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Sample records for resembling nested catabolic

  1. [Liesegang's rings resembling helminthiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámecník, M; Riedl, I

    1996-12-01

    So called Liesegang's rings are lamellar corpuscles which develop after periodical precipitation of oversaturated solutions in gel medium. They can occur in cysts, closed cavities, inflammatory exudates and necroses. They resemble parasitic eggs, larvae or adult forms. A case of 28-year-old woman is presented with many Liesegang's rings in a stuff from dilated renal calyx. Their preliminary evaluation considered helminths, especially Dioctophyma renale.

  2. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  3. Resemblance and investment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinska, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    According to evolutionary explanations men hardly ever are absolutely certain about their biological fatherhood therefore they must seek various sources of information to subjectively establish whether they are the genetic fathers of the children they raise. Apicella and Marlowe (2004) showed that fathers who perceived greater similarity between their children and themselves were willing to invest more resources (e.g., time, money, care) in their offspring presumably because the perceived resemblance indicated to the fathers their genetic relatedness with their children. The present study extended the design of Apicella and Marlowe's original study and included both fathers and mothers as participants. Parents were recruited by a female confederate at the airport and at the railway station in Wroclaw (Poland). Multiple regression analyses showed that perceived resemblance predicted parental investment in the child for both men and women. The fact that mothers' declarations of investment in their children also depended on the perceived resemblance factor is not consistent with evolutionary formulations delineated by Apicella and Marlowe (2004; 2007). Future studies must resolve the issue of whether the resemblance-investment relation in fathers results from men relaying on child's resemblance to themselves as an indicator of their own biological paternity, or whether it results from the more parsimonious phenomenon that people in general are attracted more to other people who are similar to them.

  4. Archaic artifacts resembling celestial spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakoudis, S.; Papaspyrou, P.; Petoussis, V.; Moussas, X.

    We present several bronze artifacts from the Archaic Age in Greece (750-480 BC) that resemble celestial spheres or forms of other astronomical significance. They are studied in the context of the Dark Age transition from Mycenaean Age astronomical themes to the philosophical and practical revival of astronomy in the Classical Age with its plethora of astronomical devices. These artifacts, mostly votive in nature are spherical in shape and appear in a variety of forms their most striking characteristic being the depiction of meridians and/or an equator. Most of those artifacts come from Thessaly, and more specifically from the temple of Itonia Athena at Philia, a religious center of pan-Hellenic significance. Celestial spheres, similar in form to the small artifacts presented in this study, could be used to measure latitudes, or estimate the time at a known place, and were thus very useful in navigation.

  5. Biochemistry of Catabolic Reductive Dehalogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincker, Maeva; Spormann, Alfred M

    2017-06-20

    A wide range of phylogenetically diverse microorganisms couple the reductive dehalogenation of organohalides to energy conservation. Key enzymes of such anaerobic catabolic pathways are corrinoid and Fe-S cluster-containing, membrane-associated reductive dehalogenases. These enzymes catalyze the reductive elimination of a halide and constitute the terminal reductases of a short electron transfer chain. Enzymatic and physiological studies revealed the existence of quinone-dependent and quinone-independent reductive dehalogenases that are distinguishable at the amino acid sequence level, implying different modes of energy conservation in the respective microorganisms. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about catabolic reductive dehalogenases and the electron transfer chain they are part of. We review reaction mechanisms and the role of the corrinoid and Fe-S cluster cofactors and discuss physiological implications.

  6. Glutamine alimentation in catabolic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelens, P G; Nijveldt, R J; Houdijk, A P; Meijer, S; van Leeuwen, P A

    2001-09-01

    Glutamine should be reclassified as a conditionally essential amino acid in the catabolic state because the body's glutamine expenditures exceed synthesis and low glutamine levels in plasma are associated with poor clinical outcome. After severe stress, several amino acids are mobilized from muscle tissue to supply energy and substrate to the host. Glutamine is one of the most important amino acids that provide this function. Glutamine acts as the preferred respiratory fuel for lymphocytes, hepatocytes and intestinal mucosal cells and is metabolized in the gut to citrulline, ammonium and other amino acids. Low concentrations of glutamine in plasma reflect reduced stores in muscle and this reduced availability of glutamine in the catabolic state seems to correlate with increased morbidity and mortality. Adding glutamine to the nutrition of clinical patients, enterally or parenterally, may reduce morbidity. Several excellent clinical trials have been performed to prove efficacy and feasibility of the use of glutamine supplementation in parenteral and enteral nutrition. The increased intake of glutamine has resulted in lower septic morbidity in certain critically ill patient populations. This review will focus on the efficacy and the importance of glutamine supplementation in diverse catabolic states.

  7. Triangular Nests!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, R. I.

    2002-01-01

    Shows how integer-sided triangles can be nested, each nest having a single enclosing isosceles triangle. Brings to light what can be seen as a relatively simple generalization of Pythagoras' theorem, a result that should be readily accessible to many secondary school pupils. (Author/KHR)

  8. Detecting analogical resemblance without retrieving the source analogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, Bogdan; Cleary, Anne M; Severin, Kaye; Miller, Samuel W

    2010-06-01

    We examined whether people can detect analogical resemblance to an earlier experimental episode without being able to recall the experimental source of the analogical resemblance. We used four-word analogies (e.g., robin-nest/beaver-dam), in a variation of the recognition-without-cued-recall method (Cleary, 2004). Participants studied word pairs (e.g., robin-nest) and were shown new word pairs at test, half of which analogically related to studied word pairs (e.g., beaver-dam) and half of which did not. For each test pair, participants first attempted to recall an analogically similar pair from the study list. Then, regardless of whether successful recall occurred, participants were prompted to rate the familiarity of the test pair, which was said to indicate the likelihood that a pair that was analogically similar to the test pair had been studied. Across three experiments, participants demonstrated an ability to detect analogical resemblance without recalling the source analogy. Findings are discussed in terms of their potential relevance to the study of analogical reasoning and insight, as well as to the study of familiarity and recognition memory.

  9. Hawaii ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabird nesting colonies in coastal Hawaii. Vector points in this data set represent locations of...

  10. Maryland ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for raptors in Maryland. Vector points in this data set represent bird nesting sites. Species-specific...

  11. Louisiana ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabird and wading bird nesting colonies in coastal Louisiana. Vector points in this data set represent...

  12. Catabolic Processes in Cardiosurgical Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Lomivorotov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate catabolic and anabolic processes in cardiosurgical patients during heart operations under extracorporeal circulation.Subjects and methods. Seventy-one patients with coronary heart disease (CHD and acquired cardiac defects (ACD, who had been operated on under extracorporeal circulation, were examined. The plasma levels of cortisol, adrenaline, insulin, growth hormone, and albumin were measured. For determination of daily nitrogen excretion, blood and diurnal urine were sampled at the following stages: 1 before surgery; 2 postoperative (PO day 1; 3 PO day 3; 4 PO day 7; 5 PO day 14; 6 PO day 21.Results. The preoperative daily nitrogen excretion in CHD patients was 10.4±1.0 g/day. By PO day 3, there was a significant increase in nitrogen excretion by 66%, up to 17.3±1.6 g/day (p<0.01. In ACD patients, the baseline daily urinary nitrogen excretion was 11.9±1.7 g/day. By PO day 3, there was a 1.4-fold increase in this index — up to 16.3±2.0 g/day. Daily nitrogen excretion significantly increased up to 17.1±1.2 g/day by the end of the first PO week (p<0.05, by exceeding the baseline values by 44%. Nitrogen excretion peaked by the end of PO days 14 (17.2±1.6 g/day (p<0.05. By hospital discharge, nitrogen excretion was 23% greater than its baseline preoperative level (p>0.05. In cardiosurgical patients, an increase in daily nitrogen excretion occurred with the elevated concentrations of the stress hormones cortisol and adrenaline.Conclusion. The magnitude of catabolic reactions after cardiosurgical interventions depends on the type of cardiac disease. In patients with CHD, the maximum catabolic reactions were recorded on PO day 3 whereas in those with ACD, they continued within three weeks postoperatively.  

  13. The mechanisms of haem catabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.B.; King, R.F.G.J.

    1978-01-01

    The pathway of haem breakdown in living rats was studied by using 18 0 in the oxygen that the animals consumed. By cannulation of the common bile duct and collection of bile, labelled bilirubin was isolated and its mass spectrum determined. One set of results was obtained for a rat to which haemoglobin had been intravenously administered and another set obtained for a rat that was not given exogenous haem. Isomerization of bilirubin IXα to the XIIIα and IIIα isomers did not occur to any significant extent. The 18 O-labelling pattern obtained in the bilirubin was consistent with a Two-Molecule Mechanism, whereby the terminal lactam oxygen atoms of bilirubin are derived from different oxygen molecules. The consequences of this mechanism are discussed in terms of the possible intermediates of the catabolic pathway. 18 0-labelled bilirubin appeared in the bile in less than 10 min after exposure of the animals to labelled oxygen. This result suggests that all of the chemical transformations involving production of biliverdin, reduction to bilirubin and conjugation of the bilirubin are fast processes. The quantitative recovery of label obtained in the experiments suggests that there is little or no exchange of newly synthesized bilirubin with existing bilirubin pools in the animal. (author)

  14. Body Weight Independently Affects Articular Cartilage Catabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Matt Denning, Jason G. Winward, Michael Becker Pardo, J. Ty Hopkins, Matthew K. Seeley

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although obesity is associated with osteoarthritis, it is unclear whether body weight (BW independently affects articular cartilage catabolism (i.e., independent from physiological factors that also accompany obesity. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of BW on articular cartilage catabolism associated with walking. A secondary purpose was to determine how decreased BW influenced cardiovascular response due to walking. Twelve able-bodied subjects walked for 30 minutes on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill during three sessions: control (unadjusted BW, +40%BW, and -40%BW. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP was measured immediately before (baseline and after, and 15 and 30 minutes after the walk. Heart rate (HR and rate of perceived exertion (RPE were measured every three minutes during the walk. Relative to baseline, average serum COMP concentration was 13% and 5% greater immediately after and 15 minutes after the walk. Immediately after the walk, serum COMP concentration was 14% greater for the +40%BW session than for the -40%BW session. HR and RPE were greater for the +40%BW session than for the other two sessions, but did not differ between the control and -40%BW sessions. BW independently influences acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response due to walking: as BW increases, so does acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response. These results indicate that lower-body positive pressure walking may benefit certain individuals by reducing acute articular cartilage catabolism, due to walking, while maintaining cardiovascular response.

  15. Traumatic bone cyst resembling apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, D J; Ardekian, L; Machtei, E E; Peled, M; Manor, R; Laufer, D

    1997-10-01

    Among the pseudocysts of the jaws, the traumatic bone cyst is known as an asymptomatic lesion often noted unintentionally during routine radiographic examinations. The lesion neither devitalizes the teeth within its borders, nor does it cause resorption of their roots. The well-demarcated traumatic bone cyst often projects into the intraradicular septa and hence has been described as having scalloped borders. The following presentation is of a traumatic bone cyst that resembled periodontal pathology in its appearance.

  16. Pentose phosphates in nucleoside interconversion and catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Maria G; Camici, Marcella; Mascia, Laura; Sgarrella, Francesco; Ipata, Piero L

    2006-03-01

    Ribose phosphates are either synthesized through the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway, or are supplied by nucleoside phosphorylases. The two main pentose phosphates, ribose-5-phosphate and ribose-1-phosphate, are readily interconverted by the action of phosphopentomutase. Ribose-5-phosphate is the direct precursor of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, for both de novo and 'salvage' synthesis of nucleotides. Phosphorolysis of deoxyribonucleosides is the main source of deoxyribose phosphates, which are interconvertible, through the action of phosphopentomutase. The pentose moiety of all nucleosides can serve as a carbon and energy source. During the past decade, extensive advances have been made in elucidating the pathways by which the pentose phosphates, arising from nucleoside phosphorolysis, are either recycled, without opening of their furanosidic ring, or catabolized as a carbon and energy source. We review herein the experimental knowledge on the molecular mechanisms by which (a) ribose-1-phosphate, produced by purine nucleoside phosphorylase acting catabolically, is either anabolized for pyrimidine salvage and 5-fluorouracil activation, with uridine phosphorylase acting anabolically, or recycled for nucleoside and base interconversion; (b) the nucleosides can be regarded, both in bacteria and in eukaryotic cells, as carriers of sugars, that are made available though the action of nucleoside phosphorylases. In bacteria, catabolism of nucleosides, when suitable carbon and energy sources are not available, is accomplished by a battery of nucleoside transporters and of inducible catabolic enzymes for purine and pyrimidine nucleosides and for pentose phosphates. In eukaryotic cells, the modulation of pentose phosphate production by nucleoside catabolism seems to be affected by developmental and physiological factors on enzyme levels.

  17. Metabolic control analysis of xylose catabolism in Aspergillus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prathumpai, W.; Gabelgaard, J.B.; Wanchanthuek, P.; Vondervoort, van de P.J.I.; Groot, de M.J.L.; McIntyre, M.; Nielsen, J.

    2003-01-01

    A kinetic model for xylose catabolism in Aspergillus is proposed. From a thermodynamic analysis it was found that the intermediate xylitol will accumulate during xylose catabolism. Use of the kinetic model allowed metabolic control analysis (MCA) of the xylose catabolic pathway to be carried out,

  18. Multiple ureterolithiasis resembling steinstrasse: An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Pandey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Steinstrasse or “stone street” is an expected complication after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in patients with high stone burden. However, there are published reports of multiple ureterolithiasis resembling steinstrasse in patients with distal renal tubular acidosis. Here we report an uncommon case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with right renal calculi. Her right ureter was studded with multiple calculi up to the vesicoureteric junction. The affected right kidney was nonfunctional and was managed by nephroureterectomy.

  19. Cavity Nesting Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgil E. Scott; Keith E. Evans; David R. Patton; Charles P. Stone

    1977-01-01

    Many species of cavity-nesting birds have declined because of habitat reduction. In the eastern United States, where primeval forests are gone, purple martins depend almost entirely on man-made nesting structures (Allen and Nice 1952). The hole-nesting population of peregrine falcons disappeared with the felling of the giant trees upon which they depended (Hickey and...

  20. Body elimination attitude family resemblance in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fayez, Ghenaim; Awadalla, Abdelwahid; Arikawa, Hiroko; Templer, Donald I; Hutton, Shane

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the family resemblance of attitude toward body elimination in Kuwaiti participants. This study was conceptualized in the context of the theories of moral development, importance of cleanliness in the Muslim religion, cross-cultural differences in personal hygiene practices, previous research reporting an association between family attitudes and body elimination attitude, and health implications. The 24-item Likert-type format Body Elimination Attitude Scale-Revised was administered to 277 Kuwaiti high school students and 437 of their parents. Females scored higher, indicating greater disgust, than the males. Moreover, sons' body elimination attitude correlated more strongly with fathers' attitude (r = .85) than with that of the mothers (r = .64). Daughters' attitude was similarly associated with the fathers' (r = .89) and the mothers' attitude (r = .86). The high correlations were discussed within the context of Kuwait having a collectivistic culture with authoritarian parenting style. The higher adolescent correlations, and in particular the boys' correlation with fathers than with mothers, was explained in terms of the more dominant role of the Muslim father in the family. Public health and future research implications were suggested. A theoretical formulation was advanced in which "ideal" body elimination attitude is relative rather than absolute, and is a function of one's life circumstances, one's occupation, one's culture and subculture, and the society that one lives in.

  1. Columbia River ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for bird nesting sites in the Columbia River area. Vector points in this data set represent locations of...

  2. Taxon- and Site-Specific Melatonin Catabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Hardeland

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is catabolized both enzymatically and nonenzymatically. Nonenzymatic processes mediated by free radicals, singlet oxygen, other reactive intermediates such as HOCl and peroxynitrite, or pseudoenzymatic mechanisms are not species- or tissue-specific, but vary considerably in their extent. Higher rates of nonenzymatic melatonin metabolism can be expected upon UV exposure, e.g., in plants and in the human skin. Additionally, melatonin is more strongly nonenzymatically degraded at sites of inflammation. Typical products are several hydroxylated derivatives of melatonin and N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK. Most of these products are also formed by enzymatic catalysis. Considerable taxon- and site-specific differences are observed in the main enzymatic routes of catabolism. Formation of 6-hydroxymelatonin by cytochrome P450 subforms are prevailing in vertebrates, predominantly in the liver, but also in the brain. In pineal gland and non-mammalian retina, deacetylation to 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT plays a certain role. This pathway is quantitatively prevalent in dinoflagellates, in which 5-MT induces cyst formation and is further converted to 5-methoxyindole-3-acetic acid, an end product released to the water. In plants, the major route is catalyzed by melatonin 2-hydroxylase, whose product is tautomerized to 3-acetamidoethyl-3-hydroxy-5-methoxyindolin-2-one (AMIO, which exceeds the levels of melatonin. Formation and properties of various secondary products are discussed.

  3. Mammographic texture resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Vachon, Celine M.; Scott, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:Breast density has been established as a major risk factor for breast cancer. We have previously demonstrated that mammographic texture resemblance (MTR), recognizing the local texture patterns of the mammogram, is also a risk factor for breast cancer, independent of percent breast...... density. We examine if these findings generalize to another population.METHODS:Texture patterns were recorded in digitalized pre-diagnosis (3.7years) film mammograms of a nested case-control study within the Dutch screening program (S1) comprising of 245 breast cancers and 250 matched controls...

  4. Catabolism of lysine by mixed rumen bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, Ryoji; Kandatsu, Makoto.

    1975-01-01

    Metabolites arising from the catabolism of lysine by the mixed rumen bacteria were chromatographically examined by using radioactive lysine. After 6 hr incubation, 241 nmole/ml of lysine was decomposed to give ether-soluble substances and CO 2 by the bacteria and 90 nmole/ml of lysine was incorporated unchanged into the bacteria. delta-Aminovalerate, cadaverine or pipecolate did not seem to be produced from lysine even after incubation of the bacteria with addition of those three amino compounds to trap besides lysine and radioactive lysine. Most of the ether-soluble substances produced from radioactive lysine was volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Fractionation of VFAs revealed that the peaks of butyric and acetic acids coincided with the strong radioactive peaks. Small amounts of radioactivities were detected in propionic acid peak and a peak assumed to be caproic acid. The rumen bacteria appeared to decompose much larger amounts of lysine than the rumen ciliate protozoa did. (auth.)

  5. Nested Potential Games

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Uno

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a new class of potential games, the nested potential games, which generalize the potential games defined in Monderer and Shapley (1996), as well as the pseudo-potential games defined in Dubey et al. (2006). We show that each maximizer of a nested potential is a Nash equilibrium.

  6. Effects of lipopolysaccharide on the catabolic activity of macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluff, C.; Ziegler, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of macrophages to degrade and catabolize antigens is of relevance both as a means to process complex antigens prior to presentation to T cells, as well as a way to down regulate immune responses by destroying the antigenicity of polypeptides. With these considerations, the authors have investigated the regulation of macrophage catabolic activity by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Catabolic activity was quantitated by following the distribution and molecular form of 125 -I labelled surface components of heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes (HKLM) subsequent to their uptake by macrophages. They have compared the catabolic activity of macrophages from peritoneal exudates of mice injected i.p. with saline or LPS and have found that LPS-elicited macrophages display a greatly enhanced (3 fold) rate of catabolism. This increase in catabolic activity peaks 3 days after LPS injection and steadily declines thereafter, approaching a baseline level after 3 weeks. The enhancement of catabolic activity is under LPS gene control. LPS-elicited macrophages rapidly destroy the antigenicity of bacterial antigens and function poorly as antigen presenting cells in vitro. These results suggest that LPS elicits a macrophage population specialized for antigen degradation functions with negative regulatory effects on the induction of specific immune responses

  7. Tyrosine biosynthesis, metabolism, and catabolism in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Craig A; Maeda, Hiroshi A

    2018-05-01

    L-Tyrosine (Tyr) is an aromatic amino acid (AAA) required for protein synthesis in all organisms, but synthesized de novo only in plants and microorganisms. In plants, Tyr also serves as a precursor of numerous specialized metabolites that have diverse physiological roles as electron carriers, antioxidants, attractants, and defense compounds. Some of these Tyr-derived plant natural products are also used in human medicine and nutrition (e.g. morphine and vitamin E). While the Tyr biosynthesis and catabolic pathways have been extensively studied in microbes and animals, respectively, those of plants have received much less attention until recently. Accumulating evidence suggest that the Tyr biosynthetic pathways differ between microbes and plants and even within the plant kingdom, likely to support the production of lineage-specific plant specialized metabolites derived from Tyr. The interspecies variations of plant Tyr pathway enzymes can now be used to enhance the production of Tyr and Tyr-derived compounds in plants and other synthetic biology platforms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Flown The Nest

    OpenAIRE

    Sebbane, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Lorsque le quotidien régional, The Champion, commence à publier Flown The Nest en 1972 sous forme d’épisodes, Bird’s Nest Soup est déjà en vente, et la troisième partie de l’autobiographie d’Hanna, Housekeeper At Large, est sous presse. L’édition de 2009 contient Flown The Nest et Housekeeper at Large. Dans Bird’s Nest Soup, Hanna Greally racontait les dix-huit années de sa vie passées au sein d’un hôpital psychiatrique. Les raisons pour lesquelles elle y avait été enfermée, à la demande de s...

  9. Nest Site Characteristics of Cavity Nesting Birds in Central Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery D. Brawn; Bernice Tannenbaum; Keith E. Evans

    1984-01-01

    Two study sites in central Missouri oak-hickory forests were searched for nest sites of cavity nesting birds. Researchers located and measured 133 nests of 11 species. Cavity nesting bird habitat selection is affected by both snag characteristics and vegetation structure.

  10. Pareidolia in Neuroendocrinology: A Pituitary Macroadenoma Resembling "Big Bird".

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Herder, Wouter W

    2016-04-01

    The MRI picture of a pituitary macroadenoma with supra- and perisellar expansion resembled a famous character from a children's television series demonstrating that pareidolia is also observed in neuro-endocrinology and -radiology.

  11. Amino Acid Catabolism in Multiple Sclerosis Affects Immune Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrotto, Laura; Correale, Jorge

    2017-03-01

    Amino acid catabolism has been implicated in immunoregulatory mechanisms present in several diseases, including autoimmune disorders. Our aims were to assess expression and activity of enzymes involved in Trp and Arg catabolism, as well as to investigate amino acid catabolism effects on the immune system of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. To this end, 40 MS patients, 30 healthy control subjects, and 30 patients with other inflammatory neurological diseases were studied. Expression and activity of enzymes involved in Trp and Arg catabolism (IDO1, IDO2, Trp 2,3-dioxygenase [TDO], arginase [ARG] 1, ARG2, inducible NO synthetase) were evaluated in PBMCs. Expression of general control nonrepressed 2 serine/threonine kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin (both molecules involved in sensing amino acid levels) was assessed in response to different stimuli modulating amino acid catabolism, as were cytokine secretion levels and regulatory T cell numbers. The results demonstrate that expression and activity of IDO1 and ARG1 were significantly reduced in MS patients compared with healthy control subjects and other inflammatory neurological diseases. PBMCs from MS patients stimulated with a TLR-9 agonist showed reduced expression of general control nonrepressed 2 serine/threonine kinase and increased expression of mammalian target of rapamycin, suggesting reduced amino acid catabolism in MS patients. Functionally, this reduction resulted in a decrease in regulatory T cells, with an increase in myelin basic protein-specific T cell proliferation and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast, induction of IDO1 using CTLA-4 or a TLR-3 ligand dampened proinflammatory responses. Overall, these results highlight the importance of amino acid catabolism in the modulation of the immunological responses in MS patients. Molecules involved in these pathways warrant further exploration as potential new therapeutic targets in MS. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of

  12. Nested and Hierarchical Archimax copulas

    KAUST Repository

    Hofert, Marius; Huser, Raphaë l; Prasad, Avinash

    2017-01-01

    The class of Archimax copulas is generalized to nested and hierarchical Archimax copulas in several ways. First, nested extreme-value copulas or nested stable tail dependence functions are introduced to construct nested Archimax copulas based on a single frailty variable. Second, a hierarchical construction of d-norm generators is presented to construct hierarchical stable tail dependence functions and thus hierarchical extreme-value copulas. Moreover, one can, by itself or additionally, introduce nested frailties to extend Archimax copulas to nested Archimax copulas in a similar way as nested Archimedean copulas extend Archimedean copulas. Further results include a general formula for the density of Archimax copulas.

  13. Nested and Hierarchical Archimax copulas

    KAUST Repository

    Hofert, Marius

    2017-07-03

    The class of Archimax copulas is generalized to nested and hierarchical Archimax copulas in several ways. First, nested extreme-value copulas or nested stable tail dependence functions are introduced to construct nested Archimax copulas based on a single frailty variable. Second, a hierarchical construction of d-norm generators is presented to construct hierarchical stable tail dependence functions and thus hierarchical extreme-value copulas. Moreover, one can, by itself or additionally, introduce nested frailties to extend Archimax copulas to nested Archimax copulas in a similar way as nested Archimedean copulas extend Archimedean copulas. Further results include a general formula for the density of Archimax copulas.

  14. Biology of a trap-nesting wasp of one species the ground-nesting Liris (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Cristina Ferreira da Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies on the nesting biology of Liris are restricted to a few notes and observations on ground-nesting species. There are no studies of this kind about Brazilian species. We investigated and described the nesting biology of Liris sp. obtained by trap-nests that were installed at an area of Atlantic Forest vegetation (25°10'S, 48°18'W in southern Brazil. The nests of Liris sp. are built with a variety of plant debris. They usually have one cell, but may have up to two. Nests do not show vestibular or intercalary cells. Immatures have a hard cocoon made with the silk they produce, mixed with the fine sand and sawdust left by the adult female at the bottom of the cell. No nest parasites were observed. The wasps did not go through diapause at the prepupal stage, and emerged within 36 to 46 days after nests were collected from the field. There was no emergence of male wasps. Even though Liris sp. nest in preexisting cavities, they resemble ground-nesting species of the same genus in their habits, nest architecture, and development characteristics. The absence of males in our samples might be related to nest diameter. The eggs from which males hatch can be laid in smaller burrows than those available at the present study. We believe that the hardiness of the cocoon is the species' main strategy against parasites, although it is complemented by the camouflage provided by the nest closure. We suggest that a broader comparison of the nesting biology of Liris Fabricius, 1804 should be carried out, leading to a better understanding of the evolution of nests in the genus.

  15. Superposition Enhanced Nested Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Martiniani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical analysis of many problems in physics, astronomy, and applied mathematics requires an efficient numerical exploration of multimodal parameter spaces that exhibit broken ergodicity. Monte Carlo methods are widely used to deal with these classes of problems, but such simulations suffer from a ubiquitous sampling problem: The probability of sampling a particular state is proportional to its entropic weight. Devising an algorithm capable of sampling efficiently the full phase space is a long-standing problem. Here, we report a new hybrid method for the exploration of multimodal parameter spaces exhibiting broken ergodicity. Superposition enhanced nested sampling combines the strengths of global optimization with the unbiased or athermal sampling of nested sampling, greatly enhancing its efficiency with no additional parameters. We report extensive tests of this new approach for atomic clusters that are known to have energy landscapes for which conventional sampling schemes suffer from broken ergodicity. We also introduce a novel parallelization algorithm for nested sampling.

  16. Serenbe Nest Cottages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, T.; Curtis, O.; Kim, E.; Roberts, S.; Stephenson, R.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with Martin Dodson Builders and the Serenbe community on the construction of a new test home in the suburbs of Atlanta, GA in the mixed humid climate zone. The most recent subdivision within the Serenbe community, the Nest, will contain 15 small footprint cottage style homes, and Southface has selected Lot Nine, as the test home for this study. This Nest subdivision serves as a project showcase for both the builder partner and the Serenbe community as a whole. The planning and design incorporated into the Nest cottages will be implemented in each home within the subdivision. These homes addresses Building America Savings targets and serve as a basis of design for other homes Martin Dodson plans to build within the Serenbe community.

  17. Serenbe Nest Cottages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, T. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Curtis, O. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kim, E. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Roberts, S. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Stephenson, R. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-12-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with Martin Dodson Builders and the Serenbe community on the construction of a new test home in the suburbs of Atlanta, GA, in the mixed humid climate zone. The most recent subdivision within the Serenbe community, the Nest, will contain 15 small footprint cottage-style homes, and Southface has selected Lot Nine, as the test home for this study. This Nest subdivision serves as a project showcase for both the builder partner and the Serenbe community as a whole. The planning and design incorporated into the Nest cottages will be implemented in each home within the subdivision. These homes addresses Building America savings targets and serve as a basis of design for other homes Martin Dodson plans to build within the Serenbe community.

  18. Enclosed nests may provide greater thermal than nest predation benefits compared with open nests across latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Boyce, Andy J.; Fierro-Calderon, Karolina; Mitchell, Adam E.; Armstad, Connor E.; Mouton, James C.; Bin Soudi, Evertius E.

    2017-01-01

    Nest structure is thought to provide benefits that have fitness consequences for several taxa. Traditionally, reduced nest predation has been considered the primary benefit underlying evolution of nest structure, whereas thermal benefits have been considered a secondary or even non-existent factor. Yet, the relative roles of these factors on nest structures remain largely unexplored.Enclosed nests have a constructed or natural roof connected to sides that allow a restricted opening or tube entrance that provides cover in all directions except the entrance, whereas open nests are cups or platforms that are open above. We show that construction of enclosed nests is more common among songbirds (Passeriformes) in tropical and southern hemisphere regions than in north temperate regions. This geographic pattern may reflect selection from predation risk, under long-standing assumptions that nest predation rates are higher in southern regions and that enclosed nests reduce predation risk compared with open cup nests. We therefore compared nest predation rates between enclosed vs. open nests in 114 songbird species that do not nest in tree holes among five communities of coexisting birds, and for 205 non-hole-nesting species from the literature, across northern temperate, tropical, and southern hemisphere regions.Among coexisting species, enclosed nests had lower nest predation rates than open nests in two south temperate sites, but not in either of two tropical sites or a north temperate site. Nest predation did not differ between nest types at any latitude based on literature data. Among 319 species from both our field studies and the literature, enclosed nests did not show consistent benefits of reduced predation and, in fact, predation was not consistently higher in the tropics, contrary to long-standing perspectives.Thermal benefits of enclosed nests were indicated based on three indirect results. First, species that built enclosed nests were smaller than species using

  19. The importance of illumination in nest site choice and nest characteristics of cavity nesting birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podkowa, Paweł; Surmacki, Adrian

    2017-05-02

    Light has a significant impact on many aspects of avian biology, physiology and behaviour. An increasing number of studies show that illumination may positively influences birds' offspring fitness by e.g. acceleration of embryo development, stimulation of skeleton growth or regulation of circadian rhythm. Because nest cavities have especially low illumination, suitable light levels may be especially important for species which nest there. We may therefore expect that birds breeding in relatively dim conditions should prefer brighter nest sites and/or evolve behavioral mechanisms to secure sufficient light levels in the nest. Using nest boxes with modified internal illumination, we experimentally tested whether light regime is a cue for nest site selection of secondary cavity-nesting species. Additionally, we investigated whether nest building strategies are tuned to internal illumination. Our results demonstrate that, nest boxes with elevated illumination were chosen twice as often as dark nest boxes. Moreover, birds built higher nests in dark nest boxes than birds in boxes with elevated illumination, which suggests a mechanism of compensating for low light conditions. Our results provide the first experimental support for the idea that nest site choice and nest building behaviour in cavity-nesting birds are influenced by ambient illumination.

  20. Variability in nest survival rates and implications to nesting studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, A.T.; Johnson, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    We used four reasonably large samples (83-213) of Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and Blue-winged Teal (A. discors) nests on an interstate highway right-of-way in southcentral North Dakota to evaluate potential biases in hatch-rate estimates. Twelve consecutive, weekly searches for nests were conducted with a cable-chain drag in 1976 and 1977. Nests were revisited at weekly intervals. Four methods were used to estimate hatch rates for the four data sets: the Traditional Method, the Mayfield Method, and two modifications of the Mayfield Method that are sometimes appropriate when daily mortality rates of nests are not constant. Hatch rates and the average age of nests at discovery declined as the interval between searches decreased, suggesting that mortality rates were not constant in our samples. An analysis of variance indicated that daily mortality rates varied with the age of nests in all four samples. Mortality was generally highest during the early laying period, moderately high during the late laying period, and lowest during incubation. We speculate that this relationship of mortality to nest age might be due to the presence of hens at nests or to differences in the vulnerability of nest sites to predation. A modification of the Mayfield Method that accounts for age-related variation in nest mortality was most appropriate for our samples. We suggest methods for conducting nesting studies and estimating nest success for species possessing similar nesting habits.

  1. The cavity-nest ant Temnothorax crassispinus prefers larger nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrus, S

    Colonies of the ant Temnothorax crassispinus inhabit mostly cavities in wood and hollow acorns. Typically in the field, nest sites that can be used by the ant are a limited resource. In a field experiment, it was investigated whether the ants prefer a specific size of nest, when different ones are available. In July 2011, a total of 160 artificial nests were placed in a beech-pine forest. Four artificial nests (pieces of wood with volume cavities, ca 415, 605, 730, and 980 mm 3 , respectively) were located on each square meter of the experimental plot. One year later, shortly before the emergence of new sexuals, the nests were collected. In July 2012, colonies inhabited more frequently bigger nests. Among queenright colonies, the ones which inhabited bigger nests had more workers. However, there was no relationship between volume of nest and number of workers for queenless colonies. Queenright colonies from bigger nests produced more sexual individuals, but there was no correlation between number of workers and sex allocation ratio, or between volume of nest and sex allocation ratio. In a laboratory experiment where ant colonies were kept in 470 and 860 mm 3 nests, larger colonies allocated more energy to produce sexual individuals. The results of this study show the selectivity of T. crassispinus ants regarding the size of nest cavity, and that the nest volume has an impact on life history parameters.

  2. Feathering Your Nest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Martha L.; Edwards, Linda Carol; Decker, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    The first-grade classroom was like a natural history museum. Bird nests of every shape and size lay on top of bookshelves that lined two walls. Methods students, who were visiting the classroom in preparation for the science lessons they would teach there, were immediately inspired by the collection. They used the collection as a springboard for…

  3. Metabolic control analysis of Aspergillus niger L-arabinose catabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, M.J.L.; Prathumpai, Wai; Visser, J.

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model of the L-arabinose/D-xylose catabolic pathway of Aspergillus niger was constructed based on the kinetic properties of the enzymes. For this purpose L-arabinose reductase, L-arabitol dehydrogenase and D-xylose reductase were purified using dye-affinity chromatography...... aiming at either flux or metabolite level optimization of the L-arabinose catabolic pathway of A. niger. Faster L-arabinose utilization may enhance utilization of readily available organic waste containing hemicelluloses to be converted into industrially interesting metabolites or valuable enzymes...

  4. The anti-catabolic role of bovine lactoferricin in cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadinia, Kasra; Yan, Dongyao; Ellman, Michael; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2013-10-01

    Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) is a multifunctional peptide derived from bovine lactoferrin that demonstrates antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antitumor, and immunomodulatory activities. Recently, studies have focused on the anti-catabolic and anti-inflammatory potential of LfcinB. LfcinB is able to modulate the effects cytokines such as IL-1 and fibroblast growth factor 2 as well as promote specific cartilage anabolic factors. These properties are particularly important in maintaining cartilage homeostasis and preventing a catabolic state, which leads to clinical pathology. This review focuses on the recent literature elucidating the role of LfcinB in preventing cartilage degradation.

  5. Fiber Tracking Cylinder Nesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stredde, H.

    1999-01-01

    The fiber tracker consists of 8 concentric carbon fiber cylinders of varying diameters, from 399mm to 1032.2mm and two different lengths. 1.66 and 2.52 meters. Each completed cylinder is covered over the entire o.d. with scintillating fiber ribbons with a connector on each ribbon. These ribbons are axial (parallel to the beam line) at one end and stereo (at 3 deg. to the beam line) at the other. The ribbon connectors have dowel pins which are used to match with the connectors on the wave guide ribbons. These dowel pins are also used during the nesting operation, locating and positioning measurements. The nesting operation is the insertion of one cylinder into another, aligning them with one another and fastening them together into a homogeneous assembly. For ease of assembly. the nesting operation is accomplished working from largest diameter to smallest. Although the completed assembly of all 8 cylinders glued and bolted together is very stiff. individual cylinders are relatively flexible. Therefore. during this operation, No.8 must be supported in a manner which maintains its integrity and yet allows the insertion of No.7. This is accomplished by essentially building a set of dummy end plates which replicate a No.9 cylinder. These end plates are mounted on a wheeled cart that becomes the nesting cart. Provisions for a protective cover fastened to these rings has been made and will be incorporated in finished product. These covers can be easily removed for access to No.8 and/or the connection of No.8 to No.9. Another wheeled cart, transfer cart, is used to push a completed cylinder into the cylinder(s) already mounted in the nesting cart.

  6. The challenge of unravelling family resemblance related to illness behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardol, M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Dijk, L. van; Bosch, W. van den; Bakker, D.H. de

    2005-01-01

    Background: Efforts to promote health or prevent disease may conflict with patients’ habits at home. Irrespective of the national setting, families are important social contexts in which illness occurs and resolves. Family members resemble each other in their illness behaviour, even across

  7. Familial Resemblance in Dietary Intakes of Children, Adolescents, and Parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogl, Leonie H.; Silventoinen, Karri; Hebestreit, Antje

    2017-01-01

    Information on familial resemblance is important for the design of effective family-based interventions. We aimed to quantify familial correlations and estimate the proportion of variation attributable to genetic and shared environmental effects (i.e., familiality) for dietary intake variables an...

  8. Metabolic control analysis of Aspergillus niger L-arabinose catabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de M.J.L.; Prathumpai, W.; Visser, J.; Ruijter, G.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model of the L-arabinose/D-xylose catabolic pathway of Aspergillus niger was constructed based on the kinetic properties of the enzymes. For this purpose L-arabinose reductase, L-arabitol dehydrogenase and D-xylose reductase were purified using dye-affinity chromatography, and their

  9. Nested cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasthoff, U.

    1985-07-01

    Cellular automata by definition consist of a finite or infinite number of cells, say of unit length, with each cell having the same transition function. These cells are usually considered as the smallest elements and so the space filled with these cells becomes discrete. Nevertheless, large pictures created by such cellular automata look very fractal. So we try to replace each cell by a couple of smaller cells, which have the same transition functions as the large ones. There are automata where this replacement does not destroy the macroscopic structure. In these cases this nesting process can be iterated. The paper contains large classes of automata with the above properties. In the case of one dimensional automata with two states and next neighbour interaction and a nesting function of the same type a complete classification is given. (author)

  10. Immunosuppressive Tryptophan Catabolism and Gut Mucosal Dysfunction Following Early HIV Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; El-Far, Mohamed; Vyboh, Kishanda; Kema, Ido; Costiniuk, Cecilia T.; Thomas, Rejean; Baril, Jean-Guy; LeBlanc, Roger; Kanagaratham, Cynthia; Radzioch, Danuta; Allam, Ossama; Ahmad, Ali; Lebouche, Bertrand; Tremblay, Cecile; Ancuta, Petronela; Routy, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background. Tryptophan (Trp) catabolism into kynurenine (Kyn) contributes to immune dysfunction in chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To better define the relationship between Trp catabolism, inflammation, gut mucosal dysfunction, and the role of early antiretroviral therapy

  11. Variable carbon catabolism among Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay Ching Chai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi is strictly a human intracellular pathogen. It causes acute systemic (typhoid fever and chronic infections that result in long-term asymptomatic human carriage. S. Typhi displays diverse disease manifestations in human infection and exhibits high clonality. The principal factors underlying the unique lifestyle of S. Typhi in its human host during acute and chronic infections remain largely unknown and are therefore the main objective of this study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To obtain insight into the intracellular lifestyle of S. Typhi, a high-throughput phenotypic microarray was employed to characterise the catabolic capacity of 190 carbon sources in S. Typhi strains. The success of this study lies in the carefully selected library of S. Typhi strains, including strains from two geographically distinct areas of typhoid endemicity, an asymptomatic human carrier, clinical stools and blood samples and sewage-contaminated rivers. An extremely low carbon catabolic capacity (27% of 190 carbon substrates was observed among the strains. The carbon catabolic profiles appeared to suggest that S. Typhi strains survived well on carbon subtrates that are found abundantly in the human body but not in others. The strains could not utilise plant-associated carbon substrates. In addition, α-glycerolphosphate, glycerol, L-serine, pyruvate and lactate served as better carbon sources to monosaccharides in the S. Typhi strains tested. CONCLUSION: The carbon catabolic profiles suggest that S. Typhi could survive and persist well in the nutrient depleted metabolic niches in the human host but not in the environment outside of the host. These findings serve as caveats for future studies to understand how carbon catabolism relates to the pathogenesis and transmission of this pathogen.

  12. Why wasp foundresses change nests: relatedness, dominance, and nest quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perttu Seppä

    Full Text Available The costs and benefits of different social options are best understood when individuals can be followed as they make different choices, something that can be difficult in social insects. In this detailed study, we follow overwintered females of the social wasp Polistes carolina through different nesting strategies in a stratified habitat where nest site quality varies with proximity to a foraging area, and genetic relatedness among females is known. Females may initiate nests, join nests temporarily or permanently, or abandon nests. Females can become helpers or egglayers, effectively workers or queens. What they actually do can be predicted by a combination of ecological and relatedness factors. Advantages through increased lifetime success of individuals and nests drives foundresses of the social wasp Polistes from solitary to social nest founding. We studied reproductive options of spring foundresses of P. carolina by monitoring individually-marked wasps and assessing reproductive success of each foundress by using DNA microsatellites. We examined what behavioral decisions foundresses make after relaxing a strong ecological constraint, shortage of nesting sites. We also look at the reproductive consequences of different behaviors. As in other Polistes, the most successful strategy for a foundress was to initiate a nest as early as possible and then accept others as subordinates. A common feature for many P. carolina foundresses was, however, that they reassessed their reproductive options by actively monitoring other nests at the field site and sometimes moving permanently to new nests should that offer better (inclusive fitness prospects compared to their original nests. A clear motivation for moving to new nests was high genetic relatedness; by the end of the foundress period all females were on nests with full sisters.

  13. Why Wasp Foundresses Change Nests: Relatedness, Dominance, and Nest Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppä, Perttu; Queller, David C.; Strassmann, Joan E.

    2012-01-01

    The costs and benefits of different social options are best understood when individuals can be followed as they make different choices, something that can be difficult in social insects. In this detailed study, we follow overwintered females of the social wasp Polistes carolina through different nesting strategies in a stratified habitat where nest site quality varies with proximity to a foraging area, and genetic relatedness among females is known. Females may initiate nests, join nests temporarily or permanently, or abandon nests. Females can become helpers or egglayers, effectively workers or queens. What they actually do can be predicted by a combination of ecological and relatedness factors. Advantages through increased lifetime success of individuals and nests drives foundresses of the social wasp Polistes from solitary to social nest founding. We studied reproductive options of spring foundresses of P. carolina by monitoring individually-marked wasps and assessing reproductive success of each foundress by using DNA microsatellites. We examined what behavioral decisions foundresses make after relaxing a strong ecological constraint, shortage of nesting sites. We also look at the reproductive consequences of different behaviors. As in other Polistes, the most successful strategy for a foundress was to initiate a nest as early as possible and then accept others as subordinates. A common feature for many P. carolina foundresses was, however, that they reassessed their reproductive options by actively monitoring other nests at the field site and sometimes moving permanently to new nests should that offer better (inclusive) fitness prospects compared to their original nests. A clear motivation for moving to new nests was high genetic relatedness; by the end of the foundress period all females were on nests with full sisters. PMID:23049791

  14. RESEMBLANCE OF INDIRECTNESS IN POLITENESS OF EFL LEARNERS’ REQUEST REALIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indawan Syahri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Politeness principles are universally utilized by the speakers of any language when realizing various speech acts. However, the speakers of particular languages relatively apply politeness due to the cultural norms embedded. The present study attempts to delineate how the Indonesian learners of English (ILE apply the politeness principles in request realizations. Specifically it devotes to the types of politeness strategies applied and resemblance of the indirectness in politeness strategies in requesting acts. The FTAs and indirectness are the theoretical bases used to trace the typologies of both politeness and request strategies. The data werere collected by means of certain elicitation techniques, i.e. DCTs and Role-plays. The analyses werere done through three stages; determining request strategies, politeness strategies, and resemblance of indirectness in politeness. The results show that the indirectness generally is parallel to politeness. Besides, some pragmatic transfers are found in terms of applying native-culture norms in realizing target speech acts.

  15. Landscape-moderated bird nest predation in hedges and forest edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Martin; Schlinkert, Hella; Holzschuh, Andrea; Fischer, Christina; Scherber, Christoph; Trnka, Alfréd; Tscharntke, Teja; Batáry, Péter

    2012-11-01

    Landscape-scale agricultural intensification has caused severe declines in biodiversity. Hedges and forest remnants may mitigate biodiversity loss by enhancing landscape heterogeneity and providing habitat to a wide range of species, including birds. However, nest predation, the major cause of reproductive failure of birds, has been shown to be higher in forest edges than in forest interiors. Little is known about how spatial arrangement (configuration) of hedges affects the avian nest predation. We performed an experiment with artificial ground and elevated nests (resembling yellowhammer and whitethroat nests) baited with quail and plasticine eggs. Nests were placed in three habitat types with different degrees of isolation from forests: forest edges, hedges connected to forests and hedges isolated from forests. Nest predation was highest in forest edges, lowest in hedges connected to forests and intermediate in isolated hedges. In the early breeding season, we found similar nest predation on ground and elevated nests, but in the late breeding season nest predation was higher on ground nests than on elevated nests. Small mammals were the main predators of ground nests and appeared to be responsible for the increase in predation from early to late breeding season, whereas the elevated nests were mainly depredated by small birds and small mammals. High predation pressure at forest edges was probably caused by both forest and open-landscape predators. The influence of forest predators may be lower at hedges, leading to lower predation pressure than in forest edges. Higher predation pressure in isolated than connected hedges might be an effect of concentration of predators in these isolated habitats. We conclude that landscape configuration of hedges is important in nest predation, with connected hedges allowing higher survival than isolated hedges and forest edges.

  16. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide Resembling Impetigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changhyun; Craiglow, Brittany G; Watsky, Kalman L; Antaya, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with recurring severe dermatitis of the face of 5-months duration that resembled impetigo. He had been treated with several courses of antibiotics without improvement. Biopsy showed changes consistent with allergic contact dermatitis and patch testing later revealed sensitization to benzoyl peroxide, which the patient had been using for the treatment of acne vulgaris. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Intelligent nesting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuričić Zoran

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The economy of the process for the manufacture of parts from sheet metal plates depends on successful solution of the process of cutting various parts from sheet metal plates. Essentially, the problem is to arrange contours within a defined space so that they take up minimal surface. When taken in this way, the considered problem assumes a more general nature; it refers to the utilization of a flat surface, and it can represent a general principle of arranging 2D contours on a certain surface. The paper presents a conceptual solution and a prototypal intelligent nesting system for optimal cutting. The problem of nesting can generally be divided into two intellectual phases: recognition and classification of shapes, and arrangement of recognized shapes on a given surface. In solving these problems, methods of artificial intelligence are applied. In the paper, trained neural network is used for recognition of shapes; on the basis of raster record of a part's drawing, it recognizes the part's shape and which class it belongs to. By means of the expert system, based on rules defined on the basis of acquisition of knowledge from manufacturing sections, as well as on the basis of certain mathematical algorithms, parts are arranged on the arrangement surface. Both systems can also work independently, having been built on the modular principle. The system uses various product models as elements of integration for the entire system. .

  18. Neste plans three projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Neste Chemicals (Helsinki) is discussing three joint ventures with local authorities in China, says Mikko Haapavaara, v.p./Asia. The projects should help the Finnish producer to increase sales in Asia by a considerable amount by 2000, he says. The plan involves production of polyethylene (PE), unsaturated polyester resins and PE compounding-all core operations. Sites have not been selected, but Shanghai is the favored location for the PE operations. The company is also looking at a site in the south, near Hong Kong, and at locations near Beijing. The PE plant would need to be near an ethylene unit, says Haapavaara. The PE resin plant would be designed to produce about 150,000 m.t./year and would cost about No. 150 million. A part of the output would need to be exported to take care of the financing, the company says. A feasibility study now under way with the potential Chinese partners should be completed by the end of March. The plant would use Neste's linear low-density PE process, proved in a world-scale plant at Beringen, Belgium. The compounding units would produce specialty PE material for the wire and cable and pipe industry. The company is a joint venture partner in a propane dehydrogenation/polypropylene (PP) plant and a minority partner in a Qualipoly, the 20,000 m.t./year unsaturated polyester resin producer

  19. Amino acid catabolism by Lactobacillus helveticus in cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kananen, Soila Kaarina

    Amino acid catabolism is the final step in the conversion of caseins to flavour compounds and a part of a complex combination of biochemical pathways in cheese flavour formation. Lactobacillus helveticus is a thermophilic lactic acid bacterium that is used in cheese manufacture as a primary starter...... culture or as an adjunct culture. It has shown high proteolytic activities in conversion of caseins to peptides and further to amino acids and flavour compounds. Better understanding of the enzyme activity properties and the influence of different properties on final cheese flavour is favourable...... for developing new cheese products with enhanced flavour. The aim of this Ph.D. study was to investigate the importance of strain variation of Lb. helveticus in relation flavour formation in cheese related to amino acid catabolism. Aspects of using Lb. helveticus as starter as well as adjunct culture in cheese...

  20. PyNEST: a convenient interface to the NEST simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen M Eppler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The neural simulation tool NEST (http://www.nest-initiative.org is a simulator for heterogeneous networks of point neurons or neurons with a small number of compartments. It aims at simulations of large neural systems with more than 10^4 neurons and 10^7 to 10^9 synapses. NEST is implemented in C++ and can be used on a large range of architectures from single-core laptops over multi-core desktop computers to super-computers with thousands of processor cores. Python (http://www.python.org is a modern programming language that has recently received considerable attention in Computational Neuroscience. Python is easy to learn and has many extension modules for scientific computing (e.g. http://www.scipy.org. In this contribution we describe PyNEST, the new user interface to NEST. PyNEST combines NEST’s efficient simulation kernel with the simplicity and flexibility of Python. Compared to NEST’s native simulation language SLI, PyNEST makes it easier to set up simulations, generate stimuli, and analyze simulation results. We describe how PyNEST connects NEST and Python and how it is implemented. With a number of examples, we illustrate how it is used.

  1. A metabolic pathway for catabolizing levulinic acid in bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rand, Jacqueline M.; Pisithkul, Tippapha; Clark, Ryan L.; Thiede, Joshua M.; Mehrer, Christopher R.

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms can catabolize a wide range of organic compounds and therefore have the potential to perform many industrially relevant bioconversions. One barrier to realizing the potential of biorefining strategies lies in our incomplete knowledge of metabolic pathways, including those that can be used to assimilate naturally abundant or easily generated feedstocks. For instance, levulinic acid (LA) is a carbon source that is readily obtainable as a dehydration product of lignocellulosic biomass and can serve as the sole carbon source for some bacteria. Yet, the genetics and structure of LA catabolism have remained unknown. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a seven-gene operon that enables LA catabolism in Pseudomonas putida KT2440. When the pathway was reconstituted with purified proteins, we observed the formation of four acyl-CoA intermediates, including a unique 4-phosphovaleryl-CoA and the previously observed 3-hydroxyvaleryl-CoA product. Using adaptive evolution, we obtained a mutant of Escherichia coli LS5218 with functional deletions of fadE and atoC that was capable of robust growth on LA when it expressed the five enzymes from the P. putida operon. Here, this discovery will enable more efficient use of biomass hydrolysates and metabolic engineering to develop bioconversions using LA as a feedstock.

  2. Anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds: a genetic and genomic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Manuel; Zamarro, María Teresa; Blázquez, Blas; Durante-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Juárez, Javier F; Valderrama, J Andrés; Barragán, María J L; García, José Luis; Díaz, Eduardo

    2009-03-01

    Aromatic compounds belong to one of the most widely distributed classes of organic compounds in nature, and a significant number of xenobiotics belong to this family of compounds. Since many habitats containing large amounts of aromatic compounds are often anoxic, the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds by microorganisms becomes crucial in biogeochemical cycles and in the sustainable development of the biosphere. The mineralization of aromatic compounds by facultative or obligate anaerobic bacteria can be coupled to anaerobic respiration with a variety of electron acceptors as well as to fermentation and anoxygenic photosynthesis. Since the redox potential of the electron-accepting system dictates the degradative strategy, there is wide biochemical diversity among anaerobic aromatic degraders. However, the genetic determinants of all these processes and the mechanisms involved in their regulation are much less studied. This review focuses on the recent findings that standard molecular biology approaches together with new high-throughput technologies (e.g., genome sequencing, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metagenomics) have provided regarding the genetics, regulation, ecophysiology, and evolution of anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways. These studies revealed that the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds is more diverse and widespread than previously thought, and the complex metabolic and stress programs associated with the use of aromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions are starting to be unraveled. Anaerobic biotransformation processes based on unprecedented enzymes and pathways with novel metabolic capabilities, as well as the design of novel regulatory circuits and catabolic networks of great biotechnological potential in synthetic biology, are now feasible to approach.

  3. The influence of nest-site characteristics on the nesting success of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of nest site has important consequences for nest survival. We examined nest-site characteristics relative to nest success in Karoo Prinias breeding in coastal dwarf shrubland, where high nest predation is the main cause of nest failure. Initially, we compared nests that failed during the building, laying, incubation and ...

  4. Using Artificial Nests to Study Nest Predation in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belthoff, James R.

    2005-01-01

    A simple and effective field exercise that demonstrates factors affecting predation on bird nests is described. With instructor guidance, students in high school biology or college-level biology, ecology, animal behavior, wildlife management or ornithology laboratory courses can collaborate to design field experiments related to nest depredation.

  5. Jordan Isomorphisms on Nest Subalgebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the study of Jordan isomorphisms on nest subalgebras of factor von Neumann algebras. It is shown that every Jordan isomorphism ϕ between the two nest subalgebras algMβ and algMγ is either an isomorphism or an anti-isomorphism.

  6. Neste Corporation - a successful year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihamuotila, J.

    1991-01-01

    The past year proved a successful one for Neste Corporation. Profitability was good and operations were consistently developed. Neste is committed to giving high priority to productivity and know- how to ensure that this success continues into the future. Important developments affecting the structure of Neste Corporation during 1990 included the amalgamation of Neste's oil-related activities into a single division, the increasing concentration of Neste Chemicals, activities in Central and Southern Europe and a major strengthening of oil exploration and production operations. Neste Oil turned in a good result during 1990. Neste imported a total of 8.9 million tonnes of crude oil during 1990. Imports from the Soviet Union at 5.2 million tonnes, were over 2 million tonnes less than planned. Some 2.5 million tonnes were imported from the North Sea, and 1.2 million tonnes from the Middle East. The year was one of expansion, diversification, and solid profit for Neste Chemicals. Net sales grew by 18 % compared to 1989 and the division recorded a satisfactory performance. Petrochemicals and polyolefins production increased suhstantially as a result of plants completed, acquired, or leased during 1989. The gas division's net sales during 1990 were 46 % higher than during 1989. This growth largely resulted from an increase in the consumption of natural gas and an expansion in the volume of international IPG business. The division's profitability remained satisfactory

  7. Mourning Dove nesting habitat and nest success in Central Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobney, R.D.; Schulz, J.H.; Sheriff, S.L.; Fuemmeler, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    Previous Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) nesting studies conducted in areas containing a mixture of edge and continuous habitats have focused on edge habitats. Consequently, little is known about the potential contribution of continuous habitats to dove production. In this study we evaluated the relative importance of these two extensive habitat types by monitoring the habitat use and nest success of 59 radio-marked doves during 1990-1991 in central Missouri. Of 83 nests initiated by our marked sample, most (81.9%) were located in edge habitats. Although continuous habitats were selected less as nest sites, the proportion of successful nests did not differ significantly from that in edge habitats. Our data indicate that continuous habitats should not be considered marginal nesting habitat. If the intensity of use and nest success that we observed are representative regionally or nationally, continuous habitats could contribute substantially to annual Mourning Dove production because of the high availability of these habitats throughout much of the Mourning Dove breeding range.

  8. Muscular dystrophy in a dog resembling human becker muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, A B; Abellonio, F; Pagano, T B; Esposito, I; Peirone, B; Papparella, S; Paciello, O

    2014-05-01

    A 3-year-old, male Labrador retriever dog was presented with clinical signs of progressive exercise intolerance, bilateral elbow extension, rigidity of the forelimbs, hindlimb flexion and kyphosis. Microscopical examination of muscle tissue showed marked variability in myofibre size, replacement of muscle with mature adipose tissue and degeneration/regeneration of muscle fibres, consistent with muscular dystrophy. Immunohistochemical examination for dystrophin showed markedly reduced labelling with monoclonal antibodies specific for the rod domain and the carboxy-terminal of dystrophin, while expression of β-sarcoglycan, γ-sarcoglycan and β-dystroglycan was normal. Immunoblotting revealed a truncated dystrophin protein of approximately 135 kDa. These findings supported a diagnosis of congenital canine muscular dystrophy resembling Becker muscular dystrophy in man. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neutrophilic dermatosis resembling pyoderma gangrenosum in a dog with polyarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardagí, M; Lloret, A; Fondati, A; Ferrer, L

    2007-04-01

    This report describes a case of neutrophilic dermatosis in a dog, with a number of clinical and pathological similarities to human pyoderma gangrenosum. A seven-year-old, female German shepherd dog with a history of non-erosive idiopathic polyarthritis was presented with severe facial swelling, bilateral erosivoulcerative lesions on the muzzle and multiple, eroded, dermal-subcutaneous nodules on the cranial trunk. Histopathological examination of skin biopsies revealed a necrotising neutrophilic dermatitis. No infectious agents could be detected using specific stains, immunohistochemistry, serology and bacterial aerobic, anaerobic or fungal cultures. A sterile neutrophilic dermatosis resembling human pyoderma gangrenosum was presumptively diagnosed, and the patient showed an excellent response to treatment with prednisone and ciclosporin.

  10. The Nest Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickerill, Heath [Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States)

    2016-07-11

    The purpose of the project was to build a competitive solar-powered house for the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2015 held in Irvine, California. The house, named the Nest Home, was an innovative design that works with the environment to meet the needs of the occupants, identified as a growing family. Reused materials were instrumental in the design. Three refurbished shipping containers composed the primary structure of the house, creating an open floor plan that defies common architecture for container homes. The exterior siding was made of deconstructed shipping pallets collected locally. Other recycled products included carpet composed of discarded fishing nets, denim batting made of recycled blue jeans that outperform traditional fiberglass insulation in sound proofing and thermal resistance, and kitchen cabinets that were purchased used and refinished. Collectively these elements formed a well-balanced blend of modern design, comfort, and sustainability. The house was Missouri University of Science and Technology’s sixth entry in the DOE Solar Decathlon. Missouri S&T has been invited to compete in six of the seven decathlons held, more than any other university worldwide. The house was brought back to Rolla after the Decathlon in California where it has been placed in its permanent location on the S&T campus.

  11. Nesting ecology of Arctic loons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Margaret R.

    1979-01-01

    Arctic Loons were studied on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, from the time of their arrival in May to their departure in September, in 1974 and 1975. Pairs arrived on breeding ponds as soon as sufficient meltwater was available to allow their take-off and landing. Loons apparently do not initiate nests immediately after their arrival, even when nest-sites are available. Delayed egg-laying may be dependent on a period of yolk formation. Delaying yolk formation until after arrival on nest ponds is an adaptation by loons to the variable time suitable habitat becomes available for nesting. Predation of eggs by Glaucous Gulls, Long-tailed and Parasitic jaegers and foxes varied in relation to the location of the nest-site, and the availability of alternate prey. Hatching success was the lowest recorded for Arctic Loons (5%) in 1974, when eggs of both loons and Cackling Geese were taken in large numbers by predators. Hatching success increased to 32% in 1975 when an abundance of tundra voles was observed. No loon eggs hatched after the hatching of the Cackling Goose eggs when this alternate prey was no longer available. Nests destroyed by foxes were predominantly along shorelines, and those by gulls and jaegers were predominantly on islands. Nest-site selection by Arctic Loons may reflect an adaptive response to varying selective pressures by their predators.

  12. Identification of the First Riboflavin Catabolic Gene Cluster Isolated from Microbacterium maritypicum G10*

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Hui; Chakrabarty, Yindrila; Philmus, Benjamin; Mehta, Angad P.; Bhandari, Dhananjay; Hohmann, Hans-Peter; Begley, Tadhg P.

    2016-01-01

    Riboflavin is a common cofactor, and its biosynthetic pathway is well characterized. However, its catabolic pathway, despite intriguing hints in a few distinct organisms, has never been established. This article describes the isolation of a Microbacterium maritypicum riboflavin catabolic strain, and the cloning of the riboflavin catabolic genes. RcaA, RcaB, RcaD, and RcaE were overexpressed and biochemically characterized as riboflavin kinase, riboflavin reductase, ribokinase, and riboflavin ...

  13. Shared strategies for β-lactam catabolism in the soil microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crofts, Terence S.; Wang, Bin; Spivak, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    The soil microbiome can produce, resist, or degrade antibiotics and even catabolize them. While resistance genes are widely distributed in the soil, there is a dearth of knowledge concerning antibiotic catabolism. Here we describe a pathway for penicillin catabolism in four isolates. Genomic......, respectively. Elucidation of additional pathways may allow bioremediation of antibiotic-contaminated soils and discovery of antibiotic-remodeling enzymes with industrial utility....

  14. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting seabirds (alcids, pelagic birds), gulls, terns, diving birds, and raptors in the Bristol Bay...

  15. Identification of the First Riboflavin Catabolic Gene Cluster Isolated from Microbacterium maritypicum G10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Chakrabarty, Yindrila; Philmus, Benjamin; Mehta, Angad P; Bhandari, Dhananjay; Hohmann, Hans-Peter; Begley, Tadhg P

    2016-11-04

    Riboflavin is a common cofactor, and its biosynthetic pathway is well characterized. However, its catabolic pathway, despite intriguing hints in a few distinct organisms, has never been established. This article describes the isolation of a Microbacterium maritypicum riboflavin catabolic strain, and the cloning of the riboflavin catabolic genes. RcaA, RcaB, RcaD, and RcaE were overexpressed and biochemically characterized as riboflavin kinase, riboflavin reductase, ribokinase, and riboflavin hydrolase, respectively. Based on these activities, a pathway for riboflavin catabolism is proposed. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Identification of the First Riboflavin Catabolic Gene Cluster Isolated from Microbacterium maritypicum G10*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Chakrabarty, Yindrila; Philmus, Benjamin; Mehta, Angad P.; Bhandari, Dhananjay; Hohmann, Hans-Peter; Begley, Tadhg P.

    2016-01-01

    Riboflavin is a common cofactor, and its biosynthetic pathway is well characterized. However, its catabolic pathway, despite intriguing hints in a few distinct organisms, has never been established. This article describes the isolation of a Microbacterium maritypicum riboflavin catabolic strain, and the cloning of the riboflavin catabolic genes. RcaA, RcaB, RcaD, and RcaE were overexpressed and biochemically characterized as riboflavin kinase, riboflavin reductase, ribokinase, and riboflavin hydrolase, respectively. Based on these activities, a pathway for riboflavin catabolism is proposed. PMID:27590337

  17. Do Predation Rates on Artificial Nests Accurately Reflect Predation Rates on Natural Bird Nests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David I. King; Richard M. DeGraaf; Curtice R. Griffin; Thomas J. Maier

    1999-01-01

    Artificial nests are widely used in avian field studies. However, it is unclear how well predation rates on artificial nests reflect predation rates on natural nests. Therefore, we compared survival rates of artificial nests (unused natural nests baited with House Sparrow eggs) with survival rates of active bird nests in the same habitat at the same sites. Survival...

  18. Development of phenanthrene catabolism in natural and artificial soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, Angela H.; Hofman, Jakub; Semple, Kirk T.

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics of natural soils often vary from those of artificial soil (e.g. OECD), which may lead to substantial differences in the bioavailability of test substances. The aim of this investigation was to characterise the development of phenanthrene catabolism in both natural and artificial soils with varying total organic carbon (TOC) content after 1, 14, 42 and 84 d soil-phenanthrene contact time. Indigenous catabolic activity was measured via the addition of 14 C-phenanthrene using the respirometric soil slurry assay. Notably, the lag phases, fastest rates and total extents of 14 C-phenanthrene degradation were relatively comparable in soils with similar TOC content after 1 d contact time. However, natural soils generally exhibited significantly shorter lag phases, faster rates and higher extents of mineralisation, than their artificial counterparts after 42 and 84 d contact time. Such findings suggest that the extrapolation of results from artificial soils to real/natural soils may not be straightforward. - Natural and artificial soils display different phenanthrene mineralisation profiles suggesting that the extrapolation of results from artificial soils to real/natural soils may not be straightforward

  19. Inhibition of AMPK catabolic action by GSK3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tsukasa; Bridges, Dave; Nakada, Daisuke; Skiniotis, Georgios; Morrison, Sean J.; Lin, Jiandie; Saltiel, Alan R.; Inoki, Ken

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates cellular energy homeostasis by inhibiting anabolic and activating catabolic processes. While AMPK activation has been extensively studied, mechanisms that inhibit AMPK remain elusive. Here we report that glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibits AMPK function. GSK3 forms a stable complex with AMPK through interactions with the AMPK β regulatory subunit and phosphorylates the AMPK α catalytic subunit. This phosphorylation enhances the accessibility of the activation loop of the α subunit to phosphatases, thereby inhibiting AMPK kinase activity. Surprisingly, PI3K-Akt signaling, which is a major anabolic signaling and normally inhibits GSK3 activity, promotes GSK3 phosphorylation and inhibition of AMPK, thus revealing how AMPK senses anabolic environments in addition to cellular energy levels. Consistently, disrupting GSK3 function within the AMPK complex sustains higher AMPK activity and cellular catabolic processes even under anabolic conditions, indicating that GSK3 acts as a critical sensor for anabolic signaling to regulate AMPK. PMID:23623684

  20. Phosphonate biosynthesis and catabolism: a treasure trove of unusual enzymology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Spencer C; van der Donk, Wilfred A

    2013-08-01

    Natural product biosynthesis has proven a fertile ground for the discovery of novel chemistry. Herein we review the progress made in elucidating the biosynthetic pathways of phosphonate and phosphinate natural products such as the antibacterial compounds dehydrophos and fosfomycin, the herbicidal phosphinothricin-containing peptides, and the antimalarial compound FR-900098. In each case, investigation of the pathway has yielded unusual, and often unprecedented, biochemistry. Likewise, recent investigations have uncovered novel ways to cleave the CP bond to yield phosphate under phosphorus starvation conditions. These include the discovery of novel oxidative cleavage of the CP bond catalyzed by PhnY and PhnZ as well as phosphonohydrolases that liberate phosphate from phosphonoacetate. Perhaps the crown jewel of phosphonate catabolism has been the recent resolution of the longstanding problem of the C-P lyase responsible for reductively cleaving the CP bond of a number of different phosphonates to release phosphate. Taken together, the strides made on both metabolic and catabolic fronts illustrate an array of fascinating biochemistry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nested Cohort - R software package

    Science.gov (United States)

    NestedCohort is an R software package for fitting Kaplan-Meier and Cox Models to estimate standardized survival and attributable risks for studies where covariates of interest are observed on only a sample of the cohort.

  2. Pre-nesting and nesting behavior of the Swainson's warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meanley, B.

    1969-01-01

    The Swainson?s Warbler is one of the least known of southern birds. Although fairly common in some parts of its summer range, observations of its breeding biology have been made by very few persons. The present study was conducted mostly at Macon, Georgia; Pendleton Ferry, Arkansas; and Dismal Swamp, Virginia....In central Georgia and east-central Arkansas, Swainson?s Warblers usually arrive on their territories during the first two weeks in April. Territories in several localities ranged in size from 0.3 to 4.8 acres. A color-marked Arkansas male occupied the same territory for at least four months. Hostile encounters between territorial male Swainson?s Warblers usually take place along the boundary of adjacent territories. Paired males were more aggressive than unpaired males. Toward the end of an encounter one of the two males would usually perform a display in which the wing and tail feathers were spread and the tail vibrated. Following boundary encounters males drifted back onto their territories and usually sang unbroken courses of songs for several minutes.....During pre-nesting at Macon, a mated pair spent the day mostly on the ground within 20 feet of each other, often foragin g 3 to 4 feet apart. What may have been a form of courtship display, in which the male flew from a perch down to the female and either pecked her rump or pounced on her, occurred about three times each hour throughout the day. During this period the male sang less than at other times during the breeding season.....First nests are usually built by the first week in May. Although other investigators reported finding nests of this species outside of the defended territory, all nests that I have found were within the territory. The large, bulky nest of this species usually is placed 2-6 feet above the ground. It is built by the female from materials gathered close to the nest site; and takes two or three days to complete.....Three and occasionally four white eggs are laid. The female

  3. Atypical mycobacterial infection resembles sporotrichosis in elderly patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurani Fauziah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Atypical mycobacterial (AM infection is caused by Mycobacterium species other than M.tuberculosis. AM skin infection has clinical manifestations that resemble M. tuberculosis infection and deep fungal infection. Laboratory workup is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. An 83-year old female came with a painful lump and swelling on her right lower extremity since three months before admission. Physical examination revealed a plaque consisting, of multiple erythematous and hyperpigmented papules and nodules, diffuse erythematous lesion, and shallow ulcers partially covered with pus and crust. Histopathological features showed tuberculoid granuloma. Direct test and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS staining of the skin biopsy found no fungal element nor acid-fast bacilli (AFB. Culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR of M. tuberculosis were negative. The working diagnosis was atypical mycobacterial infection and treatment with 450 mg rifampicin and 100 mg minocycline daily were administered accordingly. In two months observation following the treatment, the pain was no longer exist, the ulcers were completely healed, and some nodules were in the process of healing Among other Mycobacterium spp, M.marinum is the most common cause of AM infrections. Clinical manifestation of M. marinum infection may present as solitary or multiple nodules on the hands, feet, elbows and knees with sporotrichoid spreading patern. The diagnosis of AM was established based on clinical and laboratory examination. The diagnosis was also confirmed by good clinical response to minocycline and rifampicin.

  4. Leprae reaction resembling rheumatologic disease as presenting feature of leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharuddin, Hazlyna; Taib, Tarita; Zain, Mollyza Mohd; Ch'ng, Shereen

    2016-10-01

    Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae with predominant involvement of skin and nerves. We present a 70-year-old man with leprosy whose initial presentation resembled rheumatologic disease, due to leprae reaction. He presented with an 8-week history of worsening neuropathic pain in the right forearm, associated with necrotic skin lesions on his fingers that had ulcerated. Physical examination revealed two tender necrotic ulcers at the tip of the right middle finger and the dorsal aspect of the left middle finger. The patient had right wrist tenosynovitis and right elbow bursitis. Apart from raised inflammatory markers, the investigations for infection, connective tissue disease, vasculitis, thromboembolic disease and malignancy were negative. During the fourth week of hospitalization, we noticed a 2-cm hypoesthetic indurated plaque on the right inner arm. Further examination revealed thickened bilateral ulnar, radial and popliteal nerves. A slit skin smear was negative. Two skin biopsies and a biopsy of the olecranon bursa revealed granulomatous inflammation. He was diagnosed with paucibacillary leprosy with neuritis. He responded well to multidrug therapy and prednisolone; his symptoms resolved over a few weeks. This case illustrates the challenges in diagnosing a case of leprosy with atypical presentation in a non-endemic country. © 2016 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Neurogenesis in Aplysia californica resembles nervous system formation in vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    The pattern of neurogenesis of the central nervous system of Aplysia californica was investigated by [ 3 H]thymidine autoradiography. Large numbers of animals at a series of early developmental stages were labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine for 24 or 48 hr and were subsequently sampled at specific intervals throughout the life cycle. I found that proliferative zones, consisting of columnar and placodal ectodermal cells, are established in regions of the body wall adjacent to underlying mesodermal cells. Mitosis in the proliferative zones generates a population of cells which leave the surface and migrate inward to join the nearby forming ganglia. Tracing specific [ 3 H]thymidine-labeled cells from the body wall to a particular ganglion and within the ganglion over time suggests that the final genomic replication of the neuronal precursors occurs before the cells join the ganglion while glial cell precursors and differentiating glial cells continue to divide within the ganglion for some time. Ultrastructural examination of the morphological features of the few mitosing cells observed within the Aplysia central nervous system supports this interpretation. The pattern of neurogenesis in the Aplysia central nervous system resembles the proliferation of cells in the neural tube and the migration of neural crest and ectodermal placode cells in the vertebrate nervous system but differs from the pattern described for other invertebrates

  6. A Para-Canalicular Abscess Resembling an Inflamed Chalazion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diamantis Almaliotis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lacrimal infections by Actinomyces are rare and commonly misdiagnosed for long periods of time. They account for 2% of all lacrimal diseases. Case Report. We report a case of a 70-year-old female patient suffering from a para-canalicular abscess in the medial canthus of the left eye, beside the lower punctum lacrimale, resembling a chalazion. Purulence exited from the punctum lacrimale due to inflammation of the inferior canaliculus (canaliculitis. When pressure was applied to the mass, a second exit of purulence was also observed under the palpebral conjunctiva below the lacrimal caruncle. A surgical excision was performed followed by administration of local antibiotic therapy. The histopathological examination of the extracted mass revealed the existence of actinomycosis. Conclusion. Persistent or recurrent infections and lumps of the eyelids should be thoroughly investigated. Actinomyces as a causative agent should be considered. Differential diagnosis is broad and should include canaliculitis, chalazion, and multiple types of neoplasias. For this reason, in nonconclusive cases, a histopathological examination should be performed.

  7. Autosomal dominant syndrome resembling Coffin-Siris syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Maureen A; Milunsky, Jeff M

    2006-06-15

    Coffin-Siris syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome with phenotypic variability [OMIM 135900]. The diagnosis is based solely on clinical findings, as there is currently no molecular, biochemical, or cytogenetic analysis available to confirm a diagnosis. Although typically described as an autosomal recessive disorder, autosomal dominant inheritance has also been infrequently reported. We describe a mother and her two daughters who all have features that resemble Coffin-Siris syndrome. However, this is not a completely convincing diagnosis given that hypertelorism is not a feature of Coffin-Siris syndrome and the family is relatively mildly affected. Yet, this family provides further evidence of an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance for a likely variant of Coffin-Siris syndrome (at least in some families). In addition, Sibling 1 had premature thelarche. She is the second reported individual within the spectrum of Coffin-Siris syndrome to have premature thelarche, indicating that it may be a rare clinical feature. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Extended retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis with genital involvement, resembling fournier gangrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Motokazu; Matsuura, Kenji; Takayama, Hiroshi; Kayo, Munefumi; Ie, Tomotsugu

    2010-10-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious infection that originates in the subcutaneous tissues. Although many reports have been published about necrotizing infections of other anatomical sites, retroperitoneal necrotizing soft tissue infection is a rare entity that has been described in only a few case reports. The etiology and clinical course of retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis can be variable and it is often difficult to identify the etiology of the infective process. We report a 58-year-old man with rapidly progressive, gas-producing, necrotizing inflammation in the retroperitoneum, complicated with genital involvement resembling Fournier gangrene. The patient was managed successfully by aggressive drainage, debridement, and sequential laparotomies to track and control the extensive necrosis of the retroperitoneum and perineum, in addition to systemic care to control sepsis. After his general condition stabilized, early rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma was identified and resected curatively. He remained well at follow up, six months after discharge. In retrospect, the trigger of the disease process was unclear. Although it was believed possibly to be due to the colon lesion, adenocarcinoma of the rectosigmoid colon was identified and the patient was managed successfully. Similar to necrotizing infections at other anatomical sites, early diagnosis and timely surgical intervention and systemic antimicrobial therapy are mandatory for treating patients with retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis.

  9. Influence of high glycine diets on the activity of glycine-catabolizing enzymes and on glycine catabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzke, K.J.; Albrecht, V.; Przybilski, H.

    1986-01-01

    Male albino rats were adapted to isocaloric purified diets that differed mainly in their glycine and casein contents. Controls received a 30% casein diet. In experimental diets gelatin or gelatin hydrolysate was substituted for half of the 30% casein. An additional group was fed a glycine-supplemented diet, which corresponded in glycine level to the gelatin diet but in which the protein level was nearly the same as that of the casein control diet. Another group received a 15% casein diet. Rat liver glycine cleavage system, serine hydroxymethyltransferase and serine dehydratase activities were measured. 14 CO 2 production from the catabolism of 14 C-labeled glycine was measured in vivo and in vitro (from isolated hepatocytes). Serine dehydratase and glycine cleavage system activities were higher in animals fed 30% casein diets than in those fed 15% casein diets. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase activity of the cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions was highest when a high glycine diet (glycine administered as pure, protein bound in gelatin or peptide bound in gelatin hydrolysate) was fed. 14 CO 2 formation from [1- 14 C]- and [2- 14 C]glycine both in vivo and in isolated hepatocytes was higher when a high glycine diet was fed than when a casein diet was fed. These results suggest that glycine catabolism is dependent on and adaptable to the glycine content of the diet. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase appears to play a major role in the regulation of glycine degradation via serine and pyruvate

  10. Hierarchically nested river landform sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, G. B.; Weber, M. D.; Brown, R. A.; Baig, D.

    2017-12-01

    River corridors exhibit landforms nested within landforms repeatedly down spatial scales. In this study we developed, tested, and implemented a new way to create river classifications by mapping domains of fluvial processes with respect to the hierarchical organization of topographic complexity that drives fluvial dynamism. We tested this approach on flow convergence routing, a morphodynamic mechanism with different states depending on the structure of nondimensional topographic variability. Five nondimensional landform types with unique functionality (nozzle, wide bar, normal channel, constricted pool, and oversized) represent this process at any flow. When this typology is nested at base flow, bankfull, and floodprone scales it creates a system with up to 125 functional types. This shows how a single mechanism produces complex dynamism via nesting. Given the classification, we answered nine specific scientific questions to investigate the abundance, sequencing, and hierarchical nesting of these new landform types using a 35-km gravel/cobble river segment of the Yuba River in California. The nested structure of flow convergence routing landforms found in this study revealed that bankfull landforms are nested within specific floodprone valley landform types, and these types control bankfull morphodynamics during moderate to large floods. As a result, this study calls into question the prevailing theory that the bankfull channel of a gravel/cobble river is controlled by in-channel, bankfull, and/or small flood flows. Such flows are too small to initiate widespread sediment transport in a gravel/cobble river with topographic complexity.

  11. Insights into the evolution of sialic acid catabolism among bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almagro-Moreno Salvador

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sialic acids comprise a family of nine-carbon amino sugars that are prevalent in mucus rich environments. Sialic acids from the human host are used by a number of pathogens as an energy source. Here we explore the evolution of the genes involved in the catabolism of sialic acid. Results The cluster of genes encoding the enzymes N-acetylneuraminate lyase (NanA, epimerase (NanE, and kinase (NanK, necessary for the catabolism of sialic acid (the Nan cluster, are confined 46 bacterial species, 42 of which colonize mammals, 33 as pathogens and 9 as gut commensals. We found a putative sialic acid transporter associated with the Nan cluster in most species. We reconstructed the phylogenetic history of the NanA, NanE, and NanK proteins from the 46 species and compared them to the species tree based on 16S rRNA. Within the NanA phylogeny, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria do not form distinct clades. NanA from Yersinia and Vibrio species was most closely related to the NanA clade from eukaryotes. To examine this further, we reconstructed the phylogeny of all NanA homologues in the databases. In this analysis of 83 NanA sequences, Bacteroidetes, a human commensal group formed a distinct clade with Verrucomicrobia, and branched with the Eukaryotes and the Yersinia/Vibrio clades. We speculate that pathogens such as V. cholerae may have acquired NanA from a commensal aiding their colonization of the human gut. Both the NanE and NanK phylogenies more closely represented the species tree but numerous incidences of incongruence are noted. We confirmed the predicted function of the sialic acid catabolism cluster in members the major intestinal pathogens Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholerae, V. vulnificus, Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pestis. Conclusion The Nan cluster among bacteria is confined to human pathogens and commensals conferring them the ability to utilize a ubiquitous carbon source in mucus rich surfaces of the human body

  12. Do general radiographic examinations resemble a person-centred environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayre, C.M.; Blackman, S.; Eyden, A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim and objective: It is argued whether general radiographic examinations adhere to a person-centred approach within the direct digital radiography (DDR) environment. General radiographic examinations continue to increase and constitute approximately 90% of all examinations undertaken in the clinical environment. This study explored the potential impact patients experience whilst undergoing general imaging examinations. Method: An ethnographic methodology provided insight of two general radiography environments in the United Kingdom (UK) using participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Findings: The findings highlighted an ‘in and out’ culture whereby patients are ‘hurried’ and ‘rushed’ out of X-ray rooms in response to increasing time pressures experienced by diagnostic radiographers. In addition, this study challenged that patients may begin to rank ‘speed’ and ‘waiting times’ above other elements of radiographic care thus presenting new challenges for radiographers within the clinical environment. Conclusion: It is asserted that radiographers should remain holistic healthcare professionals and not begin to resemble operators on the production line. Further, it challenges whether patients are beginning to rank aspects of radiographic care within contemporary practices. Advances in knowledge: Few studies have explored the radiographer–patient relationship within the DDR environment, yet this study provides insight of person-centred practices within contemporary practices. - Highlights: • Challenges whether the use of DDR conforms to a person-centred approach. • Challenges whether radiographers are ‘treating patients as persons’ using DDR. • Patients may begin to rank ‘speed’ and ‘waiting times’ above other aspects of radiographic care.

  13. Incorporating variations in pesticide catabolic activity into a GIS-based groundwater risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posen, Paulette; Lovett, Andrew; Hiscock, Kevin; Evers, Sarah; Ward, Rob; Reid, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The catabolic activity of incumbent microorganisms in soil samples of eleven dissimilar soil series was investigated, with respect to the herbicide isoproturon. Soils were collected from a 30 x 37 km area of river catchment to the north-west of London, England. Catabolic activity in each soil type during a 500 h assay was determined by 14 C-radiorespirometry. Results showed four soils that exhibited high levels of catabolic activity (33-44% mineralisation) while the remaining seven soils showed lower levels of catabolic activity (12-16% mineralisation). There was evidence to suggest that soils exhibiting high catabolic activity had low ( 14 C-radiorespirometric results were used to produce a GIS layer representing levels of catabolic activity for the dissimilar soils across the study area. This layer was combined with other GIS layers relating to pesticide attenuation, including soil organic carbon content, depth to groundwater and hydrogeology, to produce a map showing risk of groundwater contamination by isoproturon. The output from this approach was compared with output from an attenuation-only approach and differences appraised. Inclusion of the catabolism layer resulted in a lowering of risk in the model in 15% of the study area. Although there appears to be limited benefit in including pesticide catabolic activity in this regional-scale groundwater risk model, this type of addition could be useful in a site-specific risk assessment

  14. Intrinsic and induced isoproturon catabolic activity in dissimilar soils and soils under dissimilar land use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Brian J.; Papanikolaou, Niki D.; Wilcox, Ronah K.

    2005-01-01

    The catabolic activity with respect to the systemic herbicide isoproturon was determined in soil samples by 14 C-radiorespirometry. The first experiment assessed levels of intrinsic catabolic activity in soil samples that represented three dissimilar soil series under arable cultivation. Results showed average extents of isoproturon mineralisation (after 240 h assay time) in the three soil series to be low. A second experiment assessed the impact of addition of isoproturon (0.05 μg kg -1 ) into these soils on the levels of catabolic activity following 28 days of incubation. Increased catabolic activity was observed in all three soils. A third experiment assessed levels of intrinsic catabolic activity in soil samples representing a single soil series managed under either conventional agricultural practice (including the use of isoproturon) or organic farming practice (with no use of isoproturon). Results showed higher (and more consistent) levels of isoproturon mineralisation in the soil samples collected from conventional land use. The final experiment assessed the impact of isoproturon addition on the levels of inducible catabolic activity in these soils. The results showed no significant difference in the case of the conventional farm soil samples while the induction of catabolic activity in the organic farm soil samples was significant. - Dissimilar levels of isoproturon catabolic activity in dissimilar soils and soils under dissimilar land use influence inferred risk

  15. Intrinsic and induced isoproturon catabolic activity in dissimilar soils and soils under dissimilar land use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Brian J. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: b.reid@uea.ac.uk; Papanikolaou, Niki D. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Wilcox, Ronah K. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-01

    The catabolic activity with respect to the systemic herbicide isoproturon was determined in soil samples by {sup 14}C-radiorespirometry. The first experiment assessed levels of intrinsic catabolic activity in soil samples that represented three dissimilar soil series under arable cultivation. Results showed average extents of isoproturon mineralisation (after 240 h assay time) in the three soil series to be low. A second experiment assessed the impact of addition of isoproturon (0.05 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) into these soils on the levels of catabolic activity following 28 days of incubation. Increased catabolic activity was observed in all three soils. A third experiment assessed levels of intrinsic catabolic activity in soil samples representing a single soil series managed under either conventional agricultural practice (including the use of isoproturon) or organic farming practice (with no use of isoproturon). Results showed higher (and more consistent) levels of isoproturon mineralisation in the soil samples collected from conventional land use. The final experiment assessed the impact of isoproturon addition on the levels of inducible catabolic activity in these soils. The results showed no significant difference in the case of the conventional farm soil samples while the induction of catabolic activity in the organic farm soil samples was significant. - Dissimilar levels of isoproturon catabolic activity in dissimilar soils and soils under dissimilar land use influence inferred risk.

  16. Influence of olfactory and visual cover on nest site selection and nest success for grassland-nesting birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Dillon T; Elmore, R Dwayne; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D; Loss, Scott R

    2017-08-01

    Habitat selection by animals is influenced by and mitigates the effects of predation and environmental extremes. For birds, nest site selection is crucial to offspring production because nests are exposed to extreme weather and predation pressure. Predators that forage using olfaction often dominate nest predator communities; therefore, factors that influence olfactory detection (e.g., airflow and weather variables, including turbulence and moisture) should influence nest site selection and survival. However, few studies have assessed the importance of olfactory cover for habitat selection and survival. We assessed whether ground-nesting birds select nest sites based on visual and/or olfactory cover. Additionally, we assessed the importance of visual cover and airflow and weather variables associated with olfactory cover in influencing nest survival. In managed grasslands in Oklahoma, USA, we monitored nests of Northern Bobwhite ( Colinus virginianus ), Eastern Meadowlark ( Sturnella magna ), and Grasshopper Sparrow ( Ammodramus savannarum ) during 2015 and 2016. To assess nest site selection, we compared cover variables between nests and random points. To assess factors influencing nest survival, we used visual cover and olfactory-related measurements (i.e., airflow and weather variables) to model daily nest survival. For nest site selection, nest sites had greater overhead visual cover than random points, but no other significant differences were found. Weather variables hypothesized to influence olfactory detection, specifically precipitation and relative humidity, were the best predictors of and were positively related to daily nest survival. Selection for overhead cover likely contributed to mitigation of thermal extremes and possibly reduced detectability of nests. For daily nest survival, we hypothesize that major nest predators focused on prey other than the monitored species' nests during high moisture conditions, thus increasing nest survival on these

  17. Expression of eicosanoid biosynthetic and catabolic enzymes in peritoneal endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousse, J-C; Defrère, S; Colette, S; Van Langendonckt, A; Donnez, J

    2010-03-01

    Increased peritoneal eicosanoid concentrations have been reported in endometriosis patients and might be important in disease-associated pain and inflammation. Here, we evaluated the expression of key biosynthetic and catabolic enzymes involved in this abnormal eicosanoid production in peritoneal macrophages and endometriotic lesions. Peritoneal macrophages, endometriotic lesions and matched eutopic endometrium were collected from endometriosis patients (n = 40). Peritoneal macrophages and eutopic endometrium samples were also collected from disease-free women (n = 25). Expression of type IIA secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)-IIA), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) was quantified by real-time PCR, and these five key enzymes were localized by immunohistochemistry. sPLA(2)-IIA, COX-2 and mPGES-1 mRNA was significantly increased in peritoneal macrophages of endometriosis patients compared with controls (P = 0.006, P = 0.016 and P = 0.025, respectively). In endometriosis patients, sPLA(2)-IIA, mPGES-1 and 15-PGDH mRNA was significantly enhanced in peritoneal lesions compared with matched eutopic endometrium (P endometriosis group compared with controls (P = 0.023). Finally, sPLA(2)-IIA, COX-2, mPGES-1 and 15-PGDH immunostaining was found mainly in endometrial glands, whereas 5-LO was distributed throughout the glands and stroma. Our study highlights an imbalance between eicosanoid biosynthesis and degradation in endometriosis patients. Both peritoneal macrophages and endometriotic lesions may be involved. Research into new molecules inhibiting biosynthetic enzymes (such as sPLA(2)-IIA and mPGES-1) and/or activating catabolic enzymes (such as 15-PGDH) may prove to be a major field of investigation in the development of targeted medical therapies.

  18. Lipid catabolism of invertebrate predator indicates widespread wetland ecosystem degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, Michael J.; Afton, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    Animals frequently undergo periods when they accumulate lipid reserves for subsequent energetically expensive activities, such as migration or breeding. During such periods, daily lipid-reserve dynamics (DLD) of sentinel species can quantify how landscape modifications affect function, health, and resilience of ecosystems. Aythya affinis (Eyton 1838; lesser scaup; diving duck) are macroinvertebrate predators; they migrate through an agriculturally dominated landscape in spring where they select wetlands with the greatest food density to refuel and accumulate lipid reserves for subsequent reproduction. We index DLD by measuring plasma-lipid metabolites of female scaup (n = 459) that were refueling at 75 spring migration stopover areas distributed across the upper Midwest, USA. We also indexed DLD for females (n = 44) refueling on a riverine site (Pool 19) south of our upper Midwest study area. We found that mean DLD estimates were significantly (P<0.05) less than zero in all ecophysiographic regions of the upper Midwest, and the greatest negative value was in the Iowa Prairie Pothole region (-31.6). Mean DLD was 16.8 at Pool 19 and was markedly greater than in any region of the upper Midwest. Our results indicate that females catabolized rather than stored lipid reserves throughout the upper Midwest. Moreover, levels of lipid catabolism are alarming, because scaup use the best quality wetlands available within a given stopover area. Accordingly, these results provide evidence of wetland ecosystem degradation across this large agricultural landscape and document affects that are carried-up through several trophic levels. Interestingly, storing of lipids by scaup at Pool 19 likely reflects similar ecosystem perturbations as observed in the upper Midwest because wetland drainage and agricultural runoff nutrifies the riverine habitat that scaup use at Pool 19. Finally, our results underscore how using this novel technique to monitor DLD, of a carefully selected sentinel

  19. Lipid catabolism of invertebrate predator indicates widespread wetland ecosystem degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Anteau

    Full Text Available Animals frequently undergo periods when they accumulate lipid reserves for subsequent energetically expensive activities, such as migration or breeding. During such periods, daily lipid-reserve dynamics (DLD of sentinel species can quantify how landscape modifications affect function, health, and resilience of ecosystems. Aythya affinis (Eyton 1838; lesser scaup; diving duck are macroinvertebrate predators; they migrate through an agriculturally dominated landscape in spring where they select wetlands with the greatest food density to refuel and accumulate lipid reserves for subsequent reproduction. We index DLD by measuring plasma-lipid metabolites of female scaup (n = 459 that were refueling at 75 spring migration stopover areas distributed across the upper Midwest, USA. We also indexed DLD for females (n = 44 refueling on a riverine site (Pool 19 south of our upper Midwest study area. We found that mean DLD estimates were significantly (P<0.05 less than zero in all ecophysiographic regions of the upper Midwest, and the greatest negative value was in the Iowa Prairie Pothole region (-31.6. Mean DLD was 16.8 at Pool 19 and was markedly greater than in any region of the upper Midwest. Our results indicate that females catabolized rather than stored lipid reserves throughout the upper Midwest. Moreover, levels of lipid catabolism are alarming, because scaup use the best quality wetlands available within a given stopover area. Accordingly, these results provide evidence of wetland ecosystem degradation across this large agricultural landscape and document affects that are carried-up through several trophic levels. Interestingly, storing of lipids by scaup at Pool 19 likely reflects similar ecosystem perturbations as observed in the upper Midwest because wetland drainage and agricultural runoff nutrifies the riverine habitat that scaup use at Pool 19. Finally, our results underscore how using this novel technique to monitor DLD, of a carefully

  20. Interspecific nest use by aridland birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    1982-01-01

    Nest holes drilled by woodpeckers (Picidae) are frequently used by secondary cavity-nesting species, but interspecific use of open and domed nests is less well known. Nests constructed by many southwestern desert birds last longer than one year (pers. obs.) and are consequently reused by the same pair (e.g., Abert's Towhees [Pipilo aberti], pers. obs.) or by other...

  1. Constructing bald eagle nests with natural materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. G. Grubb

    1995-01-01

    A technique for using natural materials to build artificial nests for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and other raptors is detailed. Properly constructed nests are as permanently secured to the nest tree or cliff substrate as any eagle-built nest or human-made platform. Construction normally requires about three hours and at least two people. This technique is...

  2. The Atg1-Tor pathway regulates yolk catabolism in Drosophila embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Hallie; Sopko, Richelle; Coughlin, Margaret; Perrimon, Norbert; Mitchison, Tim

    2015-11-15

    Yolk provides an important source of nutrients during the early development of oviparous organisms. It is composed mainly of vitellogenin proteins packed into membrane-bound compartments called yolk platelets. Catabolism of yolk is initiated by acidification of the yolk platelet, leading to the activation of Cathepsin-like proteinases, but it is unknown how this process is triggered. Yolk catabolism initiates at cellularization in Drosophila melanogaster embryos. Using maternal shRNA technology we found that yolk catabolism depends on the Tor pathway and on the autophagy-initiating kinase Atg1. Whereas Atg1 was required for a burst of spatially regulated autophagy during late cellularization, autophagy was not required for initiating yolk catabolism. We propose that the conserved Tor metabolic sensing pathway regulates yolk catabolism, similar to Tor-dependent metabolic regulation on the lysosome. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Nest use is influenced by the positions of nests and drinkers in aviaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentfer, T L; Gebhardt-Henrich, S G; Fröhlich, E K F; von Borell, E

    2013-06-01

    The influence of the nest location and the placement of nipple drinkers on nest use by laying hens in a commercial aviary was assessed. Twenty pens in a laying hen house were equipped with the same commercial aviary system, but the pens differed in the nest location and the placement of nipple drinkers. Nests were placed along the walls in 10 pens, and nipple drinkers were installed in front of the nests in 5 of these pens. The other 10 pens were equipped with nests placed on a tier within the aviary (integrated nests). Nipple drinkers were installed in front of the nests in 5 of these pens. A total of 225 Lohmann Selected Leghorns were housed per pen. The hens were offered 4 nests per pen: 2 facing the service corridor of the laying hen house and 2 facing the outdoor area. The numbers of nest eggs and mislaid eggs were counted daily per pen. At 25, 36, and 43 wk of age, the nest platforms were videotaped and the behavior of laying hens in front of the nests was analyzed. The nest location affected the stationary and locomotive behaviors in front of the nests. Hens in front of the integrated nests and the nests with drinkers displayed more stationary behaviors than hens in front of wall-placed nests or nests without drinkers. No difference in the number of nest eggs could be detected, but the integration of the nests inside the aviary led to a more even distribution of hens while nest searching. In the pens with wall-placed nests, significantly more hens laid eggs in the nests at the wall near the service corridor than at the wall near the outdoor area. Due to this imbalance, crowding in front of the preferred nests occurred and pushing and agonistic interactions on the nest platforms were significantly more frequent. Placement of nipple drinkers in front of nests had no effect on the number of eggs laid in those nests.

  4. Nitriles at Silica Interfaces Resemble Supported Lipid Bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, Bruce J; Fourkas, John T; Walker, Robert A; Weeks, John D

    2016-09-20

    Nitriles are important solvents not just for bulk reactions but also for interfacial processes such as separations, heterogeneous catalysis, and electrochemistry. Although nitriles have a polar end and a lipophilic end, the cyano group is not hydrophilic enough for these substances to be thought of as prototypical amphiphiles. This picture is now changing, as research is revealing that at a silica surface nitriles can organize into structures that, in many ways, resemble lipid bilayers. This unexpected organization may be a key component of unique interfacial behavior of nitriles that make them the solvents of choice for so many applications. The first hints of this lipid-bilayer-like (LBL) organization of nitriles at silica interfaces came from optical Kerr effect (OKE) experiments on liquid acetonitrile confined in the pores of sol-gel glasses. The orientational dynamics revealed by OKE spectroscopy suggested that the confined liquid is composed of a relatively immobile sublayer of molecules that accept hydrogen bonds from the surface silanol groups and an interdigitated, antiparallel layer that is capable of exchanging into the centers of the pores. This picture of acetonitrile has been borne out by molecular dynamics simulations and vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) experiments. Remarkably, these simulations further indicate that the LBL organization is repeated with increasing disorder at least 20 Å into the liquid from a flat silica surface. Simulations and VSFG and OKE experiments indicate that extending the alkyl chain to an ethyl group leads to the formation of even more tightly packed LBL organization featuring entangled alkyl tails. When the alkyl portion of the molecule is a bulky t-butyl group, packing constraints prevent well-ordered LBL organization of the liquid. In each case, the surface-induced organization of the liquid is reflected in its interfacial dynamics. Acetonitrile/water mixtures are favored solvent systems for separations

  5. Intrinsic and induced isoproturon catabolic activity in dissimilar soils and soils under dissimilar land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Brian J; Papanikolaou, Niki D; Wilcox, Ronah K

    2005-02-01

    The catabolic activity with respect to the systemic herbicide isoproturon was determined in soil samples by (14)C-radiorespirometry. The first experiment assessed levels of intrinsic catabolic activity in soil samples that represented three dissimilar soil series under arable cultivation. Results showed average extents of isoproturon mineralisation (after 240 h assay time) in the three soil series to be low. A second experiment assessed the impact of addition of isoproturon (0.05 microg kg(-1)) into these soils on the levels of catabolic activity following 28 days of incubation. Increased catabolic activity was observed in all three soils. A third experiment assessed levels of intrinsic catabolic activity in soil samples representing a single soil series managed under either conventional agricultural practice (including the use of isoproturon) or organic farming practice (with no use of isoproturon). Results showed higher (and more consistent) levels of isoproturon mineralisation in the soil samples collected from conventional land use. The final experiment assessed the impact of isoproturon addition on the levels of inducible catabolic activity in these soils. The results showed no significant difference in the case of the conventional farm soil samples while the induction of catabolic activity in the organic farm soil samples was significant.

  6. Unusual raptor nests around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Craig, T.; Craig, E.; Postupalsky, S.; LaRue, C.T.; Nelson, R.W.; Anderson, D.W.; Henny, C.J.; Watson, J.; Millsap, B.A.; Dawson, J.W.; Cole, K.L.; Martin, E.M.; Margalida, A.; Kung, P.

    2009-01-01

    From surveys in many countries, we report raptors using unusual nesting materials (e.g., paper money, rags, metal, antlers, and large bones) and unusual nesting situations. For example, we documented nests of Steppe Eagles Aquila nipalensis and Upland Buzzards Buteo hemilasius on the ground beside well-traveled roads, Saker Falcon Falco cherrug eyries in attics and a cistern, and Osprey Pandion haliaetus nests on the masts of boats and on a suspended automobile. Other records include a Golden Eagle A. chrysaetos nest 7.0 m in height, believed to be the tallest nest ever described, and, for the same species, we report nesting in rudimentary nests. Some nest sites are within a few meters of known predators or competitors. These unusual observations may be important in revealing the plasticity of a species' behavioral repertoire. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  7. Incorporating variations in pesticide catabolic activity into a GIS-based groundwater risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posen, Paulette [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Earlham Road, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: p.posen@uea.ac.uk; Lovett, Andrew [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Earlham Road, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Hiscock, Kevin [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Earlham Road, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Evers, Sarah [Environment Agency, Olton Court, 10 Warwick Road, Olton, Solihull, B92 7HX (United Kingdom); Ward, Rob [Environment Agency, Olton Court, 10 Warwick Road, Olton, Solihull, B92 7HX (United Kingdom); Reid, Brian [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Earlham Road, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-31

    The catabolic activity of incumbent microorganisms in soil samples of eleven dissimilar soil series was investigated, with respect to the herbicide isoproturon. Soils were collected from a 30 x 37 km area of river catchment to the north-west of London, England. Catabolic activity in each soil type during a 500 h assay was determined by {sup 14}C-radiorespirometry. Results showed four soils that exhibited high levels of catabolic activity (33-44% mineralisation) while the remaining seven soils showed lower levels of catabolic activity (12-16% mineralisation). There was evidence to suggest that soils exhibiting high catabolic activity had low (< 22%) clay content and tended towards lower organic carbon content (< 2.7%), but that these higher levels of catabolic activity were also related to pre-exposure to isoproturon. The {sup 14}C-radiorespirometric results were used to produce a GIS layer representing levels of catabolic activity for the dissimilar soils across the study area. This layer was combined with other GIS layers relating to pesticide attenuation, including soil organic carbon content, depth to groundwater and hydrogeology, to produce a map showing risk of groundwater contamination by isoproturon. The output from this approach was compared with output from an attenuation-only approach and differences appraised. Inclusion of the catabolism layer resulted in a lowering of risk in the model in 15% of the study area. Although there appears to be limited benefit in including pesticide catabolic activity in this regional-scale groundwater risk model, this type of addition could be useful in a site-specific risk assessment.

  8. Nested Dynamic Condition Response Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Slaats, Tijs

    2012-01-01

    We present an extension of the recently introduced declarative process model Dynamic Condition Response Graphs ( DCR Graphs) to allow nested subgraphs and a new milestone relation between events. The extension was developed during a case study carried out jointly with our industrial partner...

  9. Nest-mediated seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Warren; Jason P. Love; Mark A. Bradford

    2017-01-01

    Many plant seeds travel on the wind and through animal ingestion or adhesion; however, an overlooked dispersal mode may lurk within those dispersal modes. Viable seeds may remain attached or embedded within materials birds gather for nest building. Our objective was to determine if birds inadvertently transport seeds when they forage for plant materials to...

  10. Millipedes (Diplopoda) in birds' nests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tajovský, Karel; Mock, A.; Krumpál, M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 37, - (2001), s. 321-323 ISSN 1164-5563 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : bird s nest s * microsites * millipedes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.317, year: 2001

  11. Effect of heterogeneity of nest boxes on occurrence of gregarious nesting in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tina; Riber, Anja Brinch

    2012-01-01

    Gregarious nesting, where hens select already occupied nest boxes even when other nest boxes are unoccupied, is an unwanted behaviour in laying hens that may reduce animal welfare and pose a financial cost to the producer. It has been suggested that gregarious nesting is caused by the difficulties...... nesting was higher in experimental groups compared to control groups (P right were higher compared to nest boxes positioned...

  12. Do artificial nests simulate nest success of greater sage-grouse?

    OpenAIRE

    Dinkins, Jonathan B.; Conover, Michael R.; Mabray, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Artificial nests have been used to study factors affecting nest success because researchers can manipulate them more than natural bird nests. Many researchers have questioned the validity of generalizing the results from artificial nests onto naturally occurring nests. Other studies have assessed the validity of artificial nest studies by simultaneously comparing overall depredation or daily survival rates, depredation timing, predator species, or habitat characteristics of artificial and nat...

  13. Social organization in a nesting population of eastern willets (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The breeding ecology of eastern Willets (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus) was studied over a 3-yr period in a salt marsh on the Atlantic coast of Virginia. During the study, 171 adults were color-marked. Willets are strictly monogamous and show strong site and mate fidelity from year to year. Normally a pair bond dissolves only after one member dies or fails to return in the spring. With an estimated annual adult mortality of 15%, the average life of a pair bond is 3 yr. The sexes share in most aspects of breeding, including brood-rearing, but females abandon both mate and brood about 2 weeks after the chicks hatch. Males apparently incubate at night and sometimes relieve the female at the nest during the middle of the day. In this area Willets defend separate nesting and feeding territories, though nest-site defense decreases through the incubation period. When mates are lost, males retain their original nesting and feeding territories, while females pair with available mates near their original nesting territory. Females compete for mates, and males select the most aggressive females.Nesting was particularly synchronous in lowland marsh sites, where the onset of egg laying was slightly earlier than in upland sites. Nest density was the highest reported for any scolopacid, and the highest densities were in sites closest to the marsh. Nest spacing is achieved through agonistic behavior, but there is evidence of a counter-tendency leading to nest clumping. Several features of the Willet social system resemble characteristics typical of colonial species of birds. These are discussed along with other aspects of social organization and the selective forces operating on it.

  14. Molecular and genetic characterization of the rhizopine catabolism (mocABRC) genes of Rhizobium meliloti L5-30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossbach, S; Kulpa, D A; Rossbach, U; de Bruijn, F J

    1994-10-17

    Rhizopine (L-3-O-methyl-scyllo-inosamine, 3-O-MSI) is a symbiosis-specific compound, which is synthesized in nitrogen-fixing nodules of Medicago sativa induced by Rhizobium meliloti strain L5-30. 3-O-MSI is thought to function as an unusual growth substrate for R. meliloti L5-30, which carries a locus (mos) responsible for its synthesis closely linked to a locus (moc) responsible for its degradation. Here, the essential moc genes were delimited by Tn5 mutagenesis and shown to be organized into two regions, separated by 3 kb of DNA. The DNA sequence of a 9-kb fragment spanning the two moc regions was determined, and four genes were identified that play an essential role in rhizopine catabolism (mocABC and mocR). The analysis of the DNA sequence and the amino acid sequence of the deduced protein products revealed that MocA resembles NADH-dependent dehydrogenases. MocB exhibits characteristic features of periplasmic-binding proteins that are components of high-affinity transport systems. MocC does not share significant homology with any protein in the database. MocR shows homology with the GntR class of bacterial regulator proteins. These results suggest that the mocABC genes are involved in the uptake and subsequent degradation of rhizopine, whereas mocR is likely to play a regulatory role.

  15. Hepatic Fatty Acid Oxidation Restrains Systemic Catabolism during Starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The liver is critical for maintaining systemic energy balance during starvation. To understand the role of hepatic fatty acid β-oxidation on this process, we generated mice with a liver-specific knockout of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (Cpt2L−/−, an obligate step in mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation. Fasting induced hepatic steatosis and serum dyslipidemia with an absence of circulating ketones, while blood glucose remained normal. Systemic energy homeostasis was largely maintained in fasting Cpt2L−/− mice by adaptations in hepatic and systemic oxidative gene expression mediated in part by Pparα target genes including procatabolic hepatokines Fgf21, Gdf15, and Igfbp1. Feeding a ketogenic diet to Cpt2L−/− mice resulted in severe hepatomegaly, liver damage, and death with a complete absence of adipose triglyceride stores. These data show that hepatic fatty acid oxidation is not required for survival during acute food deprivation but essential for constraining adipocyte lipolysis and regulating systemic catabolism when glucose is limiting.

  16. l-Glucitol Catabolism in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Ac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechtel, Elke; Huwig, Alexander; Giffhorn, Friedrich

    2002-01-01

    The carbohydrate catabolism of the bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Ac (previously named Pseudomonas sp. strain Ac), which is known to convert the unnatural polyol l-glucitol to d-sorbose during growth on the former as the sole source of carbon and energy, was studied in detail. All enzymes operating in a pathway that channels l-glucitol via d-sorbose into compounds of the intermediary metabolism were demonstrated, and for some prominent reactions the products of conversion were identified. d-Sorbose was converted by C-3 epimerization to d-tagatose, which, in turn, was isomerized to d-galactose. d-Galactose was the initial substrate of the De Ley-Doudoroff pathway, involving reactions of NAD-dependent oxidation of d-galactose to d-galactonate, its dehydration to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-galactonate, and its phosphorylation to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-galactonate 6-phosphate. Finally, aldol cleavage yielded pyruvate and d-glycerate 3-phosphate as the central metabolic intermediates. PMID:11823194

  17. A product of heme catabolism modulates bacterial function and survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Nobles

    Full Text Available Bilirubin is the terminal metabolite in heme catabolism in mammals. After deposition into bile, bilirubin is released in large quantities into the mammalian gastrointestinal (GI tract. We hypothesized that intestinal bilirubin may modulate the function of enteric bacteria. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of bilirubin on two enteric pathogens; enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC, a Gram-negative that causes life-threatening intestinal infections, and E. faecalis, a Gram-positive human commensal bacterium known to be an opportunistic pathogen with broad-spectrum antibiotic resistance. We demonstrate that bilirubin can protect EHEC from exogenous and host-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS through the absorption of free radicals. In contrast, E. faecalis was highly susceptible to bilirubin, which causes significant membrane disruption and uncoupling of respiratory metabolism in this bacterium. Interestingly, similar results were observed for other Gram-positive bacteria, including B. cereus and S. aureus. A model is proposed whereby bilirubin places distinct selective pressure on enteric bacteria, with Gram-negative bacteria being protected from ROS (positive outcome and Gram-positive bacteria being susceptible to membrane disruption (negative outcome. This work suggests bilirubin has differential but biologically relevant effects on bacteria and justifies additional efforts to determine the role of this neglected waste catabolite in disease processes, including animal models.

  18. Conservation significance of alternative nests of golden eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian A. Millsap; Teryl G. Grubb; Robert K. Murphy; Ted Swem; James W. Watson

    2015-01-01

    Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are long-lived raptors that maintain nesting territories that may be occupied for a century or longer. Within occupied nesting territories there is one nest in which eagles lay their eggs in a given year (i.e., the used nest), but there are usually other nests (i.e., alternative nests). Conservation plans often protect used nests, but...

  19. Nest marking behavior and chemical composition of olfactory cues involved in nest recognition in Megachile rotundata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guédot, Christelle; Buckner, James S; Hagen, Marcia M; Bosch, Jordi; Kemp, William P; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L

    2013-08-01

    In-nest observations of the solitary bee, Megachile rotundata (F.), revealed that nesting females apply olfactory cues to nests for nest recognition. On their way in and out of the nest, females drag the abdomen along the entire length of the nest, and sometimes deposit fluid droplets from the tip of the abdomen. The removal of bee-marked sections of the nest resulted in hesitation and searching behavior by females, indicating the loss of olfactory cues used for nest recognition. Chemical analysis of female cuticles and the deposits inside marked nesting tubes revealed the presence of hydrocarbons, wax esters, fatty aldehydes, and fatty alcohol acetate esters. Chemical compositions were similar across tube samples, but proportionally different from cuticular extracts. These findings reveal the importance of lipids as chemical signals for nest recognition and suggest that the nest-marking cues are derived from a source in addition to, or other than, the female cuticle.

  20. Sorting it out: bedding particle size and nesting material processing method affect nest complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Junker, Amy; Morin, Amelia; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen; Gaskill, Brianna N

    2017-04-01

    As part of routine husbandry, an increasing number of laboratory mice receive nesting material in addition to standard bedding material in their cages. Nesting material improves health outcomes and physiological performance in mice that receive it. Providing usable nesting material uniformly and efficiently to various strains of mice remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to determine how bedding particle size, method of nesting material delivery, and processing of the nesting material before delivery affected nest building in mice of strong (BALB/cAnNCrl) and weak (C3H/HeNCrl) gathering abilities. Our data suggest that processing nesting material through a grinder in conjunction with bedding material, although convenient for provision of bedding with nesting material 'built-in', negatively affects the integrity of the nesting material and subsequent nest-building outcomes. We also found that C3H mice, previously thought to be poor nest builders, built similarly scored nests to those of BALB/c mice when provided with unprocessed nesting material. This was true even when nesting material was mixed into the bedding substrate. We also observed that when nesting material was mixed into the bedding substrate, mice of both strains would sort their bedding by particle size more often than if it were not mixed in. Our findings support the utility of the practice of distributing nesting material mixed in with bedding substrate, but not that of processing the nesting material with the bedding in order to mix them.

  1. Nest architecture of Oxaea austera (Andrenidae, Oxaeinae and its significance for the interpretation of Uruguayan fossil bee cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sarzetti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxaea austera nests in hard, red lateritic soils with dense grass cover. Some characters of Oxaea austera nests conform to the known architecture of the oxaeine nests such as the long, vertical shaft and the radiating, horizontal tunnels connected to vertical cells. The presence of more than one cell per lateral, cells at different depths containing larvae at different stages, and discrete walls in the main and laterals are described for the first time for Oxaeinae. One cell was located at the end of each lateral with others (2–4 near them, in some cases arranged in a row just beneath the lateral. Cells are oriented vertically and consist of a chamber, a spiral closure and an antechamber connected with a lateral. The chamber and antechamber are surrounded by a thick discrete wall. Each nest was occupied by at least two active females indicating communal nesting. They also contained older cells, suggesting the reutilization of the nests by successive generations. Both behaviors may be a response to the difficulties of excavation in hard soils. Communal nesting may be also a defensive behavior against nest cleptoparasites. The shape, size, discrete walls of lateritic soil material, spiral closure, and antechamber of O. austera cells closely resemble the fossil bee cells included in the ichnogenus Palmiraichnus from the early Eocene Asencio Formation of Uruguay. This new evidence reinforces the proposal of extinct representatives of Oxaeinae as it constructor.

  2. Decoration Increases the Conspicuousness of Raptor Nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, David; Mulero-Pázmány, Margarita; Negro, Juan José; Sergio, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Avian nests are frequently concealed or camouflaged, but a number of species builds noticeable nests or use conspicuous materials for nest decoration. In most cases, nest decoration has a role in mate choice or provides thermoregulatory or antiparasitic benefits. In territorial species however, decorations may serve additional or complementary functions, such as extended phenotypic signaling of nest-site occupancy and social status to potential intruders. The latter may benefit both signaler and receiver by minimizing the risk of aggressive interactions, especially in organisms with dangerous weaponry. Support for this hypothesis was recently found in a population of black kites (Milvus migrans), a territorial raptor that decorates its nest with white artificial materials. However, the crucial assumption that nest decorations increased nest-site visibility to conspecifics was not assessed, a key aspect given that black kite nests may be well concealed within the canopy. Here, we used an unmanned aircraft system to take pictures of black kite nests, with and without an experimentally placed decoration, from different altitudes and distances simulating the perspective of a flying and approaching, prospecting intruder. The pictures were shown to human volunteers through a standardized routine to determine whether detection rates varied according the nest decoration status and distance. Decorated nests consistently showed a higher detection frequency and a lower detection-latency, compared to undecorated versions of the same nests. Our results confirm that nest decoration in this species may act as a signaling medium that enhances nest visibility for aerial receivers, even at large distances. This finding complements previous work on this communication system, which showed that nest decoration was a threat informing trespassing conspecifics on the social dominance, territory quality and fighting capabilities of the signaler.

  3. Detection and Isolation of Novel Rhizopine-Catabolizing Bacteria from the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gardener, Brian B. McSpadden; de Bruijn, Frans J.

    1998-01-01

    Microbial rhizopine-catabolizing (Moc) activity was detected in serial dilutions of soil and rhizosphere washes. The activity observed generally ranged between 106 and 107 catabolic units per g, and the numbers of nonspecific culture-forming units were found to be approximately 10 times higher. A diverse set of 37 isolates was obtained by enrichment on scyllo-inosamine-containing media. However, none of the bacteria that were isolated were found to contain DNA sequences homologous to the know...

  4. Raptor nest management on power lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harness, R.E. [EDM International Inc., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Many utilities in South Africa are now implementing labor-intensive methods to combat raptor nesting on power transmission lines. Methods have typically included direct nest removal and trimming of nest materials. However, the process is often unsuccessful, and utilities are now learning to accommodate the raptor nests. This paper argued that managing nests on utility structures has solved many operational problems and has resulted in positive publicity for many line operators. Nest management options included the use of stick deflectors to prevent nest material from accumulating during initial nest construction, as well as encouraging raptors to shift their efforts to a more suitable location. Raptors will often accept alternative nesting platforms, and taller, surrogate nesting poles can be placed next to distribution line structures. Elevated platforms can also be placed on problematic distribution structures, but may result in birds coming into contact with unprotected equipment. It was concluded that a successful nest management program includes plans to make nearby lines safe for raptors and to prevent their electrocution. Providing nests with bird-friendly utility configurations can result in electric facilities enhancing wild raptor populations without impacting power reliability. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Reprogramming amino acid catabolism in CHO cells with CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing improves cell growth and reduces by-product secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ley, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; Pedersen, Lasse Ebdrup

    2017-01-01

    CHO cells primarily utilize amino acids for three processes: biomass synthesis, recombinant protein production and catabolism. In this work, we disrupted 9 amino acid catabolic genes participating in 7 dierent catabolic pathways, to increase synthesis of biomass and recombinant protein, while red...... reducing production of growth-inhibiting metabolic by-products from amino acid catabolism....

  6. Differences in predators of artificial and real songbirds nests: Evidence of bias in artificial nest studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank R. Thompson; Dirk E. Burhans

    2004-01-01

    In the past two decades, many researchers have used artificial nest to measure relative rates of nest predation. Recent comparisons show that real and artificial nests may not be depredated at the same rate, but no one has examined the mechanisms underlying these patterns. We determined differences in predator-specific predation rates of real and artificial nests. we...

  7. Cavity-nesting bird use of nest boxes in vineyards of central-coast California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel P. Mummert; Laura Baines; William D. Tietje

    2002-01-01

    Oak woodland habitat is being degraded or replaced by vineyards in many areas of central-coastal California. Oak woodlands are home to many insectivorous, cavity-nesting birds that would be beneficial in and around vineyards. During March to June 2001, we used bluebird nest boxes to study nest box use and productivity of cavity-nesting birds in vineyards versus...

  8. Nest-site habitat of cavity-nesting birds at the San Joaquin Experimental Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn L. Purcell; Jared. Verner

    2008-01-01

    Detailed information about the nesting habitats of birds, including those needed for successful nesting, can provide a better understanding of the ecological factors that permit coexistence of different species and may aid in conservation efforts. From 1989 through 1994, we studied the nesting habitat of secondary cavity-nesting birds in oak woodlands at the San...

  9. Modeling nest survival of cavity-nesting birds in relation to postfire salvage logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicki Saab; Robin E. Russell; Jay Rotella; Jonathan G. Dudley

    2011-01-01

    Salvage logging practices in recently burned forests often have direct effects on species associated with dead trees, particularly cavity-nesting birds. As such, evaluation of postfire management practices on nest survival rates of cavity nesters is necessary for determining conservation strategies. We monitored 1,797 nests of 6 cavity-nesting bird species: Lewis'...

  10. Avoiding the nest : responses of field sparrows to the threat of nest predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk E. Burhans

    2000-01-01

    Nest predation is a major source of reproductive failure in birds (Ricklefs 1969, Martin 1992). Birds confronted with an enemy near the nest may use behaviors to deter the prospect of nest predation. The benefits of nest defense have been shown for many agressive species (Martin 1992), but smaller birds that cannot deter predators may need to resort to other behaviors...

  11. Nest Material Shapes Eggs Bacterial Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ruiz-Castellano

    Full Text Available Selective pressures imposed by pathogenic microorganisms to embryos have selected in hosts for a battery of antimicrobial lines of defenses that includes physical and chemical barriers. Due to the antimicrobial properties of volatile compounds of green plants and of chemicals of feather degrading bacteria, the use of aromatic plants and feathers for nest building has been suggested as one of these barriers. However, experimental evidence suggesting such effects is scarce in the literature. During two consecutive years, we explored experimentally the effects of these nest materials on loads of different groups of bacteria (mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus of eggshells in nests of spotless starlings (Sturnus unicolor at the beginning and at the end of the incubation period. This was also explored in artificial nests without incubation activity. We also experimentally increased bacterial density of eggs in natural and artificial nests and explored the effects of nest lining treatments on eggshell bacterial load. Support for the hypothetical antimicrobial function of nest materials was mainly detected for the year and location with larger average values of eggshell bacterial density. The beneficial effects of feathers and plants were more easily detected in artificial nests with no incubation activity, suggesting an active role of incubation against bacterial colonization of eggshells. Pigmented and unpigmented feathers reduced eggshell bacterial load in starling nests and artificial nest boxes. Results from artificial nests allowed us to discuss and discard alternative scenarios explaining the detected association, particularly those related to the possible sexual role of feathers and aromatic plants in starling nests. All these results considered together confirm the antimicrobial functionality mainly of feathers but also of plants used as nest materials, and highlight the importance of temporally and

  12. Nest Material Shapes Eggs Bacterial Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Castellano, Cristina; Tomás, Gustavo; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Martín-Gálvez, David; Soler, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    Selective pressures imposed by pathogenic microorganisms to embryos have selected in hosts for a battery of antimicrobial lines of defenses that includes physical and chemical barriers. Due to the antimicrobial properties of volatile compounds of green plants and of chemicals of feather degrading bacteria, the use of aromatic plants and feathers for nest building has been suggested as one of these barriers. However, experimental evidence suggesting such effects is scarce in the literature. During two consecutive years, we explored experimentally the effects of these nest materials on loads of different groups of bacteria (mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus) of eggshells in nests of spotless starlings (Sturnus unicolor) at the beginning and at the end of the incubation period. This was also explored in artificial nests without incubation activity. We also experimentally increased bacterial density of eggs in natural and artificial nests and explored the effects of nest lining treatments on eggshell bacterial load. Support for the hypothetical antimicrobial function of nest materials was mainly detected for the year and location with larger average values of eggshell bacterial density. The beneficial effects of feathers and plants were more easily detected in artificial nests with no incubation activity, suggesting an active role of incubation against bacterial colonization of eggshells. Pigmented and unpigmented feathers reduced eggshell bacterial load in starling nests and artificial nest boxes. Results from artificial nests allowed us to discuss and discard alternative scenarios explaining the detected association, particularly those related to the possible sexual role of feathers and aromatic plants in starling nests. All these results considered together confirm the antimicrobial functionality mainly of feathers but also of plants used as nest materials, and highlight the importance of temporally and geographically

  13. Nesting biology of Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida M. L. Aguiar

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Nests of Centris tarsata Smith, 1874 were obtained from trap-nests in areas of dry semi-deciduous forest (Baixa Grande and caatinga (Ipirá, in the State of Bahia. Nesting occurred in bamboo canes and in tubes of black cardboard with 5.8 cm (= small tube and 10.5 cm (= large tube in length and 0.6 and 0.8 cm in diameter, respectively. In both areas C. tarsata nested during the wet season producing four generations in Baixa Grande and three generations in Ipirá. The immatures of one generation underwent diapause at both sites. The bees constructed their nests with a mixture of sand and oil. In general, the cells were elongated and arranged in linear series with its opening pointing towards the nest entrance. Completed nests had two to three cells in small tubes, one to seven cells in large tubes, and two to 13 cells in bamboo canes. The nest plug resembled an uncompleted cell and was externally covered with oil. The cells were provisioned with pollen, oil, and nectar. Nests were parasitized by Mesocheira bicolor (Fabricius, 1804 (Hymenoptera: Apidae and other not identify bee species.Ninhos de Centris tarsata Smith, 1874 foram obtidos através da utilização de ninhos-armadilha, em áreas de floresta estacional semi-decídua (Baixa Grande e de caatinga (Ipirá, no Estado da Bahia. A nidificação ocorreu em gomos de bambus e em tubos de cartolina preta, estes com comprimentos de 5,8 cm (= tubos pequenos e 10,5 cm (= tubos grandes, e diâmetro de 0,6 e 0,8 cm, respectivamente. Em ambas as áreas C. tarsata nidificou durante a estação úmida, produzindo quatro gerações anuais em Baixa Grande e três em Ipirá. Os imaturos de uma das gerações passaram por diapausa em ambos os locais. As abelhas construíram seus ninhos com uma mistura de areia e óleo. Em geral, as células foram alongadas e arranjadas em série linear, com sua abertura dirigida para a entrada do ninho. Os ninhos completados tinham de duas a três células nos tubos pequenos

  14. From neurons to nests: nest-building behaviour as a model in behavioural and comparative neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Zachary J; Meddle, Simone L; Healy, Susan D

    Despite centuries of observing the nest building of most extant bird species, we know surprisingly little about how birds build nests and, specifically, how the avian brain controls nest building. Here, we argue that nest building in birds may be a useful model behaviour in which to study how the brain controls behaviour. Specifically, we argue that nest building as a behavioural model provides a unique opportunity to study not only the mechanisms through which the brain controls behaviour within individuals of a single species but also how evolution may have shaped the brain to produce interspecific variation in nest-building behaviour. In this review, we outline the questions in both behavioural and comparative neuroscience that nest building could be used to address, summarize recent findings regarding the neurobiology of nest building in lab-reared zebra finches and across species building different nest structures, and suggest some future directions for the neurobiology of nest building.

  15. Nest Predation Deviates from Nest Predator Abundance in an Ecologically Trapped Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Franck A; Van Dyck, Hans; San Martin, Gilles; Titeux, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In human-modified environments, ecological traps may result from a preference for low-quality habitat where survival or reproductive success is lower than in high-quality habitat. It has often been shown that low reproductive success for birds in preferred habitat types was due to higher nest predator abundance. However, between-habitat differences in nest predation may only weakly correlate with differences in nest predator abundance. An ecological trap is at work in a farmland bird (Lanius collurio) that recently expanded its breeding habitat into open areas in plantation forests. This passerine bird shows a strong preference for forest habitat, but it has a higher nest success in farmland. We tested whether higher abundance of nest predators in the preferred habitat or, alternatively, a decoupling of nest predator abundance and nest predation explained this observed pattern of maladaptive habitat selection. More than 90% of brood failures were attributed to nest predation. Nest predator abundance was more than 50% higher in farmland, but nest predation was 17% higher in forest. Differences between nest predation on actual shrike nests and on artificial nests suggested that parent shrikes may facilitate nest disclosure for predators in forest more than they do in farmland. The level of caution by parent shrikes when visiting their nest during a simulated nest predator intrusion was the same in the two habitats, but nest concealment was considerably lower in forest, which contributes to explaining the higher nest predation in this habitat. We conclude that a decoupling of nest predator abundance and nest predation may create ecological traps in human-modified environments.

  16. Nest predation increases with parental activity: separating nest site and parental activity effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, T E; Scott, J; Menge, C

    2000-01-01

    Alexander Skutch hypothesized that increased parental activity can increase the risk of nest predation. We tested this hypothesis using ten open-nesting bird species in Arizona, USA. Parental activity was greater during the nestling than incubation stage because parents visited the nest frequently to feed their young during the nestling stage. However, nest predation did not generally increase with parental activity between nesting stages across the ten study species. Previous investigators h...

  17. Nest Predation Deviates from Nest Predator Abundance in an Ecologically Trapped Bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck A Hollander

    Full Text Available In human-modified environments, ecological traps may result from a preference for low-quality habitat where survival or reproductive success is lower than in high-quality habitat. It has often been shown that low reproductive success for birds in preferred habitat types was due to higher nest predator abundance. However, between-habitat differences in nest predation may only weakly correlate with differences in nest predator abundance. An ecological trap is at work in a farmland bird (Lanius collurio that recently expanded its breeding habitat into open areas in plantation forests. This passerine bird shows a strong preference for forest habitat, but it has a higher nest success in farmland. We tested whether higher abundance of nest predators in the preferred habitat or, alternatively, a decoupling of nest predator abundance and nest predation explained this observed pattern of maladaptive habitat selection. More than 90% of brood failures were attributed to nest predation. Nest predator abundance was more than 50% higher in farmland, but nest predation was 17% higher in forest. Differences between nest predation on actual shrike nests and on artificial nests suggested that parent shrikes may facilitate nest disclosure for predators in forest more than they do in farmland. The level of caution by parent shrikes when visiting their nest during a simulated nest predator intrusion was the same in the two habitats, but nest concealment was considerably lower in forest, which contributes to explaining the higher nest predation in this habitat. We conclude that a decoupling of nest predator abundance and nest predation may create ecological traps in human-modified environments.

  18. Interaction in Balanced Cross Nested Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Paulo; Mexia, João T.; Carvalho, Francisco; Covas, Ricardo

    2011-09-01

    Commutative Jordan Algebras, CJA, are used in the study of mixed models obtained, through crossing and nesting, from simpler ones. In the study of cross nested models the interaction between nested factors have been systematically discarded. However this can constitutes an artificial simplification of the models. We point out that, when two crossed factors interact, such interaction is symmetric, both factors playing in it equivalent roles, while when two nested factors interact, the interaction is determined by the nesting factor. These interactions will be called interactions with nesting. In this work we present a coherent formulation of the algebraic structure of models enabling the choice of families of interactions between cross and nested factors using binary operations on CJA.

  19. Imbalanced Protein Expression Patterns of Anabolic, Catabolic, Anti-Catabolic and Inflammatory Cytokines in Degenerative Cervical Disc Cells: New Indications for Gene Therapeutic Treatments of Cervical Disc Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mern, Demissew S.; Beierfuß, Anja; Fontana, Johann; Thomé, Claudius; Hegewald, Aldemar A.

    2014-01-01

    Degenerative disc disease (DDD) of the cervical spine is common after middle age and can cause loss of disc height with painful nerve impingement, bone and joint inflammation. Despite the clinical importance of these problems, in current publications the pathology of cervical disc degeneration has been studied merely from a morphologic view point using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), without addressing the issue of biological treatment approaches. So far a wide range of endogenously expressed bioactive factors in degenerative cervical disc cells has not yet been investigated, despite its importance for gene therapeutic approaches. Although degenerative lumbar disc cells have been targeted by different biological treatment approaches, the quantities of disc cells and the concentrations of gene therapeutic factors used in animal models differ extremely. These indicate lack of experimentally acquired data regarding disc cell proliferation and levels of target proteins. Therefore, we analysed proliferation and endogenous expression levels of anabolic, catabolic, ant-catabolic, inflammatory cytokines and matrix proteins of degenerative cervical disc cells in three-dimensional cultures. Preoperative MRI grading of cervical discs was used, then grade III and IV nucleus pulposus (NP) tissues were isolated from 15 patients, operated due to cervical disc herniation. NP cells were cultured for four weeks with low-glucose in collagen I scaffold. Their proliferation rates were analysed using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. Their protein expression levels of 28 therapeutic targets were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. During progressive grades of degeneration NP cell proliferation rates were similar. Significantly decreased aggrecan and collagen II expressions (P<0.0001) were accompanied by accumulations of selective catabolic and inflammatory cytokines (disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 4 and 5, matrix

  20. Interactive effects between nest microclimate and nest vegetation structure confirm microclimate thresholds for Lesser Prairie-Chicken nest survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, Blake A.; Godar, Alixandra J.; Boal, Clint W.; Haukos, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The range of Lesser Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) spans 4 unique ecoregions along 2 distinct environmental gradients. The Sand Shinnery Oak Prairie ecoregion of the Southern High Plains of New Mexico and Texas is environmentally isolated, warmer, and more arid than the Short-Grass, Sand Sagebrush, and Mixed-Grass Prairie ecoregions in Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and the northeast panhandle of Texas. Weather is known to influence Lesser Prairie-Chicken nest survival in the Sand Shinnery Oak Prairie ecoregion; regional variation may also influence nest microclimate and, ultimately, survival during incubation. To address this question, we placed data loggers adjacent to nests during incubation to quantify temperature and humidity distribution functions in 3 ecoregions. We developed a suite of a priori nest survival models that incorporated derived microclimate parameters and visual obstruction as covariates in Program MARK. We monitored 49 nests in Mixed-Grass, 22 nests in Sand Shinnery Oak, and 30 nests in Short-Grass ecoregions from 2010 to 2014. Our findings indicated that (1) the Sand Shinnery Oak Prairie ecoregion was hotter and drier during incubation than the Mixed- and Short-Grass ecoregions; (2) nest microclimate varied among years within ecoregions; (3) visual obstruction was positively associated with nest survival; but (4) daily nest survival probability decreased by 10% every half-hour when temperature was greater than 34°C and vapor pressure deficit was less than −23 mmHg during the day (about 0600–2100 hours). Our major finding confirmed microclimate thresholds for nest survival under natural conditions across the species' distribution, although Lesser Prairie-Chickens are more likely to experience microclimate conditions that result in nest failures in the Sand Shinnery Oak Prairie ecoregion. The species would benefit from identification of thermal landscapes and management actions that promote cooler, more humid nest microclimates.

  1. The effects of acetaldehyde and acrolein on muscle catabolism in C2 myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Oren; Kaisari, Sharon; Aizenbud, Dror; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2013-12-01

    The toxic aldehydes acetaldehyde and acrolein were previously suggested to damage skeletal muscle. Several conditions in which exposure to acetaldehyde and acrolein is increased were associated with muscle wasting and dysfunction. These include alcoholic myopathy, renal failure, oxidative stress, and inflammation. A main exogenous source of both acetaldehyde and acrolein is cigarette smoking, which was previously associated with increased muscle catabolism. Recently, we have shown that exposure of skeletal myotubes to cigarette smoke stimulated muscle catabolism via increased oxidative stress, activation of p38 MAPK, and upregulation of muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of acetaldehyde and acrolein on catabolism of skeletal muscle. Skeletal myotubes differentiated from the C2 myoblast cell line were exposed to acetaldehyde or acrolein and their effects on signaling pathways related to muscle catabolism were studied. Exposure of myotubes to acetaldehyde did not promote muscle catabolism. However, exposure to acrolein caused increased generation of free radicals, activation of p38 MAPK, upregulation of the muscle-specific E3 ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF1, degradation of myosin heavy chain, and atrophy of myotubes. Inhibition of p38 MAPK by SB203580 abolished acrolein-induced muscle catabolism. Our findings demonstrate that acrolein but not acetaldehyde activates a signaling cascade resulting in muscle catabolism in skeletal myotubes. Although within the limitations of an in vitro study, these findings indicate that acrolein may promote muscle wasting in conditions of increased exposure to this aldehyde. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Texas Adoption Project: adopted children and their intellectual resemblance to biological and adoptive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, J M

    1983-04-01

    Intelligence test scores were obtained from parents and children in 300 adoptive families and compared with similar measures available for the biological mothers of the same adopted children. Results supported the hypothesis that genetic variability is an important influence in the development of individual differences for intelligence. The most salient finding was that adopted children resemble their biological mothers more than they resemble the adoptive parents who reared them from birth. A small subset of the oldest adopted children did not resemble their biological mothers. The suggestion that the influence of genes declines with age is treated with caution since other adoption studies report a trend in the opposite direction.

  3. Communally Nesting Migratory Birds Create Ecological Hot-Spots in Tropical Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J D Natusch

    Full Text Available Large numbers of metallic starlings (Aplonis metallica migrate annually from New Guinea to the rainforests of tropical Australia, where they nest communally in single emergent trees (up to 1,000 birds. These aggregations create dense and species-rich faunal "hot-spots", attracting a diverse assemblage of local consumers that utilise this seasonal resource. The starlings nested primarily in poison-dart trees (Antiaris toxicaria near the rainforest-woodland boundary. Surveys underneath these colonies revealed that bird-derived nutrients massively increased densities of soil invertebrates and mammals (primarily wild pigs beneath trees, year-round. Flying invertebrates, nocturnal birds, reptiles, and amphibians congregated beneath the trees when starlings were nesting (the wet-season. Diurnal birds (primarily cockatoos and bush turkeys aggregated beneath the trees during the dry-season to utilise residual nutrients when the starlings were not nesting. The abundance of several taxa was considerably higher (to > 1000-fold under colony trees than under nearby trees. The system strikingly resembles utilisation of bird nesting colonies by predators in other parts of the world but this spectacular system has never been described, emphasizing the continuing need for detailed natural-history studies in tropical Australia.

  4. Communally Nesting Migratory Birds Create Ecological Hot-Spots in Tropical Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natusch, Daniel J D; Lyons, Jessica A; Brown, Gregory; Shine, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Large numbers of metallic starlings (Aplonis metallica) migrate annually from New Guinea to the rainforests of tropical Australia, where they nest communally in single emergent trees (up to 1,000 birds). These aggregations create dense and species-rich faunal "hot-spots", attracting a diverse assemblage of local consumers that utilise this seasonal resource. The starlings nested primarily in poison-dart trees (Antiaris toxicaria) near the rainforest-woodland boundary. Surveys underneath these colonies revealed that bird-derived nutrients massively increased densities of soil invertebrates and mammals (primarily wild pigs) beneath trees, year-round. Flying invertebrates, nocturnal birds, reptiles, and amphibians congregated beneath the trees when starlings were nesting (the wet-season). Diurnal birds (primarily cockatoos and bush turkeys) aggregated beneath the trees during the dry-season to utilise residual nutrients when the starlings were not nesting. The abundance of several taxa was considerably higher (to > 1000-fold) under colony trees than under nearby trees. The system strikingly resembles utilisation of bird nesting colonies by predators in other parts of the world but this spectacular system has never been described, emphasizing the continuing need for detailed natural-history studies in tropical Australia.

  5. Leucophora Satellite Flies (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) as Nest Parasites of Sweat Bees (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) in the Neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, C; Michelsen, V; Nieves-Aldrey, J L

    2015-08-01

    The biology of the 10 species of Leucophora (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) recorded in the Neotropics remains unknown. The large majority of the studied species so far are kleptoparasites of bees and wasps. Here, we report the first observations of Leucophora andicola (Bigot) and Leucophora peullae (Malloch) visiting the nests of ground-nesting sweat bees Corynura (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) in Chilean Patagonia. Females of both species perch on small stones or sticks within a dense nest aggregation of the bees and then track pollen-loaded bees in flight with great precision, eventually following them into their nests. The overall behavior closely resembles that observed for many other species of the genus. Excavations of some bee nests returned only two dipteran puparia, possibly of Leucophora, suggesting a low parasitism rate. One male of L. peullae was also collected at the bee aggregation. This is the first report of host association for any Leucophora from the Neotropics and the first report of any anthomyiid fly associated with augochlorine bees.

  6. Ablation of Steroid Receptor Coactivator-3 resembles the human CACT metabolic myopathy

    OpenAIRE

    York, Brian; Reineke, Erin L.; Sagen, Jørn V.; Nikolai, Bryan C.; Zhou, Suoling; Louet, Jean-Francois; Chopra, Atul R.; Chen, Xian; Reed, Graham; Noebels, Jeffrey; Adesina, Adekunle M.; Yu, Hui; Wong, Lee-Jun C.; Tsimelzon, Anna; Hilsenbeck, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Oxidation of lipid substrates is essential for survival in fasting and other catabolic conditions, sparing glucose for the brain and other glucose-dependent tissues. Here we show Steroid Receptor Coactivator-3 (SRC-3) plays a central role in long chain fatty acid metabolism by directly regulating carnitine/acyl-carnitine translocase (CACT) gene expression. Genetic deficiency of CACT in humans is accompanied by a constellation of metabolic and toxicity phenotypes including hypoketonemia, hypog...

  7. Polytypic Functions Over Nested Datatypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Hinze

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The theory and practice of polytypic programming is intimately connected with the initial algebra semantics of datatypes. This is both a blessing and a curse. It is a blessing because the underlying theory is beautiful and well developed. It is a curse because the initial algebra semantics is restricted to so-called regular datatypes. Recent work by R. Bird and L. Meertens [3] on the semantics of non-regular or nested datatypes suggests that an extension to general datatypes is not entirely straightforward. Here we propose an alternative that extends polytypism to arbitrary datatypes, including nested datatypes and mutually recursive datatypes. The central idea is to use rational trees over a suitable set of functor symbols as type arguments for polytypic functions. Besides covering a wider range of types the approach is also simpler and technically less involving than previous ones. We present several examples of polytypic functions, among others polytypic reduction and polytypic equality. The presentation assumes some background in functional and in polytypic programming. A basic knowledge of monads is required for some of the examples.

  8. Nest site attributes and temporal patterns of northern flicker nest loss: effects of predation and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ryan J; Wiebe, Karen L

    2006-04-01

    To date, most studies of nest site selection have failed to take into account more than one source of nest loss (or have combined all sources in one analysis) when examining nest site characteristics, leaving us with an incomplete understanding of the potential trade-offs that individuals may face when selecting a nest site. Our objectives were to determine whether northern flickers (Colaptes auratus) may experience a trade-off in nest site selection in response to mammalian nest predation and nest loss to a cavity nest competitor (European starling, Sturnus vulgaris). We also document within-season temporal patterns of these two sources of nest loss with the hypothesis that flickers may also be constrained in the timing of reproduction under both predatory and competitive influence. Mammalian predators frequently depredated flicker nests that were: lower to the ground, less concealed by vegetation around the cavity entrance and at the base of the nest tree, closer to coniferous forest edges and in forest clumps with a high percentage of conifer content. Proximity to coniferous edges or coniferous trees increased the probability of nest predation, but nests near conifers were less likely to be lost to starlings. Flickers may thus face a trade-off in nest site selection with respect to safety from predators or competitors. Models suggested that peaks of nest predation and nest loss to eviction occurred at the same time, although a competing model suggested that the peak of nest loss to starlings occurred 5 days earlier than the peak of mammalian predation. Differences in peaks of mammalian predation and loss to starlings may constrain any adjustment in clutch initiation date by flickers to avoid one source of nest loss.

  9. Spontaneous de novo vaginal adenosis resembling Bartholin’s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adebayo Alade Adewole

    Spontaneous de novo vaginal adenosis resembling Bartholin's cyst: A case report ... 6 by 5 cm. The cervix, uterus, adnexa and Pouch of Douglas (POD) were normal. .... of vaginal cancer.2–4 Although, DES exposed daughters have an.

  10. Comparative genomic analysis of isoproturon-mineralizing sphingomonads reveals the isoproturon catabolic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xin; Gu, Tao; Yi, Zhongquan; Huang, Junwei; Liu, Xiaowei; Zhang, Ji; Xu, Xihui; Xin, Zhihong; Hong, Qing; He, Jian; Spain, Jim C; Li, Shunpeng; Jiang, Jiandong

    2016-12-01

    The worldwide use of the phenylurea herbicide, isoproturon (IPU), has resulted in considerable concern about its environmental fate. Although many microbial metabolites of IPU are known and IPU-mineralizing bacteria have been isolated, the molecular mechanism of IPU catabolism has not been elucidated yet. In this study, complete genes that encode the conserved IPU catabolic pathway were revealed, based on comparative analysis of the genomes of three IPU-mineralizing sphingomonads and subsequent experimental validation. The complete genes included a novel hydrolase gene ddhA, which is responsible for the cleavage of the urea side chain of the IPU demethylated products; a distinct aniline dioxygenase gene cluster adoQTA1A2BR, which has a broad substrate range; and an inducible catechol meta-cleavage pathway gene cluster adoXEGKLIJC. Furthermore, the initial mono-N-demethylation genes pdmAB were further confirmed to be involved in the successive N-demethylation of the IPU mono-N-demethylated product. These IPU-catabolic genes were organized into four transcription units and distributed on three plasmids. They were flanked by multiple mobile genetic elements and highly conserved among IPU-mineralizing sphingomonads. The elucidation of the molecular mechanism of IPU catabolism will enhance our understanding of the microbial mineralization of IPU and provide insights into the evolutionary scenario of the conserved IPU-catabolic pathway. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. An economical wireless cavity-nest viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel P. Huebner; Sarah R. Hurteau

    2007-01-01

    Inspection of cavity nests and nest boxes is often required during studies of cavity-nesting birds, and fiberscopes and pole-mounted video cameras are sometimes used for such inspection. However, the cost of these systems may be prohibitive for some potential users. We describe a user-built, wireless cavity viewer that can be used to access cavities as high as 15 m and...

  12. Copper accumulation by stickleback nests containing spiggin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, G L L; Martins, C M G; Barber, I

    2016-07-01

    The three-spined stickleback is a ubiquitous fish of marine, brackish and freshwater ecosystems across the Northern hemisphere that presents intermediate sensitivity to copper. Male sticklebacks display a range of elaborate reproductive behaviours that include nest construction. To build the nests, each male binds nesting material together using an endogenous glycoprotein nesting glue, known as 'spiggin'. Spiggin is a cysteine-rich protein and, therefore, potentially binds heavy metals present in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of stickleback nests to accumulate copper from environmental sources. Newly built nests, constructed by male fish from polyester threads in laboratory aquaria, were immersed in copper solutions ranging in concentration from 21.1-626.6 μg Cu L(-1). Bundles of polyester threads from aquaria without male fish were also immersed in the same copper solutions. After immersion, nests presented higher amounts of copper than the thread bundles, indicating a higher capacity of nests to bind this metal. A significant, positive correlation between the concentration of copper in the exposure solution and in the exposed nests was identified, but there was no such relationship for thread bundles. Since both spiggin synthesis and male courtship behaviour are under the control of circulating androgens, we predicted that males with high courtship scores would produce and secrete high levels of the spiggin protein. In the present study, nests built by high courtship score males accumulated more copper than those built by low courtship score males. Considering the potential of spiggin to bind metals, the positive relationship between fish courtship and spiggin secretion seems to explain the higher amount of copper on the nests from the fish showing high behaviour scores. Further work is now needed to determine the consequences of the copper binding potential of spiggin in stickleback nests for the health and survival of

  13. The design and function of birds' nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainwaring, Mark C; Hartley, Ian R; Lambrechts, Marcel M; Deeming, D Charles

    2014-10-01

    All birds construct nests in which to lay eggs and/or raise offspring. Traditionally, it was thought that natural selection and the requirement to minimize the risk of predation determined the design of completed nests. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that sexual selection also influences nest design. This is an important development as while species such as bowerbirds build structures that are extended phenotypic signals whose sole purpose is to attract a mate, nests contain eggs and/or offspring, thereby suggesting a direct trade-off between the conflicting requirements of natural and sexual selection. Nest design also varies adaptively in order to both minimize the detrimental effects of parasites and to create a suitable microclimate for parents and developing offspring in relation to predictable variation in environmental conditions. Our understanding of the design and function of birds' nests has increased considerably in recent years, and the evidence suggests that nests have four nonmutually exclusive functions. Consequently, we conclude that the design of birds' nests is far more sophisticated than previously realized and that nests are multifunctional structures that have important fitness consequences for the builder/s.

  14. The design and function of birds' nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainwaring, Mark C; Hartley, Ian R; Lambrechts, Marcel M; Deeming, D Charles

    2014-01-01

    All birds construct nests in which to lay eggs and/or raise offspring. Traditionally, it was thought that natural selection and the requirement to minimize the risk of predation determined the design of completed nests. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that sexual selection also influences nest design. This is an important development as while species such as bowerbirds build structures that are extended phenotypic signals whose sole purpose is to attract a mate, nests contain eggs and/or offspring, thereby suggesting a direct trade-off between the conflicting requirements of natural and sexual selection. Nest design also varies adaptively in order to both minimize the detrimental effects of parasites and to create a suitable microclimate for parents and developing offspring in relation to predictable variation in environmental conditions. Our understanding of the design and function of birds' nests has increased considerably in recent years, and the evidence suggests that nests have four nonmutually exclusive functions. Consequently, we conclude that the design of birds' nests is far more sophisticated than previously realized and that nests are multifunctional structures that have important fitness consequences for the builder/s. PMID:25505520

  15. Poly (ADP-ribose) catabolism in mammalian cells exposed to DNA-damaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Gonzalez, R.; Althaus, F.R.

    1989-01-01

    DNA damage inflicted by the alkylating agens N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoquanidine, or by UV stimulated the catabolism of protein-bound poly (ADP-ribose) in the chromatin of cultured hepatocytes. The stimulation was highest at the largest doses of DNA-damaging treatment. As a consequence, the half-life of ADP-ribosyl polymers may drop to less than 41 s. This rapid turnover contrasts with the slow catabolism of a constitutive fraction of polymers exhibiting a half-life of 7.7 h. These data suggest that post-incisional stimulation of poly (ADP-ribose) biosynthesis in DNA-excision repair is coupled with an adaptation of poly (ADP-ribose) catabolism in mammalian cells. (Author). 37 refs.; 3 figs

  16. Nested trampoline resonators for optomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, M. J., E-mail: mweaver@physics.ucsb.edu; Pepper, B.; Luna, F.; Perock, B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Buters, F. M.; Eerkens, H. J.; Welker, G.; Heeck, K.; Man, S. de [Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, Universiteit Leiden, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Bouwmeester, D. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, Universiteit Leiden, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-01-18

    Two major challenges in the development of optomechanical devices are achieving a low mechanical and optical loss rate and vibration isolation from the environment. We address both issues by fabricating trampoline resonators made from low pressure chemical vapor deposition Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with a distributed Bragg reflector mirror. We design a nested double resonator structure with 80 dB of mechanical isolation from the mounting surface at the inner resonator frequency, and we demonstrate up to 45 dB of isolation at lower frequencies in agreement with the design. We reliably fabricate devices with mechanical quality factors of around 400 000 at room temperature. In addition, these devices were used to form optical cavities with finesse up to 181 000 ± 1000. These promising parameters will enable experiments in the quantum regime with macroscopic mechanical resonators.

  17. Nested trampoline resonators for optomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, M. J.; Pepper, B.; Luna, F.; Perock, B.; Buters, F. M.; Eerkens, H. J.; Welker, G.; Heeck, K.; Man, S. de; Bouwmeester, D.

    2016-01-01

    Two major challenges in the development of optomechanical devices are achieving a low mechanical and optical loss rate and vibration isolation from the environment. We address both issues by fabricating trampoline resonators made from low pressure chemical vapor deposition Si 3 N 4 with a distributed Bragg reflector mirror. We design a nested double resonator structure with 80 dB of mechanical isolation from the mounting surface at the inner resonator frequency, and we demonstrate up to 45 dB of isolation at lower frequencies in agreement with the design. We reliably fabricate devices with mechanical quality factors of around 400 000 at room temperature. In addition, these devices were used to form optical cavities with finesse up to 181 000 ± 1000. These promising parameters will enable experiments in the quantum regime with macroscopic mechanical resonators

  18. Nested trampoline resonators for optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, M. J.; Pepper, B.; Luna, F.; Buters, F. M.; Eerkens, H. J.; Welker, G.; Perock, B.; Heeck, K.; de Man, S.; Bouwmeester, D.

    2016-01-01

    Two major challenges in the development of optomechanical devices are achieving a low mechanical and optical loss rate and vibration isolation from the environment. We address both issues by fabricating trampoline resonators made from low pressure chemical vapor deposition Si3N4 with a distributed Bragg reflector mirror. We design a nested double resonator structure with 80 dB of mechanical isolation from the mounting surface at the inner resonator frequency, and we demonstrate up to 45 dB of isolation at lower frequencies in agreement with the design. We reliably fabricate devices with mechanical quality factors of around 400 000 at room temperature. In addition, these devices were used to form optical cavities with finesse up to 181 000 ± 1000. These promising parameters will enable experiments in the quantum regime with macroscopic mechanical resonators.

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: New Hampshire: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting birds in New Hampshire. Vector points in this data set represent locations of nesting osprey...

  20. Formation of Flavor Compounds by Amino Acid Catabolism in Cheese (Turkish with English Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical reactions which contribute flavor formation occur in result of proteolysis during cheese ripening. Casein as the main protein of cheese has a significant effect on the flavor and textural properties of cheeses via its degradation to small peptides and free amino acids by various factors like coagulant enzymes. Specific flavors of cheeses occur as a result of amino acid catabolism by starter and non-starter bacteria. Some flavor compounds are formed by enzymatic transformations as well as by non-enzymatic, chemical changes in cheese. In this paper, formation of flavor compounds by amino acid catabolism during cheese ripening reviewed.

  1. Livestock grazing and trampling of birds' nests: An experiment using artificial nests

    OpenAIRE

    Mandema, Freek S.; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Ens, Bruno J.; Bakker, Jan P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to experimentally determine the differences between four grazing treatments on the trampling of nests. Additionally, we examine to what extent the trampling probability of nests is higher close to a source of fresh water. We compare the trampling of artificial nests in five different grazing treatments in an experimental design. We use buried clay pigeon targets as artificial mimics of bird nests to obtain reliable estimates of trampling risk and compare these wit...

  2. Biomechanical testing of materials in avian nests provides insight into nest construction behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Biddle, Lucia E.; Deeming, D. Charles; Goodman, Adrian M.

    2015-01-01

    Animals that use materials to build nest structures have long since fascinated biologists and engineers alike. Avian nests are generally composed of collected materials brought together into a cup-like structure in which the bird sits to incubate eggs and, in many cases, it is where chicks are reared. Hence, the materials in a nest can be presumed to be loaded in compression, but relatively few studies have investigated the mechanical role of the nest elements and their position w...

  3. Spawning chronology, nest site selection and nest success of smallmouth bass during benign streamflow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauwalter, D.C.; Fisher, W.L.

    2007-01-01

    We documented the nesting chronology, nest site selection and nest success of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in an upstream (4th order) and downstream (5th order) reach of Baron Fork Creek, Oklahoma. Males started nesting in mid-Apr. when water temperatures increased to 16.9 C upstream, and in late-Apr. when temperatures increased to 16.2 C downstream. Streamflows were low (77% upstream to 82% downstream of mean Apr. streamflow, and 12 and 18% of meanjun. streamflow; 47 and 55 y of record), and decreased throughout the spawning period. Larger males nested first upstream, as has been observed in other populations, but not downstream. Upstream, progeny in 62 of 153 nests developed to swim-up stage. Downstream, progeny in 31 of 73 nests developed to swim-up. Nesting densities upstream (147/km) and downstream (100/km) were both higher than any densities previously reported. Males selected nest sites with intermediate water depths, low water velocity and near cover, behavior that is typical of smallmouth bass. Documented nest failures resulted from human disturbance, angling, and longear sunfish predation. Logistic exposure models showed that water velocity at the nest was negatively related and length of the guarding male was positively related to nest success upstream. Male length and number of degree days were both positively related to nest success downstream. Our results, and those of other studies, suggest that biological factors account for most nest failures during benign (stable, low flow) streamflow conditions, whereas nest failures attributed to substrate mobility or nest abandonment dominate when harsh streamflow conditions (spring floods) coincide with the spawning season.

  4. A semi-nested PCR assay for molecular detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in tissue samples Semi-nested PCR para a detecção molecular de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis em amostras de tecido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cristine Koishi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic infection caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. METHODS: In this study, a semi-nested PCR for paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis was developed. The primers ITS1 and ITS4 were used in the first reaction, while the primers MJ03 and ITS1 primer were used in the second reaction. The semi-nested PCR was used to investigate biopsies of five patients with oral lesions that resembled paracoccidioidomycosis. RESULTS: The semi-nested PCR was positive for four samples and negative for a sample from a patient later diagnosed with leishmaniasis. CONCLUSIONS: The new semi-nested PCR describe is useful for paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis.INTRODUÇÃO: A paracoccidioidomicose é uma infecção sistêmica causada pelo Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo, uma semi-nested PCR foi desenvolvida para o diagnóstico da paracoccidioidomicose. Os oligonucleotídeos iniciadores ITS1 e ITS4 foram usados na primeira reação, enquanto os oligonucleotídeos iniciadores MJ03 e ITS1 foram usados na segunda reação. A semi-nested PCR foi usada para investigar biopsias de cinco pacientes com lesões orais que se assemelhavam a paracoccidioidomicose. RESULTADOS: A semi-nested PCR foi positiva para quatro amostras e negativa para a amostra de um paciente, posteriormente diagnosticado com leishmaniose. CONCLUSÕES: A semi-nested PCR descrita aqui é útil para o diagnóstico da paracoccidioidomicose.

  5. Landscape forest cover and edge effects on songbird nest predation vary by nest predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Andrew Cox; Frank R. III Thompson; John. Faaborg

    2012-01-01

    Rates of nest predation for birds vary between and within species across multiple spatial scales, but we have a poor understanding of which predators drive such patterns. We video-monitored nests and identified predators at 120 nests of the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) and the Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) at eight...

  6. Development with age of nest box use and gregarious nesting in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch

    2010-01-01

    in position (left + corner, middle, and right). Nesting behaviour was video recorded for 5 days in each of five distinct periods: age 20, 26, 32, 38, and 44 weeks. The total number of visits and the number of gregarious visits were higher in the left nest box than in the other two nest boxes at all ages...

  7. Livestock grazing and trampling of birds' nests : An experiment using artificial nests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandema, Freek S.; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Ens, Bruno J.; Bakker, Jan P.

    The purpose of this study is to experimentally determine the differences between four grazing treatments on the trampling of nests. Additionally, we examine to what extent the trampling probability of nests is higher close to a source of fresh water. We compare the trampling of artificial nests in

  8. Nest predators of open and cavity nesting birds in oak woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn L. Purcell; Jared Verner

    1999-01-01

    Camera setups revealed at least three species of rodents and seven species of birds as potential predators at artificial open nests. Surprisingly, among avian predators identified at open nests, one third were Bullock's Orioles (Icterus bullockii). Two rodent species and three bird species were potential predators at artificial cavity nests. This high predator...

  9. Conservation significance of alternative nests of golden eagles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Millsap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos are long-lived raptors that maintain nesting territories that may be occupied for a century or longer. Within occupied nesting territories there is one nest in which eagles lay their eggs in a given year (i.e., the used nest, but there are usually other nests (i.e., alternative nests. Conservation plans often protect used nests, but not alternative nests or nesting territories that appear vacant. Our objective is to review literature on golden eagle use of alternative nests and occupancy of nesting territories to determine if alternative nests are biologically significant and warrant greater conservation consideration. Our review shows that: (1 alternative nests or their associated habitat are most often in core areas of golden eagle nesting territories; (2 alternative nests likely will become used in the future; (3 probability of an alternative nest becoming used is greatest where prey availability is high and alternative nest sites are limited; (4 likelihood of annual occupancy or reoccupancy of golden eagle nesting territories is high; and (5 prey availability is the most important determinant of nesting territory occupancy and breeding activity. We recommend alternative nests be treated with the same deference as used nests in land use planning.

  10. Nested Sampling with Constrained Hamiltonian Monte Carlo

    OpenAIRE

    Betancourt, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Nested sampling is a powerful approach to Bayesian inference ultimately limited by the computationally demanding task of sampling from a heavily constrained probability distribution. An effective algorithm in its own right, Hamiltonian Monte Carlo is readily adapted to efficiently sample from any smooth, constrained distribution. Utilizing this constrained Hamiltonian Monte Carlo, I introduce a general implementation of the nested sampling algorithm.

  11. Fathers see stronger family resemblances than non-fathers in unrelated children's faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Paola; Dal Pos, Stefania

    2012-12-01

    Even after they have taken all reasonable measures to decrease the probability that their spouses cheat on them, men still face paternal uncertainty. Such uncertainty can lead to paternal disinvestment, which reduces the children's probability to survive and reproduce, and thus the reproductive success of the fathers themselves. A theoretical model shows that, other things being equal, men who feel confident that they have fathered their spouses' offspring tend to enjoy greater fitness (i.e., leave a larger number of surviving progeny) than men who do not. This implies that fathers should benefit from exaggerating paternal resemblance. We argue that the self-deceiving component of this bias could be concealed by generalizing this resemblance estimation boost to (1) family pairs other than father-child and (2) strangers. Here, we tested the prediction that fathers may see, in unrelated children's faces, stronger family resemblances than non-fathers. In Study 1, 70 men and 70 women estimated facial resemblances between children paired, at three different ages (as infants, children, and adolescents), either to themselves or to their parents. In Study 2, 70 men and 70 women guessed the true parents of the same children among a set of adults. Men who were fathers reported stronger similarities between faces than non-fathers, mothers, and non-mothers did, but were no better at identifying childrens' real parents. We suggest that, in fathers, processing of facial resemblances is biased in a manner that reflects their (adaptive) wishful thinking that fathers and children are related.

  12. Partners in health? Exploring resemblance in health between partners in married and cohabiting couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monden, Christiaan

    2007-04-01

    Sociological theories on family formation and families and health suggest that married and cohabiting partners will resemble each other in health status, positively or negatively. The family is often seen as a health-enhancing agent for individuals. However, there are large health differences among families. This study aims to answer the question whether it is the case that the healthy live with the healthy and individuals with poor health have partners who are also in poor health. Moreover, it examines whether resemblance in health is a consequence of partner choice--educational homogamy in particular--behaviour or shared circumstances. Younger and older couples are compared to investigate whether health resemblance increases over the lifecourse. Analyses of a nationally representative sample of almost 12,000 Dutch couples show that partners are indeed significantly alike with regard to several health indicators. Respondents whose partner reports poor health are almost three times more likely to report poor health than respondents whose partner is in good health. There is a strong accumulation of health problems within households. Partner selection with regard to education causes part of the partner resemblance in health. Less support is found for the hypotheses that risk behaviour, mutual influence or the effects of shared circumstances cause similarity between partners' health status. Surprisingly, partners in older couples, who have been together for a longer time, do not resemble each other significantly more than partners in younger couples. The implications of these findings for sociological theory and social inequalities in health are discussed.

  13. Low heritability of nest construction in a wild bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Pauliina; Kluen, Edward; Brommer, Jon E

    2017-10-01

    In birds and other taxa, nest construction varies considerably between and within populations. Such variation is hypothesized to have an adaptive (i.e. genetic) basis, but estimates of heritability in nest construction are largely lacking. Here, we demonstrate with data collected over 10 years from 1010 nests built by blue tits in nest-boxes that nest size (height of nest material) and nest composition (proportion of feathers in the nest) are repeatable but only weakly (12-13%) heritable female traits. These findings imply that nest construction may evolve but only if subjected to strong and consistent selection pressures. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Observations of sea turtles nesting on Misali islan, Pemba | Pharoah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A nest-recording programme has collected data over five years from turtles nesting on Misali Island, off the West coast of Pemba, Tanzania. Five species of sea turtle are known to occur in Zanzibar waters, two of these species nested regularly on the island, with green turtle nests outnumbering hawksbill turtle nests by a ...

  15. Nesting success and within-season breeding dispersal in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nest predation is a primary cause of nesting mortality for many bird species, particularly passerines. Nest location can affect predation, and it has also been demonstrated that predation risk can alter nest site selection. Birds can limit predation risk by selecting specific habitat characteristics; by changing nest site ...

  16. Turkey habitat use and nesting characteristics in ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson

    1987-01-01

    Turkeys (Meleagris gallapovo) selected nest sites that provided good horizontal concealment. Rock or rock outcrops were selected most frequently for nest concealment on first-nest attempts. Renest attempts showed a selection preference for shrubs as nest cover; most of these were located in meadows. Nesting success doubled for renests versus first...

  17. Family environment, not heredity, accounts for family resemblances in food preferences and attitudes: a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, P; Millman, L

    1987-04-01

    Monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twin pairs reported on their food preferences, the variety of foods of the same general category (e.g. types of soup) in their diet, and their concern about contact of their food with disgusting or other unacceptable substances (contamination sensitivity). Although there was substantial resemblance between siblings for many of these items, there was no clear evidence for a heritable component on any item. The only case for which there was an interpretable and significantly greater resemblance among monozygotic than among dizygotic twins (out of 23 questions) was preferred degree of hotness resulting from chili pepper in foods. These results confirm the prediction that in omnivorous animals, such as humans, genetic predispositions will be minimal with respect to food. The modest sibling resemblances on a number of measures are primarily attributable to a shared environment.

  18. BCKDK of BCAA Catabolism Cross-talking With the MAPK Pathway Promotes Tumorigenesis of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Peipei; Zeng, Fanfan; Duan, Qiuhong; Xiao, Juanjuan; Liu, Lin; Yuan, Ping; Fan, Linni; Sun, Huimin; Malyarenko, Olesya S; Lu, Hui; Xiu, Ruijuan; Liu, Shaoqing; Shao, Chen; Zhang, Jianmin; Yan, Wei; Wang, Zhe; Zheng, Jianyong; Zhu, Feng

    2017-06-01

    Branched-chain amino acids catabolism plays an important role in human cancers. Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in males and the second in females, and the new global incidence is over 1.2 million cases. The branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase (BCKDK) is a rate-limiting enzyme in branched-chain amino acids catabolism, which plays an important role in many serious human diseases. Here we investigated that abnormal branched-chain amino acids catabolism in colorectal cancer is a result of the disease process, with no role in disease initiation; BCKDK is widely expressed in colorectal cancer patients, and those patients that express higher levels of BCKDK have shorter survival times than those with lower levels; BCKDK promotes cell transformation or colorectal cancer ex vivo or in vivo. Mechanistically, BCKDK promotes colorectal cancer by enhancing the MAPK signaling pathway through direct MEK phosphorylation, rather than by branched-chain amino acids catabolism. And the process above could be inhibited by a BCKDK inhibitor, phenyl butyrate. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. BCKDK of BCAA Catabolism Cross-talking With the MAPK Pathway Promotes Tumorigenesis of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipei Xue

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Branched-chain amino acids catabolism plays an important role in human cancers. Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in males and the second in females, and the new global incidence is over 1.2 million cases. The branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase (BCKDK is a rate-limiting enzyme in branched-chain amino acids catabolism, which plays an important role in many serious human diseases. Here we investigated that abnormal branched-chain amino acids catabolism in colorectal cancer is a result of the disease process, with no role in disease initiation; BCKDK is widely expressed in colorectal cancer patients, and those patients that express higher levels of BCKDK have shorter survival times than those with lower levels; BCKDK promotes cell transformation or colorectal cancer ex vivo or in vivo. Mechanistically, BCKDK promotes colorectal cancer by enhancing the MAPK signaling pathway through direct MEK phosphorylation, rather than by branched-chain amino acids catabolism. And the process above could be inhibited by a BCKDK inhibitor, phenyl butyrate.

  20. Catabolism of pyrimidines in yeast: A tool to understand degradation of anticancer drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gorm; Merico, A.; Bjornberg, O.

    2006-01-01

    The pyrimidine catabolic pathway is of crucial importance in cancer patients because it is involved in degradation of several chemotherapeutic drugs, such as 5-fluorouracil; it also is important in plants, unicellular eukaryotes, and bacteria for the degradation of pyrimidine-based biocides/antib...

  1. Draft Genome Sequences of Three β-Lactam-Catabolizing Soil Proteobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crofts, Terence S.; Wang, Bin; Spivak, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Most antibiotics are derived from the soil, but their catabolism there, which is necessary to close the antibiotic carbon cycle, remains uncharacterized. We report the first draft genome sequences of soil Proteobacteria identified for subsisting solely on β-lactams as their carbon sources...

  2. CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PHTHALATE CATABOLISM REGION OF PRE1 OF ARTHROBACTER KEYSERI 12B

    Science.gov (United States)

    o-Phthalate (benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate) is a central intermediate in the bacterial degradation of phthalate ester plasticizers as well as of a number of fused-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in fossil fuels. In Arthrobacter keyseri 12B, the genes encoding catabolism o...

  3. Farnesoid X Receptor Activation Promotes Hepatic Amino Acid Catabolism and Ammonium Clearance in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massafra, Vittoria; Milona, Alexandra; Vos, Harmjan R; Ramos, Rúben J J; Gerrits, Johan; Willemsen, Ellen C L; Ramos Pittol, José M; Ijssennagger, Noortje; Houweling, Martin; Prinsen, Hubertus C M T; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M; Burgering, Boudewijn M T; van Mil, Saskia W C

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group H member 4 (NR1H4 or farnesoid X receptor [FXR]) regulates bile acid synthesis, transport, and catabolism. FXR also regulates postprandial lipid and glucose metabolism. We performed quantitative proteomic analyses of liver tissues from mice

  4. Nest structure and communal nesting in Euglossa (Glossura annectans Dressler (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Garófalo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Three nests of Euglossa (Glossura annectans Dressier, 1982 were obtained from trap nests at Serra do Japi, Jundiai, São Paulo State, Brazil. The bees nested in bamboo cane (one nest and in wooden-boxes (two nests. Solitary (two cases and pleometrotic (one case foundations were observed. Two nests were re-used once by two females working in each of them. Re-using females that shared the nests were of the same generation and each built, provisioned and oviposited in her own cells, characterizing a communal association. The brood development period was related to climatic conditions. Natural enemies included Anthrax oedipus oedipus Fabricius, 1805 (Bombyliidae, Coelioxys sp. (Megachilidae and Melittobia sp. (Eulophidae.

  5. Traumatic funicular phlebitis of the thoracic wall resembling Mondor's disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondo Takeshi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mondor's disease is a peculiar form of thrombophlebitis, involving a superficial vein in the subcutaneous fat of the breast or anterior chest wall. Case presentation The author presents a case of a 35-year-old male Japanese patient with cord-like induration in the right lateral thoracic wall. This lesion was diagnosed as traumatic funicular phlebitis, resembling Mondor's disease. Conclusion Traumatic funicular phlebitis, resembling Mondor's disease, is a clinical entity which may give suggestive insight to the etiology of Mondor's disease itself.

  6. MRI findings of uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung Hwan; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Hyun Young; Hwang, In Taek; Kim, Ju Heon; Lee, Seung Yeon [Eulji University Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor is a very rare uterine neoplasm that was first described by Clement and Scully in 1976. Since then, approximately 70 cases have been reported. However, these case reports have mainly described and discussed the pathologic and clinical features, and few radiologic findings have been presented. We experienced a case of a uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor, which was considered a uterine leiomyoma or leiomyosarcoma upon initial impression at preoperative evaluation including transvaginal ultrasonography and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging. Its diagnosis was pathologically confirmed after total abdominal hysterectomy.

  7. Defective branched chain amino acid catabolism contributes to cardiac dysfunction and remodeling following myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Fuyang; Xia, Yunlong; Zhao, Shihao; Yan, Wenjun; Wang, Helin; Lee, Yan; Li, Congye; Zhang, Ling; Lian, Kun; Gao, Erhe; Cheng, Hexiang; Tao, Ling

    2016-11-01

    Cardiac metabolic remodeling is a central event during heart failure (HF) development following myocardial infarction (MI). It is well known that myocardial glucose and fatty acid dysmetabolism contribute to post-MI cardiac dysfunction and remodeling. However, the role of amino acid metabolism in post-MI HF remains elusive. Branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are an important group of essential amino acids and function as crucial nutrient signaling in mammalian animals. The present study aimed to determine the role of cardiac BCAA metabolism in post-MI HF progression. Utilizing coronary artery ligation-induced murine MI models, we found that myocardial BCAA catabolism was significantly impaired in response to permanent MI, therefore leading to an obvious elevation of myocardial BCAA abundance. In MI-operated mice, oral BCAA administration further increased cardiac BCAA levels, activated the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, and exacerbated cardiac dysfunction and remodeling. These data demonstrate that BCAAs act as a direct contributor to post-MI cardiac pathologies. Furthermore, these BCAA-mediated deleterious effects were improved by rapamycin cotreatment, revealing an indispensable role of mTOR in BCAA-mediated adverse effects on cardiac function/structure post-MI. Of note, pharmacological inhibition of branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase (BDK), a negative regulator of myocardial BCAA catabolism, significantly improved cardiac BCAA catabolic disorders, reduced myocardial BCAA levels, and ameliorated post-MI cardiac dysfunction and remodeling. In conclusion, our data provide the evidence that impaired cardiac BCAA catabolism directly contributes to post-MI cardiac dysfunction and remodeling. Moreover, improving cardiac BCAA catabolic defects may be a promising therapeutic strategy against post-MI HF. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. A role for TNFα in intervertebral disc degeneration: A non-recoverable catabolic shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purmessur, D.; Walter, B.A.; Roughley, P.J.; Laudier, D.M.; Hecht, A.C.; Iatridis, James

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► TNFα induced catabolic changes similar to human intervertebral disc degeneration. ► The metabolic shift induced by TNFα was sustained following removal. ► TNFα induced changes suggestive of cell senescence without affecting cell viability. ► Interventions are required to stimulate anabolism and increase cell proliferation. -- Abstract: This study examines the effect of TNFα on whole bovine intervertebral discs in organ culture and its association with changes characteristic of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) in order to inform future treatments to mitigate the chronic inflammatory state commonly found with painful IDD. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα contribute to disc pathology and are implicated in the catabolic phenotype associated with painful IDD. Whole bovine discs were cultured to examine cellular (anabolic/catabolic gene expression, cell viability and senescence using β-galactosidase) and structural (histology and aggrecan degradation) changes in response to TNFα treatment. Control or TNFα cultures were assessed at 7 and 21 days; the 21 day group also included a recovery group with 7 days TNFα followed by 14 days in basal media. TNFα induced catabolic and anti-anabolic shifts in the nucleus pulposus (NP) and annulus fibrosus (AF) at 7 days and this persisted until 21 days however cell viability was not affected. Data indicates that TNFα increased aggrecan degradation products and suggests increased β-galactosidase staining at 21 days without any recovery. TNFα treatment of whole bovine discs for 7 days induced changes similar to the degeneration processes that occur in human IDD: aggrecan degradation, increased catabolism, pro-inflammatory cytokines and nerve growth factor expression. TNFα significantly reduced anabolism in cultured IVDs and a possible mechanism may be associated with cell senescence. Results therefore suggest that successful treatments must promote anabolism and cell proliferation in

  9. Detection of catabolic genes in indigenous microbial consortia isolated from a diesel-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milcic-Terzic, J.; Saval, S.; Lopez-Vidal, Y.; Vrvic, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Bioremediation is often used for in situ remediation of petroleum-contaminated sites. The primary focus of this study was on understanding the indigenous microbial community which can survive in contaminated environment and is responsible for the degradation. Diesel, toluene and naphthalene-degrading microbial consortia were isolated from diesel-contaminated soil by growing on selective hydrocarbon substrates. The presence and frequency of the catabolic genes responsible for aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation (xylE, ndoB) within the isolated consortia were screened using polymerase chain reaction PCR and DNA-DNA colony hybridization. The diesel DNA-extract possessed both the xylE catabolic gene for toluene, and the nah catabolic gene for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon degradation. The toluene DNA-extract possessed only the xylE catabolic gene, while the naphthalene DNA-extract only the ndoB gene. Restriction enzyme analysis with HaeIII indicated similar restriction patterns for the xylE gene fragment between toluene DNA-extract and a type strain, Pseudomonas putida ATCC 23973. A substantial proportion (74%) of the colonies from the diesel-consortium possessed the xylE gene, and the ndoB gene (78%), while a minority (29%) of the toluene-consortium harbored the xylE gene. 59% of the colonies from the naphthalene-consortium had the ndoB gene, and did not have the xylE gene. These results indicate that the microbial population has been naturally enriched in organisms carrying genes for aromatic hydrocarbon degradation and that significant aromatic biodegradative potential exists at the site. Characterization of the population genotype constitutes a molecular diagnosis which permits the determination of the catabolic potential of the site to degrade the contaminant present. (author)

  10. Intracellular Growth Is Dependent on Tyrosine Catabolism in the Dimorphic Fungal Pathogen Penicillium marneffei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Kylie J.; McLauchlan, Alisha; Schreider, Lena; Andrianopoulos, Alex

    2015-01-01

    During infection, pathogens must utilise the available nutrient sources in order to grow while simultaneously evading or tolerating the host’s defence systems. Amino acids are an important nutritional source for pathogenic fungi and can be assimilated from host proteins to provide both carbon and nitrogen. The hpdA gene of the dimorphic fungus Penicillium marneffei, which encodes an enzyme which catalyses the second step of tyrosine catabolism, was identified as up-regulated in pathogenic yeast cells. As well as enabling the fungus to acquire carbon and nitrogen, tyrosine is also a precursor in the formation of two types of protective melanin; DOPA melanin and pyomelanin. Chemical inhibition of HpdA in P. marneffei inhibits ex vivo yeast cell production suggesting that tyrosine is a key nutrient source during infectious growth. The genes required for tyrosine catabolism, including hpdA, are located in a gene cluster and the expression of these genes is induced in the presence of tyrosine. A gene (hmgR) encoding a Zn(II)2-Cys6 binuclear cluster transcription factor is present within the cluster and is required for tyrosine induced expression and repression in the presence of a preferred nitrogen source. AreA, the GATA-type transcription factor which regulates the global response to limiting nitrogen conditions negatively regulates expression of cluster genes in the absence of tyrosine and is required for nitrogen metabolite repression. Deletion of the tyrosine catabolic genes in the cluster affects growth on tyrosine as either a nitrogen or carbon source and affects pyomelanin, but not DOPA melanin, production. In contrast to other genes of the tyrosine catabolic cluster, deletion of hpdA results in no growth within macrophages. This suggests that the ability to catabolise tyrosine is not required for macrophage infection and that HpdA has an additional novel role to that of tyrosine catabolism and pyomelanin production during growth in host cells. PMID:25812137

  11. Demand for Neste's City products grows strongly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Finland's oil, chemicals, and gas company, Neste Corporation, is well on the road to better financial performance after a very difficult year in 1992. Among the factors contributing to this optimism are Neste's pioneering low environmental impact traffic fuels. Neste Corporation's net sales in 1993 rose 9.9 % on 1992 figures to USD 11,011 million. Investments totalled USD 681 million. Profitability also improved during 1993, and the operating margin rose by 57 %, despite the recession affecting the Finnish economy and the instability of the international market. The operational loss for the year before extraordinary items, reserves, and taxes was USD 265 million, one-third less than in 1992. Neste's strategy has been to achieve a strong position in the Baltic Rim region by becoming the quality and cost leader in oil refining, and by expanding Neste's position in its key markets. A total of 3.3 million tonnes of petroleum products were exported from Finland in 1993. Neste's most important export markets were Sweden, Germany, Poland, the Baltic countries, and the St. Petersburg region. Some 20 % of exports went to customers outside Europe. In addition to Finland, Neste has concertedly developed its service station network in Poland and the Baltic countries

  12. Methods for excluding cliff swallows from nesting on highway structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) are colonially breeding migratory birds that frequently nest on highway : structures. Protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918, nesting control methods cannot harm swallows or active : nests. This c...

  13. Emperor penguins nesting on Inaccessible Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkel, G.M.; Llano, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Emperor penguins were observed nesting on Inaccessible I. during the 1973 winter. This is the southernmost nesting of emperor penguins thus far recorded; it also could be the first record of emperors attempting to start a new rookery. This site, however, may have been used by emperors in the past. The closest reported nesting of these penguins to Inaccessible I. is on the Ross Ice Shelf east of Cape Crozier. With the exception of the Inaccessible I. record, there is little evidence that emperor penguins breed in McMurdo Sound proper.

  14. Children and Adolescents' Understandings of Family Resemblance: A Study of Naive Inheritance Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to provide developmental data on two connected naive inheritance concepts and to explore the coherence of children's naive biology knowledge. Two tasks examined children and adolescents' (4, 7, 10, and 14 years) conceptions of phenotypic resemblance across kin (in physical characteristics, disabilities, and personality traits). The…

  15. Resemblances of Parents and Twins in Sport Participation and Heart Rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, D.I.; van den Bree, M.B.; Orlebeke, J.F.; Molenaar, P.C.M.

    1989-01-01

    A model to analyze resemblances of twins and parents using LISREL is outlined and applied to sports participation and heart-rate data. Sports participation and heart rate were measured in 44 monozygotic and 46 dizygotic adolescent twin pairs and in their parents. Genetic factors influence variation

  16. Descriptive Understandings of the Nature of Science: Examining the Consensual and Family Resemblance Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento Rocha, Maristela; Gurgel, Ivã

    2017-01-01

    This paper performs a critical analysis of the consensual and family resemblance approaches to the nature of science. Despite the debate that surrounds them, between a pragmatic consensus and a more comprehensive understanding, both approaches have in common the goal of helping students to "internalize" knowledge about science in a…

  17. Effects of parenting quality on adolescents' personality resemblance to their parents. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenhof, M Rohaa; Komdeur, Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    This study considers the development of resemblance between 741 adolescents and their biological parents, across six NEO-PI-R personality traits known to be important in psychological problems: anger-hostility, impulsiveness, vulnerability, assertiveness, excitement-seeking, and self-discipline. We

  18. Effects of parenting quality on adolescents' personality resemblance to their parents. The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenhof, M Rohaa; Komdeur, Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-08-01

    This study considers the development of resemblance between 741 adolescents and their biological parents, across six NEO-PI-R personality traits known to be important in psychological problems: anger-hostility, impulsiveness, vulnerability, assertiveness, excitement-seeking, and self-discipline. We modelled the association between perceived parental warmth and rejection at age eleven and personality resemblance to parents at about age sixteen. Parenting experienced during early adolescence was related to the degree and direction in which adolescents resembled their parents five years later in life. Rejection, especially from fathers, significantly predicted a smaller resemblance to both the parents. Girls were more strongly affected by parental quality than boys, and there was some indication that adolescents responded in opposite ways to parenting from mothers and fathers. This study is a first step in uncovering the complex interplay between parenting, gender, and the current generation's ability to develop personality traits independent from the previous generation. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Family resemblance in fat intake, nutrition attitudes and beliefs : a study among three generations of women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis nutrition attitudes, beliefs, and fat intake in three generations of women are described. The aim of the study was twofold: the development of methods, and to study family resemblance in food habits. Based on literature study and qualitative pilot studies a questionnaire on

  20. The nest as fortress: Defensive behavior of Polybia emaciata, a mud-nesting eusocial wasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean O'Donnell

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The swarm-founding wasp Polybia emaciata is unusual among eusocial Vespidae because it uses mud, rather than wood pulp, as its primary nest construction material. Polybia emaciata nests are more durable than similarly sized paper nests. We tested the hypothesis that the defensive behavior of this wasp may have been modified to take advantage of their strong nests in defense against vertebrate attacks. We simulated vertebrate disturbances by tapping on, and breathing in, P. emaciata. nests and similarly sized P. occidentalis paper nests in the same location at the same time. Polybia emaciata. responses to disturbance were qualitatively different from those of P. occidentalis. The latter exit the nest and attack, while P. emaciata. workers typically fled or entered the nest, attacking only after repeated and extended disturbances. We conclude that durable nest material may permit predator avoidance behavior in P. emaciata.. We compare the defensive responses of P. emaciata. workers with those of other swarm-founding Vespidae, and discuss several selective forces that could cause the evolution of species variation in nest defense behavior.

  1. Construction patterns of birds’ nests provide insight into nest-building behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Biddle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that birds and mammals select materials needed for nest building based on their thermal or structural properties, although the amounts or properties of the materials used have been recorded for only a very small number of species. Some of the behaviours underlying the construction of nests can be indirectly determined by careful deconstruction of the structure and measurement of the biomechanical properties of the materials used. Here we examined this idea in an investigation of Bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula nests as a model for open-nesting songbird species that construct a “twig” nest, and tested the hypothesis that materials in different parts of nests serve different functions. The quantities of materials present in the nest base, sides and cup were recorded before structural analysis. Structural analysis showed that the base of the outer nests were composed of significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid materials compared to the side walls, which in turn were significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid than materials used in the cup. These results suggest that the placement of particular materials in nests may not be random, but further work is required to determine if the final structure of a nest accurately reflects the construction process.

  2. Construction patterns of birds’ nests provide insight into nest-building behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Adrian M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that birds and mammals select materials needed for nest building based on their thermal or structural properties, although the amounts or properties of the materials used have been recorded for only a very small number of species. Some of the behaviours underlying the construction of nests can be indirectly determined by careful deconstruction of the structure and measurement of the biomechanical properties of the materials used. Here we examined this idea in an investigation of Bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) nests as a model for open-nesting songbird species that construct a “twig” nest, and tested the hypothesis that materials in different parts of nests serve different functions. The quantities of materials present in the nest base, sides and cup were recorded before structural analysis. Structural analysis showed that the base of the outer nests were composed of significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid materials compared to the side walls, which in turn were significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid than materials used in the cup. These results suggest that the placement of particular materials in nests may not be random, but further work is required to determine if the final structure of a nest accurately reflects the construction process. PMID:28265501

  3. Construction patterns of birds' nests provide insight into nest-building behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Lucia; Goodman, Adrian M; Deeming, D Charles

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that birds and mammals select materials needed for nest building based on their thermal or structural properties, although the amounts or properties of the materials used have been recorded for only a very small number of species. Some of the behaviours underlying the construction of nests can be indirectly determined by careful deconstruction of the structure and measurement of the biomechanical properties of the materials used. Here we examined this idea in an investigation of Bullfinch ( Pyrrhula pyrrhula ) nests as a model for open-nesting songbird species that construct a "twig" nest, and tested the hypothesis that materials in different parts of nests serve different functions. The quantities of materials present in the nest base, sides and cup were recorded before structural analysis. Structural analysis showed that the base of the outer nests were composed of significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid materials compared to the side walls, which in turn were significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid than materials used in the cup. These results suggest that the placement of particular materials in nests may not be random, but further work is required to determine if the final structure of a nest accurately reflects the construction process.

  4. Nest Construction by a Ground-nesting Bird Represents a Potential Trade-off Between Egg Crypticity and Thermoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predation selects against conspicuous colors in bird eggs and nests, while thermoregulatory constraints select for nest building behavior that regulates incubation temperatures. We present results that reveal a trade-off between nest crypticity and thermoregulation of eggs base...

  5. Annual survival of Florida nesting loggerheads

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 30 PAT tags were deployed on nesting loggerhead turtles at Juno Beach, FL in June 2012. There have been three premature pop-offs, one of which appeared to be a...

  6. Adult Health: Worried About Empty Nest Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clinical diagnosis. Instead, empty nest syndrome is a phenomenon in which parents experience feelings of sadness and loss when the last child leaves home. Although you might actively encourage your ...

  7. Nesting biology of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) lactitarse Saussure (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae) in trap-nests in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Buschini,M. L. T.; Niesing,F.; Wolff,L. L.

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried in the Parque Municipal das Araucárias in the municipality of Guarapuava, state of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Three hundred and sixty five nests of T. lactitarse were obtained using trap-nests of 0.7, 1.0, and 1.3 cm in diameter. All of them had similar architecture, regardless of the diameter of the trap-nest. Completed nests consisted of a linear series of brood cells whose average number per nest was of 3.3, 4.0 and 3.6 for the nests with 0.7 cm, 1.0 cm and 1.3 cm in d...

  8. Discovery of a new Kittlitz's murrelet nest: Clues to habitat selection and nest-site fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, John F.; Naslund, Nancy L.; van Pelt, Thomas I.

    1999-01-01

    On 13 June 1993, a new Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) nest was discovered near Red Mountain on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. The nest was on a 22° slope at about 900 m elevation with a northeast aspect, and contained a 60.2 × 40.6 mm egg that weighed 49.0 g. Downy feathers and weathered fecal material found at the nest indicated re-use from a previous year, suggesting possible nest site fidelity. The nest was located in an area scoured by winds and free of snow during early spring, suggesting that this may be an important mesoscale factor influencing selection of nesting habitat. Proximity to suitable foraging habitat, particularly sheltered bays and glacial river outflows, may affect breeding habitat choice over larger spatial scales.

  9. Predation on simulated duck nests in relation to nest density and landscape structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Padyšáková, E.; Šálek, Martin; Poledník, L.; Sedláček, František; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 7 (2010), s. 597-603 ISSN 1035-3712 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : density-dependent predation * littoral patch * landscape type * nest predators * nest success * simulated nests Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.205, year: 2010

  10. Nest Predation Deviates from Nest Predator Abundance in an Ecologically Trapped Bird

    OpenAIRE

    Hollander, Franck A.; Van Dyck, Hans; San Martin, Gilles; Titeux, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In human-modified environments, ecological traps may result from a preference for low-quality habitat where survival or reproductive success is lower than in high-quality habitat. It has often been shown that low reproductive success for birds in preferred habitat types was due to higher nest predator abundance. However, between-habitat differences in nest predation may only weakly correlate with differences in nest predator abundance. An ecological trap is at work in a farmland bird (Lanius ...

  11. Nest-site selection by cavity-nesting birds in relation to postfire salvage logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria A. Saab; Robin E. Russell; Jonathan G. Dudley

    2009-01-01

    Large wildfire events in coniferous forests of the western United States are often followed by postfire timber harvest. The long-term impacts of postfire timber harvest on fire-associated cavity-nesting bird species are not well documented. We studied nest-site selection by cavity-nesting birds over a 10-year period (1994-2003), representing 1-11 years after fire, on...

  12. Artificial covering on trap nests improves the colonization of trap-nesting wasps

    OpenAIRE

    Taki, Hisatomo; Kevan, Peter G.; Viana, Blandina Felipe; Silva, Fabiana O.; Buck, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Acesso restrito: Texto completo. p. 225-229 To evaluate the role that a trap-nest cover might have on sampling methodologies, the abundance of each species of trap-nesting Hymenoptera and the parasitism rate in a Canadian forest were compared between artificially covered and uncovered traps. Of trap tubes exposed at eight forest sites in six trap-nest boxes, 531 trap tubes were occupied and 1216 individuals of 12 wasp species of four predatory families, Vespidae (Eumeninae), Crabronidae...

  13. Importance of structural stability to success of mourning dove nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, R.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Percival, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of nest-site selection and nesting habitats often involve a "characterization" of nests and of habitats in which nests are found. Our objective in the present work is to identify nest-site characteristics that are associated with variation in components of Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) fitness (e.g. the probability of a nest succeeding), as opposed to simply "characterizing" dove nest sites. If certain nest- site characteristics affect the probability that a nest will succeed, then we suspect that these characteristics will be associated with either concealment (the probability of detection by certain predators) or structural stability (the probability of eggs or entire nests falling to the ground as a result of wind, rain storms, parental activity, etc.). Although other workers agree that structural stability is an important determinant of Mourning Dove nesting success (e.g. McClure 1944: 384; Woolfenden and Rohwer 1969: 59), we are aware of no actual tests of this hypothesis.

  14. Ant colonies prefer infected over uninfected nest sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontieri, Luigi; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Graham, Riley

    2014-01-01

    with sporulating mycelium of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum (infected nests), nests containing nestmates killed by freezing (uninfected nests), and empty nests. In contrast to the expectation pharaoh ant colonies preferentially (84%) moved into the infected nest when presented with the choice...... the high risk of epidemics in group-living animals. Choosing nest sites free of pathogens is hypothesized to be highly efficient in invasive ants as each of their introduced populations is often an open network of nests exchanging individuals (unicolonial) with frequent relocation into new nest sites...... and low genetic diversity, likely making these species particularly vulnerable to parasites and diseases. We investigated the nest site preference of the invasive pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis, through binary choice tests between three nest types: nests containing dead nestmates overgrown...

  15. Nest Mosquito Trap quantifies contact rates between nesting birds and mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillouët, Kevin A; Riggan, Anna E; Rider, Mark; Bulluck, Lesley P

    2012-06-01

    Accurate estimates of host-vector contact rates are required for precise determination of arbovirus transmission intensity. We designed and tested a novel mosquito collection device, the Nest Mosquito Trap (NMT), to collect mosquitoes as they attempt to feed on unrestrained nesting birds in artificial nest boxes. In the laboratory, the NMT collected nearly one-third of the mosquitoes introduced to the nest boxes. We then used these laboratory data to estimate our capture efficiency of field-collected bird-seeking mosquitoes collected over 66 trap nights. We estimated that 7.5 mosquitoes per trap night attempted to feed on nesting birds in artificial nest boxes. Presence of the NMT did not have a negative effect on avian nest success when compared to occupied nest boxes that were not sampled with the trap. Future studies using the NMT may elucidate the role of nestlings in arbovirus transmission and further refine estimates of nesting bird and vector contact rates. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  16. Re-Factoring Glycolytic Genes for Targeted Engineering of Catabolism in Gram-Negative Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-Pascuala, Alberto; Nikel, Pablo I.; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2018-01-01

    the potential applications of such a portable tool for targeted pathway engineering, in the present protocol we describe how the genes encoding all the enzymes of the linear EMP route have been individually recruited from the genome of E. coli K-12, edited in silico to remove their endogenous regulatory signals......The Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway is widely accepted to be the biochemical standard of glucose catabolism. The well-characterized glycolytic route of Escherichia coli, based on the EMP catabolism, is an example of an intricate pathway in terms of genomic organization of the genes involved...... and patterns of gene expression and regulation. This intrinsic genetic and metabolic complexity renders it difficult to engineer glycolytic activities and transfer them onto other microbial cell factories, thus limiting the biotechnological potential of bacterial hosts that lack the route. Taking into account...

  17. Lactoferricin mediates anabolic and anti-catabolic effects in the intervertebral disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Sung; Ellman, Michael B; An, Howard S; Yan, Dongyao; van Wijnen, Andre J; Murphy, Gillian; Hoskin, David W; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2012-04-01

    Lactoferricin (LfcinB) antagonizes biological effects mediated by angiogenic and catabolic growth factors, in addition to pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human endothelial cells and tumor cells. However, the effect of LfcinB on intervertebral disc (IVD) cell metabolism has not yet been investigated. Using bovine nucleus pulposus (NP) cells, we analyzed the effect of LfcinB on proteoglycan (PG) accumulation, PG synthesis, and anabolic gene expression. We assessed expression of genes for matrix-degrading enzymes such as matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS family), as well as their endogenous inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases (TIMPs). In order to understand the specific molecular mechanisms by which LfcinB exerts its biological effects, we investigated intracellular signaling pathways in NP cells. LfcinB increased PG accumulation mainly via PG synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Simultaneously, LfcinB dose-dependently downregulated catabolic enzymes. LfcinB's anti-catabolic effects were further demonstrated by a dose-dependent increase in multiple TIMP family members. Our results demonstrate that ERK and/or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways are the key signaling cascades that exert the biological effects of LfcinB in NP cells, regulating transcription of aggrecan, SOX-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, TIMP-3, and iNOS. Our results suggest that LfcinB has anabolic and potent anti-catabolic biological effects on bovine IVD cells that may have considerable promise in the treatment of disc degeneration in the future. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Neuraminidases 3 and 4 regulate neuronal function by catabolizing brain gangliosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xuefang; De Aragão, Camila De Britto Pará; Velasco-Martin, Juan P; Priestman, David A; Wu, Harry Y; Takahashi, Kohta; Yamaguchi, Kazunori; Sturiale, Luisella; Garozzo, Domenico; Platt, Frances M; Lamarche-Vane, Nathalie; Morales, Carlos R; Miyagi, Taeko; Pshezhetsky, Alexey V

    2017-08-01

    Gangliosides (sialylated glycolipids) play an essential role in the CNS by regulating recognition and signaling in neurons. Metabolic blocks in processing and catabolism of gangliosides result in the development of severe neurologic disorders, including gangliosidoses manifesting with neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. We demonstrate that 2 mammalian enzymes, neuraminidases 3 and 4, play important roles in catabolic processing of brain gangliosides by cleaving terminal sialic acid residues in their glycan chains. In neuraminidase 3 and 4 double-knockout mice, G M3 ganglioside is stored in microglia, vascular pericytes, and neurons, causing micro- and astrogliosis, neuroinflammation, accumulation of lipofuscin bodies, and memory loss, whereas their cortical and hippocampal neurons have lower rate of neuritogenesis in vitro Double-knockout mice also have reduced levels of G M1 ganglioside and myelin in neuronal axons. Furthermore, neuraminidase 3 deficiency drastically increased storage of G M2 in the brain tissues of an asymptomatic mouse model of Tay-Sachs disease, a severe human gangliosidosis, indicating that this enzyme is responsible for the metabolic bypass of β-hexosaminidase A deficiency. Together, our results provide the first in vivo evidence that neuraminidases 3 and 4 have important roles in CNS function by catabolizing gangliosides and preventing their storage in lipofuscin bodies.-Pan, X., De Britto Pará De Aragão, C., Velasco-Martin, J. P., Priestman, D. A., Wu, H. Y., Takahashi, K., Yamaguchi, K., Sturiale, L., Garozzo, D., Platt, F. M., Lamarche-Vane, N., Morales, C. R., Miyagi, T., Pshezhetsky, A. V. Neuraminidases 3 and 4 regulate neuronal function by catabolizing brain gangliosides. © FASEB.

  19. Amino acid catabolism and generation of volatiles by lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Tavaria, F. K.; Dahl, S.; Carballo, F. J.; Malcata, F. X.

    2002-01-01

    Twelve isolates of lactic acid bacteria, belonging to the Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, and Enterococcus genera, were previously isolated from 180- d-old Serra da Estrela cheese, a traditional Portuguese cheese manufactured from raw milk and coagulated with a plant rennet. These isolates were subsequently tested for their ability to catabolize free amino acids, when incubated independently with each amino acid in free form or with a mixture thereof. Attempts...

  20. Microbial catabolic activities are naturally selected by metabolic energy harvest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cabaleiro, Rebeca; Ofiţeru, Irina D; Lema, Juan M; Rodríguez, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    The fundamental trade-off between yield and rate of energy harvest per unit of substrate has been largely discussed as a main characteristic for microbial established cooperation or competition. In this study, this point is addressed by developing a generalized model that simulates competition between existing and not experimentally reported microbial catabolic activities defined only based on well-known biochemical pathways. No specific microbial physiological adaptations are considered, growth yield is calculated coupled to catabolism energetics and a common maximum biomass-specific catabolism rate (expressed as electron transfer rate) is assumed for all microbial groups. Under this approach, successful microbial metabolisms are predicted in line with experimental observations under the hypothesis of maximum energy harvest rate. Two microbial ecosystems, typically found in wastewater treatment plants, are simulated, namely: (i) the anaerobic fermentation of glucose and (ii) the oxidation and reduction of nitrogen under aerobic autotrophic (nitrification) and anoxic heterotrophic and autotrophic (denitrification) conditions. The experimentally observed cross feeding in glucose fermentation, through multiple intermediate fermentation pathways, towards ultimately methane and carbon dioxide is predicted. Analogously, two-stage nitrification (by ammonium and nitrite oxidizers) is predicted as prevailing over nitrification in one stage. Conversely, denitrification is predicted in one stage (by denitrifiers) as well as anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation). The model results suggest that these observations are a direct consequence of the different energy yields per electron transferred at the different steps of the pathways. Overall, our results theoretically support the hypothesis that successful microbial catabolic activities are selected by an overall maximum energy harvest rate.

  1. Identification of two gene clusters and a transcriptional regulator required for Pseudomonas aeruginosa glycine betaine catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Matthew J; Szwergold, Benjamin S; Hogan, Deborah A

    2008-04-01

    Glycine betaine (GB), which occurs freely in the environment and is an intermediate in the catabolism of choline and carnitine, can serve as a sole source of carbon or nitrogen in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Twelve mutants defective in growth on GB as the sole carbon source were identified through a genetic screen of a nonredundant PA14 transposon mutant library. Further growth experiments showed that strains with mutations in two genes, gbcA (PA5410) and gbcB (PA5411), were capable of growth on dimethylglycine (DMG), a catabolic product of GB, but not on GB itself. Subsequent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with 1,2-(13)C-labeled choline indicated that these genes are necessary for conversion of GB to DMG. Similar experiments showed that strains with mutations in the dgcAB (PA5398-PA5399) genes, which exhibit homology to genes that encode other enzymes with demethylase activity, are required for the conversion of DMG to sarcosine. Mutant analyses and (13)C NMR studies also confirmed that the soxBDAG genes, predicted to encode a sarcosine oxidase, are required for sarcosine catabolism. Our screen also identified a predicted AraC family transcriptional regulator, encoded by gbdR (PA5380), that is required for growth on GB and DMG and for the induction of gbcA, gbcB, and dgcAB in response to GB or DMG. Mutants defective in the previously described gbt gene (PA3082) grew on GB with kinetics similar to those of the wild type in both the PAO1 and PA14 strain backgrounds. These studies provided important insight into both the mechanism and the regulation of the catabolism of GB in P. aeruginosa.

  2. Exercise promotes BCAA catabolism: effects of BCAA supplementation on skeletal muscle during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Yoshiharu; Murakami, Taro; Nakai, Naoya; Nagasaki, Masaru; Harris, Robert A

    2004-06-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are essential amino acids that can be oxidized in skeletal muscle. It is known that BCAA oxidation is promoted by exercise. The mechanism responsible for this phenomenon is attributed to activation of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex, which catalyzes the second-step reaction of the BCAA catabolic pathway and is the rate-limiting enzyme in the pathway. This enzyme complex is regulated by a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle. The BCKDH kinase is responsible for inactivation of the complex by phosphorylation, and the activity of the kinase is inversely correlated with the activity state of the BCKDH complex, which suggests that the kinase is the primary regulator of the complex. We found recently that administration of ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) in rats caused activation of the hepatic BCKDH complex in association with a decrease in the kinase activity, which suggests that promotion of fatty acid oxidation upregulates the BCAA catabolism. Long-chain fatty acids are ligands for PPARalpha, and the fatty acid oxidation is promoted by several physiological conditions including exercise. These findings suggest that fatty acids may be one of the regulators of BCAA catabolism and that the BCAA requirement is increased by exercise. Furthermore, BCAA supplementation before and after exercise has beneficial effects for decreasing exercise-induced muscle damage and promoting muscle-protein synthesis; this suggests the possibility that BCAAs are a useful supplement in relation to exercise and sports.

  3. Metabolic signature of sun exposed skin suggests catabolic pathway overweighs anabolic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet Randhawa

    Full Text Available Skin chronically exposed to sun results in phenotypic changes referred as photoaging. This aspect of aging has been studied extensively through genomic and proteomic tools. Metabolites, the end product are generated as a result of biochemical reactions are often studied as a culmination of complex interplay of gene and protein expression. In this study, we focused exclusively on the metabolome to study effects from sun-exposed and sun-protected skin sites from 25 human subjects. We generated a highly accurate metabolomic signature for the skin that is exposed to sun. Biochemical pathway analysis from this data set showed that sun-exposed skin resides under high oxidative stress and the chains of reactions to produce these metabolites are inclined toward catabolism rather than anabolism. These catabolic activities persuade the skin cells to generate metabolites through the salvage pathway instead of de novo synthesis pathways. Metabolomic profile suggests catabolic pathways and reactive oxygen species operate in a feed forward fashion to alter the biology of sun exposed skin.

  4. Detection and isolation of novel rhizopine-catabolizing bacteria from the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardener; de Bruijn FJ

    1998-12-01

    Microbial rhizopine-catabolizing (Moc) activity was detected in serial dilutions of soil and rhizosphere washes. The activity observed generally ranged between 10(6) and 10(7) catabolic units per g, and the numbers of nonspecific culture-forming units were found to be approximately 10 times higher. A diverse set of 37 isolates was obtained by enrichment on scyllo-inosamine-containing media. However, none of the bacteria that were isolated were found to contain DNA sequences homologous to the known mocA, mocB, and mocC genes of Sinorhizobium meliloti L5-30. Twenty-one of the isolates could utilize an SI preparation as the sole carbon and nitrogen source for growth. Partial sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) amplified from these strains indicated that five distinct bacterial genera (Arthrobacter, Sinorhizobium, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, and Alcaligenes) were represented in this set. Only 6 of these 21 isolates could catabolize 3-O-methyl-scyllo-inosamine under standard assay conditions. Two of these, strains D1 and R3, were found to have 16S rDNA sequences very similar to those of Sinorhizobium meliloti. However, these strains are not symbiotically effective on Medicago sativa, and DNA sequences homologous to the nodB and nodC genes were not detected in strains D1 and R3 by Southern hybridization analysis.

  5. Increased fat catabolism sustains water balance during fasting in zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Joanna; Sadowska, Edyta T; Cichoń, Mariusz; Bauchinger, Ulf

    2016-09-01

    Patterns of physiological flexibility in response to fasting are well established, but much less is known about the contribution of water deprivation to the observed effects. We investigated body composition and energy and water budget in three groups of zebra finches: birds with access to food and water, food-deprived birds having access to drinking water and food-and-water-deprived birds. Animals were not stimulated by elevated energy expenditure and they were in thermoneutral conditions; thus, based on previous studies, water balance of fasting birds was expected to be maintained by increased catabolism of proteins. In contrast to this expectation, we found that access to water did not prevent reduction of proteinaceous tissue, but it saved fat reserves of the fasting birds. Thus, water balance of birds fasting without access to water seemed to be maintained by elevated fat catabolism, which generated 6 times more metabolic water compared with that in birds that had access to water. Therefore, we revise currently established views and propose fat to serve as the primary source for metabolic water production. Previously assumed increased protein breakdown for maintenance of water budget would occur if fat stores were depleted or if fat catabolism reached its upper limits due to high energy demands. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Neuronal sphingolipidoses: Membrane lipids and sphingolipid activator proteins regulate lysosomal sphingolipid catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhoff, Konrad

    2016-11-01

    Glycosphingolipids and sphingolipids of cellular plasma membranes (PMs) reach luminal intra-lysosomal vesicles (LVs) for degradation mainly by pathways of endocytosis. After a sorting and maturation process (e.g. degradation of sphingomyelin (SM) and secretion of cholesterol), sphingolipids of the LVs are digested by soluble enzymes with the help of activator (lipid binding and transfer) proteins. Inherited defects of lipid-cleaving enzymes and lipid binding and transfer proteins cause manifold and fatal, often neurodegenerative diseases. The review summarizes recent findings on the regulation of sphingolipid catabolism and cholesterol secretion from the endosomal compartment by lipid modifiers, an essential stimulation by anionic membrane lipids and an inhibition of crucial steps by cholesterol and SM. Reconstitution experiments in the presence of all proteins needed, hydrolase and activator proteins, reveal an up to 10-fold increase of ganglioside catabolism just by the incorporation of anionic lipids into the ganglioside carrying membranes, whereas an additional incorporation of cholesterol inhibits GM2 catabolism substantially. It is suggested that lipid and other low molecular modifiers affect the genotype-phenotype relationship observed in patients with lysosomal diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  7. Plant-bacteria partnership: phytoremediation of hydrocarbons contaminated soil and expression of catabolic genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamna Saleem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum hydrocarbons are harmful to living organisms when they are exposed in natural environment. Once they come in contact, it is not an easy to remove them because many of their constituents are persistent in nature. To achieve this target, different approaches have been exploited by using plants, bacteria, and plant-bacteria together. Among them, combined use of plants and bacteria has gained tremendous attention as bacteria possess set of catabolic genes which produce catabolic enzymes to decontaminate hydrocarbons. In return, plant ooze out root exudates containing nutrients and necessary metabolites which facilitate the microbial colonization in plant rhizosphere. This results into high gene abundance and gene expression in the rhizosphere and, thus, leads to enhanced degradation. Moreover, high proportions of beneficial bacteria helps plant to gain more biomass due to their plant growth promoting activities and production of phytohromones. This review focuses functioning and mechanisms of catabolic genes responsible for degradation of straight chain and aromatic hydrocarbons with their potential of degradation in bioremediation. With the understanding of expression mechanisms, rate of degradation can be enhanced by adjusting environmental factors and acclimatizing plant associated bacteria in plant rhizosphere.

  8. Transcriptional analysis of prebiotic uptake and catabolism by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Mark Andersen

    Full Text Available The human gastrointestinal tract can be positively modulated by dietary supplementation of probiotic bacteria in combination with prebiotic carbohydrates. Here differential transcriptomics and functional genomics were used to identify genes in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM involved in the uptake and catabolism of 11 potential prebiotic compounds consisting of α- and β-linked galactosides and glucosides. These oligosaccharides induced genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase systems (PTS, galactoside pentose hexuronide (GPH permease, and ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. PTS systems were upregulated primarily by di- and tri-saccharides such as cellobiose, isomaltose, isomaltulose, panose and gentiobiose, while ABC transporters were upregulated by raffinose, Polydextrose, and stachyose. A single GPH transporter was induced by lactitol and galactooligosaccharides (GOS. The various transporters were associated with a number of glycoside hydrolases from families 1, 2, 4, 13, 32, 36, 42, and 65, involved in the catabolism of various α- and β-linked glucosides and galactosides. Further subfamily specialization was also observed for different PTS-associated GH1 6-phospho-β-glucosidases implicated in the catabolism of gentiobiose and cellobiose. These findings highlight the broad oligosaccharide metabolic repertoire of L. acidophilus NCFM and establish a platform for selection and screening of both probiotic bacteria and prebiotic compounds that may positively influence the gastrointestinal microbiota.

  9. Effects of Zinc Magnesium Aspartate (ZMA Supplementation on Training Adaptations and Markers of Anabolism and Catabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almada Anthony

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examined whether supplementing the diet with a commercial supplement containing zinc magnesium aspartate (ZMA during training affects zinc and magnesium status, anabolic and catabolic hormone profiles, and/or training adaptations. Forty-two resistance trained males (27 ± 9 yrs; 178 ± 8 cm, 85 ± 15 kg, 18.6 ± 6% body fat were matched according to fat free mass and randomly assigned to ingest in a double blind manner either a dextrose placebo (P or ZMA 30–60 minutes prior to going to sleep during 8-weeks of standardized resistance-training. Subjects completed testing sessions at 0, 4, and 8 weeks that included body composition assessment as determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, 1-RM and muscular endurance tests on the bench and leg press, a Wingate anaerobic power test, and blood analysis to assess anabolic/catabolic status as well as markers of health. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results indicated that ZMA supplementation non-significantly increased serum zinc levels by 11 – 17% (p = 0.12. However, no significant differences were observed between groups in anabolic or catabolic hormone status, body composition, 1-RM bench press and leg press, upper or lower body muscular endurance, or cycling anaerobic capacity. Results indicate that ZMA supplementation during training does not appear to enhance training adaptations in resistance trained populations.

  10. Nesting Activity of Loggerhead Turtles (Caretta caretta at Göksu Delta, Turkey during 2004 and 2008 nesting seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih H. Durmus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Göksu Delta is one of the most important nesting beaches in Turkey for the endangered loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta. This paper provides information on the nesting activities of loggerhead turtles, the spatial and temporal distribution of nesting, nesting success, nesting density, hatching success, incubation duration and clutch size over two nesting seasons. A total of 902 emergences occurred over two seasons, of which 239 (26.5% nests were deposited (137 nests in 2004 and 102 nests in 2008 and the overall mean nesting density was 3.4 nests/km. The peak of nesting emergences takes place mainly in June. Of the overall nests, 226 (94.6% were excavated and 16044 eggs were counted. Of these eggs, 3680 (22.9% hatchlings emerged and 2695 (73.2% of hatchlings of them were able to reach the sea. The mean number of eggs per clutch was 71 (range: 15 – 143. The shortest and longest incubation duration in these 2 seasons ranged from 46 to 62 days with a mean of 53 days. The main problems are negatively affecting loggerhead turtle population at Göksu Delta are dense jackal predation both adult and eggs and inundation in nests. The average nesting effort here (mean: 119.5 nests/season confirms that Göksu Delta is one of the most important nesting sites for loggerhead turtles in Turkey.

  11. Gastrointestinal symptoms resembling ulcerative proctitis caused by larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Gaillard, Julien; Borée-Moreau, Diane; Bailly, Éric; Andres, Christian R; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of facultative intestinal myiasis due to larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax, also named the rat-tailed maggots. The development of larvae in the lower bowel was responsible for non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that resembled ulcerative proctitis. The diagnosis was established upon the observation of four spontaneously excreted mobile larvae. The definite identification of the E. tenax species was made possible by scanning electron microscopy. The clinical outcome was satisfactory.

  12. Increased VLDL in nephrotic patients results from a decreased catabolism while increased LDL results from increased synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Sain-van der Velden, M; Kaysen, GA; Barrett, HA; Stellaard, F; Gadellaa, MM; Voorbij, HA; Reijngoud, DJ; Rabelink, TJ

    Increased very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) in nephrotic patients results from a decreased catabolism while increased low density lipoprotein (LDL) results from increased synthesis. Hyperlipidemias a hallmark of nephrotic syndrome that has been associated with increased risk for ischemic heart

  13. Facial Resemblance Exaggerates Sex-Specific Jealousy-Based Decisions1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Platek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in reaction to a romantic partner's infidelity are well documented and are hypothesized to be attributable to sex-specific jealousy mechanisms which are utilized to solve adaptive problems associated with risk of extra-pair copulation. Males, because of the risk of cuckoldry become more upset by sexual infidelity, while females, because of loss of resources and biparental investment tend to become more distressed by emotional infidelity. However, the degree to which these sex-specific reactions to jealousy interact with cues to kin are completely unknown. Here we investigated the interaction of facial resemblance with decisions about sex-specific jealousy scenarios. Fifty nine volunteers were asked to imagine that two different people (represented by facial composites informed them about their romantic partner's sexual or emotional infidelity. Consistent with previous research, males ranked sexual infidelity scenarios as most upsetting and females ranked emotional infidelity scenarios most upsetting. However, when information about the infidelity was provided by a face that resembled the subject, sex-specific reactions to jealousy were exaggerated. This finding highlights the use of facial resemblance as a putative self-referent phenotypic matching cue that impacts trusting behavior in sexual contexts.

  14. Management of western coniferous forest habitat for nesting accipiter hawks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard T. Reynolds

    1983-01-01

    Availability of nesting sites can limit accipiter populations. Because accipiters nest in dense forest stands, any alteration that opens these stands is likely to lessen their desirability as nest sites. Tree growth and the associated changes in the vegetative structure of aging nest sites limit the number of years sites will be suitable. Therefore, prospective...

  15. Converting nested algebra expressions into flat algebra expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paredaens, J.; Van Gucht, D.

    1992-01-01

    Nested relations generalize ordinary flat relations by allowing tuple values to be either atomic or set valued. The nested algebra is a generalization of the flat relational algebra to manipulate nested relations. In this paper we study the expressive power of the nested algebra relative to its

  16. The effects of large beach debris on nesting sea turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Lamont, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to understand the effects of large beach debris on sea turtle nesting behavior as well as the effectiveness of large debris removal for habitat restoration. Large natural and anthropogenic debris were removed from one of three sections of a sea turtle nesting beach and distributions of nests and false crawls (non-nesting crawls) in pre- (2011–2012) and post- (2013–2014) removal years in the three sections were compared. The number of nests increased 200% and the number of false crawls increased 55% in the experimental section, whereas a corresponding increase in number of nests and false crawls was not observed in the other two sections where debris removal was not conducted. The proportion of nest and false crawl abundance in all three beach sections was significantly different between pre- and post-removal years. The nesting success, the percent of successful nests in total nesting attempts (number of nests + false crawls), also increased from 24% to 38%; however the magnitude of the increase was comparably small because both the number of nests and false crawls increased, and thus the proportion of the nesting success in the experimental beach in pre- and post-removal years was not significantly different. The substantial increase in sea turtle nesting activities after the removal of large debris indicates that large debris may have an adverse impact on sea turtle nesting behavior. Removal of large debris could be an effective restoration strategy to improve sea turtle nesting.

  17. Nest success of the Indian House Crow Corvus splendens : An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nest success of the Indian House Crow Corvus splendens was studied in the urban area of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in late March to early May 2011. The study investigated nest success of the Indian House Crow in different tree species with varying canopy covers and heights. Fifty-five active nests and 38 inactive nests ...

  18. Nesting ecology of Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta in Sfax salina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we use the results of a one-year monitoring of nests in Sfax salina to provide information on its nesting parameters, in particular nesting phenology, colony size and hatching success. Our results show that Pied Avocets formed dense colonies at the beginning of the nesting season, but colony size decreased as ...

  19. Factors affecting nesting success in the Great-crested Grebe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall nesting success was 70.4% (N = 209), with nest failure caused mainly by predation (65%) and flooding (23%). Breeding outcome was significantly and positively related to nest size, with bigger nests conferring better survival to eggs and young probably through affording better protection during spells of adverse ...

  20. Gregarious nesting - An anti-predator response in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch

    2012-01-01

    Gregarious nesting can be defined as a behaviour that occurs when a laying hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) given the choice between an occupied and an unoccupied nest site chooses the occupied nest site. It occurs frequently in flocks of laying hens kept under commercial conditions, contrasting...... the behaviour displayed by feral hens that isolate themselves from the flock during nesting activities. What motivates laying hens to perform gregarious nesting is unknown. One possibility is that gregarious nesting is an anti-predator response to the risk of nest predation emerging from behavioural flexibility...

  1. Construction and Optimization of a Heterologous Pathway for Protocatechuate Catabolism in Escherichia coli Enables Bioconversion of Model Aromatic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Sonya M; Giannone, Richard J; Kridelbaugh, Donna M; Elkins, James G; Guss, Adam M; Michener, Joshua K

    2017-09-15

    The production of biofuels from lignocellulose yields a substantial lignin by-product stream that currently has few applications. Biological conversion of lignin-derived compounds into chemicals and fuels has the potential to improve the economics of lignocellulose-derived biofuels, but few microbes are able both to catabolize lignin-derived aromatic compounds and to generate valuable products. While Escherichia coli has been engineered to produce a variety of fuels and chemicals, it is incapable of catabolizing most aromatic compounds. Therefore, we engineered E. coli to catabolize protocatechuate, a common intermediate in lignin degradation, as the sole source of carbon and energy via heterologous expression of a nine-gene pathway from Pseudomonas putida KT2440. We next used experimental evolution to select for mutations that increased growth with protocatechuate more than 2-fold. Increasing the strength of a single ribosome binding site in the heterologous pathway was sufficient to recapitulate the increased growth. After optimization of the core pathway, we extended the pathway to enable catabolism of a second model compound, 4-hydroxybenzoate. These engineered strains will be useful platforms to discover, characterize, and optimize pathways for conversions of lignin-derived aromatics. IMPORTANCE Lignin is a challenging substrate for microbial catabolism due to its polymeric and heterogeneous chemical structure. Therefore, engineering microbes for improved catabolism of lignin-derived aromatic compounds will require the assembly of an entire network of catabolic reactions, including pathways from genetically intractable strains. Constructing defined pathways for aromatic compound degradation in a model host would allow rapid identification, characterization, and optimization of novel pathways. We constructed and optimized one such pathway in E. coli to enable catabolism of a model aromatic compound, protocatechuate, and then extended the pathway to a related

  2. The influence of regional hydrology on nesting behavior and nest fate of the American alligator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarte, Cristina A.; Bass, Oron L.; Nuttle, William; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Whelan, Kevin R.T.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrologic conditions are critical to the nesting behavior and reproductive success of crocodilians. In South Florida, USA, growing human settlement has led to extensive surface water management and modification of historical water flows in the wetlands, which have affected regional nesting of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Although both natural and anthropogenic factors are considered to determine hydrologic conditions, the aspects of hydrological patterns that affect alligator nest effort, flooding (partial and complete), and failure (no hatchling) are unclear. We deconstructed annual hydrological patterns using harmonic models that estimated hydrological matrices including mean, amplitude, timing of peak, and periodicity of surface water depth and discharge and examined their effects on alligator nesting using survey data from Shark Slough, Everglades National Park, from 1985 to 2005. Nest effort increased in years with higher mean and lesser periodicity of water depth. A greater proportion of nests were flooded and failed when peak discharge occurred earlier in the year. Also, nest flooding rates were greater in years with greater periodicity of water depth, and nest failure rate was greater when mean discharge was higher. This study guides future water management decisions to mitigate negative impacts on reproduction of alligators and provides wildlife managers with a tool for assessing and modifying annual water management plans to conserve crocodilians and other wetland species.

  3. Nesting ecology and nest success of the Blue Grosbeak along two rivers in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Luc E. Cartron; Deborah M. Finch; David L. Hawksworth; Scott H. Stoleson

    2013-01-01

    From 1997 through 2008, we studied the nesting habits and nest success of the Blue Grosbeak (Passerina cerulean) along the middle Gila River (1997-2001) and the middle Rio Grande (2000-2008) in New Mexico. A riparian forest of cottonwoods grows along both rivers. but the forest along the Rio Grande is a much more intensively managed ecosystem, with an understory...

  4. Use of artificial nests to investigate predation on freshwater turtle nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael N. Marchand; John A. Litvaitis; Thomas J. Maier; Richard M. DeGraaf

    2002-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation has raised concerns that populations of generalist predators have increased and are affecting a diverse group of prey. Previous research has included the use of artificial nests to investigate the role of predation on birds that nest on or near the ground. Because predation also is a major factor limiting populations of freshwater turtles, we...

  5. Nest defense behaviors of native cavity-nesting birds to European Starlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney G. Olsen; Kathryn L. Purcell; David. Grubbs

    2008-01-01

    We used behavioral experiments to evaluate competition for nest sites and the extent to which European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are seen as a threat by native bird species at the San Joaquin Experimental Range, Madera County, CA. We quantified the level of aggressive behavior of four species of native cavity-nesting birds to starlings at active...

  6. Lack of nest site limitation in a cavity-nesting bird community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffry R. Waters; Barry R. Noon; Jared Verner

    1990-01-01

    We examined the relationship between nest site availability and density of secondary cavitynesting birds by blocking cavities in an oak-pine (Quercus spp.-Pinus sp. ) woodland. In 1986 and 1987we blocked 67 and 106 cavities, respectively, on a 37-ha plot. The combined density of secondary cavity-nesting birds did not decline...

  7. A model for the catabolism of rhizopine in Rhizobium leguminosarum involves a ferredoxin oxygenase complex and the inositol degradative pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, M; de Majnik, J; Wexler, M; Fry, J; Poole, P S; Murphy, P J

    1998-11-01

    Rhizopines are nodule-specific compounds that confer an intraspecies competitive nodulation advantage to strains that can catabolize them. The rhizopine (3-O-methyl-scyllo-inosamine, 3-O-MSI) catabolic moc gene cluster mocCABRDE(F) in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain 1a is located on the Sym plasmid. MocCABR are homologous to the mocCABR gene products from Sinorhizobium meliloti. MocD and MocE contain motifs corresponding to a TOL-like oxygenase and a [2Fe-2S] Rieske-like ferredoxin, respectively. The mocF gene encodes a ferredoxin reductase that would complete the oxygenase system, but is not essential for rhizopine catabolism. We propose a rhizopine catabolic model whereby MocB transports rhizopine into the cell and MocDE and MocF (or a similar protein elsewhere in the genome), under the regulation of MocR, act in concert to form a ferredoxin oxygenase system that demethylates 3-O-MSI to form scyllo-inosamine (SI). MocA, an NAD(H)-dependent dehydrogenase, and MocC continue the catabolic process. Compounds formed then enter the inositol catabolic pathway.

  8. Subterranean ant nests: Trace fossils past and future?

    OpenAIRE

    Tschinkel, Walter R.

    2003-01-01

    Many species of ants excavate complex, species-typical nests in soil. The basic structural units of many nests are descending tunnels connecting flattened, generally horizontal chambers of oval to lobed outline. The species-typical structure of many nests results from variation in the size, shape, number and arrangement of these basic elements. Nest architecture can be rendered by filling subterranean nests with a thin slurry of orthodontal plaster, then excavating and reconstructing the hard...

  9. Simulating large-scale spiking neuronal networks with NEST

    OpenAIRE

    Schücker, Jannis; Eppler, Jochen Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Neural Simulation Tool NEST [1, www.nest-simulator.org] is the simulator for spiking neural networkmodels of the HBP that focuses on the dynamics, size and structure of neural systems rather than on theexact morphology of individual neurons. Its simulation kernel is written in C++ and it runs on computinghardware ranging from simple laptops to clusters and supercomputers with thousands of processor cores.The development of NEST is coordinated by the NEST Initiative [www.nest-initiative.or...

  10. Buteo Nesting Ecology: Evaluating Nesting of Swainson’s Hawks in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inselman, Will M.; Datta, Shubham; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Jensen, Kent C.; Grovenburg, Troy W.

    2015-01-01

    Swainson’s hawks (Buteo swainsoni) are long-distance migratory raptors that nest primarily in isolated trees located in areas of high grassland density. In recent years, anthropogenic conversion of grassland habitat has raised concerns about the status of the breeding population in the northern Great Plains. In 2013, we initiated a study to investigate the influence of extrinsic factors influencing Swainson’s hawk nesting ecology in north-central South Dakota and south-central North Dakota. Using ground and aerial surveys, we located and monitored nesting Swainson’s hawk pairs: 73 in 2013 and 120 in 2014. We documented 98 successful breeding attempts that fledged 163 chicks; 1.52 and 1.72 fledglings per successful nest in 2013 and 2014, respectively. We used Program MARK to evaluate the influence of land cover on nest survival. The top model, S Dist2Farm+%Hay, indicated that nest survival (fledging at least one chick) decreased as nests were located farther from farm sites and as the percent of hay cover increased within 1200-m of the nest site (34.4%; 95% CI = 27.6%–42.3%). We used logistic regression analysis to evaluate the influence of landscape variables on nest-site selection; Swainson’s hawks selected for nest sites located closer to roads. We suggest that tree belts associated with farm sites, whether occupied or not, provide critical breeding sites for Swainson’s hawks. Additionally, poor breeding success may be related to the late migratory behavior of this species which requires them to occupy marginal habitat due to other raptors occupying the most suitable habitat prior to Swainson’s hawks arriving to the breeding grounds. PMID:26327440

  11. Buteo Nesting Ecology: Evaluating Nesting of Swainson's Hawks in the Northern Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inselman, Will M; Datta, Shubham; Jenks, Jonathan A; Jensen, Kent C; Grovenburg, Troy W

    2015-01-01

    Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) are long-distance migratory raptors that nest primarily in isolated trees located in areas of high grassland density. In recent years, anthropogenic conversion of grassland habitat has raised concerns about the status of the breeding population in the northern Great Plains. In 2013, we initiated a study to investigate the influence of extrinsic factors influencing Swainson's hawk nesting ecology in north-central South Dakota and south-central North Dakota. Using ground and aerial surveys, we located and monitored nesting Swainson's hawk pairs: 73 in 2013 and 120 in 2014. We documented 98 successful breeding attempts that fledged 163 chicks; 1.52 and 1.72 fledglings per successful nest in 2013 and 2014, respectively. We used Program MARK to evaluate the influence of land cover on nest survival. The top model, SDist2Farm+%Hay, indicated that nest survival (fledging at least one chick) decreased as nests were located farther from farm sites and as the percent of hay cover increased within 1200-m of the nest site (34.4%; 95% CI = 27.6%-42.3%). We used logistic regression analysis to evaluate the influence of landscape variables on nest-site selection; Swainson's hawks selected for nest sites located closer to roads. We suggest that tree belts associated with farm sites, whether occupied or not, provide critical breeding sites for Swainson's hawks. Additionally, poor breeding success may be related to the late migratory behavior of this species which requires them to occupy marginal habitat due to other raptors occupying the most suitable habitat prior to Swainson's hawks arriving to the breeding grounds.

  12. Nested high voltage generator/particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a modular high voltage particle accelerator having an emission axis and an emission end, the accelerator. It comprises: a plurality of high voltage generators in nested adjacency to form a nested stack, each the generator comprising a cup-like housing having a base and a tubular sleeve extending from the base, a primary transformer winding encircling the nested stack; a secondary transformer winding between each adjacent pair of housings, magnetically linked to the primary transformer winding through the gaps; a power supply respective to each of the secondary windings converting alternating voltage from its respective secondary winding to d.c. voltage, the housings at the emission end forming a hollow throat for particle acceleration, a vacuum seal at the emission end of the throat which enables the throat to be evacuated; a particle source in the thrond power means to energize the primary transformer winding

  13. Cancer Chemotherapy Specific to Acidic Nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2017-04-20

    The realization of cancer therapeutics specific to cancer cells with less of an effect on normal tissues is our goal. Many trials have been carried out for this purpose, but this goal is still far from being realized. It was found more than 80 years ago that solid cancer nests are acidified, but in vitro studies under acidic conditions have not been extensively studied. Recently, in vitro experiments under acidic conditions were started and anti-cancer drugs specific to acidic areas have been identified. Many genes have been reported to be expressed at a high level under acidic conditions, and such genes may be potent targets for anti-cancer drugs specific to acidic nests. In this review article, recent in vitro, in vivo, and clinical achievements in anti-cancer drugs with marked efficacy under acidic conditions are summarized, and the clinical use of anti-cancer drugs specific to acidic nests is discussed.

  14. Mirror nesting and repulsion-induced superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyavsky, Vladimir I.; Kapaev, Vladimir V.; Kopaev, Yurii V.

    2004-01-01

    Mirror nesting condition that is a rise of pair Fermi contour due to matching of some pieces of the Fermi contour and an isoline of the pair-relative-motion kinetic energy may be satisfied, at definite total pair momenta, due to special features of electron dispersion. Perfect mirror nesting results in a rise of the possibility of superconducting ordering up to arbitrary small pairing repulsive interaction strength. Due to kinematical constraints, the order parameter exists only inside some definite domain of the momentum space and changes its sign on a line belonging to this domain

  15. Nest design in a changing world: great tit Parus major nests from a Mediterranean city environment as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, Marcel M; Charmantier, Anne; Demeyrier, Virginie; Lucas, Annick; Perret, Samuel; Abouladzé, Matthieu; Bonnet, Michel; Canonne, Coline; Faucon, Virginie; Grosset, Stéphanie; le Prado, Gaëlle; Lidon, Frédéric; Noell, Thierry; Pagano, Pascal; Perret, Vincent; Pouplard, Stéphane; Spitaliéry, Rémy; Bernard, Cyril; Perret, Philippe; Blondel, Jacques; Grégoire, Arnaud

    2017-12-01

    Investigations of urbanization effects on birds have focused mainly on breeding traits expressed after the nest-building stage (e.g. first-egg date, clutch size, breeding success, and offspring characteristics). Urban studies largely ignored how and why the aspects of nest building might be associated with the degree of urbanization. As urban environments are expected to present novel environmental changes relative to rural environments, it is important to evaluate how nest-building behavior is impacted by vegetation modifications associated with urbanization. To examine nest design in a Mediterranean city environment, we allowed urban great tits ( Parus major ) to breed in nest boxes in areas that differed in local vegetation cover. We found that different measures of nest size or mass were not associated with vegetation cover. In particular, nests located adjacent to streets with lower vegetation cover were not smaller or lighter than nests in parks with higher vegetation cover. Nests adjacent to streets contained more pine needles than nests in parks. In addition, in nests adjacent to streets, nests from boxes attached to pine trees contained more pine needles than nests from boxes attached to other trees. We suggest that urban-related alterations in vegetation cover do not directly impose physical limits on nest size in species that are opportunistic in the selection of nesting material. However, nest composition as reflected in the use of pine needles was clearly affected by habitat type and the planted tree species present, which implies that rapid habitat change impacts nest composition. We do not exclude that urbanization might impact other aspects of nest building behaviour not covered in our study (e.g. costs of searching for nest material), and that the strengths of the associations between urbanization and nest structures might differ among study populations or species.

  16. Strong selection on mandible and nest features in a carpenter bee that nests in two sympatric host plants

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Prado, Luis; Pinto, Carlos F; Rojas, Alejandra; Fontúrbel, Francisco E

    2014-01-01

    Host plants are used by herbivorous insects as feeding or nesting resources. In wood-boring insects, host plants features may impose selective forces leading to phenotypic differentiation on traits related to nest construction. Carpenter bees build their nests in dead stems or dry twigs of shrubs and trees; thus, mandibles are essential for the nesting process, and the nest is required for egg laying and offspring survival. We explored the shape and intensity of natural selection on phenotypi...

  17. Preliminary Evaluation of a Nest Usage Sensor to Detect Double Nest Occupations of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Zaninelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional cage systems will be replaced by housing systems that allow hens to move freely. These systems may improve hens’ welfare, but they lead to some disadvantages: disease, bone fractures, cannibalism, piling and lower egg production. New selection criteria for existing commercial strains should be identified considering individual data about laying performance and the behavior of hens. Many recording systems have been developed to collect these data. However, the management of double nest occupations remains critical for the correct egg-to-hen assignment. To limit such events, most systems adopt specific trap devices and additional mechanical components. Others, instead, only prevent these occurrences by narrowing the nest, without any detection and management. The aim of this study was to develop and test a nest usage “sensor”, based on imaging analysis, that is able to automatically detect a double nest occupation. Results showed that the developed sensor correctly identified the double nest occupation occurrences. Therefore, the imaging analysis resulted in being a useful solution that could simplify the nest construction for this type of recording system, allowing the collection of more precise and accurate data, since double nest occupations would be managed and the normal laying behavior of hens would not be discouraged by the presence of the trap devices.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of a nest usage sensor to detect double nest occupations of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Costa, Annamaria; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Rossi, Luciana; Agazzi, Alessandro; Savoini, Giovanni

    2015-01-26

    Conventional cage systems will be replaced by housing systems that allow hens to move freely. These systems may improve hens' welfare, but they lead to some disadvantages: disease, bone fractures, cannibalism, piling and lower egg production. New selection criteria for existing commercial strains should be identified considering individual data about laying performance and the behavior of hens. Many recording systems have been developed to collect these data. However, the management of double nest occupations remains critical for the correct egg-to-hen assignment. To limit such events, most systems adopt specific trap devices and additional mechanical components. Others, instead, only prevent these occurrences by narrowing the nest, without any detection and management. The aim of this study was to develop and test a nest usage "sensor", based on imaging analysis, that is able to automatically detect a double nest occupation. Results showed that the developed sensor correctly identified the double nest occupation occurrences. Therefore, the imaging analysis resulted in being a useful solution that could simplify the nest construction for this type of recording system, allowing the collection of more precise and accurate data, since double nest occupations would be managed and the normal laying behavior of hens would not be discouraged by the presence of the trap devices.

  19. Open cup nests evolved from roofed nests in the early passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J Jordan; Griffith, Simon C

    2017-02-08

    The architectural diversity of nests in the passerine birds (order Passeriformes) is thought to have played an important role in the adaptive radiation of this group, which now comprises more than half of avian species and occupies nearly all terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we present an extensive survey and ancestral state reconstruction of nest design across the passerines, focusing on early Australian lineages and including members of nearly all passerine families worldwide. Most passerines build open cup-shaped nests, whereas a minority build more elaborate domed structures with roofs. We provide strong evidence that, despite their relative rarity today, domed nests were constructed by the common ancestor of all modern passerines. Open cup nests evolved from enclosed domes at least four times independently during early passerine evolution, at least three of which occurred on the Australian continent, yielding several primarily cup-nesting clades that are now widespread and numerically dominant among passerines. Our results show that the ubiquitous and relatively simple cup-shaped nests of many birds today evolved multiple times convergently, suggesting adaptive benefits over earlier roofed designs. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Resembling a viper: implications of mimicry for conservation of the endangered smooth snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkonen, Janne K; Mappes, Johanna

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenon of Batesian mimicry, where a palatable animal gains protection against predation by resembling an unpalatable model, has been a core interest of evolutionary biologists for 150 years. An extensive range of studies has focused on revealing mechanistic aspects of mimicry (shared education and generalization of predators) and the evolutionary dynamics of mimicry systems (co-operation vs. conflict) and revealed that protective mimicry is widespread and is important for individual fitness. However, according to our knowledge, there are no case studies where mimicry theories have been applied to conservation of mimetic species. Theoretically, mimicry affects, for example, frequency dependency of predator avoidance learning and human induced mortality. We examined the case of the protected, endangered, nonvenomous smooth snake (Coronella austriaca) that mimics the nonprotected venomous adder (Vipera berus), both of which occur in the Åland archipelago, Finland. To quantify the added predation risk on smooth snakes caused by the rarity of vipers, we calculated risk estimates from experimental data. Resemblance of vipers enhances survival of smooth snakes against bird predation because many predators avoid touching venomous vipers. Mimetic resemblance is however disadvantageous against human predators, who kill venomous vipers and accidentally kill endangered, protected smooth snakes. We found that the effective population size of the adders in Åland is very low relative to its smooth snake mimic (28.93 and 41.35, respectively).Because Batesian mimicry is advantageous for the mimic only if model species exist in sufficiently high numbers, it is likely that the conservation program for smooth snakes will fail if adders continue to be destroyed. Understanding the population consequences of mimetic species may be crucial to the success of endangered species conservation. We suggest that when a Batesian mimic requires protection, conservation planners should

  1. A Drosophila gene encoding a protein resembling the human β-amyloid protein precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, D.R.; Martin-Morris, L.; Luo, L.; White, K.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have isolated genomic and cDNA clones for a Drosophila gene resembling the human β-amyloid precursor protein (APP). This gene produces a nervous system-enriched 6.5-kilobase transcript. Sequencing of cDNAs derived from the 6.5-kilobase transcript predicts an 886-amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide contains a putative transmembrane domain and exhibits strong sequence similarity to cytoplasmic and extracellular regions of the human β-amyloid precursor protein. There is a high probability that this Drosophila gene corresponds to the essential Drosophila locus vnd, a gene required for embryonic nervous system development

  2. Consolation in the aftermath of robberies resembles post-aggression consolation in chimpanzees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä; Bernasco, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Post-aggression consolation is assumed to occur in humans as well as in chimpanzees. While consolation following peer aggression has been observed in children, systematic evidence of consolation in human adults is rare. We used surveillance camera footage of the immediate aftermath of nonfatal...... to be consoled. Furthermore, we show that high levels of threat during the robbery increased the likelihood of receiving consolation afterwards. These patterns resemble post-aggression consolation in chimpanzees and suggest that emotions of empathic concern are involved in consolation across humans...... and chimpanzees....

  3. Dermatitis and lymphadenitis resembling juvenile cellulitis in a four-year-old dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuber, A E; van den Broek, A H M; Brownstein, D; Thoday, K L; Hill, P B

    2004-05-01

    A four-year-old, entire male toy poodle was presented with a two-and-a-half-week history of ocular discharge progressing to periorbital alopecia, depigmentation, alopecia and ulceration around the muzzle. There was also a haemorrhagic discharge from the ears, pyrexia, lethargy and generalised lymphadenopathy. The clinical, cytological, bacteriological and histopathological findings were consistent with a diagnosis of dermatitis resembling juvenile cellulitis in an adult dog. Glucocorticoid therapy led to rapid resolution of the clinical signs and the dog has remained in remission for two years after cessation of treatment.

  4. Combining different views of mammographic texture resemblance (MTR) marker of breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, S.; Karemore, Gopal; Chernoff, Konstantin

    the subsequent 4 years whereas 245 cases had a diagnosis 2-4 years post mammography. We employed the MTR supervised texture learning framework to perform risk evaluation from a single mammography view. In the framework 20,000 pixels were sampled and classified by a kNN pixel classifier. A feature selection step......PURPOSE Mammographic density is a well established breast cancer risk factor. Texture analysis in terms of the Mammographoc Texture Resemblance (MTR) marker has recently shown to add to risk segregation. Hitherto only single view MTR analysis has been performed. Standard mammography examinations...

  5. Sequential and Simultaneous Logit: A Nested Model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ophem, J.C.M.; Schram, A.J.H.C.

    1997-01-01

    A nested model is presented which has both the sequential and the multinomial logit model as special cases. This model provides a simple test to investigate the validity of these specifications. Some theoretical properties of the model are discussed. In the analysis a distribution function is

  6. High-field superconducting nested coil magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverick, C.; Lobell, G. M.

    1970-01-01

    Superconducting magnet, employed in conjunction with five types of superconducting cables in a nested solenoid configuration, produces total, central magnetic field strengths approaching 70 kG. The multiple coils permit maximum information on cable characteristics to be gathered from one test.

  7. Streaming nested data parallelism on multicores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederik Meisner; Filinski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The paradigm of nested data parallelism (NDP) allows a variety of semi-regular computation tasks to be mapped onto SIMD-style hardware, including GPUs and vector units. However, some care is needed to keep down space consumption in situations where the available parallelism may vastly exceed...

  8. Nested Reconfigurable Robots: Theory, Design, and Realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Tan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rather than the conventional classification method, we propose to divide modular and reconfigurable robots into intra-, inter-, and nested reconfigurations. We suggest designing the robot with nested reconfigurability, which utilizes individual robots with intra-reconfigurability capable of combining with other homogeneous/heterogeneous robots (inter-reconfigurability. The objective of this approach is to generate more complex morphologies for performing specific tasks that are far from the capabilities of a single module or to respond to programmable assembly requirements. In this paper, we discuss the theory, concept, and initial mechanical design of Hinged-Tetro, a self-reconfigurable module conceived for the study of nested reconfiguration. Hinged-Tetro is a mobile robot that uses the principle of hinged dissection of polyominoes to transform itself into any of the seven one-sided tetrominoes in a straightforward way. The robot can also combine with other modules for shaping complex structures or giving rise to a robot with new capabilities. Finally, the validation experiments verify the nested reconfigurability of Hinged-Tetro. Extensive tests and analyses of intra-reconfiguration are provided in terms of energy and time consumptions. Experiments using two robots validate the inter-reconfigur ability of the proposed module.

  9. Field guide to red tree vole nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon B. Lesmeister; James K. Swingle

    2017-01-01

    Surveys for red tree vole (Arborimus longicaudus) nests require tree climbing because the species is a highly specialized arboreal rodent that live in the tree canopy of coniferous forests in western Oregon and northwestern California. Tree voles are associated with old coniferous forest (≥80 years old) that are structurally complex, but are often...

  10. Flattening Queries over Nested Data Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruth, J.

    2006-01-01

    The theory developed in this thesis provides a method to improve the efficiency of querying nested data. The roots of this research lie in the tension between data model expressiveness and performance. Obviously, more expressive data models are more convenient for application programmers. For many

  11. A catalog of Louisiana's nesting seabird colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, William R.; Cardiff, Steve W.; DeMay, Richard A.; Dittmann, Donna L.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Jeske, Clinton W.; Lorenz, Nicole; Michot, Thomas C.; Purrington, Robert Dan; Seymour, Michael; Vermillion, William G.

    2012-01-01

    Summarizing his colonial nesting waterbird survey experiences along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico in a paper presented to the Colonial Waterbird Group of the Waterbird Society (Portnoy 1978), bird biologist John W. Portnoy stated, “This huge concentration of nesting waterbirds, restricted almost entirely to the wetlands and estuaries of southern Louisiana, is unmatched in all of North America; for example, a 1975 inventory of wading birds along the Atlantic Coast from Maine to Florida [Custer and Osborn, in press], tallied 250,000 breeding [waterbirds] of 14 species, in contrast with the 650,000 birds of 15 species just from Sabine Pass to Mobile Bay.” The “650,000 birds” to which Portnoy referred, were tallied by him in a 1976 survey of coastal Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama (see below, under “Major Surveys” section). According to the National Atlas of Coastal Waterbird Colonies in the Contiguous United States: 1976-82 (Spendelow and Patton 1988), the percentages of the total U.S. populations of Laughing Gull (11%), Forster's Tern (52%), Royal Tern (16%), Sandwich Tern (77%), and Black Skimmer (44%) which annually nest in Louisiana are significant – perhaps crucially so in the cases of Forster's Tern, Sandwich Tern, and Black Skimmer. Nearly three decades after Spendelow and Patton's determinations above, coastal Louisiana still stands out as the major center of colonial wading bird and seabird nesting in all of the United States. Within those three intervening decades, however, the

  12. Collective fluid mechanics of honeybee nest ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Combes, Stacey; Wood, Robert J.; Peters, Jacob

    2014-11-01

    Honeybees thermoregulate their brood in the warm summer months by collectively fanning their wings and creating air flow through the nest. During nest ventilation workers flap their wings in close proximity in which wings continuously operate in unsteady oncoming flows (i.e. the wake of neighboring worker bees) and near the ground. The fluid mechanics of this collective aerodynamic phenomena are unstudied and may play an important role in the physiology of colony life. We have performed field and laboratory observations of the nest ventilation wing kinematics and air flow generated by individuals and groups of honeybee workers. Inspired from these field observations we describe here a robotic model system to study collective flapping wing aerodynamics. We microfabricate arrays of 1.4 cm long flapping wings and observe the air flow generated by arrays of two or more fanning robotic wings. We vary phase, frequency, and separation distance among wings and find that net output flow is enhanced when wings operate at the appropriate phase-distance relationship to catch shed vortices from neighboring wings. These results suggest that by varying position within the fanning array honeybee workers may benefit from collective aerodynamic interactions during nest ventilation.

  13. Ablation of steroid receptor coactivator-3 resembles the human CACT metabolic myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Brian; Reineke, Erin L; Sagen, Jørn V; Nikolai, Bryan C; Zhou, Suoling; Louet, Jean-Francois; Chopra, Atul R; Chen, Xian; Reed, Graham; Noebels, Jeffrey; Adesina, Adekunle M; Yu, Hui; Wong, Lee-Jun C; Tsimelzon, Anna; Hilsenbeck, Susan; Stevens, Robert D; Wenner, Brett R; Ilkayeva, Olga; Xu, Jianming; Newgard, Christopher B; O'Malley, Bert W

    2012-05-02

    Oxidation of lipid substrates is essential for survival in fasting and other catabolic conditions, sparing glucose for the brain and other glucose-dependent tissues. Here we show Steroid Receptor Coactivator-3 (SRC-3) plays a central role in long chain fatty acid metabolism by directly regulating carnitine/acyl-carnitine translocase (CACT) gene expression. Genetic deficiency of CACT in humans is accompanied by a constellation of metabolic and toxicity phenotypes including hypoketonemia, hypoglycemia, hyperammonemia, and impaired neurologic, cardiac and skeletal muscle performance, each of which is apparent in mice lacking SRC-3 expression. Consistent with human cases of CACT deficiency, dietary rescue with short chain fatty acids drastically attenuates the clinical hallmarks of the disease in mice devoid of SRC-3. Collectively, our results position SRC-3 as a key regulator of β-oxidation. Moreover, these findings allow us to consider platform coactivators such as the SRCs as potential contributors to syndromes such as CACT deficiency, previously considered as monogenic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cloning and expression of a novel lysophospholipase which structurally resembles lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, Y; Shibata, S; Kita, S; Horikoshi, K; Fuse, H; Shirafuji, H; Sumino, Y; Fujino, M

    1999-04-02

    Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is the key enzyme in the esterification of plasma cholesterol and in the reverse cholesterol transport on high-density lipoprotein (HDL). We have found a novel LCAT-related gene among differentially expressed cDNA fragments between two types of foam cells derived from THP-1 cells, which are different in cholesterol efflux ability, using a subtractive PCR technique. The deduced 412-amino-acid sequence has 49% amino acid sequence similarity with human LCAT. In contrast to the liver-specific expression of LCAT, mRNA expression of the gene was observed mainly in peripheral tissues including kidney, placenta, pancreas, testis, spleen, heart, and skeletal muscle. The protein exists in human plasma and is probably associated with HDL. Moreover, we discovered that the recombinant protein hydrolyzed lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC), a proatherogenic lipid, to glycerophosphorylcholine and a free fatty acid. We have therefore named this novel enzyme LCAT-like lysophospholipase (LLPL), through which a new catabolic pathway for lysoPC on lipoproteins could be elucidated. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  15. Quorum-Dependent Mannopine-Inducible Conjugative Transfer of an Agrobacterium Opine-Catabolic Plasmid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Margaret E.; Kim, Kun-Soo; Miller, Marilyn; Olsen, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    The Ti plasmid in Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain 15955 carries two alleles of traR that regulate conjugative transfer. The first is a functional allele, called traR, that is transcriptionally induced by the opine octopine. The second, trlR, is a nonfunctional, dominant-negative mutant located in an operon that is inducible by the opine mannopine (MOP). Based on these findings, we predicted that there exist wild-type agrobacterial strains harboring plasmids in which MOP induces a functional traR and, hence, conjugation. We analyzed 11 MOP-utilizing field isolates and found five where MOP induced transfer of the MOP-catabolic element and increased production of the acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) quormone. The transmissible elements in these five strains represent a set of highly related plasmids. Sequence analysis of one such plasmid, pAoF64/95, revealed that the 176-kb element is not a Ti plasmid but carries genes for catabolism of MOP, mannopinic acid (MOA), agropinic acid (AGA), and the agrocinopines. The plasmid additionally carries all of the genes required for conjugative transfer, including the regulatory genes traR, traI, and traM. The traR gene, however, is not located in the MOP catabolism region. The gene, instead, is monocistronic and located within the tra-trb-rep gene cluster. A traR mutant failed to transfer the plasmid and produced little to no quormone even when grown with MOP, indicating that TraRpAoF64/95 is the activator of the tra regulon. A traM mutant was constitutive for transfer and acyl-HSL production, indicating that the anti-activator function of TraM is conserved. PMID:24363349

  16. Novel Route for Agmatine Catabolism in Aspergillus niger Involves 4-Guanidinobutyrase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Saragadam, Tejaswani; Punekar, Narayan S

    2015-08-15

    Agmatine, a significant polyamine in bacteria and plants, mostly arises from the decarboxylation of arginine. The functional importance of agmatine in fungi is poorly understood. The metabolism of agmatine and related guanidinium group-containing compounds in Aspergillus niger was explored through growth, metabolite, and enzyme studies. The fungus was able to metabolize and grow on l-arginine, agmatine, or 4-guanidinobutyrate as the sole nitrogen source. Whereas arginase defined the only route for arginine catabolism, biochemical and bioinformatics approaches suggested the absence of arginine decarboxylase in A. niger. Efficient utilization by the parent strain and also by its arginase knockout implied an arginase-independent catabolic route for agmatine. Urea and 4-guanidinobutyrate were detected in the spent medium during growth on agmatine. The agmatine-grown A. niger mycelia contained significant levels of amine oxidase, 4-guanidinobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase, 4-guanidinobutyrase (GBase), and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, but no agmatinase activity was detected. Taken together, the results support a novel route for agmatine utilization in A. niger. The catabolism of agmatine by way of 4-guanidinobutyrate to 4-aminobutyrate into the Krebs cycle is the first report of such a pathway in any organism. A. niger GBase peptide fragments were identified by tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The corresponding open reading frame from the A. niger NCIM 565 genome was located and cloned. Subsequent expression of GBase in both Escherichia coli and A. niger along with its disruption in A. niger functionally defined the GBase locus (gbu) in the A. niger genome. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Endocannabinoid Catabolic Enzymes Play Differential Roles in Thermal Homeostasis in Response to Environmental or Immune Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, Sara R; Long, Jonathan Z; Schlosburg, Joel E; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Lichtman, Aron H; Kinsey, Steven G

    2015-06-01

    Cannabinoid receptor agonists, such as Δ(9)-THC, the primary active constituent of Cannabis sativa, have anti-pyrogenic effects in a variety of assays. Recently, attention has turned to the endogenous cannabinoid system and how endocannabinoids, including 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide, regulate multiple homeostatic processes, including thermoregulation. Inhibiting endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes, monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) or fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), elevates levels of 2-AG or anandamide in vivo, respectively. The purpose of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes function to maintain thermal homeostasis in response to hypothermic challenge. In separate experiments, male C57BL/6J mice were administered a MAGL or FAAH inhibitor, and then challenged with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 2 mg/kg ip) or a cold (4 °C) ambient environment. Systemic LPS administration caused a significant decrease in core body temperature after 6 h, and this hypothermia persisted for at least 12 h. Similarly, cold environment induced mild hypothermia that resolved within 30 min. JZL184 exacerbated hypothermia induced by either LPS or cold challenge, both of which effects were blocked by rimonabant, but not SR144528, indicating a CB1 cannabinoid receptor mechanism of action. In contrast, the FAAH inhibitor, PF-3845, had no effect on either LPS-induced or cold-induced hypothermia. These data indicate that unlike direct acting cannabinoid receptor agonists, which elicit profound hypothermic responses on their own, neither MAGL nor FAAH inhibitors affect normal body temperature. However, these endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes play distinct roles in thermoregulation following hypothermic challenges.

  18. Catabolic factors and osteoarthritis-conditioned medium inhibit chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldens, Genoveva T H; Blaney Davidson, Esmeralda N; Vitters, Elly L; Schreurs, B Willem; Piek, Ester; van den Berg, Wim B; van der Kraan, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    Articular cartilage has a very limited intrinsic repair capacity leading to progressive joint damage. Therapies involving tissue engineering depend on chondrogenic differentiation of progenitor cells. This chondrogenic differentiation will have to survive in a diseased joint. We postulate that catabolic factors in this environment inhibit chondrogenesis of progenitor cells. We investigated the effect of a catabolic environment on chondrogenesis in pellet cultures of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). We exposed chondrogenically differentiated hMSC pellets, to interleukin (IL)-1α, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α or conditioned medium derived from osteoarthritic synovium (CM-OAS). IL-1α and TNF-α in CM-OAS were blocked with IL-1Ra or Enbrel, respectively. Chondrogenesis was determined by chondrogenic markers collagen type II, aggrecan, and the hypertrophy marker collagen type X on mRNA. Proteoglycan deposition was analyzed by safranin o staining on histology. IL-1α and TNF-α dose-dependently inhibited chondrogenesis when added at onset or during progression of differentiation, IL-1α being more potent than TNF-α. CM-OAS inhibited chondrogenesis on mRNA and protein level but varied in extent between patients. Inhibition of IL-1α partially overcame the inhibitory effect of the CM-OAS on chondrogenesis whereas the TNF-α contribution was negligible. We show that hMSC chondrogenesis is blocked by either IL-1α or TNF-α alone, but that there are additional factors present in CM-OAS that contribute to inhibition of chondrogenesis, demonstrating that catabolic factors present in OA joints inhibit chondrogenesis, thereby impairing successful tissue engineering.

  19. Natural Variation in Synthesis and Catabolism Genes Influences Dhurrin Content in Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad M. Hayes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyanogenic glucosides are natural compounds found in more than 1000 species of angiosperms that produce HCN and are deemed undesirable for agricultural use. However, these compounds are important components of the primary defensive mechanisms of many plant species. One of the best-studied cyanogenic glucosides is dhurrin [(--hydroxymandelonitrile-β--glucopyranoside], which is produced primarily in sorghum [ (L. Moench]. The biochemical basis for dhurrin metabolism is well established; however, little information is available on its genetic control. Here, we dissect the genetic control of leaf dhurrin content through a genome-wide association study (GWAS using a panel of 700 diverse converted sorghum lines (conversion panel previously subjected to pre-breeding and selected for short stature (∼1 m in height and photoperiod insensitivity. The conversion panel was grown for 2 yr in three environments. Wide variation for leaf dhurrin content was found in the sorghum conversion panel, with the Caudatum group exhibiting the highest dhurrin content and the Guinea group showing the lowest dhurrin content. A GWAS using a mixed linear model revealed significant associations (a false discovery rate [FDR] < 0.05 close to both UGT 185B1 in the canonical biosynthetic gene cluster on chromosome 1 and close to the catabolic dhurrinase loci on chromosome 8. Dhurrin content was associated consistently with biosynthetic genes in the two N-fertilized environments, while dhurrin content was associated with catabolic loci in the environment without supplemental N. These results suggest that genes for both biosynthesis and catabolism are important in determining natural variation for leaf dhurrin in sorghum in different environments.

  20. Involvement of Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in the regulation of proline catabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie eLeprince

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant adaptation to abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity involves complex regulatory processes. Deciphering the signalling components that are involved in stress signal transduction and cellular responses is of importance to understand how plants cope with salt stress. Accumulation of osmolytes such as proline is considered to participate in the osmotic adjustment of plant cells to salinity. Proline accumulation results from a tight regulation between its biosynthesis and catabolism. Lipid signal components such as phospholipases C and D have previously been shown to be involved in the regulation of proline metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we demonstrate that proline metabolism is also regulated by class-III Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K, VPS34, which catalyses the formation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P from phosphatidylinositol. Using pharmacological and biochemical approaches, we show that the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, affects PI3P levels in vivo and that it triggers a decrease in proline accumulation in response to salt treatment of A. thaliana seedlings. The lower proline accumulation is correlated with a lower transcript level of Pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1 biosynthetic enzyme and higher transcript and protein levels of Proline dehydrogenase 1 (ProDH1, a key-enzyme in proline catabolism. We also found that the ProDH1 expression is induced in a pi3k-hemizygous mutant, further demonstrating that PI3K is involved in the regulation of proline catabolism through transcriptional regulation of ProDH1. A broader metabolomic analysis indicates that LY294002 also reduced other metabolites, such as hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids and sugars like raffinose.

  1. Protein catabolism in pregnant snakes (Epicrates cenchria maurus Boidae) compromises musculature and performance after reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourdais, O; Brischoux, F; DeNardo, D; Shine, R

    2004-07-01

    In many species the high energetic demands of reproduction induce a negative energy balance, and thus females must rely on tissue catabolism to complete the reproductive process. Previous works have shown that both fat and protein are energy resources during prolonged fasting in vertebrates. While many ecological studies on energy costs of reproduction have focused on variations in fat stores, the impact of protein investment on the female has not been thoroughly investigated. Notably, as there is no specialized storage form for proteins, intense catabolism is likely to entail structural (musculature) loss that may compromise maternal physical performance after reproduction. Measurements on captive rainbow boas ( Epicrates cenchria maurus) confirm that reproducing females undergo significant protein catabolism (as indicated by elevated plasma uric acid levels) and show considerable musculature loss during gestation (as detected by reduced width of the epaxial muscles). Protein mobilization entailed a significant functional loss that was illustrated by decrements in tests of strength and constriction after parturition. In wild situations, such effects are likely to decrease the snakes' ability to forage and apprehend prey. Hence, the time period needed to recover from reproduction can be extended not only because the female must compensate losses of both fat stores and functional muscle, but also because the ability to do so may be compromised. Performance alteration is likely to be of equal or greater importance than reduced energy stores in the physiological mediation of elevated post-reproduction mortality rates and infrequent reproductive bouts (e.g. biannual or triannual), two common ecological traits of female snakes.

  2. Amino acid repletion does not decrease muscle protein catabolism during hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Dominic S C; Adeniyi, Oladipo; Dominic, Elizabeth A; Boivin, Michel A; McClelland, Sandra; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H; Morgan, Nancy; Gonzales, Lawrence; Wolfe, Robert; Ferrando, Arny

    2007-06-01

    Intradialytic protein catabolism is attributed to loss of amino acids in the dialysate. We investigated the effect of amino acid infusion during hemodialysis (HD) on muscle protein turnover and amino acid transport kinetics by using stable isotopes of phenylalanine, leucine, and lysine in eight patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Subjects were studied at baseline (pre-HD), 2 h of HD without amino acid infusion (HD-O), and 2 h of HD with amino acid infusion (HD+AA). Amino acid depletion during HD-O augmented the outward transport of amino acids from muscle into the vein. Increased delivery of amino acids to the leg during HD+AA facilitated the transport of amino acids from the artery into the intracellular compartment. Increase in muscle protein breakdown was more than the increase in synthesis during HD-O (46.7 vs. 22.3%, P HD-O compared with pre-HD (-33.7 +/- 1.5 vs. -6.0 +/- 2.3, P acids, the net balance (-16.9 +/- 1.8) did not switch from net release to net uptake. HD+AA induced a proportional increase in muscle protein synthesis and catabolism. Branched chain amino acid catabolism increased significantly from baseline during HD-O and did not decrease during HD+AA. Protein synthesis efficiency, the fraction of amino acid in the intracellular pool that is utilized for muscle protein synthesis decreased from 42.1% pre-HD to 33.7 and 32.6% during HD-O and HD+AA, respectively (P acid repletion during HD increased muscle protein synthesis but did not decrease muscle protein breakdown.

  3. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary structural studies of catabolic ornithine transcarbamylase from Lactobacillus hilgardii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas, Blanca de las; Rodríguez, Héctor; Angulo, Iván; Muñoz, Rosario; Mancheño, José M.

    2007-01-01

    The catabolic ornithine transcarbamylase (cOTC) from L. hilgardii has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized under two different experimental conditions. The structure has been solved by the molecular-replacement method using the atomic coordinates of catabolic ornithine transcarbamylase from P. aeruginosa as the search model. The catabolic ornithine transcarbamylase (cOTC; EC 2.1.3.3) from the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus hilgardii is a key protein involved in the degradation of arginine during malolactic fermentation. cOTC containing an N-terminal His 6 tag has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized under two different experimental conditions using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals obtained from a solution containing 8%(w/v) PEG 4000, 75 mM sodium acetate pH 4.6 belong to the trigonal space group P321 and have unit-cell parameters a = b = 157.04, c = 79.28 Å. Conversely, crystals grown in 20%(v/v) 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol, 7.5%(w/v) PEG 4000, 100 mM HEPES pH 7.8 belong to the monoclinic space group C2 and have unit-cell parameters a = 80.06, b = 148.90, c = 91.67 Å, β = 100.25°. Diffraction data were collected in-house to 3.00 and 2.91 Å resolution for trigonal and monoclinic crystals, respectively. The estimated Matthews coefficient for the crystal forms were 2.36 and 2.24 Å 3 Da −1 , respectively, corresponding to 48% and 45% solvent content. In both cases, the results are consistent with the presence of three protein subunits in the asymmetric unit. The structure of cOTC has been determined by the molecular-replacement method using the atomic coordinates of cOTC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PDB code) as the search model

  4. Nest sharing under semi-natural conditions in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch

    2012-01-01

    problems to laying hens, and egg production may also be negatively affected. Understanding what causes this difference in nest location selection may provide solutions to the problems associated with simultaneous nest sharing. The aims were to investigate whether a commercial strain of laying hens normally...... daily of each nest with regard to number of eggs, position, and materials used. On five mornings nesting behaviour was observed. Nest sharing occurred on all but the first 5 days of egg-laying. The majority of hens (n = 14) chose to visit an occupied nest at least once, but no hens exclusively used...

  5. The role of polyamine catabolism in anti-tumour drug response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casero, R A; Wang, Y; Stewart, T M; Devereux, W; Hacker, A; Wang, Y; Smith, R; Woster, P M

    2003-04-01

    Interest in polyamine catabolism has increased since it has been directly associated with the cytotoxic response of multiple tumour types to exposure to specific anti-tumour polyamine analogues. Human polyamine catabolism was considered to be a two-step pathway regulated by the rate-limiting enzyme spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT) that provides substrate for an acetylpolyamine oxidase (APAO). Further, the super-induction of SSAT by several anti-tumour polyamine analogues has been implicated in the cytotoxic response of specific solid-tumour phenotypes to these agents. This high induction of SSAT has been correlated with cellular response to the anti-tumour polyamine analogues in several systems and considerable progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate the analogue-induced expression of SSAT. A polyamine response element has been identified and the transacting transcription factors that bind and stimulate transcription of SSAT have been cloned and characterized. The link between SSAT activity and cellular toxicity is thought to be based on the production of H(2)O(2) by the activity of the constitutive APAO that uses the SSAT-produced acetylated polyamines. The high induction of SSAT and the subsequent activity of APAO are linked to the cytotoxic response of some tumour cell types to specific polyamine analogues. However, we have recently cloned a variably spliced human polyamine oxidase (PAOh1) that is inducible by specific polyamine analogues, efficiently uses unacetylated spermine as a substrate, and also produces toxic H(2)O(2) as a product. The results of studies with PAOh1 suggest that it is an additional enzyme in polyamine catabolism that has the potential to significantly contribute to polyamine homoeostasis and drug response. Most importantly, PAOh1 is induced by specific polyamine analogues in a tumour-phenotype-specific manner in cell lines representative of the major forms of solid tumours, including

  6. D-Allose catabolism of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tim S.; Chang, Ying-Ying; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1999-01-01

    Genes involved in allose utilization of Escherichia coli K-12 are organized in at least two operons, alsRBACE and alsI, located next to each other on the chromosome but divergently transcribed. Mutants defective in alsI (allose 6-phosphate isomerase gene) and alsE (allulose 6-phosphate epimerase...... gene) were Als-. Transcription of the two allose operons, measured as β-galactosidase activity specified by alsI-lacZ+ or alsE-lacZ+ operon fusions, was induced by allose. Ribose also caused derepression of expression of the regulon under conditions in which ribose phosphate catabolism was impaired....

  7. Familial resemblance of borderline personality disorder features: genetic or cultural transmission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijn A Distel

    Full Text Available Borderline personality disorder is a severe personality disorder for which genetic research has been limited to family studies and classical twin studies. These studies indicate that genetic effects explain 35 to 45% of the variance in borderline personality disorder and borderline personality features. However, effects of non-additive (dominance genetic factors, non-random mating and cultural transmission have generally not been explored. In the present study an extended twin-family design was applied to self-report data of twins (N = 5,017 and their siblings (N = 1,266, parents (N = 3,064 and spouses (N = 939 from 4,015 families, to estimate the effects of additive and non-additive genetic and environmental factors, cultural transmission and non-random mating on individual differences in borderline personality features. Results showed that resemblance among biological relatives could completely be attributed to genetic effects. Variation in borderline personality features was explained by additive genetic (21%; 95% CI 17-26% and dominant genetic (24%; 95% CI 17-31% factors. Environmental influences (55%; 95% CI 51-60% explained the remaining variance. Significant resemblance between spouses was observed, which was best explained by phenotypic assortative mating, but it had only a small effect on the genetic variance (1% of the total variance. There was no effect of cultural transmission from parents to offspring.

  8. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for gulls and terns in Mississippi. Vector points in this data set represent bird nesting sites. Species...

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting and roosting gulls, terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and T/E species in Southern California. Vector...

  10. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting birds in Northwest Arctic, Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent locations of...

  11. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting birds in coastal Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey. Vector points in this...

  12. Nest site characteristics, nesting movements, and lack of long-term nest site fidelity in Agassiz's desert tortoises at a wind energy facility in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Agha, Mickey; Yackulic, Charles B.; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Ennen, Joshua R.; Arundel, Terry R.; Austin, Meaghan

    2014-01-01

    Nest site selection has important consequences for maternal and offspring survival and fitness. Females of some species return to the same nesting areas year after year. We studied nest site characteristics, fidelity, and daily pre-nesting movements in a population of Agassiz’s desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at a wind energy facility in southern California during two field seasons separated by over a decade. No females returned to the same exact nest site within or between years but several nested in the same general area. However, distances between first and second clutches within a year (2000) were not significantly different from distances between nests among years (2000 and 2011) for a small sample of females, suggesting some degree of fidelity within their normal activity areas. Environmental attributes of nest sites did not differ significantly among females but did among years due largely to changes in perennial plant structure as a result of multiple fires. Daily pre-nesting distances moved by females decreased consistently from the time shelled eggs were first visible in X-radiographs until oviposition, again suggesting some degree of nest site selection. Tortoises appear to select nest sites that are within their long-term activity areas, inside the climate-moderated confines of one of their self-constructed burrows, and specifically, at a depth in the burrow that minimizes exposure of eggs and embryos to lethal incubation temperatures. Nesting in “climate-controlled” burrows and nest guarding by females relaxes some of the constraints that drive nest site selection in other oviparous species.

  13. Predaceous ants, beach replenishment, and nest placement by sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterer, James K; Wood, Lawrence D; Johnson, Chris; Krahe, Holly; Fitchett, Stephanie

    2007-10-01

    Ants known for attacking and killing hatchling birds and reptiles include the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren), tropical fire ant [Solenopsis geminata (Fabr.)], and little fire ant [Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger)]. We tested whether sea turtle nest placement influenced exposure to predaceous ants. In 2000 and 2001, we surveyed ants along a Florida beach where green turtles (Chelonia mydas L.), leatherbacks (Dermochelys coriacea Vandelli), and loggerheads (Caretta caretta L.) nest. Part of the beach was artificially replenished between our two surveys. As a result, mean beach width experienced by nesting turtles differed greatly between the two nesting seasons. We surveyed 1,548 sea turtle nests (2000: 909 nests; 2001: 639 nests) and found 22 ant species. S. invicta was by far the most common species (on 431 nests); S. geminata and W. auropunctata were uncommon (on 3 and 16 nests, respectively). In 2000, 62.5% of nests had ants present (35.9% with S. invicta), but in 2001, only 30.5% of the nests had ants present (16.4% with S. invicta). Turtle nests closer to dune vegetation had significantly greater exposure to ants. Differences in ant presence on turtle nests between years and among turtle species were closely related to differences in nest placement relative to dune vegetation. Beach replenishment significantly lowered exposure of nests to ants because on the wider beaches turtles nested farther from the dune vegetation. Selective pressures on nesting sea turtles are altered both by the presence of predaceous ants and the practice of beach replenishment.

  14. Construction patterns of birds' nests provide insight into nest-building behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Biddle, Lucia; Goodman, Adrian; Deeming, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that birds and mammals select materials needed for nest building based on their thermal or structural properties, although the amounts or properties of the materials used have been recorded for only a very small number of species. Some of the behaviours underlying the construction of nests can be indirectly determined by careful deconstruction of the structure and measurement of the biomechanical properties of the materials used. Here we examined this idea in a...

  15. From neurons to nests : nest-building behaviour as a model in behavioural and comparative neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Zachary Jonas; Meddle, Simone L; Healy, Susan Denise

    2015-01-01

    This work was supported by funding from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/ I019502/1 to SDH and SLM) and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (grant number PGSD3-409582-2011 to ZJH) and Roslin Institute Strategic Grant funding from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (SLM). Despite centuries of observing the nest building of most extant bird species, we know surprisingly little about how birds build nests and, s...

  16. Eggshell Porosity Provides Insight on Evolution of Nesting in Dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Tanaka

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the types of nests built by dinosaurs can provide insight into the evolution of nesting and reproductive behaviors among archosaurs. However, the low preservation potential of their nesting materials and nesting structures means that most information can only be gleaned indirectly through comparison with extant archosaurs. Two general nest types are recognized among living archosaurs: 1 covered nests, in which eggs are incubated while fully covered by nesting material (as in crocodylians and megapodes, and 2 open nests, in which eggs are exposed in the nest and brooded (as in most birds. Previously, dinosaur nest types had been inferred by estimating the water vapor conductance (i.e., diffusive capacity of their eggs, based on the premise that high conductance corresponds to covered nests and low conductance to open nests. However, a lack of statistical rigor and inconsistencies in this method render its application problematic and its validity questionable. As an alternative we propose a statistically rigorous approach to infer nest type based on large datasets of eggshell porosity and egg mass compiled for over 120 extant archosaur species and 29 archosaur extinct taxa/ootaxa. The presence of a strong correlation between eggshell porosity and nest type among extant archosaurs indicates that eggshell porosity can be used as a proxy for nest type, and thus discriminant analyses can help predict nest type in extinct taxa. Our results suggest that: 1 covered nests are likely the primitive condition for dinosaurs (and probably archosaurs, and 2 open nests first evolved among non-avian theropods more derived than Lourinhanosaurus and were likely widespread in non-avian maniraptorans, well before the appearance of birds. Although taphonomic evidence suggests that basal open nesters (i.e., oviraptorosaurs and troodontids were potentially the first dinosaurs to brood their clutches, they still partially buried their eggs in sediment

  17. Eggshell Porosity Provides Insight on Evolution of Nesting in Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kohei; Zelenitsky, Darla K; Therrien, François

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the types of nests built by dinosaurs can provide insight into the evolution of nesting and reproductive behaviors among archosaurs. However, the low preservation potential of their nesting materials and nesting structures means that most information can only be gleaned indirectly through comparison with extant archosaurs. Two general nest types are recognized among living archosaurs: 1) covered nests, in which eggs are incubated while fully covered by nesting material (as in crocodylians and megapodes), and 2) open nests, in which eggs are exposed in the nest and brooded (as in most birds). Previously, dinosaur nest types had been inferred by estimating the water vapor conductance (i.e., diffusive capacity) of their eggs, based on the premise that high conductance corresponds to covered nests and low conductance to open nests. However, a lack of statistical rigor and inconsistencies in this method render its application problematic and its validity questionable. As an alternative we propose a statistically rigorous approach to infer nest type based on large datasets of eggshell porosity and egg mass compiled for over 120 extant archosaur species and 29 archosaur extinct taxa/ootaxa. The presence of a strong correlation between eggshell porosity and nest type among extant archosaurs indicates that eggshell porosity can be used as a proxy for nest type, and thus discriminant analyses can help predict nest type in extinct taxa. Our results suggest that: 1) covered nests are likely the primitive condition for dinosaurs (and probably archosaurs), and 2) open nests first evolved among non-avian theropods more derived than Lourinhanosaurus and were likely widespread in non-avian maniraptorans, well before the appearance of birds. Although taphonomic evidence suggests that basal open nesters (i.e., oviraptorosaurs and troodontids) were potentially the first dinosaurs to brood their clutches, they still partially buried their eggs in sediment. Open nests

  18. Prostaglandin synthesis and catabolism in the gastric mucosa: studies in normal rabbits and rabbits immunized with prostaglandin E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redfern, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    Antral and fundic mucosal homogenates obtained from prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits converted 14C-arachidonic acid to prostaglandin E2, 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin F2 alpha, and prostaglandin D2. Percentage conversion of 14C-arachidonic acid to these prostaglandin products was not significantly different in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits compared with control rabbits (thyroglobulin-immunized and unimmunized rabbits combined). Synthesis of 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin E2 and 13,14-dihydro 15-keto prostaglandin E2 from endogenous arachidonic acid after vortex mixing fundic mucosal homogenates was similar in prostaglandin E2 immunized rabbits and control rabbits. Both in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits and controls, 3H-prostaglandin E2 was catabolized extensively by the fundic mucosa, whereas 3H-6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, 3H-prostaglandin F2 alpha, and 3H-prostaglandin D2 were not catabolized to any appreciable extent. The rate of catabolism of PGs was not significantly different in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits and control rabbits, with the exception of prostaglandin F2 alpha which was catabolized slightly more rapidly in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits. These results indicate that development of gastric ulcers in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits is not associated with an alteration in the capacity of the gastric mucosa to synthesize or catabolize prostaglandins

  19. Amino acid catabolism-directed biofuel production in Clostridium sticklandii: An insight into model-driven systems engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Sangavai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Model-driven systems engineering has been more fascinating process for the microbial production of biofuel and bio-refineries in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Genome-scale modeling and simulations have been guided for metabolic engineering of Clostridium species for the production of organic solvents and organic acids. Among them, Clostridium sticklandii is one of the potential organisms to be exploited as a microbial cell factory for biofuel production. It is a hyper-ammonia producing bacterium and is able to catabolize amino acids as important carbon and energy sources via Stickland reactions and the development of the specific pathways. Current genomic and metabolic aspects of this bacterium are comprehensively reviewed herein, which provided information for learning about protein catabolism-directed biofuel production. It has a metabolic potential to drive energy and direct solventogenesis as well as acidogenesis from protein catabolism. It produces by-products such as ethanol, acetate, n-butanol, n-butyrate and hydrogen from amino acid catabolism. Model-driven systems engineering of this organism would improve the performance of the industrial sectors and enhance the industrial economy by using protein-based waste in environment-friendly ways. Keywords: Biofuel, Amino acid catabolism, Genome-scale model, Metabolic engineering, Systems biology, ABE fermentation, Clostridium sticklandii

  20. Design of nest access grids and perches in front of the nests: Influence on the behavior of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stämpfli, K; Buchwalder, T; Fröhlich, E K F; Roth, B A

    2013-04-01

    In aviary systems for laying hens, it is important to provide suitable nest access platforms in front of the nests, allowing hens to reach and explore each of the nests easily. This access platform is needed to achieve good nest acceptance by the hens and thereby prevent mislaid eggs. In the present experiment, the behavior of hens using 2 different nest access platforms, a plastic grid and 2 wooden perches, was examined. Furthermore, the nests were placed on both sides of the aviary rack (corridor side and outdoor side), either integrated into the aviary rack itself (integrated nest; IN) or placed on the walls of the pens (wall nest; WN), resulting in a 2 × 2 factorial design Four thousand five hundred white laying hens were housed in 20 test pens. The eggs in the nests and mislaid eggs were collected daily, and the behavior of hens on the nest accesses was filmed during wk 25 and 26, using focal observation and scan sampling methods. More balancing, body contact, and agonistic interactions were expected for nests with perches, whereas more walking and nest inspections were expected for nests with grids. There were more mislaid eggs and balancing found in pens equipped with nests with wooden perches. More agonistic interactions and balancing, less standing, and a longer duration of nest inspection were found with the WN compared with the IN. Interactions between platform design and position of the nests were found for duration of nest visits, body contact, and walking, with the highest amount for WN equipped with plastic grids. Nests on the corridor side were favored by the hens. Nest-related behaviors, such as nest inspection, standing, and walking, decreased over time as did the number of hens on the nest accesses, whereas sitting increased. These results indicate that the hens had more difficulties in gripping the perches as designed. The lower number of hens on the nest access platforms in front of IN may be due to a better distribution around nests and tier

  1. Nesting biology of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) lactitarse Saussure (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae) in trap-nests in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschini, M L T; Niesing, F; Wolff, L L

    2006-08-01

    This study was carried in the Parque Municipal das Araucárias in the municipality of Guarapuava, state of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Three hundred and sixty five nests of T. lactitarse were obtained using trap-nests of 0.7, 1.0, and 1.3 cm in diameter. All of them had similar architecture, regardless of the diameter of the trap-nest. Completed nests consisted of a linear series of brood cells whose average number per nest was of 3.3, 4.0 and 3.6 for the nests with 0.7 cm, 1.0 cm and 1.3 cm in diameter, respectively. They were constructed more often during the summer. T. lactitarse had two types of life cycles: direct development (without diapause), and delayed development (with diapause during winter). Natural enemies included Chrysididae, Sarcophagidae, Dolichopodidae and Ichneumonidae. Out of 1,353 identified spider prey, 1,313 belonged to the Araneidae family.

  2. Nesting biology of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum lactitarse Saussure (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae in trap-nests in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. T. Buschini

    Full Text Available This study was carried in the Parque Municipal das Araucárias in the municipality of Guarapuava, state of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Three hundred and sixty five nests of T. lactitarse were obtained using trap-nests of 0.7, 1.0, and 1.3 cm in diameter. All of them had similar architecture, regardless of the diameter of the trap-nest. Completed nests consisted of a linear series of brood cells whose average number per nest was of 3.3, 4.0 and 3.6 for the nests with 0.7 cm, 1.0 cm and 1.3 cm in diameter, respectively. They were constructed more often during the summer. T. lactitarse had two types of life cycles: direct development (without diapause, and delayed development (with diapause during winter. Natural enemies included Chrysididae, Sarcophagidae, Dolichopodidae and Ichneumonidae. Out of 1,353 identified spider prey, 1,313 belonged to the Araneidae family.

  3. Bovine lactoferricin is anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic in human articular cartilage and synovium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dongyao; Chen, Di; Shen, Jie; Xiao, Guozhi; van Wijnen, Andre J; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2013-02-01

    Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) is a multi-functional peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of bovine lactoferrin. LfcinB was found to antagonize the biological effects mediated by angiogenic growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) in endothelial cells. However, the effect of LfcinB on human articular cartilage remained unknown. Here, our findings demonstrate that LfcinB restored the proteoglycan loss promoted by catabolic factors (interleukin-1β) IL-1β and FGF-2 in vitro and ex vivo. Mechanistically, LfcinB attenuated the effects of IL-1β and FGF-2 on the expression of cartilage-degrading enzymes (MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13), destructive cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6), and inflammatory mediators (iNOS and TLR2). LfcinB induced protective cytokine expression (IL-4 and IL-10), and downregulated aggrecanase basal expression. LfcinB specifically activated ERK MAPK and Akt signaling pathways, which may account for its anti-inflammatory activity. We also revealed that LfcinB exerted similar protective effects on human synovial fibroblasts challenged by IL-1β, with minimal cytotoxicity. Collectively, our results suggest that LfcinB possesses potent anti-catabolic and anti-inflammatory bioactivities in human articular tissues, and may be utilized for the prevention and/or treatment of OA in the future. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The effect of CreA in glucose and xylose catabolism in Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prathumpai, Wai; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    The catabolism of glucose and xylose was studied in a wild type and creA deleted (carbon catabolite de-repressed) strain of Aspergillus nidulans. Both strains were cultivated in bioreactors with either glucose or xylose as the sole carbon source, or in the presence of both sugars. In the cultivat......The catabolism of glucose and xylose was studied in a wild type and creA deleted (carbon catabolite de-repressed) strain of Aspergillus nidulans. Both strains were cultivated in bioreactors with either glucose or xylose as the sole carbon source, or in the presence of both sugars...... on the sugar mixture, glucose repression of xylose utilisation was observed; with xylose utilisation occurring only after glucose was depleted. This phenomenon was not seen in the creA deleted strain, where glucose and xylose were catabolised simultaneously. Measurement of key metabolites and the activities...... of key enzymes in the xylose utilisation pathway revealed that xylose metabolism was occurring in the creA deleted strain, even at high glucose concentrations. Conversely, in the wild type strain, activities of the key enzymes for xylose metabolism increased only when the effects of glucose repression...

  5. Mutations Enhancing Amino Acid Catabolism Confer a Growth Advantage in Stationary Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinser, Erik R.; Kolter, Roberto

    1999-01-01

    Starved cultures of Escherichia coli undergo successive rounds of population takeovers by mutants of increasing fitness. These mutants express the growth advantage in stationary phase (GASP) phenotype. Previous work identified the rpoS819 allele as a GASP mutation allowing cells to take over stationary-phase cultures after growth in rich media (M. M. Zambrano, D. A. Siegele, M. A. Almirón, A. Tormo, and R. Kolter, Science 259:1757–1760, 1993). Here we have identified three new GASP loci from an aged rpoS819 strain: sgaA, sgaB, and sgaC. Each locus is capable of conferring GASP on the rpoS819 parent, and they can provide successively higher fitnesses for the bacteria in the starved cultures. All four GASP mutations isolated thus far allow for faster growth on both individual and mixtures of amino acids. Each mutation confers a growth advantage on a different subset of amino acids, and these mutations act in concert to increase the overall catabolic capacity of the cell. We present a model whereby this enhanced ability to catabolize amino acids is responsible for the fitness gain during carbon starvation, as it may allow GASP mutants to outcompete the parental cells when growing on the amino acids released by dying cells. PMID:10482523

  6. Metabolism and catabolism in hip fracture patients: nutritional and anabolic intervention--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedström, Margareta; Ljungqvist, Olle; Cederholm, Tommy

    2006-10-01

    Patients suffering from hip fracture are known to be at risk of catabolism and protein-energy malnutrition. In this review we discuss the pathogenesis of hip fracture-related catabolism per- and postoperatively. We also describe the consequences of malnutrition after a hip fracture and summarize studies that have evaluated the effect of nutritional or anabolic treatment of these patients. There has been relatively little published on the effects of nutritional and anabolic pharmacological interventions for improvement of nutritional status and on the role of nutritional status in clinical outcomes. Even so, there have been 19 randomized studies in this field. 12 studies evaluated nutritional supplementation or protein supplementation. 6 found improved clinical outcome with fewer complications, faster recovery and shorter length of hospital stay, whereas the others reported no difference in clinical outcome. For pharmacological interventions, the outcomes have been even less clear. Supplementation studies in general appear to be underpowered or suffer logistic problems. Studies of higher scientific quality are needed, and enteral feeding, anabolic treatment and multimodal approaches need to be evaluated in greater depth.

  7. The ygeW encoded protein from Escherichia coli is a knotted ancestral catabolic transcarbamylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yongdong; Jin, Zhongmin; Yu, Xiaolin; Allewell, Norma M.; Tuchman, Mendel; Shi, Dashuang (Maryland); (GWU); (Georgia)

    2012-06-28

    Purine degradation plays an essential role in nitrogen metabolism in most organisms. Uric acid is the final product of purine catabolism in humans, anthropoid apes, birds, uricotelic reptiles, and almost all insects. Elevated levels of uric acid in blood (hyperuricemia) cause human diseases such as gout, kidney stones, and renal failure. Although no enzyme has been identified that further degrades uric acid in humans, it can be oxidized to produce allantoin by free-radical attack. Indeed, elevated levels of allantoin are found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, chronic lung disease, bacterial meningitis, and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In other mammals, some insects and gastropods, uric acid is enzymatically degraded to the more soluble allantoin through the sequential action of three enzymes: urate oxidase, 5-hydroxyisourate (HIU) hydrolase and 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline (OHCU) decarboxylase. Therefore, an elective treatment for acute hyperuricemia is the administration of urate oxidase. Many organisms, including plants, some fungi and several bacteria, are able to catabolize allantoin to release nitrogen, carbon, and energy. In Arabidopsis thaliana and Eschrichia coli, S-allantoin has recently been shown to be degraded to glycolate and urea by four enzymes: allantoinase, allantoate amidohydrolase, ureidoglycine aminohydrolase, and ureidoglycolate amidohydrolase.

  8. Insulin signaling regulates fatty acid catabolism at the level of CoA activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The insulin/IGF signaling pathway is a highly conserved regulator of metabolism in flies and mammals, regulating multiple physiological functions including lipid metabolism. Although insulin signaling is known to regulate the activity of a number of enzymes in metabolic pathways, a comprehensive understanding of how the insulin signaling pathway regulates metabolic pathways is still lacking. Accepted knowledge suggests the key regulated step in triglyceride (TAG catabolism is the release of fatty acids from TAG via the action of lipases. We show here that an additional, important regulated step is the activation of fatty acids for beta-oxidation via Acyl Co-A synthetases (ACS. We identify pudgy as an ACS that is transcriptionally regulated by direct FOXO action in Drosophila. Increasing or reducing pudgy expression in vivo causes a decrease or increase in organismal TAG levels respectively, indicating that pudgy expression levels are important for proper lipid homeostasis. We show that multiple ACSs are also transcriptionally regulated by insulin signaling in mammalian cells. In sum, we identify fatty acid activation onto CoA as an important, regulated step in triglyceride catabolism, and we identify a mechanistic link through which insulin regulates lipid homeostasis.

  9. Perturbation of polyamine catabolism affects grape ripening of Vitis vinifera cv. Trincadeira.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Ali, Kashif; Choi, Young H; Sousa, Lisete; Verpoorte, Rob; Tiburcio, Antonio F; Fortes, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    Grapes are economically the most important fruit worldwide. However, the complexity of biological events that lead to ripening of nonclimacteric fruits is not fully understood, particularly the role of polyamines' catabolism. The transcriptional and metabolic profilings complemented with biochemical data were studied during ripening of Trincadeira grapes submitted to guazatine treatment, a potent inhibitor of polyamine oxidase activity. The mRNA expression profiles of one time point (EL 38) corresponding to harvest stage was compared between mock and guazatine treatments using Affymetrix GrapeGen(®) genome array. A total of 2113 probesets (1880 unigenes) were differentially expressed between these samples. Quantitative RT-PCR validated microarrays results being carried out for EL 35 (véraison berries), EL 36 (ripe berries) and EL 38 (harvest stage berries). Metabolic profiling using HPLC and (1)H NMR spectroscopy showed increase of putrescine, proline, threonine and 1-O-ethyl-β-glucoside in guazatine treated samples. Genes involved in amino acid, carbohydrate and water transport were down-regulated in guazatine treated samples suggesting that the strong dehydrated phenotype obtained in guazatine treated samples may be due to impaired transport mechanisms. Genes involved in terpenes' metabolism were differentially expressed between guazatine and mock treated samples. Altogether, results support an important role of polyamine catabolism in grape ripening namely in cell expansion and aroma development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Turnover of pigment granules: cyclic catabolism and anabolism of ommochromes within epidermal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insausti, T C; Casas, J

    2009-12-01

    Ommochromes are end products of the tryptophan metabolism in arthropods. While the anabolism of ommochromes has been well studied, the catabolism is totally unknown. In order to study it, we used the crab-spider Misumena vatia, which is able to change color reversibly in a few days, from yellow to white and back. Ommochromes is the only pigment class responsible for the body coloration in this animal. The aim of this study was to analyze the fine structure of the epidermal cells in bleaching spiders, in an attempt to correlate morphological changes with the fate of the pigment granules. Central to the process of bleaching is the lysis of the ommochrome granules. In the same cell, intact granules and granules in different degradation stages are found. The degradation begins with granule autolysis. Some components are extruded in the extracellular space and others are recycled via autophagy. Abundant glycogen appears associated to granulolysis. In a later stage of bleaching, ommochrome progranules, typical of white spiders, appear in the distal zone of the same epidermal cell. Catabolism and anabolism of pigment granules thus take place simultaneously in spider epidermal cells. A cyclic pathway of pigment granules formation and degradation, throughout a complete cycle of color change is proposed, together with an explanation for this turnover, involving photoprotection against UV by ommochromes metabolites. The presence of this turnover for melanins is discussed.

  11. The abundant marine bacterium Pelagibacter simultaneously catabolizes dimethylsulfoniopropionate to the gases dimethyl sulfide and methanethiol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jing; Todd, Jonathan D.; Thrash, J. Cameron; Qian, Yanping; Qian, Michael C.; Temperton, Ben; Guo, Jiazhen; Fowler, Emily K.; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.; De Leenheer, Patrick; Payne, Samuel H.; Johnston, Andrew W. B.; Davie-Martin, Cleo L.; Halsey, Kimberly H.; Giovannoni, Stephen J.

    2016-05-16

    Marine phytoplankton produce ~109 tons of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) per year1,2, an estimated 10% of which is catabolized by bacteria through the DMSP cleavage pathway to the climatically active gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS)3,4. SAR11 Alphaproteobacteria (order Pelagibacterales), the most abundant chemoorganotrophic bacteria in the oceans, have been shown to assimilate DMSP into biomass, thereby supplying this cell’s unusual requirement for reduced sulfur5,6. Here we report that Pelagibacter HTCC1062 produces the gas methanethiol (MeSH) and that simultaneously a second DMSP catabolic pathway, mediated by a DMSP lyase, shunts as much as 59% of DMSP uptake to DMS production. We propose a model in which the allocation of DMSP between these pathways is kinetically controlled to release increasing amounts of DMS as the supply of DMSP exceeds cellular sulfur demands for biosynthesis. These findings suggest that DMSP supply and demand relationships in Pelagibacter metabolism are important to determining rates of oceanic DMS production.

  12. Acetone Formation in the Vibrio Family: a New Pathway for Bacterial Leucine Catabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemecek-Marshall, Michele; Wojciechowski, Cheryl; Wagner, William P.; Fall, Ray

    1999-01-01

    There is current interest in biological sources of acetone, a volatile organic compound that impacts atmospheric chemistry. Here, we determined that leucine-dependent acetone formation is widespread in the Vibrionaceae. Sixteen Vibrio isolates, two Listonella species, and two Photobacterium angustum isolates produced acetone in the presence of l-leucine. Shewanella isolates produced much less acetone. Growth of Vibrio splendidus and P. angustum in a fermentor with controlled aeration revealed that acetone was produced after a lag in late logarithmic or stationary phase of growth, depending on the medium, and was not derived from acetoacetate by nonenzymatic decarboxylation in the medium. l-Leucine, but not d-leucine, was converted to acetone with a stoichiometry of approximately 0.61 mol of acetone per mol of l-leucine. Testing various potential leucine catabolites as precursors of acetone showed that only α-ketoisocaproate was efficiently converted by whole cells to acetone. Acetone production was blocked by a nitrogen atmosphere but not by electron transport inhibitors, suggesting that an oxygen-dependent reaction is required for leucine catabolism. Metabolic labeling with deuterated (isopropyl-d7)-l-leucine revealed that the isopropyl carbons give rise to acetone with full retention of deuterium in each methyl group. These results suggest the operation of a new catabolic pathway for leucine in vibrios that is distinct from the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A pathway seen in pseudomonads. PMID:10601206

  13. Re-Factoring Glycolytic Genes for Targeted Engineering of Catabolism in Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pascuala, Alberto; Nikel, Pablo I; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2018-01-01

    The Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway is widely accepted to be the biochemical standard of glucose catabolism. The well-characterized glycolytic route of Escherichia coli, based on the EMP catabolism, is an example of an intricate pathway in terms of genomic organization of the genes involved and patterns of gene expression and regulation. This intrinsic genetic and metabolic complexity renders it difficult to engineer glycolytic activities and transfer them onto other microbial cell factories, thus limiting the biotechnological potential of bacterial hosts that lack the route. Taking into account the potential applications of such a portable tool for targeted pathway engineering, in the present protocol we describe how the genes encoding all the enzymes of the linear EMP route have been individually recruited from the genome of E. coli K-12, edited in silico to remove their endogenous regulatory signals, and synthesized de novo following a standard (i.e., GlucoBrick) that facilitates their grouping in the form of functional modules that can be combined at the user's will. This novel genetic tool allows for the à la carte implementation or boosting of EMP pathway activities into different Gram-negative bacteria. The potential of the GlucoBrick platform is further illustrated by engineering novel glycolytic activities in the most representative members of the Pseudomonas genus (Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas aeruginosa).

  14. A Murine Model of Persistent Inflammation, Immune Suppression, and Catabolism Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M. Pugh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Critically ill patients that survive sepsis can develop a Persistent Inflammation, Immunosuppression, and Catabolism Syndrome (PICS, which often leads to extended recovery periods and multiple complications. Here, we utilized a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP method in mice with the goal of creating a model that concurrently displays all the characteristics of PICS. We observed that, after eight days, mice that survive the CLP develop persistent inflammation with significant myelopoiesis in the bone marrow and spleen. These mice also demonstrate ongoing immune suppression, as evidenced by the decreased total and naïve splenic CD4 and CD8 T cells with a concomitant increase in immature myeloid cells. The mice further display significant weight loss and decreased muscle mass, indicating a state of ongoing catabolism. When PICS mice are challenged with intranasal Pseudomonas aeruginosa, mortality is significantly elevated compared to sham mice. This mortality difference is associated with increased bacterial loads in the lung, as well as impaired neutrophil migration and neutrophil dysfunction in the PICS mice. Altogether, we have created a sepsis model that concurrently exhibits PICS characteristics. We postulate that this will help determine the mechanisms underlying PICS and identify potential therapeutic targets to improve outcomes for this patient population.

  15. Visitors to nests of Hooded Vultures Necrosyrtes monachus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We recommend expanding the Hooded Vulture nest monitoring programme to include more pairs. Keywords: Alopochen aegyptiaca, Chacma Baboon, Egyptian Goose, Hooded Vulture, Kruger-to-Canyons Biosphere Region, Martial Eagle, Necrosyrtes monachus, nest visitors, Papio ursinus, Polemaetus bellicosus ...

  16. DISPERSAL OF SEEDS AS NEST MATERIAL BY THE CACTUS WREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus) nests from the southern Chihuahuan Desert contained viable seeds of grasses, forbs, and shrubs. The most common plants used as construction material in these nests were Muhlenbergia porteri, Boerhavia spicata, and the alien grass Era...

  17. Bird nesting and droppings control on highway structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report provides a comprehensive literature survey of permanent and temporary deterrents to nesting and roosting, a : discussion of risks to human health and safety from exposure to bird nests and droppings and recommended protective measures, : ...

  18. Menstrual blood closely resembles the uterine immune micro-environment and is clearly distinct from peripheral blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, R.G. van der; Schutten, J.H.; Cranenbroek, B. van; Meer, M. ter; Donckers, J.; Scholten, R.R.; Heijden, O.W.H. van der; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Joosten, I.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is menstrual blood a suitable source of endometrial derived lymphocytes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Mononuclear cells isolated from menstrual samples (menstrual blood mononuclear cells (MMC)) are clearly distinct from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and show a strong resemblance with

  19. Comparing coefficients of nested nonlinear probability models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohler, Ulrich; Karlson, Kristian Bernt; Holm, Anders

    2011-01-01

    In a series of recent articles, Karlson, Holm and Breen have developed a method for comparing the estimated coeffcients of two nested nonlinear probability models. This article describes this method and the user-written program khb that implements the method. The KHB-method is a general decomposi......In a series of recent articles, Karlson, Holm and Breen have developed a method for comparing the estimated coeffcients of two nested nonlinear probability models. This article describes this method and the user-written program khb that implements the method. The KHB-method is a general...... decomposition method that is unaffected by the rescaling or attenuation bias that arise in cross-model comparisons in nonlinear models. It recovers the degree to which a control variable, Z, mediates or explains the relationship between X and a latent outcome variable, Y*, underlying the nonlinear probability...

  20. Nested partitions method, theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Leyuan

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing need to solve large-scale complex optimization problems in a wide variety of science and engineering applications, including designing telecommunication networks for multimedia transmission, planning and scheduling problems in manufacturing and military operations, or designing nanoscale devices and systems. Advances in technology and information systems have made such optimization problems more and more complicated in terms of size and uncertainty. Nested Partitions Method, Theory and Applications provides a cutting-edge research tool to use for large-scale, complex systems optimization. The Nested Partitions (NP) framework is an innovative mix of traditional optimization methodology and probabilistic assumptions. An important feature of the NP framework is that it combines many well-known optimization techniques, including dynamic programming, mixed integer programming, genetic algorithms and tabu search, while also integrating many problem-specific local search heuristics. The book uses...

  1. Congenital biliary tract malformation resembling biliary cystadenoma in a captive juvenile African lion (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliendo, Valentina; Bull, Andrew C J; Stidworthy, Mark F

    2012-12-01

    A captive 3-mo-old white African lion (Panthera leo) presented with clinical signs of acute pain and a distended abdomen. Despite emergency treatment, the lion died a few hours after presentation. Postmortem examination revealed gross changes in the liver, spleen, and lungs and an anomalous cystic structure in the bile duct. Histologic examination identified severe generalized multifocal to coalescent necrotizing and neutrophilic hepatitis, neutrophilic splenitis, and mild interstitial pneumonia, consistent with bacterial septicemia. The abnormal biliary structures resembled biliary cystadenoma. However, due to the age of the animal, they were presumed to be congenital in origin. Biliary tract anomalies and cystadenomas have been reported previously in adult lions, and this case suggests that at least some of these examples may have a congenital basis. It is unclear whether the lesion was an underlying factor in the development of hepatitis.

  2. Mammographic Texture Resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernoff, Konstantin; Christopher, S G; Karemore, Gopal

    PURPOSE Breast density has been established as a risk factor of breast cancer in numerous studies. Mammographic Texture Resemblance (MTR) has shown to be a density independent risk factor, but only on a single study. We examine if the statistics of the texture recorded in one study generalize...... as an independent risk factor in an unrelated cohort. METHOD AND MATERIALS The statistics of texture were recorded in digitalized film-mammograms of one 4-year prospective study (S1, Dutch screening program) of 245 breast cancers and 250 matched controls. From an independent cohort study (S2, Mayo Mammography...... Health Study cohort) 226 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed through 2008 and 442 matched controls (on age) were used for scoring screening digitized mammograms that were ascertained years prior to diagnosis 1993-2006. Mammographic percent density (PD), using Cumulus, and other major risk factors were...

  3. A novel and automatic mammographic texture resemblance marker is an independent risk factor for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Karemore, Gopal; Loog, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether breast cancer is predicted by a breast cancer risk mammographic texture resemblance (MTR) marker. Methods: A previously published case-control study included 495 women of which 245 were diagnosed with breast cancer. In baseline mammograms, 2-4 years prior...... to diagnosis, the following mammographic parameters were analysed for relation to breast cancer risk: (C) categorical parenchymal pattern scores; (R) radiologist's percentage density, (P) computer-based percentage density; (H) computer-based breast cancer risk MTR marker; (E) computer-based hormone replacement...... treatment MTR marker; and (A) an aggregate of P and H. Results: Density scores, C, R, and P correlated (tau=0.3-0.6); no other pair of scores showed large (tau>0.2) correlation. For the parameters, the odds ratios of future incidence of breast cancer comparing highest to lowest categories (146 and 106...

  4. Acral Peeling Skin Syndrome Resembling Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex in a 10-Month-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kavaklieva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS is a rare autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by asymptomatic desquamation of the skin limited to the hands and feet and histologically by cleavage at the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum level [Kiritsi et al.: J Invest Dermatol 2010;130:1741-1746]. We report on a 10-month-old boy with a history of skin peeling limited to the hands and feet since 2 months of age. Clinical examination revealed erythematous erosions with peripheral desquamation and flaccid blisters. DNA mutation analysis detected two heterozygous TGM5 mutations: c.2T>C, p.M1T in exon 1 and c.337G>T, p.G113C in exon 3 in keeping with the diagnosis of APSS. The clinical presentation of APSS alone might be confusing and strongly resemble epidermolysis bullosa simplex making the differential diagnosis difficult.

  5. Acral peeling skin syndrome resembling epidermolysis bullosa simplex in a 10-month-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaklieva, S; Yordanova, I; Bruckner-Tuderman, L; Has, C

    2013-01-01

    The acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by asymptomatic desquamation of the skin limited to the hands and feet and histologically by cleavage at the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum level [Kiritsi et al.: J Invest Dermatol 2010;130:1741-1746]. We report on a 10-month-old boy with a history of skin peeling limited to the hands and feet since 2 months of age. Clinical examination revealed erythematous erosions with peripheral desquamation and flaccid blisters. DNA mutation analysis detected two heterozygous TGM5 mutations: c.2T>C, p.M1T in exon 1 and c.337G>T, p.G113C in exon 3 in keeping with the diagnosis of APSS. The clinical presentation of APSS alone might be confusing and strongly resemble epidermolysis bullosa simplex making the differential diagnosis difficult.

  6. Structural relations between nested harmonic sums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.

    2008-07-01

    We describe the structural relations between nested harmonic sums emerging in the description of physical single scale quantities up to the 3-loop level in renormalizable gauge field theories. These are weight w=6 harmonic sums. We identify universal basic functions which allow to describe a large class of physical quantities and derive their complex analysis. For the 3-loop QCD Wilson coefficients 35 basic functions are required, whereas a subset of 15 describes the 3-loop anomalous dimensions. (orig.)

  7. Structural relations between nested harmonic sums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, J.

    2008-07-15

    We describe the structural relations between nested harmonic sums emerging in the description of physical single scale quantities up to the 3-loop level in renormalizable gauge field theories. These are weight w=6 harmonic sums. We identify universal basic functions which allow to describe a large class of physical quantities and derive their complex analysis. For the 3-loop QCD Wilson coefficients 35 basic functions are required, whereas a subset of 15 describes the 3-loop anomalous dimensions. (orig.)

  8. Nest trees of northern flying squirrels in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc D. Meyer; Douglas A. Kelt; Malcolm P. North

    2005-01-01

    We examined the nest-tree preferences of northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) in an old-growth, mixed-conifer and red fir (Abies magnifica) forest of the southern Sierra Nevada of California. We tracked 27 individuals to 122 nest trees during 3 summers. Flying squirrels selected nest trees that were larger in diameter and...

  9. Short Note Ground cavity nest temperatures and their relevance to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blue Swallows Hirundo atrocaerulea are Critically Endangered within South Africa. They nest in natural underground holes in mist-belt grasslands. Temperature dataloggers were used to record ground cavity nest (Tn) and ambient temperature (Ta) for one artificial and 11 natural Blue Swallow nests. Mean ground cavity Tn ...

  10. Efficient processing of containment queries on nested sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibrahim, A.; Fletcher, G.H.L.

    2013-01-01

    We study the problem of computing containment queries on sets which can have both atomic and set-valued objects as elements, i.e., nested sets. Containment is a fundamental query pattern with many basic applications. Our study of nested set containment is motivated by the ubiquity of nested data in

  11. Language Nests and Language Acquisition: An Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Eve K.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation presents the findings from interviews conducted with language nest workers, teachers, language nest coordinators, administrators of language revitalization programs, principals and directors of language immersion schools that work in close proximity with language nests, and linguists involved in language revitalization efforts.…

  12. Nest-site partitioning in a strandveld shrubland bird community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nest-site selection may vary adaptively among co-existing species as a result of competitive interactions among the species or in response to density-dependent nest predation. We examined nest-site characteristics and degree of partitioning among 14 co-existing bird species breeding in dwarf strandveld shrubland at ...

  13. UBV-photometry of nests of interacting galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipova, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    The results of photoelectric UBV-observations of 19 nests of interacting galaxies, made at the Crimean Station of the Sternberg Institute, are given. Most of the nests observed were found to be and to have high luminosity. The UBV and spectral data show a large amount of gas inside many nests [ru

  14. Nesting biology and food habits of the Peregrine Falcon Falco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied nesting biology, behaviour, and diet of the Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus radama in Madagascar during two breeding seasons at Tsimanampetsotsa Natural Reserve in the south-west (n = 2 nests) and at Tritriva Lake (n = 1 nest) on the central plateau from July to November 1999 and June to October 2000, ...

  15. Effects of prescribed burns on wintering cavity-nesting birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather L. Bateman; Margaret A. O' Connell

    2006-01-01

    Primary cavity-nesting birds play a critical role in forest ecosystems by excavating cavities later used by other birds and mammals as nesting or roosting sites. Several species of cavity-nesting birds are non-migratory residents and consequently subject to winter conditions. We conducted winter bird counts from 1998 to 2000 to examine the abundance and habitat...

  16. Repeatability of nest morphology in African weaver birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Patrick T; Hansell, Mike; Borello, Wendy D; Healy, Susan D

    2010-04-23

    It is generally assumed that birds build nests according to a genetic 'template', little influenced by learning or memory. One way to confirm the role of genetics in nest building is to assess the repeatability of nest morphology with repeated nest attempts. Solitary weaver birds, which build multiple nests in a single breeding season, are a useful group with which to do this. Here we show that repeatability of nest morphology was low, but significant, in male Southern Masked weaver birds and not significant in the Village weavers. The larger bodied Village weavers built larger nests than did Southern Masked weavers, but body size did not explain variation in Southern Masked weaver nest dimensions. Nests built by the same male in both species got shorter and lighter as more nests were constructed. While these data demonstrate the potential for a genetic component of variation in nest building in solitary weavers, it is also clear that there remains plenty of scope in both of these species for experience to shape nest construction.

  17. Localizing Tortoise Nests by Neural Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Barbuti

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to recognize the nest digging activity of tortoises using a device mounted atop the tortoise carapace. The device classifies tortoise movements in order to discriminate between nest digging, and non-digging activity (specifically walking and eating. Accelerometer data was collected from devices attached to the carapace of a number of tortoises during their two-month nesting period. Our system uses an accelerometer and an activity recognition system (ARS which is modularly structured using an artificial neural network and an output filter. For the purpose of experiment and comparison, and with the aim of minimizing the computational cost, the artificial neural network has been modelled according to three different architectures based on the input delay neural network (IDNN. We show that the ARS can achieve very high accuracy on segments of data sequences, with an extremely small neural network that can be embedded in programmable low power devices. Given that digging is typically a long activity (up to two hours, the application of ARS on data segments can be repeated over time to set up a reliable and efficient system, called Tortoise@, for digging activity recognition.

  18. Changes in position and quality of preferred nest box: effects on nest box use by laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Nielsen, Birte L.

    2013-01-01

    Using laying hens, we investigated whether position of a nest box, both within the pen and relative to other nest boxes, influenced the preference for a nest box, and how a sudden and marked change to the preferred box influenced the use of nest boxes by the hens. Groups (n=12) of 15 Isa Warren...... hens were housed in pens, each with five identical nest boxes in different positions: Two single (in a corner or not) and a triplet of nest boxes (one of which in a corner). The use of nest boxes was determined by the number of eggs laid daily in each box. Three experiments, each lasting 10 days, were...... carried out. First, the undisturbed use of each of the nest box types was investigated, and a strong preference (Peggs laid there. Second, each of the hen groups was moved to another pen allocated at random, and where...

  19. Sharp-Tailed Grouse Nest Survival and Nest Predator Habitat Use in North Dakota's Bakken Oil Field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Burr

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in extraction technologies have resulted in rapid increases of gas and oil development across the United States and specifically in western North Dakota. This expansion of energy development has unknown influences on local wildlife populations and the ecological interactions within and among species. Our objectives for this study were to evaluate nest success and nest predator dynamics of sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus in two study sites that represented areas of high and low energy development intensities in North Dakota. During the summers of 2012 and 2013, we monitored 163 grouse nests using radio telemetry. Of these, 90 nests also were monitored using miniature cameras to accurately determine nest fates and identify nest predators. We simultaneously conducted predator surveys using camera scent stations and occupancy modeling to estimate nest predator occurrence at each site. American badgers (Taxidea taxus and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis were the primary nest predators, accounting for 56.7% of all video recorded nest depredations. Nests in our high intensity gas and oil area were 1.95 times more likely to succeed compared to our minimal intensity area. Camera monitored nests were 2.03 times more likely to succeed than non-camera monitored nests. Occupancy of mammalian nest predators was 6.9 times more likely in our study area of minimal gas and oil intensity compared to the high intensity area. Although only a correlative study, our results suggest energy development may alter the predator community, thereby increasing nest success for sharp-tailed grouse in areas of intense development, while adjacent areas may have increased predator occurrence and reduced nest success. Our study illustrates the potential influences of energy development on the nest predator-prey dynamics of sharp-tailed grouse in western North Dakota and the complexity of evaluating such impacts on wildlife.

  20. Simple generic model for dynamic experiments with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in continuous culture. Decoupling between anabolism and catabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duboc, Philippe Jean; von Stockar, U.; Villadsen, John

    1998-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of a continuous culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae subjected to a sudden increase in the dilution rate has been successfully modelled for anaerobic growth on glucose, and for aerobic growth on acetate, on ethanol, and on glucose. The catabolism responded by an immediate jump...... identified in steady state continuous cultures or during batch experiments. Only the time constant of biosynthesis regeneration, tau(x), and the time constant of catabolic capacity regeneration, tau(cat), had to be identified during transient experiments. In most experiments 7, was around 3 h, and tau(cat...

  1. Construction and Optimization of a Heterologous Pathway for Protocatechuate Catabolism in Escherichia coli Enables Bioconversion of Model Aromatic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarkson, Sonya M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biosciences Division; Giannone, Richard J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division; Kridelbaugh, Donna M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biosciences Division; Elkins, James G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biosciences Division; Guss, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biosciences Division; Michener, Joshua K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biosciences Division, BioEnergy Science Center; Vieille, Claire [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2017-07-21

    The production of biofuels from lignocellulose yields a substantial lignin by-product stream that currently has few applications. Biological conversion of lignin-derived compounds into chemicals and fuels has the potential to improve the economics of lignocellulose-derived biofuels, but few microbes are able both to catabolize lignin-derived aromatic compounds and to generate valuable products. WhileEscherichia colihas been engineered to produce a variety of fuels and chemicals, it is incapable of catabolizing most aromatic compounds. Therefore, we engineeredE. colito catabolize protocatechuate, a common intermediate in lignin degradation, as the sole source of carbon and energy via heterologous expression of a nine-gene pathway fromPseudomonas putidaKT2440. Then, we used experimental evolution to select for mutations that increased growth with protocatechuate more than 2-fold. Increasing the strength of a single ribosome binding site in the heterologous pathway was sufficient to recapitulate the increased growth. After optimization of the core pathway, we extended the pathway to enable catabolism of a second model compound, 4-hydroxybenzoate. These engineered strains will be useful platforms to discover, characterize, and optimize pathways for conversions of lignin-derived aromatics.

    IMPORTANCELignin is a challenging substrate for microbial catabolism due to its polymeric and heterogeneous chemical structure. Therefore, engineering microbes for improved catabolism of lignin-derived aromatic compounds will require the assembly of an entire network of catabolic reactions, including pathways from genetically intractable strains. By constructing defined pathways for aromatic compound degradation in a model host would allow rapid

  2. Choline Catabolism in Burkholderia thailandensis Is Regulated by Multiple Glutamine Amidotransferase 1-Containing AraC Family Transcriptional Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, Adam M; Wargo, Matthew J

    2016-09-15

    Burkholderia thailandensis is a soil-dwelling bacterium that shares many metabolic pathways with the ecologically similar, but evolutionarily distant, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Among the diverse nutrients it can utilize is choline, metabolizable to the osmoprotectant glycine betaine and subsequently catabolized as a source of carbon and nitrogen, similar to P. aeruginosa Orthologs of genes in the choline catabolic pathway in these two bacteria showed distinct differences in gene arrangement as well as an additional orthologous transcriptional regulator in B. thailandensis In this study, we showed that multiple glutamine amidotransferase 1 (GATase 1)-containing AraC family transcription regulators (GATRs) are involved in regulation of the B. thailandensis choline catabolic pathway (gbdR1, gbdR2, and souR). Using genetic analyses and sequencing the transcriptome in the presence and absence of choline, we identified the likely regulons of gbdR1 (BTH_II1869) and gbdR2 (BTH_II0968). We also identified a functional ortholog for P. aeruginosa souR, a GATR that regulates the metabolism of sarcosine to glycine. GbdR1 is absolutely required for expression of the choline catabolic locus, similar to P. aeruginosa GbdR, while GbdR2 is important to increase expression of the catabolic locus. Additionally, the B. thailandensis SouR ortholog (BTH_II0994) is required for catabolism of choline and its metabolites as carbon sources, whereas in P. aeruginosa, SouR function can by bypassed by GbdR. The strategy employed by B. thailandensis represents a distinct regulatory solution to control choline catabolism and thus provides both an evolutionary counterpoint and an experimental system to analyze the acquisition and regulation of this pathway during environmental growth and infection. Many proteobacteria that occupy similar environmental niches have horizontally acquired orthologous genes for metabolism of compounds useful in their shared environment. The arrangement and differential

  3. Inertial cavitation threshold of nested microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, N; Dicker, S; Lewin, Peter; Wrenn, S P

    2015-04-01

    Cavitation of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) promotes both beneficial and detrimental bioeffects in vivo (Radhakrishnan et al., 2013) [1]. The ability to determine the inertial cavitation threshold of UCA microbubbles has potential application in contrast imaging, development of therapeutic agents, and evaluation of localized effects on the body (Ammi et al., 2006) [2]. This study evaluates a novel UCA and its inertial cavitation behavior as determined by a home built cavitation detection system. Two 2.25 MHz transducers are placed at a 90° angle to one another where one transducer is driven by a high voltage pulser and the other transducer receives the signal from the oscillating microbubble. The sample chamber is placed in the overlap of the focal region of the two transducers where the microbubbles are exposed to a pulser signal consisting of 600 pulse trains per experiment at a pulse repetition frequency of 5 Hz where each train has four pulses of four cycles. The formulation being analyzed is comprised of an SF6 microbubble coated by a DSPC PEG-3000 monolayer nested within a poly-lactic acid (PLA) spherical shell. The effect of varying shell diameters and microbubble concentration on cavitation threshold profile for peak negative pressures ranging from 50 kPa to 2 MPa are presented and discussed in this paper. The nesting shell decreases inertial cavitation events from 97.96% for an un-nested microbubble to 19.09% for the same microbubbles nested within a 2.53 μm shell. As shell diameter decreases, the percentage of inertially cavitating microbubbles also decreases. For nesting formulations with average outer capsule diameters of 20.52, 14.95, 9.95, 5.55, 2.53, and 1.95 μm, the percentage of sample destroyed at 1 MPa was 51.02, 38.94, 33.25, 25.27, 19.09, and 5.37% respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nest-site competition between invasive and native cavity nesting birds and its implication for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charter, Motti; Izhaki, Ido; Ben Mocha, Yitzchak; Kark, Salit

    2016-10-01

    Nesting cavities are often a limited resource that multiple species use. There is an ongoing discussion on whether invasive cavity nesting birds restrict the availability of this key limited resource. While the answer to this question has important conservation implications, little experimental work has been done to examine it. Here, we aimed to experimentally test whether alien cavity nesting birds affect the occupancy of cavities and the resulting breeding success of native cavity breeders in a large urban park located in Tel Aviv, Israel. Over three breeding seasons, we manipulated the entry size of nest boxes and compared the occupancy and breeding success of birds in nest boxes of two treatments. These included nest boxes with large-entrance and small-entrance holes. The large-entrance holes allowed access for both the native and invasive birds (the two main aliens in the park are the common mynas and rose-ringed parakeets). The smaller-entrance boxes, on the other hand, allowed only the smaller sized native cavity breeders (great tits and house sparrows) to enter the boxes but prevented the alien species from entering. We found that the large-entrance nest boxes were occupied by five different bird species, comprising three natives (great tit, house sparrow, Scops owl) and two invasive species (common myna, rose-ringed parakeet) while the small-entrance boxes were only occupied by the two native species. The alien common mynas and rose-ringed parakeets occupied 77.5% of the large-entrance nest boxes whereas native species, mainly great tits, occupied less than 9% of the large-entrance boxes and 36.5% of the small-entrance boxes. When examining the occupancy of those cavities that were not occupied by the aliens, natives occupied both the small and large-entrance nest boxes equally. Three quarters (78%) of the great tits breeding in the large-entrance boxes were usurped by common mynas during the breeding season and as a result breeding success was

  5. Light pollution affects nesting behavior of loggerhead turtles and predation risk of nests and hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Elton; Marco, Adolfo; da Graça, Jesemine; Pérez, Héctor; Abella, Elena; Patino-Martinez, Juan; Martins, Samir; Almeida, Corrine

    2017-08-01

    The introduction of artificial light into wildlife habitats is a rapidly expanding aspect of global change, which has many negative impacts on a wide range of taxa. In this experimental study, which took place on a beach located on the island of Boa Vista (Cabo Verde), three types of artificial light were tested on nesting loggerhead sea turtles as well as on ghost crabs, which intensively predate on nests and hatchlings, to determine the effects they would produce on the behavior of both species. Over the course of 36days, female loggerheads and ghost crabs were studied under yellow, orange and red lights, with observations also being made on dark nights that served as a control treatment. During this period, the frequencies of nesting attempts, the time taken by turtles to complete each phase of the nesting process, and ghost crab abundance and behaviors were carefully recorded. 1146 loggerhead nesting attempts were observed and recorded during the experiments, and results showed a decrease in nesting attempts of at least 20% when artificial lighting was present. A significant decline in successful attempts was also observed within the central sections of the beach, which corresponded to those that received more light. This artificial lighting significantly increased the time that turtles spent on the nesting process and forced them to do more extensive beach crawls. Despite this, the presence of light had no apparent effect on the final selection of the nesting site. Yellow and orange lights significantly disrupted the sea finding behavior and turtles were often unable to orient themselves seaward under these color lights. Disoriented turtles were observed crawling in circuitous paths in front of the light source for several minutes. In addition, artificial lights had the potential to increase the number of ghost crabs present within the illuminated stretches of the beach. However, only yellow lighting produced a significant change on aggressive and prey

  6. EFL Students' and Teachers' Attitudes toward Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety: A Look at NESTs and Non-NESTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Turgay; Tanriöver, Ahmet Serkan; Sahan, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    Native English Speaking Teachers (NESTs) have been employed in various English language teaching (ELT) positions and departments at private and state universities in Turkey, particularly over the last three decades. However, undergraduate EFL students' attitudes toward NESTs and Non-Native English Speaking Teachers (Non-NESTs) remain seriously…

  7. Nest densities of cavity-nesting birds in relation to postfire salvage logging and time since wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria A. Saab; Robin E. Russell; Jonathan G. Dudley

    2007-01-01

    We monitored the nest densities and nest survival of seven cavity-nesting bird species, including four open-space foragers (American Kestrel [Falco sparverius], Lewis's Woodpecker [Melanerpes lewis], Western Bluebird [Sialia mexicana], and Mountain Bluebird [S. currucoides]) and three wood...

  8. Convergent evolution of Amadori opine catabolic systems in plasmids of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Chang-Ho; Farrand, Stephen K; Lee, Ko-Eun; Park, Dae-Kyun; Lee, Jeong Kug; Kim, Kun-Soo

    2003-01-01

    Deoxyfructosyl glutamine (DFG, referred to elsewhere as dfg) is a naturally occurring Amadori compound found in rotting fruits and vegetables. DFG also is an opine and is found in tumors induced by chrysopine-type strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Such strains catabolize this opine via a pathway coded for by their plasmids. NT1, a derivative of the nopaline-type A. tumefaciens strain C58 lacking pTiC58, can utilize DFG as the sole carbon source. Genes for utilization of DFG were mapped to the 543-kb accessory plasmid pAtC58. Two cosmid clones of pAtC58 allowed UIA5, a plasmid-free derivative of C58, harboring pSa-C that expresses MocC (mannopine [MOP] oxidoreductase that oxidizes MOP to DFG), to grow by using MOP as the sole carbon source. Genetic analysis of subclones indicated that the genes for utilization of DFG are located in a 6.2-kb BglII (Bg2) region adjacent to repABC-type genes probably responsible for the replication of pAtC58. This region contains five open reading frames organized into at least two transcriptional soc (santhopine catabolism) groups: socR and socABCD. Nucleotide sequence analysis and analyses of transposon-insertion mutations in the region showed that SocR negatively regulates the expression of socR itself and socABCD. SocA and SocB are responsible for transport of DFG and MOP. SocA is a homolog of known periplasmic amino acid binding proteins. The N-terminal half of SocB is a homolog of the transmembrane transporter proteins for several amino acids, and the C-terminal half is a homolog of the transporter-associated ATP-binding proteins. SocC and SocD could be responsible for the enzymatic degradation of DFG, being homologs of sugar oxidoreductases and an amadoriase from Corynebacterium sp., respectively. The protein products of socABCD are not related at the amino acid sequence level to those of the moc and mot genes of Ti plasmids responsible for utilization of DFG and MOP, indicating that these two sets of genes and their

  9. A mass spectrometric method to determine activities of enzymes involved in polyamine catabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Shunsuke; Iwasaki, Kaori; Samejima, Keijiro; Takao, Koichi; Kohda, Kohfuku; Hiramatsu, Kyoko; Kawakita, Masao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Compounds in polyamine catabolic pathway were determined by a column-free ESI-TOF MS. ► N 1 - and N 8 -acetylspermidine were determined by a column-free ESI-MS/MS. ► The method was applied to determine activities of APAO, SMO, and SSAT in the pathway. ► The assay method contained stable isotope-labeled natural substrates. ► It is applicable to biological samples containing natural substrate and product. - Abstract: An analytical method for the determination of three polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) and five acetylpolyamines [N 1 -acetylspermidine (N 1 AcSpd), N 8 -acetylspermidine (N 8 AcSpd), N 1 -acetylspermine, N 1 ,N 8 -diacetylspermidine, and N 1 ,N 12 -diacetylspermine] involved in the polyamine catabolic pathway has been developed using a hybrid tandem mass spectrometer. Heptafluorobutyryl (HFB) derivatives of these compounds and respective internal standards labeled with stable isotopes were analyzed simultaneously by TOF MS, based on peak areas appearing at appropriate m/z values. The isomers, N 1 AcSpd and N 8 AcSpd were determined from their fragment ions, the acetylamidopropyl and acetylamidobutyl groups, respectively, using MS/MS with 13 C 2 -N 1 AcSpd and 13 C 2 -N 8 AcSpd which have the 13 C 2 -acetyl group as an internal standard. The TOF MS method was successfully applied to measure the activity of enzymes involved in polyamine catabolic pathways, namely N 1 -acetylpolyamine oxidase (APAO), spermine oxidase (SMO), and spermidine/spermine N 1 -acetyltransferase (SSAT). The following natural substrates and products labeled with stable isotopes considering the application to biological samples were identified; for APAO, [4,9,12- 15 N 3 ]-N 1 -acetylspermine and [1,4,8- 15 N 3 ]spermidine ( 15 N 3 -Spd), respectively; for SMO, [1,4,8,12- 15 N 4 ]spermine and 15 N 3 -Spd, respectively; and for SSAT, 15 N 3 -Spd and [1,4,8- 15 N 3 ]-N 1 -acetylspermidine, respectively.

  10. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary structural studies of catabolic ornithine transcarbamylase from Lactobacillus hilgardii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, Blanca de las; Rodríguez, Héctor [Instituto de Fermentaciones Industriales, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Angulo, Iván [Grupo de Cristalografía Macromolecular y Biología Estructural, Instituto Rocasolano, CSIC, Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Muñoz, Rosario [Instituto de Fermentaciones Industriales, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Mancheño, José M., E-mail: xjosemi@iqfr.csic.es [Grupo de Cristalografía Macromolecular y Biología Estructural, Instituto Rocasolano, CSIC, Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fermentaciones Industriales, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    The catabolic ornithine transcarbamylase (cOTC) from L. hilgardii has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized under two different experimental conditions. The structure has been solved by the molecular-replacement method using the atomic coordinates of catabolic ornithine transcarbamylase from P. aeruginosa as the search model. The catabolic ornithine transcarbamylase (cOTC; EC 2.1.3.3) from the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus hilgardii is a key protein involved in the degradation of arginine during malolactic fermentation. cOTC containing an N-terminal His{sub 6} tag has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized under two different experimental conditions using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals obtained from a solution containing 8%(w/v) PEG 4000, 75 mM sodium acetate pH 4.6 belong to the trigonal space group P321 and have unit-cell parameters a = b = 157.04, c = 79.28 Å. Conversely, crystals grown in 20%(v/v) 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol, 7.5%(w/v) PEG 4000, 100 mM HEPES pH 7.8 belong to the monoclinic space group C2 and have unit-cell parameters a = 80.06, b = 148.90, c = 91.67 Å, β = 100.25°. Diffraction data were collected in-house to 3.00 and 2.91 Å resolution for trigonal and monoclinic crystals, respectively. The estimated Matthews coefficient for the crystal forms were 2.36 and 2.24 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, respectively, corresponding to 48% and 45% solvent content. In both cases, the results are consistent with the presence of three protein subunits in the asymmetric unit. The structure of cOTC has been determined by the molecular-replacement method using the atomic coordinates of cOTC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PDB code) as the search model.

  11. Competition between pentoses and glucose during uptake and catabolism in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subtil Thorsten

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In mixed sugar fermentations with recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains able to ferment D-xylose and L-arabinose the pentose sugars are normally only utilized after depletion of D-glucose. This has been attributed to competitive inhibition of pentose uptake by D-glucose as pentose sugars are taken up into yeast cells by individual members of the yeast hexose transporter family. We wanted to investigate whether D-glucose inhibits pentose utilization only by blocking its uptake or also by interfering with its further metabolism. Results To distinguish between inhibitory effects of D-glucose on pentose uptake and pentose catabolism, maltose was used as an alternative carbon source in maltose-pentose co-consumption experiments. Maltose is taken up by a specific maltose transport system and hydrolyzed only intracellularly into two D-glucose molecules. Pentose consumption decreased by about 20 - 30% during the simultaneous utilization of maltose indicating that hexose catabolism can impede pentose utilization. To test whether intracellular D-glucose might impair pentose utilization, hexo-/glucokinase deletion mutants were constructed. Those mutants are known to accumulate intracellular D-glucose when incubated with maltose. However, pentose utilization was not effected in the presence of maltose. Addition of increasing concentrations of D-glucose to the hexo-/glucokinase mutants finally completely blocked D-xylose as well as L-arabinose consumption, indicating a pronounced inhibitory effect of D-glucose on pentose uptake. Nevertheless, constitutive overexpression of pentose-transporting hexose transporters like Hxt7 and Gal2 could improve pentose consumption in the presence of D-glucose. Conclusion Our results confirm that D-glucose impairs the simultaneous utilization of pentoses mainly due to inhibition of pentose uptake. Whereas intracellular D-glucose does not seem to have an inhibitory effect on pentose utilization

  12. Evolutionary Diversification of Alanine Transaminases in Yeast: Catabolic Specialization and Biosynthetic Redundancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Escalera-Fanjul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gene duplication is one of the major evolutionary mechanisms providing raw material for the generation of genes with new or modified functions. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae originated after an allopolyploidization event, which involved mating between two different ancestral yeast species. ScALT1 and ScALT2 codify proteins with 65% identity, which were proposed to be paralogous alanine transaminases. Further analysis of their physiological role showed that while ScALT1 encodes an alanine transaminase which constitutes the main pathway for alanine biosynthesis and the sole pathway for alanine catabolism, ScAlt2 does not display alanine transaminase activity and is not involved in alanine metabolism. Moreover, phylogenetic studies have suggested that ScALT1 and ScALT2 come from each one of the two parental strains which gave rise to the ancestral hybrid. The present work has been aimed to the understanding of the properties of the ancestral type Lacchancea kluyveri LkALT1 and Kluyveromyces lactis KlALT1, alanine transaminases in order to better understand the ScALT1 and ScALT2 evolutionary history. These ancestral -type species were chosen since they harbor ALT1 genes, which are related to ScALT2. Presented results show that, although LkALT1 and KlALT1 constitute ScALT1 orthologous genes, encoding alanine transaminases, both yeasts display LkAlt1 and KlAlt1 independent alanine transaminase activity and additional unidentified alanine biosynthetic and catabolic pathway(s. Furthermore, phenotypic analysis of null mutants uncovered the fact that KlAlt1 and LkAlt1 have an additional role, not related to alanine metabolism but is necessary to achieve wild type growth rate. Our study shows that the ancestral alanine transaminase function has been retained by the ScALT1 encoded enzyme, which has specialized its catabolic character, while losing the alanine independent role observed in the ancestral type enzymes. The fact that ScAlt2 conserves 64

  13. Semantic Analysis of Virtual Classes and Nested Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Virtual classes and nested classes are distinguishing features of BETA. Nested classes originated from Simula, but until recently they have not been part of main stream object- oriented languages. C++ has a restricted form of nested classes and they were included in Java 1.1. Virtual classes...... classes and parameterized classes have been made. Although virtual classes and nested classes have been used in BETA for more than a decade, their implementation has not been published. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of virtual classes and nested classes by presenting...

  14. The evolution of cerebellum structure correlates with nest complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Zachary J; Street, Sally E; Healy, Susan D

    2013-01-01

    Across the brains of different bird species, the cerebellum varies greatly in the amount of surface folding (foliation). The degree of cerebellar foliation is thought to correlate positively with the processing capacity of the cerebellum, supporting complex motor abilities, particularly manipulative skills. Here, we tested this hypothesis by investigating the relationship between cerebellar foliation and species-typical nest structure in birds. Increasing complexity of nest structure is a measure of a bird's ability to manipulate nesting material into the required shape. Consistent with our hypothesis, avian cerebellar foliation increases as the complexity of the nest built increases, setting the scene for the exploration of nest building at the neural level.

  15. Estimating raptor nesting success: old and new approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jessi L.; Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; Bond, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Studies of nesting success can be valuable in assessing the status of raptor populations, but differing monitoring protocols can present unique challenges when comparing populations of different species across time or geographic areas. We used large datasets from long-term studies of 3 raptor species to compare estimates of apparent nest success (ANS, the ratio of successful to total number of nesting attempts), Mayfield nesting success, and the logistic-exposure model of nest survival. Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus), and American kestrels (F. sparverius) differ in their breeding biology and the methods often used to monitor their reproduction. Mayfield and logistic-exposure models generated similar estimates of nesting success with similar levels of precision. Apparent nest success overestimated nesting success and was particularly sensitive to inclusion of nesting attempts discovered late in the nesting season. Thus, the ANS estimator is inappropriate when exact point estimates are required, especially when most raptor pairs cannot be located before or soon after laying eggs. However, ANS may be sufficient to assess long-term trends of species in which nesting attempts are highly detectable.

  16. Nest mortality of sagebrush songbirds due to a severe hailstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Jessica N.; Carlisle, Jason D.; Chalfoun, Anna D.

    2018-01-01

    Demographic assessments of nesting birds typically focus on failures due to nest predation or brood parasitism. Extreme weather events such as hailstorms, however, can also destroy eggs and injure or kill juvenile and adult birds at the nest. We documented the effects of a severe hailstorm on 3 species of sagebrush-associated songbirds: Sage Thrasher (Oreoscoptes montanus), Brewer's Sparrow (Spizella breweri), and Vesper Sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus), nesting at eight 24 ha study plots in central Wyoming, USA. Across all plots, 17% of 128 nests failed due to the hailstorm; however, all failed nests were located at a subset of study plots (n = 3) where the hailstorm was most intense, and 45% of all nests failures on those plots were due to hail. Mortality rates varied by species, nest architecture, and nest placement. Nests with more robust architecture and those sited more deeply under the shrub canopy were more likely to survive the hailstorm, suggesting that natural history traits may modulate mortality risk due to hailstorms. While sporadic in nature, hailstorms may represent a significant source of nest failure to songbirds in certain locations, especially with increasing storm frequency and severity forecasted in some regions with ongoing climate change.

  17. The reasons for the different nest shapes of Megapis bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woyke Jerzy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Over a 37-year period, we observed 1011 active bee nests and abandoned combs of Apis dorsata and Apis laboriosa in Nepal, India, the Philippines, and Bhutan. This article focuses on the reasons for the different shapes of the nests. We discovered that differing ambient conditions were the reasons for the following three shapes of symmetrical nests: vertical semi-ellipse, semicircle, and the horizontal semi-ellipse. We noted that asymmetrical nests were constructed when there was lack of space to extend the comb equally in both external directions. An asymmetrical nest also appeared when remnants of a previous comb remained on one edge of the nest. Convex nests were constructed to avoid excess sun exposure. Concave nests appeared as a result of low temperatures during the night and part of the day (Nepal. An L-shape nest was constructed when there was lack of space available to extend the nest in a straight direction. The shape of the nests also determines the way the combs fall.

  18. Bee species-specific nesting material attracts a generalist parasitoid: implications for co-occurring bees in nest box enhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macivor, J Scott; Salehi, Baharak

    2014-08-01

    Artificial nests (e.g., nest boxes) for bees are increasingly being used to contribute to nesting habitat enhancement for bees that use preexisting cavities to provision brood. They usually incorporate additional nesting materials that vary by species. Cavity-nesting bees are susceptible to brood parasitoids that recognize their host(s) using visual and chemical cues. Understanding the range of cues that attract parasitoids to bee nests, including human-made analogues, is important if we wish to control parasitism and increase the potential value of artificial nests as habitat-enhancement strategies. In this study, we investigated the cues associated with the orientation of the generalist brood parasitoid Monodontomerus obscurus Westwood (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) to the nests of a common cavity-nesting resin bee Megachile campanulae (Robertson) (Megachilidae). The parasitoids were reared from previously infested M. campanulae brood cells and placed into choice trials where they were presented with pairs of different nest material cues. Among different materials tested, we found that Mo. obscurus was most attracted to fresh resin collected directly from Pinus strobus trees followed by previously used resin collected from the bee nest. The parasitoid also attacked other bee species in the same nest boxes, including those that do not use resin for nesting. Our findings suggest that M. campanulae could act as a magnet, drawing parasites away from other bee hosts co-occurring in nest boxes, or, as an attractant of Mo. obscurus to nest boxes, increasing attacks on co-occurring host bee species, potentially undermining bee diversity enhancement initiatives.

  19. Effect of facial self-resemblance on the startle response and subjective ratings of erotic stimuli in heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Deuter, Christian E; Kuehl, Linn K; Schulz, Andre; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2011-10-01

    Cues of kinship are predicted to increase prosocial behavior due to the benefits of inclusive fitness, but to decrease approach motivation due to the potential costs of inbreeding. Previous studies have shown that facial resemblance, a putative cue of kinship, increases prosocial behavior. However, the effects of facial resemblance on mating preferences are equivocal, with some studies finding that facial resemblance decreases sexual attractiveness ratings, while other studies show that individuals choose mates partly on the basis of similarity. To further investigate this issue, a psychophysiological measure of affective processing, the startle response, was used in this study, assuming that differences in approach motivation to erotic pictures will modulate startle. Male volunteers (n = 30) viewed 30 pictures of erotic female nudes while startle eyeblink responses were elicited by acoustic noise probes. The female nude pictures were digitally altered so that the face either resembled the male participant or another participant, or were not altered. Non-nude neutral pictures were also included. Importantly, the digital alteration was undetected by the participants. Erotic pictures were rated as being pleasant and clearly reduced startle eyeblink magnitude as compared to neutral pictures. Participants showed greater startle inhibition to self-resembling than to other-resembling or non-manipulated female nude pictures, but subjective pleasure and arousal ratings did not differ among the three erotic picture categories. Our data suggest that visual facial resemblance of opposite-sex nudes increases approach motivation in men, and that this effect was not due to their conscious evaluation of the erotic stimuli.

  20. DETERMINATION OF PROTEIN CATABOLIC RATE IN PATIENTS ON CHRONIC INTERMITTENT HEMODIALYSIS - UREA OUTPUT MEASUREMENTS COMPARED WITH DIETARY-PROTEIN INTAKE AND WITH CALCULATION OF UREA GENERATION RATE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEGEMAN, CA; HUISMAN, RM; DEROUW, B; JOOSTEMA, A; DEJONG, PE

    We assessed the agreement between different methods of determining protein catabolic rate (PCR) in hemodialysis patients and the possible influence of postdialysis urea rebound and the length of the interdialytic interval on the PCR determination. Protein catabolic rate derived from measured total

  1. The identical-twin transfusion syndrome: a source of error in estimating IQ resemblance and heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsinger, H

    1977-01-01

    Published studies show that among identical twins, lower birthweight is associated with lower adult intelligence. However, no such relation between birthweight and adult IQ exists among fraternal twins. A likely explanation for the association between birthweight and intelligence among identical twins is the identical twin transfusion syndrome which occurs only between some monochorionic identical twin pairs. The IQ scores from separated identical twins were reanalysed to explore the consequences of identical twin transfusion syndrome for IQ resemblance and heritability. Among 129 published cases of identical twin pairs reared apart, 76 pairs contained some birthweight information. The 76 pairs were separated into three classes: 23 pairs in which there was clear evidence of a substantial birthweight differences (indicating the probable existence of the identical twin transfusion syndrome), 27 pairs in which the information on birthweight was ambiguous (?), and 26 pairs in which there was clear evidence that the twins were similar in birthweight. The reanalyses showed: (1) birthweight differences are positively associated with IQ differences in the total sample of separated identical twins; (2) within the group of 23 twin pairs who showed large birthweight differences, there was a positive relation between birthweight differences and IQ differences; (3) when heritability of IQ is estimated for those twins who do not suffer large birthweight differences, the resemblance (and thus, h2/b) of the separated identical twins' IG is 0-95. Given that the average reliability of the individual IQ test is around 0-95, these data suggest that genetic factors and errors of measurement cause the individual differences in IQ among human beings. Because of the identical twin transfusion syndrome, previous studies of MZ twins have underestimated the effect of genetic factors on IQ. An analysis of the IQs for heavier and lighter birthweight twins suggests that the main effect of the

  2. Catabolism of 6-ketoprostaglandin F1alpha by the rat kidney cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace-Asciak, C R; Domazet, Z; Carrara, M

    1977-05-25

    Homogenates of the rat kidney cortex converted 5,8,9,11,12,14,15-hepta-tritiated 6-ketoprostaglandin F 1alpha into one major product identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the methoxime-methyl ester trimethylsilyl ether derivative as 6,15-diketo-9,11-dihydroxyprost-13-enoic acid. The sequence of derivatisation i.e. methoximation prior to methylation, was crucial as methylation of 15-keto catabolites of the E, F and 6-keto-F series affords degradation products. The corresponding 15-keto-13,14-dihydro catabolite was formed in much smaller quantities. Time course studies indicated that 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha was catabolised at a slower rate (about 2-5 fold) than prostaglandin F1alpha. The catabolic activity was blocked by NADH.

  3. Engineering Bacteria to Catabolize the Carbonaceous Component of Sarin: Teaching E. coli to Eat Isopropanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Margaret E.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D.

    2016-01-01

    conversion with a key reaction performed by the acetone carboxylase complex (ACX). We engineered the heterologous expression of the ACX complex from Xanthobacter autotrophicus PY2 to match the naturally occurring subunit stoichiometry and purified the recombinant complex from E. coli for biochemical analysis....... Incorporating this ACX complex and enzymes from diverse organisms, we introduced an isopropanol degradation pathway in E. coli, optimized induction conditions, and decoupled enzyme expression to probe pathway bottlenecks. Our engineered E. coli consumed 65% of isopropanol compared to no-cell controls......We report an engineered strain of Escherichia coli that catabolizes the carbonaceous component of the extremely toxic chemical warfare agent sarin. Enzymatic decomposition of sarin generates isopropanol waste that, with this engineered strain, is then transformed into acetyl-CoA by enzymatic...

  4. Addiction to Coupling of the Warburg Effect with Glutamine Catabolism in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic reprogramming is critical to oncogenesis, but the emergence and function of this profound reorganization remain poorly understood. Here we find that cooperating oncogenic mutations drive large-scale metabolic reprogramming, which is both intrinsic to cancer cells and obligatory for the transition to malignancy. This involves synergistic regulation of several genes encoding metabolic enzymes, including the lactate dehydrogenases LDHA and LDHB and mitochondrial glutamic pyruvate transaminase 2 (GPT2. Notably, GPT2 engages activated glycolysis to drive the utilization of glutamine as a carbon source for TCA cycle anaplerosis in colon cancer cells. Our data indicate that the Warburg effect supports oncogenesis via GPT2-mediated coupling of pyruvate production to glutamine catabolism. Although critical to the cancer phenotype, GPT2 activity is dispensable in cells that are not fully transformed, thus pinpointing a metabolic vulnerability specifically associated with cancer cell progression to malignancy.

  5. Inoculum pretreatment affects bacterial survival, activity and catabolic gene expression during phytoremediation of diesel contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sumia; Afzal, Muhammad; Iqbal, Samina; Mirza, Muhammad Sajjad; Khan, Qaiser M

    2013-04-01

    Plant-bacteria partnership is a promising approach for remediating soil contaminated with organic pollutants. The colonization and metabolic activity of an inoculated microorganism depend not only on environmental conditions but also on the physiological condition of the applied microorganisms. This study assessed the influence of different inoculum pretreatments on survival, gene abundance and catabolic gene expression of an applied strain (Pantoea sp. strain BTRH79) in the rhizosphere of ryegrass vegetated in diesel contaminated soil. Maximum bacterium survival, gene abundance and expression were observed in the soil inoculated with bacterial cells that had been pregrown on complex medium, and hydrocarbon degradation and genotoxicity reduction were also high in this soil. These findings propose that use of complex media for growing plant inocula may enhance bacterial survival and colonization and subsequently the efficiency of pollutant degradation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stabilization of neurotensin analogues: effect on peptide catabolism, biodistribution and tumor binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruehlmeier, Matthias E-mail: peter.blaeuenstein@psi.ch; Garayoa, Elisa Garcia; Blanc, Alain; Holzer, Barbara; Gergely, Suzanne; Tourwe, Dirk; Schubiger, Pius August; Blaeuenstein, Peter

    2002-04-01

    Neurotensin (NT) receptors in pancreatic and other neuroendocrine tumors are promising targets for imaging and therapeutic purposes. Here, we report on the effect of distinct changes in the peptide chain on catabolism in vitro for five radiolabeled [{sup 99m}Tc] neurotensin analogues having high affinity for neurotensin receptors. Substitution of NT(1-7) by (N{alpha}His)Ac--the Tc-binding moiety--combined with a reduced bond 8-9 (CH{sub 2}NH), N-methylation of peptide bonds or replacement of Ile(12) by tertiary leucin (Tle) led to peptide stabilization of various degrees. Biodistribution studies in nude mice bearing HT29 xenografts showed higher tumor uptake with more stable peptides, yielding high tumor to blood ratios of up to 70.

  7. Nest-site selection in the acorn woodpecker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooge, P.N.; Stanback, M.T.; Koenig, Walter D.

    1999-01-01

    Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) at Hastings Reservation in central California prefer to nest in dead limbs in large, dead valley oaks (Quercus lobata) and California sycamores (Platanus racemosa) that are also frequently used as acorn storage trees. Based on 232 nest cavities used over an 18-year period, we tested whether preferred or modal nest-site characters were associated with increased reproductive success (the "nest-site quality" hypothesis). We also examined whether more successful nests were likely to experience more favorable microclimatic conditions or to be less accessible to terrestrial predators. We found only equivocal support for the nest-site quality hypothesis: only 1 of 5 preferred characters and 2 of 10 characters exhibiting a clear modality were correlated with higher reproductive success. All three characteristics of nests known or likely to be associated with a more favorable microclimate, and two of five characteristics likely to render nests less accessible to predators, were correlated with higher reproductive success. These results suggest that nest cavities in this population are built in part to take advantage of favorable microclimatic conditions and, to a lesser extent, to reduce access to predators. However, despite benefits of particular nest characteristics, birds frequently nested in apparently suboptimal cavities. We also found a significant relationship between mean group size and the history of occupancy of particular territories and the probability of nest cavities being built in microclimatically favorable live limbs, suggesting that larger groups residing on more stable territories were better able to construct nests with optimal characteristics. This indicates that there may be demographic, as well as ecological, constraints on nest-site selection in this primary cavity nester.

  8. Metabolic profiling of hypoxic cells revealed a catabolic signature required for cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Frezza

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is one of the features of poorly vascularised areas of solid tumours but cancer cells can survive in these areas despite the low oxygen tension. The adaptation to hypoxia requires both biochemical and genetic responses that culminate in a metabolic rearrangement to counter-balance the decrease in energy supply from mitochondrial respiration. The understanding of metabolic adaptations under hypoxia could reveal novel pathways that, if targeted, would lead to specific death of hypoxic regions. In this study, we developed biochemical and metabolomic analyses to assess the effects of hypoxia on cellular metabolism of HCT116 cancer cell line. We utilized an oxygen fluorescent probe in anaerobic cuvettes to study oxygen consumption rates under hypoxic conditions without the need to re-oxygenate the cells and demonstrated that hypoxic cells can maintain active, though diminished, oxidative phosphorylation even at 1% oxygen. These results were further supported by in situ microscopy analysis of mitochondrial NADH oxidation under hypoxia. We then used metabolomic methodologies, utilizing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS, to determine the metabolic profile of hypoxic cells. This approach revealed the importance of synchronized and regulated catabolism as a mechanism of adaptation to bioenergetic stress. We then confirmed the presence of autophagy under hypoxic conditions and demonstrated that the inhibition of this catabolic process dramatically reduced the ATP levels in hypoxic cells and stimulated hypoxia-induced cell death. These results suggest that under hypoxia, autophagy is required to support ATP production, in addition to glycolysis, and that the inhibition of autophagy might be used to selectively target hypoxic regions of tumours, the most notoriously resistant areas of solid tumours.

  9. Role of Myofibrillar Protein Catabolism in Development of Glucocorticoid Myopathy: Aging and Functional Activity Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teet Seene

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscle weakness in corticosteroid myopathy is mainly the result of the destruction and atrophy of the myofibrillar compartment of fast-twitch muscle fibers. Decrease of titin and myosin, and the ratio of nebulin and MyHC in myopathic muscle, shows that these changes of contractile and elastic proteins are the result of increased catabolism of the abovementioned proteins in skeletal muscle. Slow regeneration of skeletal muscle is in good correlation with a decreased number of satellite cells under the basal lamina of muscle fibers. Aging causes a reduction of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activity as the result of the reduced function of the mitochondrial compartment. AMPK activity increases as a result of increased functional activity. Resistance exercise causes anabolic and anticatabolic effects in skeletal muscle: muscle fibers experience hypertrophy while higher myofibrillar proteins turn over. These changes are leading to the qualitative remodeling of muscle fibers. As a result of these changes, possible maximal muscle strength is increasing. Endurance exercise improves capillary blood supply, increases mitochondrial biogenesis and muscle oxidative capacity, and causes a faster turnover rate of sarcoplasmic proteins as well as qualitative remodeling of type I and IIA muscle fibers. The combination of resistance and endurance exercise may be the fastest way to prevent or decelerate muscle atrophy due to the anabolic and anticatabolic effects of exercise combined with an increase in oxidative capacity. The aim of the present short review is to assess the role of myofibrillar protein catabolism in the development of glucocorticoid-caused myopathy from aging and physical activity aspects.

  10. Sialic Acid Catabolism Confers a Competitive Advantage to Pathogenic Vibrio cholerae in the Mouse Intestine▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Boyd, E. Fidelma

    2009-01-01

    Sialic acids comprise a family of nine-carbon ketosugars that are ubiquitous on mammalian mucous membranes. However, sialic acids have a limited distribution among Bacteria and are confined mainly to pathogenic and commensal species. Vibrio pathogenicity island 2 (VPI-2), a 57-kb region found exclusively among pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae, contains a cluster of genes (nan-nag) putatively involved in the scavenging (nanH), transport (dctPQM), and catabolism (nanA, nanE, nanK, and nagA) of sialic acid. The capacity to utilize sialic acid as a carbon and energy source might confer an advantage to V. cholerae in the mucus-rich environment of the gut, where sialic acid availability is extensive. In this study, we show that V. cholerae can utilize sialic acid as a sole carbon source. We demonstrate that the genes involved in the utilization of sialic acid are located within the nan-nag region of VPI-2 by complementation of Escherichia coli mutants and gene knockouts in V. cholerae N16961. We show that nanH, dctP, nanA, and nanK are highly expressed in V. cholerae grown on sialic acid. By using the infant mouse model of infection, we show that V. cholerae ΔnanA strain SAM1776 is defective in early intestinal colonization stages. In addition, SAM1776 shows a decrease in the competitive index in colonization-competition assays comparing the mutant strain with both O1 El Tor and classical strains. Our data indicate an important relationship between the catabolism of sialic acid and bacterial pathogenesis, stressing the relevance of the utilization of the resources found in the host's environment. PMID:19564383

  11. Training reduces catabolic and inflammatory response to a single practice in female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliakim, Alon; Portal, Shawn; Zadik, Zvi; Meckel, Yoav; Nemet, Dan

    2013-11-01

    We examined the effect of training on hormonal and inflammatory response to a single volleyball practice in elite adolescent players. Thirteen female, national team level, Israeli volleyball players (age 16.0 ± 1.4 years, Tanner stage 4-5) participated in the study. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after a typical 60 minutes of volleyball practice, before and after 7 weeks of training during the initial phase of the season. Training involved tactic and technical drills (20% of time), power and speed drills (25% of time), interval sessions (25% of time), endurance-type training (15% of time), and resistance training (15% of time). To achieve greater training responses, the study was performed during the early phase (first 7 weeks) of the volleyball season. Hormonal measurements included the anabolic hormones growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3, the catabolic hormone cortisol, the proinflammatory marker interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the anti-inflammatory marker IL-1 receptor antagonist. Training led to a significant improvement of vertical jump, anaerobic properties (peak and mean power by the Wingate Anaerobic Test), and predicted VO2max (by the 20-m shuttle run). Volleyball practice, both before and after the training intervention, was associated with a significant increase of serum lactate, GH, and IL-6. Training resulted in a significantly reduced cortisol response ([INCREMENT]cortisol: 4.2 ± 13.7 vs. -4.4 ± 12.3 ng · ml, before and after training, respectively; p volleyball practice. The results suggest that along with the improvement of power and anaerobic and aerobic characteristics, training reduces the catabolic and inflammatory response to exercise.

  12. Mitochondrial NUDIX hydrolases: A metabolic link between NAD catabolism, GTP and mitochondrial dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Aaron; Klimova, Nina; Kristian, Tibor

    2017-10-01

    NAD + catabolism and mitochondrial dynamics are important parts of normal mitochondrial function and are both reported to be disrupted in aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and acute brain injury. While both processes have been extensively studied there has been little reported on how the mechanisms of these two processes are linked. This review focuses on how downstream NAD + catabolism via NUDIX hydrolases affects mitochondrial dynamics under pathologic conditions. Additionally, several potential targets in mitochondrial dysfunction and fragmentation are discussed, including the roles of mitochondrial poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1(mtPARP1), AMPK, AMP, and intra-mitochondrial GTP metabolism. Mitochondrial and cytosolic NUDIX hydrolases (NUDT9α and NUDT9β) can affect mitochondrial and cellular AMP levels by hydrolyzing ADP- ribose (ADPr) and subsequently altering the levels of GTP and ATP. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is activated after DNA damage, which depletes NAD + pools and results in the PARylation of nuclear and mitochondrial proteins. In the mitochondria, ADP-ribosyl hydrolase-3 (ARH3) hydrolyzes PAR to ADPr, while NUDT9α metabolizes ADPr to AMP. Elevated AMP levels have been reported to reduce mitochondrial ATP production by inhibiting the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), allosterically activating AMPK by altering the cellular AMP: ATP ratio, and by depleting mitochondrial GTP pools by being phosphorylated by adenylate kinase 3 (AK3), which uses GTP as a phosphate donor. Recently, activated AMPK was reported to phosphorylate mitochondria fission factor (MFF), which increases Drp1 localization to the mitochondria and promotes mitochondrial fission. Moreover, the increased AK3 activity could deplete mitochondrial GTP pools and possibly inhibit normal activity of GTP-dependent fusion enzymes, thus altering mitochondrial dynamics. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Copper suppresses abscisic acid catabolism and catalase activity, and inhibits seed germination of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Nenghui; Li, Haoxuan; Zhu, Guohui; Liu, Yinggao; Liu, Rui; Xu, Weifeng; Jing, Yu; Peng, Xinxiang; Zhang, Jianhua

    2014-11-01

    Although copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for plants, a slight excess of Cu in soil can be harmful to plants. Unfortunately, Cu contamination is a growing problem all over the world due to human activities, and poses a soil stress to plant development. As one of the most important biological processes, seed germination is sensitive to Cu stress. However, little is known about the mechanism of Cu-induced inhibition of seed germination. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between Cu and ABA which is the predominant regulator of seed germination. Cu at a concentration of 30 µM effectively inhibited germination of rice caryopsis. ABA content in germinating seeds under copper stress was also higher than that under control conditions. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that Cu treatment reduced the expression of OsABA8ox2, a key gene of ABA catabolism in rice seeds. In addition, both malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 contents were increased by Cu stress in the germinating seeds. Antioxidant enzyme assays revealed that only catalase activity was reduced by excess Cu, which was consistent with the mRNA profile of OsCATa during seed germination under Cu stress. Together, our results demonstrate that suppression of ABA catabolism and catalase (CAT) activity by excess Cu leads to the inhibition of seed germination of rice. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Sialic acid catabolism confers a competitive advantage to pathogenic vibrio cholerae in the mouse intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Boyd, E Fidelma

    2009-09-01

    Sialic acids comprise a family of nine-carbon ketosugars that are ubiquitous on mammalian mucous membranes. However, sialic acids have a limited distribution among Bacteria and are confined mainly to pathogenic and commensal species. Vibrio pathogenicity island 2 (VPI-2), a 57-kb region found exclusively among pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae, contains a cluster of genes (nan-nag) putatively involved in the scavenging (nanH), transport (dctPQM), and catabolism (nanA, nanE, nanK, and nagA) of sialic acid. The capacity to utilize sialic acid as a carbon and energy source might confer an advantage to V. cholerae in the mucus-rich environment of the gut, where sialic acid availability is extensive. In this study, we show that V. cholerae can utilize sialic acid as a sole carbon source. We demonstrate that the genes involved in the utilization of sialic acid are located within the nan-nag region of VPI-2 by complementation of Escherichia coli mutants and gene knockouts in V. cholerae N16961. We show that nanH, dctP, nanA, and nanK are highly expressed in V. cholerae grown on sialic acid. By using the infant mouse model of infection, we show that V. cholerae DeltananA strain SAM1776 is defective in early intestinal colonization stages. In addition, SAM1776 shows a decrease in the competitive index in colonization-competition assays comparing the mutant strain with both O1 El Tor and classical strains. Our data indicate an important relationship between the catabolism of sialic acid and bacterial pathogenesis, stressing the relevance of the utilization of the resources found in the host's environment.

  15. Small-scale area effect on species richness and nesting occupancy of cavity-nesting bees and wasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael D. Loyola

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale area effect on species richness and nesting occupancy of cavity-nesting bees and wasps. The research was conducted in an urban forest remnant in southeast Brazil. We tested the predictions of the following hypotheses: (1 larger areas present higher species richness of bees and wasps, (2 solitary bees and wasps occupy more nests in larger areas, (3 rare species occupy more nests in smaller areas. We sampled Aculeate bees and wasps using trap nests from February to November 2004. We placed trap nests in sampling units (SU with different size (25, 100 and 400 m² located in 6 ha of secondary mesophytic forest. One hundred and thirty-seven trap nests were occupied by seven species of bees and four species of wasps. We found an increase in wasp, but not bee species richness following increase in SU size. Hymenoptera richness (i.e. bees plus wasps was also greater in larger SU. Both the number and density of occupied nests increased with SU size. The wasp Trypoxylon lactitarse responded significantly to area size, larger SU having more occupied nests. The same pattern was exhibited by the wasp Auplopus militaris, the Megachile bee species, and the bee Anthodioctes megachiloides. Only Trypoxylon sp. was not affected by SU size. Our results show that cavity-nesting bee and wasps respond differently to the area effects. Such findings must be complemented by information on the frequency and dynamics of area colonization and nest occupancy by species of solitary Hymenoptera.

  16. Catabolism of indole-3-acetic acid and 4- and 5-chloroindole-3-acetic acid in Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Egsgaard, H; Van Onckelen, H

    1995-01-01

    Some strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum have the ability to catabolize indole-3-acetic acid. Indoleacetic acid (IAA), 4-chloro-IAA (4-Cl-IAA), and 5-Cl-IAA were metabolized to different extents by strains 61A24 and 110. Metabolites were isolated and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatogr...

  17. Results from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition link vitamin B6 catabolism and lung cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuo, Hui; Ueland, Per Magne; Midttun, Øivind; Vollset, Stein Emil; Tell, Grethe S.; Theofylaktopoulou, Despoina; Travis, Ruth C.; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Fournier, Agnès; Severi, Gianluca; Kvaskoff, Marina; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Turzanski-Fortner, Renée; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. Bas; Peeters, Petra H.; Grankvist, Kjell; Johansson, Mikael; Agudo, Antonio; Garcia, Jose Ramon Quiros; Larranaga, Nerea; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Chuang, Shu Chun; Gallo, Valentina; Brennan, Paul; Johansson, Mattias; Ulvik, Arve

    2018-01-01

    Circulating pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP) has been linked to lung cancer risk. The PAr index, defined as the ratio 4-pyridoxic acid/(pyridoxal + PLP), reflects increased vitamin B6 catabolism during inflammation. PAr has been defined as a marker of lung cancer risk in a prospective cohort study, but

  18. Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Link Vitamin B6 Catabolism and Lung Cancer Risk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuo, Hui; Ueland, Per M; Midttun, Øivind; Vollset, Stein E; Tell, Grethe S; Theofylaktopoulou, Despoina; Travis, Ruth C; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fournier, Agnès; Severi, Gianluca; Kvaskoff, Marina; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M; Fortner, Renée T; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Grankvist, Kjell; Johansson, Mikael; Agudo, Antonio; Garcia, Jose Ramon Quiros; Larranaga, Nerea; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Gallo, Valentina; Brennan, Paul; Johansson, Mattias; Ulvik, Arve

    2018-01-01

    Circulating pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) has been linked to lung cancer risk. The PAr index, defined as the ratio 4-pyridoxic acid/(pyridoxal + PLP), reflects increased vitamin B6 catabolism during inflammation. PAr has been defined as a marker of lung cancer risk in a prospective cohort study, but

  19. ARA1 regulates not only l-arabinose but also d-galactose catabolism in Trichoderma reesei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benocci, Tiziano; Aguilar-Pontes, Maria Victoria; Kun, Roland Sándor; Seiboth, Bernhard; de Vries, Ronald P; Daly, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei is used to produce saccharifying enzyme cocktails for biofuels. There is limited understanding of the transcription factors (TFs) that regulate genes involved in release and catabolism of l-arabinose and d-galactose, as the main TF XYR1 is only partially involved. Here, the T.

  20. Catabolism of Phenol and Its Derivatives in Bacteria: Genes, Their Regulation, and Use in the Biodegradation of Toxic Pollutants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nešvera, Jan; Rucká, Lenka; Pátek, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 2015 (2015), s. 107-160 ISSN 0065-2164 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA04021212 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Biodegradation * Bioremediation * Phenol catabolism Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.128, year: 2015

  1. Study of Implosion of Combined Nested Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, K. N.; Aleksandrov, V. V.; Grabovski, E. V.; Sasorov, P. V.; Branitsky, A. V.; Gritsuk, A. N.; Frolov, I. N.; Laukhin, Ya. N.

    2017-12-01

    New experimental data on the implosion of plasma of nested kapron-tungsten arrays are obtained at the Angara-5-1 facility. The mode of plasma implosion is implemented in which a shock wave region forms in the space between the inner and outer arrays where a transition from the super-Alfvénic ( V r > V A ) to sub-Alfvénic ( V r Z-pinch and generation of a soft X-ray pulse with a peak power of 4 TW and duration of about 5 ns.

  2. Honey bee nest thermoregulation: diversity promotes stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Julia C; Myerscough, Mary R; Graham, Sonia; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2004-07-16

    A honey bee colony is characterized by high genetic diversity among its workers, generated by high levels of multiple mating by its queen. Few clear benefits of this genetic diversity are known. Here we show that brood nest temperatures in genetically diverse colonies (i.e., those sired by several males) tend to be more stable than in genetically uniform ones (i.e., those sired by one male). One reason this increased stability arises is because genetically determined diversity in workers' temperature response thresholds modulates the hive-ventilating behavior of individual workers, preventing excessive colony-level responses to temperature fluctuations.

  3. Epithelial proliferation in small ducts of salivary cystadenoma resembling atypical ductal hyperplasia of breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Lisa; Weinreb, Ilan; Alexander, Cherupushpam; Perez Ordoñez, Bayardo

    2008-09-01

    Salivary gland cystadenomas are cystic neoplasms with diverse architecture and cytology. Cystadenomas may have a considerable intracystic epithelial component, but an epithelial proliferation in small ducts and cysts resembling atypical ductal hyperplasia of breast has not been documented. The patient was a 68-year-old man with a slow growing right submandibular mass. He has no recurrence 13 months after resection. The tumor was polycystic and measured 3.0 x 2.5 x 2.5 cm. The epithelium of the larger cysts was composed of flat, cuboidal, columnar, and apocrine-like cells. Many of the larger cysts showed "Roman bridges", epithelial tufting, and papillae. The smaller cysts and ducts had apocrine-like cells forming secondary glandular lumens. The ductal cells were surrounded by clear myoepithelial cells. Nuclear pleomorphism and hyperchromasia was seen in the apocrine-like cells. Adjacent to the larger cysts, there was an adenomatoid proliferation of small ducts surrounded by myoepithelial cells. No mitotic activity, necrosis, or stromal invasion was identified. The ductal cells were diffusely positive for keratin 7 and androgen receptors with focal expression of keratin 19 and high-molecular weight keratin. S-100, estrogen and progesterone receptors, and BRST-2 were negative in the ductal cells. Recognition of a prominent intraductal epithelial component in cystadenomas is important to avoid a misdiagnosis of cystadenocarcinoma or low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. Cystadenomas join the list of salivary gland lesions with microscopic similarities to primary lesions of the breast.

  4. Does the calcification of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma resemble the calcium deposition of osteogenesis/odontogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song-Tao, Qi; Xiao-Rong, Yan; Jun, Pan; Yong-Jian, Deng; Jin, Liang; Guang-Long, Huang; Yun-Tao, Lu; Jian, Ruan; Xiang-Zhao, Li; Jia-Ming, Xu

    2014-02-01

    Calcification in adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) is troublesome for surgical intervention. The aim of this study was to examine the osteogenic proteins that play important roles in the calcium deposition of the odontogenic/osteogenic tissues in craniopharyngioma. Craniopharyngiomas (n = 89) were investigated for the presence and expression pattern of the osteoinductive/odontoinductive factor bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Bmp2) and two osteoblastic differentiation makers, Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) and Osterix, using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Our results showed that Bmp2, Runx2 and Osterix levels increased in cases with high calcification and correlated positively with the degree of calcification in ACP, whereas they showed little or no expression in squamous papillary craniopharyngioma. In ACP, Bmp2 was expressed primarily in the stellate reticulum and whorl-like array cells; Runx2 and Osterix tended to be expressed in calcification-related epithelia, including whorl-like array cells and epithelia in/around wet keratin and calcification lesions. Our study indicated, for the first time, that osteogenic factor Bmp2 may play an important role in the calcification of ACP via autocrine or paracrine mechanisms. Given the presence of osteogenic markers (Runx2 and Osterix), craniopharyngioma cells could differentiate into an osteoblast-like lineage, and the process of craniopharyngioma calcification resembles that which occurs in osteogenesis/odontogenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Pulmonary Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in a Patient with Chronic Asthma Resembling Lung Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massood Hosseinzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Extramedullary hematopoiesis is most often seen in reticuloendothelial organs specially spleen, liver, or lymph nodes, and it is rarely seen in lung parenchyma. Almost all reported cases of pulmonary extramedullary hematopoiesis occurred following myeloproliferative disorders specially myelofibrosis. Other less common underlying causes are thalassemia syndromes and other hemoglobinopathies. There was not any reported case of pulmonary extramedullary hematopoiesis in asthmatic patients in the medical literature. Case. Here we reported a 65-year-old lady who was a known case of bronchial asthma with recent developed right lower lobe lung mass. Chest X-ray and CT studies showed an infiltrating mass resembling malignancy. Fine needle aspiration cytology of mass revealed pulmonary extramedullary hematopoiesis. The patient followed for 10 months with serial physical examination and laboratory evaluations which were unremarkable. Conclusion. Extramedullary hematopoiesis of lung parenchyma can be mistaken for lung cancer radiologically. Although previous reported cases occurred with myelofibrosis or hemoglobinopathies, we are reporting the first case of asthma-associated extramedullary hematopoiesis.

  6. Nuclear security culture in comparison with nuclear safety culture. Resemblances and differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Since the terrorist attacks on the U.S. on September 11th, 2001, Nuclear Security has been focused on and treated as a global issue in the international community and it has also been discussed as a real and serious threat to nuclear power plants in the world since 'The Great East Japan Earthquake' in March, 2011. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) issued a document including Nuclear Security Recommendations (INFCIRC/225/Rev.5) (NSS 13) in the Nuclear Security Series and emphasized the necessity of fostering Nuclear Security Culture. Nuclear Security Culture has been frequently discussed at various kinds of seminars and events. Since the officials in charge of Nuclear Security are familiar with the area of Nuclear Safety, the relationships between Nuclear Safety Culture and Nuclear Security Culture have been the point in controversy. This paper clarifies relevance between Nuclear Safety and Security, considers resemblances and differences of their concepts and lessons learned for each culture from nuclear power plant accidents, and promotes deeper understanding of Nuclear Safety and Nuclear Security Culture. (author)

  7. Prion disease resembling frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitrini Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical features of a familial prion disease with those of frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17. BACKGROUND: Prion diseases are not usually considered in the differential diagnosis of FTDP-17, since familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, the most common inherited prion disease, often manifests as a rapidly progressive dementia. Conversely, FTDP-17 usually has an insidious onset in the fifth decade, with abnormal behavior and parkinsonian features. METHOD: We present the clinical features of 12 patients from a family with CJD associated with a point mutation at codon 183 of the prion protein gene. RESULTS: The mean age at onset was 44.0 ± 3.7; the duration of the symptoms until death ranged from two to nine years. Behavioral disturbances were the predominant presenting symptoms. Nine patients were first seen by psychiatrists. Eight patients manifested parkinsonian signs. CONCLUSION: These clinical features bear a considerable resemblance to those described in FTDP-17.

  8. On Learning Natural-Science Categories That Violate the Family-Resemblance Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosofsky, Robert M; Sanders, Craig A; Gerdom, Alex; Douglas, Bruce J; McDaniel, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    The general view in psychological science is that natural categories obey a coherent, family-resemblance principle. In this investigation, we documented an example of an important exception to this principle: Results of a multidimensional-scaling study of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks (Experiment 1) suggested that the structure of these categories is disorganized and dispersed. This finding motivated us to explore what might be the optimal procedures for teaching dispersed categories, a goal that is likely critical to science education in general. Subjects in Experiment 2 learned to classify pictures of rocks into compact or dispersed high-level categories. One group learned the categories through focused high-level training, whereas a second group was required to simultaneously learn classifications at a subtype level. Although high-level training led to enhanced performance when the categories were compact, subtype training was better when the categories were dispersed. We provide an interpretation of the results in terms of an exemplar-memory model of category learning.

  9. Use of noninvasive genetics to assess nest and space use by white-tailed eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Zafer; Bragin, Evgeny A.; DeWoody, J. Andrew; Braham, Melissa A.; Katzner, Todd E.; Doyle, Jacqueline M.

    2016-01-01

    Movement and space use are important components of animal interactions with the environment. However, for hard-to-monitor raptor species, there are substantial gaps in our understanding of these key determinants. We used noninvasive genetic tools to evaluate the details of space use over a 3-yr period by White-tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) at the Naurzum Zapovednik in northern Kazakhstan. We genotyped, at 10 microsatellite markers and one mitochondrial marker, 859 eagle feathers and assigned naturally shed feathers to individuals. We identified 124 White-tailed Eagles, including both members of 5–10 pairs per year, and were able to monitor birds across years. Distances between eagle nests and hunting perches were always greater than nearest neighbor distances, eagles never used the closest available hunting perch, and hunting perches were always shared with other eagles. When eagles switched nests between years, the nests they chose were almost always well outside the space that theory predicted they defended the prior year. Our data are inconsistent with classical territorial and colonial models of resource use; they more closely resemble semi-colonial behavior. It is unlikely that standard methods of animal tracking (e.g., marking and telemetry), would have provided a similarly cost-effective mechanism to gain these insights into spatial and temporal aspects of eagle behavior. When combined with existing information on space use of other local species, these data suggest that partitioning of spatial resources among White-tailed Eagles and other eagles at the Zapovednik may be facilitated by the alternative strategies of space use they employ.

  10. Bald Eagle nestling mortality associated with Argas radiatus and Argas ricei tick infestation and successful management with nest removal in Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice-Allen, Anne; Orr, Kathy; Schuler, Krysten L.; McCarty, Kyle; Jacobson, Kenneth; Meteyer, Carol U.

    2016-01-01

    Eight Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestlings heavily infested with larval ticks were found in or under a nest near the confluence of the Verde and Salt rivers in Arizona in 2009-11. The 8-12-wk-old nestlings were slow to respond to stimuli and exhibited generalized muscle weakness or paresis of the pelvic limbs. Numerous cutaneous and subcutaneous hemorrhages were associated with sites of tick attachment. Ticks were identified as Argas radiatus and Argas ricei. Treatment with acaricides and infection with West Nile virus (WNV) may have confounded the clinical presentation in 2009 and 2010. However, WNV-negative birds exhibited similar signs in 2011. One nestling recovered from paresis within 36 h after the removal of all adult and larval ticks (>350) and was released within 3 wk. The signs present in the heavily infested Bald Eagle nestlings resembled signs associated with tick paralysis, a neurotoxin-mediated paralytic syndrome described in mammals, reptiles, and wild birds (though not eagles). Removal of the infested nest and construction of a nest platform in a different tree was necessary to break the cycle of infection. The original nesting pair constructed a new nest on the man-made platform and successfully fledged two Bald Eagles in 2012.

  11. Nest-site selection and nest success of an Arctic-breeding passerine, Smith's Longspur, in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Heather R.; Kendall, Steve J.; Powell, Abby

    2017-01-01

    Despite changes in shrub cover and weather patterns associated with climate change in the Arctic, little is known about the breeding requirements of most passerines tied to northern regions. We investigated the nesting biology and nest habitat characteristics of Smith's Longspurs (Calcarius pictus) in 2 study areas in the Brooks Range of Alaska, USA. First, we examined variation in nesting phenology in relation to local temperatures. We then characterized nesting habitat and analyzed nest-site selection for a subset of nests (n = 86) in comparison with paired random points. Finally, we estimated the daily survival rate of 257 nests found in 2007–2013 with respect to both habitat characteristics and weather variables. Nest initiation was delayed in years with snow events, heavy rain, and freezing temperatures early in the breeding season. Nests were typically found in open, low-shrub tundra, and never among tall shrubs (mean shrub height at nests = 26.8 ± 6.7 cm). We observed weak nest-site selection patterns. Considering the similarity between nest sites and paired random points, coupled with the unique social mating system of Smith's Longspurs, we suggest that habitat selection may occur at the neighborhood scale and not at the nest-site scale. The best approximating model explaining nest survival suggested a positive relationship with the numbers of days above 21°C that an individual nest experienced; there was little support for models containing habitat variables. The daily nest survival rate was high (0.972–0.982) compared with that of most passerines in forested or grassland habitats, but similar to that of passerines nesting on tundra. Considering their high nesting success and ability to delay nest initiation during inclement weather, Smith's Longspurs may be resilient to predicted changes in weather regimes on the breeding grounds. Thus, the greatest threat to breeding Smith's Longspurs associated with climate change may be the loss of low

  12. Effectiveness of nest site restoration for the endangered northern map turtle : report 2 : use of artificial nesting sites and wildlife exclusion fences to enhance nesting success : research summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The Northern Map Turtle, is a state Endangered Species, found only in the : lower Susquehanna River in Maryland. The only area where nests of this : species are not heavily impacted by predators is in the town of Port Deposit. : However, turtles nest...

  13. Predation risk of artificial ground nests in managed floodplain meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeiter, Susanne; Franke, Elisabeth

    2018-01-01

    Nest predation highly determines the reproductive success in birds. In agricultural grasslands, vegetation characteristics and management practices influences the predation risk of ground breeders. Little is known so far on the predation pressure on non-passerine nests in tall swards. Investigations on the interaction of land use with nesting site conditions and the habitat selection of nest predators are crucial to develop effective conservation measures for grassland birds. In this study, we used artificial nests baited with quail and plasticine eggs to identify potential predators of ground nests in floodplain meadows and related predation risk to vegetation structure and grassland management. Mean daily predation rate was 0.01 (±0.012) after an exposure duration of 21 days. 70% of all observed nest predations were caused by mammals (Red Fox and mustelids) and 17.5% by avian predators (corvids). Nest sites close to the meadow edge and those providing low forb cover were faced with a higher daily predation risk. Predation risk also increased later in the season. Land use in the preceding year had a significant effect on predation risk, showing higher predation rates on unmanaged sites than on mown sites. Unused meadows probably attract mammalian predators, because they provide a high abundance of small rodents and a more favourable vegetation structure for foraging, increasing also the risk of incidental nest predations. Although mowing operation is a major threat to ground-nesting birds, our results suggest that an annual removal of vegetation may reduce predation risk in the subsequent year.

  14. Does cooperation mean kinship between spatially discrete ant nests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, Duncan S; Cottrell, Joan E; Watts, Kevin; A'Hara, Stuart W; Hofreiter, Michael; Robinson, Elva J H

    2016-12-01

    Eusociality is one of the most complex forms of social organization, characterized by cooperative and reproductive units termed colonies. Altruistic behavior of workers within colonies is explained by inclusive fitness, with indirect fitness benefits accrued by helping kin. Members of a social insect colony are expected to be more closely related to one another than they are to other conspecifics. In many social insects, the colony can extend to multiple socially connected but spatially separate nests (polydomy). Social connections, such as trails between nests, promote cooperation and resource exchange, and we predict that workers from socially connected nests will have higher internest relatedness than those from socially unconnected, and noncooperating, nests. We measure social connections, resource exchange, and internest genetic relatedness in the polydomous wood ant Formica lugubris to test whether (1) socially connected but spatially separate nests cooperate, and (2) high internest relatedness is the underlying driver of this cooperation. Our results show that socially connected nests exhibit movement of workers and resources, which suggests they do cooperate, whereas unconnected nests do not. However, we find no difference in internest genetic relatedness between socially connected and unconnected nest pairs, both show high kinship. Our results suggest that neighboring pairs of connected nests show a social and cooperative distinction, but no genetic distinction. We hypothesize that the loss of a social connection may initiate ecological divergence within colonies. Genetic divergence between neighboring nests may build up only later, as a consequence rather than a cause of colony separation.

  15. Omega-oxidation is the major pathway for the catabolism of leukotriene B4 in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shak, S; Goldstein, I M

    1984-08-25

    Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), formed by the 5-lipoxygenase pathway in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), may be an important mediator of inflammation. Recent studies suggest that human leukocytes can convert LTB4 to products that are less biologically active. To examine the catabolism of LTB4, we developed (using high performance liquid chromatography) a sensitive, reproducible assay for this mediator and its omega-oxidation products (20-OH- and 20-COOH-LTB4). With this assay, we have found that human PMN (but not human monocytes, lymphocytes, or platelets) convert exogenous LTB4 almost exclusively to 20-OH- and 20-COOH-LTB4 (identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). Catabolism of exogenous LTB4 by omega-oxidation is rapid (t1/2 approximately 4 min at 37 degrees C in reaction mixtures containing 1.0 microM LTB4 and 20 X 10(6) PMN/ml), temperature-dependent (negligible at 0 degrees C), and varies with cell number as well as with initial substrate concentration. The pathway for omega-oxidation in PMN is specific for LTB4 and 5(S),12(S)-dihydroxy-6,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (only small amounts of other dihydroxylated-derivatives of arachidonic acid are converted to omega-oxidation products). Even PMN that are stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate to produce large amounts of superoxide anion radicals catabolize exogenous leukotriene B4 primarily by omega-oxidation. Finally, LTB4 that is generated when PMN are stimulated with the calcium ionophore, A23187, is rapidly catabolized by omega-oxidation. Thus, human PMN not only generate and respond to LTB4, but also rapidly and specifically catabolize this mediator by omega-oxidation.

  16. WORD FORMATION ON DRAGON NEST CHAT LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shavitri Cecillia Harsono

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Word formation is creation of new words, which sometimes changes a word’s meaning. Words can be formed from multi word phrases as well. In many cases vocabularies in language are formed from combination of words (Haspelmath 2010: 102. Word formation does not only involve changing physical form of the word itself, but also changing the meaning of said word. There are also instances where the physical form retain its original form while the meaning changes. The phenomenon is called semantic change (Stockwell-Minkova 2001:149. In this thesis the research proposed that the said phenomenon occur in virtual environment, such as in MMORPG. Multiplayer online games that feature fantasy setting virtual environment. For the purpose of this research, Dragon Nest South East Asia server was chosen as data source. The samples are taken from players perusing [World] communication channel. The result of the data analysis has shown that the phenomenon of word formation could occur in a virtual environment of MMORPG, specifcally in Dragon Nest SEA. There are two word formation processes found: processes that involve physical changes and processes that do not involve physical changes but rather innate meaning. It is done by both processing daily language vocabulary both physically and changing its innate meaning to create new words that suits the said virtual environment context. This fnding may influence future research on a fresh perspective and untilled feld.

  17. Nest-site selection and nest survival of Lewis's woodpecker in aspen riparian woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen R. Newlon; Victoria A. Saab

    2011-01-01

    Riparian woodlands of aspen (Populus tremuloides) provide valuable breeding habitat for several cavity-nesting birds. Although anecdotal information for this habitat is available for Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), no study has previously examined the importance of aspen woodlands to this species' breeding biology. From 2002 to 2004, we monitored 76...

  18. The Rufous Hornero (Furnarius rufus) nest as an incubation chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Felipe L S; Braga, Talita V; Roper, James J

    2015-01-01

    Foraging and incubation are mutually exclusive activities for parent birds. A trade-off is generated when a combination of food availability and temperature regulation force birds to choose one and neglect the other, at least temporarily. The Rufous Hornero builds large, oven-like, mud nests, the evolutionary cause of which remains unknown. We tested that temperature variation inside the nest is that which is expected if one function of the nest were for temperate regulation. If so, this would suggest that the nest works as an incubation chamber (but which now may serve more than one function). We divided nests into two natural treatments: nests that received more continuous direct sunshine (sun), and those that received less direct sunshine, due to shade from trees or buildings (shade). Thermometer data loggers were placed in the nest cavity and outside, in the shade of the nest, and temperature was measured every 10min. We predicted that temperatures would consistently be higher and less variable in nests than outside nests. Also, at higher ambient temperatures the nest would function better as an incubation chamber as a consequence of having evolved in a hotter climate. Thus, in Curitiba, where temperatures are lower than where the species (and nest) evolved, nests in greater sunshine should have thermal characteristics that support the incubation chamber hypothesis. Predictions were supported: with Repeated Measures ANOVA and t-tests, we found that temperatures were more constant and higher in nests, especially when in the sun, and as the season progressed (hotter ambient temperatures). We conclude that the large mud nest of the Rufous Hornero works as an incubation chamber that likely evolved to help resolve the incubation-foraging trade-off in the very seasonal and hot regions where the bird evolved. Thus, as an incubation chamber, the nest allows the bird to forage rather than incubate thereby resolving the foraging-incubation trade-off and potentially

  19. The peptide NDP-MSH induces phenotype changes in the heart that resemble ischemic preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Anna; Lonati, Caterina; Sordi, Andrea; Leonardi, Patrizia; Carlin, Andrea; Gatti, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is a pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptide that exerts multiple protective effects on host cells. Previous investigations showed that treatment with alpha-MSH or synthetic melanocortin agonists reduces heart damage in reperfusion injury and transplantation. The aim of this preclinical research was to determine whether melanocortin treatment induces preconditioning-like cardioprotection. In particular, the plan was to assess whether melanocortin administration causes phenotype changes similar to those induced by repetitive ischemic events. The idea was conceived because both ischemic preconditioning and melanocortin signaling largely depend on cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. Rats received single i.v. injections of 750microg/kg of the alpha-MSH analogue Nle(4),DPhe(7)-alpha-MSH (NDP-MSH) or saline and were sacrificed at 0.5, 1, 3, or 5h. Western blot analysis showed that rat hearts expressed melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) protein. Treatment with NDP-MSH was associated with early and marked increase in interleukin 6 (IL-6) mRNA. This was followed by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). There were no changes in expression of other cytokines of the IL-6 family. Expression of IL-10, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha was likewise unaltered. In hearts of rats treated with NDP-MSH there was increased expression of the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77. The data indicate that NDP-MSH induces phenotype changes that closely resemble ischemic preconditioning and likely contribute to its established protection against reperfusion injury. In addition, the increased expression of Nur77 and SOCS3 could be part of a broader anti-inflammatory effect.

  20. Parent–offspring resemblance in colony-specific adult survival of cliff swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles R.; Roche, Erin A.; Brown, Mary Bomberger

    2015-01-01

    Survival is a key component of fitness. Species that occupy discrete breeding colonies with different characteristics are often exposed to varying costs and benefits associated with group size or environmental conditions, and survival is an integrative net measure of these effects. We investigated the extent to which survival probability of adult (≥1-year old) cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) occupying different colonies resembled that of their parental cohort and thus whether the natal colony had long-term effects on individuals. Individuals were cross-fostered between colonies soon after hatching and their presence as breeders monitored at colonies in the western Nebraska study area for the subsequent decade. Colony-specific adult survival probabilities of offspring born and reared in the same colony, and those cross-fostered away from their natal colony soon after birth, were positively and significantly related to subsequent adult survival of the parental cohort from the natal colony. This result held when controlling for the effect of natal colony size and the age composition of the parental cohort. In contrast, colony-specific adult survival of offspring cross-fostered to a site was unrelated to that of their foster parent cohort or to the cohort of non-fostered offspring with whom they were reared. Adult survival at a colony varied inversely with fecundity, as measured by mean brood size, providing evidence for a survival–fecundity trade-off in this species. The results suggest some heritable variation in adult survival, likely maintained by negative correlations between fitness components. The study provides additional evidence that colonies represent non-random collections of individuals.

  1. Reducing prefrontal gamma-aminobutyric acid activity induces cognitive, behavioral, and dopaminergic abnormalities that resemble schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Takeshi; Tse, Maric T; Floresco, Stan B

    2011-03-01

    Perturbations in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-related markers have been reported in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients. However, a preclinical assessment of how suppression of prefrontal cortex GABA activity may reflect behavioral and cognitive pathologies observed in schizophrenia is forthcoming. We assessed the effects of pharmacologic blockade of prefrontal cortex GABA(A) receptors in rats on executive functions and other behaviors related to schizophrenia, as well as neural activity of midbrain dopamine neurons. Blockade of prefrontal cortex GABA(A) receptors with bicuculline (12.5-50 ng) did not affect working memory accuracy but did increase response latencies, resembling speed of processing deficits observed in schizophrenia. Prefrontal cortex GABA(A) blockade did not impede simple discrimination or reversal learning but did impair set-shifting in a manner dependent on when these treatments were given. Reducing GABA activity before the set-shift impaired the ability to acquire a novel strategy, whereas treatment before the initial discrimination increased perseveration during the shift. Latent inhibition was unaffected by bicuculline infusions before the preexposure/conditioning phases, suggesting that reduced prefrontal cortex GABA activity does not impair "learned irrelevance." GABA(A) blockade increased locomotor activity and showed synergic effects with a subthreshold dose of amphetamine. Furthermore, reducing medial prefrontal cortex GABA activity selectively increased phasic burst firing of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons, without altering the their overall population activity. These results suggest that prefrontal cortex GABA hypofunction may be a key contributing factor to deficits in speed of processing, cognitive flexibility, and enhanced phasic dopamine activity observed in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Image and Global Resemblance in the Light of Hadith “Who So Imitates other People Becomes One of Them”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERDAR DEMİREL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world, people from different countries, cities and institutions unprecedentedly resemble each other in every aspect of life. Likewise, the deeds and imagery aspirations of Oriental and Occidental people also resemble. In such an atmosphere, the local cultures rooted in history become accessories and lose their historical significance and metaphysical aspects in the edifice of the society. This study aims to analyze Prophet Muhammad’s (s.a.w. warning, “Who so imitates other people becomes one of them”, its layers of meaning and its relationship with “image and global resemblence”.

  3. Sexually selected nest-building--Pomatoschistus minutus males build smaller nest-openings in the presence of sneaker males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, O; Kvarnemo, C

    2003-09-01

    Both natural selection and sexual selection may act on nest-building. We tested experimentally how different regimes of egg-predation and male-male competition influence nest-building before mating, using the marine fish sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus. Males with sneaker males present built the smallest nest-openings, smaller than males held alone or with Pomatoschistus microps males (which may predate eggs and compete over nest-sites but not compete over fertilizations). Males with visual access to other nest-building males tended also to build smaller openings than males held alone or with P. microps. Males with egg-predators present built nests with openings not differing significantly from any other treatment. Our results indicate that the small nest-openings found in the sneaker male treatment are sexually selected through protection against sneaking or by female choice. Across treatments, time span before a male started to build his nest also explained variation in nest-opening width; males starting late built larger nest-openings.

  4. Parental investment decisions in response to ambient nest-predation risk versus actual predation on the prior nest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, A.D.; Martin, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    Theory predicts that parents should invest less in dependent offspring with lower reproductive value, such as those with a high risk of predation. Moreover, high predation risk can favor reduced parental activity when such activity attracts nest predators. Yet, the ability of parents to assess ambient nest-predation risk and respond adaptively remains unclear, especially where nest-predator assemblages are diverse and potentially difficult to assess. We tested whether variation in parental investment by a multi-brooded songbird (Brewer's Sparrow, Spizella breweri) in an environment (sagebrush steppe) with diverse predators was predicted by ambient nest-predation risk or direct experience with nest predation. Variation among eight sites in ambient nest-predation risk, assayed by daily probabilities of nest predation, was largely uncorrelated across four years. In this system risk may therefore be unpredictable, and aspects of parental investment (clutch size, egg mass, incubation rhythms, nestling-feeding rates) were not related to ambient risk. Moreover, investment at first nests that were successful did not differ from that at nests that were depredated, suggesting parents could not assess and respond to territorylevel nest-predation risk. However, parents whose nests were depredated reduced clutch sizes and activity at nests attempted later in the season by increasing the length of incubation shifts (on-bouts) and recesses (off-bouts) and decreasing trips to feed nestlings. In this unpredictable environment parent birds may therefore lack sufficient cues of ambient risk on which to base their investment decisions and instead rely on direct experience with nest predation to inform at least some of their decisions. ?? 2010 The Cooper Ornithological Society.

  5. Where to nest? Ecological determinants of chimpanzee nest abundance and distribution at the habitat and tree species scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana S; Meyer, Christoph F J; Vicente, Luis; Marques, Tiago A

    2015-02-01

    Conversion of forests to anthropogenic land-uses increasingly subjects chimpanzee populations to habitat changes and concomitant alterations in the plant resources available to them for nesting and feeding. Based on nest count surveys conducted during the dry season, we investigated nest tree species selection and the effect of vegetation attributes on nest abundance of the western chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes verus, at Lagoas de Cufada Natural Park (LCNP), Guinea-Bissau, a forest-savannah mosaic widely disturbed by humans. Further, we assessed patterns of nest height distribution to determine support for the anti-predator hypothesis. A zero-altered generalized linear mixed model showed that nest abundance was negatively related to floristic diversity (exponential form of the Shannon index) and positively with the availability of smaller-sized trees, reflecting characteristics of dense-canopy forest. A positive correlation between nest abundance and floristic richness (number of plant species) and composition indicated that species-rich open habitats are also important in nest site selection. Restricting this analysis to feeding trees, nest abundance was again positively associated with the availability of smaller-sized trees, further supporting the preference for nesting in food tree species from dense forest. Nest tree species selection was non-random, and oil palms were used at a much lower proportion (10%) than previously reported from other study sites in forest-savannah mosaics. While this study suggests that human disturbance may underlie the exclusive arboreal nesting at LCNP, better quantitative data are needed to determine to what extent the construction of elevated nests is in fact a response to predators able to climb trees. Given the importance of LCNP as refuge for Pan t. verus our findings can improve conservation decisions for the management of this important umbrella species as well as its remaining suitable habitats. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Sandhill crane abundance and nesting ecology at Grays Lake, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J.E.; Henry, A.R.; Ball, I.J.

    2007-01-01

    We examined population size and factors influencing nest survival of greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) at Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Idaho, USA, during 1997-2000. Average local population of cranes from late April to early May, 1998-2000, was 735 cranes, 34% higher than that reported for May 1970-1971. We estimated 228 (SE = 30) nests in the basin core (excluding renests), 14% higher than a 1971 estimate. Apparent nest success in our study (x?? = 60%, n = 519 nests) was lower than reported for Grays Lake 30-50 years earlier. Daily survival rates (DSRs) of all nests averaged 0.9707 (41.2%). The best model explaining nest survival included year and water depth and their interaction. Nest survival was highest (DSR = 0.9827) in 1998 compared with other years (0.9698-0.9707). Nest survival changed little relative to water depth in 1998, when flooding was extensive and alternative prey (microtines) irrupted, but declined markedly with lower water levels in 2000, the driest year studied. Hypotheses relating nest survival to vegetation height, land use (idle, summer grazing, fall grazing), and date were not supported. In a before-after-control-impact design using 12 experimental fields, nest survival differed among years but not among management treatments (idle, fall graze, fall burn, and summer-graze-idle rotation), nor was there an interaction between year and treatments. However, DSRs in fall-burn fields declined from 0.9781 in 1997-1998 to 0.9503 in 1999-2000 (posttreatment). Changes in the predator community have likely contributed to declines in nest success since the 1950s and 1970s. Our results did not support earlier concerns about effects of habitat management practices on crane productivity. Nest survival could best be enhanced by managing spring water levels. Managers should continue censuses during late April to evaluate long-term relationships to habitat conditions and management.

  7. Nesting behavior of Palila, as assessed from video recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laut, M.E.; Banko, P.C.; Gray, E.M.

    2003-01-01

    We quantified nesting behavior of Palila (Loxiodes bailleui), an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper, by recording at nests during three breeding seasons using a black-and-white video camera connected to a Videocassette recorder. A total of seven nests was observed. We measured the following factors for daylight hours: percentage of time the female was on the nest (attendance), length of attendance bouts by the female, length of nest recesses, and adult provisioning rates. Comparisons were made between three stages of the 40-day nesting cycle: incubation (day 1-day 16), early nestling stage (day 17-day 30 [i.e., nestlings ??? 14 days old]), and late nestling stage (day 31-day 40 [i.e., nestlings > 14 days old]). Of seven nests observed, four fledged at least one nestling and three failed. One of these failed nests was filmed being depredated by a feral cat (Felis catus). Female nest attendance was near 82% during the incubation stage and decreased to 21% as nestlings aged. We did not detect a difference in attendance bout length between stages of the nesting cycle. Mean length of nest recesses increased from 4.5 min during the incubation stage to over 45 min during the late nestling stage. Mean number of nest recesses per hour ranged from 1.6 to 2.0. Food was delivered to nestlings by adults an average of 1.8 times per hour for the early nestling stage and 1.5 times per hour during the late nestling stage and did not change over time. Characterization of parental behavior by video had similarities to but also key differences from findings taken from blind observations. Results from this study will facilitate greater understanding of Palila reproductive strategies.

  8. Acid Evolution of Escherichia coli K-12 Eliminates Amino Acid Decarboxylases and Reregulates Catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Amanda; Penix, Stephanie R; Basting, Preston J; Griffith, Jessie M; Creamer, Kaitlin E; Camperchioli, Dominic; Clark, Michelle W; Gonzales, Alexandra S; Chávez Erazo, Jorge Sebastian; George, Nadja S; Bhagwat, Arvind A; Slonczewski, Joan L

    2017-06-15

    Acid-adapted strains of Escherichia coli K-12 W3110 were obtained by serial culture in medium buffered at pH 4.6 (M. M. Harden, A. He, K. Creamer, M. W. Clark, I. Hamdallah, K. A. Martinez, R. L. Kresslein, S. P. Bush, and J. L. Slonczewski, Appl Environ Microbiol 81:1932-1941, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.03494-14). Revised genomic analysis of these strains revealed insertion sequence (IS)-driven insertions and deletions that knocked out regulators CadC (acid induction of lysine decarboxylase), GadX (acid induction of glutamate decarboxylase), and FNR (anaerobic regulator). Each acid-evolved strain showed loss of one or more amino acid decarboxylase systems, which normally help neutralize external acid (pH 5 to 6) and increase survival in extreme acid (pH 2). Strains from populations B11, H9, and F11 had an IS 5 insertion or IS-mediated deletion in cadC , while population B11 had a point mutation affecting the arginine activator adiY The cadC and adiY mutants failed to neutralize acid in the presence of exogenous lysine or arginine. In strain B11-1, reversion of an rpoC (RNA polymerase) mutation partly restored arginine-dependent neutralization. All eight strains showed deletion or downregulation of the Gad acid fitness island. Strains with the Gad deletion lost the ability to produce GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) and failed to survive extreme acid. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) of strain B11-1 showed upregulated genes for catabolism of diverse substrates but downregulated acid stress genes (the biofilm regulator ariR , yhiM , and Gad). Other strains showed downregulation of H 2 consumption mediated by hydrogenases ( hya and hyb ) which release acid. Strains F9-2 and F9-3 had a deletion of fnr and showed downregulation of FNR-dependent genes ( dmsABC , frdABCD , hybABO , nikABCDE , and nrfAC ). Overall, strains that had evolved in buffered acid showed loss or downregulation of systems that neutralize unbuffered acid and showed altered regulation of

  9. Habitat and nesting biology of Mountain Plovers in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, R.E.; Anderson, S.H.; Knopf, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Although previous research has considered habitat associations and breeding biology of Mountain Plovers in Wyoming at discrete sites, no study has considered these attributes at a statewide scale. We located 55 Mountain Plover nests in 6 counties across Wyoming during 2002 and 2003. Nests occurred in 2 general habitat types: grassland and desert-shrub. Mean estimated hatch date was 26 June (n = 31) in 2002 and 21 June (n = 24) in 2003. Mean hatch date was not related to latitude or elevation. Hatch success of nests was inferred in 2003 by the presence of eggshell fragments in the nest scrape. Eggs in 14 of 22 (64%) known-fate nests hatched. All grassland sites and 90% of desert sites were host to ungulate grazers, although prairie dogs were absent at 64% of nest sites. Nest plots had less grass coverage and reduced grass height compared with random plots. More than 50% of nests occurred on elevated plateaus. The Mountain Plover's tendency to nest on arid, elevated plateaus further substantiates claims that the bird is also a disturbed-prairie species.

  10. Trap-nests for stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Meliponini)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira , Ricardo; Menezes , Cristiano; Soares , Ademilson; Fonseca , Vera

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Most stingless bee species build their nests inside tree hollows. In this paper, we present trap-nest containers which simulate nesting cavities so as to attract swarms of stingless bees. Although regularly used by stingless bee beekeepers in Brazil, this technique to obtain new colonies has not yet been systematically studied. We used two different types of trap-nests (plastic and cardboard) of four different sizes (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 L) containing propolis extrac...

  11. Harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja) nesting in manipulated forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, E.; Ellis, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    Continental records point to shooting, removal of young and destruction of nests as the primary conservation problems for harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja); bird-observer visits are a new source of concern. Nesting events are roughly 3 yr apart. Nests are used during and after intensive manipulation of the surrounding habitat, and minimum distance between active sites was 3-5 km. In nine nesting sites along a 100-km stretch of the Imalaca Mountains in Venezuela, we fitted five fledglings with satellite-tracked tags from NASA. One of these birds was hacked with the help of the loggers who destroyed its nest. All these nests were active while logging ensued. Out of three renesting attempts, one failed when the nest collapsed. We salvaged two additional fledglings found in captivity. We are monitoring five nests in the buffer area of the Darien National Park in Panama, all within 3 km of human settlements where trees are regularly felled for firewood, lumber, and to clear more cropland. Eagles have been killed at two sites, a third site remains inactive since 1991, and the other two nests currently have fledglings.

  12. A new bee species that excavates sandstone nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Michael C; Griswold, Terry; Pitts, James P; Parker, Frank D

    2016-09-12

    Humanity has long been fascinated by animals with apparently unfavorable lifestyles [1]. Nesting habits are especially important because they can limit where organisms live, thereby driving population, community, and even ecosystem dynamics [2]. The question arises, then, why bees nest in active termite mounds [3] or on the rim of degassing volcanoes, seemingly preferring such hardship [4]. Here, we present a new bee species that excavates sandstone nests, Anthophora (Anthophoroides) pueblo Orr (described in Supplemental Information, published with this article online), despite the challenges already inherent to desert life. Ultimately, the benefits of nesting in sandstone appear to outweigh the associated costs in this system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Catabolism of (+/-)-abscisic acid by excised leaves of Hordeum vulgare L. cv Dyan and its modification by chemical and environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, A.K.; Railton, I.D.

    1987-01-01

    Excised light-grown leaves and etiolated leaves of Hordeum vulgare L. cv Dyan catabolized applied (+/-)-[2- 14 C]abscisic acid ([+/-]-[2- 14 C]ABA) to phaseic acid (PA), dihydrophaseic acid (DPA), and 2'-hydroxymethyl ABA (2'-HMABA). Identification of these catabolites was made by microchemical methods and by combined capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) following high dose feeds of nonlabeled substrate to leaves. Circular dichroism analysis revealed that 2'-HMABA was derived from the (-) enantiomer of ABA. Refeeding studies were used to confirm the catabolic route. The methyl ester of (+/-)-[2 14 C]-ABA was hydrolyzed efficiently by light-grown leaves of H. vulgare. Leaf age played a significant role in (+/-)-ABA catabolism, with younger leaves being less able than their older counterparts to catabolize this compound. The catabolism of (+/-)-ABA was inhibited markedly in water-stressed Hordeum leaves which was characterized by a decreased incorporation of label into 2'-HMABA, DPA, and conjugates. The specific, mixed function oxidase inhibitor, ancymidol, did not inhibit, dramatically (+/-)-ABA catabolism in light-grown leaves of Hordeum whereas the 80s ribosome, translational inhibitor, cycloheximide, inhibited this process markedly. The 70s ribosome translational inhibitors, lincomycin and chloramphenicol, were less effective than cycloheximide in inhibiting (+/-)-ABA catabolism, implying that cytoplasmic protein synthesis is necessary for the catabolism of (+/-)-ABA in Hordeum leaves whereas chloroplast protein synthesis plays only a minor role. This further suggests that the enzymes involved in (+/-)-ABA catabolism in this plant are cytoplasmically synthesized and are turned-over rapidly, although the enzyme responsible for glycosylating (+/-)-ABA itself appeared to be stable

  14. What's in a child's face? : effects of facial resemblance, love withdrawal, empathy and context on behavioral and neural responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heckendorf, E.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to increase our knowledge of individual differences in the neural processing and appraisal of children’s faces that differ in their degree of resemblance with the participant’s face. Chapter 2 focuses on participants’ neural responses to child faces that differ in

  15. Imaging manifestations of acquired elastopathy resembling pseudoxanthoma elasticum in patients with beta thalassaemia major and sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, Harish; Cheng, Ken; Lau, Ken; Harish, Radhika; Bowden, Donald K.

    2016-01-01

    Development of an acquired systemic elastopathy resembling pseudoxanthoma elasticum in patients with chronic haemoglobinopathies such as beta thalassaemia major and sickle cell disease is well documented. There is paucity of any comprehensive literature on the radiological manifestations of this entity. This pictorial review aims to describe and illustrate the multi system and multi modality imaging findings of this condition.

  16. Nesting ecology and nest survival of lesser prairie-chickens on the Southern High Plains of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, Blake A.; Borsdorf, Philip K.; Boal, Clint W.; Boydston, Kathy K.

    2014-01-01

    The decline in population and range of lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) throughout the central and southern Great Plains has raised concerns considering their candidate status under the United States Endangered Species Act. Baseline ecological data for lesser prairie-chickens are limited, especially for the shinnery oak-grassland communities of Texas. This information is imperative because lesser prairie-chickens in shinnery oak grasslands occur at the extreme southwestern edge of their distribution. This geographic region is characterized by hot, arid climates, less fragmentation, and less anthropogenic development than within the remaining core distribution of the species. Thus, large expanses of open rangeland with less anthropogenic development and a climate that is classified as extreme for ground nesting birds may subsequently influence nest ecology, nest survival, and nest site selection differently compared to the rest of the distribution of the species. We investigated the nesting ecology of 50 radio-tagged lesser prairie-chicken hens from 2008 to 2011 in the shinnery oak-grassland communities in west Texas and found a substantial amount of inter-annual variation in incubation start date and percent of females incubating nests. Prairie-chickens were less likely to nest near unimproved roads and utility poles and in areas with more bare ground and litter. In contrast, hens selected areas dominated by grasses and shrubs and close to stock tanks to nest. Candidate models including visual obstruction best explained daily nest survival; a 5% increase in visual obstruction improved nest survival probability by 10%. The model-averaged probability of a nest surviving the incubation period was 0.43 (SE = 0.006; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.56). Our findings indicate that lesser prairie-chicken reproduction during our study period was dynamic and was correlated with seasonal weather patterns that ultimately promoted greater grass growth earlier in the

  17. Common cuckoos Cuculus canorus change their nest-searching strategy according to the number of available host nests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Václav; Procházka, Petr; Požgayová, Milica; Honza, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 156, č. 1 (2014), s. 189-197 ISSN 0019-1019 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930605; GA AV ČR IAA600930903 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : brood parasitism * cuckoo perch * edge effect host aggression * host choice * nest height * nest visibility * nest volume Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.921, year: 2014

  18. Preference of rabbit does among different nest materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.P. Farkas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nest quality is important for the survival of new-born rabbits. Nesting material in rabbit farms generally consists of wood shavings, which is completely different from the dry grass used by the European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The aim of the experiments was to examine which nest materials are preferred by rabbit does when building their nest. In experiment 1, the choice of multiparous rabbit does (n=37 among nest boxes bedded with different nesting materials was monitored. In each pen (1.0×1.83 m 1 doe and 4 nest boxes (0.37×0.23×0.31 m with different nest materials (meadow hay [H], wheat straw [S], fine fibre material [Lignocel®, L] or wood shavings [W] were placed 3 days before the expected parturition (gestation length is about 31 d in the Pannon White breed. Some 48.6% of the does kindled in nest boxes that contained pure materials (L: 40.5%, S: 5.4%, H: 2.7%, and 51.3% of the does kindled in nest boxes where the nest materials of different nest boxes were mixed by the does (S with L: 21.5%, S with L and H: 5.4%, W with L: 8.1%, L with H and S: 5.4%. Does preferred kindling in the nest box bedded with L, and most of them refused the nest box with W. In experiment 2/a (n=32 does and 2/b (n=25 does, each pen (1×0.91 m was equipped with 3 and 2 hay racks and filled with H, S or L, and H or S, respectively. The experiments lasted from the 27th day of pregnancy until the day of parturition and 24-h video recordings (10 does/experiment were evaluated throughout the experiment. The events of carrying the nest materials from the hay racks were registered. In experiment 2/a, the frequency of nest material carrying was highest on the day of parturition. The preferred nest material was L (compared to H and S on each experimental day except day 30 of pregnancy. At the day of kindling, 87.5, 6.3 and 6.3% of the nests contained pure L, mixed L-H and L-S, respectively. In experiment 2/b, the frequency of nest material carrying (mostly S

  19. Nesting biology of the trap-nesting Neotropical wasp Trypoxylo n(Trypargilum) aurifrons Shuckard (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Santoni,Mariana Marchi; Del Lama,Marco Antonio

    2007-01-01

    The present study was carried out in three localities of the state of São Paulo, Brazil: Araras (Dec/03-Dec/06), São Carlos (Nov/04-Nov/06) and Rifaina (Jul/04-Dec/06). Trap-nests were distributed among sites in the sampling areas and were collected every 35 days. Data from 295 nests indicate that T. aurifrons is a multivoltine species, with higher rates of nest building and cell production in the warm, rainy season. The trap-nests used by the females ranged from 117 to 467 mm in length and 3...

  20. Variation in clutch size in relation to nest size in birds

    OpenAIRE

    Moller Anders P.; Adriaensen Frank; Artemyev Alexandr; Banbura Jerzy; Barba Emilio; Biard Clotilde; Blondel Jacques; Bouslama Zihad; Bouvier Jean-Charles; Camprodon Jordi; Cecere Francesco; Charmantier Anne; Charter Motti; Cichon Mariusz; Cusimano Camillo

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 The Authors. Nests are structures built to support and protect eggs and/or offspring from predators, parasites, and adverse weather conditions. Nests are mainly constructed prior to egg laying, meaning that parent birds must make decisions about nest site choice and nest building behavior before the start of egg-laying. Parent birds should be selected to choose nest sites and to build optimally sized nests, yet our current understanding of clutch size-nest size relationships is limited...

  1. Age and Gender Differences in Facial Attractiveness, but Not Emotion Resemblance, Contribute to Age and Gender Stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Palumbo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable research has shown effects of facial appearance on trait impressions and group stereotypes. We extended those findings in two studies that investigated the contribution of resemblance to emotion expressions and attractiveness to younger adults (YA and older adults (OA age and gender stereotypes on the dimensions of warmth and competence. Using connectionist modeling of facial metrics of 240 neutral younger and older faces, Study 1 found that, neutral expression older faces or female faces showed greater structural resemblance to happy expressions and less resemblance to angry expressions than did younger or male faces, respectively. In addition, neutral female faces showed greater resemblance to surprise expressions. In Study 2, YA and OA rated the faces of Study 1 for attractiveness and for 4 traits that we aggregated on the dimensions of competence (competent, healthy and warmth (trustworthy, not shrewd. We found that YA, but not OA, age stereotypes replicated previous research showing higher perceived warmth and lower perceived competence in older adults. In addition, previously documented gender stereotypes were moderated by face age for both YA and OA. The greater attractiveness of younger than older faces and female than male faces influenced age and gender stereotypes, including these deviations from prior research findings using category labels rather than faces. On the other hand, face age and face sex differences in emotion resemblance did not influence age or gender stereotypes, contrary to prediction. Our results provide a caveat to conclusions about age and gender stereotypes derived from responses to category labels, and they reveal the importance of assessing stereotypes with a methodology that is sensitive to influences of group differences in appearance that can exacerbate or mitigate stereotypes in more ecologically valid contexts. Although the gender differences in attractiveness in the present study may not have

  2. Age and Gender Differences in Facial Attractiveness, but Not Emotion Resemblance, Contribute to Age and Gender Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Rocco; Adams, Reginald B; Hess, Ursula; Kleck, Robert E; Zebrowitz, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Considerable research has shown effects of facial appearance on trait impressions and group stereotypes. We extended those findings in two studies that investigated the contribution of resemblance to emotion expressions and attractiveness to younger adults (YA) and older adults (OA) age and gender stereotypes on the dimensions of warmth and competence. Using connectionist modeling of facial metrics of 240 neutral younger and older faces, Study 1 found that, neutral expression older faces or female faces showed greater structural resemblance to happy expressions and less resemblance to angry expressions than did younger or male faces, respectively. In addition, neutral female faces showed greater resemblance to surprise expressions. In Study 2, YA and OA rated the faces of Study 1 for attractiveness and for 4 traits that we aggregated on the dimensions of competence (competent, healthy) and warmth (trustworthy, not shrewd). We found that YA, but not OA, age stereotypes replicated previous research showing higher perceived warmth and lower perceived competence in older adults. In addition, previously documented gender stereotypes were moderated by face age for both YA and OA. The greater attractiveness of younger than older faces and female than male faces influenced age and gender stereotypes, including these deviations from prior research findings using category labels rather than faces. On the other hand, face age and face sex differences in emotion resemblance did not influence age or gender stereotypes, contrary to prediction. Our results provide a caveat to conclusions about age and gender stereotypes derived from responses to category labels, and they reveal the importance of assessing stereotypes with a methodology that is sensitive to influences of group differences in appearance that can exacerbate or mitigate stereotypes in more ecologically valid contexts. Although the gender differences in attractiveness in the present study may not have generalizability

  3. Local individual preferences for nest materials in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adèle Mennerat

    Full Text Available Variation in the behavioural repertoire of animals is acquired by learning in a range of animal species. In nest-building birds, the assemblage of nest materials in an appropriate structure is often typical of a bird genus or species. Yet plasticity in the selection of nest materials may be beneficial because the nature and abundance of nest materials vary across habitats. Such plasticity can be learned, either individually or socially. In Corsican populations of blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus, females regularly add in their nests fragments of several species of aromatic plants during the whole breeding period. The selected plants represent a small fraction of the species present in the environment and have positive effects on nestlings.We investigated spatiotemporal variations of this behaviour to test whether the aromatic plant species composition in nests depends on 1 plant availability in territories, 2 female experience or 3 female identity. Our results indicate that territory plays a very marginal role in the aromatic plant species composition of nests. Female experience is not related to a change in nest plant composition. Actually, this composition clearly depends on female identity, i.e. results from individual preferences which, furthermore, are repeatable both within and across years. A puzzling fact is the strong difference in plant species composition of nests across distinct study plots.This study demonstrates that plant species composition of nests results from individual preferences that are homogeneous within study plots. We propose several hypotheses to interpret this pattern of spatial variation before discussing them in the light of preliminary results. As a conclusion, we cannot exclude the possibility of social transmission of individual preferences for aromatic plants. This is an exciting perspective for further work in birds, where nest construction behaviour has classically been considered as a stereotypic behaviour.

  4. Local individual preferences for nest materials in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennerat, Adèle; Perret, Philippe; Lambrechts, Marcel M

    2009-01-01

    Variation in the behavioural repertoire of animals is acquired by learning in a range of animal species. In nest-building birds, the assemblage of nest materials in an appropriate structure is often typical of a bird genus or species. Yet plasticity in the selection of nest materials may be beneficial because the nature and abundance of nest materials vary across habitats. Such plasticity can be learned, either individually or socially. In Corsican populations of blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus, females regularly add in their nests fragments of several species of aromatic plants during the whole breeding period. The selected plants represent a small fraction of the species present in the environment and have positive effects on nestlings. We investigated spatiotemporal variations of this behaviour to test whether the aromatic plant species composition in nests depends on 1) plant availability in territories, 2) female experience or 3) female identity. Our results indicate that territory plays a very marginal role in the aromatic plant species composition of nests. Female experience is not related to a change in nest plant composition. Actually, this composition clearly depends on female identity, i.e. results from individual preferences which, furthermore, are repeatable both within and across years. A puzzling fact is the strong difference in plant species composition of nests across distinct study plots. This study demonstrates that plant species composition of nests results from individual preferences that are homogeneous within study plots. We propose several hypotheses to interpret this pattern of spatial variation before discussing them in the light of preliminary results. As a conclusion, we cannot exclude the possibility of social transmission of individual preferences for aromatic plants. This is an exciting perspective for further work in birds, where nest construction behaviour has classically been considered as a stereotypic behaviour.

  5. Serum and urinary lipoproteins in the human nephrotic syndrome: evidence for renal catabolism of lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shore, V.G.; Forte, T.; Licht, H.; Lewis, S.B.

    1982-03-01

    The urinary excretion of lipoproteins and the possibility of catabolic alterations on glomerular filtration were investigated in four nephrotic subjects difering in etiology, serum lipoprotein profile, and 24 hr urinary output of protein and lipids. The apolipoproteins and lipoproteins of urine were compared with those of serum with respect to distribution profile, physical properties, and composition. As expected from molecular sieving effects during glomerular filtration, the urinary HDL were more abundant than the lower density lipoproteins even when the plasma LDL was elevated markedly. Intact apolipoproteins were not found in the concentrated urinary fraction isolated by ultrafiltration between the limits of 10/sup 4/ and 5 x 10/sup 4/ daltons. On the basis of immunoreactivity, gel electrophoresis, and amino acid composition, apolipoproteins B and AI are the major and minor proteins, respectively, of urinary LDL, and apo B is the major protein of the urinary IDL and VLDL. Apolipoproteins AI, AII, CI, CIII, and possibly AIV were isolated from the urinary HDL. As much as 20% of the protein moiety of the urinary HDL appeared to be large apolipoprotien fragments with molecular weights and isoelectric points similar to those of apo CII and apo CIII. The lower density classes of urinary lipoproteins also appeared to have lost apo E and apo C's and to have undergone partial proteolysis.

  6. The carotenoid biosynthetic and catabolic genes in wheat and their association with yellow pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colasuonno, Pasqualina; Lozito, Maria Luisa; Marcotuli, Ilaria; Nigro, Domenica; Giancaspro, Angelica; Mangini, Giacomo; De Vita, Pasquale; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria; Pecchioni, Nicola; Houston, Kelly; Simeone, Rosanna; Gadaleta, Agata; Blanco, Antonio

    2017-01-31

    In plants carotenoids play an important role in the photosynthetic process and photo-oxidative protection, and are the substrate for the synthesis of abscisic acid and strigolactones. In addition to their protective role as antioxidants and precursors of vitamin A, in wheat carotenoids are important as they influence the colour (whiteness vs. yellowness) of the grain. Understanding the genetic basis of grain yellow pigments, and identifying associated markers provide the basis for improving wheat quality by molecular breeding. Twenty-four candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis and catabolism of carotenoid compounds have been identified in wheat by comparative genomics. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in the coding sequences of 19 candidate genes allowed their chromosomal location and accurate map position on two reference consensus maps to be determined. The genome-wide association study based on genotyping a tetraploid wheat collection with 81,587 gene-associated SNPs validated quantitative trait loci (QTLs) previously detected in biparental populations and discovered new QTLs for grain colour-related traits. Ten carotenoid genes mapped in chromosome regions underlying pigment content QTLs indicating possible functional relationships between candidate genes and the trait. The availability of linked, candidate gene-based markers can facilitate breeding wheat cultivars with desirable levels of carotenoids. Identifying QTLs linked to carotenoid pigmentation can contribute to understanding genes underlying carotenoid accumulation in the wheat kernels. Together these outputs can be combined to exploit the genetic variability of colour-related traits for the nutritional and commercial improvement of wheat products.

  7. A Role of a Newly Identified Isomerase From Yarrowia lipolytica in Erythritol Catabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra M. Mirończuk

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Erythritol is a natural sweetener produced by microorganisms as an osmoprotectant. It belongs to the group of polyols and it can be utilized by the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. Despite the recent identification of the transcription factor of erythritol utilization (EUF1, the metabolic pathway of erythritol catabolism remains unknown. In this study we identified a new gene, YALI0F01628g, involved in erythritol assimilation. In silico analysis showed that YALI0F01628g is a putative isomerase and it is localized in the same region as EUF1. qRT-PCR analysis of Y. lipolytica showed a significant increase in YALI0F01628g expression during growth on erythritol and after overexpression of EUF1. Moreover, the deletion strain ΔF01628 showed significantly impaired erythritol assimilation, whereas synthesis of erythritol remained unchanged. The results showed that YALI0F1628g is involved in erythritol assimilation; thus we named the gene EYI1. Moreover, we suggest the metabolic pathway of erythritol assimilation in yeast Y. lipolytica.

  8. Biodistribution and catabolism of 18F-labelled isopeptide N(epsilon)-(gamma-glutamyl)-L-lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultsch, C; Bergmann, R; Pawelke, B; Pietzsch, J; Wuest, F; Johannsen, B; Henle, T

    2005-12-01

    Isopeptide bonds between the epsilon-amino group of lysine and the gamma-carboxamide group of glutamine are formed during strong heating of pure proteins or, more important, by enzymatic reaction mediated by transglutaminases. Despite the wide use of a microbial transglutaminase in food biotechnology, up to now little is known about the metabolic fate of the isopeptide N(epsilon)-(gamma-glutamyl)-L-lysine. In the present study, N-succinimidyl-4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoate was used to modify N(epsilon)-(gamma-glutamyl)-L-lysine at each of its two alpha-amino groups, resulting in the 4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoylated derivatives, for which biodistribution, catabolism, and elimination were investigated in male Wistar rats. A significant different biochemical behavior of the two labelled isopeptides was observed in terms of in vitro stability, in vivo metabolism as well as biodistribution. The results suggest that the metabolic fate of isopeptides is likely to be dependent on how they are reabsorbed - free or peptide bound.

  9. Abscisic acid in the thermoinhibition of lettuce seed germination and enhancement of its catabolism by gibberellin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonai, Takeru; Kawahara, Shusuke; Tougou, Makoto; Satoh, Shigeru; Hashiba, Teruyoshi; Hirai, Nobuhiro; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Yuji; Yoshioka, Toshihito

    2004-01-01

    Germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. 'Grand Rapids') seeds was inhibited at high temperatures (thermoinhibition). Thermoinhibition at 28 degrees C was prevented by the application of fluridone, an inhibitor of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. At 33 degrees C, the sensitivity of the seeds to ABA increased, and fluridone on its own was no longer effective. However, a combined application of fluridone and gibberellic acid (GA3) was able to restore the germination. Exogenous GA3 lowered endogenous ABA content in the seeds, enhancing catabolism of ABA and export of the catabolites from the intact seeds. The fluridone application also decreased the ABA content. Consequently, the combined application of fluridone and GA3 decreased the ABA content to a sufficiently low level to allow germination at 33 degrees C. There was no significant temperature-dependent change in endogenous GA1 contents. It is concluded that ABA is an important factor in the regulation of thermoinhibition of lettuce seed germination, and that GA affects the temperature responsiveness of the seeds through ABA metabolism.

  10. Amino acid catabolism and generation of volatiles by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavaria, F K; Dahl, S; Carballo, F J; Malcata, F X

    2002-10-01

    Twelve isolates of lactic acid bacteria, belonging to the Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, and Enterococcus genera, were previously isolated from 180-d-old Serra da Estrela cheese, a traditional Portuguese cheese manufactured from raw milk and coagulated with a plant rennet. These isolates were subsequently tested for their ability to catabolize free amino acids, when incubated independently with each amino acid in free form or with a mixture thereof. Attempts were made in both situations to correlate the rates of free amino acid uptake with the numbers of viable cells. When incubated individually, leucine, valine, glycine, aspartic acid, serine, threonine, lysine, glutamic acid, and alanine were degraded by all strains considered; arginine tended to build up, probably because of transamination of other amino acids. When incubated together, the degradation of free amino acids by each strain was dependent on pH (with an optimum pH around 6.0). The volatiles detected in ripened Serra da Estrela cheese originated mainly from leucine, phenylalanine, alanine, and valine, whereas in vitro they originated mainly from valine, phenylalanine, serine, leucine, alanine, and threonine. The wild strains tested offer a great potential for flavor generation, which might justify their inclusion in a tentative starter/nonstarter culture for that and similar cheeses.

  11. Haloacetate analogs of pheromones: effects on catabolism and electrophysiology in Plutella xylostella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestwich, G.D.; Streinz, L.

    1988-01-01

    A series of mono, di-, and trihalogenated acetate analogs of Z11-16:Ac were prepared and examined for electrophysiological activity in antennae of males of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. In addition, two potential affinity labels, a diazoacetate (Dza) and a trifluoromethyl ketone (Tfp), were evaluated for EAG activity. The Z11-16:Ac showed the highest activity in EAG assays, followed by the fluorinated acetates, but other haloacetates were essentially inactive. The effects of these analogs on the hydrolysis of [ 3 H]Z11-16:Ac to [ 3 H]Z11-16:OH by antennal esterases was also examined. The three fluorinated acetates showed the greatest activity as inhibitors in competition assays, with rank order F 2 Ac > F 3 Ac > FAc > AC > Cl 2 Ac > ClAc > Dza > Br 2 Ac > BrAc > Tfp > I > Cl 3 Ac > Br 3 Ac > OH. The relative polarities of the haloacetates, as determined by TLC mobility, are in the order mono- > di- > trihalo, but F, Cl, Br, and I all confer similar polarities within a substitution group. Thus, the steric size appears to be the predominant parameter affecting the interactions of the haloacetate analogs with both receptor and catabolic proteins in P. xylostella males

  12. Haloacetate analogs of pheromones: Effects on catabolism and electrophysiology inPlutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestwich, G D; Streinz, L

    1988-03-01

    A series of mono-, di-, and trihalogenated acetate analogs of Zl 1-16: Ac were prepared and examined for electrophysiological activity in antennae of males of the diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella. In addition, two potential affinity labels, a diazoacetate (Dza) and a trifluoromethyl ketone (Tfp), were evaluated for EAG activity. The Z11-16∶Ac showed the highest activity in EAG assays, followed by the fluorinated acetates, but other halo-acetates were essentially inactive. The polar diazoacetate and the trifluoromethyl ketone were also very weak EAG stimulants. The effects of these analogs on the hydrolysis of [(3)H]Z11-16∶Ac to [(3)H]Z11-16∶OH by antennal esterases was also examined. The three fluorinated acetates showed the greatest activity as inhibitors in competition assays, with rank order F2Ac > F(3)Ac > FAc > Ac > Cl2Ac > ClAc > Dza > Br2Ac > BrAc > Tfp > I > Cl3Ac > Br3Ac > OH. The relative polarities of the haloacetates, as determined by TLC mobility, are in the order mono- > di- > trihalo, but F, Cl, Br, and I all confer similar polarities within a substitution group. Thus, the steric size appears to be the predominant parameter affecting the interactions of the haloacetate analogs with both receptor and catabolic proteins inP. xylostella males.

  13. Catabolism of exogenously supplied thymidine to thymine and dihydrothymine by platelets in human peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pero, R.W.; Johnson, D.; Olsson, A.

    1984-01-01

    The interference of platelets with the estimation of unscheduled DNA synthesis in human peripheral mononuclear leukocytes following genotoxic exposure was studied. A 96% reduction in the unscheduled DNA synthesis value was achieved by incubating [ 3 H]thymidine with platelet-rich plasma for 5 hr at 37 degrees. Using radioactive thymine-containing compounds, together with quantitative analyses based on thin-layer and ion-exchange chromatographies, we have shown that thymidine was converted to thymine which, in turn, was converted to dihydrothymine in platelet-rich plasma. The enzymes responsible were separated from platelet lysates by gel filtration and were identified as thymidine phosphorylase and dihydrothymine dehydrogenase. The phosphorylase reversibly catalyzed the formation of thymine from thymidine and converted bromodeoxyuridine to bromouracil. The dehydrogenase reversibly catalyzed the interconversion of thymine and dihydrothymine in a reaction dependent on NADP(H), and it was inhibited by diazouracil and by thymine. Nearly all the thymidine-catabolizing activity found in whole blood samples supplied exogenously with thymidine was accounted for by the platelets. Since most genetic toxicological tests that use blood samples do not involve removing platelets from the blood cell cultures, then it is concluded that precautions should be taken in the future to determine the influence of platelets on these test systems. This is particularly true for methods dependent on thymidine pulses such as unscheduled DNA synthesis, or those dependent on bromodeoxyuridine, such as sister chromatid exchanges, since this nucleoside is also a substrate for thymidine phosphorylase

  14. Catabolic thiosulfate disproportionation and carbon dioxide reduction in strain DCB-1, a reductively dechlorinating anaerobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohn, W.W.; Tiedje, J.M. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Strain DCB-1 is a strict anaerobe capable of reductive dehalogenation. We elucidated metabolic processes in DCB-1 which may be related to dehalogenation and which further characterize the organism physiologically. Sulfoxy anions and CO2 were used by DCB-1 as catabolic electron acceptors. With suitable electron donors, sulfate and thiosulfate were reduced to sulfide. Sulfate and thiosulfate supported growth with formate or hydrogen as the electron donor and thus are probably respiratory electron acceptors. Other electron donors supporting growth with sulfate were CO, lactate, pyruvate, butyrate, and 3-methoxybenzoate. Thiosulfate also supported growth without an additional electron donor, being disproportionated to sulfide and sulfate. In the absence of other electron acceptors, CO2 reduction to acetate plus cell material was coupled to pyruvate oxidation to acetate plus CO2. Pyruvate could not be fermented without an electron acceptor. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase activity was found in whole cells, indicating that CO2 reduction probably occurred via the acetyl coenzyme A pathway. Autotrophic growth occurred on H2 plus thiosulfate or sulfate. Diazotrophic growth occurred, and whole cells had nitrogenase activity. On the basis of these physiological characteristics, DCB-1 is a thiosulfate-disproportionating bacterium unlike those previously described.

  15. Mitochondrial Carriers Link the Catabolism of Hydroxyaromatic Compounds to the Central Metabolism in Candida parapsilosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Zeman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenic yeast Candida parapsilosis metabolizes hydroxyderivatives of benzene and benzoic acid to compounds channeled into central metabolism, including the mitochondrially localized tricarboxylic acid cycle, via the 3-oxoadipate and gentisate pathways. The orchestration of both catabolic pathways with mitochondrial metabolism as well as their evolutionary origin is not fully understood. Our results show that the enzymes involved in these two pathways operate in the cytoplasm with the exception of the mitochondrially targeted 3-oxoadipate CoA-transferase (Osc1p and 3-oxoadipyl-CoA thiolase (Oct1p catalyzing the last two reactions of the 3-oxoadipate pathway. The cellular localization of the enzymes indicates that degradation of hydroxyaromatic compounds requires a shuttling of intermediates, cofactors, and products of the corresponding biochemical reactions between cytosol and mitochondria. Indeed, we found that yeast cells assimilating hydroxybenzoates increase the expression of genes SFC1, LEU5, YHM2, and MPC1 coding for succinate/fumarate carrier, coenzyme A carrier, oxoglutarate/citrate carrier, and the subunit of pyruvate carrier, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis uncovered distinct evolutionary trajectories for sparsely distributed gene clusters coding for enzymes of both pathways. Whereas the 3-oxoadipate pathway appears to have evolved by vertical descent combined with multiple losses, the gentisate pathway shows a striking pattern suggestive of horizontal gene transfer to the evolutionarily distant Mucorales.

  16. Application of DNA-DNA colony hybridization to the detection of catabolic genotypes in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayler, G.S.; Shields, M.S.; Tedford, E.T.; Breen, A.; Hooper, S.W.; Sirotkin, K.M.; Davis, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The application of preexisting DNA hybridization techniques was investigated for potential in determining populations of specific gene sequences in environmental samples. Cross-hybridizations among two degradative plasmids, TOL and NAH, and two cloning vehicles, pLAFR1 and RSF1010, were determined. The detection limits for the TOL plasmid against a nonhomologous plasmid-bearing bacterial background was ascertained. The colony hybridization technique allowed detection of one colony containing TOL plasmid among 10(6) Escherichia coli colonies of nonhomologous DNA. Comparisons between population estimates derived from growth on selective substrates and from hybridizations were examined. Findings indicated that standard sole carbon source enumeration procedures for degradative populations lead to overestimations due to nonspecific growth of other bacteria on the microcontaminant carbon sources present in the media. Population estimates based on the selective growth of a microcosm population on two aromatic substrates (toluene and naphthalene) and estimates derived from DNA-DNA colony hybridizations, using the TOL or NAH plasmid as a probe, corresponded with estimates of substrate mineralization rates and past exposure to environmental contaminants. The applications of such techniques are hoped to eventually allow enumeration of any specific gene sequences in the environment, including both anabolic and catabolic genes. In addition, this procedure should prove useful in monitoring recombinant DNA clones released into environmental situations

  17. Novel Insights into the Diversity of Catabolic Metabolism from Ten Haloarchaeal Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iain; Scheuner, Carmen; Goker, Markus; Mavromatis, Kostas; Hooper, Sean D.; Porat, Iris; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2011-05-03

    The extremely halophilic archaea are present worldwide in saline environments and have important biotechnological applications. Ten complete genomes of haloarchaea are now available, providing an opportunity for comparative analysis. We report here the comparative analysis of five newly sequenced haloarchaeal genomes with five previously published ones. Whole genome trees based on protein sequences provide strong support for deep relationships between the ten organisms. Using a soft clustering approach, we identified 887 protein clusters present in all halophiles. Of these core clusters, 112 are not found in any other archaea and therefore constitute the haloarchaeal signature. Four of the halophiles were isolated from water, and four were isolated from soil or sediment. Although there are few habitat-specific clusters, the soil/sediment halophiles tend to have greater capacity for polysaccharide degradation, siderophore synthesis, and cell wall modification. Halorhabdus utahensis and Haloterrigena turkmenica encode over forty glycosyl hydrolases each, and may be capable of breaking down naturally occurring complex carbohydrates. H. utahensis is specialized for growth on carbohydrates and has few amino acid degradation pathways. It uses the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway instead of the oxidative pathway, giving it more flexibility in the metabolism of pentoses. These new genomes expand our understanding of haloarchaeal catabolic pathways, providing a basis for further experimental analysis, especially with regard to carbohydrate metabolism. Halophilic glycosyl hydrolases for use in biofuel production are more likely to be found in halophiles isolated from soil or sediment.

  18. Elucidation of the pathways of catabolic glutamate conversion in three thermophilic anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plugge, C M; van Leeuwen, J M; Hummelen, T; Balk, M; Stams, A J

    2001-07-01

    The glutamate catabolism of three thermophilic syntrophic anaerobes was compared based on the combined use of [(13)C] glutamate NMR measurements and enzyme activity determinations. In some cases the uptake of intermediates from different pathways was studied. The three organisms, Caloramator coolhaasii, Thermanaerovibrio acidaminovorans and strain TGO, had a different stoichiometry of glutamate conversion and were dependent on the presence of a hydrogen scavenger (Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Z245) to a different degree for their growth. C. coolhaasii formed acetate, CO(2), NH(4)(+) and H(2) from glutamate. Acetate was found to be formed through the beta-methylaspartate pathway in pure culture as well as in coculture. T. acidaminovorans converted glutamate to acetate, propionate, CO(2), NH(4)(+) and H(2). Most likely, this organism uses the beta-methylaspartate pathway for acetate formation. Propionate formation occurred through a direct oxidation of glutamate via succinyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA. The metabolism of T. acidaminovorans shifted in favour of propionate formation when grown in coculture with the methanogen, but this did not lead to the use of a different glutamate degradation pathway. Strain TGO, an obligate syntrophic glutamate-degrading organism, formed propionate, traces of succinate, CO(2), NH(4)(+) and H(2). Glutamate was converted to propionate oxidatively via the intermediates succinyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA. A minor part of the succinyl-CoA was converted to succinate and excreted.

  19. Overexpression of Glucocorticoid Receptor β Enhances Myogenesis and Reduces Catabolic Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Terry D; Peck, Bailey; Shek, Evan; Stroup, Steven; Hinson, Jennifer; Arthur, Susan; Marino, Joseph S

    2016-02-11

    Unlike the glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα), GR β (GRβ) has a truncated ligand-binding domain that prevents glucocorticoid binding, implicating GRα as the mediator of glucocorticoid-induced skeletal muscle loss. Because GRβ causes glucocorticoid resistance, targeting GRβ may be beneficial in impairing muscle loss as a result of GRα activity. The purpose of this study was to determine how the overexpression of GRβ affects myotube formation and dexamethasone (Dex) responsiveness. We measured GR isoform expression in C₂C12 muscle cells in response to Dex and insulin, and through four days of myotube formation. Next, lentiviral-mediated overexpression of GRβ in C₂C12 was performed, and these cells were characterized for cell fusion and myotube formation, as well as sensitivity to Dex via the expression of ubiquitin ligases. GRβ overexpression increased mRNA levels of muscle regulatory factors and enhanced proliferation in myoblasts. GRβ overexpressing myotubes had an increased fusion index. Myotubes overexpressing GRβ had lower forkhead box O3 (Foxo3a) mRNA levels and a blunted muscle atrophy F-box/Atrogen-1 (MAFbx) and muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) response to Dex. We showed that GRβ may serve as a pharmacological target for skeletal muscle growth and protection from glucocorticoid-induced catabolic signaling. Increasing GRβ levels in skeletal muscle may cause a state of glucocorticoid resistance, stabilizing muscle mass during exposure to high doses of glucocorticoids.

  20. Overexpression of Glucocorticoid Receptor β Enhances Myogenesis and Reduces Catabolic Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry D. Hinds

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα, GR β (GRβ has a truncated ligand-binding domain that prevents glucocorticoid binding, implicating GRα as the mediator of glucocorticoid-induced skeletal muscle loss. Because GRβ causes glucocorticoid resistance, targeting GRβ may be beneficial in impairing muscle loss as a result of GRα activity. The purpose of this study was to determine how the overexpression of GRβ affects myotube formation and dexamethasone (Dex responsiveness. We measured GR isoform expression in C2C12 muscle cells in response to Dex and insulin, and through four days of myotube formation. Next, lentiviral-mediated overexpression of GRβ in C2C12 was performed, and these cells were characterized for cell fusion and myotube formation, as well as sensitivity to Dex via the expression of ubiquitin ligases. GRβ overexpression increased mRNA levels of muscle regulatory factors and enhanced proliferation in myoblasts. GRβ overexpressing myotubes had an increased fusion index. Myotubes overexpressing GRβ had lower forkhead box O3 (Foxo3a mRNA levels and a blunted muscle atrophy F-box/Atrogen-1 (MAFbx and muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1 response to Dex. We showed that GRβ may serve as a pharmacological target for skeletal muscle growth and protection from glucocorticoid-induced catabolic signaling. Increasing GRβ levels in skeletal muscle may cause a state of glucocorticoid resistance, stabilizing muscle mass during exposure to high doses of glucocorticoids.

  1. Angiotensin II induced catabolic effect and muscle atrophy are redox dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semprun-Prieto, Laura C.; Sukhanov, Sergiy; Yoshida, Tadashi; Rezk, Bashir M.; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Romer A.; Vaughn, Charlotte; Tabony, A. Michael; Delafontaine, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) causes skeletal muscle wasting via an increase in muscle catabolism. To determine whether the wasting effects of Ang II were related to its ability to increase NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) we infused wild-type C57BL/6J or p47phox−/− mice with vehicle or Ang II for 7 days. Superoxide production was increased 2.4 fold in the skeletal muscle of Ang II infused mice, and this increase was prevented in p47phox−/− mice. Apocynin treatment prevented Ang II-induced superoxide production in skeletal muscle, consistent with Ang II increasing NADPH oxidase derived ROS. Ang II induced loss of body and skeletal muscle weight in C57BL/6J mice, whereas the reduction was significantly attenuated in p47phox−/− animals. The reduction of skeletal muscle weight caused by Ang II was associated with an increase of proteasome activity, and this increase was completely prevented in the skeletal muscle of p47phox−/− mice. In conclusion, Ang II-induced skeletal muscle wasting is in part dependent on NADPH oxidase derived ROS. PMID:21570954

  2. Acetaldehyde binding increases the catabolism of rat serum low-density lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, M.J.; Baraona, E.; Lieber, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    Acetaldehyde was found to form adducts with rat serum lipoproteins. The binding of [ 14 C]acetaldehyde to lipoproteins was studied at low concentrations which are known to exist during ethanol oxidation. The amount of lipoprotein adducts was a linear function of acetaldehyde concentration up to 250 μM. Incubation of rat plasma low-density lipoproteins (LDL) with 200 μM acetaldehyde increased the disappearance rate of the 3 H-label from the cholesterol ester moiety of LDL injected into normal rats. The data show that even low concentrations of acetaldehyde are capable of affecting LDL metabolism. These findings may provide an explanation for the low concentrations of serum LDL in alcoholics. The alcohol-induced hyperlipidemia includes either a lack of increase or a decrease in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration, but the underlying mechanism is not known. It has been shown previously, that the acetylation of lysine residues of LDL apoprotein (apoB) by acetanhydride leads to rapid uptake of LDL particles by macrophages through a non-LDL receptor pathway. Since acetaldehyde, the first toxic metabolite of ethanol, is a chemically reactive compound capable of binding to proteins, they tested whether acetaldehyde forms adducts with serum lipoproteins and subsequently alters the catabolism of LDL. 19 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  3. Amino Acid Catabolism in Alzheimer’s Disease Brain: Friend or Foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeddidiah W. D. Griffin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a dire need to discover new targets for Alzheimer’s disease (AD drug development. Decreased neuronal glucose metabolism that occurs in AD brain could play a central role in disease progression. Little is known about the compensatory neuronal changes that occur to attempt to maintain energy homeostasis. In this review using the PubMed literature database, we summarize evidence that amino acid oxidation can temporarily compensate for the decreased glucose metabolism, but eventually altered amino acid and amino acid catabolite levels likely lead to toxicities contributing to AD progression. Because amino acids are involved in so many cellular metabolic and signaling pathways, the effects of altered amino acid metabolism in AD brain are far-reaching. Possible pathological results from changes in the levels of several important amino acids are discussed. Urea cycle function may be induced in endothelial cells of AD patient brains, possibly to remove excess ammonia produced from increased amino acid catabolism. Studying AD from a metabolic perspective provides new insights into AD pathogenesis and may lead to the discovery of dietary metabolite supplements that can partially compensate for alterations of enzymatic function to delay AD or alleviate some of the suffering caused by the disease.

  4. CO₂ and O₂ respiration kinetics in hydrocarbon contaminated soils amended with organic carbon sources used to determine catabolic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietravalle, Stéphane; Aspray, Thomas J

    2013-05-01

    Multiple substrate induced respiration (MSIR) assays which assess the response of soils to carbon source amendment are effective approaches to determine catabolic diversity of soils. Many assays are based on a single short term (hydrocarbon contaminated soils using continuous CO2 and O2 respiration measurements. Based on cumulative CO2 and O2 measurements at 4, 24 and 120 h, the soils were found to be distinct in terms of their catabolic diversity. Most noteworthy, however, was the response to the addition of maleic acid which provided strong evidence of abiotic CO2 efflux to be the overriding process, raising questions about the interpretation of CO2 only responses from organic acid addition in MSIR assays. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of immunomodulators and cytostatics in 125I-deoxyuridine and tumor catabolism (a rapid method of antitumour immunomodulators screening)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obernikhin, S.S.; Fuks, B.B.

    1992-01-01

    E1-4 and P-815 murine tumor cells labelled by 125 I-deoxyuridine or 51 Cr were administered in 7-day subcutaneous syngeneic tumors or subcutaneosly. At the same time different groups of mice were treated by immunomodulators and cytostatics. It was shown that cytostatics and immunomodulators significantly delayed catabolism and withdrawing of 125 I-deoxyuridine (that has not been incorporated in DNA) from tumor cells. This delay was correlated with the inhibition of tumor nodes growth rate. It is concluded that influence of cytostatics and immunomodulators on catabolism and withdrawing rate of 125 I-deoxyuridine from tumor cells relates to their cytostatic effect and may be used at the earliest screening step of immunomodulator analysis

  6. Hurricane disturbance benefits nesting American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Theodore R.; Schulte, Shiloh A.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are under increasing pressure from human activity, introduced species, sea level rise, and storm activity. Hurricanes are a powerful destructive force, but can also renew coastal habitats. In 2003, Hurricane Isabel altered the barrier islands of North Carolina, flattening dunes and creating sand flats. American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) are large shorebirds that inhabit the coastal zone throughout the year. Alternative survival models were evaluated for 699 American Oystercatcher nests on North Core Banks and South Core Banks, North Carolina, USA, from 1999–2007. Nest survival on North Core Banks increased from 0.170 (SE = 0.002) to 0.772 (SE = 0.090) after the hurricane, with a carry-over effect lasting 2 years. A simple year effects model described nest survival on South Core Banks. Habitat had no effect on survival except when the overall rate of nest survival was at intermediate levels (0.300–0.600), when nests on open flats survived at a higher rate (0.600; SE = 0.112) than nests in dune habitat (0.243; SE = 0.094). Predator activity declined on North Core Banks after the hurricane and corresponded with an increase in nest survival. Periodic years with elevated nest survival may offset low annual productivity and contribute to the stability of American Oystercatcher populations.

  7. Behavior of greedy sparse representation algorithms on nested supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailhé, Boris; Sturm, Bob L.; Plumbley, Mark

    2013-01-01

    is not locally nested: there is a dictionary and supports Γ ⊃ Γ′ such that OMP can recover all signals with support Γ, but not all signals with support Γ′. We also show that the support recovery optimality of OMP is globally nested: if OMP can recover all s-sparse signals, then it can recover all s...

  8. Nesting habitat and productivity of Swainson's Hawks in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Catherine; Boal, Clint W.; DeStefano, Stephen; Hobbs, Royden J.

    2013-01-01

    We studied Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni) in southeastern Arizona to assess the status of the local breeding population. Nest success (≥1 young fledged) was 44.4% in 1999 with an average of 1.43 ± 0.09 (SE) young produced per successful pair. Productivity was similar in 2000, with 58.2% nesting success and 1.83 ± 0.09 fledglings per successful pair. Mesquite (Prosopis velutina) and cottonwood (Populus fremontii) accounted for >50% of 167 nest trees. Nest trees were taller than surrounding trees and random trees, and overall there was more vegetative cover at nest sites than random sites. This apparent requirement for cover around nest sites could be important for management of the species in Arizona. However, any need for cover at nest sites must be balanced with the need for open areas for foraging. Density of nesting Swainson's Hawks was higher in agriculture than in grasslands and desert scrub. Breeding pairs had similar success in agricultural and nonagricultural areas, but the effect of rapid and widespread land-use change on breeding distribution and productivity continues to be a concern throughout the range of the species.

  9. Nest height of the red bishop ( Eupiectes orix ) | Woodall | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heights of nests and reeds in a colony of red bishops (Euplectes orix) in Phragmites mauritianus reeds on the Makabusi River, Zimbabwe were measured in two breeding seasons. Nests were placed high in the reeds with fewer above the mean and more below the mean than in a normal distribution. During the course of a ...

  10. A helping hand: artificial nest site provisioning increases breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common white terns Gygis alba lay a single egg balanced on rocks or branches and consequently are at risk of low nesting success. A novel technique of hollowing out coconut husks and providing artificial nest sites was developed on Cousine Island, Seychelles. Our study aimed to critically assess whether common white ...

  11. Usurpation of a Crowned Lapwing Vanellus coronatus nest by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I report an instance of usurpation of a Crowned Lapwing Vanellus coronatus nest by a pair of African Wattled Lapwings Vanellus senegalensis. The nest, which originally contained a single Crowned Lapwing egg, eventually contained an additional three Wattled Lapwing eggs, before it was predated. Although parents of ...

  12. LOGGERHEAD SEA TURTLE LATE NESTING ECOLOGY IN VIRGINIA BEACH, VIRGINIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    T'he.loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta came is the only recurrent nesting species of sea turtle in southeastern Virginia (Lutcavage & Musick, 1985; Dodd, 1988). Inasmuch as the loggerhead is a federally threatened species, the opportunity to gather data on its nesting ecology is imp...

  13. Brunn nests masquerading as bladder tumor: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Hee; Byun, Kyung Hwan; Jeon, Ji Min

    2005-01-01

    Brunn nests are the most common proliferative lesions of the bladder uroepithelium, but exuberant proliferation can mimic bladder tumor on radiologic imaging and cystoscopy. We describe a case of pathologically proven Brunn nests in a 34-year-old man, misdiagnosed as bladder tumor on preoperative imaging studies

  14. The nest architecture of the Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter R. Tschinkel

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The architecture of the subterranean nests of the Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius, was studied through excavation and casting. Nests are composed of two basic units: descending shafts and horizontal chambers. Shafts form helices with diameters of 4 to 6 cm, and descend at an angle of about 15-20° near the surface, increasing to about 70° below about 50 cm in depth. Superficial chambers (< 15 cm deep appear to be modified shafts with low angles of descent, and are distinct from deeper chambers. In larger nests, they have a looping, connected morphology. Chambers begin on the outside of the helix as horizontal-floored, circular indentations, becoming multi-lobed as they are enlarged. Chamber height is about 1 cm, and does not change with area. Chamber area is greatest in the upper reaches of the nest, and decreases with depth. Vertical spacing between chambers is least in the upper reaches and increases to a maximum at about 70 to 80% of the maximum depth of the nest. The distribution of chamber area is top-heavy, with about half the total area occurring in the top quarter of the nest. Each 10% depth increment of the nest contains 25 to 40% less area than the decile above it, no matter what the size of the nest.

  15. Response of predators to Western Sandpiper nest exclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Amanda C.; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; McCaffery, Brian J.

    2004-01-01

    In 2001, predator exclosures were used to protect nests of the Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri) in western Alaska. During the exclosure experiment, nest contents in exclosures had significantly higher daily survival rates than control nests, however, late in the study predators began to cue in on exclosures and predate the nest contents. An Arctic Fox (Alopex lagopus) dug under one exclosure and took the newly hatched chicks, and Long-tailed Jaegers (Stercorarius longicaudus) learned to associate exclosures with active nests and repeatedly visited them. The jaegers attempted to gain access to exclosed nests and pursued adult sandpipers as they emerged from the exclosures. The exclosures were removed to reduce potential mortality to adult and young sandpipers, but subsequently, post-exclosure nests had lower daily survival rates than controls during the same time period. Predation of post-exclosure eggs and chicks highlighted the lasting influence of the exclosure treatment on offspring survival because predators probably remembered nest locations. Researchers are urged to use caution when considering use of predator exclosures in areas where jaegers occur.

  16. Observations of nesting avifauna under gamma-radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buech, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    An opportunity arose to observe the nesting success of birds (up to the time of fledging) when the Enterprise Forest Radiation Facility was established for a study of the effects of gamma radiation on the flora and fauna of northern forest communities. The results of these observations on the fate of the nest occupants in relation to radiation exposure are presented

  17. Nest ectoparasites increase physiological stress in breeding birds: an experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Merino, Santiago; Tomás, Gustavo; Moreno, Juan; Morales, Judith; Lobato, Elisa; Martínez, Javier

    2011-02-01

    Parasites are undoubtedly a biotic factor that produces stress. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are important molecules buffering cellular damage under adverse conditions. During the breeding season, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus (L.) adults are affected by blood parasites, nest-dwelling parasites and biting flies, potentially affecting their HSP-mediated responses. Here, we treated females with primaquine to reduce blood parasites and fumigated nests with permethrin to reduce nest-dwelling parasites to test whether these treatments affect HSP60 level during the breeding season. Medicated females, but not controls, had a significant reduction of the intensity of infection by Haemoproteus spp. blood parasites. However, final intensity of infection did not differ significantly between groups, and we did not find an effect of medication on change in HSP60 level. Fumigation reduced the abundance of nest-dwelling parasites (mites, fleas and blowfly larvae) and engorged biting midges in nests. Females breeding in non-fumigated nests increased HSP60 levels during the season more than those breeding in fumigated nests. Furthermore, the change in HSP60 level was positively correlated with the abundance of biting midges. These results show how infections by nest ectoparasites during the breeding period can increase the level of HSPs and suggest that biting midges impose physiological costs on breeding female blue tits. Although plausible, the alternative that biting midges prefer to feed on more stressed birds is poorly supported by previous studies.

  18. A new method for wireless video monitoring of bird nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    David I. King; Richard M. DeGraaf; Paul J. Champlin; Tracey B. Champlin

    2001-01-01

    Video monitoring of active bird nests is gaining popularity among researchers because it eliminates many of the biases associated with reliance on incidental observations of predation events or use of artificial nests, but the expense of video systems may be prohibitive. Also, the range and efficiency of current video monitoring systems may be limited by the need to...

  19. Understanding Insecure Attachment: A Study Using Children's Bird Nest Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheller, Sandy

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a phenomenological study of the artistic creations of bird nests by four school-aged children to illuminate their internal experiences of attachment. The author analyzed qualitative data from in-depth interviews pertaining to two-dimensional and three-dimensional artistic representations of a bird's nest and a family of…

  20. A field protocol to monitor cavity-nesting birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Dudley; V. Saab

    2003-01-01

    We developed a field protocol to monitor populations of cavity-nesting birds in burned and unburned coniferous forests of western North America. Standardized field methods are described for implementing long-term monitoring strategies and for conducting field research to evaluate the effects of habitat change on cavity-nesting birds. Key references (but not...

  1. Regional Forest Fragmentation and the Nesting Success of Migratory Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott K. Robinson; Frank R. Thompson III; Therese M. Donovan; Donald R. Whitehead; John Faaborg

    1995-01-01

    Forest fragmentation, the disruption in the continuity of forest habitat, is hypothesized to be a major cause of population decline for, some species of forest birds because fragmentation reduces nesting (reproductive) success. Nest predation and parasitism by cowbirds increased with forest fragmentation in nine midwestern (United States)landscapes that varied from 6...

  2. Conservation implications when the nest predators are known

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribic, Christine; Thompson, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Conservation and management of passerines has largely focused on habitat manipulation or restoration because the natural communities on which these birds depend have been destroyed and fragmented. However, productivity is another important aspect of avian conservation, and nest predation can be a large source of nesting mortality for passerines. Recent studies using video surveillance to identify nest predators allow researchers to start evaluating what methods could be used to mitigate nest predation to help passerines of conservation concern. From recent studies, we identified latitudinal and habitat-related patterns in the importance of predator groups that depredate passerine nests. We then reviewed how knowledge of specific nest predators can benefit conservation of bird species of concern. Mammals were the dominant predator group in northern grasslands. Snakes were the dominant predator group in southern habitats. Fire ants were only a nest predator in southern latitudes. Differences in the importance of predator species or groups were likely the result of both their geographic patterns of distribution and habitat preferences. Some direct and indirect predator control measures developed for waterfowl management potentially could be used to benefit passerine productivity. We reviewed three examples-cowbirds, snakes in shrublands, and ground squirrels in grasslands-to illustrate how different predator control strategies may be needed in different situations. Mitigation of passerine nest predation will need to be based on knowledge of predator communities to be effective. This requires large samples of predation events with identified predators; video technology is essential for this task.

  3. Modeling Complex Nesting Structures in International Business Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard; Nielsen, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    hierarchical random coefficient models (RCM) are often used for the analysis of multilevel phenomena, IB issues often result in more complex nested structures. This paper illustrates how cross-nested multilevel modeling allowing for predictor variables and cross-level interactions at multiple (crossed) levels...

  4. NEST-SITE SELECTION IN THE CAPE SUGARBIRD We dedicate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These data, together with those on heat loss from an incubating bird, are ... in relation to nest-site selection as adaptive behaviour promoting breeding success through ... ability of food, in the form of nectar and nectiferous insects and arachnids .... cup of the nest, and the percentage vegetation cover was determined with the ...

  5. Animating Nested Taylor Polynomials to Approximate a Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzone, Eric F.; Piper, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    The way that Taylor polynomials approximate functions can be demonstrated by moving the center point while keeping the degree fixed. These animations are particularly nice when the Taylor polynomials do not intersect and form a nested family. We prove a result that shows when this nesting occurs. The animations can be shown in class or…

  6. Interactions between nesting pileated woodpeckers and wood ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Clifford E. Shackelford; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer

    2001-01-01

    We observed interactions between a nesting pair of pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) and what appeared to be four pairs of wood ducks (Aix sponsa). Wood ducks regularly approached and attempted to enter an active pileated woodpecker nest cavity that contained three fully feathered young pileated woodpeckers. The male...

  7. Development of camera technology for monitoring nests. Chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Andrew Cox; M. Shane Pruett; Thomas J. Benson; Scott J. Chiavacci; Frank R., III Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Photo and video technology has become increasingly useful in the study of avian nesting ecology. However, researchers interested in using camera systems are often faced with insufficient information on the types and relative advantages of available technologies. We reviewed the literature for studies of nests that used cameras and summarized them based on study...

  8. Gardening and landscaping practices for nesting native bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bees have two primary needs in life: pollen and nectar to feed themselves and their offspring, and a suitable place to nest. Guidance is increasingly available about garden flowers to plant for native bees. We know far less about accommodating the nesting needs of our native bees, but there are cer...

  9. Aerobic exercise training prevents heart failure-induced skeletal muscle atrophy by anti-catabolic, but not anabolic actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo W A Souza

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is associated with cachexia and consequent exercise intolerance. Given the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise training (ET in HF, the aim of this study was to determine if the ET performed during the transition from cardiac dysfunction to HF would alter the expression of anabolic and catabolic factors, thus preventing skeletal muscle wasting.We employed ascending aortic stenosis (AS inducing HF in Wistar male rats. Controls were sham-operated animals. At 18 weeks after surgery, rats with cardiac dysfunction were randomized to 10 weeks of aerobic ET (AS-ET or to an untrained group (AS-UN. At 28 weeks, the AS-UN group presented HF signs in conjunction with high TNF-α serum levels; soleus and plantaris muscle atrophy; and an increase in the expression of TNF-α, NFκB (p65, MAFbx, MuRF1, FoxO1, and myostatin catabolic factors. However, in the AS-ET group, the deterioration of cardiac function was prevented, as well as muscle wasting, and the atrophy promoters were decreased. Interestingly, changes in anabolic factor expression (IGF-I, AKT, and mTOR were not observed. Nevertheless, in the plantaris muscle, ET maintained high PGC1α levels.Thus, the ET capability to attenuate cardiac function during the transition from cardiac dysfunction to HF was accompanied by a prevention of skeletal muscle atrophy that did not occur via an increase in anabolic factors, but through anti-catabolic activity, presumably caused by PGC1α action. These findings indicate the therapeutic potential of aerobic ET to block HF-induced muscle atrophy by counteracting the increased catabolic state.

  10. Nest trampling and ground nesting birds: Quantifying temporal and spatial overlap between cattle activity and breeding redshank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharps, Elwyn; Smart, Jennifer; Mason, Lucy R; Jones, Kate; Skov, Martin W; Garbutt, Angus; Hiddink, Jan G

    2017-08-01

    Conservation grazing for breeding birds needs to balance the positive effects on vegetation structure and negative effects of nest trampling. In the UK, populations of Common redshank Tringa totanus breeding on saltmarshes declined by >50% between 1985 and 2011. These declines have been linked to changes in grazing management. The highest breeding densities of redshank on saltmarshes are found in lightly grazed areas. Conservation initiatives have encouraged low-intensity grazing at nest trampling. If livestock distribution is not spatially or temporally homogenous but concentrated where and when redshank breed, rates of nest trampling may be much higher than expected based on livestock density alone. By GPS tracking cattle on saltmarshes and monitoring trampling of dummy nests, this study quantified (i) the spatial and temporal distribution of cattle in relation to the distribution of redshank nesting habitats and (ii) trampling rates of dummy nests. The distribution of livestock was highly variable depending on both time in the season and the saltmarsh under study, with cattle using between 3% and 42% of the saltmarsh extent and spending most their time on higher elevation habitat within 500 m of the sea wall, but moving further onto the saltmarsh as the season progressed. Breeding redshank also nest on these higher elevation zones, and this breeding coincides with the early period of grazing. Probability of nest trampling was correlated to livestock density and was up to six times higher in the areas where redshank breed. This overlap in both space and time of the habitat use of cattle and redshank means that the trampling probability of a nest can be much higher than would be expected based on standard measures of cattle density. Synthesis and applications : Because saltmarsh grazing is required to maintain a favorable vegetation structure for redshank breeding, grazing management should aim to keep livestock away from redshank nesting habitat between mid

  11. Nest site selection by Kentish plover suggests a trade-off between nest-crypsis and predator detection strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Gómez-Serrano

    Full Text Available Predation is one of the main causes of adult mortality and breeding failure for ground-nesting birds. Micro-habitat structure around nests plays a critical role in minimizing predation risk. Plovers nest in sites with little vegetation cover to maximize the incubating adult visibility, but many studies suggest a trade-off between nest-crypsis and predator detection strategies. However, this trade-off has not been explored in detail because methods used so far do not allow estimating the visibility with regards to critical factors such as slope or plant permeability to vision. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Kentish plovers select exposed sites according to a predator detection strategy, and the hypothesis that more concealed nests survive longer according to a crypsis strategy. To this end, we obtained an accurate estimation of the incubating adult's field of vision through a custom built inverted periscope. Our results showed that plovers selected nest sites with higher visibility than control points randomly selected with regards to humans and dogs, although nests located in sites with higher vegetation cover survived longer. In addition, the flushing distance (i.e., the distance at which incubating adults leave the nest when they detect a potential predator decreased with vegetation cover. Consequently, the advantages of concealing the nest were limited by the ability to detect predators, thus indirectly supporting the existence of the trade-off between crypsis and predator detection. Finally, human disturbance also constrained nest choice, forcing plovers to move to inland sites that were less suitable because of higher vegetation cover, and modulated flushing behavior, since plovers that were habituated to humans left their nests closer to potential predators. This constraint on the width of suitable breeding habitat is particularly relevant for the conservation of Kentish Plover in sand beaches, especially under the current context of

  12. Time-lapse video sysem used to study nesting gyrfalcons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booms, Travis; Fuller, Mark R.

    2003-01-01

    We used solar-powered time-lapse video photography to document nesting Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) food habits in central West Greenland from May to July in 2000 and 2001. We collected 2677.25 h of videotape from three nests, representing 94, 87, and 49% of the nestling period at each nest. The video recorded 921 deliveries of 832 prey items. We placed 95% of the items into prey categories. The image quality was good but did not reveal enough detail to identify most passerines to species. We found no evidence that Gyrfalcons were negatively affected by the video system after the initial camera set-up. The video system experienced some mechanical problems but proved reliable. The system likely can be used to effectively document the food habits and nesting behavior of other birds, especially those delivering large prey to a nest or other frequently used site.

  13. Nest predation research: Recent findings and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, Anna D.; Ibanez-Alamo, J. D.; Magrath, R. D.; Schmidt, Kenneth A.; Thomson, R. L.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Haff, T. M.; Martin, T.E.

    2016-01-01

    Nest predation is a key source of selection for birds that has attracted increasing attention from ornithologists. The inclusion of new concepts applicable to nest predation that stem from social information, eavesdropping or physiology has expanded our knowledge considerably. Recent methodological advancements now allow focus on all three players within nest predation interactions: adults, offspring and predators. Indeed, the study of nest predation now forms a vital part of avian research in several fields, including animal behaviour, population ecology, evolution and conservation biology. However, within nest predation research there are important aspects that require further development, such as the comparison between ecological and evolutionary antipredator responses, and the role of anthropogenic change. We hope this review of recent findings and the presentation of new research avenues will encourage researchers to study this important and interesting selective pressure, and ultimately will help us to better understand the biology of birds.

  14. Interspecific interactions in solitary Aculeata - is the presence of heterospecifics important for females establishing nests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierat, J; Miler, K; Celary, W; Woyciechowski, M

    2018-02-01

    There are several possible causes of aggregated nesting in solitary Aculeata, one being joint defense against parasites. We tested whether females prefer nesting in aggregations, even if they consist of heterospecifics. We compared the colonization and nesting parasitism of trap-nests with and without a red mason bee aggregation. The results did not support our hypothesis that females prefer nesting in aggregations. The numbers of wild Aculeata nests did not differ between trap-nests with and without an aggregation. Unexpectedly, parasitism rates were higher in trap-nests with aggregations. When analyzing only nests of wild insects (mostly wasps), the differences in parasitism disappeared. Natural nesting sites may be such a limited resource that females nested in the first trap-nest they encountered and did not discriminate between our treatments, or wasps might share too few parasites species with bees to benefit from joint nest defense.

  15. Does removal of mammalian predators significantly affect success of simulated nests in linear habitats? Case study on American mink Mustela vison \\& Predation on simulated duck nests in relation to nest density and habitat type

    OpenAIRE

    PADYŠÁKOVÁ, Eliška

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is made up of two studies dealing with predation of waterfowl nests. in the first study, we determined wheather removal of introduced predator Mustela vison affected nest survival of simulated duck nests in linear habitat. In the second study, we tested two hypothesis: 1)predation depends on density of waterfowl nests, 2)mammals are main predators in forest habitat and birds mainly depredate nests deployed in open land.

  16. A comparison of the breeding ecology of birds nesting in boxes and tree cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn L. Purcell; Jared Verner; Lewis W. Oring

    1997-01-01

    We compared laying date, nesting success, clutch size, and productivity of four bird species that nest in boxes and tree cavities to examine whether data from nest boxes are comparable with data from tree cavities. Western Bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) gained the most advantage from nesting in boxes. They initiated egg laying earlier, had higher nesting success, lower...

  17. The nest predator assemblage for songbirds in Mono Lake basin riparian habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quresh S. Latif; Sacha K. Heath; Grant Ballard

    2012-01-01

    Because nest predation strongly limits avian fitness, ornithologists identify nest predators to inform ecological research and conservation. During 2002–2008, we used both video-monitoring of natural nests and direct observations of predation to identify nest predators of open-cup nesting riparian songbirds along tributaries of Mono Lake, California. Video cameras at...

  18. Nest Success and Cause-Specific Nest Failure of Grassland Passerines Breeding in Prairie Grazed by Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript describes two years of field research on ground-nesting songbird species at Zumwalt Prairie Reserve, northeastern Oregon, USA. Cattle-grazing has long been suspected in declines of ground-nesting songbirds in grazed grassland, primarily due to increased trampling...

  19. Landscape and regional context differentially affect nest parasitism and nest predation for Wood Thrush in central Virginia, USA (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many empirical studies have shown that forest-breeding songbirds suffer greater rates of nest predation and nest parasitism in smaller forest patches and in fragmented landscapes. To compare the performance of different metrics of spatial habitat configuration resulting from defo...

  20. Landscape distribution of food and nesting sites affect larval diet and nest size, but not abundance of Osmia bicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudrain, Valérie; Rittiner, Sarah; Herzog, Felix; Tinner, Willy; Entling, Martin H

    2016-10-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a major threat for beneficial organisms and the ecosystem services they provide. Multiple-habitat users such as wild bees depend on both nesting and foraging habitat. Thus, they may be affected by the fragmentation of at least two habitat types. We investigated the effects of landscape-scale amount of and patch isolation from both nesting habitat (woody plants) and foraging habitat (specific pollen sources) on the abundance and diet of Osmia bicornis L. Trap-nests of O. bicornis were studied in 30 agricultural landscapes of the Swiss Plateau. Nesting and foraging habitats were mapped in a radius of 500 m around the sites. Pollen composition of larval diet changed as isolation to the main pollen source, Ranunculus, increased, suggesting that O. bicornis adapted its foraging strategy in function of the nest proximity to main pollen sources. Abundance of O. bicornis was neither related to isolation or amount of nesting habitat nor to isolation or abundance of food plants. Surprisingly, nests of O. bicornis contained fewer larvae in sites at forest edge compared to isolated sites, possibly due to higher parasitism risk. This study indicates that O. bicornis can nest in a variety of situations by compensating scarcity of its main larval food by exploiting alternative food sources. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Strong selection on mandible and nest features in a carpenter bee that nests in two sympatric host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Prado, Luis; Pinto, Carlos F; Rojas, Alejandra; Fontúrbel, Francisco E

    2014-05-01

    Host plants are used by herbivorous insects as feeding or nesting resources. In wood-boring insects, host plants features may impose selective forces leading to phenotypic differentiation on traits related to nest construction. Carpenter bees build their nests in dead stems or dry twigs of shrubs and trees; thus, mandibles are essential for the nesting process, and the nest is required for egg laying and offspring survival. We explored the shape and intensity of natural selection on phenotypic variation on three size measures of the bees (intertegular width, wing length, and mandible area) and two nest architecture measures (tunnel length and diameter) on bees using the native species Chusquea quila (Poaceae), and the alloctonous species Rubus ulmifolius (Rosaceae), in central Chile. Our results showed significant and positive linear selection gradients for tunnel length on both hosts, indicating that bees building long nests have more offspring. Bees with broader mandibles show greater fitness on C. quila but not on R. ulmifolius. Considering that C. quila represents a selective force on mandible area, we hypothesized a high adaptive value of this trait, resulting in higher fitness values when nesting on this host, despite its wood is denser and hence more difficult to be bored.

  2. Nesting of the Blakiston's Fish-Owl in the Nest of the Steller’s Sea Eagle, Magadan Region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina G. Utekhina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2015 one Steller’s Sea Eagle nest was occupied by a Blakiston’s Fish Owl, the first record of which came from the Nature Reserve Inspector, E.A. Stepanov, who, on May 17, noted the pair of fish owls near a Steller’s Sea Eagle nest on the western bank of the Chelomdja River, 3 km downstream from the Moldot ranger’s station. On that date one of the owls was sitting in the nest, and another was sitting in a tree nearby the nest. On May 26, E. Stepanov observed the owls in the same position. We observed the nest on 20 and 21 June 2015, and saw one large Blakiston’s Fish Owl chick in the nest; no adults were noted. Inspector A. Stepanov saw the chick in the nest on June 23, and an adult in a nearby.  Magadan State Reserve Inspector A. Akhanov reported that the nest was empty and no adults were seen on June 25.

  3. Contrasting Effects of Cattle Grazing Intensity on Upland-Nesting Duck Production at Nest and Field Scales in the Aspen Parkland, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Warren

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Aspen Parkland of Canada is one of the most important breeding areas for temperate nesting ducks in North America. The region is dominated by agricultural land use, with approximately 9.3 million ha in pasture land for cattle grazing. However, the effects of using land for cattle grazing on upland-nesting duck production are poorly understood. The current study was undertaken during 2001 and 2002 to investigate how nest density and nesting success of upland-nesting ducks varied with respect to the intensity of cattle grazing in the Aspen Parkland. We predicted that the removal and trampling of vegetation through cattle grazing would reduce duck nest density. Both positive and negative responses of duck nesting success to grazing have been reported in previous studies, leading us to test competing hypotheses that nesting success would (1 decline linearly with grazing intensity or (2 peak at moderate levels of grazing. Nearly 3300 ha of upland cover were searched during the study. Despite extensive and severe drought, nest searches located 302 duck nests. As predicted, nest density was higher in fields with lower grazing intensity and higher pasture health scores. A lightly grazed field with a pasture score of 85 out of a possible 100 was predicted to have 16.1 nests/100 ha (95% CI = 11.7-22.1, more than five times the predicted nest density of a heavily grazed field with a pasture score of 58 (3.3 nests/100 ha, 95% CI = 2.2-4.5. Nesting success was positively related to nest-site vegetation density across most levels of grazing intensity studied, supporting our hypothesis that reductions in vegetation caused by grazing would negatively affect nesting success. However, nesting success increased with grazing intensity at the field scale. For example, nesting success for a well-concealed nest in a lightly grazed field was 11.6% (95% CI = 3.6-25.0%, whereas nesting success for a nest with the same level of nest-site vegetation in a heavily grazed

  4. Learning Recursion: Multiple Nested and Crossed Dependencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meinou de Vries

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Language acquisition in both natural and artificial language learning settings crucially depends on extracting information from ordered sequences. A shared sequence learning mechanism is thus assumed to underlie both natural and artificial language learning. A growing body of empirical evidence is consistent with this hypothesis. By means of artificial language learning experiments, we may therefore gain more insight in this shared mechanism. In this paper, we review empirical evidence from artificial language learning and computational modeling studies, as well as natural language data, and suggest that there are two key factors that help deter-mine processing complexity in sequence learning, and thus in natural language processing. We propose that the specific ordering of non-adjacent dependencies (i.e. nested or crossed, as well as the number of non-adjacent dependencies to be resolved simultaneously (i.e. two or three are important factors in gaining more insight into the boundaries of human sequence learning; and thus, also in natural language processing. The implications for theories of linguistic competence are discussed.

  5. ARIES-IV Nested Shell Blanket Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Redler, K.; Reis, E.E.; Will, R.; Cheng, E.; Hasan, C.M.; Sharafat, S.

    1993-11-01

    The ARIES-IV Nested Shell Blanket (NSB) Design is an alternate blanket concept of the ARIES-IV low activation helium-cooled reactor design. The reference design has the coolant routed in the poloidal direction and the inlet and outlet plena are located at the top and bottom of the torus. The NSB design has the high velocity coolant routed in the toroidal direction and the plena are located behind the blanket. This is of significance since the selected structural material is SiC-composite. The NSB is designed to have key high performance components with characteristic dimensions of no larger than 2 m. These components can be brazed to form the blanket module. For the diverter design, we eliminated the use of W as the divertor coating material by relying on the successful development of the gaseous divertor concept. The neutronics and thermal-hydraulic performance of both blanket concepts are similar. The selected blanket and divertor configurations can also meet all the projected structural, neutronics and thermal-hydraulics design limits and requirements. With the selected blanket and divertor materials, the design has a level of safety assurance rate of I (LSA-1), which indicates an inherently safe design

  6. Shifting patterns of nitrogen excretion and amino acid catabolism capacity during the life cycle of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Michael P; Claude, Jaime F; Cockshutt, Amanda; Holmes, John A; Wang, Yuxiang S; Youson, John H; Walsh, Patrick J

    2006-01-01

    The jawless fish, the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), spends part of its life as a burrow-dwelling, suspension-feeding larva (ammocoete) before undergoing a metamorphosis into a free swimming, parasitic juvenile that feeds on the blood of fishes. We predicted that animals in this juvenile, parasitic stage have a great capacity for catabolizing amino acids when large quantities of protein-rich blood are ingested. The sixfold to 20-fold greater ammonia excretion rates (J(Amm)) in postmetamorphic (nonfeeding) and parasitic lampreys compared with ammocoetes suggested that basal rates of amino acid catabolism increased following metamorphosis. This was likely due to a greater basal amino acid catabolizing capacity in which there was a sixfold higher hepatic glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity in parasitic lampreys compared with ammocoetes. Immunoblotting also revealed that GDH quantity was 10-fold and threefold greater in parasitic lampreys than in ammocoetes and upstream migrant lampreys, respectively. Higher hepatic alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities in the parasitic lampreys also suggested an enhanced amino acid catabolizing capacity in this life stage. In contrast to parasitic lampreys, the twofold larger free amino acid pool in the muscle of upstream migrant lampreys confirmed that this period of natural starvation is accompanied by a prominent proteolysis. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III was detected at low levels in the liver of parasitic and upstream migrant lampreys, but there was no evidence of extrahepatic (muscle, intestine) urea production via the ornithine urea cycle. However, detection of arginase activity and high concentrations of arginine in the liver at all life stages examined infers that arginine hydrolysis is an important source of urea. We conclude that metamorphosis is accompanied by a metabolic reorganization that increases the capacity of parasitic sea lampreys to catabolize intermittently large amino acid loads arising

  7. The steroid catabolic pathway of the intracellular pathogen Rhodococcus equi is important for pathogenesis and a target for vaccine development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R van der Geize

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Rhodococcus equi causes fatal pyogranulomatous pneumonia in foals and immunocompromised animals and humans. Despite its importance, there is currently no effective vaccine against the disease. The actinobacteria R. equi and the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis are related, and both cause pulmonary diseases. Recently, we have shown that essential steps in the cholesterol catabolic pathway are involved in the pathogenicity of M. tuberculosis. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the presence of a similar cholesterol catabolic gene cluster in R. equi. Orthologs of predicted M. tuberculosis virulence genes located within this cluster, i.e. ipdA (rv3551, ipdB (rv3552, fadA6 and fadE30, were identified in R. equi RE1 and inactivated. The ipdA and ipdB genes of R. equi RE1 appear to constitute the α-subunit and β-subunit, respectively, of a heterodimeric coenzyme A transferase. Mutant strains RE1ΔipdAB and RE1ΔfadE30, but not RE1ΔfadA6, were impaired in growth on the steroid catabolic pathway intermediates 4-androstene-3,17-dione (AD and 3aα-H-4α(3'-propionic acid-5α-hydroxy-7aβ-methylhexahydro-1-indanone (5α-hydroxy-methylhexahydro-1-indanone propionate; 5OH-HIP. Interestingly, RE1ΔipdAB and RE1ΔfadE30, but not RE1ΔfadA6, also displayed an attenuated phenotype in a macrophage infection assay. Gene products important for growth on 5OH-HIP, as part of the steroid catabolic pathway, thus appear to act as factors involved in the pathogenicity of R. equi. Challenge experiments showed that RE1ΔipdAB could be safely administered intratracheally to 2 to 5 week-old foals and oral immunization of foals even elicited a substantial protective immunity against a virulent R. equi strain. Our data show that genes involved in steroid catabolism are promising targets for the development of a live-attenuated vaccine against R. equi infections.

  8. Nesting biology of four Tetrapedia species in trap-nests (Hymenoptera:Apidae:Tetrapediini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Camillo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The nests used in this study were obtained from trap-nests (tubes of cardboard and cut bamboo stems placed on Santa Carlota Farm (Itaoca Section-IS, Santana Section-SS and Cerrado-Ce, Cajuru, SP, Brazil. The number of nests and corresponding species obtained were as follows: 516 nests of T. curvitarsis, 104 of T. rugulosa, 399 of T. diversipes and 98 of T. garofaloi. The most abundant species from SS and Ce was T.curvitarsis, and from IS it was T. diversipes. In general, most nests were collected during the hot and wet season (September to April. The nests were constructed with sand and an oily substance, and a single female established them. The cells were constructed in a linear series, sometimes followed by a vestibular cell. The number of brood cells ranged from 1 to 10 in T. curvitarsis (n=200, and in T. garofaloi (n=51, from 1 to 8 (n=30 in T. rugulosa, and from 1 to 6 (n=37 in T. diversipes. The pollen mass (pollen + oily substance contained a hollow, sometimes divided by a transverse ridge, on the exposed face of the pollen mass. The egg was vertically positioned in the lower part of the hollow. At times, the closing of a cell was initiated before provisioning was completed, with a construction of a collar at the cell limit. In some nests the final cellular partition also acted as a closure plug. Females began activities at 6:18 a.m.and ended between 3:31 and 6:26 p.m. Some females (T. curvitarsis , T. rugulosa and T. garofaloi did not spend the nights at their nests, returning to them only the following morning with additional material. In general, the development period (for males and females was greater in nests collected near the end of the hot and wet season than it was for nests collected in other months. Sex ratios for each species were as follows: T. curvitarsis, 1:1; T. rugulosa , 1.6:1 female; T. diversipes, 1.9:1; T. garofaloi, 2.8:1. Males and females of T. diversipes exhibited statistically similar sizes and in the other

  9. Increased ophthalmic acid production is supported by amino acid catabolism under fasting conditions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Sho; Lee, Jaeyong; Takao, Toshifumi; Fujii, Junichi

    2017-09-23

    Glutathione (GSH) plays pivotal roles in antioxidation and detoxification. The transsulfuration pathway, in conjunction with methionine metabolism, produces equimolar amounts of cysteine (Cys) and 2-oxobutyric acid (2OB). The resulting 2OB is then converted into 2-aminobutyric acid (2AB) by a transaminase and is utilized as a substitute for Cys by the GSH-synthesizing machinery to produce ophthalmic acid (OPT). By establishing a method for simultaneously measuring Cys, GSH, and OPT by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we found that fasting causes an elevation in OPT levels in the liver and blood plasma, even though the levels of Cys and GSH are decreased. Autophagy was activated, but the levels of GSH/OPT-synthesizing enzymes remained unchanged. After 6 h of fasting, the mice were given 1% 2AB and/or 5% glucose in the drinking water for an additional 24 h and the above metabolites analyzed. 2AB administration caused an increase in OPT levels, and, when glucose was co-administered with 2AB, the levels of OPT were elevated further but GSH levels were decreased somewhat. These results suggest that, while Cys is utilized for glyconeogenesis under fasting conditions, reaching levels that were insufficient for the synthesis of GSH, 2OB was preferentially converted to 2AB via amino acid catabolism and was utilized as a building block for OPT. Thus the consumption of Cys and the parallel elevation of 2AB under fasting conditions appeared to force γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase to form γ-glutamyl-2AB, despite the fact that the enzyme has a higher Km value for 2AB than Cys. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Clofibric acid stimulates branched-chain amino acid catabolism by three mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Rumi; Murakami, Taro; Obayashi, Mariko; Nakai, Naoya; Jaskiewicz, Jerzy; Fujiwara, Yoko; Shimomura, Yoshiharu; Harris, Robert A

    2002-11-15

    Clofibrate promotes catabolism of branched-chain amino acids by increasing the activity of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase [BCKDH] complex. Depending upon the sex of the rats, nutritional state, and tissue being studied, clofibrate can affect BCKDH complex activity by three different mechanisms. First, by directly inhibiting BCKDH kinase activity, clofibrate can increase the proportion of the BCKDH complex in the active, dephosphorylated state. This occurs in situations in which the BCKDH complex is largely inactive due to phosphorylation, e.g., in the skeletal muscle of chow-fed rats or in the liver of female rats late in the light cycle. Second, by increasing the levels at which the enzyme components of the BCKDH complex are expressed, clofibrate can increase the total enzymatic activity of the BCKDH complex. This is readily demonstrated in livers of rats fed a low-protein diet, a nutritional condition that induces a decrease in the level of expression of the BCKDH complex. Third, by decreasing the amount of BCKDH kinase expressed and therefore its activity, clofibrate induces an increase in the percentage of the BCKDH complex in the active, dephosphorylated state. This occurs in the livers of rats fed a low-protein diet, a nutritional condition that causes inactivation of the BCKDH complex due to upregulation of the amount of BCKDH kinase. WY-14,643, which, like clofibric acid, is a ligand for the peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor alpha [PPARalpha], does not directly inhibit BCKDH kinase but produces the same long-term effects as clofibrate on expression of the BCKDH complex and its kinase. Thus, clofibrate is unique in its capacity to stimulate BCAA oxidation through inhibition of BCKDH kinase activity, whereas PPARalpha activators in general promote BCAA oxidation by increasing expression of components of the BCKDH complex and decreasing expression of the BCKDH kinase.

  11. Catabolism of citrus flavanones by the probiotics Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Caro, Gema; Fernández-Quirós, Begoña; Ludwig, Iziar A; Pradas, Inmaculada; Crozier, Alan; Moreno-Rojas, José Manuel

    2018-02-01

    Orange juice (OJ) flavanones undergo limited absorption in the upper gastrointestinal tract and reach the colon where they are transformed by the microbiota prior to absorption. This study investigated the ability of two probiotic bacteria, Bifidobacterium longum R0175 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus subsp. Rhamnosus NCTC 10302 to catabolise OJ flavanones. The bacteria were incubated with hesperetin-7-O-rutinoside, naringenin-7-O-rutinoside, hesperetin and naringenin, and the culture medium and intracellular cell extracts were collected at intervals over a 48 h of incubation period. The flavanones and their phenolic acid catabolites were identified and quantified by HPLC-HR-MS. Both probiotics were able to subject hesperetin to ring fission yielding 3-(3'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid which was subsequently demethylated producing 3-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid and then via successive dehydroxylations converted to 3-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid and 3-(phenyl)propionic acid. Incubation of both bacteria with naringenin resulted in its conversion to 3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid which underwent dehydroxylation yielding 3-(phenyl)propionic acid. In addition, only L. rhamnosus exhibited rhamnosidase and glucosidase activity and unlike B. longum, which was able to convert hesperetin-7-O-rutinoside and naringenin-7-O-rutinoside to their respective aglycones. The aglycones were then subjected to ring fission and further catabolised in a similar manner to that described above. The flavanones and their catabolites were found in the culture medium but not accumulated in the bacterial cells. These findings demonstrate the enzymatic potential of single strains of bifidobacterium and lactobacillus which may be involved in the colonic catabolism of OJ flavanones in vivo.

  12. Innate Immunity in the Persistent Inflammation, Immunosuppression, and Catabolism Syndrome and Its Implications for Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Horiguchi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and technological advances promoting early hemorrhage control and physiologic resuscitation as well as early diagnosis and optimal treatment of sepsis have significantly decreased in-hospital mortality for many critically ill patient populations. However, a substantial proportion of severe trauma and sepsis survivors will develop protracted organ dysfunction termed chronic critical illness (CCI, defined as ≥14 days requiring intensive care unit (ICU resources with ongoing organ dysfunction. A subset of CCI patients will develop the persistent inflammation, immunosuppression, and catabolism syndrome (PICS, and these individuals are predisposed to a poor quality of life and indolent death. We propose that CCI and PICS after trauma or sepsis are the result of an inappropriate bone marrow response characterized by the generation of dysfunctional myeloid populations at the expense of lympho- and erythropoiesis. This review describes similarities among CCI/PICS phenotypes in sepsis, cancer, and aging and reviews the role of aberrant myelopoiesis in the pathophysiology of CCI and PICS. In addition, we characterize pathogen recognition, the interface between innate and adaptive immune systems, and therapeutic approaches including immune modulators, gut microbiota support, and nutritional and exercise therapy. Finally, we discuss the future of diagnostic and prognostic approaches guided by machine and deep-learning models trained and validated on big data to identify patients for whom these approaches will yield the greatest benefits. A deeper understanding of the pathophysiology of CCI and PICS and continued investigation into novel therapies harbor the potential to improve the current dismal long-term outcomes for critically ill post-injury and post-infection patients.

  13. Effect of nest design, passages, and hybrid on use of nest and production performance of layers in furnished cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, H; Tauson, R; Elwinger, K

    2002-03-01

    Production performance, including egg quality, and proportion of eggs laid in nests were studied in furnished experimental cages incorporating nests, litter baths, and perches. The study comprised a total of 972 hens of two genotypes: Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Hy-Line White. The birds were studied from 20 to 80 wk of age, and conventional four-hen cages were included as a reference. In furnished cages for six hens, the effects of 30 or 50% vs. 100% nest bottom lining (Astro turf) were studied with LSL hens. Nest bottom lining had no significant effect on egg production or proportions of cracked or dirty eggs, but the use of nests was significantly higher in cages incorporating nests with 100% lining, compared with 50 or 30%. The two hybrids were compared when housed in large, group-furnished cages for 14 or 16 hens of two designs; with a rear partition with two pop holes or fully open, i.e., no rear partition. LSL birds produced significantly better and had a significantly lower proportion of cracked eggs. There was no difference between H- and O-cages, either in production or in egg quality. LSL birds laid a significantly lower proportion of eggs in the nests, especially in O-cages, implying a significant hybrid x cage interaction. When housed in conventional cages, the hybrids did not differ in proportion of cracked eggs but differed in production traits. It was concluded that with the present nest design, the proportion of nest bottom lining cannot be reduced without affecting birds' use of nests, but the proportion did not affect exterior egg quality. The effect of genotype should be considered in the further development of furnished cages.

  14. Household and familial resemblance in risk factors for type 2 diabetes and related cardiometabolic diseases in rural Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Bahendeka, Silver K.; Whyte, Susan R.

    2017-01-01

    prevention and screening, we investigated the resemblance of T2D risk factors at household level and by type of familial dyadic relationship in a rural Ugandan community. Methods: This cross-sectional household-based study included 437 individuals ≥13 years of age from 90 rural households in south......-western Uganda. Resemblance in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), anthropometry, blood pressure, fitness status and sitting time were analysed using a general mixed model with random effects (by household or dyad) to calculate household intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and dyadic regression coefficients...... (ICC=0.24), HbA1c (ICC=0.18) and systolic blood pressure (ICC=0.11). Regarding dyadic resemblance, the highest standardised regression coefficient was seen in fitness status for spouses (0.54, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.76), parent–offspring (0.41, 95% CI 0.28 0.54) and siblings (0.41, 95% CI 0.25 to 0...

  15. Red-shouldered hawk nesting habitat preference in south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Bradley N.; Boal, Clint W.

    2010-01-01

    We examined nesting habitat preference by red-shouldered hawks Buteo lineatus using conditional logistic regression on characteristics measured at 27 occupied nest sites and 68 unused sites in 2005–2009 in south Texas. We measured vegetation characteristics of individual trees (nest trees and unused trees) and corresponding 0.04-ha plots. We evaluated the importance of tree and plot characteristics to nesting habitat selection by comparing a priori tree-specific and plot-specific models using Akaike's information criterion. Models with only plot variables carried 14% more weight than models with only center tree variables. The model-averaged odds ratios indicated red-shouldered hawks selected to nest in taller trees and in areas with higher average diameter at breast height than randomly available within the forest stand. Relative to randomly selected areas, each 1-m increase in nest tree height and 1-cm increase in the plot average diameter at breast height increased the probability of selection by 85% and 10%, respectively. Our results indicate that red-shouldered hawks select nesting habitat based on vegetation characteristics of individual trees as well as the 0.04-ha area surrounding the tree. Our results indicate forest management practices resulting in tall forest stands with large average diameter at breast height would benefit red-shouldered hawks in south Texas.

  16. Physical cognition: birds learn the structural efficacy of nest material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Ida E; Morgan, Kate V; Bertin, Marion; Meddle, Simone L; Healy, Susan D

    2014-06-07

    It is generally assumed that birds' choice of structurally suitable materials for nest building is genetically predetermined. Here, we tested that assumption by investigating whether experience affected male zebra finches' (Taeniopygia guttata) choice of nest material. After a short period of building with relatively flexible string, birds preferred to build with stiffer string while those that had experienced a stiffer string were indifferent to string type. After building a complete nest with either string type, however, all birds increased their preference for stiff string. The stiffer string appeared to be the more effective building material as birds required fewer pieces of stiffer than flexible string to build a roofed nest. For birds that raised chicks successfully, there was no association between the material they used to build their nest and the type they subsequently preferred. Birds' material preference reflected neither the preference of their father nor of their siblings but juvenile experience of either string type increased their preference for stiffer string. Our results represent two important advances: (i) birds choose nest material based on the structural properties of the material; (ii) nest material preference is not entirely genetically predetermined as both the type and amount of experience influences birds' choices.

  17. Interspecific nest parasitism by chukar on greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Michelle L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Nest parasitism occurs when a female bird lays eggs in the nest of another and the host incubates the eggs and may provide some form of parental care for the offspring (Lyon and Eadie 1991). Precocial birds (e.g., Galliformes and Anseriformes) are typically facultative nest parasites of both their own and other species (Lyon and Eadie 1991). This behavior increases a female’s reproductive success when she parasitizes other nests while simultaneously raising her own offspring. Both interspecific and conspecific nest parasitism have been well documented in several families of the order Galliformes, particularly the Phasianidae (Lyon and Eadie 1991, Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001, Krakauer and Kimball 2009). The Chukar (Alectoris chukar) has been widely introduced as a game bird to western North America from Eurasia and is now well established within the Great Basin from northeastern California east to Utah and north to Idaho and Oregon (Christensen 1996). Over much of this range the Chukar occurs with other phasianids, including the native Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), within sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999, Connelly et al. 2000). Chukar typically exploit a broader range of habitats than do sage-grouse, but both species use the same species of sagebrush and other shrubs for nesting cover (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999). Chukar are known to parasitize nests of other individuals of their own species (Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001), but we are unaware of reported evidence that Chukar may parasitize nests of sage-grouse. Here we describe a case of a Chukar parasitizing a sage-grouse nest in the sagebrush steppe of western Nevada.

  18. Influence of nest box environment on kit survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, V.H.; Malmkvist, Jens

    2012-01-01

    females divided into 4 groups, non-pregnant females (NON), pregnant females with access to one resource of nest building material (RES-1), pregnant females with access to three resources (RES-3), and pregnant females with access to one resource but which were moved into a climate-controlled facility...... died from day 1-7, and only ~5% in RES-3. The risk of dying was approx. 4 times higher for a kit live-born into the one resource environment. RES-3 females were building better nests and stayed in the nest box longer around parturition than RES-1, which could explain the higher mortality in this group...

  19. Ospreys Use Bald Eagle Nests in Chesapeake Bay Area

    OpenAIRE

    Therres, Glenn D.; Chandler, Sheri K.

    1993-01-01

    Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) and Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) share similar breeding habitat in the Chesapeake Bay area and elsewhere. The nests of these species are similar in size and appearance. Ospreys typically build large stick nests in dead trees or on man-made structures (C.J. Henny et al. 1974, Chesapeake Sci. 15:125-133; A.F. Poole 1989, Ospreys: a natural and unnatural history, Cambridge Univ. Press, NY), while Bald Eagles usually build larger nests in live trees (P.B. Woo...

  20. Nested Hilbert schemes on surfaces: Virtual fundamental class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholampour, Amin; Sheshmani, Artan; Yau, Shing-Tung

    We construct natural virtual fundamental classes for nested Hilbert schemes on a nonsingular projective surface S. This allows us to define new invariants of S that recover some of the known important cases such as Poincare invariants of Durr-Kabanov-Okonek and the stable pair invariants of Kool......-Thomas. In the case of the nested Hilbert scheme of points, we can express these invariants in terms of integrals over the products of Hilbert scheme of points on S, and relate them to the vertex operator formulas found by Carlsson-Okounkov. The virtual fundamental classes of the nested Hilbert schemes play a crucial...