Sample records for reservation algorithms israel

  1. Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evron, Y.


    Israel's ambiguous posture gradually emerged, although Israel, according to all international accounts, continued to pursue the development of a nuclear weapon option. The evolution of Israeli policy on this issue constitutes the main focus of this paper. Beginning with a detailed account of the strategic and political context, the initial Israeli decisions to develop a nuclear infrastructure are examined. Next, Israel's decision to adopt an ambiguous stance, the various features of the current threshold posture and the reasons for Israel's restraint will respect to nuclear weapon development are explored. The role played by the nuclear dimension in the Arab-Israeli conflict and in the Middle east peace process constitutes a third area to be discussed. The paper then examines the intended and actual functions of Israel's threshold posture, before concluding with an analysis of some of the implications for arms control

  2. Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, G.M.


    In the area of nuclear weapons and the development of the potential capability as a nuclear supplier, as in many other issues, Israel stands out as a highly unusual, and indeed unique, case. In contrast to most other states considered in this paper such as Argentina, Brazil, and South Korea, Israel does not have an active civil nuclear energy industry. Despite some meager efforts in this direction, Israel does not operate large civil nuclear power reactors, and no Israeli firms produce commercial nuclear fuel cycle components of significance. Thus, many of the commercial and political factors that contribute to the emergence of second-tier suppliers are not salient in the Israeli case. Israel's status as a potential second tier nuclear supplier is based on its own nuclear weapons program and capability. Israeli scientists and engineers have clearly developed the technical infrastructure and facilities to design, produce, test, and deploy nuclear weapons and appropriate delivery vehicles

  3. Israel. (United States)


    A summary description of Israel's populzation, history, government, geography, economy, and foreign relations is provided. Israel's population of 4.1 million (1983) is composed of migrants and descendants of migrants from more than 100 different countries. 83% of the population is Jewish, and the remaining 17% is mostly Arab. The literacy rate is 88% among Jews and 48% among Arabs. Life expectancy is 72.1 for males and 75.7 for females, and the infant mortality rate is 14.1/1000. The state of Israel was created in response to the Zionist's desire to establish a homeland in Palestine for the world's Jewish population. With the help of the British government and the League of Nations, Jews began immigrating to Palestine in the 1920s. During the 1930s and 1940s, Jewish migration to Israel increased markedly, and in 1947 the UN adopted a plan to divide Palestine into a Jewish state and an Arab state, despite resistance from the Arab community. In 1948, Israel offically proclaimed its existence, and hostilities between the Israelis and Arabs broke out immediately. The ensuing years were characterized by sporadic conflict between Israel, Arab countries 2nd the Palestinians. The conflict between these groups continues into the present, despite many international attempts to promote peace in the region. The country has a parliamentary democratic form of government. It is governed by an elected unicameral legislature, the Knesset; a president, elected by the Knesset; a prime minister, selected by the president to represent the major party in the Knesset; and a coalition cabinet, which must be approved by the Knesset. The country has a market economy, but the government exerts considerable control over the economy, including price control. The country is straddled by a high trade deficit, heavey defense expeditures, inflation, and the high cost of absorbing a large number of immigrants. Despite these problems, as well as a lack of natural resources, Israel has a well

  4. Disaggregating reserve-to-production ratios: An algorithm for United States oil and gas reserve development (United States)

    Williams, Charles William

    Reserve-to-production ratios for oil and gas development are utilized by oil and gas producing states to monitor oil and gas reserve and production dynamics. These ratios are used to determine production levels for the manipulation of oil and gas prices while maintaining adequate reserves for future development. These aggregate reserve-to-production ratios do not provide information concerning development cost and the best time necessary to develop newly discovered reserves. Oil and gas reserves are a semi-finished inventory because development of the reserves must take place in order to implement production. These reserves are considered semi-finished in that they are not counted unless it is economically profitable to produce them. The development of these reserves is encouraged by profit maximization economic variables which must consider the legal, political, and geological aspects of a project. This development is comprised of a myriad of incremental operational decisions, each of which influences profit maximization. The primary purpose of this study was to provide a model for characterizing a single product multi-period inventory/production optimization problem from an unconstrained quantity of raw material which was produced and stored as inventory reserve. This optimization was determined by evaluating dynamic changes in new additions to reserves and the subsequent depletion of these reserves with the maximization of production. A secondary purpose was to determine an equation for exponential depletion of proved reserves which presented a more comprehensive representation of reserve-to-production ratio values than an inadequate and frequently used aggregate historical method. The final purpose of this study was to determine the most accurate delay time for a proved reserve to achieve maximum production. This calculated time provided a measure of the discounted cost and calculation of net present value for developing new reserves. This study concluded that

  5. An Online Scheduling Algorithm with Advance Reservation for Large-Scale Data Transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balman, Mehmet; Kosar, Tevfik


    Scientific applications and experimental facilities generate massive data sets that need to be transferred to remote collaborating sites for sharing, processing, and long term storage. In order to support increasingly data-intensive science, next generation research networks have been deployed to provide high-speed on-demand data access between collaborating institutions. In this paper, we present a practical model for online data scheduling in which data movement operations are scheduled in advance for end-to-end high performance transfers. In our model, data scheduler interacts with reservation managers and data transfer nodes in order to reserve available bandwidth to guarantee completion of jobs that are accepted and confirmed to satisfy preferred time constraint given by the user. Our methodology improves current systems by allowing researchers and higher level meta-schedulers to use data placement as a service where theycan plan ahead and reserve the scheduler time in advance for their data movement operations. We have implemented our algorithm and examined possible techniques for incorporation into current reservation frameworks. Performance measurements confirm that the proposed algorithm is efficient and scalable.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available WiMedia Medium Access Control (MAC provides high rate data transfer for wireless networking thereby enables construction of high speed home networks. It facilitates data communication between the nodes through two modes namely: i Distributed Reservation Protocol (DRP for isochronous traffic and ii Prioritized Contention Access (PCA for asynchronous traffic. PCA mode enables medium access using CSMA/CA similar to IEEE 802.11e. In the presence of DRP, the throughput of PCA saturates when there is an increase in the number of devices accessing PCA channel. Researchers suggest that the better utilization of medium resolves many issues in an effective way. To demonstrate the effective utilization of the medium, Contention Based Distributed Reservation Protocol Allocation Algorithm for WiMedia Medium Access Control is proposed for reserving Medium Access Slots under DRP in the presence of PCA. The proposed algorithm provides a better medium access, reduces energy consumption and enhances the throughput when compared to the existing methodologies.

  7. Coronary CT Angiography-derived Fractional Flow Reserve: Machine Learning Algorithm versus Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling. (United States)

    Tesche, Christian; De Cecco, Carlo N; Baumann, Stefan; Renker, Matthias; McLaurin, Tindal W; Duguay, Taylor M; Bayer, Richard R; Steinberg, Daniel H; Grant, Katharine L; Canstein, Christian; Schwemmer, Chris; Schoebinger, Max; Itu, Lucian M; Rapaka, Saikiran; Sharma, Puneet; Schoepf, U Joseph


    Purpose To compare two technical approaches for determination of coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography-derived fractional flow reserve (FFR)-FFR derived from coronary CT angiography based on computational fluid dynamics (hereafter, FFR CFD ) and FFR derived from coronary CT angiography based on machine learning algorithm (hereafter, FFR ML )-against coronary CT angiography and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). Materials and Methods A total of 85 patients (mean age, 62 years ± 11 [standard deviation]; 62% men) who had undergone coronary CT angiography followed by invasive FFR were included in this single-center retrospective study. FFR values were derived on-site from coronary CT angiography data sets by using both FFR CFD and FFR ML . The performance of both techniques for detecting lesion-specific ischemia was compared against visual stenosis grading at coronary CT angiography, QCA, and invasive FFR as the reference standard. Results On a per-lesion and per-patient level, FFR ML showed a sensitivity of 79% and 90% and a specificity of 94% and 95%, respectively, for detecting lesion-specific ischemia. Meanwhile, FFR CFD resulted in a sensitivity of 79% and 89% and a specificity of 93% and 93%, respectively, on a per-lesion and per-patient basis (P = .86 and P = .92). On a per-lesion level, the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) of 0.89 for FFR ML and 0.89 for FFR CFD showed significantly higher discriminatory power for detecting lesion-specific ischemia compared with that of coronary CT angiography (AUC, 0.61) and QCA (AUC, 0.69) (all P < .0001). Also, on a per-patient level, FFR ML (AUC, 0.91) and FFR CFD (AUC, 0.91) performed significantly better than did coronary CT angiography (AUC, 0.65) and QCA (AUC, 0.68) (all P < .0001). Processing time for FFR ML was significantly shorter compared with that of FFR CFD (40.5 minutes ± 6.3 vs 43.4 minutes ± 7.1; P = .042). Conclusion The FFR ML algorithm performs equally in

  8. Israel: health and beyond. (United States)

    Skorecki, Karl; Horton, Richard


    , this Series showed that there is an enormous opportunity, which Israel can lead, to leverage the universally accepted principles of health as a sanctuary against conflict and inequity, to achieve a brighter future for a deeply troubled region of the world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Learning-Based Precool Algorithms for Exploiting Foodstuff as Thermal Energy Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Rasmussen, Henrik; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh


    . However, the refrigeration system might not be dimensioned to cope with hot summer days or performance degradation over time. Two learning-based algorithms are therefore proposed for thermostatically controlled loads, which precools the foodstuff in display cases in an anticipatory manner based on how...... saturated the system has been in recent days. A simulation model of a supermarket refrigeration system is provided and evaluation of the precool strategies shows that negative thermal energy can be stored in foodstuff to cope with saturation. A system model or additional hardware is not required, which...

  10. Coronary CT angiography-derived fractional flow reserve correlated with invasive fractional flow reserve measurements - initial experience with a novel physician-driven algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Stefan; Wang, Rui; Schoepf, U.J.; Steinberg, Daniel H.; Spearman, James V.; Bayer, Richard R.; Hamm, Christian W.; Renker, Matthias


    The present study aimed to determine the feasibility of a novel fractional flow reserve (FFR) algorithm based on coronary CT angiography (cCTA) that permits point-of-care assessment, without data transfer to core laboratories, for the evaluation of potentially ischemia-causing stenoses. To obtain CT-based FFR, anatomical coronary information and ventricular mass extracted from cCTA datasets were integrated with haemodynamic parameters. CT-based FFR was assessed for 36 coronary artery stenoses in 28 patients in a blinded fashion and compared to catheter-based FFR. Haemodynamically relevant stenoses were defined by an invasive FFR ≤0.80. Time was measured for the processing of each cCTA dataset and CT-based FFR computation. Assessment of cCTA image quality was performed using a 5-point scale. Mean total time for CT-based FFR determination was 51.9 ± 9.0 min. Per-vessel analysis for the identification of lesion-specific myocardial ischemia demonstrated good correlation (Pearson's product-moment r = 0.74, p < 0.0001) between the prototype CT-based FFR algorithm and invasive FFR. Subjective image quality analysis resulted in a median score of 4 (interquartile ranges, 3-4). Our initial data suggest that the CT-based FFR method for the detection of haemodynamically significant stenoses evaluated in the selected population correlates well with invasive FFR and renders time-efficient point-of-care assessment possible. (orig.)

  11. Youth Aliyah in Israel. (United States)

    Amir, Eli


    Describes Youth Aliyah, department of Jewish Agency for Israel, which began in 1933 to rescue Jewish children from Nazi Germany, bring them to Israel, and place them in kibbutzim. Notes that, since its inception, Youth Aliyah has taken in Holocaust survivors and has taken active role in helping young immigrants to Israel in need of education and…

  12. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    have been found in Vedic Mathematics which are dated much before Euclid's algorithm. A programming language Is used to describe an algorithm for execution on a computer. An algorithm expressed using a programming language Is called a program. From activities 1-3, we can observe that: • Each activity is a command.

  13. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    algorithms such as synthetic (polynomial) division have been found in Vedic Mathematics which are dated much before Euclid's algorithm. A programming language ... ·1 x:=sln(theta) x : = sm(theta) 1. ~. Idl d.t Read A.B,C. ~ lei ~ Print x.y.z. L;;;J. Figure 2 Symbols used In flowchart language to rep- resent Assignment, Read.

  14. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the previous articles, we have discussed various common data-structures such as arrays, lists, queues and trees and illustrated the widely used algorithm design paradigm referred to as 'divide-and-conquer'. Although there has been a large effort in realizing efficient algorithms, there are not many universally accepted ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrică ȘTEFAN


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the economic promotion of tourism circuit between Romania (Bucharest and Israel (Tel Aviv and Jerusalem, unique and blessed area in the world because here was born the Lord Jesus Christ and also our religion: Christianity. It wants also presenting significant sights in Israel which, financially, would be visited at very competitive rates for Romanian tourists, making, in this way, important discounts.

  16. O Lobby de Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Mearsheimer


    Full Text Available O cerne da política dos Estados Unidos no Oriente Médio deriva das atividades do "Lobby de Israel", que conseguiu desviá-la para longe do interesse nacional e convencer os americanos de que os interesses dos Estados Unidos e os de Israel são idênticos. O artigo sustenta que estratégias comuns ou imperativos morais inarredáveis não são explicações suficientes para explicar o notável nível de apoio material e diplomático fornecido pelos Estados Unidos.The thrust of US Middle Eastern policy derives from the activities of the "Israel Lobby", which has managed to divert it as far from what the national interest would suggest, convincing Americans that US interests and those of Israel are identical. The article states that neither shared strategic interests nor compelling moral imperatives can account for the remarkable level of material and diplomatic support provided to Israel by US government.

  17. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the program shown in Figure 1, we have repeated the algorithm. M times and we can make the following observations. Each block is essentially a different instance of "code"; that is, the objects differ by the value to which N is initialized before the execution of the. "code" block. Thus, we can now avoid the repetition of the ...

  18. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    algorithms built into the computer corresponding to the logic- circuit rules that are used to .... For the purpose of carrying ou t ari thmetic or logical operations the memory is organized in terms .... In fixed point representation, one essentially uses integer arithmetic operators assuming the binary point to be at some point other ...

  19. Las fronteras de Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie M. Kacowicz


    Full Text Available En el presente artículo haré una breve reseña histórica de la evolución de las fronteras (inconclusas del Estado de Israel entre 1948 y 2007. En primer lugar, presento un modelo teórico sobre el desarrollo y la evolución de las fronteras, tanto por la vía pacífi ca como por la bélica. En segundo lugar, hago una reseña histórica de la evolución de las fronteras de Israel desde su independencia hasta el presente. El artículo también hace referencia detallada a los problemas pendientes con respecto a las negociaciones entre Israel y los palestinos.

  20. Inclusive Education in Israel


    O. V. Mayzel


    To get acquainted with the practice of inclusive education in mainstream schools, with professionals who work with special children, to visit the specialist centers to share experiences - all of this was part of an internship program «Early Childhood Education for Children with Special Needs», held in Israel (April 8 -02 May 2013) this year. The country has been selected for an internship, because the practice of inclusive education has been used for over 20 years in Israel. Moreover, a lot ...

  1. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The geology of Israel is relatively simple. Most of the country is underlain by sedimentary rocks of Secondary and Tertiary age. As far as the IAEA is aware no systematic exploration has been done for conventional type uranium deposits. Israel has no uranium deposits, and no high or low-grade uranium ores. However, there are uranium 'sources' which are mainly phosphate rock.Proven phosphate reserves in Israel are estimated at about 220 million tons in five different locations. The average uranium concentration is between 100 and 170 ppm. This makes the uranium content in the proven phosphate reserves of Israel to be about 25,000 tons. Together with the possibility of additional discoveries and on the assumption that the economic conditions for the production of both phosphate and uranium become favourable the Speculative Potential is placed in the 10,000 to 50,000 tonnes uranium category. (author)

  2. [Complementary medicine in Israel]. (United States)

    Frenkel, Moshe; Gamus, Dorit


    Over the past two decades there has been an increase in the use and popularity of complementary medicine in Israel. Currently, there are over 100 complementary medicine clinics in the public health sector supported by the four health funds and most hospitals in Israel. The number of visits to those clinics reaches close to 3 million visits annually. This reflects an extensive system of care that Israelis utilize in addition to the conventional heaLthcare system. However, the communication between the two systems is still Limited and the education of complementary medicine providers is not regulated by the Ministry of Health. Concurrently, there are a growing number of physicians who expand the knowledge on these therapies and actually integrate them in patients' care. This issue describes experiences and knowledge related to the integration of complementary medicine in the Israeli healthcare system and provides additional research data in support of further integration of complementary medicine within conventional healthcare.

  3. "Israel Is Meant for Me": Kindergarteners' Conceptions of Israel (United States)

    Zakai, Sivan


    What is Israel in the minds and hearts of young American Jewish children? Through interviews and photo and music elicitation exercises, this research uncovers how day school kindergarten students conceive of Israel. This study, part of an ongoing longitudinal project, shows how 5- and 6-year-old children are able to form a multilayered conception…

  4. Thallium poisoning in Israel. (United States)

    Atsmon, J; Taliansky, E; Landau, M; Neufeld, M Y


    We report the first case of thallium poisoning in Israel in almost 30 years. A 40-year-old man was apparently poisoned by a business associate when, on several occasions, he unknowingly drank an alcoholic beverage containing the toxic substance. Delayed admission and recurrent thallium ingestion resulted in both acute and chronic symptoms being present concomitantly. Conventional treatment modalities (Prussian blue and forced diuresis) were employed. The patient survived, although neurological sequelae ensued. The problems encountered in diagnosis and treatment of this relatively uncommon entity are discussed.

  5. Solar energy in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvirin, Y.; Zamkow, S.


    The state of Israel has been a pioneer in the solar energy development and utilization since it was founded. In the 50's solar domestic home heaters became commercially available. At the same time research work has been started in different areas of solar energy, which led to more advanced solar systems for additional applications. The presentation includes some details of commercial utilization of solar energy and a brief description of the main Research and Development projects in industry, universities and research institutes. (authors)

  6. Assessment of spruce (Picea obovata) abundance by spectral unmixing algorithm for sustainable forest management in highland Natural Reserve (case study of Zigalga Range, South-Ural State Natural Reserve, Russia). (United States)

    Mikheeva, Anna; Moiseev, Pavel


    In mountain territories climate change affects forest productivity and growth, which results in the tree line advancing and increasing of the forest density. These changes pose new challenges for forest managers whose responsibilities include forest resources inventory, monitoring and protection of ecosystems, and assessment of forest vulnerability. These activities require a range of sources of information, including exact squares of forested areas, forest densities and species abundances. Picea obovata, dominant tree species in South-Ural State Natural Reserve, Russia has regenerated, propagated and increased its relative cover during the recent 70 years. A remarkable shift of the upper limit of Picea obovata up to 60-80 m upslope was registered by repeating photography, especially on gentle slopes. The stands of Picea obovata are monitored by Reserve inspectors on the test plots to ensure that forests maintain or improve their productivity, these studies also include projective cover measurements. However, it is impossible to cover the entire territory of the Reserve by detailed field observations. Remote sensing data from Terra ASTER imagery provides valuable information for large territories (scene covers an area of 60 x 60 km) and can be used for quantitative mapping of forest and non-forest vegetation at regional scale (spatial resolution is 15-30 m for visible and infrared bands). A case study of estimating Picea obovata abundance was conducted for forest and forest-tundra sites of Zigalga Range, using 9-band ASTER multispectral imagery of 23.08.2007, field data and spectral unmixing algorithm. This type of algorithms intends to derive object and its abundance from a mixed pixel of multispectral imagery which can be further converted to object's projective cover. Atmospheric correction was applied to the imagery prior to spectral unmixing, and then pure spectra of Picea obovata were extracted from the image in 10 points and averaged. These points located in

  7. Israel Science Foundation | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Israel Science Foundation. Israel Science Foundation. Joint Canada-Israel Health Research Program. The Joint Canada-Israel Health Research Program is a 7-year, CA$35M Canadian-Israeli effort that draws on the unique scientific strengths of both countries and facilitates networking opportunities.

  8. Energy 93, energy in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilo, D.; Bar Mashiah, D.; Er-El, J.


    For the first time this report includes a chapter entitles 'energy and peace'. Following is an overview of israel's energy economy and some principal initiatives in its various sectors during 1992/93 period. 46 figs, 13 tabs

  9. Conflict between Israel and Hamas (United States)


    in the Gaza Strip without his father. Poverty and hunger forced him to work at an early age to support his seven member family. At the age of...Building on despair and poverty . ― Ephraim Sneh, Head of the Civil Administration in the West Bank 1985-1987 The current situation between Israel...attempt to portray the fighting against Israel as a victory. Thousands were killed, tens of thousands are homeless , and the Israeli siege continues

  10. The demand for electricity in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beenstock, M.; Goldin, E.; Nabot, D.


    Quarterly data for Israel are used to compare and contrast three dynamic econometric methodologies for estimating the demand for electricity by households and industrial companies. These are the Dynamic Regression Model and two approaches to cointegration (OLS and Maximum Likelihood). Since we find evidence of seasonal unit roots in the data we also test for seasonal cointegration. We find that the scale elasticities are similar in all three approaches but the OLS price elasticities are considerably lower. Moreover, OLS suggests non-cointegration. The paper concludes by stochastically simulating the DRMs to calculate upside-risk in electricity demand. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. CERN and Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Israel (along with the US, Japan, Canada, the Russian Federation and India) is one of the CERN non- Member State nations targeted for substantial future participation in CERN's experimental programme, in particular for the LHC proton collider to be built in the 27-kilometre LEP tunnel and which was formally approved by CERN Council in December (January/February, page 1). In keeping with their illustrious scientific traditions, Israeli experimental physicists have collaborated in experiments at many of the world's major high energy Laboratories - Brookhaven, Fermilab and SLAC in the US, and in Europe, DESY, Hamburg, as well as CERN. However CERN, as the geographically closest major Laboratory (as well as the largest), plays a special role for Israeli scientists. At CERN, the advent of preparations in the early 1980s for the experimental programme at the LEP electron-positron collider was the signal for Israeli researchers to mount a concerted effort and contribute to one of the experiments - Opal - at a level comparable to that of major nations. This allowed Israeli teams to participate fully in the planning and construction phase of this branch of Big Science. Underlining this commitment, and to coordinate the various national agencies involved in this aspect of Big Science, in 1983 the Israel Commission for High Energy Physics (ICHEP) was formed. It is currently chaired by David Horn of Tel Aviv. The initial ICHEP/CERN contract established the official CERN/lsrael link under which, in the short-term, teams from three major research centres - the Weizmann Institute, Tel- Aviv University, and Haifa's Technion - contributed to Opal, as the flagship experiment, while providing a framework for longer-term collaboration. (At CERN, Israeli physicists also participate in the NA45 heavy ion experiment and the NA47 Spin Muon Collaboration - SMC.) Opal groups some 320 scientists from 32 research centres in eight countries, and includes a 21-strong Israeli

  12. 77 FR 21748 - Oil and Gas Trade Mission to Israel (United States)


    ... large natural gas reserves off its coast. In accordance with the OECD's Green Growth Declaration of 2009, the Government of Israel formed a Green Growth Round Table to bring about regulatory, budgetary and... hotel rooms. Conditions for Participation An applicant must submit a completed and signed mission...


    Dollberg, Shaul


    The practice of neonatology in Israel debuted in the 1970s as local enterprises by individual hospitals that needed to provide sick and preterm newly born infants with up-to-date and effective care. Descriptions of research and advances in humane and gentle treatment during neonatal care for preterm infants and their families, as well as prevention of neonatal infections, follow-up of preterm infants and care of full-term infants are presented in this issue. The Israel National Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) Infant database provides an excellent source of knowledge, which has led to multiple scientific publications. Recent international comparisons of the outcome of preterm VLBW infants, made possible by this unique database in Israel, has provided the neonatal community and the Ministry of Health with insights as to the differences in prognosis between Israel and other countries, especially among extremely low birth weight infants. At the border of viability, mortality in Israelis significantly higher than that reported in other countries and proactive steps undertaken to examine these differences and prompt correctional action should be pursued. The Israel Ministry of Health started positive initiatives and should ensure that their steps are implemented at the preterm infant's bedside.

  14. Sport and Physical Education in Israel. (United States)

    Aharoni, Heziah


    Despite its small population, challenged economy, and rapid political development, Israel has been able to grow and achieve in sport and physical education. Israel's unique system fosters children gifted in sports, elite athletes, and persons with disabilities. Research and planning sport and physical education facilities are central to Israel's…

  15. Israel: Background and U.S. Relations (United States)


    Zakaria GPS , November 20, 2011. 33 “Israel and Iran: Closer to take-off,” Economist, February 11, 2012. 34 For a scenario proposing that Israel...Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies.” Israel insists that the West Bank

  16. Civic and Citizenship Education in Israel. (United States)

    Lemish, Peter


    States that in Israel, civic education successes enable civic myths--"Israel is a Jewish, democratic state" and "Israelis are Jews"--to be vibrant, gestalt worlds of meaning for Jewish Israelis, and sites of resistance for ultra-orthodox Jewish as well as Palestinian citizens of Israel. Analyzes the role of these myths. (BT)

  17. Helicopter Based Magnetic Detection Of Wells At The Teapot Dome (Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 Oilfield: Rapid And Accurate Geophysical Algorithms For Locating Wells (United States)

    Harbert, W.; Hammack, R.; Veloski, G.; Hodge, G.


    In this study Airborne magnetic data was collected by Fugro Airborne Surveys from a helicopter platform (Figure 1) using the Midas II system over the 39 km2 NPR3 (Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3) oilfield in east-central Wyoming. The Midas II system employs two Scintrex CS-2 cesium vapor magnetometers on opposite ends of a transversely mounted, 13.4-m long horizontal boom located amidships (Fig. 1). Each magnetic sensor had an in-flight sensitivity of 0.01 nT. Real time compensation of the magnetic data for magnetic noise induced by maneuvering of the aircraft was accomplished using two fluxgate magnetometers mounted just inboard of the cesium sensors. The total area surveyed was 40.5 km2 (NPR3) near Casper, Wyoming. The purpose of the survey was to accurately locate wells that had been drilled there during more than 90 years of continuous oilfield operation. The survey was conducted at low altitude and with closely spaced flight lines to improve the detection of wells with weak magnetic response and to increase the resolution of closely spaced wells. The survey was in preparation for a planned CO2 flood to enhance oil recovery, which requires a complete well inventory with accurate locations for all existing wells. The magnetic survey was intended to locate wells that are missing from the well database and to provide accurate locations for all wells. The well location method used combined an input dataset (for example, leveled total magnetic field reduced to the pole), combined with first and second horizontal spatial derivatives of this input dataset, which were then analyzed using focal statistics and finally combined using a fuzzy combination operation. Analytic signal and the Shi and Butt (2004) ZS attribute were also analyzed using this algorithm. A parameter could be adjusted to determine sensitivity. Depending on the input dataset 88% to 100% of the wells were located, with typical values being 95% to 99% for the NPR3 field site.

  18. Neospora caninum in crows from Israel. (United States)

    Salant, H; Mazuz, M L; Savitsky, I; Nasereddin, A; Blinder, E; Baneth, G


    A cross-sectional Neospora caninum seroprevalence study was performed on free ranging crows (Corvus cornix, Corvus monedula and Corvus splendens) from Israel in order to assess their exposure to this pathogen and evaluate their role as potential hosts or as sentinels of infection. Using the modified agglutination test (MAT) with a cutoff titer of 1:100, 30 out of 183 crows (16.4%) were found to be N. caninum seropositive. Positive results were validated and confirmed by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). There was 100% agreement between tests when cut-off titers of 1:50 and 1:100 were applied for the IFAT and MAT, respectively. PCR analysis of brain extracts from all crows resulted in the detection of N. caninum DNA for the first time in crows belonging to two species, C. cornix and C. monedula. The high N. caninum seroprevalence in crows suggests that widespread exposure to infection with N. caninum exists especially in central and northern Israel and that crows may act as suitable markers for disease prevalence in the areas in which they are found. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The solar energy in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocquet, L.


    The solar energy is an important characteristic of Israel, listed in its history and its development. This document presents the solar energy applications in the country in many domains: the solar energy for residential houses, the applications in the agricultural and industrial sectors and the research and development programs. (A.L.B.)

  20. Educational Technology Policy in Israel (United States)

    Slakmon, Benzi


    The study examines Israel's educational technology policy in light of the coming-of-age of ICT. The study shows the ways it has been developing, and identifies two major shifts which have occurred in recent years: the introduction of the national educational cloud, and the enabling of the "bring your own device" (BYOD) policy. The way…

  1. Israel’s Technology Sector (United States)


    51 Security Applications of Nanotech: The Bionic Hornet and Other Microrobots ............. 56 DNA Computing with Possible Medical Applications...82 Table 14. Israel’s Participation in Major Multilateral Arms Control Agreements and small arms . In exchange for a high level of U.S. military support, Israel is obliged to buy the major part of its military equipment from the

  2. Newborn Screening for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erez Rechavi


    Full Text Available Newborn screening (NBS programs for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID, the most severe type of primary immunodeficiency, are being implemented in more and more countries with every passing year. Since October 2015, SCID screening via T cell receptor excision circle (TREC quantification in dried blood spots (DBS has been part of the Israeli NBS program. As an NBS program in its infancy, SCID screening is still evolving, making gathering input from the various programs crucial for compiling an ideal screening algorithm. The relatively high rate of consanguineous marriages in Israel, especially among non-Jews, correlates with an increased incidence of SCID. The Israeli algorithm uses a commercial kit and consists of a two-Guthrie card confirmation system prior to referral to a national immunology center. Preliminary data from the first year and a half of SCID screening in Israel has identified a surprisingly high prevalence of DNA cross-link repair protein 1c (DCLRE1C; ARTEMIS mutations as the cause of SCID in Israel. The clinically unbiased nature of SCID screening helps unearth mild/leaky SCID phenotypes, resulting in a better understanding of true SCID prevalence and etiology.

  3. ROBIL - Robot Israel (United States)


    FA8655-12-1-2143 DARPA-BAA-12-39 – “DARPA Robotics Challenge” Project Name: ROBIL 23 6. Turning in either pentad or biped . Turning in pentad-state...C. S. Lin. Genetic algorithm for control design of biped locomotion. J. Robotic Systems, 14(5):365–373, 1997. 11. Flash T, Hogan N (1985) The... robots : A review, Neural Networks, 21(4):642-653, 2008. 14. Kajita S. Kanehiro F. Kaneko K. Fujwara K. Harada K. Yukoi K. and Hirukawa H, Biped

  4. the Arab boycott of Israel: economic political warfare against Israel.


    Gilat, Eliyau Zeev


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines the effectiveness of the Arab Boycott of Israel from an economic and a political perspective. This study covers the Arab boycott from 1946 until 1990. It demonstrates that economically and politically, the Arab boycott had three distinct phases. The first of these was the period from the declaration of the Arab boycott in 1946 until the 1973 War. The second phase took place between the 1973 War...

  5. Explaining the United States-Israel Relationship (United States)


    because an extremely close U.S.-Israeli relationship exists.44 The George H.W. Bush administration responded to the new post-Cold War reality in three...States’ close relationship with Israel helped to achieve the groundbreaking Egypt-Israel peace agreement and led Egypt into the American sphere of...UNITED STATES-ISRAEL RELATIONSHIP by Kira N. Waxer June 2013 Thesis Advisor: James Russell Second Reader: Tristan Mabry THIS PAGE

  6. Species diversity of hypogeous ascomycetes in Israel. (United States)

    Barseghyan, Gayane S; Wasser, Solomon P


    We conducted a species diversity study of the hypogeous Ascomycetes of Israel. The hypogeous Ascomycetes in Israel include members of the families Pyronemataceae, Pezizaceae, and Tuberaceae, which are represented by seven species: Hydnocystis piligera, Terfezia arenaria, T. claveryi, T. oligosperma, Tirmania africana, Tuber asa, and T. nitidum; only T. asa is new to Israeli mycobiota. Synonymy, locations, collection data, general distribution, distribution in Israel, descriptions, a key to identification, illustrations, and taxonomic remarks are provided.

  7. Area Handbook Series: Israel: A Country Study (United States)


    equipment. Among Israel’s clients were communist states ( China and Romania), Mus- lim states (Morocco, Turkey, Indonesia, and Malaysia ), and so- called...Handbook for Israel. IV. Series: DA Pam 550-25. DS126.5.1772 1990 90-6119 CIP - DTA P 5 L)-- ’:• ............. Headquarters, Department of the Army...there has been a tacit relationship between Israel and the People’s Republic of China in such fields as com- merce, technical and agricultural programs

  8. Israel: Background and Relations with the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Migdalovitz, Carol


    ... its neighbors. Armed conflict has marked every decade of Israel's existence. Despite its unstable regional environment, Israel has developed a vibrant parliamentary democracy, albeit with relatively fragile governments...

  9. Israel: Background and Relations with the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Migdalovitz, Carol


    ... its neighbors. Armed conflict has marked every decade of Israel's existence. Despite its unstable regional environment, Israel has developed a vibrant parliamentary democracy, albeit with relatively fragile governments...

  10. Israel: Background and Relations with the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Migdalovitz, Carol


    ... its neighbors. Armed conflict has marked every decade of Israel's existence. Despite its unstable regional environment, Israel has developed a vibrant parliamentary democracy, albeit with relatively fragile governments...

  11. Israel debates raising commitment to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Watzman, H


    Israel's science ministry is debating whether to apply for full membership of CERN since the 1992 agreement allowing Israel observer status is about to expire. Israeli physicists are pushing for full membership for political as well as scientific reasons (1 page).

  12. Israel Geological Society, annual meeting 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amit, R.; Arkin, Y.; Hirsch, F.


    The document is a compilation of papers presented during the annual meeting of Israel Geological Society. The document is related with geological and environmental survey of Israel. It discusses the technology and instruments used to carry out such studies. Main emphasis is given to seismology, geochemical analysis of water, water pollution and geophysical survey of rocks

  13. Israel Seminar 1985-86

    CERN Document Server

    Milman, Vitali


    These are the proceedings of the Israel Seminar on the Geometric Aspects of Functional Analysis (GAFA) which was held between October 1985 and June 1986. The main emphasis of the seminar was on the study of the geometry of Banach spaces and in particular the study of convex sets in and infinite-dimensional spaces. The greater part of the volume is made up of original research papers; a few of the papers are expository in nature. Together, they reflect the wide scope of the problems studied at present in the framework of the geometry of Banach spaces.

  14. [The history of plastic surgery in Israel]. (United States)

    Wiser, Itay; Scheflan, Michael; Heller, Lior


    The medical institutions in the country have advanced together with the development of the state of Israel. Plastic surgery, which has progressed significantly during the 20th century, has also grown rapidly in the new state. The arrival of Jewish plastic surgeons from all over the world with the knowledge and experience gained in their countries of origin, as well as the need for reconstructive surgical treatment for many combat injured soldiers, also contributed to the development of plastic surgery. This review tells the story of plastic surgery in Israel, since its foundation until nowadays. This article reviews the work of the founders of plastic surgery in Israel, indicating significant milestones in its development, and clinical and scientific contribution to the international plastic surgery profession. Moreover, the article describes the current condition of the field of plastic surgery in Israel and presents the trends and the future challenges facing the next generation of plastic surgery in Israel.

  15. Population genetics of Leishmania infantum in Israel and the Palestinian Authority through microsatellite analysis. (United States)

    Amro, Ahmad; Schönian, Gabriele; Al-Sharabati, Mohamed Barakat; Azmi, Kifaya; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Abdeen, Ziad; Schnur, Lionel F; Baneth, Gad; Jaffe, Charles L; Kuhls, Katrin


    Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) was used to investigate the genetic variation among 44 Israeli and Palestinian strains of L. infantum isolated from infected dogs and human cases to determine their population structure and to compare them with strains isolated from different European countries. Most of the Israeli and Palestinian strains had their own individual MLMT profiles; a few shared the same profile. A Bayesian model-based approach and phylogenetic reconstructions based on genetic distances inferred two main populations that were significantly different from the European strains: population A, containing 16 strains from places in the West Bank and 11 strains from central Israel;and population B, containing 7 strains from northern Israel, 9 from central Israel, and one Palestinian strain from the Jenin District.Geographically distributed sub-populations were detected within population B. These results demonstrate similar disease dynamics in Israel and the Palestinian Authority. The re-emergence of VL in the case of population A is more likely owing to increased dog and human contact with sylvatic cycles of parasitic infection rather than to recent introduction from the older foci of northern Israel. The latter scenario could be true for population B found in few foci of Central Israel. (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. movimientos de paz en Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Groves


    Full Text Available La vuelta a la violencia en Oriente Medio en octubre de 2000 causó una crisis sin precedentes en el sector que apoyaba la paz dentro de la sociedad israelí. Sin embargo, precisamente en esta coyuntura surgió una nueva iniciativa llamada Taayush. En este artículo se analiza el marco de la relación dialéctica entre las acciones colectivas y la forja de una identidad colectiva para entender mejor cómo este nuevo actor social se convirtió rápidamente en un elemento destacado dentro del bando pro paz israelí. Además, basándose en el caso de Taayush, la autora sugiere que en situaciones de crisis de identidad colectiva el surgimiento de otra nueva que ofrezca más garantías para hacer frente a la nueva situación puede, a largo plazo, constituir la clave para la recuperación de la identidad colectiva previa de la que ha surgido.

  17. Objective analysis of surface wind regimes over Israel using self-organizing maps (United States)

    Berkovic, Sigalit


    The surface wind across Israel is studied using the method of Self Organizing maps (SOMs). Emphasis is made on identifying the characteristic diurnal patterns at the synoptic hours during the winter months. The investigation is made by analyzing surface wind measurements from 53 Israel Meteorological Service (IMS) stations during 2006-2012. The relation between surface wind patterns and synoptic variables (temperature, specific humidity, geopotential height and synoptic wind) is obtained from calculation of averages of these variables according to the surface wind SOMs classification. The synoptic data is derived from ECMWF ERA40 data. Under winter lows the flow over Israel is westerly with high steadiness (>0.8) and intensity (4-10 m/s). Under winter highs the flow over northern Israel is easterly with high steadiness (>0.8) and intensity. Wind intensity is proportional to the pressure gradient. Under transitional pressure gradients, the flow is determined by the local topography and the diurnal heating, its steadiness is relatively low and its intensity weakens. The wind regimes are in agreement with previous subjective and semi-objective classification studies of surface flow under the frequent synoptic classes. The ability to reconstruct subjective knowledge by an objective algorithm is crucial for future statistical climatological analysis and applications over Israel.

  18. Shared decision-making in Israel: status, barriers, and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miron-Shatz Talya


    Full Text Available Abstract Shared decision making (SDM - involving patients in decisions relevant to their health - has been increasingly influential in medical thought and practice around the world. This paper reviews the current status of SDM in Israel, including efforts to promote SDM in the legislation and healthcare system, its influence in medical training and the national health plans, and funding for SDM-related research. Published studies of SDM in Israel are also reviewed. Although informed consent and patients' right to information are regulated by Israeli law, little provision is made for SDM. Further, there are few organized programs to promote SDM among medical professionals or the public, and governmental support of SDM-related research is minimal. Nonetheless, patients have begun to influence litigation in both formal and informal capacities, medical schools have begun to incorporate courses for improving physician-patient communication into their curricula, and the largest national health plan has initiated a plan to increase public awareness. A review of the limited research literature suggests that although patients and physicians express a desire for greater patient involvement, they often have reservations about its implementation. Research also suggests that despite the positive effects of SDM, such an approach may only infrequently be applied in actual clinical practice. In conclusion, though not actively promoting SDM at present, Israel's universal coverage and small number of health plans make rapid, widespread advances in SDM feasible. Israeli policymakers should thus be encouraged to nurture burgeoning initiatives and set plausible milestones. Comparing the status of SDM in Israel with that in other countries may stimulate further advancement.

  19. Occupational radiation protection legislation in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.; Schlesinger, T.; Lemesch, C.


    Various governmental agencies, including the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Labor and the Israel AEC are responsible for the control of the use of radioactive materials and medical X-ray machines in Israel. Present legislation deals mainly with the legal aspects of the purchase, transport and possession of radioactive materials and the purchase and operation of medical X-ray machines. No legislation refers explicitly to the protection of the worker from ionizing (and non-ionizing) radiation. A special group of experts appointed by the Minister of Labor recently worked out a comprehensive draft law concerning all legal aspects of occupational radiation protection in Israel. Among the main chapters of the draft are: general radiation protection principles, national radiation protection standards, medical supervision of radiation workers, personal monitoring requirements. The present situation with regard to radiation hazard control in Israel and details of the proposed radiation protection law is discussed. (Author)

  20. Israel and an Emerging World Order (United States)


    research/projects/china-global-investment- tracker -interactive-map 20 China and the Middle East: Hearing before the U.S.-China Economic and Security...and expanded trade ties with Israel in water management and solar energy.211 With state populations that exceed tracker -interactive-map Hussain, Mushtaq. “India-Israel Relations: Towards ‘Strategic

  1. Israel: Strategic Asset or Strategic Liability? (United States)


    Syria in the 1970s was substantial, calling into question the validity of Israel as a strategic asset. 39 was no longer the case as of 1991. The Gulf...US-Israel/MOUs.html. 114 Guermantes E. Lailari, Homa : Israel’s National Missile Defense Strategy (Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air Command and Staff...University of California Press, 2000. Lailari, Guermantes E. Homa : Israel’s National Missile Defense Strategy. Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air Command

  2. Maternal and child health in Israel: building lives. (United States)

    Rubin, Lisa; Belmaker, Ilana; Somekh, Eli; Urkin, Jacob; Rudolf, Mary; Honovich, Mira; Bilenko, Natalya; Grossman, Zachi


    promotion and injury prevention programmes, expanding and improving the coordination of services for children with special needs or who are at risk, and programme assessment. Ensuring adequate funding for dedicated, preventive paediatric care and taking action on a nationwide scale to reduce child poverty are essential for maintaining health gains in children. In this Series paper, we describe the health indices, highlight disparities, and discuss the challenges in delivering and maintaining maternal and child health care in Israel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sources, composition and spatial distribution of marine debris along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. (United States)

    Pasternak, Galia; Zviely, Dov; Ribic, Christine A; Ariel, Asaf; Spanier, Ehud


    Marine debris (litter) is a complex problem that affects human activities and the marine environment worldwide. The Clean Coast Program in Israel has had some success in keeping most of the coasts clean most of the time, but without understanding the mechanisms of accumulation of marine debris on the coasts of Israel. In 2012, we initiated a study to characterize the types of marine debris, its origins and spatial distribution. Nineteen surveys were done from June 2012 to March 2015 on eight beaches that spanned the coast of Israel. Average debris density was 12.1 items per 100m 2 and 90% of the items were plastic. The top debris categories were food wrappers and disposables, plastic bags and cigarette butts. However, there was variation in the top debris categories among the beaches indicating that a flexible approach with multiple options will be important when addressing the marine debris problem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transactions of the nuclear societies of Israel joint meeting 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The 18 th convention of the Israel nuclear societies transactions book contains presentations in the following topics: reactor physics, health physics, radiation protection, nuclear medicine and general reviews about the status of nuclear energy in Israel

  5. Solutions of conformal Israel-Stewart relativistic viscous fluid dynamics (United States)

    Marrochio, Hugo; Noronha, Jorge; Denicol, Gabriel S.; Luzum, Matthew; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles


    We use symmetry arguments developed by Gubser to construct the first radially expanding explicit solutions of the Israel-Stewart formulation of hydrodynamics. Along with a general semi-analytical solution, an exact analytical solution is given which is valid in the cold plasma limit where viscous effects from shear viscosity and the relaxation time coefficient are important. The radially expanding solutions presented in this paper can be used as nontrivial checks of numerical algorithms employed in hydrodynamic simulations of the quark-gluon plasma formed in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. We show this explicitly by comparing such analytic and semi-analytic solutions with the corresponding numerical solutions obtained using the music viscous hydrodynamics simulation code.

  6. [Epidemiology of Hansen's disease in Israel]. (United States)

    Seidenbaum, M; Slater, P E; Ever-Hadani, P; Costin, C; Leviatan, A


    There are currently 200 patients with Hansen's disease in Israel who are being followed by the Hansen's Disease Government Hospital and the Ministry of Health (prevalence 4.4/100,000). Most of them immigrated from countries where the disease is endemic. Dermatological findings dominated the initial clinical picture, although 5% of patients are asymptomatic contacts of known cases. Age at onset of disease was less than 20 years in 1/4 of the cases. The incidence in Israel is falling: 0.4/100,000 in 1985-89 compared to 3.6/100,000 in 1950-54. Neurologic and dermatologic findings in an immigrant of any age originating from countries where Hansen's disease is endemic, should prompt appropriate diagnostic evaluation, even years after immigration to Israel. Contacts of known cases of Hansen's disease should be aggressively screened, even if asymptomatic.

  7. Energy plight compels ingenuity in Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardin, D.J.


    The second in a series of invited papers on energy in foreign countries describes Israel's energy program in terms of its political and military position in the Arab oil-producing world. As a holdover of British colonialism, Israel uses expensive oil imports as its primary fuel, making the country dependent on imports of 95% of primary fuels compared to the US's 20%. A review of Israeli history since independence parallels the development of the nation's energy philosophy and policy as a lesson in meeting adversity with a positive attitude. Israel is using its technological flexibility and business ingenuity to stockpile oil, encourage solar energy use and conservation, plan for coal substitution, and explore the possibilities of hydro, nuclear, oil shale, peat, and other options. (DCK)

  8. Israel's position on non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marom, R.


    Israel maintained that the complex international system and worldwide political tension created a situation in which comprehensive plans of disarmament could not produce any positive result. The deadlock in the field of general and complete disarmament has brought Israel to the realization that one possible way to alleviate the stalemate could be progress by stages through partial measures of disarmament. Israel's position on non-proliferation indicates that the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free-zone (NWFZ), as it relates to the Middle-East, could serve as a credible alternative to the unilateral adherence to the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapon (NPT) and an effective measure of non-proliferation in the region. (Author)

  9. Spirituality in Teacher Training at an Islamic College in Israel (United States)

    Erdreich, Lauren


    This article looks at an Islamic teacher training college in Israel in an attempt to understand how religious revival shapes women's understandings of being Muslim women professionals in Israel. The college grew out of Islamic revival in Israel; its teacher training program reflects the sensibilities that Islamic revival hopes to foster in women…

  10. op weg na 'n komprehensiewe geskiedenis van Ou-Israel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wee religieuse redes. Hierdie groep mense (gewoonlik gelowige Chris- tene en Jdde) glo dat die volk Israel deur God uitverkies is en dat God dus in 'n besondere sin in Ou-Israel se geskiedenis gewerk het en hom daarin geopenbaar het. Deur Ou-Israel se geskiedenis te bestudeer kom mens meer van God se openbaring ...

  11. The Beta Israel: Return to the source? | Zegeye | Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even after more than two decades, over 70 000 Ethiopian Jews - the Beta Israel - have still not been fully accepted in Israel, in danger of becoming an ethnically defined 'under-class'. The potential of Beta Israel contributions to both Israeli and Ethiopian society should be recognised. Africa Insight Vol.34(1) 2004: 69-75 ...

  12. Israel: a crise próxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter DEMANT


    Full Text Available Apesar de êxitos indisputáveis, o Estado de Israel enfrenta problemas estruturais decorrentes do conflito com o mundo árabe. O texto analisa cinco vulnerabilidades subestimadas: (1 demografia: o crescimento dos ultraortodoxos e dos árabes israelenses, ambos antissionistas, que arrisca tornar minoria os judeus sionistas; (2 estratégia: novas formas de resistência usadas pelos árabes, tanto militares, como os mísseis, quanto pacíficas, como a resistência não violenta, estão progressivamente se tornando contraproducentes à ocupação israelense de territórios inimigos; (3 regional: a Primavera Árabe, apesar dos fracassos, é uma etapa na democratização e modernização das sociedades árabes que acabará erodindo a vantagem qualitativa-educacional israelense; (4 internacional: Israel depende, militar e economicamente, do apoio ocidental, mas, movidos por seus próprios desenvolvimentos demográficos e culturais, os europeus se mostram cada vez mais indiferentes ou hostis a Israel; e até nos EUA, último reduto de simpatia pró-israelense, a identificação com o Estado judaico pode se tornar mais frágil; (5 mundo judaico: devido à orientação cada vez mais particularista de Israel, há, em vez de legitimação recíproca, ameaça de alienação entre as diásporas judaicas e Israel. O artigo conclui que, a termo, as custas políticas, militares e socioculturais que a beligerância permanente impõe a Israel podem constituir um risco existencial para este país. Eventualmente, os dilemas podem se tornar perigosos para sua sobrevivência como Estado judaico.

  13. A thermonuclear fusion power program for Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Bruce


    Although lacking in financial and physical resources, Israel has a large base of scientific and technological talent that can be organized for the purpose of producing commercial fusion power reactors, thus allowing Israel to attain energy independence and acquiring a monetary inflow through royalties and reactor export. The limited partnership would be suitable for financing a significant portion of the project. Economic feasibility can be estimated through the use of one or more of the approaches supplied by the calculus of variations, cardinal utility theory, catastrophe theory, and noncooperative game theory. (author)

  14. Marble in Israel : A. Shadmon. Ministry of Development, State of Israel, Jerusalem, 1965, 56 pp., 36 fig., 2 tables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manten, A.A.

    The booklet Marble in Israel is announced to be the first in a series of reports on the mineral building commodities of Israel, which series will summarize the information available on the subject at the Quarries Section of the Israel Geological Survey and the Office of the Controller of Mines.

  15. Situation Report [--Fiji, Indonesia, Israel, and Philippines]. (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This is a series of four situation reports prepared by the International Planned Parenthood Federation for informational and consultative purposes. The countries reported on are Fiji, Indonesia, Israel, and the Philippines. Some of the latest statistical figures for each country are listed. They are area, population and growth rate, birth, death,…

  16. Israel Moiseevich Gelfand (1913–2009)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 2. Israel Moiseevich Gelfand (1913–2009). V S Sunder. General Article Volume 16 Issue 2 February 2011 pp 165-179. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Keywords.

  17. Israel: Background and U.S. Relations (United States)


    Unemployment rate 5.8% (2013 est.) Population below poverty line 21% (2012 est.) Inflation rate 1.7% (2013 est.) Defense spending as % of GDP... Argentina , Canada, Chile, China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Russia, Thailand, Ukraine, (continued...) Israel: Background and U.S. Relations

  18. Israel, CERN’s new Member State

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    On Wednesday, 15 January 2014, the official Israeli Flag-raising Ceremony took place to mark the accession of Israel to Membership of CERN, bringing the Organization’s number of Member States to 21.     For more information, click here.

  19. Past and Present Child Care in Israel. (United States)

    Corn, Sandra L.

    Providing an historical and current account of Israel's early childhood care and educational system, this report depicts a state-supported system that has emphasized, through both home and classroom techniques, early intervention for the Jewish disadvantaged and handicapped child and family. Focusing on the goals, methods, and realities of child…

  20. Primo Levi, Giorgio Pressburger e Israele

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, R.M.


    Primo Levi, ebreo non religioso, ha sentito ciò nonostante un forte legame emotivo con lo Stato di Israele, che ha cercato di difendere nella crisi degli anni ’60, ma poi ha criticato negli anni ’70 e maggiormente negli anni della campagna ‘Pace in Israele’ e anni successivi. Infatti, tra il 1982 e

  1. Trends in the incidence and causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children from Israel. (United States)

    Mezer, Eedy; Chetrit, Angela; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra; Kinori, Michael; Ben-Zion, Itay; Wygnanski-Jaffe, Tamara


    To describe trends in the incidence and causes of legal childhood blindness in Israel, one of the few countries worldwide that maintain a national registry of the blind. We performed a historical cohort study of annual reports of the National Registry of the Blind (NRB) between 1999 and 2013. All data regarding demographic information, year of registration and cause of blindness of children 0-18 years of age registered for blind certification were obtained from the annual reports of the NRB. Causes of legal blindness analyzed were optic atrophy, retinitis pigmentosa, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), albinism, other retinal disorders, cataract, and glaucoma. The main outcome measure was the incidence of new cases of certified legal blindness. The incidence of newly registered legally blind children in Israel almost halved from 7.7 per 100,000 in 1999 to 3.1 per 100,000 in 2013. The decline was mainly attributable to a decreased incidence of blindness resulting from retinitis pigmentosa and ROP. The incidence of registered cases due to cerebral visual impairment increased. During the past decade the incidence of severe childhood visual impairment and blindness declined in Israel. A continuous decline in consanguineous marriages among the Jewish and Arab populations in Israel may have contributed to the decrease in the rate of vision loss due to retinitis pigmentosa in children. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Ethiopia in Israel--an ethnopharmacological study of Ethiopian immigrants in Israel]. (United States)

    Danino, Dikla; Amar, Zohar


    There is a large Ethiopian community in Israel which preserves its unique culture and customs. Many of the members of this community still use traditional methods of healing, such as blood-letting, burns, tattooing, amulets, healing water, incense and various medicinal herbs that are prescribed based on the diagnosis of the disease. This study deals with documenting the use of the medicinal drugs implemented by the Ethiopian community in Israel, which is a rapidly vanishing world. The study is based on interviews with hundreds of informants, among them traditional healers, and it surveyed some fifty shops which sell Ethiopian medicinal drugs and spices. The survey brought to light a list of medical materials which are found in the Ethiopian markets in Israel including 89 kinds of plants (some 85%); 6 different minerals (some 6%); 5 types of animals (some 4.5%); and 5 substances of various origins (some 4.5%). Most of the drugs are imported from Ethiopia to Israel, since they are endemic. There are also other medicinal drugs that are gathered in the field in Israel or brought through personal import; in total, our estimate is that there are approximately 150 different kinds of medicinal drugs in use in Israel. This is a relatively small number when compared to the inventory of drugs in the land of origin, Ethiopia. The decline in the use of traditional drugs, due to limited availability and processes of modernization in the Ethiopian community in Israel, heightens the importance of a study that documents this unique culture. The study is also of assistance to the modern medical authorities in order to better understand and become more familiar with the Ethiopian community and with its needs and special practices, in terms of both prevention and treatment.

  3. Israel: Background and U.S. Relations (United States)


    vol. 67, no. 2, spring 2013. Following elections, the task of forming a government is given by Israel’s president to the Knesset member he/she...2014. Israeli observers have raised concerns that a military strike might not be feasible against the Arak reactor after it goes “ hot ” because of...html. 150 CRS Report RL33222, U.S. Foreign Aid to Israel, by Jeremy M. Sharp. 151 The other 12 are Algeria , Argentina, Canada, Chile, China, India

  4. Commercial and Industrial Cyber Espionage in Israel


    Shahar Argaman; Gabi Siboni


    Cyberspace is especially suited to the theft of business information and to espionage. The accessibility of information, along with the ability to remain anonymous and cover one’s tracks, allows various entities to engage in the theft of valuable information, an act that can cause major damage. Israel, rich in advanced technology and a leader in innovation-based industries that rely on unique intellectual property, is a prime target for cyber theft and commercial cyber attacks. This article e...

  5. Electro-optics and lasers in Israel (United States)

    Van Zwaren, Joesph


    With over 3,000 scientists, engineers, and technicians spread out in some 86 companies, and in 10 universities and research institutes, all within less than a 2 hour drive from one another, Israel has no doubt one of the largest concentrations of researchers and skilled manpower in electro-optics and lasers in the world. This report presents an up-to-date picture of the field in Israel, covering the industry, academia and education. The recent wave of Russian immigration is bringing thousands of scientists and tens of thousands of engineers and is expected to make an impact on the field of electro-optics and lasers. A million immigrants from Russia are expected to come between 1990 and 1995. There were 3,700 scientists and 2,800 engineers among the first 200,000 Soviet immigrants. As most of this qualified manpower can not be expected to be absorbed by the existing industry, the Israeli government is actively encouraging local and foreign investors and local and multinational companies to help develop new and expanded high-tech enterprises in Israel. The Ministry of Industry and Trade has embarked upon a broad ranged program for industrial growth and immigrant absorption with the goal of doubling technology-based exports in the next four years. The Ministry of Science and Technology has started a program supporting R&D projects at the different universities for immigrant scientists with the goal of capitalizing on the talents of the newcomers to strengthen academia.

  6. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Israel. (United States)

    Geller-Bernstein, Carmi; Etzioni, Amos


    After the geographic and sociodemographic settings as well as the health care in Israel are briefly described, the scope of pediatric allergy and immunology in Israel is presented. This includes specific disorders commonly encountered, the environment that induces symptoms, the specialists who treat them, and the common challenges of patients, parents, doctors, and allied health personnel who collaborate to manage the maladies and patient care. Allergies usually affect some overall 15-20% of the pediatric population. The main allergens are inhaled, ingested, or injected (insects stings). Generally, the incidence of the various allergens affecting children in Israel, is similar to other parts of the Western world. Owing to the high consanguinity rate in the Israeli population, the prevalence of the various immunodeficiency conditions (in the adaptive as well as the innate system) is higher than that reported worldwide. Pediatric allergists/immunologists also treat autoimmune disorders affecting the pediatric group. Pediatric allergy and clinical immunology are not separate specialties. The 25 specialists who treat children with allergic/immunologic diseases have undergone a basic training in Pediatrics. They also received an additional 2-yr training in allergy and clinical immunology and then have to pass the board examinations. They work mainly in pediatric allergy units, in several hospitals that are affiliated to the five medical schools in the country. Aside from clinical work, most of the centers are also heavily involved in clinical and basic research in allergy and immunology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Die oorsprong van Israel volgens resente navorsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. van der Westhuizen


    Full Text Available A debate regarding the origin of Israel gave rise to much controversy which developed during the twenties. This debate saw an upsurge of interest during the sixties and seventies. Researchers identified themselves with three schools of thought. In this article negative as well as positive elements in the various schools are focused on. Consensus has been reached by researchers that the greatest obstacle in the way of the reconstruction of Israel's early history is the lack of verifiable sources. This study has looked for a new key, i.e. the creation of a broad scenario of the life in Canaan during the transition of the Late Bronze Age to the Iron Age 1. If such a scenario could be reconstructed as correctly as possible, it would be possible to establish the conditions of Israel’s origins. This study intends to play an elucidating role, illustrating the ways in which the people of Canaan lived and worked in the Late Bronze Age and Iron Age, for it was under these circumstances that Israel had its origins.

  8. Convergence and conflict with the ‘National Interest’: Why Israel abandoned its climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, Lucy; Tal, Alon


    This article describes how Israel abandoned its climate policy through the prism of the country's evolving energy profile, most importantly the 2009 discovery of huge natural gas reserves in Israel's Mediterranean exclusive zone. The article outlines five phases of Israeli political engagement with climate change from 1992 until 2013 when the National GHG Emissions Reduction Plan was defunded. Israel was motivated to develop its climate policy by international norms: OECD membership and the 2009 UN Summit in Copenhagen. Although the eventual Plan may not have significantly reduced Israel’s emissions, it contained immediate cost-effective, energy efficiency measures. Despite rhetorical support for renewable energy, in practice, most Israeli leaders consistently perceive ensuring supply of fossil fuels as the best means to achieve energy security. The gas finds thus effectively ended a potentially significant switch towards renewable energy production. The development of commercially competitive Israeli renewable energy technology may change this prevailing economic calculus alongside renewed international and domestic leadership and a resolution of the region's conflicts. Although Israel's political circumstances are idiosyncratic, the dynamics shaping its climate policy reflect wider trends such as competing economic priorities and failure to consider long term energy security. - Highlights: • In 2013 Israel defunded its climate policy despite cost and efficiency savings. • Initially climate policy converged with national interests: ‘climate bandwagoning’. • Deepwater natural gas finds in Israeli waters ended renewable energy ambitions. • Advocates failed to securitise ‘climate change’ which would have raised its profile. • Policy failure reflects both national idiosyncrasies and wider international trends.

  9. West Nile fever in Israel: the reemergence of an endemic disease. (United States)

    Anis, Emilia; Grotto, Itamar; Mendelson, Ella; Bin, Hanna; Orshan, Laor; Gandacu, Dan; Warshavsky, Bruce; Shinar, Eilat; Slater, Paul E; Lev, Boaz


    As a crossroads for bird migration between Africa and Eurasia and with its long history of human infection, Israel has been a major focus of attention during the continuing global spread of West Nile fever (WNF). This article reviews the background and reemergence of WNF in Israel; the recent epidemiology of WNF among Israelis; and the disease-control strategies being used to combat the disease. Employing the comprehensive base of case data that are reported to the Ministry of Health, an epidemiological record was constructed that details the incidence and distribution of WNF cases in Israel in recent years. After decades of small, intermittent outbreaks, nearly 1400 cases of WNF were reported in Israel between 2000 and 2012. Incidence was consistently highest in the coastal cities, among elderly patients, and in the late summer months and early autumn. A broad range of control measures to prevent human infection has been implemented, and attention has been given to issues such as the protection of the national blood bank and the occurrence of long-term sequelae. The reemergence of WNF in Israel is likely the result of a combination of factors including past immunity to the virus among the human population, a marked increase in awareness of WNF among physicians, and more frequent requests for the laboratory testing of suspected cases. In the absence of effective vaccine to protect humans from WNF, the best disease-control strategies include intensive vector-control measures, the continued development of techniques to forecast outbreaks, and effective public education programs that are targeted toward the high-risk elderly population. Copyright © 2013 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of Theileria equi genotypes in horses in Israel, the Palestinian Authority and Jordan. (United States)

    Ketter-Ratzon, Dafna; Tirosh-Levy, Sharon; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Saar, Tal; Qura'n, Lara; Zivotofsky, Doni; Abdeen, Ziad; Baneth, Gad; Steinman, Amir


    Equine theileriosis caused by Theileria equi is endemic in the Middle East, where it causes a severe disease as well as widespread subclinical infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of T. equi genotypes in Israel and the neighboring Palestinian Authority and Jordan. Blood samples from 355 horses from Israel, the Palestinian Authority and Jordan were tested for the prevalence of T. equi DNA. Two hundred and fourteen (60%) were found positive for T. equi infection by PCR. Of those, the 18S rRNA (1458bp) and the EMA-1 (745bp) genes of T. equi were sequenced from 15 horse samples that represent Israel's geographical distribution together with four samples from the Palestinian Authority and two from Jordan. The results were used for genotype characterization and phylogenetic analysis of T. equi in the equine population in Israel and its surroundings. Three 18S rRNA genotype clades were found in Israel (A, C and D) with clade D being the most prevalent and included all four isolates from the PA. In contrast, the EMA-1 gene showed little diversity with all sequences clustering in the same clade apart from one Jordanian sequence. Results suggest that although the Israeli horse population is small and relatively confined geographically, it is probable that the genetic variability, which was found among Israeli horses, is a result of introduction of horses from other countries. It also suggests that the EMA-1 gene is probably not a good target for the evaluation of variance in T. equi populations. Characterization of the different genotypes prevalent in a certain region is important in order to map out the intra-species sequence heterogeneity of the parasite, which is needed in order to develop new diagnostic tools and vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Poisoning in Israel: annual report of the Israel Poison Information Center, 2012. (United States)

    Bentur, Yedidia; Lurie, Yael; Cahana, Alfred; Kovler, Nona; Bloom-Krasik, Anna; Gurevych, Bella; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy


    The Israel National Poison Information Center (IPIC), Rambam Health Care Campus, provides 24 hour telephone consultations in clinical toxicology as well as drug and teratogen information. It participates in research, teaching and regulatory activities, and also provides laboratory services. To report data on the epidemiology of poisonings and poison exposures in Israel. We made computerized queries and descriptive analyses of the medical records database of the IPIC during 2012. A total of 31,519 poison exposure cases were recorded, a 157.6% increase compared with 1995. Children Poison exposures and poisonings have increased significantly and have contributed substantially to morbidity and mortality in Israel. The IPIC database is a valuable national resource for the collection and monitoring of poisoning exposure cases. It can be used as a real-time surveillance system for the benefit of public health. It is recommended that reporting to the IPIC become mandatory and its activities be adequately supported by national resources.

  12. Algorithming the Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Martina; Uprichard, Emma


    changes: it’s not the ocean, it’s the internet we’re talking about, and it’s not a TV show producer, but algorithms that constitute a sort of invisible wall. Building on this assumption, most research is trying to ‘tame the algorithmic tiger’. While this is a valuable and often inspiring approach, we...

  13. Die moederskoot van Israel: 'n Teologiese besinning oor die nuwe navorsingsresultate met betrekking tot die totstandkoming van Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Bezuidenhout


    Full Text Available The womb of Israel:  Tbeological reflections  on recent  research results concerning the origin of Israel. Recent research concerning the origin of Israel has the potential to cause theological disorientation. The birth of Israel and its religion  was unpretentious and not as unique as it may appear in the  Biblical accounts. It is necessary to analyse and evaluate these results and to integrate it into a theological perspective. These results can induce theological benefits if it is perceived in the right perspective.

  14. The solar energy in Israel; L'energie solaire en Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocquet, L


    The solar energy is an important characteristic of Israel, listed in its history and its development. This document presents the solar energy applications in the country in many domains: the solar energy for residential houses, the applications in the agricultural and industrial sectors and the research and development programs. (A.L.B.)

  15. Work, family, support, and depression: employed mothers in Israel, Korea, and the United States. (United States)

    O'Brien, Karen M; Ganginis Del Pino, Heather V; Yoo, Sung-Kyung; Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Han, Young-Joo


    Our research revealed differences in work-family constructs for employed mothers in 3 countries, Israel (N = 105), Korea (N = 298), and the United States (N = 305). Although levels of work-family conflict were comparable, the Korean women had the lowest levels of work-family enrichment compared with the Israeli and American mothers. Moreover, Korean women reported the most depression and the least support from both spouses and employers. Spousal support mediated the relationship between work-family conflict and depression for employed mothers in Israel, Korea, and the United States. As hypothesized by conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 1989, 1998, 2001), threat of resource loss (operationalized as work-family conflict) was related to depression more strongly than was resource gain (i.e., work-family enrichment). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Recent trends in human brucellosis in Israel. (United States)

    Anis, Emilia; Leventhal, Alex; Grotto, Itamar; Gandacu, Dan; Warshavsky, Bruce; Shimshony, Arnon; Israeli, Avi


    The majority of human brucellosis cases in Israel are caused by the ingestion of unpasteurized dairy foods produced from unlicensed family-owned flocks whose products are sold door-to-door at low prices. Exposure to infected farm animals is another major cause of infection. To determine, by examining recent incidence data and brucellosis control programs, whether a reduction in the incidence of human brucellosis in Israel can be sustained. Case information is reported to the Health Ministry and national data are compiled and analyzed by the Division of Epidemiology. The current study focuses on data from 1998 through 2009 and discusses several of the major prevention and health education programs that have been implemented. An incidence decline of almost 70% during the period 1998-2002 was followed by a return to previously existing levels, although the incidence has remained consistently lower than in past decades. The disease is mostly limited to certain sectors of the rural Arab population. In 2009 the incidence rate per 100,000 population was 7.0 among Arabs compared with 0.2 among Jews. Between 1998 and 2009, 63% of cases were from the Beer Sheva and Acre health districts, which together comprise 15.5% of the Israeli population. Control programs--including efforts to combat brucellosis in animals and to discourage the sale of unpasteurized homemade dairy products--have met with partial success. Without routine vaccination of all family-owned flocks, more effective restraints on the market for unpasteurized dairy foods and improved regional cooperation, human brucellosis will continue to be a contained, but persistent, health problem in Israel due to cultural behavior, socioeconomic factors, and the regional political environment.

  17. Human Rights Education in Israel: Four Types of Good Citizenship (United States)

    Agbaria, Ayman K.; Katz-Pade, Revital


    This article examines the involvement of civil society organizations in human rights education (HRE) in Israel. Focussing on the educational programs of the Association for Civil Rights in Israel (ACRI), as a qualitative instrumental case study, this article examines the conceptions of good citizenship embedded in these programs. Specifically, the…

  18. Educational Travel to Israel in the Era of Globalization (United States)

    Ezrachi, Elan


    Travel to Israel has been a central feature of Jewish and Zionist education yet it is time for this educational travel to be examined in the context of current cultural trends of travel and transnational experiences. The Jewish educational community has not yet internalized the impact of global trends on the field of travel to Israel from a…

  19. Prioritizing Gender among Palestinians in Israel : Establishing a ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Because there is little reliable information about Palestinian women in Israel, advocacy for improved policy is weak. There has also been no sustained and comprehensive study of Palestinian women's experience in Israel in its historical and social context. There has also been no attempt to consider Palestinian women in ...

  20. How Distorted Thinking Influence Arab Children Academic Achievement in Israel? (United States)

    Gith, Emad


    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relation between the parents Cognitive Distortion and Arab children academic achievements in Israel. 52 fifth grade Arab Children and their parents from Israel were participated. The results indicated that parent's cognitive distortion related negatively to children academic achievements; there…

  1. Myxosporean infections in cultured tilapias in Israel. (United States)

    Landsberg, J H


    Five new species of myxosporean parasite are described from cultured tilapias in Israel. These are: Myxosoma sarigi, Myxosoma equatorialis, Myxobolus israelensis, Myxobolus agolus, and Myxobolus galilaeus. The first four were found in hybrids of Oreochromis aureus X Oreochromis niloticus while Myxobolus galilaeus was found in Sarotherodon galilaeus. In addition, M. sarigi, M. israelensis, and Myxobolus sp. were also found in S. galilaeus. In the light of the present study, the taxonomy of myxosporean infections in tilapias is modified. Mature spores may localize in the melano-macrophage centers of the spleen and kidney where they may eventually be destroyed. No cases of mortality have so far been associated with these parasites.

  2. Checklist of the spiders (Araneae) of Israel. (United States)

    Zonstein, Sergei; Marusik, Yuri M


    This checklist records 631 spider species and subspecies belonging to 49 families in Israel. Species distributions are given in both generalised (by main geographic areas of the country) and detailed (by localities) form. Twenty-seven records are considered as doubtful and another ten are based on misidentifications. A historical survey is provided. Each record is presented in its original combination. The list is dominated by members of the families Gnaphosidae and Salticidae (20.0% and 17.1% of total species, respectively). The level of regional endemism exceeds 37.0%.

  3. Energy partnership: Israel and the Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, G.


    In early 2003, American troops toppled the regime of Saddam Hussein in Iraq. Few weeks later, President Bush introduced his vision to solve the Arab-Israeli conflict in what is known as the ''road map''. These interrelated developments confirm the connection between the two Middle-Eastern sub-systems-the Persian Gulf and the Levant and provide an opportunity to achieve a comprehensive peace. Regional economic cooperation is seen as the sine qua non of a durable peace. This study examines the potential for an energy partnership between the Persian Gulf hydrocarbon producers and Israel. (author)

  4. Energy partnership: Israel and the Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, G.


    In the early 2003, American troops toppled the regime of Saddam Hussein in Iraq. Few weeks later, President Bush introduced his vision to solve the Arab-Israeli conflict in what is known as the 'road map'. These interrelated developments confirm the connection between the two Middle-Eastern sub-systems--the Persian Gulf and the Levant and provide an opportunity to achieve a comprehensive peace. Regional economic cooperation is seen as the sine qua non of a durable peace. This study examines the potential for an energy partnership between the Persian Gulf hydrocarbon producers and Israel

  5. Israel Atomic Energy Commission 1997 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The 1997 Annual Report is published in a special year for Israel, marking the 50th anniversary of its independece and statehood. From its inception, and the election of a distinguished scientist as its first president, Israel has regarded science and technology as a central pillar for future AEC development and a lever for improved quality of life of its people. The Israel Atomic Energy Commission, which will be celebrating its own anniversary in a few years, has made a modest but significant contribution to the establishment and growth of the technological infrastructure of the country. The first article in this Annual Report focuses attention on yet another aspect of our continuing investigation of the basic properties of technologically interesting and important materials, presented in our 1994 and 1996 Annual Reports. The current entry describes an application of the nuclear Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlation technique to the study of the structure and properties of metal-hydrogen compounds, of potential interest within the framework of future, environmentally attractive hydrogen-burning energy systems, and in fusion power reactors. The second article also relates to some basic aspects of nuclear fusion. A theoretical study of the behavior and properties of laser-generated hot plasmas resulted in the proposal of a new confinement scheme, in which a plasma generated by circularly polarized laser light is confined in a miniature magnetic bottle created by magnetic fields induced in the plasma by the same light. The paper discusses the conditions under which such confinement and ensuing energy gain may be achieved. Measurements of actual axial magnetic fields generated in plasma by intense circularly polarized laser light are also reported. The third report describes one of our ongoing efforts to improve and streamline the techniques and procedures used in medical applications of radioisotopes. Replacement of the customary )311 solutions for

  6. Criminal Mediation for Minors in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isack Kandel


    Full Text Available Mediation was introduced in Canada in 1974 in order to handle a crime of robbery and vandalization committed by adolescents. After mediation, these adolescents agreed to apologize to each of their victims and pay restitution. Several countries (Canada, England, Finland, and the U.S. have now made this opportunity available in the cases of young offenders. This review describes the process in the south of Israel. We find this method very powerful, but further studies are needed. Due to resource problems, it will not become mainstream in the near future.

  7. Israel: a crise próxima




    Apesar de êxitos indisputáveis, o Estado de Israel enfrenta problemas estruturais decorrentes do conflito com o mundo árabe. O texto analisa cinco vulnerabilidades subestimadas: (1) demografia: o crescimento dos ultraortodoxos e dos árabes israelenses, ambos antissionistas, que arrisca tornar minoria os judeus sionistas; (2) estratégia: novas formas de resistência usadas pelos árabes, tanto militares, como os mísseis, quanto pacíficas, como a resistência não violenta, estão progressivamente s...

  8. Hyperinflation in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua revisited (United States)

    Szybisz, Martín A.; Szybisz, Leszek


    The aim of the present work is to address the description of hyperinflation regimens in economy. The spirals of hyperinflation developed in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua are revisited. This new analysis of data indicates that the episodes occurred in Brazil and Nicaragua can be understood within the frame of the model available in the literature, which is based on a nonlinear feedback (NLF) characterized by an exponent β > 0. In the NLF model the accumulated consumer price index carries a finite time singularity of the type 1 /(tc - t) (1 - β) / β determining a critical time tc at which the economy would crash. It is shown that in the case of Brazil the entire episode cannot be described with a unique set of parameters because the time series was strongly affected by a change of policy. This fact gives support to the ;so called; Lucas critique, who stated that model's parameters usually change once policy changes. On the other hand, such a model is not able to provide any tc in the case of the weaker hyperinflation occurred in Israel. It is shown that in this case the fit of data yields β → 0. This limit leads to the linear feedback formulation which does not predict any tc. An extension for the NLF model is suggested.

  9. [The beginnings of orthopedic surgery in Israel]. (United States)

    Tauber, Chanan


    In early mandatory Israel, orthopedics was mainly conservative, The first modern orthopedic surgeon was Ernst Spira from Czechoslovakia who established an orthopedic service at the Beilinson Hospital in Petah Tikva and left in 1948 to establish the Orthopedic Department and the Rehabilitation Center in Tel Hashomer, which treated the War of Independence casualties including amputees and victims of spinal cord injuries. A second orthopedic department was opened in Tel Hashomer by Shmuel Weissman who left in 1961 to open the Orthopedic Department at the Ichilov hospital in Tel Aviv. Shmuel Weissman became the first Chairman of Orthopedic Surgery at the Tel Aviv University medical school. In 1955, Myer Makin opened a modern orthopedic department in the Hadassah Hospital in Jerusalem and the Alyn Hospital for crippled children. In 1951, Assaf Harofeh Hospital opened the Department of Orthopedic Surgery headed by Anatol Axer who specialized in the treatment and rehabilitation of polio patients. The majority of the second generation of orthopedic department directors was trained by these four surgeons. Major developments in the 1960s and 1970s were the introduction of the AO system revolutionizing fracture treatment from conservative to operative treatment, the advent of total hip and knee replacements, Harrington instrumentation in spinal surgery and arthroscopy were major advances in orthopedic patient care brought to Israel by the aforementioned second generation of orthopedic surgeons. Hand surgery became an independent subspecialty of orthopedics and was lead by the internationally renowned hand surgeon, Isidore Kessler.

  10. Global Culture in Practice. A Look at Children and Adolescents in Denmark, France and Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald, Gitte Bang; Lemish, Dafna; Drotner, Kirsten


    Childern,young people,adolescents,media,globalisation,global culture,Denmark,France,Israel,national culture,television,transnational fiction preferences,hybrid culture,music,new mediaIsrael,......Childern,young people,adolescents,media,globalisation,global culture,Denmark,France,Israel,national culture,television,transnational fiction preferences,hybrid culture,music,new mediaIsrael,...

  11. Intentions of Muslim Arab women in Israel to attend prenatal classes. (United States)

    Ben Natan, Merav; Ashkenazi, Maayan; Masarwe, Safaa


    Prenatal education has many benefits to both mother and child. In Israel, prenatal classes are offered to pregnant women in their third trimester from all cultures and sectors. However, Israeli Muslim Arab women often do not attend these classes. To explore factors influencing the intention of Muslim Arab women in Israel to attend prenatal classes, using the Theory of Planned Behavior. The study was a cross-sectional quantitative correlational design. A convenience sample consisting of 200 Arab Muslim women completed a questionnaire based on the literature review and the theoretical model. The research findings indicate that women's intention to attend prenatal classes increases with more positive beliefs and attitudes toward prenatal education, greater subjective social pressure to attend classes, and with higher perceived control of attending such classes. The higher a woman's age and level of education, the greater her intention to attend classes. This study shows that the spouse is the most significant factor influencing women's decisions on this matter. In order to raise the intentions of Muslim Arab women in Israel to attend prenatal classes, policy makers must design programs to increase the awareness of prenatal education among both women and men in the Muslim Arab sector, emphasizing its benefits for mothers, infants, and families as a whole. Classes should reflect the uniqueness of Israeli Muslim Arab culture and combine traditional and modern outlooks. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for foot and mouth disease infection in cattle in Israel. (United States)

    Elnekave, Ehud; van Maanen, Kees; Shilo, Hila; Gelman, Boris; Storm, Nick; Abed El Khaliq, Mohamad; Sharir, Beni; Berke, Olaf; Klement, Eyal


    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease with major economic consequences. In Israel, FMD epidemics recur almost every year and mostly affect cattle. The highest number of outbreaks occurs among beef cattle farms, followed by feedlot farms and dairy farms. We performed several cross-sectional serological studies in Israel during 2006-2014, aimed to reveal if the virus is endemic among cattle and to determine the sero-prevalence of antibodies directed against non-structural proteins (NSP) of FMD virus. Additionally we aimed to determine the risk factors for such sero-positivity. A risk based sampling was performed and the presence of anti-NSP antibodies was estimated using the PrioCHECK(®) ELISA kit. Beef cattle showed the highest sero-prevalence (13.2%, CI95%=10.8-15.8%). Higher FMD sero-prevalence in beef cattle sampled in 2014 was associated with previous FMD outbreaks in the farm and with age (adult cows versus calves (pvaccination and stringent control measures that were applied during outbreaks such as emergency vaccination and strict quarantine. Early detection of FMD outbreaks among grazing beef herds as well as the implementation of control measures among these farms are therefore the methods of choice to prevent future outbreaks in Israel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatio-temporal synchrony of influenza in cities across Israel: the "Israel is one city" hypothesis. (United States)

    Barnea, Oren; Huppert, Amit; Katriel, Guy; Stone, Lewi


    We analysed an 11-year dataset (1998-2009) of Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) that was based on surveillance of ∽23% of Israel's population. We examined whether the level of synchrony of ILI epidemics in Israel's 12 largest cities is high enough to view Israel as a single epidemiological unit. Two methods were developed to assess the synchrony: (1) City-specific attack rates were fitted to a simple model in order to estimate the temporal differences in attack rates and spatial differences in reporting rates of ILI. The model showed good fit to the data (R2  =  0.76) and revealed considerable differences in reporting rates of ILI in different cities (up to a factor of 2.2). (2) A statistical test was developed to examine the null hypothesis (H0) that ILI incidence curves in two cities are essentially identical, and was tested using ILI data. Upon examining all possible pairs of incidence curves, 77.4% of pairs were found not to be different (H0 was not rejected). It was concluded that all cities generally have the same attack rate and follow the same epidemic curve each season, although the attack rate changes from season to season, providing strong support for the "Israel is one city" hypothesis. The cities which were the most out of synchronization were Bnei Brak, Beersheba and Haifa, the latter two being geographically remote from all other cities in the dataset and the former geographically very close to several other cities but socially separate due to being populated almost exclusively by ultra-orthodox Jews. Further evidence of assortative mixing of the ultra-orthodox population can be found in the 2001-2002 season, when ultra-orthodox cities and neighborhoods showed distinctly different incidence curves compared to the general population.

  14. Group Psychotherapy in Israel: History and Main Trends. (United States)

    Raufman, Ravit; Nesher, Ronit; Weinberg, Haim


    In Israel, the sense of belonging carries special meaning for historical and contemporary reasons. Since its establishment, Israel, with a background of centuries of persecution of the Jews, has been subjected to a consistent threat of war and terror that makes it a traumatized society. On the one hand, this intensifies social cohesiveness, especially in times of war. Yet many of the threats pose existential, political, and ideological dilemmas. The trauma of the Holocaust coupled with the continuous existence of wars enhanced the development of special kinds of groups. No wonder group therapy in Israel flourishes, perhaps more than in any other Western country (Nuttman-Shwartz & Weinberg, 2002).

  15. A Short Profile of Hypnotherapy Licensure in Israel. (United States)

    Binyaminy, Binyamin; Haas, Eric J


    In Israel, only physicians, dentists, and psychologists who complete an accredited licensing process may practice hypnosis. This study examines the characteristics of hypnotherapists compared to nonhypnotherapists in the same discipline. All hypnotherapists in Israel were compared to nonhypnotherapist health professionals. There are more subspecialists among hypnotists, and the most common specialties were psychiatry, pediatric dentistry, and clinical psychology. These findings imply self-sorting of hypnotists as a result of the regulation in Israel. Licensure of hypnotherapists could be useful in other countries by comprehensive follow-up of all licensed hypnotists and by improving public and health professional perceptions of the field and its relevance to clinical practice.

  16. The Nabidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of Israel and the Sinai Peninsula. (United States)

    Novoselsky, T; Freidberg, A; Dorchin, N; Meltzer, N; Kerzhner, I


    A long-term taxonomic and faunistic survey of the family Nabidae from Israel and the Sinai (Egypt) was conducted based primarily on material housed in the National Collection of Insects at Tel Aviv University, Israel (TAUI). A key is provided to all species and information is given for each, species including its distribution, previous records from the study area and life history details if available. Eleven species are recorded; Nabis (Nabis) pseudoferus orientarius Remane and Nabis (Halonabis) sareptanus Dohrn are new records to the fauna of the study area. Phorticus velutinus velutinus Puton is expected to occur in Israel based on its current circummediterranean distribution.

  17. Burn injuries and adolescents in Israel. (United States)

    Morad, Mohammed; Hemmo-Lotem, Michal; Kandel, Isack; Hyam, Eytan; Merrick, Joav


    Burn injury is a public health concern often associated with individual pain, emotional stress, prolonged hospitalizations, permanent disfigurement and family stress. In this paper we studied the avaliable data on burn injury among adolescents in Israel through a Medline search and found three relevant studies with data on this population. The incidence rate of burn injury was 0.46 per 1,000 children aged 5-14 years for Jews and 0.91 for Bedouin. Most of the burn injury in this age group was caused by hot liquids, followed by fire and chemical burns for both Jews and Bedouin, but electical burns occurred more often in Bedouins. Mortality was very low for the adolescent group. Prevention programs in schools since the 1980s have been found effective, but the public health focus should now be geared towards groups at risk.

  18. Spa treatment of Chernobyl liquidators in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godovich, A.; Chernovskij, A.; Lyass, F.; Shapiro, I.; Kratov, Eh.; Markarov, G.


    This paper presents the first experience gained in the use of the unique climate and spa of the Dead Sea for the treatment and rehabilitation of the Chernobyl liquidators at clinic near the city of Arad. Ninety-six patients were treated in Israel, in 40 of these radiation was the etiological factor of the disease: consequences of acute and chronic radiation disease, the astheno-neurotic syndrome, discirculatory encephalopathy, subatrophic laryngopharyngitis, and obstructive bronchitis. Eighty-eight patients had direct indications for treatment at the Dad Sea; locomotory, respiratory, and skin diseases. The course of treatment included the Dad Sea baths, mud applications, sun baths, climatotherapy, physiotherapy, massage, bioenergy therapy, inhalations, moisturizing creams, etc. An appreciable improvement with resolution of the principal symptoms was attained in 82% of patients, in 13% improvement with a significant abatement of the symptoms was achieved, whereas in 5% no apparent results were seen

  19. O universo da cor de Israel Pedrosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Lemgruber


    Full Text Available Neste novo livro, Israel Pedrosa atualiza sua teoria sobre a cor apresentada em Da cor à cor inexistente, da Editora Leo Christiano, uma referência para designers e artistas visuais há décadas (sua 7ª edição é de 1999. Em seu novo trabalho, Pedrosa fala da natureza física das cores, da visão do artista plástico em lidar com o cromatismo-com um vôo histórico sobre a história da representação pictórica-e da fisiologia da percepção visual, sem deixar de pensar a questão estética que envolve o tema.

  20. Israel Atomic Energy Commission 1996 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Selecting the research efforts to be highlighted in the Israel Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report from the large body and broad spectrum of ongoing work is not an easy task. The extensive bibliography of published results attached to the report attests to the scope of this difficulty. Of the many worthwhile projects, four were chosen to represent best the current trends in the continuing R and D program at the research centers of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission. One of these trends is the growing cooperation with private industry, in an attempt to gear our R and D programs to respond to market demands. Another feature, noted already several years ago, is the extensive collaboration of our scientists and engineers with colleagues at other institutions, in Israel and abroad. some of the work reported is part of evolving international industrial cooperation projects, illustrating both these trends. Following a trend common to many nuclear research centers around the world, a substantial part of our research effort is non-nuclear in nature. This is illustrated in the first article, which deals with advances in the application of non-linear optics in diverse fields of science and technology. These include state-of-the-art solid-state lasers, rapid modulation of light signals, development and generation of tunable sources of coherent light, optical data storage and the microscopic probing of biological and inorganic samples. The present work reports on a range of R and D, from the fundamentals of non-linear optical materials to proof-of-principle demonstrations of non-linear subwavelength resolution microscopy, to fabrication of prototype commercial tunable laser systems The second report considers the microstrain characteristics in some alloys using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The research utilizes XRD line broadening effects to study the characteristics of alloys from especially prepared surfaces. These characteristics include the homogeneity of alloying

  1. Suletud utoopia? / Israel Shahak ; tõlk. Lauri Pilter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Shahak, Israel


    Juutide ja mittejuutide ebavõrdsused Iisraelis. Artiklis on juttu ka Iisraeli kui "juudi riigi" õigusest. Lisatud tõlkija kommentaar. Tõlke allikas: Israel Shahak. Jewish History, Jewish Religion: The Weight of Three Thousand Years. London, 1994

  2. The United States and Israel, from alliance to symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Izquierdo Brichs


    Full Text Available The relationship between Israel and the United States has been evolving from that of an alliance during the Cold War to a symbiosis nowadays. American policy toward the Middle East is marked by its interest in oil, to which its growing relationship with Israelhas gradually been added. However, although for a long time the interests it shared with Saudi Arabia and other Arab countries moderated its policy and balanced its support of Israel somewhat, in the last few years its alliance with Israel has come to dominate Washington’s strategy. This is reflected in its invasion of Iraq and its tensions with Arab countries. The reason for this evolution must be sought, primarily, in the influence that Israel and pro-Zionist lobbies have gained in the domestic policy of the United States.

  3. Modern status of fishery sectors of Israel (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Oziransky


    Full Text Available Purpose. The State of Israel is one of the world leaders in the development of modern technologies, particularly in fisheries industry. E.g., 30 fish farms annually provide production of over 18,000 tons of fish, with an average yield of more than 8 tons per hectare. The fish equipment manufactured in this country is supplied to the Asia, Africa, Europe, South and North America countries, Australia. Israelis' specialists and companies design, build and implement engineering and technological support of fish-breeding enterprises in the EU, China, Nigeria, Georgia, Russia, Belarus, etc. The ongoing shortage of water in the country has spurred innovation in water conservation techniques, and a substantial agricultural modernization, drip irrigation. Israel is also at the technological forefront of desalination and water recycling. The Sorek desalination plant is the largest seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO desalination facility in the world. As of 2015, more than 50 percent of water for Israeli households, agriculture and industry is artificially produced. The country hosts an annual Water Technology and Environmental Control Exhibition & Conference (WATEC that attracts thousands of people from all over the world. In 2011, Israel's water technology industry was worth around $2 billion a year with annual exports of products and services of dozens of millions of dollars. Due to innovations in reverse osmosis technology, Israel is set to become a net exporter of water in the incoming years. At the same time, publications in Ukraine about the aquaculture branch of Israel concern mainly statistical information, or are devoted to individual ichthyopathological problems, genetic studies, etc. It does not allow analyzing a comprehensive development in this industry of Israel. Thus, the compilation and analysis of existing information is a relevant issue. This article expands the awareness of specialists on the specifics of fisheries industry, marine and

  4. Lagrangian formulation of relativistic Israel-Stewart hydrodynamics (United States)

    Montenegro, David; Torrieri, Giorgio


    We rederive relativistic hydrodynamics as a Lagrangian effective theory using the doubled coordinates technique, allowing us to include dissipative terms. We include Navier-Stokes shear and bulk terms, as well as Israel-Stewart relaxation time terms, within this formalism. We show how the inclusion of shear dissipation forces the inclusion of the Israel-Stewart term into the theory, thereby providing an additional justification for the form of this term.

  5. Discrimination of Seismic Sources Using Israel Seismic Network. (United States)


    Research and Geophysics P.O. Box 2286 Holon 58122, ISRAEL July 1996 19 10 0 Scientific Report No. 1 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED...Research and Geophysics P.O.B. 2286, Holon 58122 555/53/96(4) ISRAEL 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSORING...Seismic Network (RDSN) efficiently as a multichannel, spatially distributed system for discrimination of low magnitude events (mb < 2.5). In this study

  6. Shared decision-making in Israel: status, barriers, and recommendations


    Miron-Shatz, Talya; Golan, Ofra; Brezis, Mayer; Siegal, Gil; Doniger, Glen M


    Abstract Shared decision making (SDM) - involving patients in decisions relevant to their health - has been increasingly influential in medical thought and practice around the world. This paper reviews the current status of SDM in Israel, including efforts to promote SDM in the legislation and healthcare system, its influence in medical training and the national health plans, and funding for SDM-related research. Published studies of SDM in Israel are also reviewed. Although informed consent ...

  7. Israel: Background and U.S. Relations in Brief (United States)


    terms of the deal and punish any Iranian breaches. U.S.-Israel Security Cooperation General Issues Significant U.S.-Israel security cooperation...sentence in prison , while possibly facing further convictions.” “Israel’s prime minister: The law looms larger,” Economist, July 16, 2016: 54 Mazal...focus on linking rewards or punishments in specific Palestinian West Bank communities to the extent attackers come from those communities. 57 As a

  8. An Innocent Politics?: Investigating Family Photography in Modern Israel


    Pasternak, Gil


    I delivered this invited talk as part of the lecture series Writing Photography, hosted at The Photographers’ Gallery, London. In this talk I discussed the politics of family photography through imagery taken in Israel. Looking at collections of family photographs that have been used both in the domestic and the public spheres, I explored the interrelationship between the politically contested circumstances in Israel, and the various ways that family photography enters the political realm....

  9. The Pragmatic Entente: Turkey’s Growing Relations With Israel. (United States)


    Operation Reliant Mermaid , a joint search and rescue exercise, was conducted in January 1998 and involved not only Turkey and Israel but also the United...Turkey raised its recognition of Israel from "de facto" to "de jure." This made little practical difference, but it did symbolize Ankara’s...Israeli naval exercise Reliant Mermaid in January 1998. Additionally, Jordan has also defended Turkish and Israeli claims that their relations do

  10. Acanthamoeba keratitis: study of the 5-year incidence in Israel. (United States)

    Graffi, Shmuel; Peretz, Avi; Jabaly, Haneen; Koiefman, Anna; Naftali, Modi


    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is not a notifiable disease in Israel, so there are no accurate incidence rates for this condition in Israel. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of AK in Israel for the years 2008-2012. We distributed a survey questionnaire to laboratory managers in Israel. The laboratories were affiliated to medical institutes that either provided ophthalmology services or served community ophthalmology clinics. Our questionnaire requested survey respondents to provide information regarding the methods used to diagnose AK, and the number of positive and negative cultures for Acanthamoebae species performed for each of the years from 2008 to 2012. Six laboratories used non-nutrient agar with Escherichia coli as the culture medium, one used calcofluor-white staining with fluorescent microscopy, and two used PCR for diagnosing AK. Twenty-three AK cases were identified, to give an estimated incidence of 1/1 668 552. AK is mostly attributable to the use of contact lenses. As contact lenses are popular in Israel, we expected a higher incidence rate. A lower than expected incidence rate may indicate insufficient awareness of AK in Israel.

  11. The Impact of Mental Health Reform on Mental Illness Stigmas in Israel. (United States)

    Ben Natan, Merav; Drori, Tal; Hochman, Ohad


    This study examined public perception of stigmas relating to mental illness six months after a reform, which integrated mental health care into primary care in Israel. The results reveal that the public feels uncomfortable seeking referral to mental health services through the public health system, with Arab Israelis and men expressing lower levels of comfort than did Jewish Israelis. The current reform has not solved the issue of public stigma regarding mental health care. The study suggests that the current reforms must be accompanied over time with appropriate public education regarding mental illness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Algorithmic cryptanalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Joux, Antoine


    Illustrating the power of algorithms, Algorithmic Cryptanalysis describes algorithmic methods with cryptographically relevant examples. Focusing on both private- and public-key cryptographic algorithms, it presents each algorithm either as a textual description, in pseudo-code, or in a C code program.Divided into three parts, the book begins with a short introduction to cryptography and a background chapter on elementary number theory and algebra. It then moves on to algorithms, with each chapter in this section dedicated to a single topic and often illustrated with simple cryptographic applic

  13. Bryozoa from the Mediterranean coast of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The impact of global warming on the composition of marine biotas is increasing, underscoring the need for better baseline information on the species currently present in given areas. Little is known about the bryozoan fauna of Israel; the most recent publication concerning species from the Mediterranean coast was based on samples collected in the 1960s and 1970s. Since that time, not only have the species present in this region changed, but so too has our understanding of bryozoan taxonomy. Here we use samples collected during the last decade to identify 47 bryozoan species, of which 15 are first records for the Levantine basin. These include one new genus and species (Crenulatella levantinensis gen. et. sp. nov., two new species (Licornia vieirai sp. nov. and Trematooecia mikeli sp. nov., and two species that may be new but for which available material is inadequate for formal description (Reteporella sp. and Thalamoporella sp.. In addition, Conopeum ponticum is recorded for the first time from the Mediterranean Sea. Non-indigenous species make up almost one-quarter of the 47 species identified. All of the non-indigenous species are native to tropical and subtropical regions, implying a change of the Levant bryozoan biota from a temperate to a more tropical state, probably related to both higher temperature and salinity and to the opening of the Suez Canal connecting the Red Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean.

  14. Spring Bird Migration Phenology in Eilat, Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuven Yosef


    Full Text Available Analysis of the mean date of first captures and median arrival dates of spring migration for 34 species of birds at Eilat, Israel, revealed that the earlier a species migrates through Eilat, the greater is the inter-annual variation in the total time of its passage. Birds arrive during spring migration in Eilat in four structured and independent waves. The annual fluctuation in the initial arrival dates (initial capture dates and median dates (median date of all captures, not including recaptures, did not depend on the length of the migratory route. This implies that migrants crossing the Sahara desert depart from their winter quarters on different Julian days in different years. We suggest that negative correlations between the median date of the spring migration of early and late migrants depends upon the easterly (Hamsin wind period. Moreover, we believe that the phenology of all birds during spring migration in Eilat is possibly also determined by external factors such as weather conditions on the African continent or global climatic processes in the Northern hemisphere. Orphean Warblers (Sylvia hortensis show a strong positive correlation (rs=-0.502 of initial capture date with calendar years, whereas other species such as Barred Warbler (S. nisoria; rs = -0.391 and Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata; rs = -0.398 display an insignificant trend. The Dead Sea Sparrow (Passer moabiticus and Red-Backed Shrike (Lanius collurio are positively correlated regarding initial arrival date and medians of spring migration.

  15. Einstein before Israel Zionist icon or iconoclast?

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenkranz, Ze’ev


    Albert Einstein was initially skeptical and even disdainful of the Zionist movement, yet he affiliated himself with this controversial political ideology and today is widely seen as an outspoken advocate for a modern Jewish homeland in Palestine. What enticed this renowned scientist and humanitarian, who repeatedly condemned nationalism of all forms, to radically change his views? Was he in fact a Zionist? Einstein Before Israel traces Einstein's involvement with Zionism from his initial contacts with the movement at the end of World War I to his emigration from Germany in 1933 in the wake of Hitler's rise to power. Drawing on a wealth of rare archival evidence--much of it never before published--this book offers the most nuanced picture yet of Einstein's complex and sometimes stormy relationship with Jewish nationalism. Ze'ev Rosenkranz sheds new light on Einstein's encounters with prominent Zionist leaders, and reveals exactly what Einstein did and didn't like about Zionist beliefs, objectives, and methods...

  16. Radiation Exposure to Concrete in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haquin, G.; Kovler, K.; Yungrais, G. Z.; Lavi, N.


    Most building materials of terrestrial origin contain small amounts of radionuclides of natural origin, mainly from the Uranium (238U) and Thorium (232Th) decay chains and the radioactive isotope of potassium, 40K. The external radiation exposure is caused by gamma emitting radionuclides, which in the uranium series mainly belong to the decay chain segment starting with Radium (226Ra). The internal (by inhalation) radiation exposure is due to Radon (222Rn), and its short lived decay products, exhaled from building materials into the room air. Due to economical and environmental reasons there is an increased tendency to use industrial by-products containing relatively high concentrations of radionuclides of natural origin in the building material industry. Fly ash (FA), produced as by-product in the combustion of coal, is extensively used in Israel since mid eighties of the last century in concrete and as an additive to cement . The increase of 226Ra activity concentration, the mineralogical characteristics of the FA and of the concrete may influence on the radon exhalation rate and consequently on the radon exposure of the public. The recently published Israeli Standard 5098 (IS 5098) 'Content of natural radioactive elements in building products' limits the content of natural radionuclides as well as the radon emanation from concrete. This paper presents a compilation of three studies conducted at Soreq Nuclear Research Centre (SNRC), Technion, NRG and Environmental Lab BGU (ELBGU) to investigate and quantify the influence of FA addition in concrete

  17. Algorithmic mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hougardy, Stefan


    Algorithms play an increasingly important role in nearly all fields of mathematics. This book allows readers to develop basic mathematical abilities, in particular those concerning the design and analysis of algorithms as well as their implementation. It presents not only fundamental algorithms like the sieve of Eratosthenes, the Euclidean algorithm, sorting algorithms, algorithms on graphs, and Gaussian elimination, but also discusses elementary data structures, basic graph theory, and numerical questions. In addition, it provides an introduction to programming and demonstrates in detail how to implement algorithms in C++. This textbook is suitable for students who are new to the subject and covers a basic mathematical lecture course, complementing traditional courses on analysis and linear algebra. Both authors have given this "Algorithmic Mathematics" course at the University of Bonn several times in recent years.

  18. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  19. New institutionalization as a rebound phenomenon? The case of Israel. (United States)

    Abramowitz, Moshe; Grinshpoon, Alexander; Priebe, Stefan; Ponizovsky, Alexander M


    To explore whether the history of significant deinstitutionalization in Western European countries since the 1950s, and in Israel more recently, may have led to the establishment of new alternative institutions as a "rebound" phenomenon. Data on service provision in Israel are analyzed and compared with published data from Europe. We considered five commonly used indicators of mental health services to reflect trends in institutionalization in psychiatric hospitals, the forensic system and supported housing. In Israel, there has been a substantial increase in placement in supported housing (by 307%), psychiatric treatments in the prison population (by 61%), and a reduction of psychiatric hospital beds (by 42%) between 1991/2 and 2002/3. The changes are consistent with trends observed during the same decade in European countries with a different history of psychiatric institutionalization. However, increases in involuntary admissions in Israel, England, the Netherlands and Germany have not been shared by Spain, Italy and Sweden. The appearance of possible new forms of institutionalization also occurs in Israel and appears not to depend on a history of large asylums and deinstitutionalization since 1950s. Thus, it cannot be explained as a mere "rebound" phenomenon, and may be influenced by other societal factors that are shared by various European countries..

  20. Improvements in Monitoring the CTBT in the Middle East by the Israel Seismic Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gitterman, Yefim


    The Israel Seismic Network (ISN), operated by the Geophysical Institute of Israel, is continuously monitoring the seismicity of the Middle East, and in that capacity provides crucial information to the International Monitoring System (IMS...

  1. Management of saline soils in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawitz, E.


    The main soil salinity problem in Israel is the danger of gradual salinization as a result of excessively efficient water management. Aquifer management is aimed at preventing flow of groundwater into the ocean, causing a creeping salinization at a rate of about 2 ppm per year. Successful efforts to improve irrigation efficiency brought with them the danger of salt accumulation in the soil. A ten-year monitoring programme carried out by the Irrigation Extension Service at 250 sampling sites showed that appreciable salt accumulation indeed occurred during the rainless irrigation season. However, where annual rainfall is more than about 350 mm this salt accumulation is adequately leached out of the root zone by the winter rains. Soil salinity in the autumn is typically two to three times that in the spring, a level which does not affect yields adversely. In the drier regions of the country long-term increasing soil salinity has been observed, and leaching is required. This is generally accomplished during the pre-irrigation given in the spring, whose size is determined by the rainfall amount of the preceding winter. The increasing need to utilize brackish groundwater and recycled sewage effluent requires special measures, which have so far been successful. In particular, drip irrigation with its high average soil-water potential regime and partial wetting of the soil volume has achieved high yields under adverse conditions. However, the long-term trend of water-quality deterioration is unavoidable under present conditions, and will eventually necessitate either major changes in agricultural patterns or the provision of desalinated water for dilution of the irrigation water. (author)

  2. Thirty-five years of assisted reproductive technologies in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphna Birenbaum-Carmeli


    Full Text Available Israel is known as a pronatalist country. Whether due to the Biblical commandment to ‘be fruitful and multiply’ or the traumas of the Holocaust and perennial wars, reproduction is a central life goal for most Israelis. Israeli women bear substantially more children than their counterparts in industrialized countries and view child-rearing as a key life accomplishment. These personal world-view and real-life individual quests take place in a context of equally pronatalist state policies and religious openness to assisted reproductive technologies. In this paper, I outline 35 years of assisted reproductive technologies in Israel by tracing a principal axis in the development of three major technologies of assisted reproduction: the proliferation of IVF-ICSI; the globalization of gamete donation; and the privatization of surrogacy. The paper is based on a policy analysis as well as various studies of assisted reproductive technologies, conducted in Israel over this period.

  3. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland. (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet E


    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (a) permissive gun laws, (b) widespread gun ownership, (c) and encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters. They cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source material. Swiss and Israeli laws limit firearm ownership and require permit renewal one to four times annually. ICVS analysis finds the United States has more firearms per capita and per household than either country. Switzerland and Israel curtail off-duty soldiers' firearm access to prevent firearm deaths. Suicide among soldiers decreased by 40 per cent after the Israeli army's 2006 reforms. Compared with the United States, Switzerland and Israel have lower gun ownership and stricter gun laws, and their policies discourage personal gun ownership.

  4. One flag, two rallies: Mechanisms of public opinion in Israel during the 2014 Gaza war. (United States)

    Feinstein, Yuval


    In Israel, public reaction to the 2014 Gaza war included massive support for the military operation and a sharp increase in the popularity of Prime Minister Netanyahu. To understand what caused these "rally-round-the-flag" (RRTF) effects, panel data were collected from a representative sample of the Jewish majority in Israel during and after the war. The article integrate empirical and theoretical arguments from public opinion studies, and from social and political psychology, to contextualize and guide the analysis. The results reveal that perceived threat to collective security produced two simultaneous rally outcomes through distinct processes: First, increased identification with the ethno-national Jewish group led to a rally behind Israel's prime minister. Second, anger toward Hamas and sentiment of national superiority, which was activated by increased ethno-national identification, produced a rally behind the military operation. In addition to explaining its specific empirical case, this study makes three broader contributions. First, it extends the investigation of the RRTF phenomenon in wartime beyond the popularity of the head of the state (the focus of most previous studies) by also examining levels of support for the use of military power. Second, it reveals some of the mechanisms through which distinct elements of popular nationalism mediate the relationship between war events and heterogeneous rally effects. Third, this study shows that the mechanisms that have been detected in studies of individual attitudes and behavior in small groups under conditions of perceived threat or competition can help explain the behavior of these individuals as members of larger, imagined national communities during war. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Inequalities in non-communicable diseases between the major population groups in Israel: achievements and challenges. (United States)

    Muhsen, Khitam; Green, Manfred S; Soskolne, Varda; Neumark, Yehuda


    Israel is a high-income country with an advanced health system and universal health-care insurance. Overall, the health status has improved steadily over recent decades. We examined differences in morbidity, mortality, and risk factors for selected non-communicable diseases (NCDs) between subpopulation groups. Between 1975 and 2014, life expectancy in Israel steadily increased and is currently above the average life expectancy for the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Nevertheless, life expectancy has remained lower among Israeli Arabs than Israeli Jews, and this gap has recently widened. Age-adjusted mortality as a result of heart disease, stroke, or diabetes remains higher in Arabs, whereas age-adjusted incidence and mortality of cancer were higher among Jews. The prevalence of obesity and low physical activity in Israel is considerably higher among Arabs than Jews. Smoking prevalence is highest for Arab men and lowest for Arab women. Health inequalities are also evident by the indicators of socioeconomic position and in subpopulations, such as immigrants from the former Soviet Union, ultra-Orthodox Jews, and Bedouin Arabs. Despite universal health coverage and substantial improvements in the overall health of the Israeli population, substantial inequalities in NCDs persist. These differences might be explained, at least in part, by gaps in social determinants of health. The Ministry of Health has developed comprehensive programmes to reduce these inequalities between the major population groups. Sustained coordinated multisectoral efforts are needed to achieve a greater impact and to address other social inequalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Three dimensional quantitative coronary angiography can detect reliably ischemic coronary lesions based on fractional flow reserve. (United States)

    Chung, Woo-Young; Choi, Byoung-Joo; Lim, Seong-Hoon; Matsuo, Yoshiki; Lennon, Ryan J; Gulati, Rajiv; Sandhu, Gurpreet S; Holmes, David R; Rihal, Charanjit S; Lerman, Amir


    Conventional coronary angiography (CAG) has limitations in evaluating lesions producing ischemia. Three dimensional quantitative coronary angiography (3D-QCA) shows reconstructed images of CAG using computer based algorithm, the Cardio-op B system (Paieon Medical, Rosh Ha'ayin, Israel). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether 3D-QCA can reliably predict ischemia assessed by myocardial fractional flow reserve (FFR) < 0.80. 3D-QCA images were reconstructed from CAG which also were evaluated with FFR to assess ischemia. Minimal luminal diameter (MLD), percent diameter stenosis (%DS), minimal luminal area (MLA), and percent area stenosis (%AS) were obtained. The results of 3D-QCA and FFR were compared. A total of 266 patients was enrolled for the present study. FFR for all lesions ranged from 0.57 to 1.00 (0.85 ± 0.09). Measurement of MLD, %DS, MLA, and %AS all were significantly correlated with FFR (r = 0.569, 0609, 0.569, 0.670, respectively, all P < 0.001). In lesions with MLA < 4.0 mm(2), %AS of more than 65.5% had a 80% sensitivity and a 83% specificity to predict FFR < 0.80 (area under curve, AUC was 0.878). 3D-QCA can reliably predict coronary lesions producing ischemia and may be used to guide therapeutic approach for coronary artery disease.

  7. Information Systems in Israel : A Study Visit to Six Universities


    Nilsson, Anders G.


    Sometimes we hear that Israel is one of the countries in the front-line when utilizing Information Technology (IT) for better support of existing business processes as well as to enable new and innovative business concepts in organisations. We have still a rather limited knowledge here in Sweden about the Israelian way for working with the academic disci­pline of Information Systems on a university level. This was my background for making a study visit to Israel during three months from the b...

  8. Haim Yacobi, Israel and Africa: A Genealogy of Moral Geography


    Levin, Ayala


    Haim Yacobi’s Israel and Africa: A Genealogy of Moral Geography boldly outlines the significant role the African continent has played in Israel’s political and cultural self-fashioning. Like its Middle Eastern setting, Africa’s geographic proximity and the web of ties this proximity entails are denied in the Israeli society, all the while the continent is produced as Israel’s “other.” Through its relationships with Africa, the author argues, Israel constitutes itself as Western, modern, enlig...

  9. The energy sector in Israel: The renewable energies place

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The energy production, in Israel, is not sufficient to satisfy the country needs, that is perpetually growing. Today 96% of the energy consumption is imported, essentially with petroleum and coal. To reduce this energy dependence, the government encourages the scientific researches and innovations in the field of clean and renewable energies. The paper presents political and economical aspects of the management and the exploitation of the following energy resources, developed in Israel: fossil fuels with oil shales; solar energy; biomass; wind energy; geothermal energy and hydraulic energy. (A.L.B.)

  10. New data to the earthworm fauna of Israel (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szederjesi, T.


    Full Text Available Elaborating several smaller earthworm samples collected in different parts of Israel resulted in recording 20 earthworm species including Bimastos parvus (Eisen, 1874 a North American peregrine which represents new record for the country. Three other species; Dendrobaena nevoi Csuzdi & Pavlíček, 1999, Healyella jordanis (Csuzdi & Pavlíček, 1999and Perelia shamsi Csuzdi & Pavlíček, 2005 were first recorded after their original descriptions. The present list of lumbricidearthworms recorded for Israel is raised to 28.

  11. A worrying increase in the incidence of mesothelioma in Israel. (United States)

    Ariad, S; Barchana, M; Yukelson, A; Geffen, D B


    Exposure to asbestos is the main established cause of mesothelioma; the incidence of this tumor is thus often interpreted as an index of past exposure. Asbestos has been widely used in Israel in industry and building, exposing certain population groups to the risk of developing mesothelioma. To analyze the incidence of mesothelioma in Israel during the years 1960-96, and to project its trend for the following years. We conducted a population-based study of the incidence of mesothelioma reported to the Israel Cancer Registry during 1960-96. Time trends were analyzed from data on the annual import of asbestos to Israel, which may indicate the magnitude of past exposure. Based on these findings, trends in the incidence of mesothelioma in Israel were projected for the subsequent years. A total of 327 cases of mesothelioma were reported to the Israel Cancer Registry during the study period. The incidence in Jews was higher than in Arabs (age-standardized incidence rate 2.64 vs. 1.35 per million/year, respectively). Among the Jewish population, Israeli-born males and males born in Europe and America showed the highest incidence (ASR 4.23 and 4.15 per million/year, respectively). Israeli-born males were 20 years younger than Jewish males born elsewhere. The incidence was twice as high among males than females and increased sevenfold from its nadir (1.17 per million/year) in 1978-80 to its peak (8.5 per million/year) in 1993-96. During a similar period the incidence among females increased from 0.33 to 2.56 per million/year. The incidence in both sexes does not appear to level off. The large wave of immigration from the former Soviet Union that began in 1989 only partly accounts for the increased incidence in 1993-96. The time trend in the incidence of mesothelioma in both sexes parallels the use of asbestos in Israel, which peaked in the years 1976-78. The incidence of mesothelioma in Israel has increased sharply in recent years, unrelated to a wave of immigration from

  12. The Effects of the Shortage of Judges in Israel


    Limor Zer-Gutman


    In Israel the shortage of judges that has worsened over the years has led to a serious deterioration in the operation of Israel's judicial system. The article is ascertaining the intensity of the shortage by using international comparisons and comparing the rate of growth in the number of judges with the rate of growth of the general population. The article further describes the three main areas affected by the shortage. The first area is the judicial system itself where the shortage is the p...

  13. Wars and Suicides in Israel, 1948–2006 (United States)

    Oron (Ostre), Israel


    This paper reports the characteristics of suicides which occurred during the existential and the non-existential wars in Israel. It provides a first approximation of whether the suicide patterns in each war are consistent with the findings of Morselli and Durkheim, and whether their theoretical interpretations can serve as a preliminary guideline to explaining the Israeli case, which is characterized by short periods of war, social integration during some of the non-existential wars, and a sharp rise in post-war male suicide rates following all of the existential wars. Implications for further studies on the subject in Israel and elsewhere are discussed. PMID:22754482

  14. Wars and suicides in Israel, 1948-2006. (United States)

    Oron Ostre, Israel


    This paper reports the characteristics of suicides which occurred during the existential and the non-existential wars in Israel. It provides a first approximation of whether the suicide patterns in each war are consistent with the findings of Morselli and Durkheim, and whether their theoretical interpretations can serve as a preliminary guideline to explaining the Israeli case, which is characterized by short periods of war, social integration during some of the non-existential wars, and a sharp rise in post-war male suicide rates following all of the existential wars. Implications for further studies on the subject in Israel and elsewhere are discussed.

  15. The Modern Anti-Semitism Israel Model: An empirical relationship between modern anti-Semitism and opposition to Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florette Cohen


    Full Text Available The current paper reviews our program of research that has examined some of the causes and consequences of anti-Semitism in which a new theoretical model of anti-Semitism is presented and tested in six experiments. The model proposes that mortality salience increases anti-Semitism and that anti-Semitism often manifests as hostility towards Israel. In accord with predictions, results show that existential fears lead to higher anti-Semitism and reduced support for Israel. Collectively, these results may serve as a preliminary contribution to explaining the continuation of anti-Semitism.

  16. The use of dental services for children: implications of the 2010 dental reform in Israel. (United States)

    Shahrabani, Shosh; Benzion, Uri; Machnes, Yaffa; Gal, Assaf


    Routine dental examinations for children are important for early diagnosis and treatment of dental problems. The level of dental morbidity among Israeli children is higher than the global average. A July 2010 reform of Israel's National Health Insurance Law gradually offers free dental services for children up to age 12. The study examines the use of dental services for children and the factors affecting mothers' decision to take their children for routine checkups. In addition, the study examines the impact of the reform on dental checkups for children in various populations groups. A national representative sample comprising 618 mothers of children aged 5-18 was surveyed by telephone. The survey integrated the principles of the health beliefs model and socio-demographic characteristics. The results show that mothers' decision to take their children for dental checkups is affected by their socio-demographic status and by their health beliefs with respect to dental health. After the reform, the frequency of children's dental checkups significantly increased among vulnerable populations. Therefore, the reform has helped reduce gaps in Israeli society regarding children's dental health. Raising families' awareness of the reform and of the importance of dental health care together with expanding national distribution of approved dental clinics can increase the frequency of dental checkups among children in Israel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Female Supervisors of Arab School Education in Israel (United States)

    Arar, Khalid Husny


    This paper discusses the characteristics of women discipline supervisors in the Arab education system in Israel, through their professional development to their attainment of senior supervisory posts. It examines how they attain supervision posts and perform various managerial functions in what is considered a male role, in a patriarchal society,…

  18. Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus Antibodies, Israel, 2009?2010


    Mor, Orna; Bassal, Ravit; Michaeli, Michal; Wax, Marina; Ram, Daniela; Cohen-Ezra, Oranit; Cohen, Dani; Mendelson, Ella; Ben-Ari, Ziv; Shohat, Tamy


    We investigated prevalence of hepatitis E virus in a sample of the population of Israel. The overall seroprevalence of antibodies to the virus was 10.6% (95% CI 8.4%?13.0%); age-adjusted prevalence was 7.6%. Seropositivity was associated with age, Arab ethnicity, low socioeconomic status, and birth in Africa, Asia, or the former Soviet Union.

  19. Rubella in Israel after the MMR vaccine: elimination or containment? (United States)

    Anis, Emilia; Grotto, Itamar; Moerman, Larisa; Kaliner, Ehud; Warshavsky, Bruce; Slater, Paul E; Lev, Boaz


    Since 1996, after the full institution of the two-dose measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) regimen in Israel, rubella incidence has declined dramatically and has remained extremely low. Cyclical outbreaks ended; the two brief outbreaks that did occur were quickly contained; and epidemiological data indicate that the disease is practically absent from the country. But similar steep declines in the incidence of measles and mumps, the two other MMR-preventable diseases, were followed by major outbreaks in 2007 and 2010. Epidemiological analyses show that undervaccination of subgroups within the Jewish ultra-orthodox population, both in Israel and abroad, and virus importation into Israel, continue to be risk factors for all three MMR-preventable diseases. Israel's public health system, therefore, should focus on a policy of containment: improve MMR coverage among undervaccinated subgroups and assure that virus importation is no longer a risk. Then the goal of rubella elimination will become feasible. We discuss how the Israeli experience may contribute to the World Health Organization Initiative to eliminate simultaneously measles and rubella.

  20. Israel, Schools, and Arab Conflict in the Middle East. (United States)

    Parker, Franklin

    This paper examines how Israel's educational system attempts to deal with major social, geographic, religious, economic, and political problems. Problems are presented in two main categories--internal and external. Internal problems include high immigration levels, religious and cultural differences among various Jewish sects and between Jews and…

  1. Arab Political Participation and the Future of Democracy in Israel ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nevertheless, recent years have seen a decrease in Palestinian participation in Israeli democratic institutions, such as voting in parliamentary elections. Recent times have also seen increasing tension between Israel's Arab and Jewish communities. This grant will allow MADA Al-Carmel (the Arab Center for Applied Social ...

  2. Joint Canada-Israel Health Research Program | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Immunology research can also tackle some of the major health challenges low and middle-income countries face, such as HIV/AIDS, cancer, vaccine development, and infectious diseases. To that end, the Joint Canada-Israel Health Research Program is supporting six projects led by world-class teams that were selected ...

  3. Las migraciones recientes en Israel: medidas e impacto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Berthomiére


    Full Text Available Este artículo es una contribución al conocimiento de las migraciones nacidas de la desintegración del bloque comunista. Desde 1989, más de 650.000 judíos han marchado de la ex-Unión Soviética para ir a Israel. Así, ese Estado se convierte en uno de los países del mundo que sufrió más intensamente los efectos de ese acontecimiento geográfico de mayor importancia. En esta contribución intentamos presentar, a través de algunos resultados de nuestro trabajo, las características de esta migración y contestar a las preguntas inherentes a tales problemáticas: ¿cómo Israel gestiona esa migración?, ¿cúales son sus efectos sobre un espacio tan atormentado y debatido?… Insistiremos también sobre los lazos establecidos entre Israel y la ex-URSS con la ayuda de las redes de migrantes. En conclusión, intentaremos situar ese movimiento en el nuevo contexto de migraciones en el cual vemos la integración progresiva de Israel en el sistema migratorio europeo con la entrada de trabajadores extranjeros y la presencia de una población en situación ilegal.

  4. Seroprevalence of Rhodococcus equi in horses in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Tirosh-Levy


    Full Text Available Rhodococcus equi is a common cause of pneumonia in foals and has extensive clinical, economic and possibly zoonotic consequences. This bacterium survives well in the environment and may be considered as normal flora of adult horses. Certain strains of this bacterium are extremely virulent in foals, and early identification and intervention is crucial for prognosis. Rhodococcus equi is endemic in many parts of the world and occasionally isolated in Israel. This study was designed to evaluate R. equi seroprevalence in adult horses in Israel to indirectly indicate the potential level of exposure of susceptible foals. Sera were collected from 144 horses during spring 2011 and from 293 horses during fall 2014, and the presence of antibodies against virulent R. equi was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Equine seroprevalence of R. equi was found to be 7.6% in 2011 and 5.1% in 2014. Only one farm had seropositive horses in 2011, whereas several farms had seropositive horses in 2014. No significant risk factors for seropositivity were found. Rhodococcus equi appears to be endemic in Israel. This is the first survey of R. equi in Israel that provides information on the epidemiology of this important bacterium.

  5. Arab Parents' Involvement in School Reform in Israel (United States)

    Arar, Khalid; Abu-Asbah, Khaled; Nasra, Muhammed Abu


    Current research indicates that parental involvement positively influences children's academic success. This study investigates parental involvement in the Arab education system in Israel, highlighting involvement in the New Horizon reform. We interviewed school principals and parent committee chairpersons from 15 Arab schools. The study confirmed…

  6. Education for Multiculturalism among Arab Youth in Israel (United States)

    Abu Asbah, Khaled


    Education for multiculturalism, founded on liberal-democratic values, is a frequent topic of educational discourse that has not been ignored by Muslim Arab schools in Israel. In general, Arab society is undergoing change processes, in transition from a traditional to a modern society; traditional values are challenged, engendering social crises.…

  7. Teacher Education for Classroom Management in Israel: Structures and Orientations (United States)

    Ben-Peretz, Miriam; Eilam, Billie; Landler-Pardo, Gabi


    In our paper, we examine how classroom management is taught in teacher education in Israel. Three questions are addressed: (1) What is the structure of programs for classroom management (site, timing, duration, number of courses, mandatory/optional)? (2) How is classroom management conceived (technical/pedagogical, individual/systemic)? (3) Does…

  8. "Hello pacifist" War Resisters in Israel's First Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Simoni


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the history, organization, networks and political outlook of the state of Israel’s first conscientious objectors (COs in the 1950s, and the consequences they confronted, individually and as a group. Despite it being a very unlikely period for the foundation of such a movement, a small branch of ‘War Resisters’ International’ (WRI, 1921 was established in Israel in 1947. This paper discusses what can the attitudes towards COs tell of the early history of the State of Israel, especially at a time when conscientious objection was not recognized as a right almost anywhere. The history of the first Israeli COs breaks a number of assumptions, albeit contradictory ones: on the one hand it strengthens the image of Israel as a militaristic country; on the other, it shows that institutions were in Israel more tolerant towards COs than other countries; it shows that COs were the supporters of an non ethnically homogenous society and, most of all, that, even in a decade such as the 1950s, a different and deep voice was trying to make itself heard. This paper is based on primary sources from the WRI archives and on the correspondence that Israeli COs entertained with WRI in the 1950s.

  9. Israel's nuclear posture: a cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nupur, Vyoma


    Security has always been a paramount and constant theme in the Israeli mind set. This paper traces the historical evolution of the country's nuclear posture and the acquisition of a nuclear capability in the backdrop of this concern. A further attempt has been made to analyse the principal characteristics of Israel's nuclear position and the events and issues that shaped it. (author)

  10. Death and Dying Anxiety among Elderly Arab Muslims in Israel (United States)

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim


    Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no…

  11. Ambulatory and Hospital-based Quality Improvement Methods in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Blum


    Full Text Available This review article compares ambulatory and hospital-based quality improvement methods in Israel. Data were collected from: reports of the National Program for Quality Indicators in community, the National Program for Quality Indicators in Hospitals, and from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD Reviews of Health Care Quality.

  12. Arab Women Principals' Empowerment and Leadership in Israel (United States)

    Shapira, Tamar; Arar, Khalid; Azaiza, Faisal


    Purpose: This paper's purpose is to tell the life-stories of four women who succeeded in forging paths to senior positions as principals in Arab schools in Israel and to describe the personal, professional and sociopolitical contexts of their principalship. Design/methodology/approach: This is part of a larger research effort that explored the…

  13. The beautiful infant and Israel's salvation | Loader | HTS Teologiese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article concludes that the motif of Moses' beauty is part of a relatively infrequent but nevertheless well-established constellation. It is submitted that this finding contributes to a reappraisal of the idea that the motif of beauty has no place in Israel's texts of deliverance and an investigation of the contrary hypothesis is called ...

  14. Parental Participation Fees in School Expenses in Israel (United States)

    Shaked, Haim


    Purpose: Many countries throughout the world provide all children with free education. However, sometimes there are user charges in publically funded schools worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to explore parental participation fees in school expenses in Israel, depicting the current situation and analyzing its implications.…

  15. The Israel Physical Society 1997 Annual Meeting. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The book of program and abstracts of the 43rd meeting of the Israel physical society presents abstracts of presentations in various field of physics. Follow is the list of these fields. Astrophysics, condensed matter, laser and quantum optics, nuclear physics, particle and fields, physics in biology, physics in industry, plasma and space physics, statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics

  16. PALESTINA DAN ISRAEL: Sejarah, Konflik dan Masa Depan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misri A. Muchsin


    Full Text Available Palestine and Israel: History, Conflict and the Future. At the beginning Palestine was a part of Daulah Islamiyah under the Turki Usmani, but because this area was dominated by England in 1917, then about 48 percent of it was annexed by Jews, Palestine with the Muslim majority became not independent. This writing aims at exploring the struggle Muslim-Palestine toward Jews-Israel. For this purpose, the use of historical analysis and library research approaches in collecting data were used. The findings from this research are that Zionist Israel dominated Palestine because of being supported by its main allies: America, English and France while Palestine struggle alone because the surrounding Islamic countries had ever wanted to help in 1968 but they were lost in a six-day war. Therefore, Egypt, Syria and Jordan and Palestine released a part of their area. Lately Palestine becomes worse and if the Jews constitution proposed by Benyamin Netayahu to the Israel Parliament, Palestine and Arab Islam will be strongly insisted.

  17. Can the IDP label be used in Israel/Palestine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Abou Samra


    Full Text Available Identifying IDPs in Israel and in the OPT – on the basis ofthe definition provided by the Guiding Principles on InternalDisplacement1 – is difficult. UNRWA considers all thosewho lost their homes in 1948 as refugees, yet the GuidingPrinciples define IDPs as those who have fled their homes butwho have not crossed an internationally recognised border.

  18. Israel's Gender Equality Policy in Education: Revolution or Containment? (United States)

    Eden, Devorah


    Examines Israel's policy of gender equality in education, discussing: social and economic forces that created the demand for equality; political processes for implementing the policy; and policy content. Data from interviews and document reviews indicate that the policy was devised to address concerns of high-tech industries and women,…

  19. School-Based Management: Arab Education System in Israel (United States)

    Arar, Khalid; Abu-Romi, Amal


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the issue of school-based management (SBM) in elementary schools in the Arab education system in Israel, comparing schools experienced in SBM, schools beginning to use SBM and schools that do not use SBM. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative research used a structured questionnaire to…

  20. Health Policy for Persons with Intellectual Disability: Experiences from Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Halperin


    Full Text Available Intellectual disability (ID is a life-long disability characterized by impaired cognitive and adaptive skills. Over the past few decades, a shift has occurred in the conceptualization and treatment of people with ID and research in health policy and health-care delivery has become increasingly global with a notable disparity between the developed and developing world. This review presents a literature overview of global health policy for ID with the intent to focus specifically on the policy and treatment within Israel. The methodology involved sites visits to care centers, discussions with stakeholders in health policy, and a literature review. We believe that Israel is in a unique position between a developed and developing culture. In particular, the distinct problems faced by the Arab and Bedouin community in terms of ID must be formally accounted for in Israel's future policies. Research from the developing world would be instructive to this end. The global approach in this presentation led to certain policy recommendations that take into account the uniqueness of Israel's position from a social, economic, religious, and demographic perspective. It is the hope that this paper will lead to an increased awareness of the challenges faced by persons with ID and their providers in all sectors of Israeli society and that the necessary policy recommendations will ultimately be adopted.

  1. Israel’s Interests and Options in Syria (United States)


    expand Israel’s presence in the Golan by building additional housing, promoting tourism , and investing in infrastructure and industry.38 Thus, the...less hospitable to Iranian forces and prox- ies. Whether undertaken by Israel or by international aid organiza- tions, the provision of humanitarian

  2. Israel Physical Society 44. annual meeting. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    During the 1998 Annual Conference of the Israel Physical Society, various chapters were treated in parallel sessions: Physics teaching, Condensed matter, Lasers and Quantum Optics, Atomic and Nuclear physics, Particles and Fields, Statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics, Physics in industry, Plasma physics and computational physics


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    langstelling en liefde die gebeurtenisse in Palestina sedert die beëindiging van die Britse mandaat in 1948 gevolg het. As dit nog nodig mag wees, kan sy boek oor Jerusalem2 as bewys daarvan strek. Maar selfs die groot ste mate van geesdrif vir die jonge staat in die ou land mag ons tog nie daartoe verlei om Israel met ...

  4. Overlapping Rivalries : The two Germanys, Israel and the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vita, L.


    The case of early German-Israeli relations offers unique insight into the dynamics of the German Cold War. As this article shows, the two Germanys were ideologically and geopolitically antithetical, but vis-a-vis the question of relations with Israel East and West German representatives faced a

  5. Arab Political Participation and the Future of Democracy in Israel ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Arab Political Participation and the Future of Democracy in Israel : Increasing Political Efficacy and Influencing Democratic Change ... role in politics is becoming increasingly important, especially in terms of shaping Israeli democracy and identity, and influencing Israeli-Palestinian relations and regional political dynamics.

  6. Changing Attitudes of High School Students in Israel toward Homosexuality (United States)

    Eick, Uri; Rubinstein, Tanya; Hertz, Shai; Slater, Aylon


    Hoshen, the Hebrew acronym for "Education & Change", is a nonprofit, nationwide education and information center for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community in Israel. The main educational method Hoshen uses is the personal story told by volunteers. The present study aimed to examine whether this activity,…

  7. Exceptional influenza morbidity in summer season of 2017 in Israel may predict the vaccine efficiency in the coming winter. (United States)

    Pando, Rakefet; Sharabi, Sivan; Mandelboim, Michal


    Influenza infections are the leading cause of respiratory viral infections worldwide, and are mostly common in the winter season. The seasonal influenza vaccine is currently the most effective preventive modality against influenza infection. Immediately following each winter season the World Health Organization (WHO) announces the vaccine composition for the following winter. Unexpectedly, during the summer of 2017, in Israel, we observed in hospitalized patients, an exceptionally high numbers of Influenza positive cases. The majority of the influenza B infections were caused by influenza B/Yamagata lineage, which did not circulate in Israel in the previous winter, and most of the influenza A infections were caused by influenza A/H3N2, a strain similar to the strain that circulated in Israel in the previous winter. We therefore predict that these two viruses will circulate in the coming winter of 2017/18 and that the trivalent vaccine, which includes antigenically different viruses will be inefficient. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Increasing gender and ethnic diversity in the health care workforce: The case of Arab male nurses in Israel. (United States)

    Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Keshet, Yael; Liberman, Ido


    Despite recent attempts at increasing health care workforce diversity, a measure that was found to reduce health disparities, men remain a minority in the traditionally female occupation of nursing. One exception to this observation is the Arab ethnic minority in Israel that includes numerous male nurses. Determining the percentage of Arab male nurses in the Israeli health care system and understanding how they perceive and negotiate their masculinity. We used both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Quantitative statistics were obtained from the 2011 to 2013 Labor Force Survey conducted by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics and qualitative data derived from 13 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with Arab nurses working in Israeli public hospitals, conducted during 2014. Nursing constitutes a prominent employment path for Arab men in Israel and is more prominent as an employment path for Arab men than that for Jewish men. A total of 38.6% of all Arab nurses were men and only 7.5% of Jews and others. Quantitative data thus reveal that men do not constitute a minority among Arab nurses. Similarly, qualitative findings show that Arab male nurses do not manifest marginal masculinity but rather demonstrate many elements of hegemonic masculinity. Arab male nurses distinguish themselves and differentiate their roles from those of female nurses, expressing their motives for choosing the nursing profession in terms of hegemonic gender roles for men in Arab society in Israel. Although nursing is a traditionally female occupation, it offers an opportunity for Arab men to demonstrate their masculinity. Arab male nurses choose nursing as a means rather than an end, however, meaning that many of them might not remain in the profession. This observation is significant because of the importance of retaining men from ethnic minorities in nursing, especially in multicultural societies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Promoting Justices: Media Coverage of Judicial Nominations in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryna Bogoch


    Full Text Available This paper compares the framing of the coverage of judicial appointments in Israel in 2008 in two newspapers with nomination news from preceding years and to the patterns of press coverage in the U.S. A content analysis of 101 Supreme Court nomination articles indicated that unlike the political frame of American coverage, the press in Israel preserves its ostensible commitment to the professionalism of judges while linking the Supreme Court to political maneuvering in the selection of candidates. These findings are discussed within the context of the media's role in constructing judicial nominations as a debate about the role of the Supreme Court in Israeli society. Este artículo compara el marco de la cobertura de los nombramientos judiciales en Israel en 2008 en dos periódicos, con noticias de nombramientos de años anteriores y en los Estados Unidos, con los patrones de cobertura de prensa en los EE.UU. Un análisis de contenido de 101 artículos de nombramientos de la Corte Suprema indicó que, a diferencia del marco político de la cobertura de América, la prensa en Israel consierva su aparente compromiso con la profesionalidad de los jueces, a pesar de que relaciona la Corte Suprema con maniobras políticas en la selección de candidatos. Estos resultados se discuten en el contexto del papel de los medios de comunicación en la construcción de los nombramientos judiciales como un debate sobre el papel de la Corte Suprema en la sociedad israelí. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN:

  10. The Second Demographic Transition in Israel: One for All?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Bystrov


    Full Text Available This article explores family behaviours and attitudes in Israel over the last decades through the lens of the Second Demographic Transition (SDT. Israel is divided by religious affiliation, the level of religiosity, ethnic origin and timing of immigration. Although fertility transition to replacement level among certain societal groups has been previously shown, the question of how the transition unfolds in other domains remains open. The goal of this paper is to highlight the diversity of marital and fertility transitions and non-transitions among various groups of this heterogeneous society, and to compare Israel's transitions to European ones. The data sources which are used are cross-national large scale surveys, national representative surveys, and Population Register data. The data were disaggregated by religion, religiousness and ethnic origin. Emancipative value change, postponement of marriage, alternative living arrangements and a growing variety of fertility regimes were analyzed. A full range of pre-transitional, transitional, and post-transitional elements was found among the groups. Such sign of the SDT as growing childlessness was not found, and the spread of other features as unmarried cohabitation and non-marital childbearing was found limited. Population composition effects were isolated. It was found that the level of religiosity and the country of origin are important factors which differentiate family behaviours and attitudes. The connection between value orientation of the groups within Israel and their family behaviours is discussed. The socio-structural and institutional constraints that might impede further progression of the Second Demographic Transition in Israel are also discussed. Further research directions are suggested.

  11. A Tour of Modern and Historic Egypt and Israel. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Egypt and Israel). (United States)

    Holdren, Greg

    This curriculum unit supplement for middle school and secondary teachers helps students in grades 5-12 explore Egypt and Israel, in both ancient and modern contexts. The unit supplement begins with student objectives, such as practicing map and research skills and reviewing summary information concerning historic and current interests. It provides…

  12. An Experience Guide: Egypt and Israel 2000. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Egypt and Israel). (United States)

    Feijoo, Laura

    This "experience guide," developed by a teacher who traveled in the region, aims to provide information on the culture, history, society, geography, and political aspects of Egypt and Israel. Intended for teachers, the guide can enhance lessons in world history. Each segment summarizes a topic and provides questions designed to encourage…

  13. Water Resources of Israel: Trackrecord of the Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai S. Orlovsky


    Full Text Available Israel is a country in the Near East consisting for 95% of the arid regions in which 60% of the territory are covered by the Negev Desert. Therefore, the water resources are scant here and formed mostly by atmospheric precipitations. In the period from 1989 to 2005 the average precipitations were 6 billion cu. m, of which 60–70% were evaporated soon after rainfalls, at least 5% run down by rivers into the sea (mostly in winter and the remaining 25% of precipitations infiltrated into soil from where the greater part of water got into the sea with ground waters. In Israel there are two groups of water resources: surface and underground. Israel is not rich in surface waters. The natural reservoir of surface fresh water is the Kinneret Lake in the northeast of the country. It gets water from the Jordan River and its tributaries. The average annual amount of available water of this lake is around 370 million cu. m, which accounts for one-third of the country’s water needs and still higher share of the drinking water needs. The greater part of fresh waters (37% of water supply of Israel as of 2011 in this country is supplied from ground water sources. Owing to insufficiency of available natural resources, unevenness of precipitations by years and seasons and with the growth of the population and economic development the issues of provision with the quality drinking water of the population as well as agriculture and industry, rehabilitation of natural environment cause permanently growing concern. In view of the water shortage untiring efforts have been taken to improve the irrigation efficiency and to reduce water use by improving the efficacy of irrigation techniques and application of advanced system management approaches. Among the water saving technologies applied in Israel there are: drop irrigation, advanced filtration, up to date methods of water leak detection from networks, rainwater collection and processing systems. At the same time

  14. [Vibrio vulnificus infection outside of the fish ponds in northern Israel: acquisition in the "Einot Tzukim" springs near the Dead Sea]. (United States)

    Schlesinger, Yechiel; Ben-Shalom, Efrat; Raveh, David P; Yinnon, Amos M; Miskin, Hagit; Rudensky, Bernard


    Vibrio vulnificus is a Gram-negative bacterium that may cause severe skin and systemic infection after exposure of open wounds to contaminated water, especially in patients with underlying disease such as immune-deficiency, iron overload or end stage liver or renal disease. The V. vulnificus infection has been reported in Israel almost exclusively after exposure to Tilapia fish cultivated in fresh water fish ponds in northern Israel. The authors report the first case of V. vulnificus infection acquired in a nature reserve in southeastern Israel, with no connection to fish handling. A 14.5-years-old girl with transfusion-dependant thalassemia major presented with high fever and a rapidly progressive bullous cellulitis of the ankle. The infection occurred around a cut on the left lateral malleolus, after bathing in the fresh water ponds of Einot Tzukim (Ein Feshcha) in south-eastern Israel, and progressed despite the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Blood and wound cultures eventually yielded Vibrio vulnificus and appropriate treatment was commenced. The fever subsided after a few days but resolution of the local findings was very gradual and lasted for weeks. The presence of V. vulnificus in natural springs far from the northern artificial fish ponds broadens the danger of this infection. We find it prudent to advise people at risk for V. vulnificus infection, such as those suffering from immunedeficiency, iron overload and end stage liver or renal disease, to refrain from bathing in natural ponds whilst injured.

  15. Predicting the Maximum Earthquake Magnitude from Seismic Data in Israel and Its Neighboring Countries. (United States)

    Last, Mark; Rabinowitz, Nitzan; Leonard, Gideon


    This paper explores several data mining and time series analysis methods for predicting the magnitude of the largest seismic event in the next year based on the previously recorded seismic events in the same region. The methods are evaluated on a catalog of 9,042 earthquake events, which took place between 01/01/1983 and 31/12/2010 in the area of Israel and its neighboring countries. The data was obtained from the Geophysical Institute of Israel. Each earthquake record in the catalog is associated with one of 33 seismic regions. The data was cleaned by removing foreshocks and aftershocks. In our study, we have focused on ten most active regions, which account for more than 80% of the total number of earthquakes in the area. The goal is to predict whether the maximum earthquake magnitude in the following year will exceed the median of maximum yearly magnitudes in the same region. Since the analyzed catalog includes only 28 years of complete data, the last five annual records of each region (referring to the years 2006-2010) are kept for testing while using the previous annual records for training. The predictive features are based on the Gutenberg-Richter Ratio as well as on some new seismic indicators based on the moving averages of the number of earthquakes in each area. The new predictive features prove to be much more useful than the indicators traditionally used in the earthquake prediction literature. The most accurate result (AUC = 0.698) is reached by the Multi-Objective Info-Fuzzy Network (M-IFN) algorithm, which takes into account the association between two target variables: the number of earthquakes and the maximum earthquake magnitude during the same year.

  16. Potential Geophysical Field Transformations and Combined 3D Modelling for Estimation the Seismic Site Effects on Example of Israel (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev; Meirova, Tatiana


    masses', areas of 'compression' and 'dilatation'. Land gravity and magnetic data were processed by the use of abovementioned algorithms including procedures of downward continuation and computation of third derivatives of gravitational potential. For this investigation was utilized the recently constructed map of the Neogene-Quaternary structural stage (indicating thicknesses of these deposits) of Israel and the eastern Mediterranean (Eppelbaum and Katz, 2014b). Results of other map compilation (Palaeogene, Late and Early Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic structural stages, hypsometric map of the base of the newest (Post-Jurassic) tectonic complex as well as map of Lower Mesozoic wells and outcrop locations) (Eppelbaum and Katz, 2011, 2012a, 2012b, 2014a, 2014b, 2015a, 2015b) were taken into consideration for 3D PGMs construction. Acknowledgements This research was carried out under grant No. 214-17-016 from the Ministry of Infrastructure, Energy and Water Resources of Israel. References Bonnefoy-Claudet, S., Cotton, F. and Bard, P.-Y., 2006. The nature of noise wavefield and its applications for site effects studies. A literature review. Earth Sciences Review, 79, 205-227. Eppelbaum, L. and Katz, Y., 2011. Tectonic-Geophysical Mapping of Israel and eastern Mediterranean: Implication for Hydrocarbon Prospecting. Positioning, 2, No. 1, doi: 10.4236/pos.2011.21004, 36-54. Eppelbaum, L.V., Katz, Y.I., 2012a. Mineral deposits in Israel: A contemporary view, In: (Eds. Ya'ari, A. and Zahavi, E.D.), Israel: Social, Economic and Political Developments, Nova Science Publ, NY, USA, 1-41. Eppelbaum, L.V. and Katz, Y.I., 2012b. Key Features of Seismo-Neotectonic Pattern of the Eastern Mediterranean. Izv. Acad. Sci. Azerb. Rep., Ser.: Earth Sciences, No. 3, 29-40. Eppelbaum, L.V. and Katz, Y.I., 2014a. First Paleomagnetic Map of the Easternmost Mediterranean Derived from Combined Geophysical-Geological Analysis. Trans. of the 10th EUG Meet., Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 16

  17. Cognitive reserve in aging. (United States)

    Tucker, A M; Stern, Y


    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer's disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer's disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and other age-related problems.

  18. Energy Security prospects in Cyprus and Israel: A focus on Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos Taliotis


    Full Text Available The global production of natural gas has increased from 1226 bcm in 1973 to 3282 bcm in 2010 and is projected to continue rising by an annual growth rate of 1.6% between 2010 to 2035. Cyprus and Israel have recently made major offshore discoveries of natural gas, which can supply to a great extent the two countries’ current domestic energy needs for the next few decades and still export a substantial volume. MESSAGE, a global optimization model was used to explore the possible interactions between the two countries’ energy systems. Scenarios are presented that assess the export potential for electricity (generated by gas-fired power plants, liquefied natural gas (LNG or gas-to-liquid products (GTL. The results are compared to a scenario without any available reserves to illustrate the financial benefits that will arise from the exploitation of the gas resources in the two countries.

  19. Archaeological Geophysics in Israel: Past, Present and Future (United States)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.


    Israel is a country with diverse and rapidly changeable environments where is localized a giant number of archaeological objects of various age, origin and size. The archaeological remains occur in a complex (multi-layered and variable) geological-archaeological media. It is obvious that direct archaeological excavations cannot be employed at all localized and supposed sites taking into account the financial, organizational, ecological and other reasons. Therefore, for delineation of buried archaeological objects, determination their physical-geometrical characteristics and classification, different geophysical methods are widely applied. The number of employed geophysical methodologies is constantly increasing and now Israeli territory may be considered as a peculiar polygon for various geophysical methods testing. The geophysical investigations at archaeological sites in Israel could be tentatively divided on three stages: (1) past [- 1990] (e.g., Batey, 1987; Ben-Menahem, 1979; Dolphin, 1981; Ginzburg and Levanon, 1977; Karcz et al., 1977; Karcz and Kafri, 1978; Tanzi et al., 1983; Shalem, 1949; Willis, 1928), (2) present [1991 - 2008] (e.g., Bauman et al., 2005; Ben-Dor et al., 1999; Ben-Yosef et al., 2008; Berkovitch et al., 2000; Borradaile, 2003; Boyce et al., 2004; Bruins et al., 2003; Daniels et al., 2003; Ellenblum et al., 1998; Eppelbaum, 1999, 2000a, 2000b, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2008b; Eppelbaum and Ben-Avraham, 2002; Eppelbaum and Itkis, 2000, 2001; 2003, 2009; Eppelbaum et al., 2000a, 2000b, 2001a, 2001b, 2003a, 2003b, 2004a, 2004b; 2005, 2006a, 2006b, 2006c, 2006d, 2007, 2009a, 2009b; Ezersky et al., 2000; Frumkin et al., 2003; Itkis and Eppelbaum, 1998; Itkis, 2003; Itkis et al., 2002, 2003, 2008; Jol et al., 2003, 2008; Kamai and Hatzor, 2007; Khesin et al., 1996; Korjenkov and Mazor, 1999; Laukin et al., 2001; McDermott et al., 1993; Marco, 2008; Marco et al., 2003; Nahas et al., 2006; Neishtadt et al., 2006; Nur and Ron, 1997; Paparo, 1991; Porat

  20. Digging Into Israel: The Sophisticated Tunneling Network of Hamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole J. Watkins


    Full Text Available By the end of Operation Protective Edge in August 2014, the Israel Defense Force (IDF claimed to have discovered and destroyed more than 30 tunnels spanning from beneath Gaza into Israeli territory. Hamas officials have praised these tunnels as an innovative approach to fighting an asymmetric war with a far more conventionally powerful Israel. The purpose of this case study is to examine the complexity of Hamas’ vast tunneling network by assessing the motivations behind the group’s decision to construct the network, to identify the factors that enabled Hamas to engage in such a complex engineering task, and to assess the level of effectiveness of the tunnel network both strategically and tactically against the IDF.

  1. Resurgence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Israel, 2001–2012 (United States)

    Gandacu, Dan; Anis, Emilia; Karakis, Isabella; Warshavsky, Bruce; Slater, Paul; Grotto, Itamar


    Cutaneous leishmaniasis has long been endemic in Israel. After a 15-year period of moderate illness rates, reported incidence increased from 0.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2001 to 4.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2012, and the disease emerged in areas where its presence had previously been minimal. We analyzed all cases reported to the national surveillance system and found that outbreak patterns revealed an expansion of Leishmania major infections over large areas in the southern part of the country and the occurrence of spatially focused L. tropica outbreaks in the northern part of the country. Outbreaks often followed new construction in populated areas. Further study of factors affecting the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis is needed in Israel, as well as the development of effective methods to control the disease, an increase in awareness among health care professionals, and intensive public education regarding control measures in areas of known leishmaniasis foci. PMID:25271882

  2. Examining hypnosis legislation: a survey of the practice in Israel. (United States)

    Aviv, Alex; Dalia, Gilboa; Gaby, Golan; Kobi, Peleg


    Hypnosis as a therapeutic technique bears potential risks when carried out inexpertly. Because of this, Israel was the first to legislate hypnosis. This study examines the current state of clinical hypnosis practice in Israel. A questionnaire was sent to 470 licensed hypnotists and 1250 unlicensed professionals; 478 (25.7%) of the 1720 potential respondents returned the questionnaires. Of these, 249 (51.8%) were licensed hypnotists, and 232 (48.2%) were unlicensed. Of the unlicensed professionals, 45% reported practicing hypnosis; 50% of them practice hypnosis with adolescents and 41.2% with children. Many of them practice hypnosis in public clinics (71.6%). Of the licensed professionals, 94.4% reported practicing hypnosis in the course of their clinical work. The authors conclude that great number of unlicensed hypnotists carry on clinical practice of hypnosis and suggest steps to increase the efficiency of the law as part of a regulatory system.

  3. Community-based urgent care in Israel and worldwide. (United States)

    Zimmerman, Deena R


    Intermittent treatment of acute lower acuity situations has come to be defined as urgent rather than emergent care. The location of urgent care delivery has been shifting from exclusively hospital or office settings to other community locales. To review the concept of urgent care and the new models of health care delivery in the niche between hospitals and primary care. To highlight the roles of urgent care in Israel and compare these roles with those in other countries. Narrative review of the literature. The new models of community based urgent care include 1) the urgent care center; 2) the retail or convenience clinic, 3) the free standing emergency center, and 4) the walk-in clinic. These models fall on a continuum of comprehensiveness. They offer care at a lower cost than hospital-based emergency departments and greater temporal convenience than primary care physicians. However, their impact on emergency department utilization and overcrowding or primary care physician overload is unclear.Israel has integrated its urgent care centers into its national health system by encouraging the use of urgent care centers and by requiring all health insurance funds to reimburse patients who use these centers. This integration is similar to the approach in England; however, the type of service is different in that the service in England is provided by nurses. It is different from most other countries where urgent care facilities are primarily private ventures. Community-based acute care facilities are becoming a part of the medical landscape in a number of countries. Still, they remain primarily on the fringe of organized medicine. Despite the important role of community-based acute care facilities in Israel, no nationwide study has been done in two decades. Health policy planning in Israel necessitates further study of urgent care use and its clinical outcomes.

  4. Community-based urgent care in Israel and worldwide


    Zimmerman, Deena R


    Background Intermittent treatment of acute lower acuity situations has come to be defined as urgent rather than emergent care. The location of urgent care delivery has been shifting from exclusively hospital or office settings to other community locales. Aims To review the concept of urgent care and the new models of health care delivery in the niche between hospitals and primary care. To highlight the roles of urgent care in Israel and compare these roles with those in other countries. Metho...

  5. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland


    Rosenbaum, Janet


    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim that mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (1) permissive gun laws, (2) widespread gun ownership, (3) encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters, and cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source m...

  6. Israel: Background and U.S. Relations in Brief (United States)


    other members of the international Quartet 10 (European Union, Russia , the U.N. Secretary-General) released a report saying, among other things, that...throughout the relationship , U.S. and Israeli policies have diverged on some important issues. Significant differences regarding regional issues...Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu have discussed ways “to advance and strengthen the U.S.- Israel special relationship , and security and stability in

  7. Israel 1983: A Bout of Unpleasant Monetarist Arithmetic


    Sargent, Thomas J; Zeira, Joseph


    From 1970 to 1985, Israel experienced high inflation. It rose in three jumps to new plateaus and eventually exceeded 400% per annum. This paper claims that anticipated monetary and fiscal effects of a massive government bailout of owners of fallen bank shares caused the last big jump in inflation that occurred in October 1983. Bank shares had just collapsed after a scandal in which it was revealed that banks had long manipulated their share prices. The government promised to reimburse innocen...

  8. Hamas and Israel: Conflicting Strategies of Group-Based Politics (United States)


    deterrence, as well as evolution in the Islamist movements’ planning and operations. As well, the Palestinian-Israeli conflict bears similarities to a...xii camps, and 3,166,781 live outside of camps),13 prisoners, water , and the claim of Jerusalem as a capital. Many Arabs believe that Israel never...the Israeli black market, but was stung by Israeli collaborators. Those involved were caught, 23 tortured by Israelis, and revealed the network up to

  9. On some relations involving the use of energy in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonino, T.


    The economic development of Israel was studied quantitatively, correlating the gross national product with the energy used, the number of employed persons, and the capital stock. A production function in the form of that of Cobb-Douglass was found, which describes the GNP in terms of these three factors with a very high accuracy. The development of electricity consumption is also examined and correlated to demographic and economic developments. (author)

  10. Factors That Affect the Feeling of Happiness in Israel


    Muhammad Atif NAWAZ; Noreen AFZAL; Kiran SHEHZADI


    In this paper, we analyzed the answers to questionnaires distributed among 140 people in Israel and identified the main factors that have an affect over feeling of happiness?. We estimated an econometric equation with happiness as the dependent variable. Our findings show that feeling of happiness? among women is mainly affected by satisfaction from marital status; a variable that also has a large effect on males? sense of happiness. Among men, the most important factor is satisfaction during...

  11. Anti-Semitism and criticism of Israel: Methodology and results of the ASCI survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Kempf


    Full Text Available Building upon psychological conflict theory, on the one hand, and item-response models, on the other, the present paper develops an integrated methodology that aims at differentiating the various ways of criticizing Israel. An application of this methodology to the Anti-Semitism and Criticism of Israel (ASCI survey found two ways of criticizing Israel resulting from two different and antipodal processes. (1 Anti-Semitic criticism of Israel is generally laden with prejudice and shares not only anti-Semitic, anti-Zionist and anti-Israeli, but also anti-Palestinian resentments as well. (2 Non-anti-Semitic criticism of Israel is motivated by pacifism and human rights commitment and rejects any form of anti-Semitic, anti-Zionist, anti-Israeli or anti-Palestinian resentment. However, even critics of Israel who were not originally motivated by anti-Semitism are also in danger of developing anti-Semitic prejudices.

  12. Combinatorial algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, T C


    Newly enlarged, updated second edition of a valuable text presents algorithms for shortest paths, maximum flows, dynamic programming and backtracking. Also discusses binary trees, heuristic and near optimums, matrix multiplication, and NP-complete problems. 153 black-and-white illus. 23 tables.Newly enlarged, updated second edition of a valuable, widely used text presents algorithms for shortest paths, maximum flows, dynamic programming and backtracking. Also discussed are binary trees, heuristic and near optimums, matrix multiplication, and NP-complete problems. New to this edition: Chapter 9

  13. Covert Diplomacy Between Israel and Egypt During Nasser Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ido Yahel


    Full Text Available The history of Egypt and Israel consists of four wars and hundreds of border incidents that have taken the lives of tens of thousands of people. It seems that only the rise to power of a leader in the stature of Anwar Sadat could put an end to this bloody circle, because the previous president, Gamal Abdel Nasser, was not willing to hold any kind of political contact with Israel. But Nasser’s reign involved constant political contact between Egypt and Israel, most of whom remain confidential. This article attempts to examine whether any of these contacts were likely to succeed and yield a peace treaty between the two countries, an agreement that could have prevented three wars and saved the lives of so many people on both sides. It will do so by examining these contacts, their characteristics, and the reasons for their failure, while dividing them into three periods: the 1948 war to the 1956 war, the 1956 war to the 1967 war, and the 1967 war to the death of Nasser in 1970.

  14. Trauma and identification of victims of suicidal terrorism in Israel. (United States)

    Hiss, J; Kahana, T


    The postmortem examination and identification procedures performed by medical and law enforcement personnel involved in mass disaster management in Israel are reported. The Israel National Police, the Israel Defense Forces, and the L. Greenberg Institute of Forensic Medicine's experts examined 171 victims who died in 21 incidents of suicidal terrorism. The trauma sustained by the victims and perpetrators of suicidal bombings included complete body disruption and explosive, flying missile, and blast injuries. The modus operandi of the perpetrators, reconstructed from the distribution and type of injury of the victims, is discussed. Fifty-five victims perished in open space bombings and 91 inside buses. All perpetrators of these bombings died at the time of the incident regardless of their location. Identification of the victims was achieved using fingerprints, dental records, medical intervention signs, anatomic variation, genetic profile, and personal recognition. Prompt identification of the perpetrators allowed speedy apprehension of the accomplices and prevention of similar attacks. Collaboration between the different forensic, military, and law enforcement teams increased the efficiency of disaster management efforts.

  15. Early awareness and alert systems for medical technologies in Israel. (United States)

    Tal, Orna; Hakak, Nina


    Throughout the world, decision makers face the need to plan on the basis of uncertainty. Prospective updates on future trends of medical technology usage are tools to improve national health status. In Israel, this challenge is met by several steps taken to promote insight into the realm of emerging technologies. Israel's unique horizon strategy refers to three time spans: the immediate to short-term (for the coming year) updating the National List of Health Services (NLHS) and quarterly scanning; the medium-term (3 years to a decade) revitalizing hospital devices and infrastructure; and long-term planning (over a decade), such as the "Health Israel 2020 Project". A description of the Israeli setup of different time spans and tiers. The matrix of players, loci, interests, population groups, and incentives creates a complex situation and the Ministry of Health has to regulate the different suppliers and tiers of insurance (obligatory, supplementary, and private), balancing need, equity, and cost containment in preparing for future health care. However, preparedness is not a sterile laboratory and is pervaded by numerous dilemmas and the search for adequate evidence for new less mature technologies is an on-going challenge. Bridging the forecasting chasm for the future requires analyzing needs, reinforcing evidence and seeing "around the corner" when synergizing between all the "actors" in the national arena. Expert consultation and international cooperation with similar horizon organizations can assist in paving the way for more successful planning efforts for future medical technology implementation.

  16. Surveillance of X-ray machines in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donagi, A.; Hai, J.; Kuszpet, M.


    A nationwide surveillance of X-ray machines is carried out in Israel by the Research Institute for Environmental Health, Ministry of Health. At present, diagnostic X-ray machines are surveyed at least once every two years, while dental machines are surveyed once every five years. The investigated parameters include measurement of output, scattered radiation, X-ray-light-field alignment, HVL, inherent filtration, structural shielding, etc. In order to compare X-ray techniques used in different hospitals in Israel, the NEXT (Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends) program, which was developed by the BRH (Bureau of Radiological Health, USPHS) was utilized. On the basis of the findings of this project, necessary correction steps were taken in order to reduce the radiation doses to both personnel and patients. Further activities of the Institute include the estimation of doses delivered to pregnant women who were irradiated during the gestation period. This information is sent to a professional committee, which decides whether or not to perform an abortion. Recently, the new recommendations of ICRP 26 (International Commission on Radiological Protection) were implemented in Israel. Therefore, at present doses over 150 mR/month are reported to the Institute by the Soreq Personal Dosimetry Service, and the causes of this exposure are investigated. (author)

  17. Tourism and Terror: a Case Study: Israel 1948-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik H. Cohen


    Full Text Available Israel is a popular tourist destination which has by afflicted by varying levels of terrorism against civilians over the course of its history. A longitudinal analysis of data pertaining to tourism and terrorism is undertaken to examine how terrorism affects patterns of tourism. It is found that on the macro-level, tourism to Israel continues to grow although it experiences periodic declines corresponding with times of high terrorist activity. National and religious subpopulations of tourists react differently terrorism at the destination. Overall, Jews are proportionally more likely than non-Jews to continue to visit Israel during times of conflict, but this varies among Diaspora communities. Moreover, among US Jewish tourist, the strongly religious populations represented a greater percentage of visitors during years of high terrorism. This preliminary analysis explores how internal structural features of the Jewish community (such as Jewish educational settings and family ties to Israelis, external factors of the home country (such as anti-Semitism or the economic situation and national and cultural value orientation affect tourism patterns. The impact of these factors on tourism deserves continued research.

  18. Snoezelen or Controlled Multisensory Stimulation. Treatment Aspects from Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joav Merrick


    Full Text Available In Israel today, with a total population of over 6 million persons, the Division for Mental Retardation (DMR provides services to 23,000 persons with intellectual disability (ID. Of the 23,000, residential services are provided to more than 6,000 in close to 60 residential centers, another 2,000 are provided residential care in hostels or group homes in the community in about 50 locations, while the rest are served with day-care kindergarten, day-treatment centers, sheltered workshops, or integrated care in the community. The first Snoezelen room (controlled multisensory stimulation in the DMR was established at the Bnei Zion residential care center in 1995. The Snoezelen method is now used in Israel in more than 30 residential care centers and 3 community settings. Since the year 2000, a physiotherapist has been employed in order to supervise the treatment and development of the method nationally. Professional staff meetings take place every 4 months. A certification course has been established on a national basis for individuals from different professions (occupational therapists, physiotherapists, teachers, music therapists, nurses, speech therapists, or caregivers. Snoezelen has proved to be an important instrument and a powerful therapeutic tool among the various treatment modules employed in Israel for persons with ID. This paper presents the concept illustrated with two case stories.

  19. The Informing Needs of Procurement Officers in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahel Giat


    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: To develop and introduce a questionnaire that investigates the informing needs, information-seeking behavior, and supplier selection of procurement officers in Israel. The questionnaire’s internal consistency reliability is given. Additionally, we describe the demographic description of the procurement officers in Israel. Background: Procurement science is an important field that affects firms’ profits in the private sector and is significant to growth, innovation, sustainability, and welfare in the public sector. There is little research about the informing needs of procurement officers in general and particularly in Israel. Methodology: A quantitative questionnaire that is sent to all the procurement officers in Israel’s procuring association. Contribution: The questionnaire that is developed in this paper may be used by other researchers and practitioners to evaluate the information needs of procurement officers. Findings: The typical procurement officer is male, with a bachelor degree and is digitally proficient. Recommendations for Practitioners: The procuring side can use the questionnaire to develop better tools for obtaining information efficiently. The supplying side can use this knowledge to improve its exposure to potential customers and address its customer’s needs better. Recommendation for Researchers: The questionnaire can address theoretical questions such as how digital literacy affects the procuring process and provide empirical findings about active research areas such as supplier selection and information-seeking behavior. Future Research: Future research will examine the relationship between the various variables and demographic features to understand why specific information needs and information-seeking behaviors arise.

  20. El "régimen dual" en Israel desde 1967

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Grinberg


    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda el establecimiento del peculiar régimen de dominación dual de Israel desde 1967, argumentando que la estructura de este régimen convierte a las élites militares en un actor político crucial. El régimen dual se basa en la separación geográfi ca entre dos regímenes diferentes de control y legitimación. Argumentaré aquí que la guerra de 1967 fue un parteaguas histórico, ya que acarreó un desdibujamiento de las fronteras israelíes y la llegada de un régimen dual que legitima la división del poder político entre las élites militares y civiles que gobiernan Israel-Palestina. Mi objetivo es mostrar las contradicciones inherentes de este régimen dual de “ocupación democrática” y así arrojar luz sobre la dinámica de los espacios políticos de acuerdo a la población ocupada: su apertura, por reconocimiento y negociación, y su cancelación, por el uso de la violencia.

  1. The ecosystem of the Yahudia Nature Reserve with emphasis on dynamics of germination and development of Quercus ithaburensis decne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaplan, Y.


    6 main subjects connected with the ecology of the Yahudia Forest Reserve are discussed in this paper, following a general survey of the history of nature conservation in Israel against the background of the neighbouring countries. We have described the physical and historical background of the

  2. Algorithmic Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markham, Annette

    layered set of accounts to help build our understanding of how individuals relate to their devices, search systems, and social network sites. This work extends critical analyses of the power of algorithms in implicating the social self by offering narrative accounts from multiple perspectives. It also...

  3. Autodriver algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bourmistrova


    Full Text Available The autodriver algorithm is an intelligent method to eliminate the need of steering by a driver on a well-defined road. The proposed method performs best on a four-wheel steering (4WS vehicle, though it is also applicable to two-wheel-steering (TWS vehicles. The algorithm is based on coinciding the actual vehicle center of rotation and road center of curvature, by adjusting the kinematic center of rotation. The road center of curvature is assumed prior information for a given road, while the dynamic center of rotation is the output of dynamic equations of motion of the vehicle using steering angle and velocity measurements as inputs. We use kinematic condition of steering to set the steering angles in such a way that the kinematic center of rotation of the vehicle sits at a desired point. At low speeds the ideal and actual paths of the vehicle are very close. With increase of forward speed the road and tire characteristics, along with the motion dynamics of the vehicle cause the vehicle to turn about time-varying points. By adjusting the steering angles, our algorithm controls the dynamic turning center of the vehicle so that it coincides with the road curvature center, hence keeping the vehicle on a given road autonomously. The position and orientation errors are used as feedback signals in a closed loop control to adjust the steering angles. The application of the presented autodriver algorithm demonstrates reliable performance under different driving conditions.

  4. Genetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grefenstette, J.J.


    Genetic algorithms solve problems by using principles inspired by natural population genetics: They maintain a population of knowledge structures that represent candidate solutions, and then let that population evolve over time through competition and controlled variation. GAs are being applied to a wide range of optimization and learning problems in many domains.

  5. Crossing new bridges: the process of adaptation and psychological distress of Russian immigrants in Israel. (United States)

    Baider, L; Ever-Hadani, P; DeNour, A K


    Between the end of 1989 and June 1992, 380,152 Russian Jews left the former Soviet Union for Israel, swelling Israel's Jewish population by nearly 10%. Absorbing great waves of immigrants was not new to Israel. Since its establishment in 1948 and the enactment of its Law of Return, large population groups from dozens of different ethnic and cultural backgrounds had immigrated into the country. In 1992 Israel's Jewish population totaled 4,242,500. Of that number, 360,949 had been born in Asian countries, 458,009 in Africa, 1,252,131 in Europe, and 184,317 in America and Oceana.

  6. Spatio-Temporal Synchrony of Influenza in Cities across Israel: The “Israel Is One City” Hypothesis (United States)

    Barnea, Oren; Huppert, Amit; Katriel, Guy; Stone, Lewi


    We analysed an 11-year dataset (1998–2009) of Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) that was based on surveillance of ∽23% of Israel's population. We examined whether the level of synchrony of ILI epidemics in Israel's 12 largest cities is high enough to view Israel as a single epidemiological unit. Two methods were developed to assess the synchrony: (1) City-specific attack rates were fitted to a simple model in order to estimate the temporal differences in attack rates and spatial differences in reporting rates of ILI. The model showed good fit to the data (R2  =  0.76) and revealed considerable differences in reporting rates of ILI in different cities (up to a factor of 2.2). (2) A statistical test was developed to examine the null hypothesis (H0) that ILI incidence curves in two cities are essentially identical, and was tested using ILI data. Upon examining all possible pairs of incidence curves, 77.4% of pairs were found not to be different (H0 was not rejected). It was concluded that all cities generally have the same attack rate and follow the same epidemic curve each season, although the attack rate changes from season to season, providing strong support for the “Israel is one city” hypothesis. The cities which were the most out of synchronization were Bnei Brak, Beersheba and Haifa, the latter two being geographically remote from all other cities in the dataset and the former geographically very close to several other cities but socially separate due to being populated almost exclusively by ultra-orthodox Jews. Further evidence of assortative mixing of the ultra-orthodox population can be found in the 2001–2002 season, when ultra-orthodox cities and neighborhoods showed distinctly different incidence curves compared to the general population. PMID:24622820

  7. The Effects of the Shortage of Judges in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limor Zer-Gutman


    Full Text Available In Israel the shortage of judges that has worsened over the years has led to a serious deterioration in the operation of Israel's judicial system. The article is ascertaining the intensity of the shortage by using international comparisons and comparing the rate of growth in the number of judges with the rate of growth of the general population. The article further describes the three main areas affected by the shortage. The first area is the judicial system itself where the shortage is the primary determinant of the delay and what the public often perceives as procrastination plaguing Israeli courts. Second area affected is due process- the shortage has led, in tandem with other factors, to inefficiency in the judicial system, compelling it, most prominently in the last decade or so, to be "innovative," that is, introduce procedures devoid of any legal footing. Third area affected are judges themselves. En Israel, la escasez de jueces, que se ha agravado con los años, ha provocado un grave deterioro de la operatividad del sistema judicial israelí. Este artículo corrobora la intensidad de esa escasez utilizando comparaciones internacionales y estableciendo un parangón entre el ritmo en el aumento del número de jueces y el ritmo del crecimiento de la población. Además, el artículo describe las tres áreas principales afectadas por la escasez. La primera es el propio sistema judicial, ya que la escasez es el determinante principal del retraso judicial y de lo que el público a menudo percibe como la procrastinación que invade los juzgados israelíes. La segunda área es el proceso legal debido –la escasez, junto con otros factores, ha provocado la ineficiencia del sistema judicial, empujándolo, sobre todo en la última década, a ser cada vez más "innovador", esto es, a introducir procedimientos carentes de base jurídica alguna. La tercera área afectada son los propios jueces. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: https

  8. Nuclear war between Israel and Iran: lethality beyond the pale (United States)


    Background The proliferation of nuclear technology in the politically volatile Middle East greatly increases the likelihood of a catastrophic nuclear war. It is widely accepted, while not openly declared, that Israel has nuclear weapons, and that Iran has enriched enough nuclear material to build them. The medical consequences of a nuclear exchange between Iran and Israel in the near future are envisioned, with a focus on the distribution of casualties in urban environments. Methods Model estimates of nuclear war casualties employed ESRI's ArcGIS 9.3, blast and prompt radiation were calculated using the Defense Nuclear Agency's WE program, and fallout radiation was calculated using the Defense Threat Reduction Agency's (DTRA's) Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) V404SP4, as well as custom GIS and database software applications. Further development for thermal burn casualties was based on Brode, as modified by Binninger, to calculate thermal fluence. ESRI ArcGISTM programs were used to calculate affected populations from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's LandScanTM 2007 Global Population Dataset for areas affected by thermal, blast and radiation data. Results Trauma, thermal burn, and radiation casualties were thus estimated on a geographic basis for three Israeli and eighteen Iranian cities. Nuclear weapon detonations in the densely populated cities of Iran and Israel will result in an unprecedented millions of numbers of dead, with millions of injured suffering without adequate medical care, a broad base of lingering mental health issues, a devastating loss of municipal infrastructure, long-term disruption of economic, educational, and other essential social activity, and a breakdown in law and order. Conclusions This will cause a very limited medical response initially for survivors in Iran and Israel. Strategic use of surviving medical response and collaboration with international relief could be expedited by the predicted casualty


    Tucker, Adrienne M.; Stern, Yaakov


    Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer’s disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related problems. PMID:21222591


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.


    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  11. Ovarian reserve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja


    2-5 of the menstrual cycle or during withdrawal bleeding, blood sampling and transvaginal sonography was performed. After adjusting for age, ovarian reserve parameters were lower among users than among non-users of hormonal contraception: serum AMH concentration by 29.8% (95% CI 19.9 to 38...... was observed between duration of hormonal-contraception use and ovarian reserve parameters. No dose-response relation was found between the dose of ethinyloestradiol and AMH or AFC. This study indicates that ovarian reserve markers are lower in women using sex steroids for contraception. Thus, AMH...... concentration and AFC may not retain their accuracy as predictors of ovarian reserve in women using hormonal contraception. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration is an indirect marker of the number of small follicles in the ovary and thereby the ovarian reserve. The AMH concentration is now widely...

  12. 2 October 2013 - Israel Ambassador to the United Nations Office and other International Organizations at Geneva E. Manor on the occasion of the inauguration of the "Israel at CERN" Industrial Exhibition with CERN Director-General R. Heuer.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia


    2 October 2013 - Israel Ambassador to the United Nations Office and other International Organizations at Geneva E. Manor on the occasion of the inauguration of the "Israel at CERN" Industrial Exhibition with CERN Director-General R. Heuer.

  13. Estimating daily minimum, maximum, and mean near surface air temperature using hybrid satellite models across Israel. (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Adar; Dorman, Michael; Schwartz, Joel; Novack, Victor; Just, Allan C; Kloog, Itai


    Meteorological stations measure air temperature (Ta) accurately with high temporal resolution, but usually suffer from limited spatial resolution due to their sparse distribution across rural, undeveloped or less populated areas. Remote sensing satellite-based measurements provide daily surface temperature (Ts) data in high spatial and temporal resolution and can improve the estimation of daily Ta. In this study we developed spatiotemporally resolved models which allow us to predict three daily parameters: Ta Max (day time), 24h mean, and Ta Min (night time) on a fine 1km grid across the state of Israel. We used and compared both the Aqua and Terra MODIS satellites. We used linear mixed effect models, IDW (inverse distance weighted) interpolations and thin plate splines (using a smooth nonparametric function of longitude and latitude) to first calibrate between Ts and Ta in those locations where we have available data for both and used that calibration to fill in neighboring cells without surface monitors or missing Ts. Out-of-sample ten-fold cross validation (CV) was used to quantify the accuracy of our predictions. Our model performance was excellent for both days with and without available Ts observations for both Aqua and Terra (CV Aqua R 2 results for min 0.966, mean 0.986, and max 0.967; CV Terra R 2 results for min 0.965, mean 0.987, and max 0.968). Our research shows that daily min, mean and max Ta can be reliably predicted using daily MODIS Ts data even across Israel, with high accuracy even for days without Ta or Ts data. These predictions can be used as three separate Ta exposures in epidemiology studies for better diurnal exposure assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Skyline Reservation System (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Flight reservation application used for in-country flights by USAID and DoS staff in Afghanistan. The application is managed and maintained by the vendor and USAID...

  15. Clinical neuropsychology in Israel: history, training, practice and future challenges. (United States)

    Vakil, Eli; Hoofien, Dan


    This is an invited paper for a special issue on international perspectives on training and practice in clinical neuropsychology. We provide a review of the status of clinical neuropsychology in Israel, including the history of neuropsychological, educational, and accreditation requirements to become a clinical neuropsychologist and to practice clinical neuropsychology. The information is based primarily on the personal knowledge of the authors who have been practicing clinical neuropsychology for over three decades and hold various administrative and academic positions in this field. Second, we conducted three ad hoc surveys among clinical and rehabilitation psychologists; heads of academic programs for rehabilitation and neuropsychology; and heads of accredited service providers. Third, we present a literature review of publications by clinical neuropsychologists in Israel. Most of the clinical neuropsychologists are graduates of either rehabilitation or clinical training programs. The vast majority of neuropsychologists are affiliated with rehabilitation psychology. The training programs (2-3 years of graduate school) provide solid therapeutic and diagnostic skills to the students. Seventy-five percent of the participants in this survey are employed at least part-time by public or state-funded institutions. Israeli neuropsychologists are heavily involved in case management, including vocational counseling, and rehabilitation psychotherapy. Conclusions and future goals: Although clinical neuropsychologists in Israel are well educated and valued by all health professionals, there are still several challenges that must be addressed in order to further advance the field and the profession. These included the need for Hebrew-language standardized and normalized neuropsychological tests and the application of evidence-based interventions in neuropsychological rehabilitation.

  16. Eating disorders and disordered eating in Israel: an updated review. (United States)

    Latzer, Yael; Witztum, Eliezer; Stein, Daniel


    Israel presents a unique opportunity to study the role of socio-cultural parameters in the development of mental disturbances because of the exceptional diversity of the Israeli society. In the present review, we aimed to analyse the current state of disordered eating in Israel by means of an extensive literature review. The following are the main findings of our review: The frequency of maladaptive eating among female and male Israeli Jewish adolescents is higher in comparison to many other Westernized countries. Among different Jewish sub-populations, Kibbutz women have been found until recently to show higher rates of disordered eating in comparison to other Israeli samples. Recent studies show no such difference between Kibbutz members and the general Israeli population. No clear-cut findings emerge with respect to the influence of immigration and degree of Jewish religious affiliation on the occurrence of disordered eating. In contrast, disordered eating is less prevalent in Israeli-Arabs compared with Israeli-Jews. Moreover, diverse Israeli-Arab groups show different rates of disordered eating. We discuss the high rate of disordered eating in Israeli youth in light of Israel being a culture in transition that is constantly exposed to the risk of terrorism. The changes in the rates of disordered eating in the Kibbutzim are discussed in light of the dramatic societal changes occurring in these communities within a relatively brief period of time. The low rates of disordered eating in Israeli-Arabs reflect the traditional non-Westernized characteristics of their society, whereas the differences between diverse Arab sub-populations depend upon the degree of exposure to Westernized influences and the presence of conflicts between modern and traditional values. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  17. Evaluation of Propane Combustion Traps for the Collection of Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) in Southern Israel (United States)


    Bionomics of phlebotomine sandflies at a peacekeeping duty site in the north of Sinai, Egypt. Acta Trop. 101: 106-114. Hoel, D.F., D.L. Kline, J.A...for sandflies . Ann. Trop. Med. Parasit. 42: 407-412. Orni, E. and E. Efrat. 1980. Geography of Israel. 4th ed. Israel University Press, Jerusalem

  18. Recruiting Arab Fathers in a Center for Children at Risk in Israel (United States)

    Buchbinder, Eli; Jammal-Abboud, Romain


    Arab society in Israel is positioned between the traditional, collective values of Arab culture and the more prevalent Western individualistic values of the Israeli society at large. This poses a challenge for the welfare services in Israel, especially in the case of Arab clients, who tend to receive and interpret the social workers' messages as…

  19. A Critical Look at Psychological Testing in Israel and Comparisons with Its European Neighbors (United States)

    Fine, Saul


    While psychological tests are used extensively in Israel, the current controls over testing practices in Israel deserve some attention. Specifically, unlike in some European countries and the United States, (a) no specific certifications are offered to Israeli psychologists in the area of testing; (b) Israeli psychologists are not obligated to…

  20. Peace Education in Israel: An Educational Goal in the Test of Reality (United States)

    Vered, Soli


    Peace education is considered a necessary element in establishing the social conditions required for promoting peace-making between rival parties. As such, it constitutes one of Israel's state education goals, and would therefore be expected to have a significant place in Israel's educational policy in general and in response to peace moves that…

  1. Learning Disabilities: Current Policy and Directions for Community Involvement among the Arab Community in Israel (United States)

    Jabareen-Taha, Samaher; Taha, Haitham


    This article seeks to identify and review the basic characteristics of learning disability which are specifically mentioned in the literature. In addition, the article intends to conduct a brief analysis on learning disability policy in Israel and the differentiation problems at the level of awareness among the Arab society in Israel. Despite the…

  2. Vision, Curriculum, and Pedagogical Content Knowledge in the Preparation of Israel Educators (United States)

    Backenroth, Ofra; Sinclair, Alex


    In this article we explore how we as teacher educators translate a new vision of Israel education into curricular practice in the preparation of emerging Jewish educators. Using a practitioner inquiry mode of research, we reflect on our existential vision of Israel education and its translation into practice as creators and directors of a semester…

  3. Multiculturalità ottomana e scrittori italiani da Saul Israel a Miro Silvera e Daniel Fishman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, R.M.


    Dall’ex Impero Ottomano, società multiculturale per eccellenza, della quale facevano parte fra l’altro Grecia e Bulgaria, Siria, Egitto, Libia e Israele, provengono molti ebrei scrittori in lingua italiana. Esaminiamo tre di essi: Saul Israel, scienziato nato a Selanik (Salonicco) e autore di un

  4. Assessing the Impact of Ongoing National Terror: Social Workers in Israel (United States)

    Ron, Pnina; Shamai, Michal


    The main goal of this study was to explore the connections between social workers' personal and professional exposure to national terror in Israel and their professional and personal distress experienced due to ongoing terror attacks. Data were collected from 406 social workers from Israel who worked in agencies that provide help to victims of…

  5. Enabling Bi-Literacy Patterns in Ethiopian Immigrant Families in Israel: A Socio-Educational Challenge (United States)

    Stavans, Anat


    This paper explores the role that languages and literacy practices play in Ethiopian immigrant families transposed to Israel as part of Israel's family language policy, by examining parental perspectives on their respective L1 and L2 usages, in both parents' and children's lives, as well as by examining the home literacy provisions supporting…

  6. Alcohol use and abuse among Ethiopian immigrants in Israel: a review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to cover the current state of alcohol use among immigrants from Ethiopia in Israel and to suggest recommendation for future activities. In addition, as a background, it attempts to describe the Ethiopian immigration to Israel and its problems, as well as some background characteristics of alcohol use in ...

  7. Neo-Liberalism and Practices of Selection in Arab Education in Israel: Between Control and Empowerment (United States)

    Pinson, Halleli; Agbaria, Ayman K.


    Similar to other national contexts, in Israel since the 1980s we have witnessed the emergence of neo-liberal policies in education. However, very little attention has been given to the ways in which they affect the school level and even less attention has been given to the impact of these policy changes on Arab schools in Israel. This article…

  8. 48 CFR 652.225-70 - Arab League Boycott of Israel. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Arab League Boycott of... League Boycott of Israel. As prescribed in 625.7002(a), insert the following provision: Arab League Boycott of Israel (AUG 1999) (a) Definitions. As used in this provision: Foreign person means any person...

  9. 48 CFR 252.225-7031 - Secondary Arab boycott of Israel. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Secondary Arab boycott of... of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7031 Secondary Arab boycott of Israel. As prescribed in 225.7605, use the following provision: Secondary Arab Boycott of Israel (JUN 2005) (a) Definitions. As used in...

  10. Low Seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in the Horse Population in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aharonson-Raz, Karin; Baneth, Gad; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Brancal, Hugo; Schallig, Henk; Cardoso, Luís; Steinman, Amir


    A cross-sectional investigation was done on the seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii infection among apparently healthy horses in Israel. This survey included 383 horses distributed in 22 farms throughout Israel during the years 2011-2013. Serum samples were tested for the

  11. Book of Program and Abstracts of the 45th Annual Meeting of the Israel Physical Society and the Second Conference of the Israel Plasma Science and Technology Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This is the book of abstracts of the 45th annual meeting of the Israel Physical Society. Some of the subjects are: condensed matter; atomic and nuclear physics; quantum mechanics; particles and fields; quantum optics and plasma physics

  12. Israel: Background and U.S. Relations in Brief (United States)


    released a statement reiterating their opposition to settlement construction and expansion, and further specifying concerns with regard to “the retroactive...flagrant violation under international law” and a “major obstacle” to a two-state solution and a “just, lasting and comprehensive peace.”  Reiterates the...Moving the US embassy to Jerusalem,” Economist, December 24, 2016. 61 Martin Indyk, “The Jerusalem-first option,” New York Times, January 6, 2017. Israel

  13. Hyperemesis gravidarum in northern Israel: a retrospective epidemiological study. (United States)

    Konikoff, Tom; Avraham, Tehila; Ophir, Ella; Bornstein, Jacob


    Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is characterized by severe intractable nausea and vomiting in pregnancy leading to electrolyte imbalance, ketonuria, and weight loss. The cause is unknown. This study sought to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of HG in the Western Galilee in two ethnic populations and to estimate its economic burden. Data on ethnicity, age, gestational age, number of pregnancies, and length of hospitalization were collected from the medical files of all women with HG admitted to the Galilee Medical Center in 2010-2013. Findings were compared between Arabs and Jews. Prevalence was assessed relative to total number of births. Economic burden was assessed by cost of hospitalization and work days lost. The cohort included 184 women, 124 Arabic (67.4 %) and 60 Jewish (32.6 %). There were 13,630 births at the medical center during the study period, for a calculated prevalence of HG of 1.2 %. There was no difference in the relative proportions of Arabs and Jews between the cohort and the total women giving birth at our center. Mean patient age was 27.2 years, gestational age 9.3 weeks, parity 2.35. Mean age was significantly higher in the Jewish group. There were no significant between-group differences in the other clinical parameters. Mean number of hospitalization days was 2.24 days, and of additional rest days prescribed, 4.62. The calculated annual cost of HG was 452,943.42 NIS (120,144.14 USD), crudely extrapolated to a nationwide cost of 15-20 million NIS (5,300,000 USD). The prevalence and characteristics of HG are similar in the Arabic and Jewish populations of northern Israel. Mean gestational age at admission for HG was lower in our study than earlier ones, probably owing to the universal health care provided by law in Israel. HG prevalence was twice that reported previously in southern Israel but still within the range observed in other world regions. The socioeconomic differences between Arabs and Jews in the Galilee are smaller

  14. Israel's Quadrant: Weeping, Laughing, and the Measures of the Stars (United States)

    Locci, A. A.


    In the Jewish culture of the Middle Ages, the astral bodies were constantly given a special attention. They were deeply admired in religious poetry, and studied and observed in scientific and technical works. In an elegy of an anonymous poet of the 11th century, which is usually read in the celebrations of the 9th day of Ab, constellations and stars share the grief for the destruction of the temple of Jerusalem. Like the Israel Tribes, all constellations are said to weep; Pleiades and Orion are said to darken their face, the Scales turn asymmetrical, the pan of death overrides the pan of life; Scorpio is scared and trembles, Sagittarius turns his face back. Jacob ben Machir ibn Tibbon, born in Marseille in 1236, was physician, mathematician, and astronomer. He translated Euclides' Elements, the Treatise of the Armillar Sphere by Qusta ibn Luqa, the Treatise on the Astrolabe by abu al-Kasim Ahmad ibn al Saffar, and works of Ptolemy, Averroes, and Aristoteles. His most important work is the short treatise Rova' Israel ("Israel's Quadrant") which he later translated in Latin with the help of Armengaud from Blaise. In the first chapter, he discusses the Sun risings, the days of the month, the place of the Sun in the sky, and the lunar motion. In the second chapter, he discusses the relations between sunrise and sunset, between moonrise and moonset, and between solar year and lunar month. In the following chapters, he illustrates a technical device which he had developed and which he designates "Israel's Quadrant". This instrument could be used both for the sky and for the Earth, since it allowed to survey and measure the elevation of the stars, the elevation of terrestrial reliefs, and terrestrial horizontal distances. The quadrant is flat, and its area is that of a quarter of a circumference. This instrument was very versatile, it also allowed to calculate hours and time, and this favoured its exceptional diffusion. Thus, its name, "quadrant", was transferred to the

  15. Multi-ethnic high school students' perceptions of nursing in the USA and Israel: a descriptive quantitative study. (United States)

    Degazon, Cynthia E; Ben Natan, Merav; Shaw, Holly K; Ehrenfeld, Mally


    In order to target new recruits or future generation of ethnic minority nurses about their potential fit in nursing, it is necessary to understand their perceptions of the profession. Successful recruitment of high school students into nursing in part requires congruency between perceptions of an ideal career and perceptions of nursing as a career. The purposes of this study were to compare ethnic minority high school students in the USA and in Israel on their perceptions of nursing as a career, and to understand how those perceptions compare to their perceptions of an ideal career. A descriptive quantitative design was employed to study a sample of 330 ethnic minority high school students from the USA and from Israel. The Mann-Whitney U procedure was used to compare the groups' perceptions; a two-sided Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks test was used to determine the differences between their perceptions of an ideal career and of nursing as a career. The USA students had more positive perceptions of nursing as a career than did the Israeli students. Both groups of students did not perceive nursing as an ideal career: They perceived nurses as hard workers, performing arduous tasks and busy work, not academically challenged, with limited opportunity for leadership and autonomy, and earning less money than they would want in an ideal career. Caring for others was a highly valued attribute for an ideal career and for nursing as a career. A minority career development plan that underscores the positive attributes of nursing should be designed in both the USA and in Israel for ethnic minority high school students. The plan should effectively communicate nursing as a caring profession that is academically rigorous and intellectually challenging with available leadership opportunities in institutions and society. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 76 FR 41858 - Petition Under Section 302 on the U.S.-Israel Free Trade Agreement; Decision Not To Initiate... (United States)


    ... respect to alleged conduct of the Government of Israel during the negotiation in the 1980s of the U.S... section 302 of the Trade Act alleging that in 1984, during the negotiation of the U.S.-Israel FTA, the Government of Israel misappropriated business confidential information provided to USTR and the U.S...

  17. Parallel algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Henri; Robert, Yves


    ""…The authors of the present book, who have extensive credentials in both research and instruction in the area of parallelism, present a sound, principled treatment of parallel algorithms. … This book is very well written and extremely well designed from an instructional point of view. … The authors have created an instructive and fascinating text. The book will serve researchers as well as instructors who need a solid, readable text for a course on parallelism in computing. Indeed, for anyone who wants an understandable text from which to acquire a current, rigorous, and broad vi

  18. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja


    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  19. Hanna David`s Book: The Gifted Arab Child In Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre KOMEK


    Full Text Available In this article, it was examined Hanna David’s Book: The Gifted Arab Child in Israel. The book focuses on Arab gifted children living in Israel. In Israel three Arab groups are living: Muslim, Christian and Druze. This book contains 7 sections. First Section: A Brief History of Education of Arabs In The State of Israel, Second Section: Characteristics of the Arab Gifted Child in Israel, Third Section: Education of the Arab Gifted Child, Fourth Section: Enrichment Programs for the Gifted in the Arab Sector, Fifth section: Description of Various Kinds of Enrichment Program for the Arab Sector, Sixth section: A Minority within a Minority: Gifted Students in the Christian, Druze and Bedouin Sectors, Seventh Section: The talented Arab Girl: Between Tradition and Modernism. In this book, author gives some suggestions to reveal potential of Arab girls. Some of them are; family support, financial aid etc.

  20. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.


    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve and fts educational facilities are run by the Transvaal. Division of. Nature Conservation. ... tion and the education facilities provided. The former are utilized mainly by the general public ... artist Paul Bosman (already reviewed in the EEASA newsletter). The co-founders of the Foundation are.

  2. Session 7: Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.; Crockford, G.


    The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)

  3. School Shootings Stun Reservation (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean


    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reserve, the total length being 66 km with six overnight huts. There are also the BokmakiePie. Nature Troil. and the Cheetah Interpretive Troil. which can be used by day visitors. The former has two loops, one of 10 km and another of 17 km. The. Cheetah Troil. is much shorter and various points of interest are interpreted en ...

  5. Immigrant and native-born female heroin addicts in Israel. (United States)

    Isralowitz, Richard; Bar Hamburger, Rachel


    There are an estimated 25,000 heroin addicts in Israel and nearly one out of every five is a woman. Also, about one fourth of the addict population immigrated to Israel from the former Soviet Union (mostly from Russia and the Ukraine) since 1989. In this study, native born and immigrant female addicts were interviewed to develop an understanding of their background characteristics, patterns of drug use, and attitudes based on group status. Results show that the two groups of women are similar in many respects; however, differences do exist. Russian-speaking women tend to be better educated and have a greater concern about their personal health and maintaining custody of their children. Additionally, immigrant women are more inclined to use heroin and other substances while receiving treatment and are more likely to have a father who abuses alcohol. Discussion is given to the study findings as well as issues relevant to the formation of policy regarding services to female addicts in the country.

  6. Yad L'hakhlama (Reach to Recovery) in Israel. (United States)

    Mardor, L


    "Yad L'hakhlama" (YL), initiated in 1967 as part of the Israel Cancer Association, is a national rehabilitation service for patients suffering from breast cancer. In Israel, about 1,000 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed yearly and about 900 of the patients undergo mastectomy. YL reaches some 97% of these women. The office and central administration in Tel Aviv supervise the chapters in various cities. Eighty volunteers work in 26 hospitals throughout the country. Local and national card indexes of mastectomy patients are kept so that follow-up may be done by phone, through the mail or by additional counseling in the office. Assistance is given to the needy when necessary. YL keeps in contact with American and European manufacturers regarding prostheses and recommends imports to commercial agents for local supply. Fitters are selected and approved by YL, which also provides a temporary prosthetic device and a manual listing available accessories to all mastectomy patients. Lectures and information for professional and medical staff and students are given throughout the year. Some of the specific problems that YL handles are: 1) encouraging the acknowledgement and acceptance of the word "cancer" in certain hospitals and oncological centers, 2) overcoming the myths and superstition surrounding cancer; 3) improving doctor-patient relationships; and 4) recurrence of disease among the volunteers.

  7. Assessing the options for a competitive electricity market in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tishler, A.; Newman, J.; Spekterman, I.; Woo, C.K.


    In July 2006, the Israeli government affirmed its 2003 decision to reform the Israeli electricity industry, currently dominated by the Israel Electric Corporation (IEC), a government-owned vertically integrated electric utility. The reform calls for the deregulation and privatization of the generation and customer service segments of the industry, leaving transmission and distribution (T and D) regulated to provide open access to all end-users. This paper projects the performance of the post-reform market structure for the period 2007-2030 relative to that of the status quo. The post-reform generation market's prices are determined according to the Cournot conjecture. To mitigate excessive price volatility and surges, the generation market also includes a firm that is contracted to make peak electricity sales to customers at a pre-determined price, only when the competitive price exceeds the pre-determined level. Our results show (a) the post-reform retail prices for end-users will exceed those under the status quo; (b) the post-reform profits may not be sufficient to keep firms operating combined cycle generation units financially viable; and (c) the net benefit from deregulating the electricity sector in Israel will most likely be negative. (author)

  8. School Lunch Programs in Israel, Past and Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endevelt, Ronit


    Full Text Available The first lunch programs in Palestine were the “soup kitchens,” which were established in Jerusalem before the First World War to feed the poor. Then, in 1923, Henrietta Szold launched a lunch initiative in schools in order to supply basic nutrition to students. As the children at most of the schools prepared the meals themselves with local products, they also learned good, low-cost eating habits and the appropriate use of domestic goods and had educational goals as well. These educational goals were in line with Zionist ideology. School lunch programs lasted through the early years of the nation of Israel, albeit without official governmental support, but they came to an end amid the rising prosperity of the early 1970s. In 2004, in response to the alarming results of a food security survey conducted by the Ministry of Health, the Knesset passed a law establishing a new school lunch program on a trial basis. This article reviews the history of lunch programs in Israel, highlighting both their achievements and their limitations, in order to establish a framework for judging the success of the current school lunch policy.

  9. Intimate Partner Jealousy and Femicide Among Former Ethiopians in Israel. (United States)

    Edelstein, Arnon


    Ethiopian immigrant women in Israel are overrepresented as victims of femicide; they are killed at more than 16 times the rate of the general population. This article suggests integrating current theoretical and empirical models to explain Ethiopian femicide, and stresses that considering psychological or sociocultural explanations as risk factors alone is not enough to understand this phenomenon. We distinguish between risk factors and triggers for femicide against Ethiopian women. While sociocultural and even psychological changes are risk factors for femicide, one, two, or three main triggers may activate such potential risk factors, such as the woman's willingness (WW) to leave the intimate relationship, sexual jealousy (SJ), and formal complaints against the abusive partner. The first two triggers are jealousy oriented. To analyze this phenomenon in Israel, we examined all court decisions on intimate partner homicide (IPH) from 1990 to 2010. After reading former studies on IPH and identifying important variables that could explain the phenomenon, we first catalogued the data in every decision and verdict according to main independent variables mentioned in the literature. The study population consists of first-generation immigrants, N = 194: native Israelis (47%), new immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU; 31%), and Ethiopians (16%). Our analysis of court decisions reveals that triggers containing jealousy components are responsible for 83% of femicide cases committed by Ethiopian men, in comparison with native Israelis (77%) and immigrant Russian men (66%) who murdered their intimate partners. In addition, there is a significant correlation among motive (jealousy), method of killing (stabbing), and "overkilling" (excessive force).

  10. Suicide in Judaism with a Special Emphasis on Modern Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Witztum


    Full Text Available Judaism considers the duty of preserving life as a paramount injunction. Specific injunctions against suicide appear in the Bible, Talmud, and thereafter. Nevertheless, Jewish tradition emphasizes that one should let himself be killed rather than violate cardinal rules of Jewish law. Mitigating circumstances are found for the six deaths by suicide mentioned in the Bible, for example to account for one's sins, or avoid shameful death. Heroic suicide is praised throughout the Jewish history, from the suicide of Samson and the collective suicide in Masada, to the collective readiness of Jews in Medieval times and during the Holocaust to kill themselves rather than succumb to their enemies. Suicide rates for Jews are lower than those of Protestants and Catholics. Similarly, suicide rates in Israel are lower in comparison to Europe and North America, although being higher than those in most Moslem Asian and North African countries. This low rate of suicide is found in Jewish Israelis of all ages, including in adolescents. Elevated suicidal risk may be found in specific sub-populations, including male Israeli soldiers, immigrants from the former USSR and Ethiopia, in particular adolescent immigrants from the former USSR, elderly Holocaust survivors, and young Israel-Arab women. The meaning of these findings is discussed according to different socio-cultural perspectives.

  11. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  12. [Hypertrophy and coronary reserve]. (United States)

    Motz, W; Scheler, S


    Left ventricular hypertrophy represents the structural mechanism of adaptation of the left ventricle as the answer of a chronic pressure overload in arterial hypertension. Initially an increment in left ventricular wall thickness occurs. In this stadium of "concentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress, LV ejection fraction and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium remain unchanged. In the further time course of disease LV dilatation will be present. In this phase of "excentric hypertrophy" LV systolic wall stress and myocardial oxygen consumption per weight unit myocardium rise and LV ejection fraction decreases. Patients with arterial hypertension frequently complain of angina pectoris. Angina pectoris and the positive exercise tolerance test or the positive myocardial scintigraphy are the consequence of the impaired coronary flow reserve. The coronary flow reserve is diminished due to structural and functional changes of the coronary circulation. ACE-inhibitors and AT1-receptor blockers cause a significant improvement of coronary flow reserve and regression of both left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis.

  13. Agronomic and economic evaluation of Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) as means for phytoremediation of diesel polluted soils in Israel. (United States)

    Dudai, Nativ; Tsion, Itai; Shamir, Shiri Zemah; Nitzan, Nadav; Chaimovitsh, David; Shachter, Alona; Haim, Abraham


    Soil pollution in Israel, due to diesel contamination, is a major concern, with gas stations, factories and refineries being the main polluters (>60%). Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) is a perennial grass belonging to the Poaceae family, and is recognized world-wide for its potential as a plant with phytoremediation traits to contaminated soils. It is demonstrated here to decrease diesel contamination in field and court-yard trials. Chemical soil analysis indicated up to a 79% decrease (P diesel pollution of contaminated soil planted with Vetiver; and at high soil contamination levels of 10 L/m 2 , a significant (P diesel and planted with Vetiver, weeds' biomass recovered to non-polluted levels following 8 to 9 months of Vetiver treatment. An economic evaluation conducted based on the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) principles, utilizing the Net Present Value (NPV) compared phytoremediation to other currently used decontamination procedures. The economic comparison showed that phytoremediation cleanup costs are lower and more beneficial to society at large, primarily from an ecosystem services perspective. Combining the results of the agronomic examination with the economic valuation, this research pointed out that phytoremediation with Vetiver has a non-negligible potential, making it a good solution for cleansing diesel from soils on a state-wide scale in Israel and worthy of further research and development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fractional Reserve Banking


    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas


    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  15. Analysis of Israel's Foreign Policy Concerning Iraqi's Kurdistan (2003-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Latifi


    Full Text Available Analysis of the Israel's Foreign Policy is one of the important issues concerned by the researchers of the international and regional affairs. Israel's Foreign Policy in years 2003-2015 has witnessed a lot of events. In these years, transformation of the Iraq's internal structures including the fall of the Baath Regime in Iraq and appearance of the terroristic group of Dashi (ISIS in this country has provided new opportunities and challenges for the Israel's Foreign Policy. In this regard, establishment of a republic system in Iraq and the reinforcement of the Kurdish streams, specially during the current transformations and the increasing desires for the independence in Iraqi's Kurdistan, have paved the way for Israel to intensify its activities in the region. In this regard, the current study has approach the issue of Israel's Foreign Policy concerning Iraqi's Kurdistan during the years 2003-2015 with a descriptive analytic method. The achieved results show that the political reasons (alliance of the periphery and development of the strategic depth in closeness to Iran, economic (accessing the energy and mineral resources in Iraqi's Kurdistan, the importance of the Kurdistan's hydro-politic resources for Israel and the Israel's economical influence from the Nile to the Euphrates, military-security (presence in the strategic environment of Iran and the external threats in the Middle East, creation of an environmental crisis un the Kurdish region of the Middle East, weakening the Iraqi's central government and disintegration of this country, Israel's security-intelligence expansion, acquiring a strategic territory and getting out of isolation and the resolving the its legitimacy crisis, controlling the currents of thought in this region, all have been influential in thein Israel's Foreign Policy Concerning Iraqi's Kurdistan.

  16. Reserve selection using nonlinear species distribution models. (United States)

    Moilanen, Atte


    Reserve design is concerned with optimal selection of sites for new conservation areas. Spatial reserve design explicitly considers the spatial pattern of the proposed reserve network and the effects of that pattern on reserve cost and/or ability to maintain species there. The vast majority of reserve selection formulations have assumed a linear problem structure, which effectively means that the biological value of a potential reserve site does not depend on the pattern of selected cells. However, spatial population dynamics and autocorrelation cause the biological values of neighboring sites to be interdependent. Habitat degradation may have indirect negative effects on biodiversity in areas neighboring the degraded site as a result of, for example, negative edge effects or lower permeability for animal movement. In this study, I present a formulation and a spatial optimization algorithm for nonlinear reserve selection problems in grid-based landscapes that accounts for interdependent site values. The method is demonstrated using habitat maps and nonlinear habitat models for threatened birds in the Netherlands, and it is shown that near-optimal solutions are found for regions consisting of up to hundreds of thousands grid cells, a landscape size much larger than those commonly attempted even with linear reserve selection formulations.

  17. Poverty perceptions of social workers and physicians in Israel. (United States)

    Monnickendam, Menachem


    This qualitative study comparing poverty perceptions of social workers (SWs) and primary care physicians (PCPs) employed in Israel's public services found that both attributed the poverty of their own clients to similar causes--individualistic, structural, fate, and policy--but differed in most of their perspectives and moral imperatives. The PCPs tended to be more angry, skeptical, and accusatory than the SWs, who were more forbearing and accepting. Both believed that those in a position to work should, but only PCPs held that they should work for any salary. With respect to policy, PCPs looked at the macro, SWs at the micro. The findings suggest that it might be more fruitful to keep inter-professional discussions on the poor and poverty pragmatic, rather than theoretical and principled.

  18. [The organization of Jewish dentists in pre-Israel Palestine]. (United States)

    Keren-Kratz, M


    scientific publications. At the same time dentists published articles in the daily press in which they educated the public on dental hygiene and on modern dental techniques. This momentum was halted in the early 1940s as result of WWII and the Holocaust, but was quick to resume immediately thereafter. 1944 saw the publication of a professional dental Journal, which this issue is a continuation of. By the time the state of Israel was established in 1948, it had more than 900 active dentists, most of them organized in the Israel Dental Association. The only element which was still required to bridge the gap between the dentists in Israel and those in the rest of the modern world was an academic dental school. After more than 20 years in making, the school was opened in 1953 in Jerusalem. From that time on, Israel's dentistry enjoys a worldwide reputation and its dental school graduates teach and lecture in universities and in many dental forums around the globe.

  19. Lichens as environmental biomonitors in Israel: Two decades of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garty, J.


    The present paper describes a series of studies dealing with lichens as environmental biomonitors in Israel in the years 1974-1997. In the first years of research we focused on a tolerant epilithic crustose species, Caloplaca aurantia in an attempt to classify locations according to their level of contamination by airborne heavy metals accumulated in the lichen. Later on our studies centered around the epiphytic fruticose lichen Ramalina duriaei which is rather sensitive to air pollution. This lichen has the capability to absorb and accumulate remarkable amounts of airborne mineral elements but undergoes physiological deterioration by their impact. The presence of airborne pollutants leads to a degradation of cell membranes and chlorophyll, a decrease of ATP content and an increase of stress-ethylene formation. Suggested by the compilation of data available upon two decades of research, we proposed the application of an element enrichment factor (EEF) to distinguish between polluted and unpolluted sites. (author)

  20. Radiocarbon chronology of Manot Cave, Israel and Upper Paleolithic dispersals. (United States)

    Alex, Bridget; Barzilai, Omry; Hershkovitz, Israel; Marder, Ofer; Berna, Francesco; Caracuta, Valentina; Abulafia, Talia; Davis, Lauren; Goder-Goldberger, Mae; Lavi, Ron; Mintz, Eugenia; Regev, Lior; Bar-Yosef Mayer, Daniella; Tejero, José-Miguel; Yeshurun, Reuven; Ayalon, Avner; Bar-Matthews, Mira; Yasur, Gal; Frumkin, Amos; Latimer, Bruce; Hans, Mark G; Boaretto, Elisabetta


    The timing of archeological industries in the Levant is central for understanding the spread of modern humans with Upper Paleolithic traditions. We report a high-resolution radiocarbon chronology for Early Upper Paleolithic industries (Early Ahmarian and Levantine Aurignacian) from the newly excavated site of Manot Cave, Israel. The dates confirm that the Early Ahmarian industry was present by 46,000 calibrated years before the present (cal BP), and the Levantine Aurignacian occurred at least between 38,000 and 34,000 cal BP. This timing is consistent with proposed migrations or technological diffusions between the Near East and Europe. Specifically, the Ahmarian could have led to the development of the Protoaurignacian in Europe, and the Aurignacian in Europe could have spread back to the Near East as the Levantine Aurignacian.

  1. Selective IgA deficiency in children in Israel. (United States)

    Shkalim, Vered; Monselize, Yehudit; Segal, Nirit; Zan-Bar, Israel; Hoffer, Vered; Garty, Ben Zion


    IgA deficiency is the most common human primary immune-deficiency. We evaluated the clinical and immunological characteristics of selective IgA deficiency in children in Israel. The study group included 63 children diagnosed with IgA deficiency from 1987 to 2005. Mean follow-up time per child was 10.6 years. Average age at diagnosis was 10.5 years. In one child, the IgA deficiency was transient. Infectious diseases, mainly recurrent pneumonia and ear infection, were common and occurred in 25 patients (39.7%). Allergic diseases were documented in 20 (31.7%) of our patients. Thirteen children (20.6%) had autoimmune diseases. Malignancies were diagnosed in three children (4.8%), an association that has not been reported in previous series. IgA deficiency appears to be a risk factor for infections, allergic diseases, autoimmune conditions, and malignancy.

  2. Free data access: the experience of the Israel Meteorological Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avner Furshpan


    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the benefits of changing from a commercial to an open access to climate data policy in the Israel Meteorological Service (IMS. The former commercial policy failed to provide expected economical revenues and notably increased the work time devoted to the management of the commercial structure and involved processes. At the same time, many companies and institutions tended to use data freely available in the Internet in spite of their worse quality or resolution in order to avoid the fees required to obtain data provided by the IMS. Changing to a free access to these data now allows an optimum use of climatic information and a significant reduction of bureaucratic tasks, freeing resources for research and development of new products.

  3. Innovation in the development of plasma propulsion devices in Israel (United States)

    Lev, Dan R.


    In this paper we review plasma propulsion development approach which focuses on innovation. We then bring the example of the state of Israel in general, and Rafael in particular, and show how it has adopted an innovative approach to develop a low power Hall thruster and a low current cathode. To present one special test-case of innovation we elaborate upon the development process of a heaterless hollow cathode that was developed at Rafael. In particular, by presenting the cathode characterization and wear test results we demonstrate that the heaterless cathode developed has a sufficiently wide operational range and may operate continuously for 1,500 hours without any measurable degradation in performance.

  4. Multiple primary malignant neoplasms in breast cancer patients in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenker, J.G.; Levinsky, R.; Ohel, G.


    The data of an epidemiologic study of multiple primary malignant neoplasms in breast cancer patients in Israel are presented. During the 18-year period of the study 12,302 cases of breast carcinoma were diagnosed, and, of these, 984 patients (8%) had multiple primary malignant tumors. Forty-seven of these patients developed two multiple primary cancers. A significantly higher than expected incidence of second primary cancers occurred at the following five sites: the opposite breast, salivary glands, uterine corpus, ovary, and thyroid. Cancers of the stomach and gallbladder were fewer than expected. Treatment of the breast cancer by irradiation was associated with an increased risk of subsequent cancers of lung and hematopoietic system. The prognosis was mainly influenced by the site and malignancy of the second primary cancer. The incidence of multiple primary malignancies justifies a high level of alertness to this possibility in the follow-up of breast cancer patients

  5. "Signs of honor" among Russian inmates in Israel's prisons. (United States)

    Shoham, Efrat


    The unique nature of Israeli society as an immigrant society has also affected the prison population in Israel. This article focuses on a social and cultural phenomenon that particularly characterizes the prisoners of Russian origin, the phenomenon of tattoos. Using postmodernist theories, the article examines the function of the tattoo among Russian prisoners and the role it plays in constructing the criminal self-identity of these inmates in Israeli prisons. The tattoos observed during 2005-2006 among the Russian prisoners in four major Israeli prisons reflect the values of the Russian criminal subculture from which they evolved and were imported. This subculture is characterized by a hierarchical class structure and manifestations of machismo, domination, defiance, rebellion, and open antagonism against the Establishment and its representatives.

  6. Medical navigation in Israel: description, advantages and ethical considerations. (United States)

    Jotkowitz, Alan


    Throughout history religious figures have been intimately involved in caring for the sick. Not only have they prayed for the welfare of the sick and arranged for their care but in many instances provided medical care as well. With the advent of scientific medicine, the responsibility for medical care was transferred to trained physicians. A new phenomenon has recently emerged in Israel that has threatened this 'division of labor' between physicians and rabbis, namely, the establishment of medical navigation organizations. Medical navigation can improve access to highly specialized care and help build trust between doctors and patients. However, this system is accompanied by numerous ethical and professional difficulties. For example, it is not clear how referrals are made and to what extent the system should be regulated. The phenomenon needs to be further studied to determine its prevalence in Israeli society as well as its impact on the practice of medicine from the perspective of both physicians and patients.

  7. Gender and disordered eating of adolescents in Israel. (United States)

    Katz, Bracha


    Studies from recent decades indicate that the ideal of thinness can be discerned in a growing dissatisfaction with weight and an increase of the prevalence of disordered eating at an earlier age of onset. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of disordered eating (above the cutoff point of 30 on the EAT-40) among a normal population of school students in Israel. The study sample was composed of Israeli (Jewish) adolescents in grades 7 to 12 from four schools. Of 326 students approached (181 females and 142 males), 323 completed the self-report EAT-40 and a structured questionnaire that provided socio-demographic and other information. 41.5% of adolescents were not satisfied with their weight and 45.3% want to lose weight. A third of the sample engages in dieting behavior frequently; 6.1% of the adolescents have pathologic EAT-40 scores, with about three times as many girls as boys exhibiting disordered eating; 8.2% of the girls and 2.8% of the males show disordered eating (Ø=0.115, p times more with pathologic EAT scores than those who are satisfied with their weight (Ø=0.220; p times more pathologic EAT scores among adolescents who wish to lose weight than among those who do not wish to reduce their weight (Ø=0.237; p EAT scores were found among adolescents from different ethnic backgrounds or levels of religious observance. The prevalence of disordered eating among adolescents in Israel is higher than other countries in general, and among males in particular. There is a need for increased efforts to detect adolescents at risk for developing eating disorders, with the assistance of clinical tools. In addition an educational policy for disordered eating prevention should be instituted.

  8. [The new national program for tuberculosis elimination in Israel]. (United States)

    Chemtob, Daniel; Leventhal, Alex; Berlowitz, Yitzhak; Weiler-Ravell, Daniel


    The rise in the incidence of TB in Israel, mostly due to immigration from endemic areas, led to the establishment of a new TB control program which follows the guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO). Reorganization of the TB infrastructure was enabled by specific legislative, administrative and budgetary measures initiated by the Ministry of Health (MOH) in conjunction with the Sick Funds. To present the theoretical and practical aspects of this new program to the physicians of Israel. The essence of this program is the use of directly observed therapy (DOT) for all patients together with centralization of TB care in nine national centers, closely supervised by the MOH. This centralization allows a critical mass of patients to be seen in each clinic, thus enabling the labor-intensive task of modern TB treatment, including the supervision and/or the administration of DOT, to be performed in a cost-effective manner. Day to day treatment is conducted by general community clinics and supervised by District Health Offices. Hospitalization, a relatively rare necessity in the new program, is available in two dedicated centers with modern isolation facilities. Centralized laboratory services provide timely susceptibility testing. Billing is simplified according to disease categories, using a global assessment of costs negotiated with the Sick Funds. Management and quality control of the program are carried out on an ongoing basis by the Department of TB and AIDS at the MOH. In the first two years that have elapsed since the inception of the program, almost 93% of cases have documented evidence of completion of treatment (under DOT), compared to 54% (without any treatment supervision) before the program came into effect.

  9. The meaning of community rehabilitation for schizophrenia patients in Israel. (United States)

    Mazor, Uri; Doron, Israel


    In the year 2000, a law was passed in Israel, known as the Law for Community Rehabilitation of the Mentally Disabled. The Community Rehabilitation Law was intended to provide a "package of services" that will allow people who suffer from mental illness and were hospitalized, to return to their community. This research, by using qualitative research methods, tried to understand and explore the meaning of rehabilitation and return to the community under the new legislative setting from the viewpoint and experiences of the participants themselves. Fifteen schizophrenic patients were interviewed in this research. All the participants were institutionalized in the past and released for rehabilitation in the community under Israel's new act. The data were collected after all interviews were recorded and analyzed. The qualitative data analysis exposed a continuous process of four conceptual categories: (1) Viewing institutionalization as transformation from the "normal" to the "abnormal"; (2) Viewing institutionalization as a process moving from the "abnormal" back to the "normal"; (3) Viewing the return to the community as "re-birth"; and finally, (4) Viewing community-based rehabilitation as reality, which enables normality alongside mental illness. This research presents a theoretical model that provides the meanings and experiences of the participants as a continuity, in which the whole process of moving from the community to the institution and back to the community is represented as one continuous process integrated in each other. Within this continuing process, the community-based rehabilitation legislation serves as a key component, well-integrated within the whole continuum that allows people with mental illness to return to "normality" within the community.

  10. Poisonous animal bites in the Israel Defense Forces. (United States)

    Haviv, J; Huerta, M; Shpilberg, O; Klement, E; Ash, N; Grotto, I


    Soldiers in field units of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) are susceptible to injury by various poisonous animals during training and operations. Bites and envenomations by animals such as snakes, scorpions, and spiders can be painful and debilitating, and at times life-threatening. We have examined the extent of exposure of IDF soldiers to snake and arthropod bites and the morbidity resulting from these encounters. All reports of IDF soldiers who sought medical attention for snake or arthropod bites between the years 1993-1997 were reviewed at the IDF Medical Corps Headquarters. Monthly distribution of cases was noted for all years, and geographic distribution was studied for all 1997 cases. Over the period 1993-1997 there was a yearly rate of 32-52 physician visits per 100,000 soldiers due to snakebites (mean 43.6/100,000), and 1370-1729 physician visits per 100,000 soldiers due to arthropod bites (mean 1478/100,000). There is a clear overall increase in snake and arthropod bites during the spring and summer months, with a peak in snakebites in May and in arthropod bites in August. 58% of all snakebites in Israel were reported in the central region, with 33% occurring in the south, and 9% in the north of the country. No fatalities due to envenomations have been reported in the IDF in recent years. Poisonous animal species pose a significant threat to the soldiers of the IDF. Overall, envenomation is a common and widespread problem that has significant impact on the military medical system, especially during the spring and summer months. It is possible through institution of proper preventive measures to decrease the exposure of IDF personnel to this environmental hazard.

  11. Lynch Syndrome in high risk Ashkenazi Jews in Israel. (United States)

    Goldberg, Yael; Kedar, Inbal; Kariiv, Revital; Halpern, Naama; Plesser, Morasha; Hubert, Ayala; Kaduri, Luna; Sagi, Michal; Lerer, Israela; Abeliovich, Dvorah; Hamburger, Tamar; Nissan, Aviram; Goldshmidt, Hanoch; Solar, Irit; Geva, Ravit; Strul, Hana; Rosner, Guy; Baris, Hagit; Levi, Zohar; Peretz, Tamar


    Lynch Syndrome is caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes. Diagnosis is not always trivial and may be costly. Information regarding incidence, genotype-phenotype correlation, spectrum of mutations and genes involved in specific populations facilitate the diagnostic process and contribute to clinical work-up. To report gene distribution, mutations detected and co-occurrence of related syndromes in a cohort of Ashkenazi Jews in Israel. Patients were identified in dedicated high risk clinics in 3 medical centers in Israel. Diagnostic process followed a multi-step scheme. It included testing for founder mutations, tumor testing, gene sequencing and MLPA. Lynch Syndrome was defined either by positive mutation testing, or by clinical criteria and positive tumor analysis. We report a cohort of 75 Ashkenazi families suspected of Lynch Syndrome. Mutations were identified in 51/75 (68%) families: 38 in MSH2, 9 in MSH6, and 4 in MLH1. 37/51 (73%) of these families carried one of the 3 'Ashkenazi' founder mutations in MSH2 or MSH6. Each of the other 14 families carried a private mutation. 3 (6%) were large deletions. Only 20/51 (39%) families were Amsterdam Criteria positive; 42 (82%) were positive for the Bethesda guidelines and 9 (18%) did not fulfill any Lynch Syndrome criteria. We report C-MMRD and co-occurrence of BRCA and Lynch Syndrome in our cohort. Mutation spectra and gene distribution among Ashkenazi Jews are unique. Three founder Lynch Syndrome mutations are found in 73% families with known mutations. Among the three, MSH2 and MSH6 are the most common. These features affect the phenotype, the diagnostic process, risk estimation, and genetic counseling.

  12. Are uranium reserves adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Against a backdrop of growing concerns about global warming and geopolitical pressures on fossil energies, especially natural gas and oil, interest in nuclear power has revived considerably. Conscious of its addiction to oil and reeling from a series of gigantic blackouts, the United States, in the words of its president, must 'aggressively move forward with the construction of nuclear power plants'. Some European countries have approved new power plant construction (Finland and France), while the more reserved ones (Belgium, Germany and Sweden) have begun to show a change in attitude. Asia, meanwhile, is host to the planet's largest number of potential nuclear construction projects in this first half of the 21. century. All these signs point to a sharp rise in uranium consumption, the basic fuel for these plants. But are there enough resources to support a nuclear revival on a planetary scale? The publication of the Red Book on uranium in late May 2006 was an opportunity for Thierry Dujardin, Deputy Director of Science and Development at the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency, to take stock of resources. He gives his opinion in this paper

  13. The Scyphomedusae of the Mediterranean coast of Israel, including two Lessepsian migrants new to the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galil, B.S.; Spanier, E.; Ferguson, W.W.


    Seven species of Scyphomedusae are reported from the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Two of these, Rhopilema nomadica spec. nov. and Phyllorhiza punctata von Lendenfeld, 1884, are Lessepsian migrants new to the Mediterranean.

  14. Marketing or strategy? Defining the best approach to expand the anesthesiology workforce in Israel. (United States)

    Lewis, Michael C; Grant, Gilbert J


    There is a chronic shortage of anesthesiologists in Israel. The study by Cohen et al. suggests that a marketing campaign may be one method of addressing this shortage. This commentary argues for a more comprehensive strategy based on the US experience. This would not only involve marketing as suggested by Cohen et al. but would also involve a fundamental change in the Israel anesthesia care model, as well as providing substantial financial incentives to young physicians. We believe that a combination of these approaches will help to alleviate the shortage of anesthesia providers in Israel. Creating a new class of physician extenders, namely, anesthesiologist assistants, would also provide an employment pathway for the skilled medical technicians trained by the Israel Defense Forces, and other non-physicians with an interest in anesthesiology.

  15. Germany's Relations With Israel: Background and Implications for German Middle East Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belkin, Paul


    .... Since 1949, successive German governments have placed this support at the forefront of their Middle East policy and today, Germany, along with the United States, is widely considered one of Israel's closest allies...

  16. 4. International symposium on analysis and detection of explosives, Jerusalem (Israel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    From all the presentations given at the 4. International Symposium on Analysis and Detection of Explosives (September 7-10, 1992, Jerusalem, Israel), three were considered in INIS scope and separately indexed

  17. Iisrael paneb ise piirid paika, kui vaja / Yitzhak ben Israel ; interv. Sten A. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Israel, Yitzhak ben


    Iisraeli partei Kadima kandidaat parlamendivalimistel Yitzhak ben Israel selgitab, milline on programm, kui peaministriks saab Ehud Olmert. Tema sõnul Hamas ilmselt ei nõustu Teekaardi-nimelise rahuplaaniga

  18. Ethnic and gender earning gaps in a liberalized economy: The case of Israel. (United States)

    Bental, Benjamin; Kraus, Vered; Yonay, Yuval


    During the 1990s and the 2000s Israel, a country ethnically divided into a dominant Jewish majority and a disadvantaged mostly Muslim Palestinian minority, underwent a transition from a heavily regulated to a neo-liberal economy. This paper makes use of the Israeli case to shed light on the effect of liberalization on earning gaps in the public and private sectors across dominant and disadvantaged population groups. The data, drawn from the 1995 and 2008 censuses-years that encompass the transition period, enable a dynamic investigation of the liberalization process by comparing labor market outcomes for Israeli Jews and Muslims of both genders working in the public or private sector. Liberalization reduced the protective role of the public sector, especially hurting women of both ethnic groups. In the private sector this process improved the position of the strongest group of Jewish men and of the weakest group of Muslim women. Discrimination against Jewish women and Muslim men in the private sector increased. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Radium contamination in the Nizzana-1 water well, Negev Desert, Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minster, T.; Ilani, S.; Kronfeld, J.; Even, O.; Godfrey-Smith, D.I.


    In a search for fresh groundwater reserves in the northwestern Negev Desert of Israel, the Nizzana-1 water well drilled into the Judea Group aquifer encountered water that exhibits an anomalously high 226 Ra activity of 2.4 Bq/l, along with 133 Bq/l 222 Rn. The exploited well water is a mixture of the original Judea Group aquifer water and the underlying more saline artesian water of the Kurnub Group (or Nubian Sandstone) aquifer that is currently intruding via faults. Both aquifers elsewhere contain intrinsically low radioactivity. A study of the sedimentary sequence transected by the borehole revealed that much of the bituminous sequence of the Mount Scopus Group of Upper Cretaceous age is substantially depleted in 226 Ra. During its ascent, the Nubian Sandstone water flushes the moderately uranium enriched bituminous sediments, selectively leaching radium and/or receiving alpha-recoil additions of radium. These bituminous chalks and marls are regionally widespread. It is thus suggested that radium should be monitored where faulting allows for inter-aquiferial connections across uranium enriched bituminous sections

  20. Disordered eating & cultural diversity: a focus on Arab Muslim women in Israel. (United States)

    Feinson, Marjorie C; Meir, Adi


    A dearth of data concerning eating problems among adult women from minority population groups leaves substantial knowledge gaps and constrains evidence-based interventions. To examine prevalence and predictors of disordered eating behaviors (DEB) among Arab Muslim women in Israel, whose eating behaviors have not been previously examined and to compare with second generation Israeli-born Jews of European heritage. Community-based study includes sub-samples of Arab Muslims and Israeli-born Jews. DEB is assessed with fourteen DSM-IV related symptoms. Hierarchical regressions examine influence of weight, self-criticism and psychological distress on DEB severity. Relatively high prevalence rates emerge for Muslims (27%) and Jews (20%), a nonsignificant difference. In contrast, regressions reveal substantially different predictor patterns. For Arab Muslims, weight has the strongest association; for Jews, weight is not significant while self-criticism is the strongest predictor. Explained variance also differs considerably: 45% for Muslims and 28% for Jews. Surprising similarities and distinct differences underscore complex patterns of eating disturbances across culturally diverse groups. Culturally sensitive interventions are warranted along with more illuminating explanatory paradigms than 'one size fits all.' Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Interest in nursing among academic degree holders in Israel: A cross-sectional quantitative study. (United States)

    Ben Natan, Merav


    The shortage of nurses is a global problem. One strategy for producing more registered nurses worldwide and in Israel in particular is to offer graduate entry nursing programs for individuals with non-nursing academic degrees. In order to recruit academic degree holders into the nursing profession, it is important to identify factors that might attract them. The purpose of this study was to explore whether the perception of nurse characteristics by academic degree holders is associated with their interest in enrolling in a graduate entry nursing program or in recommending this program to a family member, and whether ethnic background, gender and interaction with a nurse have an effect on this interest. A cross-sectional quantitative study. The setting of the study was on the campus of Tel Aviv University. A convenience sample of 522 individuals with an academic education, men and women, aged 18-60 and equally distributed between Jewish and Arab Israelis, took part in the study. Participants completed a questionnaire based on the Porter Nursing Image Scale. A moderate positive correlation was found between perception of nurses and interest in nursing (r=0.32, pnurses, viewed nurses in a more positive light and had a higher interest in nursing than their counterparts. Efforts should be made to foster a positive public image of nursing among the population of people with an academic education. Recruitment strategies should be tailored to each of this population's subgroups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Migration as a social determinant of health for irregular migrants: Israel as case study. (United States)

    Fleischman, Yonina; Willen, Sarah S; Davidovitch, Nadav; Mor, Zohar


    More than 150,000 irregular migrants reside in Israel, yet data regarding their utilization of and perceived barriers to health care services are limited. Drawing on semi-structured interviews conducted with 35 irregular migrant adults between January and September 2012, this article analyzes the role of migration as a social determinant of health for irregular migrants, and especially asylum seekers. We analyze two kinds of barriers faced by migrants when they attempt to access health care services: barriers resulting directly from their migration status, and barriers that are common among low-income communities but exacerbated by this status. Migration-related barriers included a lack of clear or consistent legislation; the threat of deportation; the inability to obtain work permits and resulting poverty and harsh living and working conditions; and discrimination. Barriers exacerbated by migrant status included prohibitive cost; poor and confusing organization of services; language barriers; perceived low quality of care; and social isolation. These findings support recent arguments that migrant status itself constitutes a social determinant of health that can intersect with other determinants to adversely affect health care access and health outcomes. Findings suggest that any meaningful effort to improve migrants' health will depend on the willingness of clinicians, public health officials, and policymakers to address the complex array of upstream political and socio-economic factors that affect migrants' health rather than focusing on narrower questions of access to health care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pesticide exposure among pregnant women in Jerusalem, Israel: results of a pilot study. (United States)

    Berman, Tamar; Hochner-Celnikier, Drorit; Barr, Dana Boyd; Needham, Larry L; Amitai, Yona; Wormser, Uri; Richter, Elihu


    Pesticides have been shown to disrupt neurodevelopment in laboratory animals and in human populations. To date, there have been no studies on exposure to pesticides in pregnant women in Israel, despite reports of widespread exposure in other populations of pregnant women and the importance of evaluating exposure in this susceptible sub-population. We measured urinary concentrations of organophosphorus (OP) insecticide metabolites and plasma concentrations of OP and other pesticides in 20 pregnant women, recruited in Jerusalem, Israel in 2006, and collected questionnaire data on demographic factors and consumer habits from these women. We compared geometric mean concentrations in subgroups using the Mann-Whitney U-test for independent samples. We compared creatinine-adjusted OP pesticide metabolite concentrations, as well as plasma pesticide concentrations, with other populations of pregnant women. Creatinine-adjusted total dimethyl (DM) metabolite concentrations were between 4 and 6 times higher in this population compared to other populations of pregnant women in the United States while total diethyl (DE) metabolite concentrations were lower. Dimethylphosphate (DMP) was detected in 74% of the urine samples whereas dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP) was detected in 90% of the urine samples. The carbamate bendiocarb was detected in 89% of the plasma samples, while the OP insecticide chlorpyrifos was detected in 42% of the samples. Mean plasma concentrations of bendiocarb and chlorpyrifos in our sample were 4.4 and 3.9 times higher, respectively, than that of an urban minority cohort from New York City. Twelve women (63%) reported using some form of household pest control during their pregnancy and five (26%) reported using household pest control during the past month. Women with a graduate degree had significantly higher geometric mean concentrations of total urinary DM metabolite concentrations compared to other women (P=0.006). Finally, one woman in the study had

  4. A revolution in Israel: Natural gas discoveries change the energy situation; Une revolution en Israel: des decouvertes de gaz naturel modifient la situation energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meritet, S. [Universite Paris-Dauphine, CGEMP, 75 - Paris (France)


    Recent discoveries of large sources of gas off the coast are expected to make Israel an energy-independent county and even a possible gas exporter. Even if the new resource estimates are correct, a number of factors still raise doubts about the viability of exports. This paper focuses on the Israel's possible energy policy choices with the natural gas discoveries. After the presentation of the current energy situation, the new energy resources are analysed along with the uncertainties around them and the new regulatory framework. The economic consequences of these new resources are then analyzed in terms of exporting strategies and electricity generation prospects. Even more than other countries, Israel's energy policy is centered on security of supply through diversification of sources and suppliers. (author)

  5. A critical and comparative review of the prevention of drug and alcohol abuse in Israel. (United States)

    Barnea, Z


    The article reviews the various programs and intervention strategies of substance abuse prevention in Israel. It concentrates mainly on the stages of primary and secondary prevention among youth. School-based prevention programs, those designated for detached youth as well as community-based programs, are presented and analyzed. The prevention efforts in Israel are also compared to those in other Western countries. The discussion includes recommendations for future developments in this domain.

  6. Divorce and immigration: the social integration of immigrant divorcees in Israel. (United States)

    Damian, N


    This paper attempts to supply information on what motivated some 7000 Jewish divorcees to leave their countries of origin in the last decade and settle in Israel. The study also examines the differences in social integration of immigrant divorcees who came to Israel from different political systems--authoritarian or democratic regimes. Finally, the study examines the extent to which immigrant divorcees, who generally arrive in Israel with children, are to be considered as a "high risk" social group requiring special attention and particular aid. Of the 287,487 immigrants aged 15 years and over who arrived in Israel between 1970-1980, 53.7% were women (sex ratio: 860 males per 1000 females), and 3.6% were divorced. The findings indicate that there are significant differences between divorcees from Anglophone and Eastern European countries in their motivation for immigrating to Israel. The former decide to immigrate primarily for individual reasons--generally after divorce--expecting that immigration will increase chances of remarriage. In contrast, those who came from Eastern Europe are motivated by political, economic, and ideological reasons; the issue of immigration often sparks the divorce crisis. Divorcees from Anglophone countries are less socially isolated, more likely to meet veteran Israelis, and more satisfied with their life in Israel. Eastern European divorcees usually restrict their social contact to encounters with other immigrants from their country of origin, are less satisfied with their life in Israel, and feel themselves more isolated and frustrated. Despite the difficulties encountered by this group, it was found that there are no marked differences between divorcees and married immigrant women in social integration. In Israel, immigrant divorcees cannot be considered as a "high risk" social group.

  7. Gamblers Anonymous in Israel: a participant observation study of a self-help group. (United States)

    Cromer, G


    This participant observation study of the first Gamblers Anonymous group in Israel is designed to show (1) the ways in which the group helps it members rehabilitate themselves, (2) the three stages through which they must go in order to ensure success, and (3) the reason why some participants fail to do so. The article concludes with a number of observations concerning the extent of gambling in Israel and the different ways that should be developed for dealing with the problem.

  8. Israelologie: ’n Bybels-teologiese perspektief oor Israel se verlede, hede en toekoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob J. Scholtz


    Full Text Available Israelology: A Biblical-theological perspective of the past, present and future of Israel. Israelology, the study of Israel, is necessary for any theological system. In the past, God made unconditional covenants and other promises to Abraham and his descendants through Jacob. Not all Jews appropriate these blessings from God in faith. There has always been, however, a faithful remnant in Israel who believed the revelation and promises of God. Despite idolatry and repeated failure, even the unpardonable sin, God is faithful and has not cast away – not even temporarily – his people whom He foreknew. During the Church Age, the Jewish remnant is not only part of the Church but also of the nation of Israel. New Testament revelation does not cancel, change, transcend, spiritualise, or idealise unconditional and still-unfulfilled promises of God to Israel. The term ‘the seed of Abraham’ has multiple senses, and the fact that it can refer to the spiritual descendants of Abraham of non-Jewish descent does not change or cancel the promises that God made to the believing Jewish descendants of Abraham. Because God is faithful, Israel has a future. The present worldwide regathering of Jews to their homeland is happening in preparation for the judgement of the Tribulation Period. Christ will not return to the earth, however, until a future Jewish generation repent and call on the Lord. Then, a second worldwide regathering of faithful Jews to Israel will take place, this time for the blessings of the messianic kingdom. During the Millennium, God will fulfil all outstanding covenant promises and prophecies, and in the same realm where both the first Adam and seventy nations once failed, the Last Adam will successfully rule over Israel and the nations to the glory of God. Israelology, the doctrine of Israel’s past, present and future, is the missing link in Biblical and Systematic Theology.

  9. Trends in Coronary Revascularization and Ischemic Heart Disease?Related Mortality in Israel


    Blumenfeld, Orit; Na'amnih, Wasef; Shapira?Daniels, Ayelet; Lotan, Chaim; Shohat, Tamy; Shapira, Oz M.


    Background We investigated national trends in volume and outcomes of percutaneous coronary angioplasty (PCI), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and ischemic heart disease?related mortality in Israel. Methods and Results Using International Classification of Diseases 9th and 10th revision codes, we linked 5 Israeli national databases, including the Israel Center for Disease Control National PCI and CABG Registries, the Ministry of Health Hospitalization Report, the Center of Bureau of St...

  10. The tiger beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae) of Israel and adjacent lands. (United States)

    Matalin, Andrey V; Chikatunov, Vladimir I


    Based on field studies, museums collections and literature sources, the current knowledge of the tiger beetle fauna of Israel and adjacent lands is presented. In Israel eight species occur, one of them with two subspecies, while in the Sinai Peninsula nine species of tiger beetles are now known. In the combined regions seven genera from two tribes were found. The Rift Valley with six cicindelids species is the most specious region of Israel. Cylindera contorta valdenbergi and Cicindela javeti azari have localized distributions and should be considered regional endemics. A similarity analysis of the tiger beetles faunas of different regions of Israel and the Sinai Peninsula reveal two clusters of species. The first includes the Great Rift Valley and most parts of the Sinai Peninsula, and the second incorporates most regions of Israel together with Central Sinai Foothills. Five distinct adult phenological groups of tiger beetles can be distinguished in these two clusters: active all-year (three species), spring-fall (five species), summer (two species), spring-summer (one species) and spring (one species). The likely origins of the tiger beetle fauna of this area are presented. An annotated list and illustrated identification key of the Cicindelinae of Israel and adjacent lands are provided.

  11. Lo inevitable sucedió. El laborismo israelí, la Internacional Socialista y el conflicto árabe-israelí


    Amado Castro, Víctor Manuel


    Aquest article aborda quina va ser la posició de la Internacional Socialista davant el conflicte arabo-israelià, i com va adoptant-se i reformulant al llarg del temps transcorregut entre 1947 i 1983. Aquest organisme internacional va donar suportpolíticament al Partit Laborista d’Israel, entès que aquest era el representant del sionisme socialista i de l’estat d’Israel, d’una manera total i acrítica fins a un moment determinat. Aquest suport, en ser el laborisme israelià l’únic representant d...

  12. Reserve Component Programs, Fiscal Year 1987. (United States)


    Paraguay Barbuda Ecuador India Peru Argentina Egypt Israel Philippines Australia England Italy Portugal Austria Fiji Jamaica Puerto Rico Bahamas France...Baguero Commander, Ecuadoran First Air Presidente , Junta Civic Archidona, Zone Ecuador * Navarrete, Colonel William * Marsh, Honorable John 0. Jr...Mobilization Concepts (Policy) Development Center " Shiguango, Mr. Sharimiat 0 Temple, Lieutenant General Herbert Presidente , Conncejo Archidona, R. Jr

  13. [Audit of general hospitals and private surgical clinics in Israel]. (United States)

    Freund, Ruth; Dor, Michael; Lotan, Yoram; Haver, Eitan


    Supervision and inspection of medical facilities are among the responsibilities of the Ministry of Health (MOH) anchored in the "Public Health Act 1940". In order to implement the law, the General Medical Division of the MOH began the process of auditing hospitals and private surgical clinics prior to considering the reissue of their license. The audit aimed to implement the law, activate supervision on general hospitals and private surgical clinics, provide feed-back to the audited institution and upgrade quality assurance, regulate medical activities according to the activities elaborated in the license and recommend the license renewal. Prior to the audits, 20 areas of activity were chosen for inspection. For each activity a check list was developed as a tool for inspection. Each area was inspected during a 4-5 hour visit by a MOH expert, accompanied by the local service manager in the institution under inspection. A comprehensive report, summarizing the findings was sent to the medical institute, requesting correction in those areas where improvements were needed. Recommendation for license renewal was sent to the Director of Licensing Division Ministry of Health. Between June 2003 and July 2006, 91 structured audits took place. A total of 47 general hospitals and 24 private surgical clinics were visited at least once. Most general hospitals were found abiding, functioning according to the required standards and eligible for license renewal. Licenses of institutions that complied with the standards determined by the audit teams, were renewed. Two private hospitals in central Israel, that were given an overall poor evaluation, were issued with a temporary license and subsequently re-audited 4 times over the next two years. Generally, the standards in private surgical clinics were lower than those found in general public hospitals. In one clinic the license was not renewed, and in another an order was issued to cease surgical procedures requiring general

  14. [Basic research during residency in Israel: is change needed?]. (United States)

    Fishbain, Dana; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Ashkenazi, Shai


    A six-month research period is a mandatory part of the residency training program in most basic specialties in Israel and is named: the "basic science period". This is the only period in an Israeli physician's medical career which is dedicated strictly to research, accentuating the importance of medical research to the quality of training and level of medicine in Israel. From another point of view, one may argue that in an era of shortage of physicians on the one hand and the dizzying rate of growth in medical knowledge on the other hand, every moment spent training in residency is precious, therefore, making the decision of whether to dedicate six months for research becomes ever more relevant. This question is currently raised for discussion once again by the Scientific Council of the Israeli Medical Association. The Scientific Council lately issued a call for comments sent to all Israeli physicians, asking their opinion on several key questions regarding basic science research. Learning the public's opinion will serve as a background for discussion. A total of 380 physicians responded to the call and specified their standpoint on the subject, among them heads of departments, units and clinics, senior physicians and residents. The findings pointed to strong support in maintaining the research period as part of residency training due to its importance to medical training and medicine, although half the respondents supported the use of various alternative formats for research together with the existing format. Those alternative format suggestions will be thoroughly reviewed. A smaller group of respondents supported allowing residents a choice between two tracks--with or without a research period, and only a few were in favor of canceling the research requirement altogether. The writers maintain that the "basic science period" of research during residency training is vital and its contribution to the high level of specialists and high level of medicine requires its

  15. Seawater desalination and serum magnesium concentrations in Israel. (United States)

    Koren, Gideon; Shlezinger, Meital; Katz, Rachel; Shalev, Varda; Amitai, Yona


    With increasing shortage of fresh water globally, more countries are consuming desalinated seawater (DSW). In Israel >50% of drinking water is now derived from DSW. Desalination removes magnesium, and hypomagnesaemia has been associated with increased cardiac morbidity and mortality. Presently the impact of consuming DSW on body magnesium status has not been established. We quantified changes in serum magnesium in a large population based study (n = 66,764), before and after desalination in regions consuming DSW and in regions where DSW has not been used. In the communities that switched to DSW in 2013, the mean serum magnesium was 2.065 ± 0.19 mg/dl before desalination and fell to 2.057 ± 0.19 mg/dl thereafter (p < 0.0001). In these communities 1.62% of subjects exhibited serum magnesium concentrations ≤1.6 mg/dl between 2010 and 2013. This proportion increased by 24% between 2010-2013 and 2015-2016 to 2.01% (p = 0.0019). In contrast, no such changes were recorded in the communities that did not consume DSW. Due to the emerging evidence of increased cardiac morbidity and mortality associated with hypomagnesaemia, it is vital to consider re-introduction of magnesium to DSW.

  16. Tsunamis induced by submarine slumpings off the coast of Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Striem, H.; Miloh, T.


    The historical description of tsunamis or seismic sea waves at the coast of Israel is related. It is found that such an event was followed more often by a sea recession than by a shore flooding. A quantitative evaluation based on data of actual submarine scars, which may have been caused by slumpings on the continental slope, is carried out. It was found that the slumping of a mass 6 km long, 2 km wide and about 50 m deep would cause the formation of a shock-induced solitary wave of about 10 m in height at the edge of the continental slope. The accompanying draw-down of the sea level at the coast would last about 1/2 - 1.5 hours and lay the sea floor bare for a distance of about 1/2 - 1.5 km in agreement with some of the historical descriptions. Though possibly occurring only once or twice in a millenium, earthquake-induced slumpings may constitute a danger to nuclear power plants. (B.G.)

  17. Knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel. (United States)

    Barnoy, Sivia; Ehrenfeld, Malka; Sharon, Rina; Tabak, Nili


    The success of mammal cloning in 1997 has brought the issue of human cloning into public discussion. Human cloning has several aspects and potential applications for use in both reproductive and non-reproductive matters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel. Data from 120 respondents (68 health professionals and 52 non-health professionals), all Jewish, Hebrew speaking with at least 15 years of education each, were collected using two questionnaires that dealt with knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning. Results showed that although health professionals had significantly more knowledge that non-health professionals, all respondents had poor knowledge about cloning. No difference in attitudes was found between the groups. Most respondents opposed human cloning, but more positive attitudes toward non-reproductive cloning were found. The results are discussed in the context of the deficit model. The findings indicate a need to provide information about human cloning to allow people to form their attitudes based on factual knowledge.

  18. [Characteristics and perceptions of physician managers in Israel]. (United States)

    Tabenkin, H; Tamir, A; Epstein, L; Shvartzman, P


    In a survey of 120 physician managers (PM) of the Israel Ministry of Health and the General Sick Fund (Kupat Holim), demographic and managerial characteristics and perceptions of what is important for effective performance were studied. Medical directors of hospitals, districts and Kupat Holim clinics were included. The majority of the respondents had some training in medical management. 33% are family physicians, 15% are internists, 33% have degrees in public health, 17% are board certified in medical management, and 8% are pediatricians. None of the district and hospital medical directors of the General Sick Fund is a woman, but 40% of medical directors in Ministry of Health districts are women. More than 50% of PMs are not satisfied with the dualistic management that exists mainly in the General Sick Fund. 42% of the respondents stated that 8 or more years after residency is the most appropriate time to assume managerial roles. The average score of those who chose medical management from the point of view of job satisfaction was 7.4 +/- 2.3, but the rated satisfaction from performance as a PM in the health care system today is 4.2 +/- 2.6 (on a 1-10 scale). The most important managerial characteristics perceived by the respondents were credibility, ability to communicate and delegate, and leadership.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Alef


    Full Text Available The vast amount of archaeological data and information that is systematically accumulated in the Israel Antiquities Authority database, has not yet been transformed into a tool for heritage management, i.e. accessible knowledge of the sites' cultural significance and risk assessment that is needed to support wise decision making regarding its future. As a response, a pilot project for developing an inventory for the archaeological heritage management was launched. A basic ESRI ArcGIS Online system was developed as a prototype, following the categories recommended in international standards for documentation. Five field surveys implementing the GIS system were conducted to examine different aspects and workflows: ancient synagogues in the Galilee, sites at risk, mosaics in Tel Shiqmona, the ancient settlement of Huqoq and sites included in The National Master Plan for Forests and Afforestation. The pilot project revealed the main gaps in knowledge and the critical faults in the working procedures. In spite of the systems' technological limitations, the results were convincing enough to promote a multidisciplinary discussion about the need for integration of significance and risk assessment in the working processes of the organization.

  20. Towards AN Inventory for Archaeological Heritage Management in Israel (United States)

    Alef, Y.


    The vast amount of archaeological data and information that is systematically accumulated in the Israel Antiquities Authority database, has not yet been transformed into a tool for heritage management, i.e. accessible knowledge of the sites' cultural significance and risk assessment that is needed to support wise decision making regarding its future. As a response, a pilot project for developing an inventory for the archaeological heritage management was launched. A basic ESRI ArcGIS Online system was developed as a prototype, following the categories recommended in international standards for documentation. Five field surveys implementing the GIS system were conducted to examine different aspects and workflows: ancient synagogues in the Galilee, sites at risk, mosaics in Tel Shiqmona, the ancient settlement of Huqoq and sites included in The National Master Plan for Forests and Afforestation. The pilot project revealed the main gaps in knowledge and the critical faults in the working procedures. In spite of the systems' technological limitations, the results were convincing enough to promote a multidisciplinary discussion about the need for integration of significance and risk assessment in the working processes of the organization.

  1. The algorithm design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Skiena, Steven S


    Explaining designing algorithms, and analyzing their efficacy and efficiency, this book covers combinatorial algorithms technology, stressing design over analysis. It presents instruction on methods for designing and analyzing computer algorithms. It contains the catalog of algorithmic resources, implementations and a bibliography

  2. The Algorithmic Imaginary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher, Taina


    of algorithms affect people's use of these platforms, if at all? To help answer these questions, this article examines people's personal stories about the Facebook algorithm through tweets and interviews with 25 ordinary users. To understand the spaces where people and algorithms meet, this article develops....... Examining how algorithms make people feel, then, seems crucial if we want to understand their social power....

  3. Algorithmically specialized parallel computers

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Lawrence; Gannon, Dennis B


    Algorithmically Specialized Parallel Computers focuses on the concept and characteristics of an algorithmically specialized computer.This book discusses the algorithmically specialized computers, algorithmic specialization using VLSI, and innovative architectures. The architectures and algorithms for digital signal, speech, and image processing and specialized architectures for numerical computations are also elaborated. Other topics include the model for analyzing generalized inter-processor, pipelined architecture for search tree maintenance, and specialized computer organization for raster

  4. Risk factors for DSM-5 posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among Israeli civilians during the 2014 Israel-Hamas war. (United States)

    Gil, Sharon; Weinberg, Michael; Shamai, Michal; Ron, Pnina; Harel, Hila; Or-Chen, Keren


    In light of current modifications in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), this study aimed to revalidate well-known PTSD risk factors related to terrorism and war in Israel, namely, proximity to the Gaza Strip, dissociative symptoms, acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms, and social support. One hundred and sixty Israeli civilians were assessed during the 2014 Israel-Hamas war at 2 time points: 1 week after the beginning of the operation (t1) and 1 month after initial evaluation (t2), using the DSM-5 PTSD Symptom Levels Scale (PSLS; Gil, Weinberg, Or-Chen, & Harel, 2015). A paired t test analysis showed significant reduction in the respondents' posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) 1 month after the initial assessment point. A structural equation model (SEM) showed that higher ASD symptoms at t1 and higher dissociative symptoms at t2 increased the risk for PTSS at t2. Conversely, higher peritraumatic dissociation at t1 decreased the risk for PTSS at t2. Proximity to the Gaza Strip, and social support, failed to demonstrate significant association with PTSS at t2. DSM-5 PTSS 1 month after prolonged traumatic exposure are strongly associated with high ASD symptoms at 1 week as a risk factor; high levels of peritraumatic dissociation at 1 week as a protective factor; and high levels of dissociative symptoms at 1 month as a risk factor. Theoretically and clinically the findings of the study further suggest that ongoing massive terrorism and war cannot be viewed or treated as identical to other traumas. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Teaching in conflict contexts: dimensions of subjective wellbeing in Palestinian teachers living in Israel and the occupied Palestinian territory. (United States)

    Pepe, Alessandro; Addimando, Loredana; Dagdouke, Jamal; Yagi, Shaher; Veronese, Guido


    recognition. Salient themes for the Arab-Israeli group were professional, emotional, and social dimensions. Despite some differences between the diasporic Palestinian populations in the occupied Palestinian territories and Israel, the categories of wellbeing are supported in all cohorts. None. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Salinization and dilution history of ground water discharging into the Sea of Galilee, the Dead Sea Transform, Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergelson, G.; Nativ, R.; Bein, A.


    The mechanism governing salinization of ground water discharging into the Sea of Galilee in Israel has been the subject of debate for several decades. Because the lake provides 25% of the water consumed annually in Israel, correct identification of the salt sources is essential for the establishment of suitable water-management strategies for the lake and the ground water in the surrounding aquifers. Existing salinization models were evaluated in light of available and newly acquired data including general chemistry, and O, H, C and Cl isotopes. Based on the chemical and isotopic observations, the proposed salt source is an ancient, intensively evaporated brine (21- to 33-fold seawater) which percolated through the valley formations from a lake which had formed in the Rift Valley following seawater intrusion during the late Miocene. Low Na:Cl and high Br:Cl values support the extensive evaporation, whereas high Ca:Cl and low Mg:Cl values indicate the impact of dolomitization of the carbonate host rock on the residual solution. Based on radiocarbon and other isotope data, the dilution of the original brine occurred in two stages: the first took place similar30andpuncsp; omitted000 a ago by slightly evaporated fresh-to-brackish lake water to form the Sea of Galilee Brine. The second dilution phase is associated with the current hydrological regime as the Sea of Galilee Brine migrates upward along the Rift faults and mixes with the actively circulating fresh ground water to form the saline springs. The spatially variable chemical and isotopic features of the saline springs suggest not only differential dilution by fresh meteoric water, but also differential percolation timing of the original brine into the tectonically disconnected blocks, registering different evaporation stages in the original brine. Consequently, various operations to reduce the brine contribution to the lake may be differentially effective in the various areas. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science

  7. The Emergence of a Cosmopolitan Tel Aviv: New Dynamics of Migrations in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Berthomière


    Full Text Available During the 90’s, Israel and the Palestinians were unable to reach a Peace agreement and this unsuccessful period led to the production of a new Israeli ethnoscape. With increased Israeli border closures (within the pre-1967 limits to Palestinian workers, the Israeli government had to authorize the entrance of foreign workers from Eastern Europe (Romania, Poland but also from Asia (Thailand, the Philippines. These new “faces” of Israel aroused fears concerning their “settlement” and gradually caused a debate, which underlined the social cleavages of Israel. This debate took on more importance as immigrants from West Africa and South America (pushed to Israel by the globalisation were added to this – first – group of non-Jewish immigrants. These regular and irregular immigrations raised the question about the Jewish identity of the State and at the same time have drawn the limits of an Israeli cosmopolitanism. Using the example of Israel, the aim of this paper is to contribute to knowledge about the forms of emergence of “new cosmopolitanisms” and to critique a concept elaborated to describe the tension existing between national discourse and globalisation.

  8. Mycetoma (Madura Foot) in Israel: Recent Cases and a Systematic Review of the Literature. (United States)

    Bitan, Ohad; Wiener-Well, Yonit; Segal, Rina; Schwartz, Eli


    AbstractMycetoma is a chronic soft tissue infection caused by fungal or bacterial pathogens, and is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. Cases in developed countries outside the mycetoma belt are rare and usually imported by immigrants. Sporadic cases have been reported in Israel. Unpublished cases in the participating medical centers are reported. In addition, a systematic review of the literature was performed. All published mycetoma cases diagnosed in Israel were included with relevant variables collected. Twenty-one cases of mycetoma were diagnosed in Israel between 1942 and 2015, including four unpublished cases and 17 published cases. The mean age at diagnosis was 42 years (range 23-73), and 16 of the patients were male. The foot was the primary involved organ. Fifteen patients were immigrants from Yemen, Ethiopia, and Sudan. Five cases were autochthonous. One case was travel related. Among patients who developed symptoms after immigration, the mean time from exposure to symptom onset was 5.6 years (range 1-10 years). The mean time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 6.6 years (range 0.2-35 years). The autochthonous cases demonstrate that Israel is endemic of mycetoma. The immigrant population represents two distinct waves of immigration to Israel in the past century. Two unpublished cases of Ethiopian immigrants are the first reported cases of mycetoma acquired in Ethiopia. The diagnostic and therapeutic challenges along with the epidemiological data emphasize the need of raising the awareness of physicians to this devastating condition even in developed countries.

  9. Trends in the Epidemiology of Campylobacteriosis in Israel (1999-2012). (United States)

    Bassal, Ravit; Lerner, Larisa; Valinsky, Lea; Agmon, Vered; Peled, Nehama; Block, Colin; Keller, Nati; Keness, Yoram; Taran, Diana; Shainberg, Bracha; Ken-Dror, Shifra; Treygerman, Orit; Rouach, Tsvi; Lowenthal, Shulamit; Shohat, Tamar; Cohen, Daniel


    The objective of this study was to examine the recent trends in the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis in Israel. A Sentinel Laboratory-Based Surveillance Network for Bacterial Enteric Diseases was established in Israel by the Israel Center for Disease Control (ICDC). This network generated data on subjects from whom Campylobacter spp. was isolated in community and hospital laboratories. Further characterization of the isolates was done at the Campylobacter National Reference Laboratory. Data from these two sources were integrated and analyzed at the ICDC. Between 1999 and 2012, 40,978 Campylobacter stool isolates were reported to the ICDC by the sentinel laboratories. The incidence rate of campylobacteriosis increased from 65.7 per 100,000 in 1999 to 101.7 per 100,000 in 2012. This increase resulted from a significant rise in the incidence of campylobacteriosis in the Jewish population which, since 2009, surpassed the consistent higher incidence of the disease in Israeli Arabs. The peak morbidity in Israel consistently occurred in late spring, with a risk excess in males compared with females, in younger age groups and earlier in the life span among Arabs than among Jews and others. These results suggest that further analytical studies should be carried out to identify risk factors responsible for the increased incidence of campylobacteriosis and better direct prevention and control of the disease in Israel.

  10. Brucellosis Outbreak in Children and Adults in Two Areas in Israel (United States)

    Megged, Orli; Chazan, Bibiana; Ganem, Atef; Ayoub, Abeer; Yanovskay, Anna; Sakran, Waheeb; Miron, Dan; Dror-Cohen, Ahuva; Kennes, Yoram; Berdenstein, Svetlana; Glikman, Daniel


    Two parallel outbreaks of Brucella melitensis infection occurred in 2014 in two geographical areas in Israel. In two medical centers in northern Israel and one medical center in Jerusalem, 102 patients (58 children, 47 adults) were diagnosed with brucellosis. Most patients (N = 76, 72%) were Muslim Arabs, 28 (27%) were Druze, and one was Jewish. The source of infection was often traced to cheese from the Palestinian Authority. Biovar-1 was evident in 98% in northern Israel but only in 42% in Jerusalem. Most common manifestations were fever (82%) and osteoarticular symptoms (49%). The major differences between the geographic areas were ethnicity and duration until diagnosis. Compared with adults, children had higher rates of hospitalization (93% versus 64%, P = 0.001), osteoarticular symptoms (60% versus 36%, P = 0.05), elevated alanine aminotransferase (12% versus 0%, P = 0.01), and lower C-reactive protein (2.28 ± 2.08 versus 5.57 ± 6.3l mg/dL, P = 0.001). Two unrelated brucellosis outbreaks occurred in 2014 in two different geographic areas of Israel and were limited to sections of the Arab and Druze populations. Most of the demographic and clinical aspects of patients were not affected by geographic variability. Clinical and laboratory differences were found between children and adults emphasizing the nonuniformity of the disease in different age groups. Effective control of unpasteurized dairy foods, health education programs, and improved regional cooperation are required to control brucellosis in Israel. PMID:27114301

  11. Israel wildfires: future trends, impacts and mitigation strategies (United States)

    Wittenberg, Lea


    Forest fires in the Euro-Mediterranean region burn about 450,000 ha each year. In Israel, the frequency and extent of wildfires have been steadily increasing over the past decades, culminating in several large and costly fires in 2010, 2012 and 2016. The extensive development of forest areas since the 1950's and the accumulation of fuel in the forests, has led to increased occurrences of high intensity fires. Land-use changes and human population growth are the most prevailing and common determinant of wildfire occurrence and impacts. Climate extremes, possibly already a sign of regional climate change, are another frequent determinant of increasing wildfire risk. Therefore, the combination of extreme dry spells, high fuel loads and increased anthropogenic pressure on the open spaces result in an overall amplified wildfire risk. These fires not only cause loss of life and damage to properties but also carry serious environmental repercussions. Combustion of standing vegetation and the leaf litter leave the soil bare and vulnerable to runoff and erosion, thereby increasing risks of flooding. Today, all of Israel's open spaces, forests, natural parks, major metropolitan centers, towns and villages are embedded within the wildland urban interface (WUI). Typically, wildfires near or in the WUI occur on uplands and runoff generated from the burned area poses flooding risks in urban and agricultural zones located downstream. Post-fire management aims at reducing associated hazards as collapsing trees and erosion risk. Often the time interval between a major fire and the definition of priority sites is in the order of days-to-weeks since administrative procedures, financial estimates and implementation of post-fire salvage logging operations require time. Defining the magnitude of the burn scar and estimating its potential impact on runoff and erosion must therefore be done quickly. A post-fire burn severity, runoff and erosion model is a useful tool in estimating

  12. Economic effects of interventions to reduce obesity in Israel. (United States)

    Ginsberg, Gary M; Rosenberg, Elliot


    Obesity is a major risk factor for many diseases. The paper calculates the economic impact and the cost per Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY) resulting from the adoption of eight interventions comprising the clinical and part of the community components of the National Prevention and Health Promotion Program (NPHPP) of the Israeli Ministry of Health (MOH) which represents the obesity control implementation arm of the MOH Healthy Israel 2020 Initiative. Health care costs per person were calculated by body mass index (BMI) by applying Israeli cost data to aggregated results from international studies. These were applied to BMI changes from eight intervention programmes in order to calculate reductions in direct treatment costs. Indirect cost savings were also estimated as were additional costs due to increased longevity of program participants. Data on costs and QALYs gained from Israeli and International dietary interventions were combined to provide cost-utility estimates of an intervention program to reduce obesity in Israel over a range of recidivism rates. On average, persons who were overweight (25 ≤ BMI costs that were 12.2% above the average health care costs of persons with normal or sub-normal weight to height ratios (BMI costs rose to 31.4% and 73.0% for obese and severely obese persons, respectively.For overweight (25 ≤ BMI costs per person for the interventions (including the screening overhead) ranged from 35 NIS for a community intervention to 860 NIS, reflecting the intensity of the clinical setting intervention and the unit costs of the professionals carrying out the intervention [e.g., dietician]. Expected average BMI decreases ranged from 0.05 to 0.90. Higher intervention costs and larger BMI decreases characterized the two clinical lifestyle interventions for the severely obese (BMI ≥ 40).A program directed at the entire Israeli population aged 20 and over, using a variety of eight different interventions would cost 2.07 billion NIS overall

  13. Survey of intravitreal injection techniques among retina specialists in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segal O


    Full Text Available Ori Segal,1,2 Yael Segal-Trivitz,1,3 Arie Y Nemet,1,2 Noa Geffen,1,2 Ronit Nesher,1,2 Michael Mimouni4 1Department of Ophthalmology, Meir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, 2The Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 3Department of Psychiatry, Geha Psychiatric Hospital, Petah Tikva, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe antivascular endothelial growth factor intravitreal injection techniques of retinal specialists in order to establish a cornerstone for future practice guidelines. Methods: All members of the Israeli Retina Society were contacted by email to complete an anonymous, 19-question, Internet-based survey regarding their intravitreal injection techniques. Results: Overall, 66% (52/79 completed the survey. Most (98% do not instruct patients to discontinue anticoagulant therapy and 92% prescribe treatment for patients in the waiting room. Three quarters wear sterile gloves and prepare the patient in the supine position. A majority (71% use sterile surgical draping. All respondents apply topical analgesics and a majority (69% measure the distance from the limbus to the injection site. A minority (21% displace the conjunctiva prior to injection. A majority of the survey participants use a 30-gauge needle and the most common quadrant for injection is superotemporal (33%. Less than half routinely assess postinjection optic nerve perfusion (44%. A majority (92% apply prophylactic antibiotics immediately after the injection. Conclusion: The majority of retina specialists perform intravitreal injections similarly. However, a relatively large minority performs this procedure differently. Due to the extremely low percentage of complications, it seems as though such differences do not increase the risk. However, more evidence-based medicine, a cornerstone for practice guidelines, is required in order to identify the intravitreal injection techniques

  14. 20 year long term air quality trends in Israel (United States)

    Luria, M.


    The Israeli air monitoring network was established in the mid 1990's with dozens of measuring sites near most populated areas. During these past 20 years the Israel economy has increased significantly. The population grew by 30%, energy consumption and power generation by more than 40% and the number of motor vehicles increased by nearly 50%. Most of the fossil energy is consumed by the electric power industry that has changed immensely during this period. Until the early 2000's the vast majority of the electricity was generated from coal and heavy oil. However, during the last ten years natural gas has gradually becomes the major source for power generation and for most of the heavy industry. In the present study we examined the impact of these economic trends on the major criteria air pollution parameters; O3, NOx, SO2 and PM10. The analyses was based on the long term trend of median value (50th percentile) and the 90th percentile. The results revealed that SO2 levels throughout the country decreased to very low levels, with the 90th percentile near the detection limit. The levels of PM10, that are relatively high compare with other global regions, did not show any trend during the 20 year period. This is consistent with the fact that most particulate matter results from long range transport of dust from the surrounding deserts. The long term trend of NOx indicates a gradual and steady increase at most measuring sites, which is consistent with the increase of fossil fuel consumption. The increase in NOx levels is most likely the cause for the significant increase in O3 levels found at most sites in a few of them to levels that are considered as an environmental hazard.

  15. Emergency preparedness and response in Israel during the Gulf War. (United States)

    Barach, P; Rivkind, A; Israeli, A; Berdugo, M; Richter, E D


    We examined the effect of the emergency response on medical and public health problems during the 1991 Gulf War in Israel. On the first day of the conflict, the number of deaths from suffocation, asphyxiation, aspiration, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, and cerebrovascular accident increased abruptly, as did the number of sudden deaths associated with the use of tight-fitting masks with filters in sealed rooms. Much of the excess risk for death from cardiorespiratory complications during the first alert may have been a consequence of its duration (140 minutes). Mass evacuation and concrete buildings are believed to have kept the death toll from trauma down, and mask use may have protected against facial and upper-airway injuries. Falls and hip fractures, airway irritation from exposure to bleach, carbon monoxide intoxication from open kerosene heaters in sealed rooms, and self-injection with atropine syringes were also noted. A measles epidemic and increased death rates from automobile crashes were other preventable causes of death. Protection against biological warfare was limited to surveillance of trends for pneumonia and gastroenteritis. Emergency planners failed to anticipate the need for better mask fit, hands-on training in the use of masks, and special guidelines for older persons to prevent deaths from suffocation and other cardiovascular-respiratory problems in the first minutes of use. If masks are to be distributed as a protection against chemical warfare, a simpler model including the use of shrouds for whole-body skin protection might help avoid cardiorespiratory complications. Public health problems not adequately dealt with in the predisaster period are apt to emerge with greater severity during a crisis.

  16. Perang Enam Hari Arab Israel 1967 Menerusi Perspektif Teori Realisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Realism approach has dominated the studies of world politics and international relations since the last of the World War II and until the start of the Cold War era. The focus of this study is to look into the factors that ignited the war other than identifying the policies or actions taken by the countries involved in the war. The question that arises lies in the extent to which the approach is able to explain the factors and actions taken by the leaders, to the point that it led to the 1967 war, and how this war can serve as guidance for our understanding of the Realism Theory. The objective of this study is to unravel the chains of events that had become the background of the 1967 Arab-Israeli War by concentrating on the root causes of the war and the policies of the countries involved, other than offering justification for the Realism Theory by looking closely into the characteristics, assumptions, and concepts under this approach. The methodology of this work employs document analysis and historical studies to obtain complete data. The analysis was carried out by applying the Arab-Israeli war events to the Realism Theory to prove that there is an association between the causes of the war and the theory through the analysis unit, key assumptions and substantial concepts contained in the Realism approach. The unit of analysis, which places the countries as the main actor in the international system, can be seen through the main role of Egypt, Jordan, Syria and Israel throughout the period of war. Concepts such as power, power balance, national interests, national sovereignty and self-help are also associated with the causes behind this war through a series of facts that have manifested themselves in the event

  17. A community based study of failure to thrive in Israel. (United States)

    Wilensky, D S; Ginsberg, G; Altman, M; Tulchinsky, T H; Ben Yishay, F; Auerbach, J


    OBJECTIVE: To examine the characteristics of infants suffering from failure to thrive in a community based cohort in Israel and to ascertain the effect of failure to thrive on their cognitive development. METHODS: By review of records maintained at maternal and child health clinics in Jerusalem and the two of Beit Shemesh, epidemiological data were obtained at age 15 months on a cohort of all babies born in 1991. For each case of failure to thrive, a matched control was selected from the same maternal and child health clinic. At age 20 months, cognitive development was measured, and at 25 months a home visit was carried out to assess maternal psychiatric status by questionnaire, and the HOME assessment was performed to assess the home environment. RESULTS: 3.9% of infants were found to have fallen below the third centile in weight for at least three months during the first year of life. Infants with failure to thrive did not differ from the general population in terms of obstetric or neonatal complications, birth order, or parents' ethnic origin, age, or years of education. The infants with failure to thrive did have lower birthweights and marginally smaller head circumferences at birth. Developmental assessment at 20 months of age showed a DQ of 99.7 v 107.2 in the matched controls, with 11.5% having a DQ below 80, as opposed to only 4.6% of the controls. No differences were found in maternal psychiatric problems as measured by a self report questionnaire. There were, however, significant differences in subscales of the HOME scale. CONCLUSIONS: (1) Infants who suffered from failure to thrive had some physiological predispositions that put them at risk; (2) failure to thrive may be an early marker of families providing suboptimal developmental stimulation. PMID:8869197

  18. Fractional Reserve in Banking System


    Valkonen, Maria


    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  19. Male Nurses in Israel: Barriers, Motivation, and How They Are Perceived by Nursing Students. (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Liat; Livshiz-Riven, Ilana; Romem, Pnina; Grinstein-Cohen, Orli

    The current worldwide nursing shortage remains a challenge for the nursing profession. Encouraging men to become nurses and, thereby, increasing the number of practitioners are crucial factors in facing this challenge. The historiography of nursing presents nursing as "women's work," based on the assumption that it is inherently appropriate for women only. Although men were employed as nurses even before nursing was recognized as a profession, male nurses were always a minority in the field. Over the years, the proportion of male nurses has increased, but they still comprise only 5 to 10% of the nursing workforce in the western world. This study examined men's motives for a career choice of nursing, how male nurses are perceived, and the barriers that they face. The study was conducted among 336 nursing students studying in a co-educational program in various academic tracks at a public, nonsectarian university in the south of Israel. Participants completed the following questionnaires in one study session: sociodemographic questionnaire; Attitudes Towards Men in Nursing Scale; motives for career choice questionnaire; and the questionnaire of the perceptions of the professional status of nursing. Study findings revealed that men tended to choose nursing because of financial constraints significantly more frequently than women (P=.001). Among the participants, there was no significant between-sex difference in the perception nursing as women's work (P=.002) or in perception of male nurses as homosexuals. Results of the study showed that the status of the nursing profession is considered low, and the low status deters men from choosing nursing as a career. The motivation for men's career choice must be understood, and men must be empowered to improve their work conditions and financial remuneration in order to recruit men to the field and to improve the perception of the profession and its public status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Knowledge and recommendation regarding routine childhood vaccinations among pediatric healthcare providers in Israel. (United States)

    Shibli, Rana; Shemer, Rivka; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Rishpon, Shmuel


    A recommendation by pediatric healthcare providers (HCPs) is a major factor influencing parents' decision to vaccinate their children. Consequently, it is important to understand the motives behind the HCPs' recommendations to vaccinate children according to the routine immunization program. To study the association of pediatric HCPs' knowledge about and attitudes towards childhood vaccinations and of their professional and demographic characteristics, with two variables: 1. Their recommendations to parents regarding adherence to the routine immunization program. 2. Their choices concerning routine immunization of their own children. We conducted a cross-sectional study of pediatric nurses and physicians working at Mother-Child Health Clinics (MCHCs) in Haifa and Tel-Aviv districts and at a hospital in Hadera City, Israel. A structured, anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used. The overall response rate was 60%, totaling 218 participants. 92% of whom were nurses. Misconceptions related to vaccine safety were found among a high percentage of the participants. The HCPs knowledge level was associated with the HCPs vaccinating their own children according to the recommended immunization program (OR=1.32; CI95% 1.06-1.64), but not with their recommendation to parents to adhere to the program. No association was found between attitudes and these variables. Workplace (MCHCs versus hospital) correlated with the above mentioned two dependent variables (OR=1.89; CI95% 1.21-2.97 and OR=2.42; CI95% 1.73-3.4, respectively). Amplifying the knowledge of HCPs and addressing their concern about vaccinations can improve their adherence to the routine immunization program regarding their own children. This may lead to better adherence of other parents who are frequently interested in the HCPs' behavior and consider them as a role model. In general, there is a need to emphasize the HCP's responsibility for the successful implementation of the immunization program in the

  1. Meningitis and Meningoencephalitis among Israel Defense Force Soldiers: 20 Years Experience at the Hadassah Medical Centers. (United States)

    Pikkel, Yoav Y; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Eliahou, Ruth; Honig, Asaf


    Meningitis and meningoencephalitis pose major risks of morbidity and mortality. To describe 20 years of experience treating infections of the central nervous system in Israel Defense Force (IDF) soldiers, including the common presentations, pathogens and sequelae, and to identify risk groups among soldiers. All soldiers who were admitted to the Hadassah University Medical Center (both campuses: Ein Kerem and Mt. Scopus) due to meningitis and meningoencephalitis from January 1993 to January 2014 were included in this retrospective study. Clinical, laboratory and radiologic data were reviewed from their hospital and army medical corps files. Attention was given to patients' military job description, i.e., combat vs. non-combat soldier, soldiers in training, and medical personnel. We identified 97 cases of suspected meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Six were mistakenly filed and these patients were found to have other disorders. Four soldiers were diagnosed with epidural abscess and five with meningitis due to non-infectious in flammatory diseases. Eighty-two soldiers in active and reserve duty had infectious meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Of these, 46 (56.1%) were combat soldiers and 31 (37.8%) non-combat; 20 (29.2%) were soldiers in training, 10 (12.2%) were training staff and 8 (9.8%) were medical staff. The main pathogens were enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus an d Neisseria meningitidis. In our series, soldiers in training, combat soldiers and medical personnel had meningitis and meningoencephalitis more than other soldiers. Enteroviruses are highly infectious pathogens and can cause outbreaks. N. meningitidis among IDF soldiers is still a concern. Early and aggressive treatment with steroids should be considered especially in robust meningoencephalitis cases.

  2. Teachers' Perceptions of School Principals' Leadership Styles and Parental Involvement--The Case of the Arab Education System in Israel (United States)

    Arar, Khalid; Abramovitz, Ruth; Daod, Saeda; Awad, Yasir; Khalil, Mahmood


    This study deals with teachers' perceptions of principals' leadership style as it affects parental involvement (PI) in the special context of the Arab education system in Israel. Contemporary perceptions of education within the Western individualist society, including in the majority society in Israel, regard the full spectrum of PI, ranging from…

  3. Attitudes towards Bilingual Arab-Hebrew Education in Israel: A Comparative Study of Jewish and Arab Adults (United States)

    Azaiza, Faisal; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Shoham, Meyrav; Amara, Muhammad; Mor-Sommerfeld, Aura; 'Ali, Nohad


    This study examines attitudes towards bilingual Jewish-Arab education among Jewish and Arab adults in Israel. The sample consisted of 1014 respondents who participated in a national phone survey in late 2006. Results indicate that Arabs are significantly more supportive of bilingual education in Israel than Jews. Positive attitudes regarding the…

  4. Proceedings of the 21 conference of the nuclear societies in Israel. Final program and book of summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    On the occasion of the 50 anniversary of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission, there was held the 21 conference of the Nuclear Societies in Israel. The presentations addressed various aspects in the fields of nuclear industry, radiation protection and nuclear medicine

  5. Nutritional deficiencies in the pediatric age group in a multicultural developed country, Israel. (United States)

    Haimi, Motti; Lerner, Aaron


    Nutrient deficiencies are prevalent worldwide. Diseases and morbid conditions have been described to result from nutritional deficiencies. It is essential to address nutrient deficiencies as these may lead to chronic long-term health problems such as rickets, iron deficiency anemia, goiter, obesity, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke, cancer and osteoporosis. In the present review we surveyed the extent and severity of nutritional deficiencies in Israel through a selective and comprehensive Medline review of previous reports and studies performed during the last 40 years. Israeli populations have multiple nutritional deficiencies, including iron, calcium, zinc, folic acid, and vitamins B12, C, D and E, spanning all age groups, several minorities, and specific regions. In Israel, some of the nutrients are mandatorily implemented and many of them are implemented voluntarily by local industries. We suggest ways to prevent and treat the nutritional deficiencies, as a step to promote food fortification in Israel.

  6. Israel and Iran's Nuclear Program: Groundless Obsession or Genuine Concern?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menashri, David


    The combination of radical ideology, as espoused by Iran's leadership, and weapons of mass destruction (WMD) is the root cause of Israeli concerns. Iran's attitude towards Israel seems to be rooted in a deep sense of religious mission, identification with the Palestinian problem, opposition to Israel and to its policies. For Islamic Iran, Judaism is a religion, not a nationality, and therefore Jews do not have the right to a state, certainly not in the Middle East. Moreover Iran supports Islamic groups as Hezbollah and Hamas. In this context Israel should view the Iranian nuclear program as the problem of the world, but the international community is not doing what it is supposed to do to solve the problem

  7. On the verge of shared decision making in Israel: Overview and future directions. (United States)

    Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Siegal, Gil; Zisman-Ilani, Yaara


    Israel has a universal-national healthcare system and a progressive health policy legislation which, together, provide its residents with high-level healthcare services and either free or highly subsidized coverage without any pre-existing conditions. However, it is surprising that shared decision making (SDM) practices and policy are not an integral part of Israel's healthcare system. The purpose of this overview is to describe the gap between the organizational-infrastructure compatibility of Israel's universal healthcare policy and the efforts needed to advance SDM as part of routine healthcare practice. Review of recent research and education initiatives will be described as well as recommendations for policy and clinical practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  8. How to effectively compensate a victim of terrorism: Comparison of Serbian and Israel solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrvić-Petrović Nataša


    Full Text Available Two models of victim compensation: through civil litigation and through administrative public funds are explored in this article in order to compare their effectiveness. Two legislations are compared: Serbian and Israel. A special legal basis for compensation from the State is foreseen in Serbian legislation. A natural person may claim compensation for the complete damage caused, in case of death, bodily injury or destruction of property. However, such claims are rarely charged. In Israel, limited amounts are paid from the public funds to victims of hostile actions in case of death, bodily injury or property damage. Israel also compensates companies for material damages on the property that is located in areas with a high risk from terrorism. This solution is considered to be more efficient, because it protects victims’ interests more effectively.

  9. Conflict and Care: Israeli Healthcare Providers and Syrian Patients and Caregivers in Israel. (United States)

    Young, Savannah S; Lewis, Denise C; Gilbey, Peter; Eisenman, Arie; Schuster, Richard; Seponski, Desiree M


    Israel has provided immediate healthcare to Syrian children, civilians and fighters since early 2013 despite being in an official state of war with Syria since 1973. We present qualitative findings from a larger mixed-methods phenomenological study to understand how the geopolitical and social history of Israel and Syria influences healthcare providers and Syrian patient caregivers in northern Israel. Theories of humanization and cognitive dissonance guided this study and frame the beliefs and experiences of healthcare providers who treated wounded Syrians in Israeli hospitals. Findings indicate healthcare providers and Syrian caregivers adjusted their beliefs to allow for positive healthcare experiences. Qualitative analysis revealed two major themes: supportive and hindering systemic elements contributing to the healthcare provider-patient-caregiver relationship. Internal psychological developments, contextual factors, and relational processes influenced humanization of the other within the relationship. This study illuminates unique ethical and humanitarian demands relevant for healthcare workers and those with whom they interact.

  10. "That was the beginning": The professionalization and Americanization of dentistry in pre-state Israel. (United States)

    Katvan, Eyal


    The history of dental practice in Israel dates back to 1953, with the establishment of the Faculty of Dentistry at the Hebrew University. This article will discuss the early roots of American involvement in Israeli dentistry: beginning with the late Ottoman period in Palestine, through the British Mandate, the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, and the institution of the Faculty of Dentistry at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. It will introduce the central characters who promoted the professionalization process of dentistry in Israel--a process made possible by the 'Americanization' of the field: importing American knowledge and practice. Moreover, this article will demonstrate that although the majority of dentists and dental practitioners arrived in Palestine from Russia and from Germany, the main professional influence was American.

  11. Essays in the California electricity reserves markets (United States)

    Metaxoglou, Konstantinos

    This dissertation examines inefficiencies in the California electricity reserves markets. In Chapter 1, I use the information released during the investigation of the state's electricity crisis of 2000 and 2001 by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to diagnose allocative inefficiencies. Building upon the work of Wolak (2000), I calculate a lower bound for the sellers' price-cost margins using the inverse elasticities of their residual demand curves. The downward bias in my estimates stems from the fact that I don't account for the hierarchical substitutability of the reserve types. The margins averaged at least 20 percent for the two highest quality types of reserves, regulation and spinning, generating millions of dollars in transfers to a handful of sellers. I provide evidence that the deviations from marginal cost pricing were due to the markets' high concentration and a principal-agent relationship that emerged from their design. In Chapter 2, I document systematic differences between the markets' day- and hour-ahead prices. I use a high-dimensional vector moving average model to estimate the premia and conduct correct inferences. To obtain exact maximum likelihood estimates of the model, I employ the EM algorithm that I develop in Chapter 3. I uncover significant day-ahead premia, which I attribute to market design characteristics too. On the demand side, the market design established a principal-agent relationship between the markets' buyers (principal) and their supervisory authority (agent). The agent had very limited incentives to shift reserve purchases to the lower priced hour-ahead markets. On the supply side, the market design raised substantial entry barriers by precluding purely speculative trading and by introducing a complicated code of conduct that induced uncertainty about which actions were subject to regulatory scrutiny. In Chapter 3, I introduce a state-space representation for vector autoregressive moving average models that enables


    Siegal, Gil; Glick, Shimon; Offer-Stark, Irit; Steinberg, Avraham


    Force feeding of fasting hunger-striking prisoners is the subject of considerable controversy in Israel and elsewhere, posing a direct conflict between two basic ethical values: that of human life and respect for autonomy. The Israel Medical Association, as well as the World Medical Association, has taken the position that force feeding of such prisoners is an act of torture and is therefore unethical. However this paper presents an opposing view, which recently became the law in Israel, that, whereas the rights of prisoners to decree a hunger strike as a form of protest should be respected, if the prolongation of the strike reaches a stage of clear and present danger to the life and health of a prisoner, the saving of the prisoner's life must take precedence over considerations of autonomy. The paper present the steps that should be taken, including extensive and empathic efforts to persuade the prisoner to end his/her fast; gaining the approval of a hospital's ethics committee; and gaining the approval of a district court judge; the feeding is to be carried out in the most humane and sensitive manner as befitting a lifesaving procedure for any patient. This position is consistent with Israel's Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty, Israel's Patient Rights Law, Israel's "Do not stand idly by your fellow man's blood" Law, with several Israeli court decisions and in keeping with the dominant Israeli culture. Finally, instructions for physicians who object to such measures are discussed, ascertaining the freedom of conscience as well as preserving the life of the hunger-strikers.

  13. Interpreting EU–Israel relations: a contextual analysis of the EU’s Special Privileged Partnership proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira


    This article analyses the background, content and implications of the EU proposal for ‘Special Privileged Partnership’ status to be granted to Israel and the future state of Palestine in the event of a successful conclusion to the peace process. It employs a sociological institutionalist perspect......This article analyses the background, content and implications of the EU proposal for ‘Special Privileged Partnership’ status to be granted to Israel and the future state of Palestine in the event of a successful conclusion to the peace process. It employs a sociological institutionalist...... perspective to assess the diplomatic manoeuvring in the broader context of EU–Israel relations. The analysis offers an identification and categorization of the constitutive components of the EU–Israel relationship into formal and social elements. It argues that differences in threat perception, Israel...

  14. Managing U.S. Military Technology and Arms Release Policy to Israel (United States)


    New York Times, 12 October 1993, gst /fullpage.html?res=9F0CE5DB163BF931A25753C1A965958260 and Jeremy M. Sharp, U.S...Trade Key Players 24 2 AU/ACSC/HAHN/AY09 Notes 1 Ravinder Pal Singh, Arms Procurement Decision Making Volume I: China, India , Israel, Japan, South...China, India , Israel, Japan, South Korea and Thailand (Oxford University Press, 1998), 95, 4

  15. Genetic Analysis of Israel Acute Paralysis Virus: Distinct Clusters Are Circulating in the United States▿ (United States)

    Palacios, G.; Hui, J.; Quan, P. L.; Kalkstein, A.; Honkavuori, K. S.; Bussetti, A. V.; Conlan, S.; Evans, J.; Chen, Y. P.; vanEngelsdorp, D.; Efrat, H.; Pettis, J.; Cox-Foster, D.; Holmes, E. C.; Briese, T.; Lipkin, W. I.


    Israel acute paralysis virus (IAPV) is associated with colony collapse disorder of honey bees. Nonetheless, its role in the pathogenesis of the disorder and its geographic distribution are unclear. Here, we report phylogenetic analysis of IAPV obtained from bees in the United States, Canada, Australia, and Israel and the establishment of diagnostic real-time PCR assays for IAPV detection. Our data indicate the existence of at least three distinct IAPV lineages, two of them circulating in the United States. Analysis of representatives from each proposed lineage suggested the possibility of recombination events and revealed differences in coding sequences that may have implications for virulence. PMID:18434396

  16. A propósito da história de Israel de M. A. Beek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cesar Mota


    Full Text Available (primeiro parágrafo do texto O Professor M. A. Beek, da Universidade de Amsterdã, publicou em 1957 um pequeno, mais excelente livro, sobre a história do Israel bíblico, com o título Geschiedenis van Israel. Seis anos depois, em tradução de Arnold J. Pomerans, a obra surge em língua inglesa, da qual o Sr. Jorge E. M. Fortes a verteu para o vernáculo para a Editora Zahar que a trouxe a lume em 1967.

  17. Approximate iterative algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Almudevar, Anthony Louis


    Iterative algorithms often rely on approximate evaluation techniques, which may include statistical estimation, computer simulation or functional approximation. This volume presents methods for the study of approximate iterative algorithms, providing tools for the derivation of error bounds and convergence rates, and for the optimal design of such algorithms. Techniques of functional analysis are used to derive analytical relationships between approximation methods and convergence properties for general classes of algorithms. This work provides the necessary background in functional analysis a

  18. Autonomous Star Tracker Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Kilsgaard, Søren


    Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances.......Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances....

  19. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success. (United States)

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc


    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A verified LLL algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Divasón, Jose; Joosten, Sebastiaan; Thiemann, René; Yamada, Akihisa


    The Lenstra-Lenstra-Lovász basis reduction algorithm, also known as LLL algorithm, is an algorithm to find a basis with short, nearly orthogonal vectors of an integer lattice. Thereby, it can also be seen as an approximation to solve the shortest vector problem (SVP), which is an NP-hard problem,

  1. Nuclear, uranium, reserves, sustainability, independence; Nucleaire, Uranium, reserves, durabilite, independance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acket, C


    In order to evaluate the energy independence concerning the nuclear energy, the author takes the state of the art about the uranium. He details the fuel needs, the reserves on the base of the today available techniques, the reserves on the base of the future techniques and concludes positively on the energy independence for the nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  2. Nature-inspired optimization algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She


    Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithms provides a systematic introduction to all major nature-inspired algorithms for optimization. The book's unified approach, balancing algorithm introduction, theoretical background and practical implementation, complements extensive literature with well-chosen case studies to illustrate how these algorithms work. Topics include particle swarm optimization, ant and bee algorithms, simulated annealing, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, bat algorithm, flower algorithm, harmony search, algorithm analysis, constraint handling, hybrid methods, parameter tuning

  3. Israel Marine Bio-geographic Database (ISRAMAR-BIO) (United States)

    Greengrass, Eyal; Krivenko, Yevgeniya; Ozer, Tal; Ben Yosef, Dafna; Tom, Moshe; Gertman, Isaac


    The knowledge of the space/time variations of species is the basis for any ecological investigations. While historical observations containing integral concentrations of biological parameters (chlorophyll, abundance, biomass…) are organized partly in ISRAMAR Cast Database, the taxon-specific data collected in Israel has not been sufficiently organized. This has been hindered by the lack of standards, variability of methods and complexity of biological data formalization. The ISRAMAR-BIO DB was developed to store various types of historical and future available information related to marine species observations and related metadata. Currently the DB allows to store biological data acquired by the following sampling devices such as: van veer grab, box corer, sampling bottles, nets (plankton, trawls and fish), quadrates, and cameras. The DB's logical unit is information regarding a specimen (taxa name, barcode, image), related attributes (abundance, size, age, contaminants…), habitat description, sampling device and method, time and space of sampling, responsible organization and scientist, source of information (cruise, project and publication). The following standardization of specimen and attributes naming were implemented: Taxonomy according to World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS: Habitat description according to Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standards (CMECS: Parameter name; Unit; Device name; Developmental stage; Institution name; Country name; Marine region according to SeaDataNet Vocabularies ( This system supports two types of data submission procedures, which support the above stated data structure. The first is a downloadable excel file with drop-down fields based on the ISRAMAR-BIO vocabularies. The file is filled and uploaded online by the data contributor. Alternatively, the same dataset can be assembled by

  4. Parallel sorting algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Akl, Selim G


    Parallel Sorting Algorithms explains how to use parallel algorithms to sort a sequence of items on a variety of parallel computers. The book reviews the sorting problem, the parallel models of computation, parallel algorithms, and the lower bounds on the parallel sorting problems. The text also presents twenty different algorithms, such as linear arrays, mesh-connected computers, cube-connected computers. Another example where algorithm can be applied is on the shared-memory SIMD (single instruction stream multiple data stream) computers in which the whole sequence to be sorted can fit in the



    Perhaj, Ervin


    The goal of the thesis is to develop a web application that help users understand the functioning of the PageRank algorithm. The thesis consists of two parts. First we develop an algorithm to calculate PageRank values of web pages. The input of algorithm is a list of web pages and links between them. The user enters the list through the web interface. From the data the algorithm calculates PageRank value for each page. The algorithm repeats the process, until the difference of PageRank va...

  6. Digital Arithmetic: Division Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montuschi, Paolo; Nannarelli, Alberto


    implement it in hardware to not compromise the overall computation performances. This entry explains the basic algorithms, suitable for hardware and software, to implement division in computer systems. Two classes of algorithms implement division or square root: digit-recurrence and multiplicative (e.......g., Newton–Raphson) algorithms. The first class of algorithms, the digit-recurrence type, is particularly suitable for hardware implementation as it requires modest resources and provides good performance on contemporary technology. The second class of algorithms, the multiplicative type, requires...

  7. Automatic learning algorithm for the MD-logic artificial pancreas system. (United States)

    Miller, Shahar; Nimri, Revital; Atlas, Eran; Grunberg, Eli A; Phillip, Moshe


    Applying real-time learning into an artificial pancreas system could effectively track the unpredictable behavior of glucose-insulin dynamics and adjust insulin treatment accordingly. We describe a novel learning algorithm and its performance when integrated into the MD-Logic Artificial Pancreas (MDLAP) system developed by the Diabetes Technology Center, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tikva, Israel. The algorithm was designed to establish an initial patient profile using open-loop data (Initial Learning Algorithm component) and then make periodic adjustments during closed-loop operation (Runtime Learning Algorithm component). The MDLAP system, integrated with the learning algorithm, was tested in seven different experiments using the University of Virginia/Padova simulator, comprising adults, adolescents, and children. The experiments included simulations using the open-loop and closed-loop control strategy under nominal and varying insulin sensitivity conditions. The learning algorithm was automatically activated at the end of the open-loop segment and after every day of the closed-loop operation. Metabolic control parameters achieved at selected time points were compared. The percentage of time glucose levels were maintained within 70-180 mg/dL for children and adolescents significantly improved when open-loop was compared with day 6 of closed-loop control (Psignificantly reduced by approximately sevenfold (Psignificant reduction in the Low Blood Glucose Index (P<0.001). The new algorithm was effective in characterizing the patient profiles from open-loop data and in adjusting treatment to provide better glycemic control during closed-loop control in both conditions. These findings warrant corroboratory clinical trials.

  8. Planning outstanding reserves in general insurance (United States)

    Raeva, E.; Pavlov, V.


    Each insurance company have to ensure its solvency through presentation of accounts for its own reserves in the start of the year. Usually the task of the actuary is to estimate the state of the company on an annual basis and the expectation of the status of the company for a future period. One of the major problem when calculating the liabilities of the incurred claims, is related to the delay of payments. Object of consideration in the present note are the outstanding claim reserves, which are set aside to cover claims, occurred before the date of the annual account, but still not paid, and related with them expenses. There may be different reasons for the delay of claims settlement. For example, continuation the process of the liquidation of the damage waiting for necessary documents or the presence of controversial cases whose permission takes time, etc. Thus the claims, which determine the outstanding reserves could be divided in the following types: claims, which are reported, but not settled (RBNS); claims, which are incurred but not reported (IBNR); claims, whose case is finished, but it is possible to be reopened. When calculating the reserves for IBNR claims, most widely used is the Chain-ladder method and its modification presented by the Bornhuetter - Ferguson method. For modeling the outstanding claims, the available data should be presented in so called run-off triangle, which underlies in the basis of such methods. The present work provides a review of the algorithm for calculating insurance outstanding claim reserves according to the Chain-ladder method. Using available data for claims related to liability of drivers, registered in Bulgaria an example is constructed to illustrate the methodology of the Chain-Ladder method. Back-testing approach is used for validating the results.

  9. Unit commitment with probabilistic reserve: An IPSO approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tsung-Ying; Chen, Chun-Lung


    This paper presents a new algorithm for solution of the nonlinear optimal scheduling problem. This algorithm is named the iteration particle swarm optimization (IPSO). A new index, called iteration best, is incorporated into particle swarm optimization (PSO) to improve the solution quality and computation efficiency. IPSO is applied to solve the unit commitment with probabilistic reserve problem of a power system. The outage cost as well as fuel cost of thermal units was considered in the unit commitment program to evaluate the level of spinning reserve. The optimal scheduling of on line generation units was reached while minimizing the sum of fuel cost and outage cost. A 48 unit power system was used as a numerical example to test the new algorithm. The optimal scheduling of on line generation units could be reached in the testing results while satisfying the requirement of the objective function

  10. Modified Clipped LMS Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfizad Mojtaba


    Full Text Available Abstract A new algorithm is proposed for updating the weights of an adaptive filter. The proposed algorithm is a modification of an existing method, namely, the clipped LMS, and uses a three-level quantization ( scheme that involves the threshold clipping of the input signals in the filter weight update formula. Mathematical analysis shows the convergence of the filter weights to the optimum Wiener filter weights. Also, it can be proved that the proposed modified clipped LMS (MCLMS algorithm has better tracking than the LMS algorithm. In addition, this algorithm has reduced computational complexity relative to the unmodified one. By using a suitable threshold, it is possible to increase the tracking capability of the MCLMS algorithm compared to the LMS algorithm, but this causes slower convergence. Computer simulations confirm the mathematical analysis presented.

  11. The principle of complementarity in the design of reserve networks ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Ratcliffe envisioned a three-stage selection process: (i) field surveys, (ii) the application of explicitly agreed ..... equal. This leads to the creation of larger reserves. The. MNP algorithm has been the basis for many of the ...... It is a matter of judgement whether money is better spent on acquiring data or on land purchase based.

  12. Youth Problems on Indian Reservations. (United States)

    Underhill, Ruth M., Ed.

    Juvenile delinquency was identified as the major problem affecting youth on Indian reservations. Causes for delinquency which were discussed included culture conflict, expectation of failure, unemployment, failure of homes and parents, discrimination, inadequate education, off-reservation schools, and alcoholism. Needs identified by tribal leaders…

  13. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve? (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico


    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  14. Internalizing and externalizing symptoms among Palestinian adolescents from Israel as consequences of their exposure to community violence: Are they moderated by their self-efficacy and collective efficacy? (United States)

    Darawshy, Neveen Ali-Saleh; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M


    This article presents the findings of a study that examined the rates and the consequences of exposure to community violence (ECV) as reflected in witnessing and experiencing such violence, among Palestinian adolescents from Israel. In particular, it examined the extent to which these adolescents exhibit high levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms as consequences of such exposure, and the extent to which self-efficacy and collective efficacy moderate these consequences. A systematic random sample of 760 Palestinian adolescents in Israel (320 boys, and 440 girls) filled out a self-administered questionnaire. The results show that most of the adolescents had witnessed community violence during the last year and during lifetime, and more than one third had directly experienced such violence during their lifetime compared with 19.6% during the last year. Boys were exposed to community violence more often than girls. Moreover, participants' ECV predicted high levels of externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that collective efficacy moderated the correlation between experiencing community violence and internalizing symptoms, whereas self-efficacy moderated the correlation between witnessing community violence and externalizing symptoms. There is a need for providing support for youth from close adults as well as from formal and informal resources in the community before and after their ECV. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Diagnostic algorithm for syncope. (United States)

    Mereu, Roberto; Sau, Arunashis; Lim, Phang Boon


    Syncope is a common symptom with many causes. Affecting a large proportion of the population, both young and old, it represents a significant healthcare burden. The diagnostic approach to syncope should be focused on the initial evaluation, which includes a detailed clinical history, physical examination and 12-lead electrocardiogram. Following the initial evaluation, patients should be risk-stratified into high or low-risk groups in order to guide further investigations and management. Patients with high-risk features should be investigated further to exclude significant structural heart disease or arrhythmia. The ideal currently-available investigation should allow ECG recording during a spontaneous episode of syncope, and when this is not possible, an implantable loop recorder may be considered. In the emergency room setting, acute causes of syncope must also be considered including severe cardiovascular compromise due to pulmonary, cardiac or vascular pathology. While not all patients will receive a conclusive diagnosis, risk-stratification in patients to guide appropriate investigations in the context of a diagnostic algorithm should allow a benign prognosis to be maintained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Intergenerational Transmission of Parenting Style among Jewish and Arab Mothers in Israel (United States)

    Pasternak, Rachel


    Parental modeling of behavior has long been considered a major socialization process for children. In this piece, the author explores how parenting behavior is passed from one generation to the next, focusing on parenting styles among Jewish and Muslim mothers in Israel. The results indicate that young mothers tend to reproduce their parents'…

  17. School Climate and the Experience of LGBT Students: A Comparison of the United States and Israel (United States)

    Pizmony-Levy, Oren; Kosciw, Joseph G.


    This article examines the school experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students in the United States and Israel. Through comparison of the sociocultural and edu-cational contexts, the authors assess whether school experience of LGBT students differs or operates similarly across countries. The authors use data from the…

  18. Emotional Expression at Different Managerial Career Stages: Female Principals in Arab Schools in Israel (United States)

    Arar, Khalid


    This paper examines emotional expression experienced by female principals in the Arab school system in Israel over their managerial careers--role-related emotions that they choose to express or repress before others. I employed narrative methodology, interviewing nine female principals from the Arab school system to investigate expression of…

  19. Caring Mentoring for Academic Literacy: A Case Study of a Teacher Education College in Israel (United States)

    Wolffensperger, Yochie


    This article describes aspects of research relating to the influences of mentoring on the teaching and learning of academic literacy conducted at the College Centre for Academic Literacy (WAL) at a teacher education college in Israel. This multiple case study, based on the principles of grounded theory, describes five cases. Data were collected…

  20. School Violence in Bedouin Schools in Israel: A Re-Examination (United States)

    Elbedour, Salman; ElBassiouny, Amanda; Bart, William M.; Elbedour, Hammad


    Students in Bedouin schools in Israel completed a survey in which they indicated how frequent abusive teacher behaviors occurred in their classrooms; responses indicated that abusive teacher behaviors occur often. Female students tended to register higher levels of punitive teacher behaviors than male students and secondary school students tended…

  1. Self-medication with antibiotics by a population in northern Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raz, R; Edelstein, H; Grigoryan, L; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM


    Background: The current study is part of a larger study - Self-Medication with Antibiotics and Resistance Levels in Europe (SAR project) - coordinated by the University of Groningen in the Netherlands and run in 19 European countries and Israel. Objectives: To estimate self-medication with

  2. First report of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne marylandi on Turfgrasses in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oka, Y.; Karssen, G.; Mor, M.


    In a turfgrass nursery in Arava, Israel, a population of root-knot nematodes was isolated from poorly growing Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) with symptoms of foliar chlorosis and roots with very small, smooth galls and protruding egg masses. The isolated population (genus Meloidogyne) included

  3. A palynological study of the Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeist, Willem; Bottema, Sytze

    The results are discussed of the palynological (pollen-analytical) examination of a sediment section in the Hula Valley of northern Israel, with evidence of Acheulian occupation dated to 700,000-800,000 B.P. In general there is a fair agreement between the palynological data and the wood remains

  4. O Lobby de Israel e o primeiro ano da administração Obama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Rodrigues Mateo


    Full Text Available No contexto dos argumentos desenvolvidos por Stephen Walt e John Mearsheimer sobre o Lobby de Israel, analisamos discursos, reuniões de governo e, principalmente, as reações dos pensadores neo-realistas quanto às pressões pró-israelenses na gestão Obama.

  5. Genetic analysis of Israel Acute Paralysis Virus: distinct clusters are circulating into the United States. (United States)

    Israel acute paralysis virus (IAPV) is associated with colony collapse disorder of honey bees. Nonetheless, its role in the pathogenesis of the disorder and its geographic distribution are unclear. Here, we report phylogenetic analysis of IAPV obtained from bees in the United States, Canada, Austral...

  6. Marketing Informal Education Institutions in Israel: The Centrality of Customers' Active Involvement in Service Development (United States)

    Oplatka, Izhar


    The current paper outlines a unique marketing perspective that prevails in some informal education institutions in Israel parallel with "traditional modes of marketing", such as promotion, public relations and the like. Based on a case study research in five community centres, a service development based on active participation of the…

  7. Pattern Recognition and Classification of Fatal Traffic Accidents in Israel A Neural Network Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo


    This article provides a broad picture of fatal traffic accidents in Israel to answer an increasing need of addressing compelling problems, designing preventive measures, and targeting specific population groups with the objective of reducing the number of traffic fatalities. The analysis focuses ...

  8. Classroom Management and Teachers' Coping Strategies: Inside Classrooms in Australia, China and Israel (United States)

    Romi, Shlomo; Lewis, Ramon; Roache, Joel


    This paper discusses the degree to which recently reported relationships between the classroom management techniques and coping styles of Australian teachers apply in two other national settings: China and Israel. Little is known about which teacher characteristics relate to their approach to classroom management, although researchers in Australia…

  9. Posterior uveal malignant melanoma: temporal stability and ethnic variation in rates in Israel. (United States)

    Iscovich, J; Abdulrazik, M; Pe'Er, J


    In a population-based study of posterior uveal malignant melanoma (755 incidence cases), the authors found a stabilized incidence in Israel from 1961-1996. Overall, Jewish immigrants to Israel had a relative rate (RR) of 2.2 [95% confidence interval [1.5-2.6] as compared to the reference population (Israeli-born Jews with Israel-born parents, i.e. third generation). Whereas individuals born in Eastern Europe or the Americas experienced the highest age adjusted incidence rates per million [for example; from 1972-1996, 8.3 for those from Poland, 8.2 from Romania, 6.4 from the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 7.6 from the Americas], the lowest incidence rates were observed among immigrants from Algeria-Morocco-Tunisia (rate of 2.8), Iraq (1.7), Iran (3.2). Jews born in Israel exhibited incidence patterns similar to those individuals from the place of their parent's birth; high rates were observed among individuals born of American- or European-born parents (rate of 7.2), and low rates among offspring of parents who migrated from Africa or Asia (2.6). A low incidence was found among Israeli-born Arabs (2.6 in men, and 2.0 in women). The stable differences in incidence rates, according to populations of Jews, and the persistence of these variations within the descendants of these populations suggest that underlying susceptibility states are related to an individual's origin.

  10. When Shortage Coexists with Surplus of Teachers: The Case of Arab Teachers in Israel (United States)

    Agbaria, Ayman K.; Pinson, Halleli


    This article explores the nexus between pre-service teacher education polices and the supply and demand of minority teachers. It problematizes the recent reports on teacher shortages in Israel, which tend to focus on the shortage of Jewish teachers while dealing with the surplus of Arab teachers only tangentially. Specifically, this article…

  11. School Principals' Perceptions of Teacher Evaluation in the Arab Education System in Israel (United States)

    Abu-Hussain, Jamal; Essawi, Mohammad


    The objective of this research is to examine how principals of Arab schools view the evaluation of teachers and to determine whether and to what extent their perceptions of teacher evaluation differ. The Arab educational system in Israel is an integral part of the general educational system. For the most part it is run by Jewish administrators.…

  12. Leading a Quiet Revolution: Women High School Principals in Traditional Arab Society in Israel (United States)

    Arar, Khalid; Shapira, Tamar


    This article investigates why very few Arab women persevere to become principals in Arab high schools in Israel. It identifies these trailblazers' distinguishing characteristics through the narratives of two Arab women, high school principals, tracing their transition from teaching to management, describing the intertwining of their personal and…

  13. Patterns of Intellectual Ability in Jewish and Arab Children in Israel: II. Urban Matched Samples (United States)

    Lieblich, Amia; And Others


    Arab and Jewish children living in a city in northern Israel were matched as closely as possible for school grade, age and SES, and tested on the Wechsler Preschool Primary Scale of Intelligence. Results indicated little if any difference between Jewish and Arab children in level or pattern of the intellectual abilities as elicited by the WPPSI…

  14. 27. Conference of the Nuclear Societies in Israel. Program and Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The file contains the presentations of the 27 annual conference of the nuclear societies in Israel. The subjects of the conference are: aspects of nuclear energy and nuclear technology, applications of radioisotopes and radiation, radiation measurements, issues in radiation protection and radiation in medicine, the consequences of the Fukushima accident. During the conference awards will be given for outstanding student works

  15. Immigration and the Interplay among Citizenship, Identity and Career: The Case of Ethiopian Immigration to Israel (United States)

    Flum, Hanoch; Cinamon, Rachel Gali


    Migration is a common phenomenon of the globalization era. In this article we explore the interplay of three foundational concepts in the migration experiences of Ethiopian Jewish immigrants in Israel: citizenship, identity and career. Through our analysis we examine the multiple layers of being an immigrant citizen. Following immigration, as…

  16. A Comparative Study of Work Centrality, Job Rewards and Satisfaction: Occupational Groups in Israel (United States)

    Mannheim, Bilha


    The study develops and measures a concept of Work-Role Centrality, mainly from a cognitive perspective, and examines by means of questionnaire data its distribution in a representative sample of 778 males participating in the labor force in Israel. (Author)

  17. Call for proposals for the Joint Canada-Israel Health Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    23 nov. 2017 ... Call for proposals for the Joint Canada-Israel Health Research Program 2018 competition ... developmental neurobiology; neuro-immunology; neuroendocrinology; regenerative medicine in brain disease; cellular and molecular basis of cognition; modeling brain function; imaging of neural processes ...

  18. Water pollution control legislation in Israel: understanding implementation processes from an actor-centered approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hophmayer Tokich, Sharon


    In the State of Israel, advanced legislation for the management of scarce water resources, including legislation to prevent water pollution, were put in place in the early stages of the State’s formation. Despite that, on-going uncontrolled pollution has deteriorated the quality of water sources for

  19. Bi-Lingual Newspaper as an Expression of a Fake Multicultural Educational Policy in Israel (United States)

    Baratz, Lea; Reingold, Roni; Abuhatzira, Hannah


    The current paper analyzes a unique educational text that may be used to follow the educational policy of the State of Israel towards the community of Jewish immigrants from Ethiopia. The text which was analyzed was a bi-lingual newspaper called "Nugget News" which is published under the sponsorship of the Israeli Ministry of Education,…

  20. Environmental vulnerability in public perceptions and attitudes : The case of Israel's urban centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drori, Israel

    Objective. This article investigates how urban environmental vulnerability to hazards reflects in the perceptions and attitudes of the public in three major cities in Israel: Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, and Haifa. Our central argument is that the differences between the residents' perceptions and attitudes

  1. "Whose Responsibility Is It?": The Third Sector and the Educational System in Israel (United States)

    Eden, Devorah


    This study aims to explore the relationships between the third sector and the educational system in Israel in light of their current increasing involvement with one another. This was investigated along four stages of the policy process ranging from initial agenda-setting to final implementation. The stage of policy these relationships reached was…

  2. Body mass index and overweight in adolescents in 13 European countries, Israel, and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissau, Inge; Overpeck, Mary D; Ruan, W June


    in 1997-1998 by means of identical data collection methods. SETTING: Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Flemish Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Lithuania, Ireland, Israel, Portugal, Slovakia, Sweden, and the United States. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 29 242 boys and girls, aged 13 and 15 years...... were found in the United States, Ireland, Greece, and Portugal....

  3. Trends in Children's Disclosure of Abuse in Israel: A National Study (United States)

    Hershkowitz, Irit; Horowitz, Dvora; Lamb, Michael E.


    Objective: To identify characteristics of suspected child abuse victims that are associated with disclosure and nondisclosure during formal investigations. Methodology: The database included all suspected cases of physical and sexual abuse investigated in the state of Israel between 1998 and 2002. All investigative interviews were conducted using…

  4. Guest-Host Encounters in Diaspora-Heritage Tourism: The Taglit-Birthright Israel Mifgash (Encounter) (United States)

    Sasson, Theodore; Mittelberg, David; Hecht, Shahar; Saxe, Leonard


    More than 300,000 diaspora Jewish young adults and tens of thousands of their Israeli peers have participated in structured, cross-cultural encounters--"mifgashim"--in the context of an experiential education program known as Taglit-Birthright Israel. Drawing on field observations, interviews, and surveys, the formal and informal…

  5. Global Argonauts: Returnees and Diaspora as Sources of Innovation in China and Israel (United States)

    Welch, Anthony; Hao, Jie


    The paper focuses on returnees and knowledge diaspora as important sources for human resources development, identifying push and pull factors that also contribute significantly to innovation. For both China and Israel, their high-skilled diaspora are a major policy priority: each has a substantial, high-skilled diaspora and policies and programmes…

  6. Mr Nissim Dahan, MK, Minister of Health, Israel, at the ATLAS exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud


    Photo 01: L. to r.:Dr Jim Allaby, Dr Peter Jenni, Prof. Bracha Regev, Chief Scientist, Ministry of Health, Mr Nissim Dahan, MK, Minister of Health, Dr Boaz Lev, Director General, Ministry of Health, Dr Hans F. Hoffmann and Dr Georges Mikenberg. Photo 02: Mr Nissim Dahan, MK, Minister of Health, Israel, signing the Guest Book.

  7. Technical and Vocational Education and Training and the Labour Market in Israel (United States)

    Eisenberg, Eli


    The aim of this report is to contribute to a better understanding of the current status of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) for human resources development (HRD) and the labour market in Israel. It describes the role and involvement of the various sectors in HRD and identifies the barriers, challenges, priorities, initiatives…

  8. Mass Communications in Israel: A Bibliography of Articles, Pamphlets, and Books Written in English. (United States)

    Gotliffe, Harvey

    This bibliography on mass communications in Israel contains articles, pamphlets, and books written in English covering the areas of advertising, Arab mass communications, broadcast authority, censorship, culture and communication, film, press and propaganda, publishing writers, radio, commercial and educational television, and the theatre arts.…

  9. Historical Perspectives on Diaspora Homeland Tourism: "Israel Experience" Education in the 1950s and 1960s (United States)

    Kelner, Shaul


    Homeland tourism is a powerful medium of diasporic education. Yet, efforts to understand the enterprise are hampered by neglect of the field's history. This article contributes to the historiography of diaspora homeland tourism by examining the emergence of American Jewish educational tours of Israel in the 1950s and 1960s. Archival research and…

  10. Clinical Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Israel: Impact of Ethnic and Social Diversities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mahajnah


    Full Text Available Despite the increased global prevalence and recognition of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD, it is still scarcely reported in the Arab world. Though Israel has a higher prevalence of ASD, a previous national survey of patients diagnosed between 1972 and 2004, demonstrated that 98% of them were of Jewish ancestry. The disproportional low number of Arab children with ASD in Israel is unclear but may reflect lower awareness and cultural bias. In the present study we collected clinical and demographic characteristics of 200 children with ASD from Arab and Jewish sectors in Israel that were evaluated in two child development centers. We compared the incidence and the medical comorbidity of autism between these two ethnics groups. The medical and psychiatric comorbidity profile in these children was similar to the worldwide published studies. In the present study the prevalence of autism in the Arab sector in Israel was similar to that of the Jewish sector. The Arab patients presented with more severe autistic manifestations and higher incidence of mental retardation, familial members with autism, and consanguinity (P<0.05, while in the Jewish sector milder forms (such as Asperger syndrome and PDD-NOS were more frequent. This discrepancy might be explained by both genetic and cultural factors.

  11. Explaining the Frequency of Alcohol Consumption in a Conflict Zone: Jews and Palestinians in Israel (United States)

    Massey, Zohar; Chartier, Karen G.; Stebbins, Mary B.; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E.; Hall, Brian J.; Shuval, Kerem


    Experiencing stress and exposure to terrorism may have an adverse effect on health risk behaviors. Few studies have examined alcohol use among adults living in Israel under chronic, stressful terrorism-related conditions. In this study, we examined the relationships of demographics, past stressful events, and terrorism exposure to the frequency of alcohol use and the mediating roles of depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. We used three waves of data from a 2007–2008 nationally representative sample of Jewish and Palestinian adults in Israel. We assessed the number of past stressful events, in addition to direct and indirect exposure to terrorism. Results indicated that past stressful events and exposure to terrorism were not directly associated with alcohol use, but were indirectly associated and mediated by depressive and PTSD symptomology. Mental health symptoms were differentially associated with alcohol use. More frequent drinking was mediated by higher levels of depression, including for women and Palestinians; however, PTSD symptom severity was related to less frequent drinking. Mental health may play a prominent role in the frequency of alcohol use among adults exposed to terrorism in Israel. Alcohol use, as a coping mechanism, may differ by demographic characteristics (gender and ethnicity) and psychological symptomology for adults living in a conflict zone in Israel. PMID:25777746

  12. An annotated checklist of Dolichopodidae (Diptera of Israel and adjacent territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ya. Grichanov


    Full Text Available The first checklist of the Dolichopodidae of Israel and adjacent territories (Golan Heights and West Bank is presented. A total of 108 species belonging to 34 genera are listed alphabetically. The references, type locality and general distribution are provided for each species.

  13. Sacralized Citizenship: Women Making Known Selves in an Islamic Teachers' College in Israel (United States)

    Erdreich, Lauren


    Based on ethnographic fieldwork in an Islamic teachers' college in Israel and interviews with women lecturers, this article explores how the women combine education and religion to create a revitalized self and sense of belonging despite lived experiences of structural racial, national, and gender inequalities. The women's experience is understood…

  14. Increased Incidence of Campylobacter spp. Infection and High Rates among Children, Israel (United States)

    Lerner, Larisa; Valinsky, Lea; Moran-Gilad, Jacob; Nissan, Israel; Agmon, Vered; Peretz, Chava


    During 1999–2010, the annual incidence of Campylobacter spp. infection in Israel increased from 31.04 to 90.99 cases/100,000 population, a yearly increase of 10.24%. Children 26-fold higher than for the 30–<50 age group. PMID:24188185

  15. Oor die metodiek van ’n holistiese geskiedenis van Oud-Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. H. Scheffler


    Full Text Available On the methodology of a holistic history of ancient Israel In this article certain issues relating to the concept ‘holistic historiography’ are clarified. Thereafter follows a reflection on methodology that would be appropriate for holistic historiography, involving the critical use of biblical and extra-biblical sources, Syro-Palestinian archaeology, historical geography, sociology, psychology and secondary literature.

  16. Risk Groups in Exposure to Terror: The Case of Israel's Citizens (United States)

    Feniger, Yariv; Yuchtman-Yaar, Ephraim


    This research addresses a largely ignored question in the study of terror: who are its likely victims? An answer was sought through analysis of comprehensive data on civilian victims of terror in Israel from 1993 through 2003. The chances of being killed in seemingly random terror attacks were found unequally distributed in Israeli society, but…

  17. Personality Traits of Minority Arab Teachers in the Arab Educational System in Israel (United States)

    Abu Hussain, Jamal; Abu Hussain, Nadia


    The present research examined the personality traits prevalent among Arab teachers as a minority in the Arab educational system in Israel. Personality traits has much significance in the prediction of human behavior in various situations. Personality traits affect a person's behavior. Usually personality traits do not change, and they are…

  18. Inter-Municipal Cooperation For Wastewater Treatment: Case studies from Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hophmayer Tokich, Sharon; Kliot, Nurit


    Since the beginning of the 1990s, local authorities in Israel have been engaged in promoting advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) projects throughout the country, resulting in the “wastewater treatment revolution” of the 1990s. These achievements are extremely important in the water-scarce

  19. The Evolution of National Wastewater Management Regimes : The Case of Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hophmayer Tokich, Sharon


    In the state of Israel wastewater management (WWM), the legal responsibility of municipalities, was neglected for decades, resulting in pollution of the scarce water resources and the environment. This trend was reversed during the 1990s. This paper analyses the evolution process of the national WWM

  20. Schools and Votes: Primary Education Provision and Electoral Support for the Shas Party in Israel. (United States)

    Schiffman, Eitan

    This paper presents the foundation of an exploratory study about the effects of primary school education provision by the ultra-orthodox Shas party on electoral support for the party in Israel. Specifically, the research explores the question of whether and to what extent religious organizations that provide services for their clients are able to…

  1. The team Israel and Pakistan working for the Atlas collaboration together for a family picture.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    It's a small world; at least you might think so after a visit to Building 180. Inside, about 30 engineers and physicists weld, measure and hammer away. They hail from Pakistan, Israel, Japan, China, Russia and the United States and they work toward one common goal: the completion of the ATLAS muon chamber endcaps

  2. Integration and assimilation of Moroccan immigrants in Israel and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oudenhoven, J.P.; Eisses, Annemieke

    The purpose of this study,vas to examine the consequences of integration and assimilation of Jewish Moroccans in Israel and Islamic Moroccans in The Netherlands as well as the reactions of the majority group to these immigrants. On the basis of social identity theory and the similarity-attraction

  3. 78 FR 25692 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Barhi Dates From Israel (United States)


    ... prevent plant pests from being introduced into and spread within the United States. Section 319.56-4 of... authorize the importation into the United States of fresh dates of the cultivar Barhi from Israel. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, which we made available to the public for review and comment...

  4. Steps towards 3D cadastre and ISO 19152 (LADM) in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felus, Y.; Barzani, S.; Caine, A.; Blumkine, N.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.


    This paper contains the results of the 3D Cadastre and LADM (Land Administration Domain Model) investigations in context of possible future renewal of the Cadastral database at the Survey of Israel. The two topics of 3D Cadastres and LADM are highly related and therefore this paper covers both

  5. Work Alienation, Patterns of Substance Use and Country of Origin among Male Hospitality Workers in Israel (United States)

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander; Belhassen, Yaniv


    This prospective study examined the relationship between work alienation, country of origin and substance use among male hospitality workers in Israel. Results show work alienation more prevalent among Former Soviet Union origin males and those workers who binge drink and use cannabis (i.e., marijuana and/or hashish). Given the paucity of…

  6. Research in English Language Teaching and Learning in Israel (2004-2009) (United States)

    Aronin, Larissa; Spolsky, Bernard


    The goal of this article is to make research on English language teaching and learning published locally in Israel more widely available. Given that so many Israeli researchers are internationally trained and maintain wide connections, it necessarily omits much important work that appears in European and US journals. It focuses on shorter studies,…

  7. The dynamics of limited breaking out : The case of the Arab manufacturing businesses in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drori, Israel; Lerner, Miri


    This paper investigates the dynamics of breaking out in the Arab manufacturing business sector in Israel. Based on an ethnographic study and in-depth interviews, this paper develops a threetier model delineating those characteristics that shape the entrepreneurs' response to structural constraints

  8. Changing Familial Roles for Immigrant Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union to Israel (United States)

    Kosner, Anna; Roer-Strier, Dorit; Kurman, Jenny


    This article examines how young immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union during their adolescence perceive and cope with the resulting changes in their family roles. Data collected via interviews and focus groups from adolescents and young adults ("N" = 34) revealed six distinct roles: language broker, family navigator,…

  9. Hospital ethics committees in Israel: structure, function and heterogeneity in the setting of statutory ethics committees


    Wenger, N; Golan, O; Shalev, C; Glick, S


    Objectives: Hospital ethics committees increasingly affect medical care worldwide, yet there has been little evaluation of these bodies. Israel has the distinction of having ethics committees legally required by a Patients' Rights Act. We studied the development of ethics committees in this legal environment.

  10. Microgeographic Genome Size Differentiation of the Carob Tree, Ceratonia siliqua, at ‘Evolution Canyon’, Israel




    • Background and Aims We tested whether the local differences in genome size recorded earlier in the wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, at ‘Evolution Canyon’, Mount Carmel, Israel, can also be found in other organisms. As a model species for our test we chose the evergreen carob tree, Ceratonia siliqua.

  11. Integrated management of early and late blights of potatoes in Israel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potatoes are grown in Israel in two growing seasons, autumn and spring. Two foliar diseases, early blight (Alternaria solani) and late blight (Phytophthora infestans) threaten the crop and if not managed properly, may induce substantial yield losses. Concepts for the integration of genotype resistance, age-related resistance ...

  12. Detergents and bleaches are sources of chromium contact dermatitis in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingber, A; Gammelgaard, Bente; David, M


    Total chromium levels were determined in 38 detergents and 12 bleaches on the market in Israel (45 locally produced, 5 imported). The samples were analyzed by Zeeman-corrected graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Chromium levels were higher than 5 ppm in 28 (56%) of the 50 products...

  13. The Arab Community in Israel Coping with Intellectual and Developmental Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isack Kandel


    Full Text Available The Arab family in Israel is still embedded in the traditional society with extended family support systems, but we see a population in transition influenced by the surrounding society. This paper looks at the different religious attitudes toward the exceptional people in our society (i.e., the family reaction to a child born with intellectual or developmental disability, reviews recent studies on the Arab and Bedouin families in Israel, and presents data on the Arab population in residential care centers.Today, out of 57 residential care centers in Israel for persons with intellectual disability, 13 (22.8% are providing service to the non-Jewish population. The Arab population constitutes 12–13% of the total residential care population, lower than the 19–20% in the total population. In residential care, the Arab population is characterized by younger children with severe and profound intellectual disability. The informal family support system is still a very important factor in the Arab family in Israel, a fact that we believe should be strengthened by implementing the British and Danish model of nurse home visitation.

  14. Community Resilience and the Impact of Stress: Adult Response to Israel's Withdrawal from Lebanon (United States)

    Kimhi, Shaul; Shamai, Michal


    Against the background of the Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, we investigated the relationship between perceived community resilience and the effect of stress and life satisfaction. The research sample included 741 adults, aged 18-85. The participants were divided into four groups, three of which live close to the Israel-Lebanon border and were…

  15. Political Graffiti on the West Bank Wall in Israel/Palestine (United States)

    Olberg, Steven T.


    Great strife has plagued the Middle East for decades. Israel and the Occupied Territories of the West Bank of Palestine' have been battling over the land they both claim as holy. Regional threats of war loom and increasingly violent rhetoric has been exchanged regarding the claims to holy sites, land, olives, water, and other natural resources in…

  16. The Effect of the Arab Boycott on Israel : The Automobile Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fershtman, C.; Gandal, N.


    Recent progress towards a comprehensive peace in the Middle East has led to a relaxation of the enforcement of the Arab economic boycott of Israel.This in turn has led to the entry of all the major Japanese and Korean automobile manufacturers into the Israeli market.In this paper, we examine the

  17. Parental Perceptions of Children's Literacy and Bilingualism: The Case of Ethiopian Immigrants in Israel (United States)

    Stavans, Anat; Olshtain, Elite; Goldzweig, Gil


    The present study describes factors affecting the home and school literacy patterns in the Ethiopian immigrant community in Israel. Parents were asked to complete a questionnaire evaluating their child's development, literacy, schooling, and language proficiency (L1 and L2). The results indicate that while non-Ethiopian and Ethiopian parents seek…

  18. Labor Conflict on the National Stage: Metaphoric Lenses in Israel's Teachers' Strike (United States)

    Shenkar, Miriam; Shenkar, Oded


    Teachers often embed their labor demands within a broader context to claim high moral ground and build community support. We analyze a recent teachers' strike in Israel, looking at how the strike played out in a country where the challenges of globalization collided with a socialist legacy in the face of an existential threat. The analysis reveals…

  19. School Health Promotion Policies and Adolescent Risk Behaviors in Israel: A Multilevel Analysis (United States)

    Tesler, Riki; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Baron-Epel, Orna


    Background: Health promotion policies targeting risk-taking behaviors are being implemented across schools in Israel. This study identified the most effective components of these policies influencing cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among adolescents. Methods: Logistic hierarchical linear model (HLM) analysis of data for 5279 students in…

  20. Improving access to essential health care services: The case of Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.P.M.M. van de Ven (Wynand)


    textabstractIn a recent article in this journal Simon-Tuval, Horev and Kaplan argue that in order to improve the protection of consumers there might be a need to impose a threshold on the medical loss ratio (MLR) for voluntary health insurance (VHI) in Israel [1]. Their argument is that VHI in

  1. Operative Treatment of Hepatic Hydatid Cysts: A Single Center Experience in Israel, a Nonendemic Country (United States)

    Maoz, Daniel; Greif, Franklin; Chen, Jacob


    Background. Hydatid cyst disease is a zoonosis caused by Echinococcus genera. The disease is endemic to certain rural areas in the world. Operative treatment is the main component in curing hydatid cysts of the liver. Objective. Describing the unique characteristics of the hydatid cyst patients in Israel, a nonendemic country. Methods. Data was collected form 29 patients treated operatively in Rabin Medical Center from 1994 to 2007. Results. The study included 18 females and 11 males with an average age of 54.9 years. Fifty-two% of the patients immigrated as children from Arab countries to Israel, 21% were Arab-Israelis leaving in the north and center of Israel, and 24% immigrated from the former Communist Bloc. Pericystectomy was performed in 20/29, and cyst unroofing was performed in 9/29. Hydatid cysts average size was 10.7 cm, and the cysts were located in the right or left or involved both lobes in 62%, 28%, and 10% of the lesions, respectively. Postoperative mortality occurred in one case, and severe morbidity occurred in 4 patients. Conclusions. Hydatid cyst disease in Israel is uncommon and is mostly seen in distinct 3 demographic groups. Despite the relatively low patient volume, good results in terms of morbidity, mortality, and recurrence were achieved. PMID:24175100

  2. "We Don't Need Another Hero:" Heroes and Role Models in Germany and Israel (United States)

    Yair, Gad; Girsh, Yaron; Alayan, Samira; Hues, Henning; Or, Elad


    This study provides insights about attitudes toward heroes and role models in Germany and Israel. We expected German and Israeli school textbooks and teachers to provide varying renditions for the traumatic effects of World War II and the Holocaust, and for students to express different attitudes about the role of heroes in their lives. In…

  3. Vulnerability to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Battered Women in Israel. (United States)

    Arzy, Ronit; Amir, Marianne; Kotler, Moshe

    The increasing prevalence of domestic violence in Israel has engendered a critical need to identify and treat battered women. This paper looks at Posttraumatic Stress disorder (PTSD) and considers its predictors among battered women. The research sample was comprised of a sample of 91 battered women between the ages of 20 and 60 who applied to the…

  4. Algorithmic and user study of an autocompletion algorithm on a large medical vocabulary. (United States)

    Sevenster, Merlijn; van Ommering, Rob; Qian, Yuechen


    Autocompletion supports human-computer interaction in software applications that let users enter textual data. We will be inspired by the use case in which medical professionals enter ontology concepts, catering the ongoing demand for structured and standardized data in medicine. Goal is to give an algorithmic analysis of one particular autocompletion algorithm, called multi-prefix matching algorithm, which suggests terms whose words' prefixes contain all words in the string typed by the user, e.g., in this sense, opt ner me matches optic nerve meningioma. Second we aim to investigate how well it supports users entering concepts from a large and comprehensive medical vocabulary (snomed ct). We give a concise description of the multi-prefix algorithm, and sketch how it can be optimized to meet required response time. Performance will be compared to a baseline algorithm, which gives suggestions that extend the string typed by the user to the right, e.g. optic nerve m gives optic nerve meningioma, but opt ner me does not. We conduct a user experiment in which 12 participants are invited to complete 40 snomed ct terms with the baseline algorithm and another set of 40 snomed ct terms with the multi-prefix algorithm. Our results show that users need significantly fewer keystrokes when supported by the multi-prefix algorithm than when supported by the baseline algorithm. The proposed algorithm is a competitive candidate for searching and retrieving terms from a large medical ontology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrative analysis of Salmonellosis in Israel reveals association of Salmonella enterica Serovar 9,12:l,v:- with extraintestinal infections, dissemination of endemic S. enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104 biotypes, and severe underreporting of outbreaks. (United States)

    Marzel, Alex; Desai, Prerak T; Nissan, Israel; Schorr, Yosef Ilan; Suez, Jotham; Valinsky, Lea; Reisfeld, Abraham; Agmon, Vered; Guard, Jean; McClelland, Michael; Rahav, Galia; Gal-Mor, Ohad


    Salmonella enterica is the leading etiologic agent of bacterial food-borne outbreaks worldwide. This ubiquitous species contains more than 2,600 serovars that may differ in their host specificity, clinical manifestations, and epidemiology. To characterize salmonellosis epidemiology in Israel and to study the association of nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars with invasive infections, 48,345 Salmonella cases reported and serotyped at the National Salmonella Reference Center between 1995 and 2012 were analyzed. A quasi-Poisson regression was used to identify irregular clusters of illness, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in conjunction with whole-genome sequencing was applied to molecularly characterize strains of interest. Three hundred twenty-nine human salmonellosis clusters were identified, representing an annual average of 23 (95% confidence interval [CI], 20 to 26) potential outbreaks. We show that the previously unsequenced S. enterica serovar 9,12:l,v:- belongs to the B clade of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica, and we show its frequent association with extraintestinal infections, compared to other NTS serovars. Furthermore, we identified the dissemination of two prevalent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 clones in Israel, which are genetically distinct from other global DT104 isolates. Accumulatively, these findings indicate a severe underreporting of Salmonella outbreaks in Israel and provide insights into the epidemiology and genomics of prevalent serovars, responsible for recurring illness. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Spatial distribution of West Nile virus in humans and mosquitoes in Israel, 2000–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Lustig


    Full Text Available Objectives: Israel has a long history of West Nile virus (WNV morbidity, and the rate of detection of WNV in mosquitoes has been high since 2000. The aim of this study was to integrate several WNV datasets in order to gain an insight into the geographical distribution of WNV in Israel. Methods: Three choropleth maps were generated showing WNV human morbidity, WNV prevalence in mosquitoes, and the results of a nationwide serological survey, based on the division of Israel into 15 sub-districts. Results: The maps show a high endemicity of WNV in Israel. In respect to the morbidity map, the population residing in the central part of the country and in Arava Region is at higher risk of developing the disease than the population of the rest of Israel. Interestingly, high prevalence rates of both WNV serology and WNV-infected mosquitoes were detected in Arava Region, but lower prevalence rates were detected in most areas of the coastal region, suggesting that other factors might also be important in the development of symptomatic WNV infections. Conclusions: These results underline the high prevalence of WNV in Israel and point to specific risk areas for WNV infections across the country. Keywords: West Nile virus, Prevalence, Mosquitoes, WNV infection, Spatial distribution, Israel

  7. “New Periphery” as a Factor For Strengthening The Positions of Israel in The Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury I. Kostenko


    Full Text Available Since its establishment the State of Israel has sought alliances with non-Arab and non- Muslim countries and minorities in the Middle East, as well as Arab states geographically distant from the Arab-Israel conflict. The article presents and explains this regional orientation. It examines Israel's strategy of outflanking. The "periphery doctrine" was a grand strategy, meant to attain the major political-security goal of countering Arab hostility through relations with alternative regional powers and potential allies. This periphery strategy had been internalized to some extent in Israel's strategic thinking and it began to reappear after 2010, following a new era of Arab revolution. The rise of political Islam in Egypt, Turkey, Gaza and southern Lebanon coupled with the Islamic regime in Iran, has generated concern in Israel that it is again being surrounded by a ring of hostile states - in this case, Islamists rather than Arab nationalists. The article analyzes Israel's strategic thinking about the Middle East region. It looks at the importance of the "new periphery strategy" for Israeli efforts to advance the Arab-Israel peace process, and its potential role as the Arab Spring brings about greater Islamization of the Arab Middle East. Israeli strategic planners are talking of "spheres of containment" wherein countries like Cyprus, Greece, Azerbaijan, and Ethiopia constitute a kind of new periphery.

  8. Psycho-social reactions of Palestinian families in Israel and the West Bank following war-related losses. (United States)

    Abu-Baker, Khwala


    to identify psycho-social reactions of Palestinian families to personal losses during the Second Intifada in the West Bank and the Second Lebanese war in Israel. Narratives were collected from support group participants in the west Bank and in individual and family therapy in Israel. the narratives were qualitatively analyzed to identify themes relating to psycho-social reactions to war losses. themes emerging from the west Bank support groups' narratives mostly mirrored those gathered in the therapy sessions in Israel. In both sites, bereaved families exhibited similar psycho-social reactions to war-related losses. Both groups coped with loss collectively and in congruence with their common ethno-cultural background. Also, religious beliefs provided explanations. the loss experiences were ongoing and accumulative for participants in the west Bank, while in Israel it was mostly a single event. Both studies referred solely to war-related losses. the relationships of each population group with the State of Israel shaped their political, national and personal reactions to the loss. Families of "shahids/martyrs" in the west Bank gained socio-political respect, while in Israel, Arab citizens suffering war-related losses did not receive the same political respect from Israeli society, but were awarded sympathy by their communities. In Israel the situation is further complicated since the State is both the enemy and provider of material support, comfort and rescue.

  9. Apartheid in the Holy Land: Theological reflections on the Israel and/or Palestine situation from a South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Pillay


    Full Text Available I first attempt to draw a comparison between the Israel-Palestine conflict and the South African experience of apartheid. Drawing on other established sources and personal experience, I conclude that, while there may be some differences between the two contexts, in essence, the similar experiences of colonialisation and racialisation makes the apartheid comparison compellingly relevant. I then proceed to theologically explore the themes of justice and reconciliation and what it may mean in the context of Israel-Palestine whilst extracting from the South African experience. The article also offers some reflections on the role of the Church in addressing the Israel-Palestine conflict.

  10. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim


    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  11. Cognitive Reserve Scale and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene León


    Full Text Available The construct of cognitive reserve attempts to explain why some individuals with brain impairment, and some people during normal ageing, can solve cognitive tasks better than expected. This study aimed to estimate cognitive reserve in a healthy sample of people aged 65 years and over, with special attention to its influence on cognitive performance. For this purpose, it used the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS and a neuropsychological battery that included tests of attention and memory. The results revealed that women obtained higher total CRS raw scores than men. Moreover, the CRS predicted the learning curve, short-term and long-term memory, but not attentional and working memory performance. Thus, the CRS offers a new proxy of cognitive reserve based on cognitively stimulating activities performed by healthy elderly people. Following an active lifestyle throughout life was associated with better intellectual performance and positive effects on relevant aspects of quality of life.

  12. The Pliocene Yafo Formation in Israel: Hydrogeologically inert or active? (United States)

    Avisar, D.; Rosenthal, E.; Shulman, H.; Zilberbrand, M.; Flexer, A.; Kronfeld, J.; Ben Avraham, Z.; Fleischer, L.

    For several decades the ``Saqiye beds'' (later renamed Yafo Formation) underlying the Coastal Plain aquifer (Kurkar Group) aquifer of Israel, were regarded as an extremely thick, tectonically undisturbed, and absolutely impervious aquiclude. Following intensive groundwater exploitation from the overlying Kurkar Group aquifer, brackish and saline waters were locally encountered in the lower parts of this aquifer and always at the contact with the underlying Yafo Formation aquiclude. The present study revealed that this aquiclude is not a uniform and impervious rock unit, but rather an alternation of pervious and impervious strata within the Yafo Formation containing highly pressured fluids of different - mostly high - salinities. The permeable beds are at an angular unconformity and in direct contact with the overlying Kurkar Group aquifer. The Yafo Formation and the underlying and overlying rock units are dislocated by numerous fault systems, which facilitate accessibility of brines into the Kurkar Group aquifer. The mobilization of the saline fluids and their injection into the Kurkar Group aquifer could be due either to diffusion of saline fluids occurring in the permeable horizons of the Petah Tiqva Member through the clays of the Yafo Formation or to their upconing following intensive pumping in the Coastal Plain aquifer. It could have also been caused by up-dip movement of saline water as the result of overpressure generated by major accumulation of gas in the permeable horizons. Another possible mechanism could be hydraulic contact with pressurized brines up-flowing along fault zones from deep-seated Jurassic or Cretaceous reservoirs. The squeezing of saline interstitial water from the clays of the Yafo Formation into the overlying Kurkar Group aquifer, is of secondary importance for groundwater salinization (its input is comparable with salt input from rain). Depuis longtemps, les «couches de Saqiye», nommées maintenant formation de Yafo, constituant le

  13. Fractional Reserve Banking: Some Quibbles


    Bagus, Philipp; Howden, David


    We explore several unaddressed issues in George Selgin’s (1988) claim that the best monetary system to maintain monetary equilibrium is a fractional reserve free banking one. The claim that adverse clearing balances would limit credit expansion in a fractional reserve free banking system is more troublesome than previously reckoned. Both lengthened clearing periods and interbank agreements render credit expansion unrestrained. “The theory of free banking” confuses increases in money held with...

  14. Cloud Model Bat Algorithm


    Yongquan Zhou; Jian Xie; Liangliang Li; Mingzhi Ma


    Bat algorithm (BA) is a novel stochastic global optimization algorithm. Cloud model is an effective tool in transforming between qualitative concepts and their quantitative representation. Based on the bat echolocation mechanism and excellent characteristics of cloud model on uncertainty knowledge representation, a new cloud model bat algorithm (CBA) is proposed. This paper focuses on remodeling echolocation model based on living and preying characteristics of bats, utilizing the transformati...

  15. Recursive forgetting algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parkum, Jens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Holst, Jan


    In the first part of the paper, a general forgetting algorithm is formulated and analysed. It contains most existing forgetting schemes as special cases. Conditions are given ensuring that the basic convergence properties will hold. In the second part of the paper, the results are applied...... to a specific algorithm with selective forgetting. Here, the forgetting is non-uniform in time and space. The theoretical analysis is supported by a simulation example demonstrating the practical performance of this algorithm...

  16. Explaining algorithms using metaphors

    CERN Document Server

    Forišek, Michal


    There is a significant difference between designing a new algorithm, proving its correctness, and teaching it to an audience. When teaching algorithms, the teacher's main goal should be to convey the underlying ideas and to help the students form correct mental models related to the algorithm. This process can often be facilitated by using suitable metaphors. This work provides a set of novel metaphors identified and developed as suitable tools for teaching many of the 'classic textbook' algorithms taught in undergraduate courses worldwide. Each chapter provides exercises and didactic notes fo

  17. Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA) is an unsupervised feature extraction technique similar to PCA that was developed to better distinguish spectral features in...

  18. Algorithms in Algebraic Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dickenstein, Alicia; Sommese, Andrew J


    In the last decade, there has been a burgeoning of activity in the design and implementation of algorithms for algebraic geometric computation. Some of these algorithms were originally designed for abstract algebraic geometry, but now are of interest for use in applications and some of these algorithms were originally designed for applications, but now are of interest for use in abstract algebraic geometry. The workshop on Algorithms in Algebraic Geometry that was held in the framework of the IMA Annual Program Year in Applications of Algebraic Geometry by the Institute for Mathematics and Its

  19. Reserve Retirement Equality: Treating Reserves Fairly While Saving Taxpayer Dollars (United States)


    rata .121 For example, a Reserve who performs the equivalent of five years of active duty, will receive one-fourth the retired pay of his active duty...4,225 per month.124 But because reserve-retirement benefits are based on pro rata years of service, this officer’s years of service for retirement...purposes are 3,146 retirement points divided by 360.125 This results in 8.74 years pro rata years of service.126 His retirement benefits thus are

  20. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.


    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Каlinkin


    Full Text Available The paper shows that for dozens of years some researchers have presented a formula for calculating changes in circulating inter-operational reserve in the working phase of the flow production line in a wrong way as a formula for calculating a maximum change in the circulating inter-operational reserve of the working phase and the paper proposes an algorithm for calculation of circulating reserve in a boundary point of working phases of straight flow line. Having calculated a maximum change of the circulating reserve in the working phases it is possible to obtain an algebraic sum of reserve changes . After that the total algebraic sum of circulating reserve changes in boundary points from the initial phase to the final one. According to a minimum value of the algebraic sum of  the reserve changes in the phases it is possible to find a boundary point of phases where the reserve is equal to zero. A reserve in any boundary point  of  phases  is  calculated  through  finding  an  absolute value of the algebraic sum of reserve changes from boundary point of phases, where the reserve is equal to zero, to the sought one.

  2. Improved Effectiveness of Reserve Forces During Reserve Duty Training. (United States)

    Treadaway, Harry H.

    The problem areas of motivation, job enrichment, recruiting, and retention are addressed from the viewpoint of the behavioral scientist. Special attention is given to relating job enrichment and motivation techniques, as successfully demonstrated in industry, to the United State Army Reserve. Research method utilized was a literature review…

  3. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.J.


    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial

  4. Cerebral correlates of cognitive reserve. (United States)

    Whalley, Lawrence J; Staff, Roger T; Fox, Helen C; Murray, Alison D


    Cognitive reserve is a hypothetical concept introduced to explain discrepancies between severity of clinical dementia syndromes and the extent of dementia pathology. We examined cognitive reserve in a research programme that followed up a non-clinical sample born in 1921 or 1936 and IQ-tested age 11 years in 1932 or 1947. Structural MRI exams were acquired in about 50% of the sample from whom a subsample were recruited into an additional fMRI study. Here, we summarise findings from seven inter-related studies. These support an understanding of cognitive reserve as a balance between positive life course activity-driven experiences and the negative effects of brain pathologies including cerebrovascular disease and total and regional brain volume loss. Hypothesised structural equation models illustrate the relative causal effects of these positive and negative contributions. Cognitive reserve is considered in the context of choice of interventions to prevent dementia and the opposing effects of cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer like brain appearances. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))


    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  6. Amblyopia and strabismus: trends in prevalence and risk factors among young adults in Israel. (United States)

    Shapira, Yinon; Machluf, Yossy; Mimouni, Michael; Chaiter, Yoram; Mezer, Eedy


    To estimate the prevalence of amblyopia, present strabismus and amblyopia risk factors (ARFs) among young adults in Israel and to analyse trends over time of prevalence rates. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 107 608 pre-enlistees aged 17.4±0.6 years born between 1971 and 1994. Across the birth years, the following trends of prevalence rates among young adults were analysed: prevalence of amblyopia, prevalence of strabismus, severity of amblyopia and prevalence of ARFs (strabismsus, anisometropia and isoametropia). Unilateral amblyopia was defined as best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of amblyopia was defined as BCVA of amblyopia was classified as mild (BCVA ≥0.5 [6/12]), moderate (BCVA prevalence of young adulthood amblyopia declined by 33%, from 1.2% to 0.8% (R 2 =0.87, pamblyopia from 1% to 0.6% (R 2 =0.93, pprevalence of bilateral amblyopia remained stable (0.2%, p=0.12). The decline in amblyopia was apparent in mild and moderate amblyopia, but not in severe amblyopia. Strabismus and anisometropia were detected in 6-12% and 11-20% of subjects with unilateral amblyopia, respectively, without significant trends. Strabismic amblyopia remained constant in the entire population across years. Isoametropia was detected in 46-59% of subjects with bilateral amblyopia without a significant trend across birth years. Prevalence of strabismus in the study population decreased by 50%, from 1.2% to 0.6% (R 2 =0.75, pprevalence of mild unilateral amblyopia increased, while moderate or severe unilateral amblyopia remained relatively stable. Among young adults, the prevalence of unilateral amblyopia, as well as the prevalence of present strabismus, decreased significantly over a period of a generation. The prevalence of strabismic, bilateral or severe (both unilateral and bilateral) amblyopia remained stable. The establishment of the national screening programme for children and the improved utility of treatment for amblyopia and strabismus coincide with

  7. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  8. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  9. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael


    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...... balancing measure, which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the electricity demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR...

  10. Network-Oblivious Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilardi, Gianfranco; Pietracaprina, Andrea; Pucci, Geppino


    A framework is proposed for the design and analysis of network-oblivious algorithms, namely algorithms that can run unchanged, yet efficiently, on a variety of machines characterized by different degrees of parallelism and communication capabilities. The framework prescribes that a network-oblivi...

  11. Graph Colouring Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husfeldt, Thore


    This chapter presents an introduction to graph colouring algorithms. The focus is on vertex-colouring algorithms that work for general classes of graphs with worst-case performance guarantees in a sequential model of computation. The presentation aims to demonstrate the breadth of available...

  12. Efficient graph algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Computing connectivities between all pairs of vertices good algorithm wrt both space and time to compute the exact solution. Computing all-pairs distances good algorithm wrt both space and time - but only approximate solutions can be found. Optimal bipartite matchings an optimal matching need not always exist.

  13. Algorithms and Their Explanations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benini, M.; Gobbo, F.; Beckmann, A.; Csuhaj-Varjú, E.; Meer, K.


    By analysing the explanation of the classical heapsort algorithm via the method of levels of abstraction mainly due to Floridi, we give a concrete and precise example of how to deal with algorithmic knowledge. To do so, we introduce a concept already implicit in the method, the ‘gradient of

  14. 8. Algorithm Design Techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 8. Algorithms - Algorithm Design Techniques. R K Shyamasundar. Series Article Volume 2 ... Author Affiliations. R K Shyamasundar1. Computer Science Group, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India ...

  15. 8. Algorithm Design Techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 8. Algorithms - Algorithm Design Techniques. R K Shyamasundar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 8 August 1997 pp 6-17. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  16. Introduction to Algorithms -14 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As elaborated in the earlier articles, algorithms must be written in an unambiguous formal way. Algorithms intended for automatic execution by computers are called programs and the formal notations used to write programs are called programming languages. The concept of a programming language has been around ...

  17. Burns in Israel, comparative study: Demographic, etiologic and clinical trends 1997-2003 vs. 2004-2010. (United States)

    Harats, M; Peleg, K; Givon, A; Kornhaber, R; Goder, M; Jaeger, M; Haik, J


    To review hospitalised burn patients from 2004 to 2010 admitted to Israeli burn units and compare these result with data from 1997 to 2003. Retrospectively, data was collected from the Israeli Trauma Registry (ITR) encompassing all burn admissions to Israeli burn units from 2004-2010 and compared to 1997-2003. Of the 5269 burn patients admitted from 2004 to 2010, 39.8% were non-Jewish. Infants under two years were the prominent age group (24.1%). Second to third degree burns 1-9% TBSA/first degree burns were 71%, second to third degree burns 10-19% TBSA were 16% and those 20%>TBSA consisted of 13%. Only 2.7% involved an inhalation injury. The average length of stay was 11.67 days and mortality rate 3.72%. All data was compared to the previous year's 1997-2003 and trends were identified. Within Israel, high risk populations remain infants under two years of age, males and those from non-Jewish populations. National prevention strategies and campaigns are warranted to inform and educated parents of young children and those at risk of burns. Of note, advances in burn care and procedures might have contributed to a decrease in the length of hospital stay (LOS). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Cyanobacterial populations in biological soil crusts of the northwest Negev Desert, Israel - effects of local conditions and disturbance. (United States)

    Hagemann, Martin; Henneberg, Manja; Felde, Vincent J M N L; Berkowicz, Simon M; Raanan, Hagai; Pade, Nadin; Felix-Henningsen, Peter; Kaplan, Aaron


    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) fulfill numerous ecological functions in arid and semiarid areas. Cyanobacteria are important BSC organisms, which are responsible for carbon fixation, N 2 -fixation, and binding of soil via extracellular polysaccharides. The cyanobacterial populations were characterized in different sampling plots established in three experimental stations along a rainfall gradient within NW Negev Desert, Israel. Cyanobacterial crust thickness and osmolyte accumulation therein decreased in plots with lower moisture. The cyanobacterial population structure also changed in different plots. We observed an increase of subsection III cyanobacteria such as Microcoleus spp. and Leptolyngbya sp. and a decreasing proportion of strains belonging to subsections I and IV in drier areas on the rainfall gradient. This population shift was also observed in the sampling plots, which were situated at various relief positions within the sand dune experimental sites. We also characterized the cyanobacterial populations within mechanically disturbed plots. After four years, they reached between 80 and 50% of the control populations in the northern-most and southern stations, respectively. Our results suggest that the cyanobacterial population is sensitive not only to macroscale factors but may also be subject to local climate variations and that four years were insufficient for complete recovery of the cyanobacterial population. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  19. Vegetation cover and species richness after recurrent forest fires in the Eastern Mediterranean ecosystem of Mount Carmel, Israel. (United States)

    Tessler, Naama; Wittenberg, Lea; Greenbaum, Noam


    Fire is a common disturbance in Mediterranean ecosystems, and can have a destructive, influential, and even essential, effect on vegetation and wildlife. In recent decades there has been a general increase in the number of fires in the Mediterranean Basin, including in Mount Carmel, Israel. The effects of recurrent forest fires on vegetation cover and species richness were determined in the spring of 2009 and 2010 by field surveys. The results of this study showed that the vegetation cover changes after recurrent forest fires, and can serve as a good indicator of the influence of fire and the resulting ecosystem rehabilitation. The dominant cover in most fire-damaged areas was composed of shrubs and dwarf-shrubs, especially Cistus salviifolius and Calicotome villosa. Tree cover was severely damaged after recurrent fires, and in those areas there was a drastic decrease of the total plant cover. Species richness increased mainly in the first decade after the recurrent fires, and decreased when the forest canopy began to close. Fire recurrence with short intervals (4-6years) between fires may lower the rehabilitated processes of the ecosystem and change its equilibrium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Health and functional status and utilization of health care services among holocaust survivors and their counterparts in Israel. (United States)

    Iecovich, Esther; Carmel, Sara


    To examine differences in health and functional status and in utilization of health services between holocaust survivors and their counterparts; and (b) to investigate if holocaust survivor status is a significant predictor of health status, functional status, and utilization of health services. The study included 1255 respondents of whom 272 were holocaust survivors. Interviews were conducted face-to-face at the respondents' homes. Participants were asked about their health (self-rated health and comorbidity) and functional (ADL and IADL) status, utilization of inpatient and outpatient health care services, age, gender, education, marital status, length of residence in Israel, and if they were holocaust survivors. Holocaust survivors, who were frailer and more chronically ill compared to their counterparts, visited their family physician and the nurse at the health care clinic more often than their counterparts did, and received more homecare services. Yet, there were no differences between them in the utilization of other health care services such as visits to specialists, emergency department, and hospitalizations. Holocaust survivors are more homebound due to more morbidity and functional limitations and therefore receive more health home care services that offset the utilization of other health services. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The contribution of cat owners' attitudes and behaviours to the free-roaming cat overpopulation in Tel Aviv, Israel. (United States)

    Finkler, Hilit; Terkel, Joseph


    The attitudes and behaviours of cat owners in regard to treatment of cats may have a cumulative effect on the food availability, reproduction, density and welfare of the free-roaming cat population and thus also on the extent of cat overpopulation. Understanding this is thus a vital step in the a priori planning of cat management programs on any scale, as well as in developing public education programs on this issue. Although recent years have seen an accumulation of knowledge in regard to cat owners' attitudes and behaviours, the findings vary among countries and locations and in Israel this has never been investigated systematically. Using a questionnaire provided to cat owners in veterinary clinics, this study aimed at identifying those attitudes and behaviours that may be contributing to cat overpopulation in Tel Aviv, Israel, and at exploring the socio-economic factors that influence this problem. The findings show that the influential factors can be predicted from the cat owners' socio-economic status, mainly education and income, as well as gender and age. A consistency in those cat owner behaviours that contribute to cat overpopulation was also uncovered, revealing a sub-population of individuals who persist in the undesirable behaviours. Finally, a strong relationship between attitude and consequent behaviour was demonstrated, indicating the importance of education and targeted publicity as a means to influence attitudes and thereby change behaviours in this respect. We propose several measures by which to reduce the current extent of cat owners' contribution to the cat overpopulation: discouraging unwanted owner behaviours such as abandonment of their cats and allowing them to breed; promoting awareness of the neutering option among cat caretakers; and increasing pre-adoption neutering rates in shelters. Regional and national laws promoting responsible pet ownership need to be enacted. By improving the current level of knowledge and awareness among cat

  2. Greenhouse Gas emissions reporting in Israel: Means to manage energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayalon, Ofira; Lev-On, Miriam; Lev-On, Perry; Goldrath, Tal


    Highlights: • We describe and analyze the Israeli GHG Protocol and the GHG Emissions Calculation Tool developed for companies in Israel. • The analysis was conducted for the ‘Pilot Phase’ (2010) and for the first two full years of reporting (2011 and 2012). • We highlight the changes in fuel mix that influence direct emissions from power generation. • We conclude that the Israeli GHG registry is building capacity in both reporting entities and government ministries. • The experience gained in this registry implementation, may serve as an excellent experience for other countries. - Abstract: The subject of publicly disclosing Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions by companies and organizations is gaining momentum and a variety of so called ‘GHG Registries’ have been developed in countries around the globe, while specific requirements are being adjusted to local circumstances and needs. Different GHG Registries are currently operating worldwide, either as mandatory or as voluntary programs. Israel launched a voluntary initiative in 2010 known as the Israel GHG Reporting and Registering System. The Israel GHG Reporting Protocol was prepared by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and the Energy and Environment cluster at the Samuel Neaman Institute, in cooperation with a wide range of stakeholders, including other governmental ministries, industry and local government representatives as well as non-governmental organizations. The Israel GHG Protocol is largely based on the World Resources Institute/World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WRI/WBCSD) corporate accounting standard and ISO 14064. While the decision to join the GHG registry in Israel is currently voluntary, once an organization has joined the registry it commits to calculate and report GHG emissions according to the registry’s protocol and methodology guidance to allow for consistency in the reported data and for accurate comparison of the results. The Israeli program is

  3. Updated treatment algorithm of pulmonary arterial hypertension. (United States)

    Galiè, Nazzareno; Corris, Paul A; Frost, Adaani; Girgis, Reda E; Granton, John; Jing, Zhi Cheng; Klepetko, Walter; McGoon, Michael D; McLaughlin, Vallerie V; Preston, Ioana R; Rubin, Lewis J; Sandoval, Julio; Seeger, Werner; Keogh, Anne


    The demands on a pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) treatment algorithm are multiple and in some ways conflicting. The treatment algorithm usually includes different types of recommendations with varying degrees of scientific evidence. In addition, the algorithm is required to be comprehensive but not too complex, informative yet simple and straightforward. The type of information in the treatment algorithm are heterogeneous including clinical, hemodynamic, medical, interventional, pharmacological and regulatory recommendations. Stakeholders (or users) including physicians from various specialties and with variable expertise in PAH, nurses, patients and patients' associations, healthcare providers, regulatory agencies and industry are often interested in the PAH treatment algorithm for different reasons. These are the considerable challenges faced when proposing appropriate updates to the current evidence-based treatment algorithm.The current treatment algorithm may be divided into 3 main areas: 1) general measures, supportive therapy, referral strategy, acute vasoreactivity testing and chronic treatment with calcium channel blockers; 2) initial therapy with approved PAH drugs; and 3) clinical response to the initial therapy, combination therapy, balloon atrial septostomy, and lung transplantation. All three sections will be revisited highlighting information newly available in the past 5 years and proposing updates where appropriate. The European Society of Cardiology grades of recommendation and levels of evidence will be adopted to rank the proposed treatments. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Governance by algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Musiani


    Full Text Available Algorithms are increasingly often cited as one of the fundamental shaping devices of our daily, immersed-in-information existence. Their importance is acknowledged, their performance scrutinised in numerous contexts. Yet, a lot of what constitutes 'algorithms' beyond their broad definition as “encoded procedures for transforming input data into a desired output, based on specified calculations” (Gillespie, 2013 is often taken for granted. This article seeks to contribute to the discussion about 'what algorithms do' and in which ways they are artefacts of governance, providing two examples drawing from the internet and ICT realm: search engine queries and e-commerce websites’ recommendations to customers. The question of the relationship between algorithms and rules is likely to occupy an increasingly central role in the study and the practice of internet governance, in terms of both institutions’ regulation of algorithms, and algorithms’ regulation of our society.

  5. Totally parallel multilevel algorithms (United States)

    Frederickson, Paul O.


    Four totally parallel algorithms for the solution of a sparse linear system have common characteristics which become quite apparent when they are implemented on a highly parallel hypercube such as the CM2. These four algorithms are Parallel Superconvergent Multigrid (PSMG) of Frederickson and McBryan, Robust Multigrid (RMG) of Hackbusch, the FFT based Spectral Algorithm, and Parallel Cyclic Reduction. In fact, all four can be formulated as particular cases of the same totally parallel multilevel algorithm, which are referred to as TPMA. In certain cases the spectral radius of TPMA is zero, and it is recognized to be a direct algorithm. In many other cases the spectral radius, although not zero, is small enough that a single iteration per timestep keeps the local error within the required tolerance.

  6. Group leaders optimization algorithm (United States)

    Daskin, Anmer; Kais, Sabre


    We present a new global optimization algorithm in which the influence of the leaders in social groups is used as an inspiration for the evolutionary technique which is designed into a group architecture. To demonstrate the efficiency of the method, a standard suite of single and multi-dimensional optimization functions along with the energies and the geometric structures of Lennard-Jones clusters are given as well as the application of the algorithm on quantum circuit design problems. We show that as an improvement over previous methods, the algorithm scales as N 2.5 for the Lennard-Jones clusters of N-particles. In addition, an efficient circuit design is shown for a two-qubit Grover search algorithm which is a quantum algorithm providing quadratic speedup over the classical counterpart.

  7. 77 FR 40253 - Reserve Account (United States)


    .... The commentators represented Rural Development employees who work with the Multi-Family Housing Direct... their annual over-inflated tax bills and assessments. As a result, rent income funding that could be..., as rents cannot be raised to an amount that will cover all current and future reserve expenses...

  8. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Togeby, Mikael; Østergaard, Jacob

    This report summaries the research outcomes of the project ‘Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)’, which has received the support from’s PSO program, Grant no. 2005-2-6380. The objective of this project is to investigate the technology of using electricity demands for providing...

  9. Algorithms in Singular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Schonemann


    Full Text Available Some algorithms for singularity theory and algebraic geometry The use of Grobner basis computations for treating systems of polynomial equations has become an important tool in many areas. This paper introduces of the concept of standard bases (a generalization of Grobner bases and the application to some problems from algebraic geometry. The examples are presented as SINGULAR commands. A general introduction to Grobner bases can be found in the textbook [CLO], an introduction to syzygies in [E] and [St1]. SINGULAR is a computer algebra system for computing information about singularities, for use in algebraic geometry. The basic algorithms in SINGULAR are several variants of a general standard basis algorithm for general monomial orderings (see [GG]. This includes wellorderings (Buchberger algorithm ([B1], [B2] and tangent cone orderings (Mora algorithm ([M1], [MPT] as special cases: It is able to work with non-homogeneous and homogeneous input and also to compute in the localization of the polynomial ring in 0. Recent versions include algorithms to factorize polynomials and a factorizing Grobner basis algorithm. For a complete description of SINGULAR see [Si].

  10. Mortality prediction in intensive care units with the Super ICU Learner Algorithm (SICULA): a population-based study. (United States)

    Pirracchio, Romain; Petersen, Maya L; Carone, Marco; Rigon, Matthieu Resche; Chevret, Sylvie; van der Laan, Mark J


    Improved mortality prediction for patients in intensive care units is a big challenge. Many severity scores have been proposed, but findings of validation studies have shown that they are not adequately calibrated. The Super ICU Learner Algorithm (SICULA), an ensemble machine learning technique that uses multiple learning algorithms to obtain better prediction performance, does at least as well as the best member of its library. We aimed to assess whether the Super Learner could provide a new mortality prediction algorithm for patients in intensive care units, and to assess its performance compared with other scoring systems. From January, 2001, to December, 2008, we used the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC-II) database (version 26) including all patients admitted to an intensive care unit at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Centre, Boston, MA, USA. We assessed the calibration, discrimination, and risk classification of predicted hospital mortality based on Super Learner compared with SAPS-II, APACHE-II, and SOFA. We calculated performance measures with cross-validation to avoid making biased assessments. Our proposed score was then externally validated on a dataset of 200 randomly selected patients admitted at the intensive care unit of Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou, Paris, France, between Sept 1, 2013, and June, 30, 2014. The primary outcome was hospital mortality. The explanatory variables were the same as those included in the SAPS II score. 24,508 patients were included, with median SAPS-II of 38 (IQR 27-51) and median SOFA of 5 (IQR 2-8). 3002 of 24,508 (12%) patients died in the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Centre. We produced two sets of predictions based on the Super Learner; the first based on the 17 variables as they appear in the SAPS-II score (SL1), and the second, on the original, untransformed variables (SL2). The two versions yielded average predicted probabilities of death of 0·12 (IQR 0·02-0·16) and 0

  11. Habaneros and shwarma: Jewish Mexicans in Israel as a transnational community

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    Paulette Kershenovich Schuster


    Full Text Available Food is the cultural expression of society food as a marker of class, ethnic, and religious identity. What happens when the location changes? Does food continue to play such an important role or do other cultural nodes take over? Do layers of traditions, adaptation and cultural blends emerge? This seems to be the case with third and fourth generation Mexican Jews who have moved to Israel. Not only have they brought their spiritual and cultural connections from Mexico, their birth country; they have also brought the food experiences of their great-grandparents and grandparents who were they themselves immigrants. Jewish Mexicans have transplanted their sense of community to Israel and in doing so they have also brought overlooked cultural interactions and unique food experiences. Are these simply by-products of religious and migration patterns? Or are there other elements that have affected this cultural hybridity?

  12. Redescription of Clinostomum phalacrocoracis metacercariae (Digenea: Clinostomidae in cichlids from Lake Kinneret, Israel

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    Caffara Monica


    Full Text Available Clinostomidae are digeneans characterized by a complex taxonomic history, continuously under revision based on both morphological and molecular analysis. Among the 14 species considered valid so far Clinostomum phalacrocoracis has been well described only at the adult stage, whereas the morphology of the metacercarial stage has been reported only once. During a parasitological survey carried out on 262 wild cichlids sampled from Lake Kinneret (Israel metacercariae referable to C. phalacrocoracis were found in 18 fingerlings. In this study, we report this clinostomid species for the first time in wild fish from Israel describing the metacercarial stage of Clinostomum phalacrocoracis, coupling its morphological description with molecular analysis carried out on ITS rDNA and COI mtDNA sequences.

  13. Between universal feminism and particular nationalism: politics, religion and gender (in)equality in Israel. (United States)

    Halperin-Kaddari, Ruth; Yadgar, Yaacov


    This article argues that one of the many "idiosyncrasies" of the Israeli case, namely Israel's continuing, violent conflict with its Arab neighbours, is of highly influential relevance to the issue of gender relations. Viewed by many Israeli Jews as a struggle for the very existence of the Jewish state, the Arab-Israeli conflict has overshadowed most other civil and social issues, rendering them "secondary" to the primary concern of securing the safe existence of the state. This has pushed such pressing issues as gender equality and women's rights aside, thus allowing for the perpetuation of discriminatory, sometimes rather repressive treatment of women in Israel. The most blatant expression of this is the turning of the struggle for civil marriage and divorce into a non-issue. Following a short introduction of the relevant political context, we discuss women's positivist and legal status, then conclude with an analysis of the women's movement, highlighting the emergence of religious feminism.

  14. Differences in lung function among school children in communities in Israel

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    Peled, R.; Bibi, H.; Pope, C.A.; Nir, P.; Shiachi, R.; Scharff, S. [Barzilai Medical Centre, Ashqelon (Israel). Dept. Epidemiology


    Differences in lung functions of school-age children who lived near two power plants in the Ashkelon district of Israel were studied. Lung-function tests were performed, and the American Thoracic Society questionnaire was administered in three study periods during the following years: (1) 1990, (2) 1994, and (3) 1997. Measurements of air pollutants (i.e., sulfur dioxide, nitric oxides, ozone) were also taken during these periods. The authors controlled for age, sex, height, weight, parents' education and smoking status, and being born out of Israel, and, consequently, substantial differences in lung function across the different communities and study periods were demonstrated in the study area. No robust association with air pollution was demonstrated. The cause of these differences in the respiratory health of children remains unknown.

  15. Adapted Traditions: The Case of Traditional Palestinian Women Healers in Israel

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    Ariela Popper-Giveon


    Full Text Available This article examines transformations in the roles and treatment practices of traditional Palestinian women healers in Israel. Comparing narratives of women healers residing in Jewish-Arab mixed cities in central Israel with those of their counterparts in the Bedouin community of the Negev reveals that traditional healing has not disappeared as a result of modernization but rather has transformed. Urban women healers are abandoning treatment of physical problems in favor of addressing life hardships; they distance themselves from problems whose cause and treatment are considered natural and prefer those perceived as derived from supernatural causes and treated through supernatural, magical and religious means. Despite these transformations, traditional Palestinian women healers appear as agents of preservation and conservatism, a role that imbues them with a central position in their community. Hence, their place is currently secured and expected to remain so as processes of modernization and acculturation increase in intensity. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902119

  16. Battling Against Interfaith Relations in Israel: Religion, Therapy, and Social Services. (United States)

    Hakak, Yohai


    One of the less studied aspects of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is its demography. On the Jewish side, active steps are taken by the state to encourage Jewish immigration and Jewish births and discourage Jewish assimilation. As part of these efforts, the "problematic relationships" between Arab men and Jewish women from low socioeconomic background have become a high agenda item in public discussions in Israel during the last decade. I will examine here how the diagnostic category "girls at risk" and a therapeutic intervention employed by social services dealing with these couples helps maintaining the delicate balance between Jewish and democratic values. I will analyze these practices as a solution to a structural problem of the Jewish enclave in Israel. © 2015 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  17. José Lins do Rego: um guia brasileiro de Israel

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    Glauber Pereira Quintão


    Full Text Available Este artigo procura analisar, de forma crítica, o livro de José Lins do Rego, Roteiro de Israel, 1955. Busca-­se destacar duas facetas suplementares: a de um olhar poético e a de uma preocupação ético-política lançados pelo escritor sobre a construção do novo Estado de Israel. Observa-­se também uma relação entre os signos da modernidade e das histórias arcaica judaicas. Para isso, usa-­se o conceito de palimpsesto, de Gerard Genette, e de flâneur, de Walter Benjamim.

  18. Threatened or Threatening? How Ideology Shapes Asylum Seekers' Immigration Policy Attitudes in Israel and Australia. (United States)

    Canetti, Daphna; Snider, Keren L G; Pedersen, Anne; Hall, Brian J


    Can different political ideologies explain policy preferences regarding asylum seekers? We focus on attitudes regarding governmental policy towards out-group members and suggest that perceptions of threat help to shape these policy attitudes. Study 1 compared public opinion regarding asylum policy in Israel ( N = 137) and Australia ( N = 138), two countries with restrictive asylum policies and who host a large number of asylum seekers; Study 2, a longitudinal study, was conducted during two different time periods in Israel-before and during the Gaza conflict. Results of both studies showed that threat perceptions of out-group members drive the relationship between conservative political ideologies and support for exclusionary asylum policies among citizens. Perceptions of threat held by members of the host country (the in-group) towards asylum seekers (the out-group) may influence policy formation. The effect of these out-groups threats needs to be critically weighed when considering Israeli and Australian policies towards asylum seekers.

  19. Exploring the Continental Margin of Israel: “Telepresence” at Work (United States)

    Coleman, Dwight F.; Austin, James A., Jr.; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Ballard, Robert D.


    A multidisciplinary team of American and Israeli scientists conducted ocean exploration with a “telepresence” component offshore Israel in September 2010 on board the new E/V Nautilus, which is a reincarnation of the former East German R/V Alexander von Humboldt. This was the first comprehensive geological and biological exploration of the Israel continental margin using deep submergence vehicle systems. Diverse seafloor environments in water depths between 500 and 1300 meters were sampled and imaged using two remotely operated vehicle (ROV) systems, Hercules and Argus. The ROV dives within three areas (Figure 1) investigated high-priority acoustic targets representing geological, biological, or archaeological features as identified by the onboard scientific team. During the dives, biological and geological samples and more than 100 kilometers of high-resolution side-scan sonar data were collected.

  20. A New Modified Firefly Algorithm

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    Medha Gupta


    Full Text Available Nature inspired meta-heuristic algorithms studies the emergent collective intelligence of groups of simple agents. Firefly Algorithm is one of the new such swarm-based metaheuristic algorithm inspired by the flashing behavior of fireflies. The algorithm was first proposed in 2008 and since then has been successfully used for solving various optimization problems. In this work, we intend to propose a new modified version of Firefly algorithm (MoFA and later its performance is compared with the standard firefly algorithm along with various other meta-heuristic algorithms. Numerical studies and results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is superior to existing algorithms.