansion in the cavity of the insulating glass according to the ideal gas law. After the integration of the analytical plate solution and the ideal gas law, the final pressure states can easily be calculated by coupling the change of volume and the change of pressure.

  18. Application of Dynamic Analysis in Semi-Analytical Finite Element Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengfei; Xing, Qinyan; Wang, Dawei; Oeser, Markus

    2017-08-30

    Analyses of dynamic responses are significantly important for the design, maintenance and rehabilitation of asphalt pavement. In order to evaluate the dynamic responses of asphalt pavement under moving loads, a specific computational program, SAFEM, was developed based on a semi-analytical finite element method. This method is three-dimensional and only requires a two-dimensional FE discretization by incorporating Fourier series in the third dimension. In this paper, the algorithm to apply the dynamic analysis to SAFEM was introduced in detail. Asphalt pavement models under moving loads were built in the SAFEM and commercial finite element software ABAQUS to verify the accuracy and efficiency of the SAFEM. The verification shows that the computational accuracy of SAFEM is high enough and its computational time is much shorter than ABAQUS. Moreover, experimental verification was carried out and the prediction derived from SAFEM is consistent with the measurement. Therefore, the SAFEM is feasible to reliably predict the dynamic response of asphalt pavement under moving loads, thus proving beneficial to road administration in assessing the pavement's state.

  19. Comparison between sampling and analytical methods in characterization of pollutants in biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariné, Sílvia; Pedrouzo, Marta; Marcé, Rosa Maria; Fonseca, Ignacio; Borrull, Francesc

    2012-10-15

    Different sampling methods involving the collection of biogas by Tedlar bags or adsorption tubes, and different GC-MS injection systems, loop injection or cold trap injection (with bags or by tube desorption), were compared to establish the best method to determine the minority compounds in biogas from sewage treatment plants (STPs). A study of parameters is included, such as the stability of compounds in Tedlar bags or cartridges and the adsorption effect of some less volatile compounds in the thermal desorption system (TD). The optimized methods allowed to determine most compounds at low mgm(-3) levels. Among them, maximum values of D5 (4.84 mg m(-3)), decane (95-118 mg m(-3)) and H(2)S (2223 mg m(-3)) were found in biogas samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization and validation of sampling and analytical methods for mycotoxins in workplace air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargot, Danièle; Melin, Sandrine

    2013-03-01

    Mycotoxins are produced by certain plant or foodstuff moulds under growing, transport or storage conditions. They are toxic for humans and animals, some are carcinogenic. Methods to monitor occupational exposure to seven of the most frequently occurring airborne mycotoxins have been characterized and validated. Experimental aerosols have been generated from naturally contaminated particles for sampler evaluation. Air samples were collected on foam pads, using the CIP 10 personal aerosol sampler with its inhalable health-related aerosol fraction selector. The samples were subsequently solvent extracted from the sampling media, cleaned using immunoaffinity (IA) columns and analyzed by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Ochratoxin A (OTA) or fumonisin and aflatoxin derivatives were detected and quantified. The quantification limits were 0.015 ng m(-3) OTA, 1 ng m(-3) fumonisins or 0.5 pg m(-3) aflatoxins, with a minimum dust concentration level of 1 mg m(-3) and a 4800 L air volume sampling. The methods were successfully applied to field measurements, which confirmed that workers could be exposed when handling contaminated materials. It was observed that airborne particles may be more contaminated than the bulk material itself. The validated methods have measuring ranges fully adapted to the concentrations found in the workplace. Their performance meets the general requirements laid down for chemical agent measurement procedures, with an expanded uncertainty less than 50% for most mycotoxins. The analytical uncertainty, comprised between 14 and 24%, was quite satisfactory given the low mycotoxin amounts, when compared to the food benchmarks. The methods are now user-friendly enough to be adopted for personal workplace sampling. They will later allow for mycotoxin occupational risk assessment, as only very few quantitative data have been available till now.

  1. Landowner Satisfaction with the Wetland Reserve Program in Texas: A Mixed-Methods Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroman, Dianne; Kreuter, Urs P.

    2016-01-01

    Using mail survey data and telephone interviews, we report on landowner satisfaction with permanent easements held by the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) throughout Texas. This study found that landowners were dissatisfied with the NRCS Wetland Reserve Program (WRP), conflicting with results of previous studies. The objective of this study was to explore specific reasons for frustration expressed by landowners with the program. We found three predominant themes underpinning program dissatisfaction: (1) upfront restoration failures, (2) overly restrictive easement constraints, and (3) bureaucratic hurdles limiting landowners' ability to conduct adaptive management on their easement property. The implications of this study suggest that attitudes of landowners participating in the WRP may limit the long-term effectiveness of this program. Suggestions for improving the program include implementing timely, ecologically sound restoration procedures and streamlining and simplifying the approval process for management activity requests. In addition, the NRCS should consider revising WRP restriction guidelines in order to provide more balance between protection goals and landowner autonomy.

  2. A comparison of analytic hierarchy process and conjoint analysis methods in assessing treatment alternatives for stroke rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman, Maarten Joost; van Til, Janine Astrid; Bridges, John

    2012-01-01

    Background: With growing emphasis on patient involvement in health technology assessment, there is a need for scientific methods that formally elicit patient preferences. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and conjoint analysis (CA) are two established scientific methods – albeit with very different

  3. STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF AN ANALYTICAL GC/MS METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF LONG CHAIN FATTY ACIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In-depth evaluation of an analytical method to detect and quantify long chain fatty acids (C8 - C16) at trace level concentrations (25-1000 µg/l) is presented. The method requires derivatization of the acids with methanolic boron trifluoride, separation, and...

  4. Palladium emissions in the environment: analytical methods, environmental assessment and health effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alt, Friedrich; Zereini, Fathi

    2006-01-01

    ... (Eds)). But there is a clear lack of information concerning palladium. It is very important to condense the present state of research findings from emission to potential health risks for the environment and humans. Very important is the chapter about analytical determination of palladium, which shows clearly the problems of several analytic...

  5. Hair elemental analysis for forensic science using nuclear and related analytical methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan; Kameník, Jan; Havránek, Vladimír

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2018), s. 65-74 ISSN 2468-1709 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : hair * forensic analysis * neutron activation analysis * particle induced X-ray emission Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry

  6. The development of an analytical method for urinary metabolites of the riot control agent 2-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riches, James R; Read, Robert W; Black, Robin M; Harrison, John M; Shand, Dawn A; Tomsett, Eleanor V; Newsome, Catherine R; Bailey, Nicola C; Roughley, Neil; Gravett, Matthew R; Stubbs, Sarah J; McColm, Richard R

    2013-06-01

    The analysis of biomedical samples such as urine and blood can provide evidence of exposure to chemicals for a range of applications including occupational exposure monitoring, detection of drugs of abuse, performance enhancement in sport and investigations of poisoning and incapacitation. This paper reports the development of an analytical method for two suspected urinary metabolites of the riot control agent 2-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS): 2-chlorohippuric acid and 2-chlorobenzyl-N-acetylcysteine. 2-Chlorohippuric acid was identified in all 2h post-exposure samples from a set of urine samples taken from army recruits exposed to low levels of thermally dispersed CS during training. 2-Chlorobenzyl-N-acetylcysteine, a metabolite known to be formed in the rat, was not identified in any of the samples. The lower limit of detection (LLOD) for 2-chlorohippuric acid and 2-chlorobenzyl-N-acetylcysteine was 1ng/ml and 0.5ng/ml in pooled urine from the pre-exposed subjects. 2-Chlorohippuric acid was rapidly excreted but was detectable in the urine of 17 of the 19 subjects tested 20h after exposure. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An analytical method for the calculation of static characteristics of linear step motors for control rod drives in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.H.; Ivanov, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    An analytical method for calculating static characteristics of linear dc step motors (LSM) is described. These multiphase passive-armature motors are now being developed for control rod drives (CRD) in large nuclear reactors. The static characteristics of such LSM is defined by the variation of electromagnetic force with armature displacement and it determines motor performance in its standing and dynamic modes of operation. The proposed analytical technique for calculating this characteristic is based on the permeance analysis method applied to phase magnetic circuits of LSM. Reluctances of various parts of phase magnetic circuit is calculated analytically by assuming probable flux paths and by taking into account complex nature of magnetic field distribution in it. For given armature positions stator and armature iron saturations are taken into account by an efficient iterative algorithm which gives fast convergence. The method is validated by comparing theoretical results with experimental ones which shows satisfactory agreement for small stator currents and weak iron saturation

  8. Validation of analytical method to calculate the concentration of conjugated monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcarde, Lais F.; Massicano, Adriana V.F.; Oliveira, Ricardo S.; Araujo, Elaine B. de

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a quantitative analytical method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine the antibody concentration in conjunction with bifunctional chelator. Assays were performed using a high performance liquid chromatograph, and the following conditions were used: flow rate of 1 mL / min, 15 min run time, 0.2 M sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 as the mobile phase and column of molecular exclusion BioSep SEC S-3000 (300 x 7.8 mm, 5 μM - Phenomenex). The calibration curve was obtained with AcM diluted in 0.2 M sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 by serial dilution, yielding the concentrations: 400 μg/mL, 200 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, 50 μg/mL, 25 μg/mL and 12.5 μg/mL. From the calibration curve calculated the equation of the line and with it the concentration of the immunoconjugate. To ensure the validity of the method accuracy and precision studies were conducted. The accuracy test consisted in the evaluation of 3 samples of known concentration, being this test performed with low concentrations (50 μg/mL), medium (100 μg/mL) and high (200 μg/mL). The precision test consisted of 3 consecutive measurements of one sample of known concentration, subject to the conditions set forth above for the other tests. The correlation coefficient of the standard curve was greater than 97%, the accuracy was satisfactory at low concentrations as well as accuracy. The method was validated by showing it for the accurate and precise determination of the concentration of the immunoconjugate. Furthermore, this assay was found to be extremely important, because using the correct mass of the protein, the radiochemical purity of the radioimmunoconjugate was above 95% in all studies

  9. Predictive ability of the feeding system in Iberian pig by means of several analytical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, E.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of several analytical methods proposed to predict the feeding system received by Iberian pigs during the fattening period has been contrasted. Samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue were analyzed from 38 batches of pigs fattened in three seasons of montanera (acorn and pastures feeding. They corresponded to the four categories described in the Quality Standard for Iberian pig products: 251 samples of bellota, 164 of recebo, 197 of cebo de campo and 137 of cebo. To perform the study, the following analytical methods were used: fatty acid quantification, NIR, alpha and gamma tocopherol, chemical sensor, triacilglycerides, stable isotopes and neophytadiene. The laboratories received the samples without any information about the fattening system to which they belonged and remitted their predictions with respect to the above categories. The results showed a high percentage of accurate predictions of the methods when the fattening type corresponds to the extreme categories (bellota and cebo, however, the methods had difficulty in discerning between samples from a mixed feeding regime with acorn and feed (recebo and problems when pigs are fattened with compound feeds including vegetable fats with high levels of oleic acid. Although a simplification into only two categories (cebo/campo and recebo/bellota results in a success rate higher than 90% for some methods, the combination of two or three techniques with problematic samples allows for differentiating among the four categories with the same accuracy.Se ha contrastado la fiabilidad de varios métodos analíticos para determinar el tipo de alimentación recibida durante el cebo por cerdos Ibéricos a partir de muestras de tejido adiposo subcutáneo, procedentes de 38 partidas de cerdos de tres campañas de montanera. Las muestras correspondieron con las categorías de alimentación contempladas en la Norma de Calidad: 251 fueron de bellota, 164 de recebo, 197 de campo y 137 de cebo

  10. Analytical method for analysis of electromagnetic scattering from inhomogeneous spherical structures using duality principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, M.; Abdolali, A.; Safari, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this article, an analytical approach is presented for the analysis of electromagnetic (EM) scattering from radially inhomogeneous spherical structures (RISSs) based on the duality principle. According to the spherical symmetry, similar angular dependencies in all the regions are considered using spherical harmonics. To extract the radial dependency, the system of differential equations of wave propagation toward the inhomogeneity direction is equated with the dual planar ones. A general duality between electromagnetic fields and parameters and scattering parameters of the two structures is introduced. The validity of the proposed approach is verified through a comprehensive example. The presented approach substitutes a complicated problem in spherical coordinate to an easy, well posed, and previously solved problem in planar geometry. This approach is valid for all continuously varying inhomogeneity profiles. One of the major advantages of the proposed method is the capability of studying two general and applicable types of RISSs. As an interesting application, a class of lens antenna based on the physical concept of the gradient refractive index material is introduced. The approach is used to analyze the EM scattering from the structure and validate strong performance of the lens.

  11. Meta-analysis as Statistical and Analytical Method of Journal's Content Scientific Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin

    2015-02-01

    A meta-analysis is a statistical and analytical method which combines and synthesizes different independent studies and integrates their results into one common result. Analysis of the journals "Medical Archives", "Materia Socio Medica" and "Acta Informatica Medica", which are located in the most eminent indexed databases of the biomedical milieu. The study has retrospective and descriptive character, and included the period of the calendar year 2014. Study included six editions of all three journals (total of 18 journals). In this period was published a total of 291 articles (in the "Medical Archives" 110, "Materia Socio Medica" 97, and in "Acta Informatica Medica" 84). The largest number of articles was original articles. Small numbers have been published as professional, review articles and case reports. Clinical events were most common in the first two journals, while in the journal "Acta Informatica Medica" belonged to the field of medical informatics, as part of pre-clinical medical disciplines. Articles are usually required period of fifty to fifty nine days for review. Articles were received from four continents, mostly from Europe. The authors are most often from the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, then Iran, Kosovo and Macedonia. The number of articles published each year is increasing, with greater participation of authors from different continents and abroad. Clinical medical disciplines are the most common, with the broader spectrum of topics and with a growing number of original articles. Greater support of the wider scientific community is needed for further development of all three of the aforementioned journals.

  12. Atmospheric Deposition: Sampling Procedures, Analytical Methods, and Main Recent Findings from the Scientific Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amodio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The atmosphere is a carrier on which some natural and anthropogenic organic and inorganic chemicals are transported, and the wet and dry deposition events are the most important processes that remove those chemicals, depositing it on soil and water. A wide variety of different collectors were tested to evaluate site-specificity, seasonality and daily variability of settleable particle concentrations. Deposition fluxes of POPs showed spatial and seasonal variations, diagnostic ratios of PAHs on deposited particles, allowed the discrimination between pyrolytic or petrogenic sources. Congener pattern analysis and bulk deposition fluxes in rural sites confirmed long-range atmospheric transport of PCDDs/Fs. More and more sophisticated and newly designed deposition samplers have being used for characterization of deposited mercury, demonstrating the importance of rain scavenging and the relatively higher magnitude of Hg deposition from Chinese anthropogenic sources. Recently biological monitors demonstrated that PAH concentrations in lichens were comparable with concentrations measured in a conventional active sampler in an outdoor environment. In this review the authors explore the methodological approaches used for the assessment of atmospheric deposition, from the analysis of the sampling methods, the analytical procedures for chemical characterization of pollutants and the main results from the scientific literature.

  13. Analytical method of CIM to PIM transformation in Model Driven Architecture (MDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kardos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Information system’s models on higher level of abstraction have become a daily routine in many software companies. The concept of Model Driven Architecture (MDA published by standardization body OMG1 since 2001 has become a concept for creation of software applications and information systems. MDA specifies four levels of abstraction: top three levels are created as graphical models and the last one as implementation code model. Many research works of MDA are focusing on the lower levels and transformations between each other. The top level of abstraction, called Computation Independent Model (CIM and its transformation to the lower level called Platform Independent Model (PIM is not so extensive research topic. Considering to a great importance and usability of this level in practice of IS2Keywords: transformation, MDA, CIM, PIM, UML, DFD. development now our research activity is focused to this highest level of abstraction – CIM and its possible transformation to the lower PIM level. In this article we are presenting a possible solution of CIM modeling and its analytic method of transformation to PIM.

  14. Indicator electrodes from d-elements for application in different types of potentiometric analytical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kunasheva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the use of metal electrodes from titanium, tungsten, molybdenum as indicator electrodes at potentiometric method of analysis. The condition of measuring operation in dependence on pH, ionic strength of solutions is described in the article. Electrode potential of testing electrodes are measured in the interval of concentration of salts from 0,1∙10-1 mole/l till 0,1∙10-6 mole/l. The results of testing of electrical-analytical description of metal electrodes made of d-elements, in particular, titanium, tungsten, molybdenum in solutions of cations of some metals and anions were mentioned. As ions of metal cations Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Pb2+ and anions Cl-, I-, F- were chosen.It is identified that titanic electrode has different response to ions of copper (II, zinc and cadmium. However, dependence of electrode potential on concentration of ions of metal is rectilinear, that is vequired of indicator electrodes in the direct potential metrics.  

  15. Development and validation of analytical method for Naftopidil in human plasma by LC–MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritam S. Jain

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive and simple high-performance liquid chromatographic–tandem mass spectrometric (LC–MS-MS assay is developed and validated for the quantification of Naftopidil in human plasma. Naftopidil is extracted from human plasma by methyl tertiary butyl ether and analyzed using a reversed-phase gradient elution on a discovery C 18 5 μ (50 × 4.6 column. A methanol: 2 mM ammonium formate (90:10 as mobile phase, is used and detection was performed by MS using electrospray ionization in positive mode. Propranolol is used as the internal standard. The lower limits of quantification are 0.495 ng/mL. The calibration curves are linear over the concentration range of 0.495–200.577 ng/mL of plasma for each analyte. This novel LC–MS-MS method shows satisfactory accuracy and precision and is sufficiently sensitive for the performance of pharmacokinetic studies in humans.

  16. 237 Np analytical method using 239 Np tracers and application to a contaminated nuclear disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, Mathew S.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Clark, Sue B.; Olson, John E.; Watrous, Matthew G.

    2017-06-01

    Environmental 237Np analyses are challenged by low 237Np concentrations and lack of an available yield tracer; we report a rapid, inexpensive 237Np analytical approach employing the short lived 239Np (t1/2 = 2.3 days) as a chemical yield tracer followed by 237Np quantification using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. 239Np tracer is obtained via separation from a 243Am stock solution and standardized using gamma spectrometry immediately prior to sample processing. Rapid digestions using a commercial, 900 watt “Walmart” microwave and Parr microwave vessels result in 99.8 ± 0.1% digestion yields, while chromatographic separations enable Np/U separation factors on the order of 106 and total Np yields of 95 ± 4% (2σ). Application of this method to legacy soil samples surrounding a radioactive disposal facility (the Subsurface Disposal Area at Idaho National Laboratory) reveal the presence of low level 237Np contamination within 600 meters of this site, with maximum 237Np concentrations on the order of 103 times greater than nuclear weapons testing fallout levels.

  17. Seismic control performance for Pounding Tuned Massed Damper based on viscoelastic pounding force analytical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qichao; Zhang, Jingcai; He, Jian; Zhang, Chunwei; Zou, Guangping

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on vibration control performance of Pounding Tuned Massed Damper (PTMD) with viscoelastic pounding layers, which can dissipate energy during collision process. By using of viscoelastic pounding force analytical method, two types of pounding force models for different contact geometries are developed to illustrate interactions among pounding components in PTMD. A shake table test based on a simplified experimental structure is conducted to verify the effectiveness of single PTMD as well as the viscoelastic pounding force model. Furthermore, a parametric study for a 14-storeys steel structure is presented to investigate the performance of PTMD device in multiple degree of freedom (MDOF) system. Results from numerical simulations demonstrated that properties of viscoelastic material and gaps between mass block and the limiters in PTMD are key factors for vibration control performance. By inputting a series of seismic excitations into MDOF system, comparisons between PTMD and traditional TMD reveals that the optimized PTMD has better performance than the traditional TMD in vibration suppression in certain cases.

  18. Development and Validation Dissolution Analytical Method of Nimesulide beta-Cyclodextrin 400 mg Tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Carvalho Pereira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The nimesulide (N-(4-nitro-2-phenoxyphenylmethanesulfonamide belongs to the class of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and category II of the biopharmaceutical classification, The complexation of nimesulide with b-cyclodextrin is a pharmacological strategy to increase the solubility of the drug The objective of this study was to develop and validate an analytical methodology for dissolving the nimesulide beta-cyclodextrin 400 mg tablet and meets the guidelines of ANVISA for drug registration purposes. Once developed, the dissolution methodology was validated according to the RE of parameters no.  899/2003. In the development of the method it was noted that the duration of the dissolution test was 60 minutes, the volume and the most suitable dissolution medium was 900 mL of aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulfate 1% (w/ v. It was also noted that rotation of 100 rpm and the paddle apparatus was the most appropriate to evaluate the dissolution of the drug. Spectrophotometric methodology was used to quantify the percentage of dissolved drug. The wavelength was 390 nm using the quantification. The validation of the methodology, system suitability parameters, specificity/selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy and robustness were satisfactory and proved that the developed dissolution methodology was duly executed. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v8i5.827

  19. Optimization of the Water Volume in the Buckets of Pico Hydro Overshot Waterwheel by Analytical Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiarso; Adanta, Dendy; Warjito; Siswantara, A. I.; Saputra, Pradhana; Dianofitra, Reza

    2018-03-01

    Rapid economic and population growth in Indonesia lead to increased energy consumption, including electricity needs. Pico hydro is considered as the right solution because the cost of investment and operational cost are fairly low. Additionally, Indonesia has many remote areas with high hydro-energy potential. The overshot waterwheel is one of technology that is suitable to be applied in remote areas due to ease of operation and maintenance. This study attempts to optimize bucket dimensions with the available conditions. In addition, the optimization also has a good impact on the amount of generated power because all available energy is utilized maximally. Analytical method is used to evaluate the volume of water contained in bucket overshot waterwheel. In general, there are two stages performed. First, calculation of the volume of water contained in each active bucket is done. If the amount total of water contained is less than the available discharge in active bucket, recalculation at the width of the wheel is done. Second, calculation of the torque of each active bucket is done to determine the power output. As the result, the mechanical power generated from the waterwheel is 305 Watts with the efficiency value of 28%.

  20. Generalized magnetic susceptibilities in metals: application of the analytic tetrahedron linear energy method to Sc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, J.; Freeman, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    A detailed study of the generalized susceptibility chi(vector q) of Sc metal determined from an accurate augmented-plane-wave method calculation of its energy-band structure is presented. The calculations were done by means of a computational scheme for chi(vector q) derived as an extension of the work of Jepsen and Andersen and Lehmann and Taut on the density-of-states problem. The procedure yields simple analytic expressions for the chi(vector q) integral inside a tetrahedral microzone of the Brillouin zone which depends only on the volume of the tetrahedron and the differences of the energies at its corners. Constant-matrix-element results have been obtained for Sc which show very good agreement with the results of Liu, Gupta, and Sinha (but with one less peak) and exhibit a first maximum in chi(vector q) at (0, 0, 0.31) 2π/c [vs (0, 0, 0.35) 2π/c obtained by Liu et al.] which relates very well to dilute rare-earth alloy magnetic ordering at vector q/sub m/ = (0, 0, 0.28) 2π/c and to the kink in the LA-phonon dispersion curve at (0, 0, 0.27) 2π/c. (U.S.)