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Sample records for resembles tetraploid wheat

  1. In search of tetraploid wheat accessions reduced in celiac disease-related gluten epitopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeck, van den H.C.; Hongbing, C.; Lacaze, X.; Dusautoir, J.C.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Smulders, J.M.; Meer, van der I.M.

    2010-01-01

    Tetraploid wheat (durum wheat) is mainly used for the preparation of pasta. As a result of breeding, thousands of tetraploid wheat varieties exist, but also tetraploid landraces are still maintained and used for local food preparations. Gluten proteins present in wheat can induce celiac disease, a

  2. Meiotic behaviour of tetraploid wheats (Triticum turgidum L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meiotic behaviour of plant chromosomes is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. In this study, the meiotic behaviour of cereal crops was investigated, which includes tetraploid wheat genotypes (with and without the meiotic restitution trait) and their derivates (synthetic hexaploid wheats and a doubled ...

  3. Wheat in the Mediterranean revisited--tetraploid wheat landraces assessed with elite bread wheat Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Hugo R; Hagenblad, Jenny; Leino, Matti W; Leigh, Fiona J; Lister, Diane L; Penã-Chocarro, Leonor; Jones, Martin K

    2014-05-08

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) panels recently developed for the assessment of genetic diversity in wheat are primarily based on elite varieties, mostly those of bread wheat. The usefulness of such SNP panels for studying wheat evolution and domestication has not yet been fully explored and ascertainment bias issues can potentially affect their applicability when studying landraces and tetraploid ancestors of bread wheat. We here evaluate whether population structure and evolutionary history can be assessed in tetraploid landrace wheats using SNP markers previously developed for the analysis of elite cultivars of hexaploid wheat. We genotyped more than 100 tetraploid wheat landraces and wild emmer wheat accessions, some of which had previously been screened with SSR markers, for an existing SNP panel and obtained publically available genotypes for the same SNPs for hexaploid wheat varieties and landraces. Results showed that quantification of genetic diversity can be affected by ascertainment bias but that the effects of ascertainment bias can at least partly be alleviated by merging SNPs to haplotypes. Analyses of population structure and genetic differentiation show strong subdivision between the tetraploid wheat subspecies, except for durum and rivet that are not separable. A more detailed population structure of durum landraces could be obtained than with SSR markers. The results also suggest an emmer, rather than durum, ancestry of bread wheat and with gene flow from wild emmer. SNP markers developed for elite cultivars show great potential for inferring population structure and can address evolutionary questions in landrace wheat. Issues of marker genome specificity and mapping need, however, to be addressed. Ascertainment bias does not seem to interfere with the ability of a SNP marker system developed for elite bread wheat accessions to detect population structure in other types of wheat.

  4. Sources of stem rust resistance in Ethiopian tetraploid wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem or black rust of wheat caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Ericks and Henn (Pgt) is an important disease on wheat worldwide. Pgt is an obligate biotroph, heteroceous in its life cycle and heterothallic in mating type. Seedlings of 41 emmer (Triticum dicoccum), 56 durum (T. durum) wheat accessions were ...

  5. Characterization and glutenin diversity in tetraploid wheat varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... Important methods applied for the breeding of bread-quality wheat (Triticum durum L.) consist of small- scale bread-quality tests for the determination of the grain protein content, SDS-sedimentation volume, thousand weight kernel and ... marked as a x and y – type subunits, based on their electrophoretic ...

  6. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Tetraploid Wheats (Triticum turgidum L. Estimated by SSR, DArT and Pedigree Data.

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    Giovanni Laidò

    Full Text Available Levels of genetic diversity and population genetic structure of a collection of 230 accessions of seven tetraploid Triticum turgidum L. subspecies were investigated using six morphological, nine seed storage protein loci, 26 SSRs and 970 DArT markers. The genetic diversity of the morphological traits and seed storage proteins was always lower in the durum wheat compared to the wild and domesticated emmer. Using Bayesian clustering (K = 2, both of the sets of molecular markers distinguished the durum wheat cultivars from the other tetraploid subspecies, and two distinct subgroups were detected within the durum wheat subspecies, which is in agreement with their origin and year of release. The genetic diversity of morphological traits and seed storage proteins was always lower in the improved durum cultivars registered after 1990, than in the intermediate and older ones. This marked effect on diversity was not observed for molecular markers, where there was only a weak reduction. At K >2, the SSR markers showed a greater degree of resolution than for DArT, with their identification of a greater number of groups within each subspecies. Analysis of DArT marker differentiation between the wheat subspecies indicated outlier loci that are potentially linked to genes controlling some important agronomic traits. Among the 211 loci identified under selection, 109 markers were recently mapped, and some of these markers were clustered into specific regions on chromosome arms 2BL, 3BS and 4AL, where several genes/quantitative trait loci (QTLs are involved in the domestication of tetraploid wheats, such as the tenacious glumes (Tg and brittle rachis (Br characteristics. On the basis of these results, it can be assumed that the population structure of the tetraploid wheat collection partially reflects the evolutionary history of Triticum turgidum L. subspecies and the genetic potential of landraces and wild accessions for the detection of unexplored alleles.

  7. 100 Gy 60Co γ-Ray Induced Novel Mutations in Tetraploid Wheat

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    Chuntao Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 10 accessions of tetraploid wheat were radiated with 100 Gy 60Co γ-ray. The germination energy, germination rate, special characters (secondary tillering, stalk with wax powder, and dwarf, meiotic process, and high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs were observed. Different species has different radiation sensibility. With 1 seed germinated (5%, T. dicoccum (PI434999 is the most sensitive to this dose of radiation. With a seed germination rate of 35% and 40%, this dose also affected T. polonicum (As304 and T. carthlicum (As293. Two mutant dwarf plants, T. turgidum (As2255 253-10 and T. polonicum (As302 224-14, were detected. Abnormal chromosome pairings were observed in pollen mother cells of both T. dicoccoides (As835 237-9 and T. dicoccoides (As838 239-8 with HMW-GS 1Ax silent in seeds from them. Compared with the unirradiated seed of T. polonicum (As304 CK, a novel HMW-GS was detected in seed of T. polonicum (As304 230-7 and its electrophoretic mobility was between 1By8 and 1Dy12 which were the HMW-GSs of Chinese Spring. These mutant materials would be resources for wheat breeding.

  8. Prioritizing quantitative trait loci for root system architecture in tetraploid wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccaferri, Marco; El-Feki, Walid; Nazemi, Ghasemali; Salvi, Silvio; Canè, Maria Angela; Colalongo, Maria Chiara; Stefanelli, Sandra; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Optimization of root system architecture (RSA) traits is an important objective for modern wheat breeding. Linkage and association mapping for RSA in two recombinant inbred line populations and one association mapping panel of 183 elite durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum Desf.) accessions evaluated as seedlings grown on filter paper/polycarbonate screening plates revealed 20 clusters of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root length and number, as well as 30 QTLs for root growth angle (RGA). Divergent RGA phenotypes observed by seminal root screening were validated by root phenotyping of field-grown adult plants. QTLs were mapped on a high-density tetraploid consensus map based on transcript-associated Illumina 90K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed for bread and durum wheat, thus allowing for an accurate cross-referencing of RSA QTLs between durum and bread wheat. Among the main QTL clusters for root length and number highlighted in this study, 15 overlapped with QTLs for multiple RSA traits reported in bread wheat, while out of 30 QTLs for RGA, only six showed co-location with previously reported QTLs in wheat. Based on their relative additive effects/significance, allelic distribution in the association mapping panel, and co-location with QTLs for grain weight and grain yield, the RSA QTLs have been prioritized in terms of breeding value. Three major QTL clusters for root length and number (RSA_QTL_cluster_5#, RSA_QTL_cluster_6#, and RSA_QTL_cluster_12#) and nine RGA QTL clusters (QRGA.ubo-2A.1, QRGA.ubo-2A.3, QRGA.ubo-2B.2/2B.3, QRGA.ubo-4B.4, QRGA.ubo-6A.1, QRGA.ubo-6A.2, QRGA.ubo-7A.1, QRGA.ubo-7A.2, and QRGA.ubo-7B) appear particularly valuable for further characterization towards a possible implementation of breeding applications in marker-assisted selection and/or cloning of the causal genes underlying the QTLs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Occurrence of 'super soft' wheat kernel texture in hexaploid and tetraploid wheats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat kernel texture is a key trait that governs milling performance, flour starch damage, flour particle size, flour hydration properties, and baking quality. Kernel texture is commonly measured using the Perten Single Kernel Characterization System (SKCS). The SKCS returns texture values (Hardness...

  10. Accelerated Senescence and Enhanced Disease Resistance in Hybrid Chlorosis Lines Derived from Interspecific Crosses between Tetraploid Wheat and Aegilops tauschii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosa, Yukio; Yoshida, Kentaro; Park, Pyoyun; Takumi, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid chlorosis, a type of hybrid incompatibility, has frequently been reported in inter- and intraspecific crosses of allopolyploid wheat. In a previous study, we reported some types of growth abnormalities such as hybrid necrosis and observed hybrid chlorosis with mild or severe abnormalities in wheat triploids obtained in crosses between tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon and four Ae. tauschii accessions and in their derived synthetic hexaploids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid chlorosis are not well understood. Here, we compared cytology and gene expression in leaves to characterize the abnormal growth in wheat synthetics showing mild and severe chlorosis. In addition, we compared disease resistance to wheat blast fungus. In total 55 and 105 genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and 53 and 89 genes for defense responses were markedly up-regulated in the mild and severe chlorosis lines, respectively. Abnormal chloroplasts formed in the mesophyll cells before the leaves yellowed in the hybrid chlorosis lines. The plants with mild chlorosis showed increased resistance to wheat blast and powdery mildew fungi, although significant differences only in two, third internode length and maturation time, out of the examined agricultural traits were found between the wild type and plants showing mild chlorosis. These observations suggest that senescence might be accelerated in hybrid chlorosis lines of wheat synthetics. Moreover, in wheat synthetics showing mild chlorosis, the negative effects on biomass can be minimized, and they may show substantial fitness under pathogen-polluted conditions. PMID:25806790

  11. Accelerated senescence and enhanced disease resistance in hybrid chlorosis lines derived from interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii.

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    Hiroki Nakano

    Full Text Available Hybrid chlorosis, a type of hybrid incompatibility, has frequently been reported in inter- and intraspecific crosses of allopolyploid wheat. In a previous study, we reported some types of growth abnormalities such as hybrid necrosis and observed hybrid chlorosis with mild or severe abnormalities in wheat triploids obtained in crosses between tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon and four Ae. tauschii accessions and in their derived synthetic hexaploids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid chlorosis are not well understood. Here, we compared cytology and gene expression in leaves to characterize the abnormal growth in wheat synthetics showing mild and severe chlorosis. In addition, we compared disease resistance to wheat blast fungus. In total 55 and 105 genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and 53 and 89 genes for defense responses were markedly up-regulated in the mild and severe chlorosis lines, respectively. Abnormal chloroplasts formed in the mesophyll cells before the leaves yellowed in the hybrid chlorosis lines. The plants with mild chlorosis showed increased resistance to wheat blast and powdery mildew fungi, although significant differences only in two, third internode length and maturation time, out of the examined agricultural traits were found between the wild type and plants showing mild chlorosis. These observations suggest that senescence might be accelerated in hybrid chlorosis lines of wheat synthetics. Moreover, in wheat synthetics showing mild chlorosis, the negative effects on biomass can be minimized, and they may show substantial fitness under pathogen-polluted conditions.

  12. Differential response of hexaploid and tetraploid wheat to interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and low phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Renu; Lal, Milan Kumar; Vengavasi, Krishnapriya

    2018-06-04

    Hexaploid wheat is more responsive than tetraploid to the interactive effects of elevated [CO 2 ] and low P in terms of carboxylate efflux, enzyme activity and gene expression (TaPT1 and TaPAP). Availability of mineral nutrients to plants under changing climate has become a serious challenge to food security and economic development. An understanding of how elevated [CO 2 ] influences phosphorus (P) acquisition processes at the whole-plant level would be critical in selecting cultivars as well as to maintain optimum yield in limited-P conditions. Wheat (Triticum aestivum and T. durum) grown hydroponically with sufficient and low P concentration were exposed to elevated and ambient [CO 2 ]. Improved dry matter partitioning towards root resulted in increased root-to-shoot ratio, root length, volume, surface area, root hair length and density at elevated [CO 2 ] with low P. Interaction of low P and [CO 2 ] induced activity of enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, malate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase) in root tissue resulting in twofold increase in carboxylates and acid phosphatase exudation. Physiological absorption capacity of roots showed that plants alter their uptake kinetics by increasing affinity (low K m ) in response to elevated [CO 2 ] under low P supply. Increased relative expression of genes, purple acid phosphatase (TaPAP) and high-affinity Pi transporter (TaPT1) in roots induced by elevated [CO 2 ] and low P supported our physiological observations. Hexaploid wheat (PBW-396) being more responsive to elevated [CO 2 ] at low P supply as compared to tetraploid (PDW-233) necessitates the ploidy effect to be explored further which might be advantageous under changing climate.

  13. Global gene expression profiling related to temperature-sensitive growth abnormalities in interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii.

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    Ryusuke Matsuda

    Full Text Available Triploid wheat hybrids between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii sometimes show abnormal growth phenotypes, and the growth abnormalities inhibit generation of wheat synthetic hexaploids. In type II necrosis, one of the growth abnormalities, necrotic cell death accompanied by marked growth repression occurs only under low temperature conditions. At normal temperature, the type II necrosis lines show grass-clump dwarfism with no necrotic symptoms, excess tillers, severe dwarfism and delayed flowering. Here, we report comparative expression analyses to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the temperature-dependent phenotypic plasticity in the triploid wheat hybrids. We compared gene and small RNA expression profiles in crown tissues to characterize the temperature-dependent phenotypic plasticity. No up-regulation of defense-related genes was observed under the normal temperature, and down-regulation of wheat APETALA1-like MADS-box genes, considered to act as flowering promoters, was found in the grass-clump dwarf lines. Some microRNAs, including miR156, were up-regulated, whereas the levels of transcripts of the miR156 target genes SPLs, known to inhibit tiller and branch number, were reduced in crown tissues of the grass-clump dwarf lines at the normal temperature. Unusual expression of the miR156/SPLs module could explain the grass-clump dwarf phenotype. Dramatic alteration of gene expression profiles, including miRNA levels, in crown tissues is associated with the temperature-dependent phenotypic plasticity in type II necrosis/grass-clump dwarf wheat hybrids.

  14. Structural equation models based on multivariate diversity assessment of diploid and tetraploid hulled wheat species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulled wheats are largely untapped genetic resources with >10,000 years of genetic memory and diversity that can be used for wheat quality improvement, development of healthy products, and adaptation to climate change. Multivariate diversity was assessed in the diploid Triticum monococcum L. var mon...

  15. The concentration ratio of alkaline earth elements calcium, barium and strontium in grains of diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheat

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    Maksimović Ivana V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though calcium (Ca, strontium (Sr and barium (Ba belong to the same group of the periodic table of elements, and thus have similar chemical features, their importance for plants differs greatly. Since plants do not have the ability to completely dis­criminate between essential (e.g. Ca and non-essential elements (e.g. Sr and Ba, they read­ily take all of them up from soil solution, which is reflected in the ratios of concentrations of those elements in plant tissues, and it influences their nutritive characteristics. The ability of plant species and genotypes to take up and accumulate chemical elements in their different tissues is related to their genetic background. However, differences in chemical composition are the least reflected in their reproductive parts. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate ratios of concentrations of Ca, Sr and Ba in the whole grain of diploid and tetraploid wheat - ancestors of common wheat, as well as in hexaploid commercial cultivars, grown in the field, at the same location, over a period of three years. The investigated genotypes accumulated Ca, Sr and Ba at different levels, which is reflected in the ratio of their concentrations in the grain. The lowest ratio was established between Ba and Sr, followed by Ca and Ba, while the highest ratio was between Ca and Sr. Moreover, the results have shown that the year of study, genotype and the combination highly significantly affected the ratio of the concentration Ca:Sr, Ca:Ba, and Ba:Sr.

  16. Identification of New Resistance Loci to African Stem Rust Race TTKSK in Tetraploid Wheats Based on Linkage and Genome-Wide Association Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidò, Giovanni; Panio, Giosuè; Marone, Daniela; Russo, Maria A; Ficco, Donatella B M; Giovanniello, Valentina; Cattivelli, Luigi; Steffenson, Brian; de Vita, Pasquale; Mastrangelo, Anna M

    2015-01-01

    Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks. and E. Henn. (Pgt), is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat. Races of the pathogen in the "Ug99 lineage" are of international concern due to their virulence for widely used stem rust resistance genes and their spread throughout Africa. Disease resistant cultivars provide one of the best means for controlling stem rust. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) conferring resistance to African stem rust race TTKSK at the seedling stage, we evaluated an association mapping (AM) panel consisting of 230 tetraploid wheat accessions under greenhouse conditions. A high level of phenotypic variation was observed in response to race TTKSK in the AM panel, allowing for genome-wide association mapping of resistance QTL in wild, landrace, and cultivated tetraploid wheats. Thirty-five resistance QTL were identified on all chromosomes, and seventeen are of particular interest as identified by multiple associations. Many of the identified resistance loci were coincident with previously identified rust resistance genes; however, nine on chromosomes 1AL, 2AL, 4AL, 5BL, and 7BS may be novel. To validate AM results, a biparental population of 146 recombinant inbred lines was also considered, which derived from a cross between the resistant cultivar "Cirillo" and susceptible "Neodur." The stem rust resistance of Cirillo was conferred by a single gene on the distal region of chromosome arm 6AL in an interval map coincident with the resistance gene Sr13, and confirmed one of the resistance loci identified by AM. A search for candidate resistance genes was carried out in the regions where QTL were identified, and many of them corresponded to NBS-LRR genes and protein kinases with LRR domains. The results obtained in the present study are of great interest as a high level of genetic variability for resistance to race TTKSK was described in a germplasm panel comprising most of the tetraploid wheat sub-species.

  17. Agronomic traits and deoxynivalenol contamination of two tetraploid wheat species (Triticum turgidum spp. durum, Triticum turgidum spp. turanicum grown strictly under low input conditions

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    Giovanni Dinelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the agronomic performance of two tetraploid wheat varieties (Triticum turgidum spp. durum, Claudio; Triticum turgidum spp. turanicum, Kamut® grown strictly under low input conditions was carried out over three consecutive cropping years. The study reported grain yield values ranging from 1.8 to 2.6 t ha-1. Productivity showed to be primarily affected by environmental conditions, while no differences were observed between the two genotypes. The study of the yield components highlighted that the durum wheat variety had a higher plant density than Kamut®, but this discrepancy was offset by a greater number of kernels per spike and the kernel weight of khorasan wheat. The investigated wheat genotypes were also analysed to assess the mycotoxin (DON levels of wholegrain semolina and the efficiency of cleaning treatments to reduce contamination. Results showed that both wheat varieties had a good hygienic and sanitary quality with a DON content ranging from 0.35 to 1.31 mg kg-1, which was lower than the maximum acceptable level set by the European regulation at 1.75 mg kg-1. In addition, our research work investigated the effects of premilling cleaning procedures, such as water washing and brushing, on mycotoxin levels, which yielded interesting results in terms of decontamination efficiency. These methods were particularly efficient with Kamut® semolina (46-93% DON reduction, suggesting that mycotoxins accumulate in this variety at more superficial levels than in the durum wheat variety. On the whole, our study provided additional knowledge on the traits to be further improved to respond to low input requirements and to enhance the potential adaptability of wheat genotypes to organic agriculture. Our results emphasized the need to develop wheat varieties that can provide adequate performance without high levels of nitrogen inputs by selecting specific traits, such as kernel weight, spike length and kernel/spike. This may help

  18. Possible origin of Triticum petropavlovskyi based on cytological analyses of crosses between T. petropavlovskyi and tetraploid, hexaploid, and synthetic hexaploid (SHW-DPW) wheat accessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Q.; Song, J.; Du, W.; Xu, L.Y.; Yu, G.R.

    2016-07-01

    Intraspecific hybridization between Triticum petropavlovskyi Udacz. et Migusch., synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW-DPW), and tetraploid and hexaploid wheat, was performed to collect data on seed set, fertility of F1 hybrid, and meiotic pairing configuration, aiming to evaluate the possible origin of T. petropavlovskyi. Our data showed that (1) seed set of crosses T. petropavlovskyi × T. polonicum and T. petropavlovskyi × T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring was significantly high; (2) fertility of hybrids T. petropavlovskyi × T. polonicum and T. petropavlovskyi × T. aestivum ssp. yunnanense was higher than that of the other hybrids; (3) fertility of F1 hybrids SHW-DPW × T. dicoccoides and SHW-DPW×T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum was significantly high; and (4) c-value of T. petropavlovskyi × T. polonicum and T. petropavlovskyi × T. aestivum cv. Changning white wheat was also significantly high. The results indicate that the probable origin of T. petropavlovskyi is divergence from a natural cross between T. aestivum and T. polonicum, via either spontaneous introgression or breeding effort.

  19. High-density genetic mapping of a major QTL for resistance to multiple races of loose smut in a tetraploid wheat cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sachin; Knox, Ron E.; Singh, Asheesh K.; DePauw, Ron M.; Campbell, Heather L.; Isidro-Sanchez, Julio; Clarke, Fran R.; Pozniak, Curtis J.; N’Daye, Amidou; Meyer, Brad; Sharpe, Andrew; Ruan, Yuefeng; Cuthbert, Richard D.; Somers, Daryl; Fedak, George

    2018-01-01

    Loose smut, caused by Ustilago tritici (Pers.) Rostr., is a systemic disease of tetraploid durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.). Loose smut can be economically controlled by growing resistant varieties, making it important to find and deploy new sources of resistance. Blackbird, a variety of T. turgidum L. subsp. carthlicum (Nevski) A. Love & D. Love, carries a high level of resistance to loose smut. Blackbird was crossed with the loose smut susceptible durum cultivar Strongfield to produce a doubled haploid (DH) mapping population. The parents and progenies were inoculated with U. tritici races T26, T32 and T33 individually and as a mixture at Swift Current, Canada in 2011 and 2012 and loose smut incidence (LSI) was assessed. Genotyping of the DH population and parents using an Infinium iSelect 90K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array identified 12,952 polymorphic SNPs. The SNPs and 426 SSRs (previously genotyped in the same population) were mapped to 16 linkage groups spanning 3008.4 cM at an average inter-marker space of 0.2 cM in a high-density genetic map. Composite interval mapping analysis revealed three significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) for loose smut resistance on chromosomes 3A, 6B and 7A. The loose smut resistance QTL on 6B (QUt.spa-6B.2) and 7A (QUt.spa-7A.2) were derived from Blackbird. Strongfield contributed the minor QTL on 3A (QUt.spa-3A.2). The resistance on 6B was a stable major QTL effective against all individual races and the mixture of the three races; it explained up to 74% of the phenotypic variation. This study is the first attempt in durum wheat to identify and map loose smut resistance QTL using a high-density genetic map. The QTL QUt.spa-6B.2 would be an effective source for breeding resistance to multiple races of the loose smut pathogen because it provides near-complete broad resistance to the predominant virulence on the Canadian prairies. PMID:29485999

  20. High-density genetic mapping of a major QTL for resistance to multiple races of loose smut in a tetraploid wheat cross.

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    Sachin Kumar

    Full Text Available Loose smut, caused by Ustilago tritici (Pers. Rostr., is a systemic disease of tetraploid durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.. Loose smut can be economically controlled by growing resistant varieties, making it important to find and deploy new sources of resistance. Blackbird, a variety of T. turgidum L. subsp. carthlicum (Nevski A. Love & D. Love, carries a high level of resistance to loose smut. Blackbird was crossed with the loose smut susceptible durum cultivar Strongfield to produce a doubled haploid (DH mapping population. The parents and progenies were inoculated with U. tritici races T26, T32 and T33 individually and as a mixture at Swift Current, Canada in 2011 and 2012 and loose smut incidence (LSI was assessed. Genotyping of the DH population and parents using an Infinium iSelect 90K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array identified 12,952 polymorphic SNPs. The SNPs and 426 SSRs (previously genotyped in the same population were mapped to 16 linkage groups spanning 3008.4 cM at an average inter-marker space of 0.2 cM in a high-density genetic map. Composite interval mapping analysis revealed three significant quantitative trait loci (QTL for loose smut resistance on chromosomes 3A, 6B and 7A. The loose smut resistance QTL on 6B (QUt.spa-6B.2 and 7A (QUt.spa-7A.2 were derived from Blackbird. Strongfield contributed the minor QTL on 3A (QUt.spa-3A.2. The resistance on 6B was a stable major QTL effective against all individual races and the mixture of the three races; it explained up to 74% of the phenotypic variation. This study is the first attempt in durum wheat to identify and map loose smut resistance QTL using a high-density genetic map. The QTL QUt.spa-6B.2 would be an effective source for breeding resistance to multiple races of the loose smut pathogen because it provides near-complete broad resistance to the predominant virulence on the Canadian prairies.

  1. Identification and characterization of Sr13, a tetraploid wheat gene that confers resistance to the Ug99 stem rust race group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) Ug99 race group is virulent to most stem rust resistance genes currently deployed in wheat and poses a serious threat to global wheat production. The durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) gene Sr13 confers resistance to Ug99 in addition to virulent rac...

  2. Dryland wheat domestication changed the development of aboveground architecture for a well-structured canopy.

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    Pu-Fang Li

    Full Text Available We examined three different-ploidy wheat species to elucidate the development of aboveground architecture and its domesticated mechanism under environment-controlled field conditions. Architecture parameters including leaf, stem, spike and canopy morphology were measured together with biomass allocation, leaf net photosynthetic rate and instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE(i. Canopy biomass density was decreased from diploid to tetraploid wheat, but increased to maximum in hexaploid wheat. Population yield in hexaploid wheat was higher than in diploid wheat, but the population fitness and individual competition ability was higher in diploid wheats. Plant architecture was modified from a compact type in diploid wheats to an incompact type in tetraploid wheats, and then to a more compact type of hexaploid wheats. Biomass accumulation, population yield, harvest index and the seed to leaf ratio increased from diploid to tetraploid and hexaploid, associated with heavier specific internode weight and greater canopy biomass density in hexaploid and tetraploid than in diploid wheat. Leaf photosynthetic rate and WUEi were decreased from diploid to tetraploid and increased from tetraploid to hexaploid due to more compact leaf type in hexaploid and diploid than in tetraploid. Grain yield formation and WUEi were closely associated with spatial stance of leaves and stems. We conclude that the ideotype of dryland wheats could be based on spatial reconstruction of leaf type and further exertion of leaf photosynthetic rate.

  3. Cytogenetic relationships among some palearctic and nearctic tetraploid taxa of the Campanula rotundifolia L. group

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    Halina Bielawska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytogenetic interrelationships between tetraploid representatives of Campanula rotundifolia L. group were investigated. The F1 hybrids derived from the crosses between plants of European and American origin were fully fertile, however, some symptoms of hybrid sterility in F2s and Bs were noted. In the F1 the course of meiosis was normal. In some B segregants the disturbances in synchronization of meiotic divisions were observed. Although in most respect the F1 hybrids were intermediate between their parental forms, in some characters, like the shape of the corolla, the colour of pollen grains and the unrepeating flowering, they resembled more their American parents. No essential genetic barriers between tetraploid representatives of the C. rotundifolia L. group from Europe and North America were found. In view of the present data Guinochet’s hypothesis of the independent origin of European and American tetraploids is rather questionable.

  4. Introgression of A- and B-genome of tetraploid triticale chromatin into tetraploid rye.

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    Wiśniewska, H; Kwiatek, M; Kulak-Książczyk, S; Apolinarska, B

    2013-11-01

    An improvement of rye is one of the mainstream goals of current breeding. Our study is concerned with the introduction of the tetraploid triticale (ABRR) into the 4x rye (RRRR) using classical methods of distant crossing. One hundred fifty BC1F9 hybrid plants [(4x rye × 4x triticales) × 4x rye] obtained from a backcrossing program were studied. The major aim of this work was to verify the presence of an introgressed A- and B- genome chromatin of triticale in a collection of the 4x rye-tiritcale hybrids and to determine their chromosome compositions. In the present study, karyotypes of the previously reported BC1F2s and BC1F3s were compared with that of the BC1F9 generation as obtained after several subsequent open pollinations. The genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) allowed us to identify 133 introgression forms in which chromosome numbers ranged between 26 and 32. Using four DNA probes (5S rDNA, 25S rDNA, pSc119.2 and pAs1), the fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) was carried out to facilitate an exact chromosome identification in the hybrid plants. The combination of the multi-colour GISH with the repetitive DNA FISH singled out five types of translocated chromosomes: 2A.2R, 4A.4R, 5A.5R, 5B.5R and 7A.7R among the examined BC1F9s. The reported translocation lines could serve as valuable sources of wheat chromatin suitable for further improvements of rye.

  5. [Liesegang's rings resembling helminthiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámecník, M; Riedl, I

    1996-12-01

    So called Liesegang's rings are lamellar corpuscles which develop after periodical precipitation of oversaturated solutions in gel medium. They can occur in cysts, closed cavities, inflammatory exudates and necroses. They resemble parasitic eggs, larvae or adult forms. A case of 28-year-old woman is presented with many Liesegang's rings in a stuff from dilated renal calyx. Their preliminary evaluation considered helminths, especially Dioctophyma renale.

  6. Induced spherococcoid hard wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Sh.

    1981-01-01

    A mutant has been obtained - a spheroccocoid line -through irradiation of hard wheat seed with fast neutrons. It is distinguished by semispherical glumes and smaller grain; the plants have low stem with erect leaves but with shorter spikes and with lesser number of spikelets than those of the initial cultivar. Good productive tillering and resistance to lodging contributed to 23.5% higher yield. The line was superior to the standard and the initial cultivars by 14.2% as regards protein content, and by up to 22.8% - as to flour gluten. It has been successfully used in hybridization producing high-yielding hard wheat lines resistant to lodging, with good technological and other indicators. The possibility stated is of obtaining a spherococcoid mutant in tetraploid (hard) wheat out of the D-genome as well as its being suited to hard wheat breeding to enhance protein content, resistance to lodging, etc. (author)

  7. TaGW2, a Good Reflection of Wheat Polyploidization and Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lin; Zhao, Junjie; Li, Tian; Hou, Jian; Zhang, Xueyong; Hao, Chenyang

    2017-01-01

    Hexaploid wheat consists of three subgenomes, namely, A, B, and D. These well-characterized ancestral genomes also exist at the diploid and tetraploid levels, thereby rendering wheat as a good model species for studying polyploidization. Here, we performed intra- and inter-species comparative analyses of wheat and its relatives to dissect polymorphism and differentiation of the TaGW2 genes. Our results showed that genetic diversity of TaGW2 decreased with progression from the diploids to tetraploids and hexaploids. The strongest selection occurred in the promoter regions of TaGW2-6A and TaGW2-6B . Phylogenetic trees clearly indicated that Triticum urartu and Ae. speltoides were the donors of the A and B genomes in tetraploid and hexaploid wheats. Haplotypes detected among hexaploid genotypes traced back to the tetraploid level. Fst and π values revealed that the strongest selection on TaGW2 occurred at the tetraploid level rather than in hexaploid wheat. This infers that grain size enlargement, especially increased kernel width, mainly occurred in tetraploid genotypes. In addition, relative expression levels of TaGW2s significantly declined from the diploid level to tetraploids and hexaploids, further indicating that these genes negatively regulate kernel size. Our results also revealed that the polyploidization events possibly caused much stronger differentiation than domestication and breeding.

  8. Meiotic behaviour of tetraploid wheats (Triticum turgidum L.) and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cause for the meiotic instability (Oettler 2005). Meiotic in- stability in triticale seems to have another molecular cause. Rye chromosomes generally .... economic yield is the product of sexual reproduction (Saini. 1997). Global warming is now ...

  9. Comet assay on tetraploid yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Jette; Syberg, Kristian; Jensen, Klara

    2009-01-01

    Tetraploid yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were used in the comet assay with the intention of developing a new, fast and easy assay for detecting environmental genotoxic agents without using higher organisms. Two DNA-damaging chemicals, H2O2 and acrylamide, together with wastewater from...... three municipal treatment plants were tested for their effect on the yeast-cell DNA. The main problem with using yeast in the comet assay is the necessity to degrade the cell wall. This was achieved by using Zymolase 100 T twice during the procedure, since Zymolase 20 T did not open the cell wall....... Analytical problems that arose due to the small amount of DNA in the yeast nuclei in haploid and diploid cells, which contain 13 Mbp and 26 Mbp DNA per cell, respectively, were solved by using tetraploid yeast cells (52 Mbp) instead. DNA damage was shown after exposure to H2O2 and acrylamide. The lowest dose...

  10. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  11. Initiating genomic selection in tetraploid potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrisdóttir, Elsa; Janss, Luc; Byrne, Stephen

    Breeding for more space and resource efficient crops is important to feed the world’s increasing population. Potatoes produce approximately twice the amount of calories per hectare compared to cereals. The traditional “mate and phenotype” breeding approach is costly and time-consuming; however......, the completion of the genome sequence of potato has enabled the application of genomics-assisted breeding technologies. Genomic selection using genome-wide molecular markers is becoming increasingly applicable to crops as the genotyping costs continue to reduce and it is thus an attractive breeding alternative...... selection, can be obtained with good prediction accuracies in tetraploid potato....

  12. Embryo rescue of crosses between diploid and tetraploid grape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... embryo rescue from interspecific hybridization between diploid and tetraploid grape species. Wakana et al. (2003) and Motosugi et al. (2003) studied the formation and developments of hybrid seeds from cross between diploid and tetraploid, and then obtained triploid progenies through embryo rescue.

  13. Assessing reprogramming by chimera formation and tetraploid complementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Xia, Bao-long; Li, Wei; Zhou, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells can be evaluated by pluripotent markers expression, embryoid body aggregation, teratoma formation, chimera contribution and even more, tetraploid complementation. Whether iPS cells in general are functionally equivalent to normal ESCs is difficult to establish. Here, we present the detailed procedure for chimera formation and tetraploid complementation, the most stringent criterion, to assessing pluripotency.

  14. A haplotype specific to North European wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsombalova, J.; Karafiátová, Miroslava; Vrána, Jan; Kubaláková, Marie; Peusa, H.; Jakobson, I.; Jarve, M.; Valárik, Miroslav; Doležel, Jaroslav; Jarve, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 4 (2017), s. 653-664 ISSN 0925-9864 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-07164S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : bread wheat * genetic diversity * polyploid wheat * introgression lines * molecular analysis * tetraploid wheat * hexaploid wheat * powdery mildew * spelta l. * map * Common wheat * Triticum aestivum L * Spelt * Triticum spelta L * Chromosome 4A * Zero alleles * Haplotype * Linkage disequilibrium Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.294, year: 2016

  15. Wild emmer genome architecture and diversity elucidate wheat evolution and domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat (Triticum spp.) is one of the founder crops that likely drove the Neolithic transition to sedentary agrarian societies in the Fertile Crescent over 10,000 years ago. Identifying genetic modifications underlying wheat's domestication requires knowledge of the genome of its allo-tetraploid proge...

  16. Resemblance and investment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinska, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    According to evolutionary explanations men hardly ever are absolutely certain about their biological fatherhood therefore they must seek various sources of information to subjectively establish whether they are the genetic fathers of the children they raise. Apicella and Marlowe (2004) showed that fathers who perceived greater similarity between their children and themselves were willing to invest more resources (e.g., time, money, care) in their offspring presumably because the perceived resemblance indicated to the fathers their genetic relatedness with their children. The present study extended the design of Apicella and Marlowe's original study and included both fathers and mothers as participants. Parents were recruited by a female confederate at the airport and at the railway station in Wroclaw (Poland). Multiple regression analyses showed that perceived resemblance predicted parental investment in the child for both men and women. The fact that mothers' declarations of investment in their children also depended on the perceived resemblance factor is not consistent with evolutionary formulations delineated by Apicella and Marlowe (2004; 2007). Future studies must resolve the issue of whether the resemblance-investment relation in fathers results from men relaying on child's resemblance to themselves as an indicator of their own biological paternity, or whether it results from the more parsimonious phenomenon that people in general are attracted more to other people who are similar to them.

  17. A High Resolution Radiation Hybrid Map of Wheat Chromosome 4A

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balcárková, Barbora; Frenkel, Z.; Škopová, Monika; Abrouk, Michael; Kumar, A.; Chao, S.; Kianian, S. F.; Akhunov, E.; Korol, A.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Valárik, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, JAN 10 (2017), č. článku 2063. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-07164S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : triticum-aestivum l. * bread wheat * high-density * agronomic traits * tetraploid wheat * hexaploid wheat * polyploid wheat * genetic maps * genomes * recombination * endosperm radiation hybrid panel * radiation hybrid map * wheat chromosome 4A * chromosome deletion bin map * Triticum aestivum * SNP iSelect array Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  18. Wild emmer genome architecture and diversity elucidate wheat evolution and domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Raz; Nave, Moran; Barad, Omer; Baruch, Kobi; Twardziok, Sven O; Gundlach, Heidrun; Hale, Iago; Mascher, Martin; Spannagl, Manuel; Wiebe, Krystalee; Jordan, Katherine W; Golan, Guy; Deek, Jasline; Ben-Zvi, Batsheva; Ben-Zvi, Gil; Himmelbach, Axel; MacLachlan, Ron P; Sharpe, Andrew G; Fritz, Allan; Ben-David, Roi; Budak, Hikmet; Fahima, Tzion; Korol, Abraham; Faris, Justin D; Hernandez, Alvaro; Mikel, Mark A; Levy, Avraham A; Steffenson, Brian; Maccaferri, Marco; Tuberosa, Roberto; Cattivelli, Luigi; Faccioli, Primetta; Ceriotti, Aldo; Kashkush, Khalil; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Komatsuda, Takao; Eilam, Tamar; Sela, Hanan; Sharon, Amir; Ohad, Nir; Chamovitz, Daniel A; Mayer, Klaus F X; Stein, Nils; Ronen, Gil; Peleg, Zvi; Pozniak, Curtis J; Akhunov, Eduard D; Distelfeld, Assaf

    2017-07-07

    Wheat ( Triticum spp.) is one of the founder crops that likely drove the Neolithic transition to sedentary agrarian societies in the Fertile Crescent more than 10,000 years ago. Identifying genetic modifications underlying wheat's domestication requires knowledge about the genome of its allo-tetraploid progenitor, wild emmer ( T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides ). We report a 10.1-gigabase assembly of the 14 chromosomes of wild tetraploid wheat, as well as analyses of gene content, genome architecture, and genetic diversity. With this fully assembled polyploid wheat genome, we identified the causal mutations in Brittle Rachis 1 ( TtBtr1 ) genes controlling shattering, a key domestication trait. A study of genomic diversity among wild and domesticated accessions revealed genomic regions bearing the signature of selection under domestication. This reference assembly will serve as a resource for accelerating the genome-assisted improvement of modern wheat varieties. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Genomic Imprinting Was Evolutionarily Conserved during Wheat Polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guanghui; Liu, Zhenshan; Gao, Lulu; Yu, Kuohai; Feng, Man; Yao, Yingyin; Peng, Huiru; Hu, Zhaorong; Sun, Qixin; Ni, Zhongfu; Xin, Mingming

    2018-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon that causes genes to be differentially expressed depending on their parent of origin. To evaluate the evolutionary conservation of genomic imprinting and the effects of ploidy on this process, we investigated parent-of-origin-specific gene expression patterns in the endosperm of diploid ( Aegilops spp), tetraploid, and hexaploid wheat ( Triticum spp) at various stages of development via high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. We identified 91, 135, and 146 maternally or paternally expressed genes (MEGs or PEGs, respectively) in diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid wheat, respectively, 52.7% of which exhibited dynamic expression patterns at different developmental stages. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis suggested that MEGs and PEGs were involved in metabolic processes and DNA-dependent transcription, respectively. Nearly half of the imprinted genes exhibited conserved expression patterns during wheat hexaploidization. In addition, 40% of the homoeolog pairs originating from whole-genome duplication were consistently maternally or paternally biased in the different subgenomes of hexaploid wheat. Furthermore, imprinted expression was found for 41.2% and 50.0% of homolog pairs that evolved by tandem duplication after genome duplication in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat, respectively. These results suggest that genomic imprinting was evolutionarily conserved between closely related Triticum and Aegilops species and in the face of polyploid hybridization between species in these genera. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  20. Archaic artifacts resembling celestial spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakoudis, S.; Papaspyrou, P.; Petoussis, V.; Moussas, X.

    We present several bronze artifacts from the Archaic Age in Greece (750-480 BC) that resemble celestial spheres or forms of other astronomical significance. They are studied in the context of the Dark Age transition from Mycenaean Age astronomical themes to the philosophical and practical revival of astronomy in the Classical Age with its plethora of astronomical devices. These artifacts, mostly votive in nature are spherical in shape and appear in a variety of forms their most striking characteristic being the depiction of meridians and/or an equator. Most of those artifacts come from Thessaly, and more specifically from the temple of Itonia Athena at Philia, a religious center of pan-Hellenic significance. Celestial spheres, similar in form to the small artifacts presented in this study, could be used to measure latitudes, or estimate the time at a known place, and were thus very useful in navigation.

  1. Description of a tetraploid Tomopterna (Anura: Ranidae) from South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new tetraploid species of sand frog, genus Tomopterna, is described from the eastern Cape. On the basis of mtDNA sequences, allozymes and advertisement calls, it appears to have arisen as a hybrid between the adjacent diploid populations of T. delalandii and T. cryptotis. The hybridization event is estimated to have ...

  2. Embryo rescue of crosses between diploid and tetraploid grape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... Five cross combinations Jumeigui×Xinghua No.1, 87-1×Kyoho, Kyoho×Muscat Hamburg, Jumeigui×. Hongqitezao and Red globle×Kyoho were used as the testing materials. Factors that affect embryo rescue from crossed seeds between diploid and tetraploid grape were studied applying L25(55).

  3. Embryo rescue of crosses between diploid and tetraploid grape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five cross combinations Jumeigui×Xinghua No.1, 87-1×Kyoho, Kyoho×Muscat Hamburg, Jumeigui× Hongqitezao and Red globle×Kyoho were used as the testing materials. Factors that affect embryo rescue from crossed seeds between diploid and tetraploid grape were studied applying L25(55) orthogonal experiment ...

  4. Heterotic responses of tetraploid and triploid plantain hybrids in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heterotic responses of tetraploid and triploid plantain hybrids in southeast Nigeria under alley-cropping. V Wilson, A Tenkouano. Abstract. (African Crop Science Journal: 1999 7(2): 117-124). AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  5. Abnormal mitosis triggers p53-dependent cell cycle arrest in human tetraploid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffer, Christian; Kuznetsova, Anastasia Yurievna; Storchová, Zuzana

    2013-08-01

    Erroneously arising tetraploid mammalian cells are chromosomally instable and may facilitate cell transformation. An increasing body of evidence shows that the propagation of mammalian tetraploid cells is limited by a p53-dependent arrest. The trigger of this arrest has not been identified so far. Here we show by live cell imaging of tetraploid cells generated by an induced cytokinesis failure that most tetraploids arrest and die in a p53-dependent manner after the first tetraploid mitosis. Furthermore, we found that the main trigger is a mitotic defect, in particular, chromosome missegregation during bipolar mitosis or spindle multipolarity. Both a transient multipolar spindle followed by efficient clustering in anaphase as well as a multipolar spindle followed by multipolar mitosis inhibited subsequent proliferation to a similar degree. We found that the tetraploid cells did not accumulate double-strand breaks that could cause the cell cycle arrest after tetraploid mitosis. In contrast, tetraploid cells showed increased levels of oxidative DNA damage coinciding with the p53 activation. To further elucidate the pathways involved in the proliferation control of tetraploid cells, we knocked down specific kinases that had been previously linked to the cell cycle arrest and p53 phosphorylation. Our results suggest that the checkpoint kinase ATM phosphorylates p53 in tetraploid cells after abnormal mitosis and thus contributes to proliferation control of human aberrantly arising tetraploids.

  6. Meiotic analysis in induced tetraploids of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Simioni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The meiotic behavior of three tetraploid plants (2n=4x=36 originated from somatic chromosome duplication ofsexually reproducing diploid plants of Brachiaria decumbens was evaluated. All the analyzed plants presented abnormalities relatedto polyploidy, such as irregular chromosome segregation, leading to precocious chromosome migration to the poles and micronucleiduring both meiotic divisions. However, the abnormalities observed did not compromise the meiotic products which were characterizedby regular tetrads and satisfactory pollen fertility varying from 61.36 to 64.86%. Chromosomes paired mostly as bivalents indiakinesis but univalents to tetravalents were also observed. These studies contributed to the choice of compatible fertile sexualgenitors to be crossed to natural tetraploid apomicts in the B. decumbens by identifying abnormalities and verifying pollen fertility.Intraespecific crosses should reduce sterility in the hybrids produced in the breeding program of Brachiaria, a problem observedwith the interspecific hybrids produced so far.

  7. Comparison between diploid and tetraploid citrus rootstocks: morphological characterization and growth evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divanilde Guerra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetraploid citrus rootstocks may present different morphological characteristics and growth when compared to diploid ones. This worked aimed at comparing morphological characteristics and height growth of diploid and tetraploid plants from the rootstocks 'Swingle' citrumelo [C. paradise Macf. x Poncirus trifoliate (L. Raf], citrange 'Troyer' (C. sinensis (L. Osb. x P. trifoliata and citranges 'Fepagro C 13' and 'Fepagro C 37' [C. sinensis cv. Pêra x P. trifoliata] during twelve months. Diploid (2n=18 and tetraploid (2n=36 plants originated from the same seed were identified, cultivated and evaluated every 45 days regarding color, height, petiole length, leaf length and central leaflet width. Significant differences were observed for the evaluated characteristics: the average of petiole length was 1.78 cm in the diploid and 0.99 cm in the tetraploid plants; the average of leaf length was 2.32 cm in the diploid and 2.95 cm in the tetraploid plants; the average of central leaflet width was 1.33 cm in the diploid and 1.69 cm in the tetraploid plants. Moreover, tetraploid plants had darker and thicker leaves than the diploid ones. Variation regarding height was observed and the diploid plants presented higher growth than the tetraploid ones. As tetraploid plants are smaller, have a slow height growth and wider and longer leaves.

  8. The iSelect 9 K SNP analysis revealed polyploidization induced revolutionary changes and intense human selection causing strong haplotype blocks in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Yuquan; Chao, Shiaoman; Li, Tian; Liu, Hongxia; Wang, Lanfen; Zhang, Xueyong

    2017-01-30

    A Chinese wheat mini core collection was genotyped using the wheat 9 K iSelect SNP array. Total 2420 and 2396 polymorphic SNPs were detected on the A and the B genome chromosomes, which formed 878 haplotype blocks. There were more blocks in the B genome, but the average block size was significantly (P polyploidization of wheat (both tetraploidization and hexaploidization) induced revolutionary changes in both the A and the B genomes, with a greater increase of gene diversity compared to their diploid ancestors. Modern breeding has dramatically increased diversity in the gene coding regions, though obvious blocks were formed on most of the chromosomes in both tetraploid and hexaploid wheats. Tag-SNP markers identified in this study can be used for marker assisted selection using haplotype blocks as a wheat breeding strategy. This strategy can also be employed to facilitate genome selection in other self-pollinating crop species.

  9. Multipolar mitosis of tetraploid cells: inhibition by p53 and dependency on Mos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Ilio; Senovilla, Laura; Jemaà, Mohamed; Michaud, Mickaël; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kepp, Oliver; Nanty, Lisa; Criollo, Alfredo; Rello-Varona, Santiago; Manic, Gwenola; Métivier, Didier; Vivet, Sonia; Tajeddine, Nicolas; Joza, Nicholas; Valent, Alexander; Castedo, Maria; Kroemer, Guido

    2010-04-07

    Tetraploidy can constitute a metastable intermediate between normal diploidy and oncogenic aneuploidy. Here, we show that the absence of p53 is not only permissive for the survival but also for multipolar asymmetric divisions of tetraploid cells, which lead to the generation of aneuploid cells with a near-to-diploid chromosome content. Multipolar mitoses (which reduce the tetraploid genome to a sub-tetraploid state) are more frequent when p53 is downregulated and the product of the Mos oncogene is upregulated. Mos inhibits the coalescence of supernumerary centrosomes that allow for normal bipolar mitoses of tetraploid cells. In the absence of p53, Mos knockdown prevents multipolar mitoses and exerts genome-stabilizing effects. These results elucidate the mechanisms through which asymmetric cell division drives chromosomal instability in tetraploid cells.

  10. Irradiation-induced mutation experiments with eiploid and tetraploid tomato plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boda, J.

    1979-01-01

    Tomato mutation experiments are described. The tomatoes used in the experiment were the diploid Reziszta and its autotetraploid variety. The experimental plants were exposed to an irradiation of 5000 rsd for 1-2 days, and after transplantation into the gamma field, to chronic irradiation during the whole growing season. The chronic treatment heavily reduced fertility in the generations of tetraploid tomato plants. Recurrent treatment of tetraploid led to further deterioration in fertility. Several berries were formed with few seeds or with no seeds at all. After three irradiations, the chlorophyll mutation frequency increased in the diploid and tetraploid tomato plants. For diploids, treatment applied at the seedling stage gave a lower chlorophyll mutation frequency. With tetraploids the same treatment induced similar chlorophyll mutation frequency. As regards to phenotypic variability of quantitative characteristics in diploid and tetraploid tomatoes, the single and repeated chronic irradiation induced no increase in the variability of properties like flowering time, weight, height etc. (author)

  11. Biolistic- and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocols for wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás-Nyitrai, Cecília; Jones, Huw D; Tamás, László

    2012-01-01

    After rice, wheat is considered to be the most important world food crop, and the demand for high-quality wheat flour is increasing. Although there are no GM varieties currently grown, wheat is an important target for biotechnology, and we anticipate that GM wheat will be commercially available in 10-15 years. In this chapter, we summarize the main features and challenges of wheat transformation and then describe detailed protocols for the production of transgenic wheat plants both by biolistic and Agrobacterium-mediated DNA-delivery. Although these methods are used mainly for bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), they can also be successfully applied, with slight modifications, to tetraploid durum wheat (T. turgidum L. var. durum). The appropriate size and developmental stage of explants (immature embryo-derived scutella), the conditions to produce embryogenic callus tissues, and the methods to regenerate transgenic plants under increasing selection pressure are provided in the protocol. To illustrate the application of herbicide selection system, we have chosen to describe the use of the plasmid pAHC25 for biolistic transformation, while for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation the binary vector pAL156 (incorporating both the bar gene and the uidA gene) has been chosen. Beside the step-by-step methodology for obtaining stably transformed and normal fertile plants, procedures for screening and testing transgenic wheat plants are also discussed.

  12. Determination of morphological and cytological differences between diploid and tetraploid watermelon plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail ŞİMŞEK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the seedless watermelon breeding programme, firstly, tetraploid parents must be developed by the breeders. When diploid watermelon lines treated with colchicine and oryzaline in vivo and vitro conditions, tetraploid plants could be obtained. The diploid and tetraploid watermelon plants should be selected within the population. For this reason, some markers (morphological, isozyme, cytological and molecular techniques are needed to separate from diploid and tetraploid plants. Chromosome counts and DNA content of diploid and tetraploid plants as a result of measurement of flow cytometry distinction can be made definitively. However, the laboratory infrastructure required to implement each method, is not economical. The purpose of this study is to select the tetraploid watermelon plants at M1 stage from populations applied colchicine and oryzaline with morphological anda cytological investigations in in vivo conditions. In this study, tetraploid plants belong to the four watermelon lines and diploid plants compared with the morphological and cytological dates. Morphological dates; width of the leaf-length (cm, male flower diameter (mm, diameter-length of the ovary (mm, the female flower petal width and length (mm were measured. Cytological assessment of the stoma diameter (μm, stomatal length (μm, stomatal density and chloroplast number were measured. In the present study has shown that the tetraploid plants grow vigorously as compared to diploid plants. Tetraploid plants are the number of chloroplasts increased, but decreased stomatal density were determined. As a result, tetraploid plants could be selected practically and economically by using morphological and cytological data for watermelon plants.

  13. Transferring alien genes to wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    In broad terms an alien gene can be considered to be any gene transferred to wheat from a related species. As described above by Maan (section 7D) the genus Triticum contains a broad range of species, some of which cross readily with the cultivated tetraploid (T. Turgidum L.) or hexaploid (T. aestivum L.) wheats, and others only with great difficulty. In addition, wheat will also cross with species in a number of other genera including Agropyron, Elymus, Elytrigia (=Agropyron), Haynaldia, Hordeum, and Secale (Riley and Kimber, 1966; Knobloch, 1968; Feldman and Sears, 1981). In discussing the Triticum and Aegilops spp., the classification by Kimber and Sears, section SA-I, above, will be followed. For the Agropyron and related species the classification described by Dewey (1983) will be used. To avoid confusion, in referring to the literature the designations used by the authors will be given, followed by the new designation. The wild relatives of wheat are adapted to a broad range of environments and carry a large reservoir of useful genes (Zohary et al., 1969; Kerber and Dyck, 1973; Brezhnev, 1977; Feldman and Sears, 1981; Limin and Fowler, 1981; Sharma et aI., 1981; McGuire and Dvorak, 1981). Initially they were considered to be primarily sources of disease resistance, but more recently they have been recognized as potential sources of genes for high protein, cold tolerance, salt tolerance, drought tolerance, lodging resistance, early maturity, and even yield. Extensive screening of the wild relatives of wheat needs to be done before their useful genes can be fully utilized

  14. Transferring alien genes to wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, D. R.

    1987-07-01

    In broad terms an alien gene can be considered to be any gene transferred to wheat from a related species. As described above by Maan (section 7D) the genus Triticum contains a broad range of species, some of which cross readily with the cultivated tetraploid (T. Turgidum L.) or hexaploid (T. aestivum L.) wheats, and others only with great difficulty. In addition, wheat will also cross with species in a number of other genera including Agropyron, Elymus, Elytrigia (=Agropyron), Haynaldia, Hordeum, and Secale (Riley and Kimber, 1966; Knobloch, 1968; Feldman and Sears, 1981). In discussing the Triticum and Aegilops spp., the classification by Kimber and Sears, section SA-I, above, will be followed. For the Agropyron and related species the classification described by Dewey (1983) will be used. To avoid confusion, in referring to the literature the designations used by the authors will be given, followed by the new designation. The wild relatives of wheat are adapted to a broad range of environments and carry a large reservoir of useful genes (Zohary et al., 1969; Kerber and Dyck, 1973; Brezhnev, 1977; Feldman and Sears, 1981; Limin and Fowler, 1981; Sharma et aI., 1981; McGuire and Dvorak, 1981). Initially they were considered to be primarily sources of disease resistance, but more recently they have been recognized as potential sources of genes for high protein, cold tolerance, salt tolerance, drought tolerance, lodging resistance, early maturity, and even yield. Extensive screening of the wild relatives of wheat needs to be done before their useful genes can be fully utilized.

  15. Wheat Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of reactions. Learn more here. Milk Egg Peanut Tree Nuts Soy Wheat Fish Shellfish Sesame Other Food ... federal law. Download our resource on how to identify wheat on food labels. Avoid foods that contain ...

  16. p53 Dependent Centrosome Clustering Prevents Multipolar Mitosis in Tetraploid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Qiyi; Zhao, Xiaoyu; Huang, Yun; Ma, Tieliang; Zhang, Yingyin; Hou, Heli; Cooke, Howard J.; Yang, Da-Qing; Wu, Mian; Shi, Qinghua

    2011-01-01

    Background p53 abnormality and aneuploidy often coexist in human tumors, and tetraploidy is considered as an intermediate between normal diploidy and aneuploidy. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether and how p53 influences the transformation from tetraploidy to aneuploidy. Principal Findings Live cell imaging was performed to determine the fates and mitotic behaviors of several human and mouse tetraploid cells with different p53 status, and centrosome and spindle immunostaining was used to investigate centrosome behaviors. We found that p53 dominant-negative mutation, point mutation, or knockout led to a 2∼ 33-fold increase of multipolar mitosis in N/TERT1, 3T3 and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), while mitotic entry and cell death were not significantly affected. In p53-/- tetraploid MEFs, the ability of centrosome clustering was compromised, while centrosome inactivation was not affected. Suppression of RhoA/ROCK activity by specific inhibitors in p53-/- tetraploid MEFs enhanced centrosome clustering, decreased multipolar mitosis from 38% to 20% and 16% for RhoA and ROCK, respectively, while expression of constitutively active RhoA in p53+/+ tetraploid 3T3 cells increased the frequency of multipolar mitosis from 15% to 35%. Conclusions p53 could not prevent tetraploid cells entering mitosis or induce tetraploid cell death. However, p53 abnormality impaired centrosome clustering and lead to multipolar mitosis in tetraploid cells by modulating the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. PMID:22076149

  17. Selection on meiosis genes in diploid and tetraploid Arabidopsis arenosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kevin M; Arnold, Brian; Xue, Katherine; Šurinová, Maria; O'Connell, Jeremy; Bomblies, Kirsten

    2015-04-01

    Meiotic chromosome segregation is critical for fertility across eukaryotes, and core meiotic processes are well conserved even between kingdoms. Nevertheless, recent work in animals has shown that at least some meiosis genes are highly diverse or strongly differentiated among populations. What drives this remains largely unknown. We previously showed that autotetraploid Arabidopsis arenosa evolved stable meiosis, likely through reduced crossover rates, and that associated with this there is strong evidence for selection in a subset of meiosis genes known to affect axis formation, synapsis, and crossover frequency. Here, we use genome-wide data to study the molecular evolution of 70 meiosis genes in a much wider sample of A. arenosa. We sample the polyploid lineage, a diploid lineage from the Carpathian Mountains, and a more distantly related diploid lineage from the adjacent, but biogeographically distinct Pannonian Basin. We find that not only did selection act on meiosis genes in the polyploid lineage but also independently on a smaller subset of meiosis genes in Pannonian diploids. Functionally related genes are targeted by selection in these distinct contexts, and in two cases, independent sweeps occurred in the same loci. The tetraploid lineage has sustained selection on more genes, has more amino acid changes in each, and these more often affect conserved or potentially functional sites. We hypothesize that Pannonian diploid and tetraploid A. arenosa experienced selection on structural proteins that mediate sister chromatid cohesion, the formation of meiotic chromosome axes, and synapsis, likely for different underlying reasons. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Alien DNA introgression and wheat DNA rearrangements in a stable wheat line derived from the early generation of distant hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lianquan; Liu, Dengcai; Yan, Zehong; Zheng, Youliang

    2005-10-01

    Polyploidy has been found to be common in plants. Bread or common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n=42) is a good example of allopolyploid made up of three diploid genomes A, B and D. In recent years, by the study of mimicking the origination of common wheat, it was found that changes of DNA sequence and gene expression occurred at the early stages of artificial allohexaploid between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii, which was probably favorable to genetic diploidization of new synthetic hexaploid wheat. Common wheat 99L2 is a new line stable in genetic, which was derived from the early self-pollinated generation of wide hybrids between common wheat and rye. In this study, it was found that at least two rye DNA segments had been introgressed into 99L2. This result suggested that a mechanism of alien DNA introgression may exist, which was different from the traditional mechanism of chromosome pairing and DNA recombination between wheat and alien species. Meanwhile, during the introgression process of alien rye DNA segments, the changes in DNA sequences of wheat itself occurred.

  19. New mechanism for the control of sodium transport in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.A.; Munns, R.; Huang, C.X.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Durum and other tetraploid wheats are typically very salt-sensitive compared to hexaploid bread wheats. This is primarily due to high rates of Na + accumulation in the leaves in tetraploid wheat. Recently, we have discovered a durum landrace with low Na + accumulation and enhanced K + /Na + discrimination, much lower than current durum cultivars and similar to bread wheat. We have identified 3 different mechanisms for the control of Na + transport to the leaves in this landrace, 1) control of Na + uptake at the epidermis of the root, 2) control of Na + loading into the xylem and 3) partitioning of Na + into the leaf sheath. The low Na + durum landrace had 3-4 fold lower Na + uptake rates than durum cultivars. Using X ray microanalysis on snap-frozen root sections, we found Na + to be high in the epidermis, a decreasing gradient through the cortex, low in the endodermis and again high in the stele (pencycle and xylem parenchyma), indicative of control points at the epidermis and in the stele. Partitioning of Na + between shoot and root was at least 5 times lower in the durum landrace, suggestive of greater control of Na + transport at the site of xylem loading. A third and novel control mechanism was found in the leaf sheath. Short and long term salinity treatments showed that Na + was partitioned preferentially into the sheaths of the low Na + durum landrace, keeping leaf blade Na + levels very low and similar to that of bread wheat Na + partitioned in the leaf sheath was stored primarily in the parenchyma cells and Cl - in the epidermal cells. Collectively, these data show that we have identified germplasm that has the potential to increase the salt tolerance of durum wheat. Additionally, as bread wheat does not contain the mechanism for partitioning Na + into the sheath, this trait may be useful for further increasing the salt tolerance of this species

  20. Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis of a CC-NBS-LRR Encoding Gene Assigned on Chromosome 7B of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqi Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hexaploid wheat displays limited genetic variation. As a direct A and B genome donor of hexaploid wheat, tetraploid wheat represents an important gene pool for cultivated bread wheat. Many disease resistant genes express conserved domains of the nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeats (NBS-LRR. In this study, we isolated a CC-NBS-LRR gene locating on chromosome 7B from durum wheat variety Italy 363, and designated it TdRGA-7Ba. Its open reading frame was 4014 bp, encoding a 1337 amino acid protein with a complete NBS domain and 18 LRR repeats, sharing 44.7% identity with the PM3B protein. TdRGA-7Ba expression was continuously seen at low levels and was highest in leaves. TdRGA-7Ba has another allele TdRGA-7Bb with a 4 bp deletion at position +1892 in other cultivars of tetraploid wheat. In Ae. speltoides, as a B genome progenitor, both TdRGA-7Ba and TdRGA-7Bb were detected. In all six species of hexaploid wheats (AABBDD, only TdRGA-7Bb existed. Phylogenic analysis showed that all TdRGA-7Bb type genes were grouped in one sub-branch. We speculate that TdRGA-7Bb was derived from a TdRGA-7Ba mutation, and it happened in Ae. speltoides. Both types of TdRGA-7B participated in tetraploid wheat formation. However, only the TdRGA-7Bb was retained in hexaploid wheat.

  1. Traumatic bone cyst resembling apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, D J; Ardekian, L; Machtei, E E; Peled, M; Manor, R; Laufer, D

    1997-10-01

    Among the pseudocysts of the jaws, the traumatic bone cyst is known as an asymptomatic lesion often noted unintentionally during routine radiographic examinations. The lesion neither devitalizes the teeth within its borders, nor does it cause resorption of their roots. The well-demarcated traumatic bone cyst often projects into the intraradicular septa and hence has been described as having scalloped borders. The following presentation is of a traumatic bone cyst that resembled periodontal pathology in its appearance.

  2. Patterns of allozyme variation in diploid and tetraploid Centaurea jacea at different spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, O J; Vekemans, X

    2001-05-01

    The extent and spatial patterns of genetic variation at allozyme markers were investigated within and between diploid and autotetraploid knapweeds (Centaurea jacea L. sensu lato, Asteraceae) at contrasted geographic scales: (1) among populations sampled from a diploid-tetraploid contact zone in the northeastern part of the Belgian Ardennes, and (2) within mixed populations from that zone where diploids and tetraploids coexist. Our data were also compared with a published dataset by Sommer (1990) describing allozyme variation in separate diploid and tetraploid knapweeds populations collected throughout Europe. Genetic diversity was higher in tetraploids. In the Belgian Ardennes and within the mixed populations, both cytotypes had similar levels of spatial genetic structure, they were genetically differentiated, and their distributions of allele frequencies were not spatially correlated. In contrast, at the European scale, diploids and tetraploids did not show differentiated gene pools and presented a strong correlation between their patterns of spatial genetic variation. Numerical simulations showed that the striking difference in patterns observed at small and large geographic scales could be accounted for by a combination of (1) isolation by distance within cytotypes; and (2) partial reproductive barriers between cytotypes and/or recurrent formation of tetraploids. We suggest that this may explain the difficulty of the taxonomic treatment of knapweeds and of polyploid complexes in general.

  3. Eat Wheat!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  4. Multiple ureterolithiasis resembling steinstrasse: An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Pandey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Steinstrasse or “stone street” is an expected complication after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in patients with high stone burden. However, there are published reports of multiple ureterolithiasis resembling steinstrasse in patients with distal renal tubular acidosis. Here we report an uncommon case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with right renal calculi. Her right ureter was studded with multiple calculi up to the vesicoureteric junction. The affected right kidney was nonfunctional and was managed by nephroureterectomy.

  5. Mutation breeding for disease resistance in wheat and field beans in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hak, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    Seeds of three varieties of hexaploid wheat and of one variety of tetraploid wheat were treated with gamma rays in order to obtain mutants with improved resistance to stem rust, leaf rust and stripe rust. Mutants with resistance to prevailing races of rusts were selected; however, the race spectrum shifted and made the mutants useless for the time being. Induction of mutations for resistance to chocolate spot and rusts was attempted in Vicia faba. No resistant mutant was found but some mutants with lower levels of infection were. (author)

  6. Tetraploid Embryonic Stem Cells Maintain Pluripotency and Differentiation Potency into Three Germ Layers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Imai

    Full Text Available Polyploid amphibians and fishes occur naturally in nature, while polyploid mammals do not. For example, tetraploid mouse embryos normally develop into blastocysts, but exhibit abnormalities and die soon after implantation. Thus, polyploidization is thought to be harmful during early mammalian development. However, the mechanisms through which polyploidization disrupts development are still poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to elucidate how genome duplication affects early mammalian development. To this end, we established tetraploid embryonic stem cells (TESCs produced from the inner cell masses of tetraploid blastocysts using electrofusion of two-cell embryos in mice and studied the developmental potential of TESCs. We demonstrated that TESCs possessed essential pluripotency and differentiation potency to form teratomas, which differentiated into the three germ layers, including diploid embryonic stem cells. TESCs also contributed to the inner cell masses in aggregated chimeric blastocysts, despite the observation that tetraploid embryos fail in normal development soon after implantation in mice. In TESCs, stability after several passages, colony morphology, and alkaline phosphatase activity were similar to those of diploid ESCs. TESCs also exhibited sufficient expression and localization of pluripotent markers and retained the normal epigenetic status of relevant reprogramming factors. TESCs proliferated at a slower rate than ESCs, indicating that the difference in genomic dosage was responsible for the different growth rates. Thus, our findings suggested that mouse ESCs maintained intrinsic pluripotency and differentiation potential despite tetraploidization, providing insights into our understanding of developmental elimination in polyploid mammals.

  7. Maximization of Markers Linked in Coupling for Tetraploid Potatoes via Monoparental Haploids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette M. Bartkiewicz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Haploid potato populations derived from a single tetraploid donor constitute an efficient strategy to analyze markers segregating from a single donor genotype. Analysis of marker segregation in populations derived from crosses between polysomic tetraploids is complicated by a maximum of eight segregating alleles, multiple dosages of the markers and problems related to linkage analysis of marker segregation in repulsion. Here, we present data on two monoparental haploid populations generated by prickle pollination of two tetraploid cultivars with Solanum phureja and genotyped with the 12.8 k SolCAP single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array. We show that in a population of monoparental haploids, the number of biallelic SNP markers segregating in linkage to loci from the tetraploid donor genotype is much larger than in putative crosses of this genotype to a diverse selection of 125 tetraploid cultivars. Although this strategy is more laborious than conventional breeding, the generation of haploid progeny for efficient marker analysis is straightforward if morphological markers and flow cytometry are utilized to select true haploid progeny. The level of introgressed fragments from S. phureja, the haploid inducer, is very low, supporting its suitability for genetic analysis. Mapping with single-dose markers allowed the analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTL for four phenotypic traits.

  8. Tetraploid Embryonic Stem Cells Maintain Pluripotency and Differentiation Potency into Three Germ Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Hiroyuki; Kano, Kiyoshi; Fujii, Wataru; Takasawa, Ken; Wakitani, Shoichi; Hiyama, Masato; Nishino, Koichiro; Kusakabe, Ken Takeshi; Kiso, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Polyploid amphibians and fishes occur naturally in nature, while polyploid mammals do not. For example, tetraploid mouse embryos normally develop into blastocysts, but exhibit abnormalities and die soon after implantation. Thus, polyploidization is thought to be harmful during early mammalian development. However, the mechanisms through which polyploidization disrupts development are still poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to elucidate how genome duplication affects early mammalian development. To this end, we established tetraploid embryonic stem cells (TESCs) produced from the inner cell masses of tetraploid blastocysts using electrofusion of two-cell embryos in mice and studied the developmental potential of TESCs. We demonstrated that TESCs possessed essential pluripotency and differentiation potency to form teratomas, which differentiated into the three germ layers, including diploid embryonic stem cells. TESCs also contributed to the inner cell masses in aggregated chimeric blastocysts, despite the observation that tetraploid embryos fail in normal development soon after implantation in mice. In TESCs, stability after several passages, colony morphology, and alkaline phosphatase activity were similar to those of diploid ESCs. TESCs also exhibited sufficient expression and localization of pluripotent markers and retained the normal epigenetic status of relevant reprogramming factors. TESCs proliferated at a slower rate than ESCs, indicating that the difference in genomic dosage was responsible for the different growth rates. Thus, our findings suggested that mouse ESCs maintained intrinsic pluripotency and differentiation potential despite tetraploidization, providing insights into our understanding of developmental elimination in polyploid mammals.

  9. Partial preferential chromosome pairing is genotype dependent in tetraploid rose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Peter M; Arens, Paul; Voorrips, Roeland E; Esselink, G Danny; Koning-Boucoiran, Carole F S; Van't Westende, Wendy P C; Santos Leonardo, Tiago; Wissink, Patrick; Zheng, Chaozhi; van Geest, Geert; Visser, Richard G F; Krens, Frans A; Smulders, Marinus J M; Maliepaard, Chris

    2017-04-01

    It has long been recognised that polyploid species do not always neatly fall into the categories of auto- or allopolyploid, leading to the term 'segmental allopolyploid' to describe everything in between. The meiotic behaviour of such intermediate species is not fully understood, nor is there consensus as to how to model their inheritance patterns. In this study we used a tetraploid cut rose (Rosa hybrida) population, genotyped using the 68K WagRhSNP array, to construct an ultra-high-density linkage map of all homologous chromosomes using methods previously developed for autotetraploids. Using the predicted bivalent configurations in this population we quantified differences in pairing behaviour among and along homologous chromosomes, leading us to correct our estimates of recombination frequency to account for this behaviour. This resulted in the re-mapping of 25 695 SNP markers across all homologues of the seven rose chromosomes, tailored to the pairing behaviour of each chromosome in each parent. We confirmed the inferred differences in pairing behaviour among chromosomes by examining repulsion-phase linkage estimates, which also carry information about preferential pairing and recombination. Currently, the closest sequenced relative to rose is Fragaria vesca. Aligning the integrated ultra-dense rose map with the strawberry genome sequence provided a detailed picture of the synteny, confirming overall co-linearity but also revealing new genomic rearrangements. Our results suggest that pairing affinities may vary along chromosome arms, which broadens our current understanding of segmental allopolyploidy. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Experimental Biology.

  10. The Evolution of Vicia ramuliflora (Fabaceae) at Tetraploid and Diploid Levels Revealed with FISH and RAPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Haoyou; Liu, Xiangjun

    2017-01-01

    Vicia ramuliflora L. is a widely distributed species in Eurasia with high economic value. For past 200 years, it has evolved a tetraploid cytotype and new subspecies at the diploid level. Based on taxonomy, cytogeography and other lines of evidence, previous studies have provided valuable information about the evolution of V. ramuliflora ploidy level, but due to the limited resolution of traditional methods, important questions remain. In this study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were used to analyze the evolution of V. ramuliflora at the diploid and tetraploid levels. Our aim was to reveal the genomic constitution and parents of the tetraploid V. ramuliflora and the relationships among diploid V. ramuliflora populations. Our study showed that the tetraploid cytotype of V. ramuliflora at Changbai Mountains (M) has identical 18S and 5S rDNA distribution patterns with the diploid Hengdaohezi population (B) and the diploid Dailing population (H). However, UPGMA clustering, Neighbor-Joining clustering and principal coordinates analysis based on RAPD showed that the tetraploid cytotype (M) has more close relationships with Qianshan diploid population T. Based on our results and the fact that interspecific hybridization among Vicia species is very difficult, we think that the tetraploid V. ramuliflora is an autotetraploid and its genomic origin still needs further study. In addition, our study also found that Qianshan diploid population (T) had evolved distinct new traits compared with other diploid populations, which hints that V. ramuliflora evolved further at diploid level. We suggest that diploid population T be re-classified as a new subspecies. PMID:28135314

  11. Wheat: The Whole Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

  12. Body elimination attitude family resemblance in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fayez, Ghenaim; Awadalla, Abdelwahid; Arikawa, Hiroko; Templer, Donald I; Hutton, Shane

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the family resemblance of attitude toward body elimination in Kuwaiti participants. This study was conceptualized in the context of the theories of moral development, importance of cleanliness in the Muslim religion, cross-cultural differences in personal hygiene practices, previous research reporting an association between family attitudes and body elimination attitude, and health implications. The 24-item Likert-type format Body Elimination Attitude Scale-Revised was administered to 277 Kuwaiti high school students and 437 of their parents. Females scored higher, indicating greater disgust, than the males. Moreover, sons' body elimination attitude correlated more strongly with fathers' attitude (r = .85) than with that of the mothers (r = .64). Daughters' attitude was similarly associated with the fathers' (r = .89) and the mothers' attitude (r = .86). The high correlations were discussed within the context of Kuwait having a collectivistic culture with authoritarian parenting style. The higher adolescent correlations, and in particular the boys' correlation with fathers than with mothers, was explained in terms of the more dominant role of the Muslim father in the family. Public health and future research implications were suggested. A theoretical formulation was advanced in which "ideal" body elimination attitude is relative rather than absolute, and is a function of one's life circumstances, one's occupation, one's culture and subculture, and the society that one lives in.

  13. Components characterization of total tetraploid jiaogulan (Gynostemma pentaphylla) saponin and its cholesterol-lowering properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study characterized chemical structures of tetraploid jiaogulan saponins, and investigated their cholesterol-lowering effects and mechanisms in hamsters fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Nine saponins, including five reported for the first time, were obtained from total jiaogulan saponins (TJS) and el...

  14. The simulation of meiosis in diploid and tetraploid organisms using various genetic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, R.E.; Maliepaard, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: While the genetics of diploid inheritance are well studied and software for linkage mapping, haplotyping and QTL analysis are available, for tetraploids the available tools are limited. In order to develop such tools it would be helpful if simulated populations based on a variety of

  15. Natural polyploidization within tetraploid and hexaploid populations of the desert shrub Atriplex confertifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart C. Sanderson

    2011-01-01

    Shadscale (Atriplex confertifolia) is a wind-pollinated dioecious shrub of western North America with an unusual development of apparently autoploid races, showing all even ploidy levels from 2x to 12x (base x = 9). Of these, tetraploid races are the most frequently encountered, with octoploids the next most common, and hexaploids being much less common. In this study...

  16. Tetraploid cells from cytokinesis failure induce aneuploidy and spontaneous transformation of mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Lei; Zhang, Tianwei; Yi, Qiyi; Huang, Yun; Wang, Zheng; Hou, Heli; Zhang, Huan; Zheng, Wei; Hao, Qiaomei; Guo, Zongyou; Cooke, Howard J; Shi, Qinghua

    2012-08-01

    Most ovarian cancers originate from the ovarian surface epithelium and are characterized by aneuploid karyotypes. Aneuploidy, a consequence of chromosome instability, is an early event during the development of ovarian cancers. However, how aneuploid cells are evolved from normal diploid cells in ovarian cancers remains unknown. In the present study, cytogenetic analyses of a mouse syngeneic ovarian cancer model revealed that diploid mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells (MOSECs) experienced an intermediate tetraploid cell stage, before evolving to aneuploid (mainly near-tetraploid) cells. Using long-term live-cell imaging followed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we demonstrated that tetraploid cells originally arose from cytokinesis failure of bipolar mitosis in diploid cells, and gave rise to aneuploid cells through chromosome mis-segregation during both bipolar and multipolar mitoses. Injection of the late passage aneuploid MOSECs resulted in tumor formation in C57BL/6 mice. Therefore, we reveal a pathway for the evolution of diploid to aneuploid MOSECs and elucidate a mechanism for the development of near-tetraploid ovarian cancer cells.

  17. Genetic and environmental effects on production of spontaneous tetraploids in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The appearance of spontaneous tetraploid (4x) plants is a serious problem for cucumber growers and the seed industry. These plants produce unacceptable fruits with poor quality that do not meet market standards, and result in substantial losses. A higher frequency of spontaneous 4x plants has been a...

  18. Genotype calling in tetraploid species from bi-allelic marker data using mixture models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, R.E.; Gort, G.; Vosman, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Automated genotype calling in tetraploid species was until recently not possible, which hampered genetic analysis. Modern genotyping assays often produce two signals, one for each allele of a bi-allelic marker. While ample software is available to obtain genotypes (homozygous for either

  19. In vitro isoflavonoid production and analysis in natural tetraploid Trifolium pratense (red clover calluses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Ercetin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are polyphenolic phytoestrogens, predominantly found in leguminous plants. Trifolium pratense L., Fabaceae (red clover, is rich in isoflavones that possess estrogenic activity due to their similar molecular structure and effectiveness in preventing health conditions such as menopause, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and hormone-dependent cancers. In this study, presence and amount of various phytoestrogens in the tetraploid plant and in the calluses derived from the plants were investigated. Calluses were generated from explants obtained from natural tetraploid T. pratense seedlings. The best callus formation was obtained from hypocotyl explants cultured in Phillips Collins and Gamborg B5 media containing different plant growth regulators. Flowers of plants and calluses were analysed for formononetin, biochanin A, genistein and daidzein contents using HPLC. In HPLC analysis, high levels of formononetin (0.249 µg/mg were determined in natural tetraploid T. pratense flowers in addition to genistein and biochanin A. In calluses, highest isoflavone content (1.15 µg/mg formononetin was observed in modified Gamborg B5 medium. Biochanin A content of calluses and the plant were found to be nearly the same. But formononetin and genistein contents of the calluses in this medium were found to be respectively 4.62 and 21.39 folds higher than the tetraploid plant.

  20. In vitro isoflavonoid production and analysis in natural tetraploid Trifolium pratense (red clover calluses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Ercetin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are polyphenolic phytoestrogens, predominantly found in leguminous plants. Trifolium pratense L., Fabaceae (red clover, is rich in isoflavones that possess estrogenic activity due to their similar molecular structure and effectiveness in preventing health conditions such as menopause, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and hormone-dependent cancers. In this study, presence and amount of various phytoestrogens in the tetraploid plant and in the calluses derived from the plants were investigated. Calluses were generated from explants obtained from natural tetraploid T. pratense seedlings. The best callus formation was obtained from hypocotyl explants cultured in Phillips Collins and Gamborg B5 media containing different plant growth regulators. Flowers of plants and calluses were analysed for formononetin, biochanin A, genistein and daidzein contents using HPLC. In HPLC analysis, high levels of formononetin (0.249 µg/mg were determined in natural tetraploid T. pratense flowers in addition to genistein and biochanin A. In calluses, highest isoflavone content (1.15 µg/mg formononetin was observed in modified Gamborg B5 medium. Biochanin A content of calluses and the plant were found to be nearly the same. But formononetin and genistein contents of the calluses in this medium were found to be respectively 4.62 and 21.39 folds higher than the tetraploid plant.

  1. Pushing Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    This paper documents the evolution of variables central to understanding the creation of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the US and the UK in the nineteenth century. The cointegrated VAR model is then applied to the period 1838-1913 in order to find long-run relationships between these varia......This paper documents the evolution of variables central to understanding the creation of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the US and the UK in the nineteenth century. The cointegrated VAR model is then applied to the period 1838-1913 in order to find long-run relationships between...

  2. Transfer of genes for stem rust resistance from Agropyron elongatum and imperial rye to durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakara Rao, M.V.

    1977-01-01

    The Agropyron elongatum gene for stem rust resistance on chromosome 6A of Knott's Thatcher translocation line was transferred to a susceptible local durum wheat variety, Jaya, through a series of back-crosses. Plants heterozygous for the Agropyron translocation always show at least one open bivalent. Homozygotes have not been obtained, probably because of the absence of male transmission in durum background. Monotelosomic addition of the short arm of Imperial rye chromosome 3R (formerly ''G'' of Sears), which carries a gene(s) for resistance to wheat stem rust, was obtained in the local durum variety. Rust-resistant plants from parents having the added rye telocentric were irradiated with gamma rays just before meiosis, and the pollen obtained from the irradiated spikes was used to pollinate euploid plants. In addition, seeds harvested from 2n+1 resistant plants were irradiated with thermal neutrons and the resistant M 1 plants were selfed to raise M 2 families. Two durum-rye translocation lines were obtained following irradiation. DRT-1 was transmitted normally through the female gametes but showed no male transmission. As a result of this, homozygotes have not been obtained. Gametic transmission rates of DRT-2 are being tested. Alien translocations, which show normal gametic and zygotic transmissions in the hexaploid wheat, may behave differently in a tetraploid background. The results indicate that alien genetic transfers may be more difficult to obtain in durum wheat, probably owing to the reduced buffering effect of the tetraploid genome. (author)

  3. Differential gene expression and alternative splicing between diploid and tetraploid watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saminathan, Thangasamy; Nimmakayala, Padma; Manohar, Sumanth; Malkaram, Sridhar; Almeida, Aldo; Cantrell, Robert; Tomason, Yan; Abburi, Lavanya; Rahman, Mohammad A; Vajja, Venkata G; Khachane, Amit; Kumar, Brajendra; Rajasimha, Harsha K; Levi, Amnon; Wehner, Todd; Reddy, Umesh K

    2015-03-01

    The exploitation of synthetic polyploids for producing seedless fruits is well known in watermelon. Tetraploid progenitors of triploid watermelon plants, compared with their diploid counterparts, exhibit wide phenotypic differences. Although many factors modulate alternative splicing (AS) in plants, the effects of autopolyploidization on AS are still unknown. In this study, we used tissues of leaf, stem, and fruit of diploid and tetraploid sweet watermelon to understand changes in gene expression and the occurrence of AS. RNA-sequencing analysis was performed along with reverse transcription quantitative PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR to demonstrate changes in expression and splicing. All vegetative tissues except fruit showed an increased level of AS in the tetraploid watermelon throughout the growth period. The ploidy levels of diploids and the tetraploid were confirmed using a ploidy analyser. We identified 5362 and 1288 genes that were up- and downregulated, respectively, in tetraploid as compared with diploid plants. We further confirmed that 22 genes underwent AS events across tissues, indicating possibilities of generating different protein isoforms with altered functions of important transcription factors and transporters. Arginine biosynthesis, chlorophyllide synthesis, GDP mannose biosynthesis, trehalose biosynthesis, and starch and sucrose degradation pathways were upregulated in autotetraploids. Phloem protein 2, chloroplastic PGR5-like protein, zinc-finger protein, fructokinase-like 2, MYB transcription factor, and nodulin MtN21 showed AS in fruit tissues. These results should help in developing high-quality seedless watermelon and provide additional transcriptomic information related to other cucurbits. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Morphological, physiological, cytological and phytochemical studies in diploid and colchicine-induced tetraploid plants of Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Jiao; Sheng, Mao-Yin; Wen, Pei-Cai; Du, Jia-Ying

    2017-12-01

    Tartary buckwheat are very popular as an important functional food material and its cultivation is very widespread in our whole world, but there obviously lack works in the researches of genetic breeding for agricultural and medicinal utilization. The aim of this study is to obtain good germplasm resources for agricultural and medicinal use of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) by inducing the tetraploid plants. Four cultivars of F. tataricum, that is, Qianwei 2#, Jinku 2#, Chuanqiao 1#, and Liuqiao 1# were selected to experiment. The tips of seedlings with two true leaves were treated by 0.25% (w/v) colchicine solution for 48, 72, and 96 h, respectively. The chromosome number of treated plants was determined by metaphase chromosome counting of root tip cells and PMCs (pollen mother cells) meiosis observation. Tetraploid induction successfully occurred in all three treatments with an efficiency ranging from 12.13 to 54.55%. The chromosome number of the diploid plants was 2n = 2x = 16, and that of the induced tetraploid plants was 2n = 4x = 32. The typical morphological and physiological qualities were compared between the control diploid and corresponding induced tetraploid plants. Results showed that the induced tetraploid plants had obviously larger leaves, flowers, and seeds. Moreover, the content of seed protein and flavonoid were also increased in the tetraploid plants. The pollen diameter and capsule size of diploid plants were significantly smaller than those of tetraploid plants. Fagopyrum tataricum can be effectively induced into tetraploids by colchicines. The tetraploid induction can produce valuable germplasm resources for breeding and is a practicable breeding way in F. tataricum.

  5. Identification and characterization of more than 4 million intervarietal SNPs across the group 7 chromosomes of bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kaitao; Lorenc, Michał T; Lee, Hong Ching; Berkman, Paul J; Bayer, Philipp Emanuel; Visendi, Paul; Ruperao, Pradeep; Fitzgerald, Timothy L; Zander, Manuel; Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Manoli, Sahana; Stiller, Jiri; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite being a major international crop, our understanding of the wheat genome is relatively poor due to its large size and complexity. To gain a greater understanding of wheat genome diversity, we have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms between 16 Australian bread wheat varieties. Whole-genome shotgun Illumina paired read sequence data were mapped to the draft assemblies of chromosomes 7A, 7B and 7D to identify more than 4 million intervarietal SNPs. SNP density varied between the three genomes, with much greater density observed on the A and B genomes than the D genome. This variation may be a result of substantial gene flow from the tetraploid Triticum turgidum, which possesses A and B genomes, during early co-cultivation of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. In addition, we examined SNP density variation along the chromosome syntenic builds and identified genes in low-density regions which may have been selected during domestication and breeding. This study highlights the impact of evolution and breeding on the bread wheat genome and provides a substantial resource for trait association and crop improvement. All SNP data are publically available on a generic genome browser GBrowse at www.wheatgenome.info. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Qualidade de sementes de Lolium multiflorum tetraploide comercializadas em Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Miotto Ternus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Na região Sul do Brasil, no período do inverno o azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam se torna fundamental para a formação de pastagens. No entanto, o uso e a comercialização de sementes de azevém tetraploide têm crescido em relação aos diploides, devido, principalmente, a qualidade superior de suas sementes. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade das sementes de azevém tetraploide, comercializadas no Estado de Santa Catarina. Foram utilizados seis lotes de sementes de azevém tetraploide da cultivar Barjumbo, oriundos de diferentes estabelecimentos comerciais do Estado de Santa Catarina. Cada lote de semente foi obtido a partir de coleta oficial. Buscaram-se lotes de sementes da categoria certificada, sendo dois lotes de cada país produtor (Argentina, Brasil e Uruguai. Avaliou-se a qualidade física e fisiológica a partir dos testes de pureza física, massa de mil sementes, teste de germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, comprimento da parte aérea e da raiz e massa seca da área e da raiz. Os resultados demonstram que 100% dos lotes analisados atendem os padrões legais de pureza física e germinação para a comercialização de sementes, independente da origem. Para o teste de germinação os resultados obtidos foram 27% superiores ao padrão legal. Os lotes de sementes de azevém tetraploides nacionais comercializados em Santa Catarina, mesmo apresentando-se dentro dos padrões legais para os testes de pureza física e germinação, apresentaram menor vigor quando comparados aos lotes oriundos da Argentina e Uruguai.Quality of Lolium multiflorum tetraploide seeds marketed in Santa CatarinaAbstract: In the southern region of Brazil, during the winter period ryegrass becomes essential for pasture formation. The use and commercialization of tetraploid ryegrass seeds has grown in relation to diploids, mainly due to the superior quality of their seeds. The objective of this work was to evaluate the quality of tetraploid

  7. Effect of cutting medium temperatures on rooting process and root primordium differentiation of hardwood cuttings of tetraploid robinia pseudoacacia cutting medium temperatures of tetraploid robinia pseudoacacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, W.X.; Jine, Q.; Zhong, Z.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, to examine the effect of heat treatment on the rooting and root development of hardwood cuttings of the tetraploid Robinia pseudoacacia, cuttings of 1-year-old stems were taken from 3-year-old mother trees and treated with IBA solution (1000 mg/L) for 6 h, with water was as a control. Treated cuttings were rooted in heated or unheated nursery beds. Samples were collected on day ten after planting, and then for every five days. The bases of the cuttings were embedded in paraffin and sectioned before being examined under a microscope to determine whether there had been any morphological changes. We found no root primordia in the tissues of the hardwood cuttings of the tetraploid Robinia pseudoacacia before cutting. In the heated bed, adventitious roots originated from callus tissue and the junction between the pith rays and cortical parenchyma cells, and in the unheated bed, adventitious roots originated only from callus tissue. The rooting process involved callus formation, adventitious root formation and elongation; rooting occurred 5-7 days earlier in the heated cuttings than in the unheated ones, and rooting rates were significantly higher in the former 30 days and 50 days after cutting; the minimum effective accumulated temperatures for these three stages were 109.25 degree C, 211.68 degree C and 301.38 degree C, respectively. Our results revealed that heating the soil can promote adventitious root formation, speed up the rooting rate, and cut the propagation period of the tetraploid Robinia pseudoacacia. (author)

  8. Comparison of meiotic abnormalities induced by gamma-rays between a diploid and a tetraploid species of physalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Roy, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    Radiosensitivity of a diploid (P. ixocarpa) and a tetraploid (P. peruviana) species of Physalis has been studied. Meiotic abnormalities induced by γ-rays were compared in both species and found that it was always greater in tetraploid than in diploid species at each corresponding dose. The tetraploid plant due to greater chromosomal volume is more vulnerable to radiation hits and its immediate consequences are expected to contribute to the formation of sterile pollen, but this defect could be overcome by the buffering action of the unaltered genes over the altered ones at multiple loci, which normalizes the induced plant sterility. The diploid P. ixocarpa exhibited higher radiosensitivity than the tetraploid P. peruviana. Comparison between the frequencies of meiotic anomalies of M 2 and M 1 indicated that the latter has exaggerated values on these at all exposure levels. The lowered values of M 2 indicated their elimination through diplontic selection or intrasomatic or competitive elimination during the course of time lapse. (author)

  9. The carotenoid biosynthetic and catabolic genes in wheat and their association with yellow pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colasuonno, Pasqualina; Lozito, Maria Luisa; Marcotuli, Ilaria; Nigro, Domenica; Giancaspro, Angelica; Mangini, Giacomo; De Vita, Pasquale; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria; Pecchioni, Nicola; Houston, Kelly; Simeone, Rosanna; Gadaleta, Agata; Blanco, Antonio

    2017-01-31

    In plants carotenoids play an important role in the photosynthetic process and photo-oxidative protection, and are the substrate for the synthesis of abscisic acid and strigolactones. In addition to their protective role as antioxidants and precursors of vitamin A, in wheat carotenoids are important as they influence the colour (whiteness vs. yellowness) of the grain. Understanding the genetic basis of grain yellow pigments, and identifying associated markers provide the basis for improving wheat quality by molecular breeding. Twenty-four candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis and catabolism of carotenoid compounds have been identified in wheat by comparative genomics. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in the coding sequences of 19 candidate genes allowed their chromosomal location and accurate map position on two reference consensus maps to be determined. The genome-wide association study based on genotyping a tetraploid wheat collection with 81,587 gene-associated SNPs validated quantitative trait loci (QTLs) previously detected in biparental populations and discovered new QTLs for grain colour-related traits. Ten carotenoid genes mapped in chromosome regions underlying pigment content QTLs indicating possible functional relationships between candidate genes and the trait. The availability of linked, candidate gene-based markers can facilitate breeding wheat cultivars with desirable levels of carotenoids. Identifying QTLs linked to carotenoid pigmentation can contribute to understanding genes underlying carotenoid accumulation in the wheat kernels. Together these outputs can be combined to exploit the genetic variability of colour-related traits for the nutritional and commercial improvement of wheat products.

  10. Plant regeneration of natural tetraploid Trifolium  Hum pratense L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HATICE ÇÖLGEÇEN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of natural tetraploid T. pratense, originated from Erzurum-Turkey, is reported in this study. This plant has low seed setting and hard seed problems due to polyploidy. Hypocotyl, cotyledon, apical meristems, epicotyl and young primary leaves were inoculated on MS and PC-L2 media containing different concentrations of BAP and NAA as growth regulators. The best shoot formation has been observed on explants initiated from apical meristem placed on PC-L2 medium that includes 2 mg dm-3 BAP and 1 mg dm-3 NAA. 94.4% of the shoots originated from calli were rooted on PC-L2 medium with 1 mg dm-3 NAA. In vitro organogénesis has been accomplished in the natural tetraploid T. pratense regenerated plants successively transferred to the field

  11. Meiosis in radiation induced triploid and tetraploid plants of pearl millet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.B.; Singh, B.D.; Singh, R.M.; Laxmi, V.

    1977-01-01

    A triploid and a tetraploid plant were isolated from mutagen treated populations of HB3 (Tif23AxJ104) and HBI (Tif23AxBi13B) hybrid pearl millet, respectively. The triploid plant regularly showed univalents (1 to 9 per cell) and trivalents (1 to 6 per cell) at MI. In the case of the tetraploid, only bivalents were observed which showed loose or tight secondary associations at MI; at AI bivalents separated as units (instead of chromosomes) while at AII chromosomes (instead of chromatids) moved to the opposite poles. Although the chromosome behaviour was quite regular, the plant was highly sterile (98%). It is suggested that gamma-rays had induced mutations in a number of genes, including those affecting pairing, concomitant to the induction of tetraploidy. (auth.)

  12. Comparison of spermatozoa parameters, fine structures, and energy-related factors among tetraploid, hyper-tetraploid, and hyper-triploid loaches (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Saito, Taiju; Pšenička, Martin; Fujimoto, Takafumi; Arai, Katsutoshi

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of ploidy elevation and aneuploidy on spermatozoa in the loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, we investigated some parameters (motility, concentration, and viability), fine structures (gross morphology, head size, and flagellum length), and energy-related biochemical factors (volume of mitochondrial mass per cell and ATP content) in diploid, hyper-diploid, and hexaploid-range spermatozoa produced in natural tetraploid, hyper-tetraploid, and hyper-triploid male loaches, respectively. Diploid spermatozoa exhibited vigorous movement and sufficient duration of motility similar to those in haploid spermatozoa. They had longer flagella, higher numbers and larger volume of mitochondria, and higher ATP content than haploid spermatozoa of wild-type diploids. No differences were observed in parameters and morphological characteristics between diploid and hyper-diploid spermatozoa. In contrast, the hexaploid-range spermatozoa of hyper-triploid males exhibited poor progressive motility in spite of a higher ATP content of spermatozoa. Spermatozoa with no flagella (36.0%) or multiple flagella (18.6%) were also observed in hyper-triploids. Ratios of head to flagellum length in hexaploid-range spermatozoa were significantly different from those of haploid spermatozoa. In addition to the normal 9+2 microtubule structure of the flagellum, an abnormal 9+1 microtubule structure was also observed in the spermatozoa of hyper-triploids. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Radiation induced sterility in a diploid and a tetraploid species of Physalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Roy, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    Biological damage sensu cytogenetical alterations was systematically scored in a diploid (P. ixocarpa), and a tetraploid (P. peruviana) species of Physalis after different doses of gamma-irradiation and evaluated on the parameters of pollen and plant sterility. There was a gradual reduction in the survival of seedlings which was realized more in P. ixocarpa than in P. peruviana. The meiotic abnormalities affected normal pollen formation, thereby contributing to pollen sterility and concomitantly to plant sterility. The sterility of pollen and plant were interconnected and related with the employed radiation doses in M 1 and M 2 generation. But their frequencies were fewer in M 2 than M 1 . The overall response of the two species to any particular dose of radiation was different, but the interesting point that emerged is that the meiotic abnormalities and pollen sterility were greater in tetraploid species, whereas plant sterility was more in the diploid. Significance of these observations have been discussed. An overall assessment was that the diploid species is more radiosensitive than the tetraploid one. (author)

  14. Induction of Tetraploid Male Sterile Tagetes erecta by Colchicine Treatment and Its Application for Interspecific Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong He

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tagetes erecta is an annual multifunctional plant which can be cultivated under a broad range of climatic conditions. Polyploidization and interspecific hybridization are applied to facilitate breeding cultivars of T. erecta with improved ornamental qualities. Colchicine treatment to the germinating seeds was proved to be a useful tool for chromosome doubling of the male sterile two-type line ‘M525AB’, with the resulting frequency of polyploid seedlings ranging from 88.89% (following 0.05% w/v colchicine applied for a 3–6 h exposure period to a maximum of 100.00% (following 0.1% for 3–6 h, or 0.2% for 3 h. Morphological observation, stomatal size and density analysis, flow cytometric analysis and chromosome counting were conducted to identify the tetraploid plants. Distinctive morphological changes were observed in a notable proportion of polyploid plants. The colchicine-treated polyploid T. erecta plants showed dwarfed and more robust growth, thicker, larger and greener leaves, larger inflorescences and florets. The mutant plants identified through morphological observation all aligned as polyploid plants, thus morphological observation could be an effective method for the detection of polyploidy. The polyploid plants had significant larger stomata size over the abaxial leaf surface, whereas the density of stomata distribution was remarkably reduced. The survival rate of tetraploid cuttings (i.e. 38% was greatly reduced compared to that of diploid plants. The fertility of tetraploid plants was also decreased, as shown by cross-pollination yields. Interspecific hybridizations between colchicine-induced tetraploid plants of a male sterile T. erecta line and the naturally tetraploid fully fertile Tagetes patula species resulted in hybrid progeny. Most of these hybrids displayed the dwarfed growth stature and compact, larger-flower morphology which is the typical ideotype of herbaceous flowers. Thus, polyploidization may be employed

  15. Improved wheat for baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridi, H; Finley, J W

    1989-01-01

    To bakers, wheat quality means the performance characteristics of the flour milled from the wheat when used in specific wheat products. The tremendous increase in the number of wheat cultivars grown in the U.S. in recent years, along with the unusual climate, new advances in milling technology, and increased automation of baking lines, have resulted in bakery production problems partly attributed to wheat flour quality. In this review various factors affecting wheat quality are explained. Concerns of bread and cookie/cracker manufacturers on deterioration of the wheat quality are discussed, and, finally, some solutions are proposed.

  16. Pareidolia in Neuroendocrinology: A Pituitary Macroadenoma Resembling "Big Bird".

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Herder, Wouter W

    2016-04-01

    The MRI picture of a pituitary macroadenoma with supra- and perisellar expansion resembled a famous character from a children's television series demonstrating that pareidolia is also observed in neuro-endocrinology and -radiology.

  17. Stability in chromosome number and DNA content in synthetic tetraploids of Lolium multiflorum after two generations of selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselaine Cristina Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Chromosome doubling of Italian ryegrass genotypes ( Lolium multiflorum Lam. adapted to the brazilian edaphoclimatic conditions is an important strategy used by breeders and aims to obtain more vigorous genotypes with better forage quality and disease resistance. The effectiveness of chromosome doubling can be measured by genetic stability and fertility rates of plants over generations. However, a common problem in the polyploidization process is the regeneration of mixoploid plants that have impaired fertility and genetic stability. The objective of this study was to verify if progenies of recently tetraploidized plants remain stable regarding DNA content and chromosome number, over two generations. Progenies of L. multiflorum plants artificially tetraploidized with colchicine treatment were evaluated. Chromosome counting and estimates of the DNA content were used to evaluate the genetic stability. The percentage of tetraploid plants (4X increased over generations (18%, 34% and 91% in cycle 0, 1 and 2, respectively. All progenies identified as tetraploid by flow citometry showed variation in chromosome number (mixoploidy, but produced viable seeds. Results showed that stabilization in chromosome number and DNA content in tetraploidized plant progenies requires time and that the success of this procedure depends on a continuous and accurate screening and selection.

  18. Characterization of Tetraploid Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer-Derived Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Hyuk; Lee, Jeoung-Eun; Eum, Jin Hee; Chung, Young Gie; Lee, Hoon Taek; Lee, Dong Ryul

    2017-12-01

    Polyploidy is occurred by the process of endomitosis or cell fusion and usually represent terminally differentiated stage. Their effects on the developmental process were mainly investigated in the amphibian and fishes, and only observed in some rodents as mammalian model. Recently, we have established tetraploidy somatic cell nuclear transfer-derived human embryonic stem cells (SCNT-hESCs) and examined whether it could be available as a research model for the polyploidy cells existed in the human tissues. Two tetraploid hESC lines were artificially acquired by reintroduction of remained 1st polar body during the establishment of SCNT-hESC using MII oocytes obtained from female donors and dermal fibroblasts (DFB) from a 35-year-old adult male. These tetraploid SCNT-hESC lines (CHA-NT1 and CHA-NT3) were identified by the cytogenetic genotyping (91, XXXY,-6, t[2:6] / 92,XXXY,-12,+20) and have shown of indefinite proliferation, but slow speed when compared to euploid SCNT-hESCs. Using the eight Short Tendem Repeat (STR) markers, it was confirmed that both CHA-NT1 and CHA-NT3 lines contain both nuclear and oocyte donor genotypes. These hESCs expressed pluripotency markers and their embryoid bodies (EB) also expressed markers of the three embryonic germ layers and formed teratoma after transplantation into immune deficient mice. This study showed that tetraploidy does not affect the activities of proliferation and differentiation in SCNT-hESC. Therefore, tetraploid hESC lines established after SCNT procedure could be differentiated into various types of cells and could be an useful model for the study of the polyploidy cells in the tissues.

  19. Genomic prediction of starch content and chipping quality in tetraploid potato using genotyping-by-sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrisdóttir, Elsa; Byrne, Stephen; Nielsen, Ea Høegh Riis

    2017-01-01

    continue to fall. In this study, we have generated genomic prediction models for starch content and chipping quality in tetraploid potato to facilitate varietal development. Chipping quality was evaluated as the colour of a potato chip after frying following cold induced sweetening. We used genotyping...... genomic estimated breeding values. Cross-validated prediction correlations of 0.56 and 0.73 were obtained within the training population for starch content and chipping quality, respectively, while correlations were lower when predicting performance in the test panel, at 0.30–0.31 and 0...

  20. Harnessing Genetic Diversity of Wild Gene Pools to Enhance Wheat Crop Production and Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Ceoloni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild species are extremely rich resources of useful genes not available in the cultivated gene pool. For species providing staple food to mankind, such as the cultivated Triticum species, including hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 6x and tetraploid durum wheat (T. durum, 4x, widening the genetic base is a priority and primary target to cope with the many challenges that the crop has to face. These include recent climate changes, as well as actual and projected demographic growth, contrasting with reduction of arable land and water reserves. All of these environmental and societal modifications pose major constraints to the required production increase in the wheat crop. A sustainable approach to address this task implies resorting to non-conventional breeding strategies, such as “chromosome engineering”. This is based on cytogenetic methodologies, which ultimately allow for the incorporation into wheat chromosomes of targeted, and ideally small, chromosomal segments from the genome of wild relatives, containing the gene(s of interest. Chromosome engineering has been successfully applied to introduce into wheat genes/QTL for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, quality attributes, and even yield-related traits. In recent years, a substantial upsurge in effective alien gene exploitation for wheat improvement has come from modern technologies, including use of molecular markers, molecular cytogenetic techniques, and sequencing, which have greatly expanded our knowledge and ability to finely manipulate wheat and alien genomes. Examples will be provided of various types of stable introgressions, including pyramiding of different alien genes/QTL, into the background of bread and durum wheat genotypes, representing valuable materials for both species to respond to the needed novelty in current and future breeding programs. Challenging contexts, such as that inherent to the 4x nature of durum wheat when compared to 6x bread wheat, or

  1. Assessment of genetic diversity among Syrian durum (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achtar, S; Moualla, M Y; Kalhout, A; Röder, M S; MirAli, N

    2010-11-01

    Genetic diversity among 49 wheat varieties (37 durum and 12 bread wheat) was assayed using 32 microsatellites representing 34 loci covering almost the whole wheat genome. The polymorphic information content (PIC) across the tested loci ranged from 0 to 0.88 with average values of 0.57 and 0.65 for durum and bread wheat respectively. B genome had the highest mean number of alleles (10.91) followed by A genome (8.3) whereas D genome had the lowest number (4.73). The correlation between PIC and allele number was significant in all genome groups accounting for 0.87, 074 and 0.84 for A, B and D genomes respectively, and over all genomes, the correlation was higher in tetraploid (0.8) than in hexaploid wheat varieties (0.5). The cluster analysis discriminated all varieties and clearly divided the two ploidy levels into two separate clusters that reflect the differences in genetic diversity within each cluster. This study demonstrates that microsatellites markers have unique advantages compared to other molecular and biochemical fingerprinting techniques in revealing the genetic diversity in Syrian wheat varieties that is crucial for wheat improvement.

  2. Comparing genome guided assembly and phased variants based assembly approach to separate the homoeolog transcripts in tetraploid peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homoeologous copies of transcripts are abundant in many self-pollinating species including tetraploid peanut, and can impose a challenge to build a transcriptome reference without the merging of homoeologs. De novo transcriptome assembly of tetraploid OLin with single kmer and multiple kmer approach...

  3. Genetic analysis and hybrid vigor study of grain yield and other quantitative traits in auto tetraploid rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.Q.; Xiong, C.Z.; Juan, L.Y.; Ming, X.H.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic analysis and genotype-by-environment interaction for important traits of auto tetraploid rice were evaluated by additive, dominance and additive X additive model. It was show n that genetic effects had more influence on grain yield and other quantitative traits of auto tetraploid rice than genotypic environment interaction. Plant height, panicle length, seed set , grain yield, dry matter production and 1000-grain weight we re mainly regulated by dominance variance. Additive and additive X additive gene action constructed the main proportion of genetic variance for heading date (flowering), number of panicles, grains per panicle, grain length, however grain width was supposed to be affected by additive X additive and dominance variance. Flag leaf length and width, fresh weight, peduncle length, unfilled grains and awn length were greatly influenced by genotypic environment interaction. Heading date produced highly negative heterosis over mid parent (H pm) and better parent ( H pb), whereas H pm and H pb were detected to be highly positive and significant for grain yield, seed set, peduncle length, filled grains and 1000-grain weight in F/sub 1/ and F/sub 2/ generations. The results indicated that auto tetraploid hybrids 96025 X Jackson (indica/japonica), 96025 X Linglun (indica/indica) and Linglun X Jackson (indica/japonica) showed highly significant hybrid vigor with improved seed set percentage and grain yield. These results suggest that intra-specific auto tetraploid rice hybrids have more hybrid vigor as compared to intra-sub specific auto tetraploid rice hybrids and auto tetraploid rice has the potential to be used for further studies and commercial application. (author)

  4. Completely ES cell-derived mice produced by tetraploid complementation using inner cell mass (ICM deficient blastocysts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duancheng Wen

    Full Text Available Tetraploid complementation is often used to produce mice from embryonic stem cells (ESCs by injection of diploid (2n ESCs into tetraploid (4n blastocysts (ESC-derived mice. This method has also been adapted to mouse cloning and the derivation of mice from induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells. However, the underlying mechanism(s of the tetraploid complementation remains largely unclear. Whether this approach can give rise to completely ES cell-derived mice is an open question, and has not yet been unambiguously proven. Here, we show that mouse tetraploid blastocysts can be classified into two groups, according to the presence or absence of an inner cell mass (ICM. We designate these as type a (presence of ICM at blastocyst stage or type b (absence of ICM. ESC lines were readily derived from type a blastocysts, suggesting that these embryos retain a pluripotent epiblast compartment; whereas the type b blastocysts possessed very low potential to give rise to ESC lines, suggesting that they had lost the pluripotent epiblast. When the type a blastocysts were used for tetraploid complementation, some of the resulting mice were found to be 2n/4n chimeric; whereas when type b blastocysts were used as hosts, the resulting mice are all completely ES cell-derived, with the newborn pups displaying a high frequency of abdominal hernias. Our results demonstrate that completely ES cell-derived mice can be produced using ICM-deficient 4n blastocysts, and provide evidence that the exclusion of tetraploid cells from the fetus in 2n/4n chimeras can largely be attributed to the formation of ICM-deficient blastocysts.

  5. REARRANGEMENT IN THE B-GENOME FROM DIPLOID PROGENITOR TO WHEAT ALLOPOLYPOLID

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    Salina E.A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Three key periods that were accompanied by considerable rearrangements in the B genome of wheat and its progenitor can be considered. The first period covers the period from the divergence of diploid Triticum and Aegilops species from their common progenitor (2.5–6 million years ago to formation of the tetraploid T. diccocoides (about 500 thousand years ago. Significant genomic rearrangements in the diploid progenitor of the B genome, Ae. speltoides (SS genome, involved a considerable amplification of repeated DNA sequences, which led to an increase in the number of heterochromatin blocks on chromosomes relative to other diploid Aegilops and Triticum species. Our analysis has demonstrated that during this period the Spelt1 repeats intensively amplified as well as several mobile elements proliferated, in particular, the genome-specific gypsy LTR-retrotransposon Fatima and CACTA DNA-transposon Caspar. The second period in the B-genome evolution was associated with the emergence of tetraploid (BBAA genome and its subsequent evolution. The third most important event leading to the next rearrangement of the B genome took place relatively recently, 7000–9500 years ago, being associated with the emergence of hexaploid wheat with the genomic formula BBAADD. The evolution of the B/S genome involved intergenomic and intragenomic translocations and chromosome inversions. So far, five rearrangements in the B-genome chromosomes of polyploid wheats has been observed and described; the majority of them took place during the formation and evolution of tetraploid species. The mapping of the S-genome chromosomes and comparison with the B-genome chromosome maps have demonstrated that individual rearrangements pre-existed in Ae. speltoides; moreover, Ae. speltoides is polymorphic for these rearrangements.Chromosome 5B is nearly 870 Mbp (5BL = 580 Mbp and 5BS = 290 Mbp and is known to carry important genes controlling the key aspects of wheat biology, in

  6. Mixoploidía Diploide - Tetraploide: Primer Reporte en Nuestro Medio

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    Héctor Pimentel Benítez

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de mixoploidía diploide-tetraploide, con ligeros signos clínicos pertenecientes a esta condición de la poliploidía en humanos. Estudios citogenéticos a partir de cultivos de sangre periférica y fibroblastos de piel permitieron establecer la fórmula cromosómica 46,XX/92XXXX en la paciente. Se realiza correlación fenotipocariotipo, así como su presentación clínica. Este estudio de casos ayuda a enriquecer el conocimiento sobre esta condición, contribuye a su mejor diagnóstico y a dilucidar la etiología de síndromes malformativos inespecíficos.A case of diploid-tetraploid mixoploidy with mild clinical signs correspondoing to this condition of polyploidy in humans is presented. Cytogenetic studies based on cultures of peripheral blood and fibroblasts of skin allowed to obtain the 46,XX/92XXXX chromosomic formula in the patient. The phenotype-kariotype correlation was stablished and its clinical presentation was made. This study of cases helps to improve the knowledge about this condition, and it also contributes to have a better diagnosis and to dilucidate the etiology of unspecific syndromes of malformation.

  7. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SUCROSE SYNTHASE 2 GENE (Sus2 IN DURUM WHEAT

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    Mariateresa eVolpicella

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose transport is the central system for the allocation of carbon resources in vascular plants. Sucrose synthase, which reversibly catalyzes sucrose synthesis and cleavage, represents a key enzyme in the control of the flow of carbon into starch biosynthesis. In the present study the genomic identification and characterization of the Sus2-2A and Sus2-2B genes coding for sucrose synthase in durum wheat (cultivars Ciccio and Svevo is reported. The genes were analyzed for their expression in different tissues and at different seed maturation stages, in four tetraploid wheat genotypes (Svevo, Ciccio, Primadur and 5-BIL42. The activity of the encoded proteins was evaluated by specific activity assays on endosperm extracts and their structure established by modelling approaches. The combined results of SUS2 expression and activity levels were then considered in the light of their possible involvement in starch yield.

  8. Evolution and Adaptation of Wild Emmer Wheat Populations to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Raats, Dina; Sela, Hanan; Klymiuk, Valentina; Lidzbarsky, Gabriel; Feng, Lihua; Krugman, Tamar; Fahima, Tzion

    2016-08-04

    The genetic bottlenecks associated with plant domestication and subsequent selection in man-made agroecosystems have limited the genetic diversity of modern crops and increased their vulnerability to environmental stresses. Wild emmer wheat, the tetraploid progenitor of domesticated wheat, distributed along a wide range of ecogeographical conditions in the Fertile Crescent, has valuable "left behind" adaptive diversity to multiple diseases and environmental stresses. The biotic and abiotic stress responses are conferred by series of genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control complex resistance pathways. The study of genetic diversity, genomic organization, expression profiles, protein structure and function of biotic and abiotic stress-resistance genes, and QTLs could shed light on the evolutionary history and adaptation mechanisms of wild emmer populations for their natural habitats. The continuous evolution and adaptation of wild emmer to the changing environment provide novel solutions that can contribute to safeguarding food for the rapidly growing human population.

  9. The challenge of unravelling family resemblance related to illness behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardol, M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Dijk, L. van; Bosch, W. van den; Bakker, D.H. de

    2005-01-01

    Background: Efforts to promote health or prevent disease may conflict with patients’ habits at home. Irrespective of the national setting, families are important social contexts in which illness occurs and resolves. Family members resemble each other in their illness behaviour, even across

  10. Familial Resemblance in Dietary Intakes of Children, Adolescents, and Parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogl, Leonie H.; Silventoinen, Karri; Hebestreit, Antje

    2017-01-01

    Information on familial resemblance is important for the design of effective family-based interventions. We aimed to quantify familial correlations and estimate the proportion of variation attributable to genetic and shared environmental effects (i.e., familiality) for dietary intake variables an...

  11. Molecular basis of adaptation to high soil boron in wheat landraces and elite cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallotta, Margaret; Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Hayes, Julie; Hay, Alison; Baumann, Ute; Paull, Jeff; Langridge, Peter; Sutton, Tim

    2014-10-02

    Environmental constraints severely restrict crop yields in most production environments, and expanding the use of variation will underpin future progress in breeding. In semi-arid environments boron toxicity constrains productivity, and genetic improvement is the only effective strategy for addressing the problem. Wheat breeders have sought and used available genetic diversity from landraces to maintain yield in these environments; however, the identity of the genes at the major tolerance loci was unknown. Here we describe the identification of near-identical, root-specific boron transporter genes underlying the two major-effect quantitative trait loci for boron tolerance in wheat, Bo1 and Bo4 (ref. 2). We show that tolerance to a high concentration of boron is associated with multiple genomic changes including tetraploid introgression, dispersed gene duplication, and variation in gene structure and transcript level. An allelic series was identified from a panel of bread and durum wheat cultivars and landraces originating from diverse agronomic zones. Our results demonstrate that, during selection, breeders have matched functionally different boron tolerance alleles to specific environments. The characterization of boron tolerance in wheat illustrates the power of the new wheat genomic resources to define key adaptive processes that have underpinned crop improvement.

  12. Breeding bread wheat cultivars for high protein content by transfer of protein genes from Triticum dicoccoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grama, A.; Gerechter-Amitai, Z.K.; Blum, A.; Rubenthaler, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    Triticum dicoccoides sel. G-25, a selection of wild emmer with a protein content of 20.5% and a kernel weight of 31.5 mg, was used as the donor of protein genes. Since this selection is highly resistant to stripe rust, the object of the crossing programme was to transfer this resistance, together with the high protein potential, to durum and bread wheat cultivars susceptible to the disease. In the tetraploid lines obtained from the T. dicoccoides/T. durum cross, the protein values ranged from 17 to 22%. These lines had resistance to stripe rust from the wild emmer and to stem rust from the durum. After two further crosses between these tetraploid lines and T. aestivum cultivars, several lines were selected which combined good yield, high protein level and resistance to rust diseases. These lines attained protein levels of 14 to 19% in the whole grain and 14 to 17% in the flour, combined with yields of 4.5 to 6.0 t/ha. They had also inherited resistance to stem rust, and in some instances also to leaf rust, from the cultivated wheat parental lines. (author)

  13. The Lr34 adult plant rust resistance gene provides seedling resistance in durum wheat without senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldo, Amy; Gilbert, Brian; Boni, Rainer; Krattinger, Simon G; Singh, Davinder; Park, Robert F; Lagudah, Evans; Ayliffe, Michael

    2017-07-01

    The hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) adult plant resistance gene, Lr34/Yr18/Sr57/Pm38/Ltn1, provides broad-spectrum resistance to wheat leaf rust (Lr34), stripe rust (Yr18), stem rust (Sr57) and powdery mildew (Pm38) pathogens, and has remained effective in wheat crops for many decades. The partial resistance provided by this gene is only apparent in adult plants and not effective in field-grown seedlings. Lr34 also causes leaf tip necrosis (Ltn1) in mature adult plant leaves when grown under field conditions. This D genome-encoded bread wheat gene was transferred to tetraploid durum wheat (T. turgidum) cultivar Stewart by transformation. Transgenic durum lines were produced with elevated gene expression levels when compared with the endogenous hexaploid gene. Unlike nontransgenic hexaploid and durum control lines, these transgenic plants showed robust seedling resistance to pathogens causing wheat leaf rust, stripe rust and powdery mildew disease. The effectiveness of seedling resistance against each pathogen correlated with the level of transgene expression. No evidence of accelerated leaf necrosis or up-regulation of senescence gene markers was apparent in these seedlings, suggesting senescence is not required for Lr34 resistance, although leaf tip necrosis occurred in mature plant flag leaves. Several abiotic stress-response genes were up-regulated in these seedlings in the absence of rust infection as previously observed in adult plant flag leaves of hexaploid wheat. Increasing day length significantly increased Lr34 seedling resistance. These data demonstrate that expression of a highly durable, broad-spectrum adult plant resistance gene can be modified to provide seedling resistance in durum wheat. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Changes in the endopolyploidy pattern of different tissues in diploid and tetraploid Phalaenopsis aphrodite subsp. formosana (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Huei; Tang, Ching-Yan; Lin, Tsai-Yun; Weng, Yuan-Chen; Kao, Yu-Lin

    2011-07-01

    Endopolyploidy is frequently observed during development in plant species. Patterns of endopolyploidy are diverse in the various organs of different plant species. However, little is known about the role of endopolyploidization and its significance in orchids. This study was undertaken to determine the extent of endopolyploidy in different tissues of the diploid and tetraploid genotypes of Phalaenopsis aphrodite subsp. formosana and to examine the factors that contribute to increased ploidy levels. Endopolyploidy occurs in various tissues of diploid and tetraploid orchids, at different developmental stages and under different culture conditions, as determined by flow cytometry. In this study, different patterns of endopolyploidy were observed in parts of the protocorms, leaves, roots and flowers. Endopolyploidy was found in all tissues studied except the pollinia and the tetraploid ovaries. A higher degree of endopolyploidy was observed in mature tissues compared to young tissues, greenhouse-grown plants compared to in vitro plants and diploid plants compared to tetraploid plants. We discuss the relationships between endopolyploidization and several factors related to plant growth, as well as some practical considerations of these findings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Two major groups of chloroplast DNA haplotypes in diploid and tetraploid Aconitum subgen. Aconitum (Ranunculaceae in the Carpathians

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    J. Mitka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum in Europe is represented by ca. 10% of the total number of species and the Carpathian Mts. are the center of the genus variability in the subcontinent. We studied the chloroplast DNA intergenic spacer trnL(UAG-rpl32- ndhF (cpDNA variability of the Aconitum subgen. Aconitum in the Carpathians: diploids (2n=16, sect. Cammarum, tetraploids (2n=32, sect. Aconitum and triploids (2n=24, nothosect. Acomarum. Altogether 25 Aconitum accessions representing the whole taxonomic variability of the subgenus were sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Both parsimony, Bayesian and character network analyses showed the two distinct types of the cpDNA chloroplast, one typical of the diploid and the second of the tetraploid groups. Some specimens had identical cpDNA sequences (haplotypes and scattered across the whole mountain arch. In the sect. Aconitum 9 specimens shared one haplotype, while in the sect. Camarum one haplotype represents 4 accessions and the second – 5 accessions. The diploids and tetraploids were diverged by 6 mutations, while the intrasectional variability amounted maximally to 3 polymorphisms. Taking into consideration different types of cpDNA haplotypes and ecological profiles of the sections (tetraploids – high‑mountain species, diploids – species from forest montane belt we speculate on the different and independent history of the sections in the Carpathians.

  16. RESEMBLANCE OF INDIRECTNESS IN POLITENESS OF EFL LEARNERS’ REQUEST REALIZATIONS

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    Indawan Syahri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Politeness principles are universally utilized by the speakers of any language when realizing various speech acts. However, the speakers of particular languages relatively apply politeness due to the cultural norms embedded. The present study attempts to delineate how the Indonesian learners of English (ILE apply the politeness principles in request realizations. Specifically it devotes to the types of politeness strategies applied and resemblance of the indirectness in politeness strategies in requesting acts. The FTAs and indirectness are the theoretical bases used to trace the typologies of both politeness and request strategies. The data werere collected by means of certain elicitation techniques, i.e. DCTs and Role-plays. The analyses werere done through three stages; determining request strategies, politeness strategies, and resemblance of indirectness in politeness. The results show that the indirectness generally is parallel to politeness. Besides, some pragmatic transfers are found in terms of applying native-culture norms in realizing target speech acts.

  17. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide Resembling Impetigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changhyun; Craiglow, Brittany G; Watsky, Kalman L; Antaya, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with recurring severe dermatitis of the face of 5-months duration that resembled impetigo. He had been treated with several courses of antibiotics without improvement. Biopsy showed changes consistent with allergic contact dermatitis and patch testing later revealed sensitization to benzoyl peroxide, which the patient had been using for the treatment of acne vulgaris. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Detecting analogical resemblance without retrieving the source analogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, Bogdan; Cleary, Anne M; Severin, Kaye; Miller, Samuel W

    2010-06-01

    We examined whether people can detect analogical resemblance to an earlier experimental episode without being able to recall the experimental source of the analogical resemblance. We used four-word analogies (e.g., robin-nest/beaver-dam), in a variation of the recognition-without-cued-recall method (Cleary, 2004). Participants studied word pairs (e.g., robin-nest) and were shown new word pairs at test, half of which analogically related to studied word pairs (e.g., beaver-dam) and half of which did not. For each test pair, participants first attempted to recall an analogically similar pair from the study list. Then, regardless of whether successful recall occurred, participants were prompted to rate the familiarity of the test pair, which was said to indicate the likelihood that a pair that was analogically similar to the test pair had been studied. Across three experiments, participants demonstrated an ability to detect analogical resemblance without recalling the source analogy. Findings are discussed in terms of their potential relevance to the study of analogical reasoning and insight, as well as to the study of familiarity and recognition memory.

  19. Starch facilitates enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardt, N.A.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Wheat gluten can be hydrolyzed by either using (vital) wheat gluten or directly from wheat flour. This study investigates the influence of the presence of starch, the main component of wheat, on enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis. Wheat gluten present in wheat flour (WFG) and vital wheat gluten (VWG)

  20. Chk1 inhibition activates p53 through p38 MAPK in tetraploid cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Ilio; Senovilla, Laura; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Criollo, Alfredo; Vivet, Sonia; Castedo, Maria; Kroemer, Guido

    2008-07-01

    We have previously shown that tetraploid cancer cells succumb through a p53-dependent apoptotic pathway when checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is depleted by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or inhibited with 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01). Here, we demonstrate that Chk1 inhibition results in the activating phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK). Depletion of p38 MAPK by transfection with a siRNA targeting the alpha isoform of p38 MAPK (p38alpha MAPK) abolishes the phosphorylation of p53 on serines 15 and 46 that is induced by Chk1 knockdown. The siRNA-mediated downregulation and pharmacological inhibition of p38alpha MAPK (with SB 203580) also reduces cell death induced by Chk1 knockdown or UCN-01. These results underscore the role of p38 MAPK as a pro-apoptotic kinase in the p53-dependant pathway for the therapeutic elimination of polyploidy cells.

  1. Generation of single-copy transgenic mouse embryos directly from ES cells by tetraploid embryo complementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Roong

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transgenic mice have been used extensively to analyze gene function. Unfortunately, traditional transgenic procedures have only limited use in analyzing alleles that cause lethality because lines of founder mice cannot be established. This is frustrating given that such alleles often reveal crucial aspects of gene function. For this reason techniques that facilitate the generation of embryos expressing such alleles would be of enormous benefit. Although the transient generation of transgenic embryos has allowed limited analysis of lethal alleles, it is expensive, time consuming and technically challenging. Moreover a fundamental limitation with this approach is that each embryo generated is unique and transgene expression is highly variable due to the integration of different transgene copy numbers at random genomic sites. Results Here we describe an alternative method that allows the generation of clonal mouse embryos harboring a single-copy transgene at a defined genomic location. This was facilitated through the production of Hprt negative embryonic stem cells that allow the derivation of embryos by tetraploid embryo complementation. We show that targeting transgenes to the hprt locus in these ES cells by homologous recombination can be efficiently selected by growth in HAT medium. Moreover, embryos derived solely from targeted ES cells containing a single copy LacZ transgene under the control of the α-myosin heavy chain promoter exhibited the expected cardiac specific expression pattern. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that tetraploid embryo complementation by F3 hprt negative ES cells facilitates the generation of transgenic mouse embryos containing a single copy gene at a defined genomic locus. This approach is simple, extremely efficient and bypasses any requirement to generate chimeric mice. Moreover embryos generated by this procedure are clonal in that they are all derived from a single ES cell lines. This

  2. Validation of Genotyping-By-Sequencing Analysis in Populations of Tetraploid Alfalfa by 454 Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocher, Solen; Jean, Martine; Castonguay, Yves; Belzile, François

    2015-01-01

    Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) is a relatively low-cost high throughput genotyping technology based on next generation sequencing and is applicable to orphan species with no reference genome. A combination of genome complexity reduction and multiplexing with DNA barcoding provides a simple and affordable way to resolve allelic variation between plant samples or populations. GBS was performed on ApeKI libraries using DNA from 48 genotypes each of two heterogeneous populations of tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa spp. sativa): the synthetic cultivar Apica (ATF0) and a derived population (ATF5) obtained after five cycles of recurrent selection for superior tolerance to freezing (TF). Nearly 400 million reads were obtained from two lanes of an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer and analyzed with the Universal Network-Enabled Analysis Kit (UNEAK) pipeline designed for species with no reference genome. Following the application of whole dataset-level filters, 11,694 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci were obtained. About 60% had a significant match on the Medicago truncatula syntenic genome. The accuracy of allelic ratios and genotype calls based on GBS data was directly assessed using 454 sequencing on a subset of SNP loci scored in eight plant samples. Sequencing depth in this study was not sufficient for accurate tetraploid allelic dosage, but reliable genotype calls based on diploid allelic dosage were obtained when using additional quality filtering. Principal Component Analysis of SNP loci in plant samples revealed that a small proportion (<5%) of the genetic variability assessed by GBS is able to differentiate ATF0 and ATF5. Our results confirm that analysis of GBS data using UNEAK is a reliable approach for genome-wide discovery of SNP loci in outcrossed polyploids. PMID:26115486

  3. Prospects and Potential Uses of Genomic Prediction of Key Performance Traits in Tetraploid Potato

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    Benjamin Stich

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Genomic prediction is a routine tool in breeding programs of most major animal and plant species. However, its usefulness for potato breeding has not yet been evaluated in detail. The objectives of this study were to (i examine the prospects of genomic prediction of key performance traits in a diversity panel of tetraploid potato modeling additive, dominance, and epistatic effects, (ii investigate the effects of size and make up of training set, number of test environments and molecular markers on prediction accuracy, and (iii assess the effect of including markers from candidate genes on the prediction accuracy. With genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP, BayesA, BayesCπ, and Bayesian LASSO, four different prediction methods were used for genomic prediction of relative area under disease progress curve after a Phytophthora infestans infection, plant maturity, maturity corrected resistance, tuber starch content, tuber starch yield (TSY, and tuber yield (TY of 184 tetraploid potato clones or subsets thereof genotyped with the SolCAP 8.3k SNP array. The cross-validated prediction accuracies with GBLUP and the three Bayesian approaches for the six evaluated traits ranged from about 0.5 to about 0.8. For traits with a high expected genetic complexity, such as TSY and TY, we observed an 8% higher prediction accuracy using a model with additive and dominance effects compared with a model with additive effects only. Our results suggest that for oligogenic traits in general and when diagnostic markers are available in particular, the use of Bayesian methods for genomic prediction is highly recommended and that the diagnostic markers should be modeled as fixed effects. The evaluation of the relative performance of genomic prediction vs. phenotypic selection indicated that the former is superior, assuming cycle lengths and selection intensities that are possible to realize in commercial potato breeding programs.

  4. Cytogenetics and stripe rust resistance of wheat-Thinopyrum elongatum hybrid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daiyan; Long, Dan; Li, Tinghui; Wu, Yanli; Wang, Yi; Zeng, Jian; Xu, Lili; Fan, Xing; Sha, Lina; Zhang, Haiqin; Zhou, Yonghong; Kang, Houyang

    2018-01-01

    Amphidiploids generated by distant hybridization are commonly used as genetic bridge to transfer desirable genes from wild wheat species into cultivated wheat. This method is typically used to enhance the resistance of wheat to biotic or abiotic stresses, and to increase crop yield and quality. Tetraploid Thinopyrum elongatum exhibits strong adaptability, resistance to stripe rust and Fusarium head blight, and tolerance to salt, drought, and cold. In the present study, we produced hybrid derivatives by crossing and backcrossing the Triticum durum-Th. elongatum partial amphidiploid ( Trititrigia 8801, 2 n  = 6 ×  = 42, AABBEE) with wheat cultivars common to the Sichuan Basin. By means of cytogenetic and disease resistance analyses, we identified progeny harboring alien chromosomes and measured their resistance to stripe rust. Hybrid progenies possessed chromosome numbers ranging from 40 to 47 (mean = 42.72), with 40.0% possessing 42 chromosomes. Genomic in situ hybridization revealed that the number of alien chromosomes ranged from 1 to 11. Out of the 50 of analyzed lines, five represented chromosome addition (2 n  = 44 = 42 W + 2E) and other five were chromosome substitution lines (2 n  = 42 = 40 W + 2E). Importantly, a single chromosome derived from wheat- Th. elongatum intergenomic Robertsonian translocations chromosome was occurred in 12 lines. Compared with the wheat parental cultivars ('CN16' and 'SM482'), the majority (70%) of the derivative lines were highly resistant to strains of stripe rust pathogen known to be prevalent in China. The findings suggest that these hybrid-derivative lines with stripe rust resistance could potentially be used as germplasm sources for further wheat improvement.

  5. Wheat biotechnology: A minireview

    OpenAIRE

    Patnaik, Debasis; Khurana, Paramjit

    2001-01-01

    Due to the inherent difficulties associated with gene delivery into regenerable explants and recovery of plantlets with the introduced transgene, wheat was the last among cereals to be genetically transformed. This review attempts to summarize different efforts in the direction of achieving genetic transformation of wheat by various methods. Particle bombardment is the most widely employed procedure for the introduction of marker genes and also for the generation of transformed wheat with int...

  6. Morphological, physiological, cytological and phytochemical studies in diploid and colchicine-induced tetraploid plants of Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lin-Jiao; Sheng, Mao-Yin; Wen, Pei-Cai; Du, Jia-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Background Tartary buckwheat are very popular as an important functional food material and its cultivation is very widespread in our whole world, but there obviously lack works in the researches of genetic breeding for agricultural and medicinal utilization. The aim of this study is to obtain good germplasm resources for agricultural and medicinal use of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) by inducing the tetraploid plants. Results Four cultivars of F. tataricum, that is, Qianwei 2#, Jink...

  7. The gene dosage effect of the rad52 mutation on X-ray survival curves of tetraploid yeast strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, K.S.Y.

    1975-01-01

    The mutation rad52 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae confers sensitivity to X-rays. The gene dosage effect of this mutation on X-ray survival curves of tetraploid yeast strains is shown. With increasing number of rad52 alleles, both a decrease in the survival for a given dose and a decrease in the survival curve shoulder width are observed. The generation of such a family of survival curves using three different mathematical models is discussed

  8. Radiosensitivity, mutation and tetraploid induction in the gamma-ray-irradiated growing shoots in mulberry, Morus alba L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Koitsu

    1976-01-01

    The vigorously developing mulberry shoots on the 1 year old grafted trees of the variety Inchinose were separately exposed to 60 Co γ-ray of 6KR at 120 R/hr and 7.5 KR at 150 R/hr in early July, early August and early September. After the irradiation, all of the irradiated shoots developed axially buds with malformed narrow leaves, and after that, all plants subjected to the irradiation in September and 30% of the July irradiation group and 40% of the August irradiation group both with higher exposure ceased shoot development. This type of radiation damage was large for the plants with higher exposure as compared with those with lower one, and it was also severe for the plants irradiated in July in comparison with those in August. From the ceasing of shoot development the LD 50 value of 150 R/hr irradiation was estimated to be a little more than 7.5 KR. The frequencies of mutation and tetraploid in the grafts produced by the propagation of the axially buds below the leafless portion were high in the grafts with higher exposure than those with lower one, and also the frequencies were high in July irradiation in comparison with August irradiation. It was confirmed that the size of mutation or tetraploid sector was large in the shoots derived from the less advanced axially bud primordia at the time of irradiation than that from the advanced ones. All of tetraploids were the cytochimeras having diploid epidermises over tetraploid internal tissues. (Kobatake, H.)

  9. Bringing together evolution on serpentine and polyploidy: spatiotemporal history of the diploid-tetraploid complex of Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Kolář

    Full Text Available Polyploidization is one of the leading forces in the evolution of land plants, providing opportunities for instant speciation and rapid gain of evolutionary novelties. Highly selective conditions of serpentine environments act as an important evolutionary trigger that can be involved in various speciation processes. Whereas the significance of both edaphic speciation on serpentine and polyploidy is widely acknowledged in plant evolution, the links between polyploid evolution and serpentine differentiation have not yet been examined. To fill this gap, we investigated the evolutionary history of the perennial herb Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae, a diploid-tetraploid complex that exhibits an intriguing pattern of eco-geographic differentiation. Using plastid DNA sequencing and AFLP genotyping of 336 previously cytotyped individuals from 40 populations from central Europe, we unravelled the patterns of genetic variation among the cytotypes and the edaphic types. Diploids showed the highest levels of genetic differentiation, likely as a result of long term persistence of several lineages in ecologically distinct refugia and/or independent immigration. Recurrent polyploidization, recorded in one serpentine island, seems to have opened new possibilities for the local serpentine genotype. Unlike diploids, the serpentine tetraploids were able to escape from the serpentine refugium and spread further; this was also attributable to hybridization with the neighbouring non-serpentine tetraploid lineages. The spatiotemporal history of K. arvensis allows tracing the interplay of polyploid evolution and ecological divergence on serpentine, resulting in a complex evolutionary pattern. Isolated serpentine outcrops can act as evolutionary capacitors, preserving distinct karyological and genetic diversity. The serpentine lineages, however, may not represent evolutionary 'dead-ends' but rather dynamic systems with a potential to further influence the surrounding

  10. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the method...

  11. Ethnic food perspective of North Dakota Common Emmer Wheat and relevance for health benefits targeting type 2 diabetes

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    Ashish Christopher

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ancient grains with ethnic food origins are gaining renewed interest in contemporary food design due to its balanced nutritional profiles and health benefits. The “North Dakota Common Emmer Wheat” (Triticum dicoccum, a tetraploid species, had ethnic origins with German immigrants from Russia migrating to North Dakota in late 19th century. Targeting such grains with ethnic origins that are rich in fibers, amino acids, minerals, and other bioactive compounds has significant merit for advancing health benefits against emerging diet-linked chronic diseases. Based on this rationale, phenolic-linked antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of North Dakota Common Emmer Wheat was compared with those of other commercial wheat cultivars in order to integrate it into a health-targeted food design based on past ethnic food insights. Methods: Aqueous extracts of the North Dakota Common Emmer Wheat (with and without hull and two other commercial wheat varieties, Barlow and Coteau, were analyzed before and after milling. The total soluble phenolic content, phenolic acid profile, protein content, antioxidant activity, type 2 diabetes relevant α-amylase, and α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory activities were determined using in vitro assay models. Results: North Dakota Common Emmer Wheat with hull had highest total soluble phenolic content and associated antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties (before and after milling when compared to the other commercial wheat cultivars. Conclusion: Results indicated that North Dakota Common Emmer Wheat with hull can be integrated into a health-targeted contemporary food design as a part of dietary support against chronic hyperglycemia and oxidative stress associated with early stages type 2 diabetes. Keywords: Antioxidant, Enzyme inhibitors, Ethnic wheat, North Dakota Common Emmer, Phenolics, Type 2 diabetes

  12. Muscular dystrophy in a dog resembling human becker muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, A B; Abellonio, F; Pagano, T B; Esposito, I; Peirone, B; Papparella, S; Paciello, O

    2014-05-01

    A 3-year-old, male Labrador retriever dog was presented with clinical signs of progressive exercise intolerance, bilateral elbow extension, rigidity of the forelimbs, hindlimb flexion and kyphosis. Microscopical examination of muscle tissue showed marked variability in myofibre size, replacement of muscle with mature adipose tissue and degeneration/regeneration of muscle fibres, consistent with muscular dystrophy. Immunohistochemical examination for dystrophin showed markedly reduced labelling with monoclonal antibodies specific for the rod domain and the carboxy-terminal of dystrophin, while expression of β-sarcoglycan, γ-sarcoglycan and β-dystroglycan was normal. Immunoblotting revealed a truncated dystrophin protein of approximately 135 kDa. These findings supported a diagnosis of congenital canine muscular dystrophy resembling Becker muscular dystrophy in man. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neutrophilic dermatosis resembling pyoderma gangrenosum in a dog with polyarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardagí, M; Lloret, A; Fondati, A; Ferrer, L

    2007-04-01

    This report describes a case of neutrophilic dermatosis in a dog, with a number of clinical and pathological similarities to human pyoderma gangrenosum. A seven-year-old, female German shepherd dog with a history of non-erosive idiopathic polyarthritis was presented with severe facial swelling, bilateral erosivoulcerative lesions on the muzzle and multiple, eroded, dermal-subcutaneous nodules on the cranial trunk. Histopathological examination of skin biopsies revealed a necrotising neutrophilic dermatitis. No infectious agents could be detected using specific stains, immunohistochemistry, serology and bacterial aerobic, anaerobic or fungal cultures. A sterile neutrophilic dermatosis resembling human pyoderma gangrenosum was presumptively diagnosed, and the patient showed an excellent response to treatment with prednisone and ciclosporin.

  14. Induced mutations for disease resistance in wheat and field beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hak, T.M.; Kamel, A.H.

    1976-01-01

    Wheat disease in Egypt is reviewed and results of mutation breeding by γ irradiation for disease resistance in wheat and field beans are described. Wheat mutants of the variety Giza 155 resistant to leaf rust, Giza 156 resistant to both leaf and yellow rusts, and Tosson with a reasonable level of combined resistance to the three rusts in addition to mutants of the tetraploid variety Dakar 52 with a good level of stem and yellow rust resistance are required. Their seeds were subjected to 10, 15 and 20 krad. Of 3000-3700 M 2 plants from each variety and dosage, 22 plants from both Giza 155 and Giza 156, although susceptible, showed a lower level of disease development. In 1975, M 3 families of these selected plants and 6000 plants from bulked material were grown from each variety and dosage at two locations. Simultaneously, an additional population consisting of 3000 mutagen-treated seeds was grown to have a reasonable chance of detecting mutants; 2 heads from each plant were harvested. These will be grown next season (1976) to make a population of 25,000-30,000 M 2 plants and screened to composite cultures of specific rusts. Vicia faba seeds of field bean varieties Giza 1, Giza 2 and Rebaya 40, equally susceptible to rust and chocolate spot, were subjected to 3, 5 and 7 krad of 60 Co gamma radiation and 800 M 1 plants were grown in 1972 per variety and dose. Up to this later growing season (M 3 ) no resistance was detected in M 3 plank

  15. Herbage Production, Nutritive Value and Grazing Preference of Diploid and Tetraploid Perennial Ryegrass Cultivars (Lolium perenne L. Producción de Fitomasa, Calidad Nutritiva y Preferencia de Pastoreo de Cultivares Diploides y Tetraploides de Ballica Perenne (Lolium perenne L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A Balocchi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine, under the soil and climatic conditions of Southern Chile, the effect of the ploidy of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cultivars on herbage production, nutritive value, grazing preference and utilization of pasture produced. This study was conducted in southern Chile, Valdivia Province, and was evaluated for 3 years. The tetraploid cultivars used were Quartet (4n, Gwendal (4n, Pastoral (4n and Napoleon (4n. The diploid cultivars were Anita (2n, Jumbo (2n, Aries (2n, and Yatsyn 1 (2n.When the average sward height reached 20 cm, all plots were simultaneously grazed by dairy cows for a period of 24 h. Before and after grazing, sward height, dry matter availability and nutritive value were evaluated. Grazing preference was visually assessed every 5 min for a period of 2.5 h after the afternoon milking. During the 3-year period 20 grazing events were evaluated. A randomized complete block design, with eight cultivars and three replicates, was used. Diploid cultivars showed greater herbage mass accumulation than tetraploid cultivars (P ≤ 0.05. No significant differences were obtained in the annual average crude protein content. Nevertheless, tetraploid cultivars showed a greater D value than diploid cultivars, except during the third year when the difference was not statistically significant. Dairy cows grazed more time on tetraploid cultivars. Considering, additionally, the residual herbage mass after grazing and the percentage of pasture utilization, diploid cultivars were less intensively grazed, suggesting a lower consumption by the cows.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar, bajo las condiciones edafoclimáticas del sur de Chile, el efecto de la ploidía de cultivares de ballica perenne (Lolium perenne L. sobre el rendimiento de fitomasa, calidad nutricional, preferencia de pastoreo y porcentaje de utilización del forraje producido. El ensayo se realizó en el sur de Chile, provincia de

  16. Contribution of genetic diversity for improvement of some abiotic stresses in wheat (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, M.; Swati, Z.A.

    2005-01-01

    Wheat improvement has predominantly been accomplished through conventional plant breeding methodologies. This approach shall continue to be the predominant procedure in the future. Genetic diversity is crucial for crop improvement and in the Triticeae family it resides in the primary, secondary and tertiary gene pools. These gene pools can be utilize for wheat improvement by producing genetic stocks where the alien gene pools can be combined with durum and bread wheat cultivars via interspecific and intergeneric hybridization. Adopting the interspecific route strategies has led to the production of several genetic stocks, which are elucidated here. The categories include the amphiploids of the A, B, and D genomes with durum cultivars (AAAABB, AABBBB, AABBDD) and new AADD tetraploids. Tertiary gene pool species (more complex to utilize) are a potent resource for gene pyramiding, which contribute towards stress durability and addresses sustainable agricultural aspects. The conventional classical protocols of introgressing alien genetic diversity into wheat are complex, and long-term in generating farmer usable products. The gene transfer procedures are further complicated when the stress trait has multigenic control associated with several alien chromosomes. Our current approach has incorporated a novel strategy for promoting alien chromosome introgression involving wheat/alien homeologous as well as non-homeologous chromosomes. The protocol comprises of hybridizing the Phph based amphiploid with the phph Chinese Spring wheat genetic stock to yield heterozygote Phph derivatives. From selfing of the heterozygotes or from their derived haploids via wheat/maize crosses the ph derivatives are identified by a PCR diagnostic. The ph seedlings form the reservoir of wheat/alien chromosome translocations which are identified by Giemsa C-banding / fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Plants with translocations are step-wise advanced by backcrosses to elite wheat cultivars

  17. Nucleotide diversity maps reveal variation in diversity among wheat genomes and chromosomes

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    McGuire Patrick E

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A genome-wide assessment of nucleotide diversity in a polyploid species must minimize the inclusion of homoeologous sequences into diversity estimates and reliably allocate individual haplotypes into their respective genomes. The same requirements complicate the development and deployment of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers in polyploid species. We report here a strategy that satisfies these requirements and deploy it in the sequencing of genes in cultivated hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, genomes AABBDD and wild tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides, genomes AABB from the putative site of wheat domestication in Turkey. Data are used to assess the distribution of diversity among and within wheat genomes and to develop a panel of SNP markers for polyploid wheat. Results Nucleotide diversity was estimated in 2114 wheat genes and was similar between the A and B genomes and reduced in the D genome. Within a genome, diversity was diminished on some chromosomes. Low diversity was always accompanied by an excess of rare alleles. A total of 5,471 SNPs was discovered in 1791 wheat genes. Totals of 1,271, 1,218, and 2,203 SNPs were discovered in 488, 463, and 641 genes of wheat putative diploid ancestors, T. urartu, Aegilops speltoides, and Ae. tauschii, respectively. A public database containing genome-specific primers, SNPs, and other information was constructed. A total of 987 genes with nucleotide diversity estimated in one or more of the wheat genomes was placed on an Ae. tauschii genetic map, and the map was superimposed on wheat deletion-bin maps. The agreement between the maps was assessed. Conclusions In a young polyploid, exemplified by T. aestivum, ancestral species are the primary source of genetic diversity. Low effective recombination due to self-pollination and a genetic mechanism precluding homoeologous chromosome pairing during polyploid meiosis can lead to the loss of diversity from large

  18. Association Mapping of Biomass Yield and Stem Composition in a Tetraploid Alfalfa Breeding Population

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    Xuehui Li

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa ( L., an important forage crop that is also a potential biofuel crop, has advantages of high yield, high lignocellulose concentration in stems, and has low input costs. In this study, we investigated population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD patterns in a tetraploid alfalfa breeding population using genome-wide simple sequence repeat (SSR markers and identified markers related to yield and cell wall composition by association mapping. No obvious population structure was found in our alfalfa breeding population, which could be due to the relatively narrow genetic base of the founders and/or due to two generations of random mating. We found significant LD ( 10% alleles across the 71 SSR markers, 15 showed strong association ( < 0.005 with yield in at least one of five environments, and most of the 15 alleles were identified in multiple environments. Only one allele showed strong association with acid detergent fiber (ADF and one allele with acid detergent lignin (ADL. Alleles associated with traits could be directly applied in a breeding program using marker-assisted selection. However, based on our estimated LD level, we would need about 1000 markers to explore the whole alfalfa genome for association between markers and traits.

  19. Global changes in mineral transporters in tetraploid switchgrasses (Panicum virgatum L.

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    Nathan A. Palmer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L is perennial, C4 grass with great potential as a biofuel crop. An in-depth understanding of the mechanisms that control mineral uptake, distribution and remobilization will benefit sustainable production. Nutrients are mobilized from aerial portions to below-ground crowns and rhizomes as a natural accompaniment to above-ground senescence post seed-set. Mineral uptake and remobilization is dependent on transporters, however, little if any information is available about the specific transporters that are needed and how their relative expression changes over a growing season. Using well-defined classes of mineral transporters, we identified 520 genes belonging to 40 different transporter classes in the tetraploid switchgrass genome. Expression patterns were determined for many of these genes using publically available transcriptomic datasets obtained from both greenhouse and field grown plants. Certain transporters showed strong temporal patterns of expression in distinct developmental stages of the plant. Gene-expression was verified for selected transporters using qRT-PCR. By and large these analyses confirmed the developmental stage-specific expression of these genes. Mineral analyses indicated that K, Fe, Mg, Co and As had a similar pattern of accumulation with apparent limited remobilization at the end of the growing season. These initial analyses will serve as a foundation for more detailed examination of the nutrient biology of switchgrass.

  20. Single-Feature Polymorphism Discovery in the Transcriptome of Tetraploid Alfalfa

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    S. Samuel Yang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Advances in alfalfa [ (L. subsp. ] breeding, molecular genetics, and genomics have been slow because this crop is an allogamous autotetraploid (2n = 4x = 32 with complex polysomic inheritance and few genomic resources. Increasing cellulose and decreasing lignin in alfalfa stem cell walls would improve this crop as a cellulosic ethanol feedstock. We conducted genome-wide analysis of single-feature polymorphisms (SFPs of two alfalfa genotypes (252, 1283 that differ in stem cell wall lignin and cellulose concentrations. SFP analysis was conducted using the GeneChip (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA as a cross-species platform. Analysis of GeneChip expression data files of alfalfa stem internodes of genotypes 252 and 1283 at two growth stages (elongating, post-elongation revealed 10,890 SFPs in 8230 probe sets. Validation analysis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR-sequencing of a random sample of SFPs indicated a 17% false discovery rate. Functional classification and over-representation analysis showed that genes involved in photosynthesis, stress response and cell wall biosynthesis were highly enriched among SFP-harboring genes. The GeneChip is a suitable cross-species platform for detecting SFPs in tetraploid alfalfa.

  1. Multiple Origins and Nested Cycles of Hybridization Result in High Tetraploid Diversity in the Monocot Prospero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Tae-Soo; Parker, John S; Emadzade, Khatere; Temsch, Eva M; Leitch, Andrew R; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2018-01-01

    Polyploidy is a major driving force in angiosperm evolution, but our understanding of establishment and early diversification processes following allo- vs. auto-polyploidy is limited. An excellent system to address such questions is the monocot plant Prospero autumnale , as it comprises several genomically and chromosomally distinct diploid cytotypes and their auto- and allotetraploid derivatives. To infer origins and evolutionary trajectories of the tetraploids, we use genome size data, in situ hybridization with parental genomic DNAs and specific probes (satDNA, rDNAs), as well as molecular-phylogenetic analyses. Thus, we demonstrate that an astounding range of allotetraploid lineages has been formed recurrently by chromosomal re-patterning, interactions of chromosomally variable parental genomes and nested cycles of extensive hybridization, whereas autotetraploids have originated at least twice and are cytologically stable. During the recurrent formation and establishment across wide geographic areas hybridization in some populations could have inhibited lineage diversification and nascent speciation of such a hybrid swarm. However, cytotypes that became fixed in populations enhanced the potential for species diversification, possibly exploiting the extended allelic base, and fixed heterozygosity that polyploidy confers. The time required for polyploid cytotype fixation may in part reflect the lag phase reported for polyploids between their formation and species diversification.

  2. Multiple Origins and Nested Cycles of Hybridization Result in High Tetraploid Diversity in the Monocot Prospero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Soo Jang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidy is a major driving force in angiosperm evolution, but our understanding of establishment and early diversification processes following allo- vs. auto-polyploidy is limited. An excellent system to address such questions is the monocot plant Prospero autumnale, as it comprises several genomically and chromosomally distinct diploid cytotypes and their auto- and allotetraploid derivatives. To infer origins and evolutionary trajectories of the tetraploids, we use genome size data, in situ hybridization with parental genomic DNAs and specific probes (satDNA, rDNAs, as well as molecular-phylogenetic analyses. Thus, we demonstrate that an astounding range of allotetraploid lineages has been formed recurrently by chromosomal re-patterning, interactions of chromosomally variable parental genomes and nested cycles of extensive hybridization, whereas autotetraploids have originated at least twice and are cytologically stable. During the recurrent formation and establishment across wide geographic areas hybridization in some populations could have inhibited lineage diversification and nascent speciation of such a hybrid swarm. However, cytotypes that became fixed in populations enhanced the potential for species diversification, possibly exploiting the extended allelic base, and fixed heterozygosity that polyploidy confers. The time required for polyploid cytotype fixation may in part reflect the lag phase reported for polyploids between their formation and species diversification.

  3. Atypical mycobacterial infection resembles sporotrichosis in elderly patient

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    Siti Nurani Fauziah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Atypical mycobacterial (AM infection is caused by Mycobacterium species other than M.tuberculosis. AM skin infection has clinical manifestations that resemble M. tuberculosis infection and deep fungal infection. Laboratory workup is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. An 83-year old female came with a painful lump and swelling on her right lower extremity since three months before admission. Physical examination revealed a plaque consisting, of multiple erythematous and hyperpigmented papules and nodules, diffuse erythematous lesion, and shallow ulcers partially covered with pus and crust. Histopathological features showed tuberculoid granuloma. Direct test and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS staining of the skin biopsy found no fungal element nor acid-fast bacilli (AFB. Culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR of M. tuberculosis were negative. The working diagnosis was atypical mycobacterial infection and treatment with 450 mg rifampicin and 100 mg minocycline daily were administered accordingly. In two months observation following the treatment, the pain was no longer exist, the ulcers were completely healed, and some nodules were in the process of healing Among other Mycobacterium spp, M.marinum is the most common cause of AM infrections. Clinical manifestation of M. marinum infection may present as solitary or multiple nodules on the hands, feet, elbows and knees with sporotrichoid spreading patern. The diagnosis of AM was established based on clinical and laboratory examination. The diagnosis was also confirmed by good clinical response to minocycline and rifampicin.

  4. Leprae reaction resembling rheumatologic disease as presenting feature of leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharuddin, Hazlyna; Taib, Tarita; Zain, Mollyza Mohd; Ch'ng, Shereen

    2016-10-01

    Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae with predominant involvement of skin and nerves. We present a 70-year-old man with leprosy whose initial presentation resembled rheumatologic disease, due to leprae reaction. He presented with an 8-week history of worsening neuropathic pain in the right forearm, associated with necrotic skin lesions on his fingers that had ulcerated. Physical examination revealed two tender necrotic ulcers at the tip of the right middle finger and the dorsal aspect of the left middle finger. The patient had right wrist tenosynovitis and right elbow bursitis. Apart from raised inflammatory markers, the investigations for infection, connective tissue disease, vasculitis, thromboembolic disease and malignancy were negative. During the fourth week of hospitalization, we noticed a 2-cm hypoesthetic indurated plaque on the right inner arm. Further examination revealed thickened bilateral ulnar, radial and popliteal nerves. A slit skin smear was negative. Two skin biopsies and a biopsy of the olecranon bursa revealed granulomatous inflammation. He was diagnosed with paucibacillary leprosy with neuritis. He responded well to multidrug therapy and prednisolone; his symptoms resolved over a few weeks. This case illustrates the challenges in diagnosing a case of leprosy with atypical presentation in a non-endemic country. © 2016 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Neurogenesis in Aplysia californica resembles nervous system formation in vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    The pattern of neurogenesis of the central nervous system of Aplysia californica was investigated by [ 3 H]thymidine autoradiography. Large numbers of animals at a series of early developmental stages were labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine for 24 or 48 hr and were subsequently sampled at specific intervals throughout the life cycle. I found that proliferative zones, consisting of columnar and placodal ectodermal cells, are established in regions of the body wall adjacent to underlying mesodermal cells. Mitosis in the proliferative zones generates a population of cells which leave the surface and migrate inward to join the nearby forming ganglia. Tracing specific [ 3 H]thymidine-labeled cells from the body wall to a particular ganglion and within the ganglion over time suggests that the final genomic replication of the neuronal precursors occurs before the cells join the ganglion while glial cell precursors and differentiating glial cells continue to divide within the ganglion for some time. Ultrastructural examination of the morphological features of the few mitosing cells observed within the Aplysia central nervous system supports this interpretation. The pattern of neurogenesis in the Aplysia central nervous system resembles the proliferation of cells in the neural tube and the migration of neural crest and ectodermal placode cells in the vertebrate nervous system but differs from the pattern described for other invertebrates

  6. A Para-Canalicular Abscess Resembling an Inflamed Chalazion

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    Diamantis Almaliotis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lacrimal infections by Actinomyces are rare and commonly misdiagnosed for long periods of time. They account for 2% of all lacrimal diseases. Case Report. We report a case of a 70-year-old female patient suffering from a para-canalicular abscess in the medial canthus of the left eye, beside the lower punctum lacrimale, resembling a chalazion. Purulence exited from the punctum lacrimale due to inflammation of the inferior canaliculus (canaliculitis. When pressure was applied to the mass, a second exit of purulence was also observed under the palpebral conjunctiva below the lacrimal caruncle. A surgical excision was performed followed by administration of local antibiotic therapy. The histopathological examination of the extracted mass revealed the existence of actinomycosis. Conclusion. Persistent or recurrent infections and lumps of the eyelids should be thoroughly investigated. Actinomyces as a causative agent should be considered. Differential diagnosis is broad and should include canaliculitis, chalazion, and multiple types of neoplasias. For this reason, in nonconclusive cases, a histopathological examination should be performed.

  7. Autosomal dominant syndrome resembling Coffin-Siris syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Maureen A; Milunsky, Jeff M

    2006-06-15

    Coffin-Siris syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome with phenotypic variability [OMIM 135900]. The diagnosis is based solely on clinical findings, as there is currently no molecular, biochemical, or cytogenetic analysis available to confirm a diagnosis. Although typically described as an autosomal recessive disorder, autosomal dominant inheritance has also been infrequently reported. We describe a mother and her two daughters who all have features that resemble Coffin-Siris syndrome. However, this is not a completely convincing diagnosis given that hypertelorism is not a feature of Coffin-Siris syndrome and the family is relatively mildly affected. Yet, this family provides further evidence of an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance for a likely variant of Coffin-Siris syndrome (at least in some families). In addition, Sibling 1 had premature thelarche. She is the second reported individual within the spectrum of Coffin-Siris syndrome to have premature thelarche, indicating that it may be a rare clinical feature. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Extended retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis with genital involvement, resembling fournier gangrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Motokazu; Matsuura, Kenji; Takayama, Hiroshi; Kayo, Munefumi; Ie, Tomotsugu

    2010-10-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious infection that originates in the subcutaneous tissues. Although many reports have been published about necrotizing infections of other anatomical sites, retroperitoneal necrotizing soft tissue infection is a rare entity that has been described in only a few case reports. The etiology and clinical course of retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis can be variable and it is often difficult to identify the etiology of the infective process. We report a 58-year-old man with rapidly progressive, gas-producing, necrotizing inflammation in the retroperitoneum, complicated with genital involvement resembling Fournier gangrene. The patient was managed successfully by aggressive drainage, debridement, and sequential laparotomies to track and control the extensive necrosis of the retroperitoneum and perineum, in addition to systemic care to control sepsis. After his general condition stabilized, early rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma was identified and resected curatively. He remained well at follow up, six months after discharge. In retrospect, the trigger of the disease process was unclear. Although it was believed possibly to be due to the colon lesion, adenocarcinoma of the rectosigmoid colon was identified and the patient was managed successfully. Similar to necrotizing infections at other anatomical sites, early diagnosis and timely surgical intervention and systemic antimicrobial therapy are mandatory for treating patients with retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis.

  9. Characterization of FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1 gene in Brachypodium and wheat.

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    Bo Lv

    Full Text Available The phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth is a critical event in the life cycle of flowering plants. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT plays a central role in the regulation of this transition by integrating signals from multiple flowering pathways in the leaves and transmitting them to the shoot apical meristem. In this study, we characterized FT homologs in the temperate grasses Brachypodium distachyon and polyploid wheat using transgenic and mutant approaches. Downregulation of FT1 by RNAi was associated with a significant downregulation of the FT-like genes FT2 and FT4 in Brachypodium and FT2 and FT5 in wheat. In a transgenic wheat line carrying a highly-expressed FT1 allele, FT2 and FT3 were upregulated under both long and short days. Overexpression of FT1 caused extremely early flowering during shoot regeneration in both Brachypodium and hexaploid wheat, and resulted in insufficient vegetative tissue to support the production of viable seeds. Downregulation of FT1 transcripts by RNA interference (RNAi resulted in non-flowering Brachypodium plants and late flowering plants (2-4 weeks delay in wheat. A similar delay in heading time was observed in tetraploid wheat plants carrying mutations for both FT-A1 and FT-B1. Plants homozygous only for mutations in FT-B1 flowered later than plants homozygous only for mutations in FT-A1, which corresponded with higher transcript levels of FT-B1 relative to FT-A1 in the early stages of development. Taken together, our data indicate that FT1 plays a critical role in the regulation of flowering in Brachypodium and wheat, and that this role is associated with the simultaneous regulation of other FT-like genes. The differential effects of mutations in FT-A1 and FT-B1 on wheat heading time suggest that different allelic combinations of FT1 homoeologs could be used to adjust wheat heading time to improve adaptation to changing environments.

  10. Targeted mutagenesis in tetraploid switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) using CRISPR/Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Merrick, Paul; Zhang, Zhengzhi; Ji, Chonghui; Yang, Bing; Fei, Shui-Zhang

    2018-02-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has become a powerful tool for targeted mutagenesis. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a high yielding perennial grass species that has been designated as a model biomass crop by the U.S. Department of Energy. The self-infertility and high ploidy level make it difficult to study gene function or improve germplasm. To overcome these constraints, we explored the feasibility of using CRISPR/Cas9 for targeted mutagenesis in a tetraploid cultivar 'Alamo' switchgrass. We first developed a transient assay by which a non-functional green-fluorescent protein gene containing a 1-bp frameshift insertion in its 5' coding region was successfully mutated by a Cas9/sgRNA complex resulting in its restored function. Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation of embryogenic calli derived from mature caryopses averaged a 3.0% transformation efficiency targeting the genes of teosinte branched 1(tb1)a and b and phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM). With a single construct containing two sgRNAs targeting different regions of tb1a and tb1b genes, primary transformants (T0) containing CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations were obtained at frequencies of 95.5% (tb1a) and 11% (tb1b), respectively, with T0 mutants exhibiting increased tiller production. Meanwhile, a mutation frequency of 13.7% was obtained for the PGM gene with a CRISPR/Cas9 construct containing a single sgRNA. Among the PGM T0 mutants, six are heterozygous and one is homozygous for a 1-bp deletion in the target region with no apparent phenotypical alterations. We show that CRISPR/Cas9 system can generate targeted mutagenesis effectively and obtain targeted homozygous mutants in T0 generation in switchgrass, circumventing the need of inbreeding. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Genome-wide SNP discovery in tetraploid alfalfa using 454 sequencing and high resolution melting analysis

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    Zhao Patrick X

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are the most common type of sequence variation among plants and are often functionally important. We describe the use of 454 technology and high resolution melting analysis (HRM for high throughput SNP discovery in tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., a species with high economic value but limited genomic resources. Results The alfalfa genotypes selected from M. sativa subsp. sativa var. 'Chilean' and M. sativa subsp. falcata var. 'Wisfal', which differ in water stress sensitivity, were used to prepare cDNA from tissue of clonally-propagated plants grown under either well-watered or water-stressed conditions, and then pooled for 454 sequencing. Based on 125.2 Mb of raw sequence, a total of 54,216 unique sequences were obtained including 24,144 tentative consensus (TCs sequences and 30,072 singletons, ranging from 100 bp to 6,662 bp in length, with an average length of 541 bp. We identified 40,661 candidate SNPs distributed throughout the genome. A sample of candidate SNPs were evaluated and validated using high resolution melting (HRM analysis. A total of 3,491 TCs harboring 20,270 candidate SNPs were located on the M. truncatula (MT 3.5.1 chromosomes. Gene Ontology assignments indicate that sequences obtained cover a broad range of GO categories. Conclusions We describe an efficient method to identify thousands of SNPs distributed throughout the alfalfa genome covering a broad range of GO categories. Validated SNPs represent valuable molecular marker resources that can be used to enhance marker density in linkage maps, identify potential factors involved in heterosis and genetic variation, and as tools for association mapping and genomic selection in alfalfa.

  12. Genetic Linkage Mapping of Economically Important Traits in Cultivated Tetraploid Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Alicia N; Manrique-Carpintero, Norma C; Coombs, Joseph J; Zarka, Daniel G; Boone, Anne E; Kirk, William W; Hackett, Christine A; Bryan, Glenn J; Douches, David S

    2015-09-14

    The objective of this study was to construct a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genetic map at the cultivated tetraploid level to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) contributing to economically important traits in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). The 156 F1 progeny and parents of a cross (MSL603) between "Jacqueline Lee" and "MSG227-2" were genotyped using the Infinium 8303 Potato Array. Furthermore, the progeny and parents were evaluated for foliar late blight reaction to isolates of the US-8 genotype of Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary and vine maturity. Linkage analyses and QTL mapping were performed using a novel approach that incorporates allele dosage information. The resulting genetic maps contained 1972 SNP markers with an average density of 1.36 marker per cM. QTL mapping identified the major source of late blight resistance in "Jacqueline Lee." The best SNP marker mapped ~0.54 Mb from a resistance hotspot on the long arm of chromosome 9. For vine maturity, the major-effect QTL was located on chromosome 5 with allelic effects from both parents. A candidate SNP marker for this trait mapped ~0.25 Mb from the StCDF1 gene, which is a candidate gene for the maturity trait. The identification of markers for P. infestans resistance will enable the introgression of multiple sources of resistance through marker-assisted selection. Moreover, the discovery of a QTL for late blight resistance not linked to the QTL for vine maturity provides the opportunity to use marker-assisted selection for resistance independent of the selection for vine maturity classifications. Copyright © 2015 Massa et al.

  13. Asymmetric epigenetic modification and elimination of rDNA sequences by polyploidization in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiang; Han, Fangpu

    2014-11-01

    rRNA genes consist of long tandem repeats clustered on chromosomes, and their products are important functional components of the ribosome. In common wheat (Triticum aestivum), rDNA loci from the A and D genomes were largely lost during the evolutionary process. This biased DNA elimination may be related to asymmetric transcription and epigenetic modifications caused by the polyploid formation. Here, we observed both sets of parental nucleolus organizing regions (NORs) were expressed after hybridization, but asymmetric silencing of one parental NOR was immediately induced by chromosome doubling, and reversing the ploidy status could not reactivate silenced NORs. Furthermore, increased CHG and CHH DNA methylation on promoters was accompanied by asymmetric silencing of NORs. Enrichment of H3K27me3 and H3K9me2 modifications was also observed to be a direct response to increased DNA methylation and transcriptional inactivation of NOR loci. Both A and D genome NOR loci with these modifications started to disappear in the S4 generation and were completely eliminated by the S7 generation in synthetic tetraploid wheat. Our results indicated that asymmetric epigenetic modification and elimination of rDNA sequences between different donor genomes may lead to stable allopolyploid wheat with increased differentiation and diversity. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  14. Do general radiographic examinations resemble a person-centred environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayre, C.M.; Blackman, S.; Eyden, A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim and objective: It is argued whether general radiographic examinations adhere to a person-centred approach within the direct digital radiography (DDR) environment. General radiographic examinations continue to increase and constitute approximately 90% of all examinations undertaken in the clinical environment. This study explored the potential impact patients experience whilst undergoing general imaging examinations. Method: An ethnographic methodology provided insight of two general radiography environments in the United Kingdom (UK) using participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Findings: The findings highlighted an ‘in and out’ culture whereby patients are ‘hurried’ and ‘rushed’ out of X-ray rooms in response to increasing time pressures experienced by diagnostic radiographers. In addition, this study challenged that patients may begin to rank ‘speed’ and ‘waiting times’ above other elements of radiographic care thus presenting new challenges for radiographers within the clinical environment. Conclusion: It is asserted that radiographers should remain holistic healthcare professionals and not begin to resemble operators on the production line. Further, it challenges whether patients are beginning to rank aspects of radiographic care within contemporary practices. Advances in knowledge: Few studies have explored the radiographer–patient relationship within the DDR environment, yet this study provides insight of person-centred practices within contemporary practices. - Highlights: • Challenges whether the use of DDR conforms to a person-centred approach. • Challenges whether radiographers are ‘treating patients as persons’ using DDR. • Patients may begin to rank ‘speed’ and ‘waiting times’ above other aspects of radiographic care.

  15. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by...

  16. Wheat for Kids! [and] Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    "Wheat for Kids" contains information at the elementary school level about: the structure of the wheat kernel; varieties of wheat and their uses; growing wheat; making wheat dough; the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and nutrition; Idaho's part of the international wheat market; recipes; and word games based on the…

  17. Divergence in homoeolog expression of the grain length-associated gene GASR7 during wheat allohexaploidization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hexaploid wheat has triplicated homoeologs for most of the genes that are located in subgenomes A, B, and D. GASR7, a member of the Snakin/GASA gene family, has been associated with grain length development in wheat. However, little is known about divergence of its homoeolog expression in wheat polyploids. We studied the expression patterns of the GASR7 homoeologs in immature seeds in a synthetic hexaploid wheat line whose kernels are slender like those of its maternal parent (Triticum turgidum, AABB, PI 94655 in contrast to the round seed shape of its paternal progenitor (Aegilops tauschii, DD, AS2404. We found that the B homoeolog of GASR7 was the main contributor to the total expression level of this gene in both the maternal tetraploid progenitor and the hexaploid progeny, whereas the expression levels of the A and D homoeologs were much lower. To understand possible mechanisms regulating different GASR7 homoeologs, we firstly analyzed the promoter sequences of three homoeologous genes and found that all of them contained gibberellic acid (GA response elements, with the TaGASR7B promoter (pTaGASR7B uniquely characterized by an additional predicted transcriptional enhancer. This was confirmed by the GA treatment of spikes where all three homoeologs were induced, with a much stronger response for TaGASR7B. McrBC enzyme assays showed that the methylation status at pTaGASR7D was increased during allohexaploidization, consistent with the repressed expression of TaGASR7D. For pTaGASR7A, the distribution of repetitive sequence-derived 24-nucleotide (nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs were found which suggests possible epigenetic regulation because 24-nt siRNAs are known to mediate RNA-dependent DNA methylation. Our results thus indicate that both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in the divergence of GASR7 homoeolog expression in polyploid wheat.

  18. Molecular characterization of vernalization loci VRN1 in wild and cultivated wheats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golovnina Kseniya A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variability of the VRN1 promoter region of the unique collection of spring polyploid and wild diploid wheat species together with diploid goatgrasses (donor of B and D genomes of polyploid wheats were investigated. Accessions of wild diploid (T. boeoticum, T. urartu and tetraploid (T. araraticum, T. timopheevii species were studied for the first time. Results Sequence analysis indicated great variability in the region from -62 to -221 nucleotide positions of the VRN1 promoter region. Different indels were found within this region in spring wheats. It was shown that VRN1 promoter region of B and G genome can also contain damages such as the insertion of the transposable element. Some transcription factor recognition sites including hybrid C/G-box for TaFDL2 protein known as the VRN1 gene upregulator were predicted inside the variable region. It was shown that deletions leading to promoter damage occurred in diploid and polyploid species independently. DNA transposon insertions first occurred in polyploid species. At the same time, the duplication of the promoter region was observed in A genomes of polyploid species. Conclusions We can conclude that supposed molecular mechanism of the VRN1 gene activating in cultivated diploid wheat species T. monococcum is common also for wild T. boeoticum and was inherited by T. monococcum. The spring polyploids are not related in their origin to spring diploids. The spring T. urartu and goatgrass accessions have another mechanism of flowering activation that is not connected with indels in VRN1 promoter region. All obtained data may be useful for detailed insight into origin of spring wheat forms in evolution and domestication process.

  19. Wheat Quality Council, Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee, 2017 Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to six locations in 2017 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Spring...

  20. Nitriles at Silica Interfaces Resemble Supported Lipid Bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, Bruce J; Fourkas, John T; Walker, Robert A; Weeks, John D

    2016-09-20

    Nitriles are important solvents not just for bulk reactions but also for interfacial processes such as separations, heterogeneous catalysis, and electrochemistry. Although nitriles have a polar end and a lipophilic end, the cyano group is not hydrophilic enough for these substances to be thought of as prototypical amphiphiles. This picture is now changing, as research is revealing that at a silica surface nitriles can organize into structures that, in many ways, resemble lipid bilayers. This unexpected organization may be a key component of unique interfacial behavior of nitriles that make them the solvents of choice for so many applications. The first hints of this lipid-bilayer-like (LBL) organization of nitriles at silica interfaces came from optical Kerr effect (OKE) experiments on liquid acetonitrile confined in the pores of sol-gel glasses. The orientational dynamics revealed by OKE spectroscopy suggested that the confined liquid is composed of a relatively immobile sublayer of molecules that accept hydrogen bonds from the surface silanol groups and an interdigitated, antiparallel layer that is capable of exchanging into the centers of the pores. This picture of acetonitrile has been borne out by molecular dynamics simulations and vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) experiments. Remarkably, these simulations further indicate that the LBL organization is repeated with increasing disorder at least 20 Å into the liquid from a flat silica surface. Simulations and VSFG and OKE experiments indicate that extending the alkyl chain to an ethyl group leads to the formation of even more tightly packed LBL organization featuring entangled alkyl tails. When the alkyl portion of the molecule is a bulky t-butyl group, packing constraints prevent well-ordered LBL organization of the liquid. In each case, the surface-induced organization of the liquid is reflected in its interfacial dynamics. Acetonitrile/water mixtures are favored solvent systems for separations

  1. Heat tolerance in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari

    As a consequence of global climate change, heat stress together with other abiotic stresses will remain an important determinant of future food security. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the third most important crop of the world feeding one third of the world population. Being a crop of temperate...... climate, wheat is sensitive to heat stress. We need to understand how our crops will perform in these changing climatic conditions and how we can develop varieties, which are more tolerant. The PhD study focussed on understanding heat tolerance in wheat with a combined approach of plant physiology...... and quantitative genetics in particular, plant phenotyping based quantitative trait loci (QTL) discovery for a physiological trait under heat stress. Chlorophyll a fluorescence trait, Fv/Fm was used as a phenotyping tool, as it reflects the effect of heat stress on maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem...

  2. Tetraploidization or autophagy: The ultimate fate of senescent human endometrial stem cells under ATM or p53 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodkina, Aleksandra V; Shatrova, Alla N; Deryabin, Pavel I; Grukova, Anastasiya A; Nikolsky, Nikolay N; Burova, Elena B

    2016-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated that endometrium-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMESCs) via activation of the ATM/p53/p21/Rb pathway enter the premature senescence in response to oxidative stress. Down regulation effects of the key components of this signaling pathway, particularly ATM and p53, on a fate of stressed hMESCs have not yet been investigated. In the present study by using the specific inhibitors Ku55933 and Pifithrin-α, we confirmed implication of both ATM and p53 in H(2)O(2)-induced senescence of hMESCs. ATM or p53 down regulation was shown to modulate differently the cellular fate of H(2)O(2)-treated hMESCs. ATM inhibition allowed H(2)O(2)-stimulated hMESCs to escape the permanent cell cycle arrest due to loss of the functional ATM/p53/p21/Rb pathway, and induced bypass of mitosis and re-entry into S phase, resulting in tetraploid cells. On the contrary, suppression of the p53 transcriptional activity caused a pronounced cell death of H(2)O(2)-treated hMESCs via autophagy induction. The obtained data clearly demonstrate that down regulation of ATM or p53 shifts senescence of human endometrial stem cells toward tetraploidization or autophagy.

  3. Characterization of genome in tetraploid StY species of Elymus (Triticeae: Poaceae) using sequential FISH and GISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruijuan; Wang, Richard R-C; Yu, Feng; Lu, Xingwang; Dou, Quanwen

    2017-08-01

    Genomes of ten species of Elymus, either presumed or known as tetraploid StY, were characterized using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). These tetraploid species could be grouped into three categories. Type I included StY genome reported species-Roegneria pendulina, R. nutans, R. glaberrima, R. ciliaris, and Elymus nevskii, and StY genome presumed species-R. sinica, R. breviglumis, and R. dura, whose genome could be separated into two sets based on different GISH intensities. Type I genome constitution was deemed as putative StY. The St genome were mainly characterized with intense hybridization with pAs1, fewer AAG sites, and linked distribution of 5S rDNA and 18S-26S rDNA, while the Y genome with less intense hybridization with pAs1, more varied AAG sites, and isolated distribution of 5S rDNA and 18S-26S rDNA. Nevertheless, further genomic variations were detected among the different StY species. Type II included E. alashanicus, whose genome could be easily separated based on GISH pattern. FISH and GISH patterns suggested that E. alashanicus comprised a modified St genome and an unknown genome. Type III included E. longearistatus, whose genome could not be separated by GISH and was designated as St l Y l . Notably, a close relationship between S l and Y l genomes was observed.

  4. Evaluación de marcadores moleculares asociados con resistencia a gota (Phytophthora infestans L. en papas diploides y tetraploides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Juyó

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Evaluation of molecular markers associated with resistance to late blight (Phytophthora infestans L.  in diploid and tetraploid potatoes Resumen La papa, cultivo de importancia a nivel mundial es gravemente afectado por gota, enfermedad ocasionada por el oomycete Phytophthora infestans. Actualmente la forma más efectiva para combatir la enfermedad es mediante el desarrollo de cultivares resistentes al patógeno. Para esto, una estrategia es identificar genes que confieran resistencia al patógeno, para lo cual se buscan marcadores asociados con el carácter de resistencia. En este estudio se evaluaron marcadores moleculares tipo SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Region: CosA, GP179, BA47f2 y Prp1 asociados con resistencia a P. infestans y el gen de resistencia R1, en 22 cultivares tetraploides pertenecientes a la subespecie andigena y cinco especies silvestres. Se evaluó el polimorfismo y se determinó si los alelos polimórficos permitían diferenciar genotipos resistentes de susceptibles. Se comparó el  tamaño de los fragmentos obtenidos con los fragmentos esperados asociados con resistencia de acuerdo a reportes. El análisis se realizó considerando presencia/ausencia de los fragmentos: CosA210, CosA250, R11400, R11800, BA47f2500, GP179570, Prp1300, Prp1600, y Prp1900. Los resultados indicaron que en los cultivares tetraploides y silvestres, se presentaron polimorfismos en todos los marcadores evaluados, con excepción del marcador GP179. No se encontró correlación entre el rasgo de resistencia y los alelos. Los resultados de este estudio muestran que hay repuesta diferencial a los marcadores entre las subsp. tuberosum y subsp. Andigena.   Palabras clave: Phytophthora infestans, resistencia a gota, marcadores diagnóstico, Solanum tuberosum subsp. Andigena. Abstract Potato is an important worldwide crop seriously affected by late blight disease caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans. Currently, the

  5. Effect of Initiation Time of Hydrostatic Pressure Shock on Chromosome Set Doubling of Tetraploidization in Turbot Scophthalmus maximus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiangping; Lin, Zhengmei; Wu, Zhihao; Li, Jiandong; You, Feng

    2017-10-01

    The objective of the study was to clarify the effects of initiation time on chromosome set doubling induced by hydrostatic pressure shock through nuclear phase fluorescent microscopy in turbot Scophthalmus maximus. The ratio of developmentally delayed embryo and chromosome counting was used to assess induction efficiency. For the embryos subjected to a pressure of 67.5 MPa for 6 min at prometaphase (A group), chromosomes recovered to the pre-treatment condition after 11-min recovering. The first nuclear division and cytokinesis proceeded normally. During the second cell cycle, chromosomes did not enter into metaphase after prometaphase, but spread around for about 13 min, then assembled together and formed a large nucleus without anaphase separation; the second nuclear division and cytokinesis was inhibited. The ratio of developmentally delayed embryo showed that the second mitosis of 78% A group embryo was inhibited. The result of chromosome counting showed that the tetraploidization rate of A group was 72%. For the embryos subjected to a pressure of 67.5 MPa for 6 min at anaphase (B group), chromosomes recovered to the pre-treatment condition after about 31-min recovering. Afterwards, one telophase nucleus formed without anaphase separation; the first nuclear division was inhibited. The time of the first cleavage furrow occurrence of B group embryos delayed 27 min compared with that of A group embryos. With the first cytokinesis proceeding normally, 81.3% B group embryos were at two-cell stage around the middle of the second cell cycle after treatment. Those embryos were one of the two blastomeres containing DNA and the other without DNA. The first nuclear division of those embryos was inhibited. During the third cell cycle after treatment, 65.2% of those abovementioned embryos were at four-cell stage, cytokinesis occurred in both blastomeres, and nuclear division only occurred in the blastomere containing DNA. Of those abovementioned embryos, 14.0% were at

  6. Biolistics Transformation of Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Caroline A.; Jones, Huw D.

    We present a complete, step-by-step guide to the production of transformed wheat plants using a particle bombardment device to deliver plasmid DNA into immature embryos and the regeneration of transgenic plants via somatic embryogenesis. Currently, this is the most commonly used method for transforming wheat and it offers some advantages. However, it will be interesting to see whether this position is challenged as facile methods are developed for delivering DNA by Agrobacterium tumefaciens or by the production of transformants via a germ-line process (see other chapters in this book).

  7. Registration of 'Tiger' wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Tiger’ hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2010. Tiger was selected from a three-way cross KS98H245/’Trego’//KS98HW518 made in 1999 at Hays, KS. The objective of this ...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is obtained...

  9. Alterations of DNA content in human endometrial stromal cells transfected with a temperature-sensitive SV40: tetraploidization and physiological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, C A; Mayben, J P; Butler, T D; Haskill, J S; Kaufman, D G

    1992-01-01

    The normal genomic stability of human cells is reversed during neoplastic transformation. The SV40 large T antigen alters the DNA content in human endometrial stromal cells in a manner that relates to neoplastic progression. Human endometrial stromal cells were transfected with a plasmid containing the A209 temperature-sensitive mutant of SV40 (tsSV40), which is also defective in the viral origin of replication. Ninety-seven clonal transfectants from seven different primary cell strains were isolated. Initial analysis revealed that 20% of the clonal populations (19/97) had an apparent diploid DNA content, 35% (34/97) had an apparent tetraploid DNA content, and the remainder were mixed populations of diploid and tetraploid cells. No aneuploid populations were observed. Diploid tsSV40 transformed cells always give rise to a population of cells with a tetraploid DNA content when continuously cultured at the permissive temperature. The doubling of DNA content can be vastly accelerated by the sudden reintroduction of large T antigen activity following a shift from non-permissive to permissive temperature. Tetraploid tsSV40 transfected cells have a lower capacity for anchorage-independent growth and earlier entry into 'crisis' than diploid cells. These results indicate that during the pre-crisis, extended lifespan phase of growth, the SV40 large T antigen causes a doubling of DNA content. This apparent doubling of DNA content does not confer growth advantage during the extended lifespan that precedes 'crisis'.

  10. Linking Genetic Variation in Adaptive Plant Traits to Climate in Tetraploid and Octoploid Basin Wildrye [Leymus cinereus (Scribn. & Merr.) A. Love] in the Western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R C; Vance-Borland, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have assessed how ploidy type within a species affects genetic variation among populations in relation to source climates. Basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus (Scribn. & Merr.) A. Love) is a large bunchgrass common in the intermountain Western U.S. found in both octoploid and tetraploid types. In common gardens at two sites over two years differences in both ploidy type and genetic variation within ploidy were observed in phenology, morphology, and production traits on 57 octoploid and 52 tetraploid basin wildrye from the intermountain Western U.S. (Ptypes. Still, among populations octoploids often had greater genetic variation for traits and occupied more diverse climates than tetraploids. Genetic variation for both ploidy types was linked to source climates in canonical correlation analysis, with the first two variates explaining 70% of the variation. Regression of those canonical variates with seed source climate variables produced models that explained 64% and 38% of the variation, respectively, and were used to map 15 seed zones covering 673,258 km2. Utilization of these seed zones will help ensure restoration with adaptive seed sources for both ploidy types. The link between genetic traits and seed source climates suggests climate driven natural selection and adaptive evolution in basin wildrye. The more diverse climates occupied by octoploids and higher trait variation suggests a higher capacity for ecological differentiation than tetraploids in the intermountain Western U.S.

  11. The Basic/Helix-Loop-Helix Protein Family in Gossypium: Reference Genes and Their Evolution during Tetraploidization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yan

    Full Text Available Basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families and play important roles in diverse cellular and molecular processes. Comprehensive analyses of the composition and evolution of the bHLH family in cotton are essential to elucidate their functions and the molecular basis of cotton development. By searching bHLH homologous genes in sequenced diploid cotton genomes (Gossypium raimondii and G. arboreum, a set of cotton bHLH reference genes containing 289 paralogs were identified and named as GobHLH001-289. Based on their phylogenetic relationships, these cotton bHLH proteins were clustered into 27 subfamilies. Compared to those in Arabidopsis and cacao, cotton bHLH proteins generally increased in number, but unevenly in different subfamilies. To further uncover evolutionary changes of bHLH genes during tetraploidization of cotton, all genes of S5a and S5b subfamilies in upland cotton and its diploid progenitors were cloned and compared, and their transcript profiles were determined in upland cotton. A total of 10 genes of S5a and S5b subfamilies (doubled from A- and D-genome progenitors maintained in tetraploid cottons. The major sequence changes in upland cotton included a 15-bp in-frame deletion in GhbHLH130D and a long terminal repeat retrotransposon inserted in GhbHLH062A, which eliminated GhbHLH062A expression in various tissues. The S5a and S5b bHLH genes of A and D genomes (except GobHLH062 showed similar transcription patterns in various tissues including roots, stems, leaves, petals, ovules, and fibers, while the A- and D-genome genes of GobHLH110 and GobHLH130 displayed clearly different transcript profiles during fiber development. In total, this study represented a genome-wide analysis of cotton bHLH family, and revealed significant changes in sequence and expression of these genes in tetraploid cottons, which paved the way for further functional analyses of bHLH genes in the cotton genus.

  12. Linking Genetic Variation in Adaptive Plant Traits to Climate in Tetraploid and Octoploid Basin Wildrye [Leymus cinereus (Scribn. & Merr. A. Love] in the Western U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R C Johnson

    Full Text Available Few studies have assessed how ploidy type within a species affects genetic variation among populations in relation to source climates. Basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus (Scribn. & Merr. A. Love is a large bunchgrass common in the intermountain Western U.S. found in both octoploid and tetraploid types. In common gardens at two sites over two years differences in both ploidy type and genetic variation within ploidy were observed in phenology, morphology, and production traits on 57 octoploid and 52 tetraploid basin wildrye from the intermountain Western U.S. (P<0.01. Octoploids had larger leaves, longer culms, and greater crown circumference than tetraploids but the numerical ranges of plant traits and their source climates overlapped between ploidy types. Still, among populations octoploids often had greater genetic variation for traits and occupied more diverse climates than tetraploids. Genetic variation for both ploidy types was linked to source climates in canonical correlation analysis, with the first two variates explaining 70% of the variation. Regression of those canonical variates with seed source climate variables produced models that explained 64% and 38% of the variation, respectively, and were used to map 15 seed zones covering 673,258 km2. Utilization of these seed zones will help ensure restoration with adaptive seed sources for both ploidy types. The link between genetic traits and seed source climates suggests climate driven natural selection and adaptive evolution in basin wildrye. The more diverse climates occupied by octoploids and higher trait variation suggests a higher capacity for ecological differentiation than tetraploids in the intermountain Western U.S.

  13. Transposable elements generate population-specific insertional patterns and allelic variation in genes of wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, Katherine; Keidar, Danielle; Yaakov, Beery; Khasdan, Vadim; Kashkush, Khalil

    2017-10-27

    Natural populations of the tetraploid wild emmer wheat (genome AABB) were previously shown to demonstrate eco-geographically structured genetic and epigenetic diversity. Transposable elements (TEs) might make up a significant part of the genetic and epigenetic variation between individuals and populations because they comprise over 80% of the wild emmer wheat genome. In this study, we performed detailed analyses to assess the dynamics of transposable elements in 50 accessions of wild emmer wheat collected from 5 geographically isolated sites. The analyses included: the copy number variation of TEs among accessions in the five populations, population-unique insertional patterns, and the impact of population-unique/specific TE insertions on structure and expression of genes. We assessed the copy numbers of 12 TE families using real-time quantitative PCR, and found significant copy number variation (CNV) in the 50 wild emmer wheat accessions, in a population-specific manner. In some cases, the CNV difference reached up to 6-fold. However, the CNV was TE-specific, namely some TE families showed higher copy numbers in one or more populations, and other TE families showed lower copy numbers in the same population(s). Furthermore, we assessed the insertional patterns of 6 TE families using transposon display (TD), and observed significant population-specific insertional patterns. The polymorphism levels of TE-insertional patterns reached 92% among all wild emmer wheat accessions, in some cases. In addition, we observed population-specific/unique TE insertions, some of which were located within or close to protein-coding genes, creating allelic variations in a population-specific manner. We also showed that those genes are differentially expressed in wild emmer wheat. For the first time, this study shows that TEs proliferate in wild emmer wheat in a population-specific manner, creating new alleles of genes, which contribute to the divergent evolution of homeologous genes

  14. Bio-agronomic Evaluation of Old and Modern Wheat, Spelt and Emmer Genotypes for Low-input Farming in Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Codianni

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-input cropping systems are characterised by the reduction of pesticides and chemical fertilizers and, often, by the use of old cultivars to realize sustainable crop production which can easily integrate in the European Union agricultural subsidies. Market prices and environmental concerns favour low-input wheat production systems, nevertheless protein standards become particularly difficult to achieve in these conditions due to a minimal nitrogen supply. This study assesses the efficiency of a specific breeding program dedicated to improve yield and quality in emmer and spelt wheat in low-input environments. Ten tetraploid (emmer and durum wheat and four hexaploid (spelt and bread wheat wheat genotypes (including parent cultivars and offspring breeding lines selected for adaptation to low-input conditions were investigated for 1 yr (2003-2004 in Italy in three locations in conventional and low-input cropping systems. The main agro-morphological and qualitative traits were recorded (HD, PH, GY, PC GPY, TKW, TW, GC. The results of this study show encouraging agronomic performances of new emmer and spelt genotypes under conventional and low-input cropping systems. The new genotypes are characterized by a yield potential similar to that of the modern wheat cultivar as well as by a protein content higher than old emmer and spelt accessions. The new genetic materials were also characterized by a higher responsiveness to improved environmental conditions. The results described in this study support the suitability of modern emmer and spelt genotypes, improved by introgressing wheat yield and quality traits, for organic farming in Mediterranean environments.

  15. Bio-agronomic Evaluation of Old and Modern Wheat, Spelt and Emmer Genotypes for Low-input Farming in Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Fornara

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Low-input cropping systems are characterised by the reduction of pesticides and chemical fertilizers and, often, by the use of old cultivars to realize sustainable crop production which can easily integrate in the European Union agricultural subsidies. Market prices and environmental concerns favour low-input wheat production systems, nevertheless protein standards become particularly difficult to achieve in these conditions due to a minimal nitrogen supply. This study assesses the efficiency of a specific breeding program dedicated to improve yield and quality in emmer and spelt wheat in low-input environments. Ten tetraploid (emmer and durum wheat and four hexaploid (spelt and bread wheat wheat genotypes (including parent cultivars and offspring breeding lines selected for adaptation to low-input conditions were investigated for 1 yr (2003-2004 in Italy in three locations in conventional and low-input cropping systems. The main agro-morphological and qualitative traits were recorded (HD, PH, GY, PC GPY, TKW, TW, GC. The results of this study show encouraging agronomic performances of new emmer and spelt genotypes under conventional and low-input cropping systems. The new genotypes are characterized by a yield potential similar to that of the modern wheat cultivar as well as by a protein content higher than old emmer and spelt accessions. The new genetic materials were also characterized by a higher responsiveness to improved environmental conditions. The results described in this study support the suitability of modern emmer and spelt genotypes, improved by introgressing wheat yield and quality traits, for organic farming in Mediterranean environments.

  16. A High-Density Genetic Map of Wild Emmer Wheat from the Karaca Dağ Region Provides New Evidence on the Structure and Evolution of Wheat Chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Jorgensen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild emmer (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides is a progenitor of all cultivated wheat grown today. It has been hypothesized that emmer was domesticated in the Karaca Dağ region in southeastern Turkey. A total of 445 recombinant inbred lines of T. turgidum ssp. durum cv. ‘Langdon’ x wild emmer accession PI 428082 from this region was developed and genotyped with the Illumina 90K single nucleotide polymorphism Infinium assay. A genetic map comprising 2,650 segregating markers was constructed. The order of the segregating markers and an additional 8,264 co-segregating markers in the Aegilops tauschii reference genome sequence was used to compare synteny of the tetraploid wheat with the Brachypodium distachyon, rice, and sorghum. These comparisons revealed the presence of 15 structural chromosome rearrangements, in addition to the already known 4A-5A-7B rearrangements. The most common type was an intra-chromosomal translocation in which the translocated segment was short and was translocated only a short distance along the chromosome. A large reciprocal translocation, one small non-reciprocal translocation, and three large and one small paracentric inversions were also discovered. The use of inversions for a phylogeny reconstruction in the Triticum–Aegilops alliance was illustrated. The genetic map was inconsistent with the current model of evolution of the rearranged chromosomes 4A-5A-7B. Genetic diversity in the rearranged chromosome 4A showed that the rearrangements might have been contemporary with wild emmer speciation. A selective sweep was found in the centromeric region of chromosome 4A in Karaca Dağ wild emmer but not in 4A of T. aestivum. The absence of diversity from a large portion of chromosome 4A of wild emmer, believed to be ancestral to all domesticated wheat, is puzzling.

  17. Cytogenetics and immature embryo culture at Embrapa Trigo breeding program: transfer of disease resistance from related species by artificial resynthesis of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Irene Baggio de Moraes Fernandes

    2000-12-01

    to facilitate gene flow between wheat and related species. Since the environment at the center of origin of wheat in Southern Asia is quite different from subtropical environments, Brazilian breeding programs overcome more challenges to adapt wheat crop to biotic and abiotic stresses than some other countries. The germplasm bank of Embrapa Trigo has about 1000 registered entries of Triticum relatives, Aegilops, Secale and Agropyron species supplied from several germplasm banks distributed over the world which were multiplied and/or selected for naturally occurring or artificially inoculated fungal diseases. Since Aegilops squarrosa L. entries showed very good performance, the genetic variability observed in this species was firstly exploited. It is reported here the strategy used for transferring useful genes from Ae. squarrosa (DD, 2n = 14: crossing with tetraploid species (AABB, 2n = 28, rescue and in vitro culture of immature embryos for regeneration of the trihaploid (ABD, 2n = 21 hybrid, and colchicine treatment for genome duplication resulting in the artificial synthesis of hexaploid wheat lines (AABBDD, 2n = 42. Results of 10,739 artificial pollinations involving 28 cross combinations amongst eight T. durum L., T. dicoccum and T. cartlicum tetraploid entries used as female parents and ten selected Ae. squarrosa sources of resistance as male parents are presented here. Immature embryos from 18 cross combinations were recovered and cultured in vitro. Green plantlets from 13 combinations were regenerated. Fertile amphiploids were recovered only from crosses among entries of tetraploid T. durum and diploid Ae. squarrosa. They originated 11 fertile synthetic amphiploid lines from seven different combinations. Useful stem and leaf rust as well as powdery mildew resistance for future use in breeding programs were obtained.

  18. Mixing of maize and wheat genomic DNA by somatic hybridization in regenerated sterile maize plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarka, B.; Göntér, I.; Molnár-Láng, M.; Mórocz, S.; Dudits, D.

    2002-07-01

    Intergeneric somatic hybridization was performed between albino maize ( Zea mays L.) protoplasts and mesophyll protoplasts of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) by polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatments. None of the parental protoplasts were able to produce green plants without fusion. The maize cells regenerated only rudimentary albino plantlets of limited viability, and the wheat mesophyll protoplasts were unable to divide. PEG-mediated fusion treatments resulted in hybrid cells with mixed cytoplasm. Six months after fusion green embryogenic calli were selected as putative hybrids. The first-regenerates were discovered as aborted embryos. Regeneration of intact, green, maize-like plants needed 6 months of further subcultures on hormone-free medium. These plants were sterile, although had both male and female flowers. The cytological analysis of cells from callus tissues and root tips revealed 56 chromosomes, but intact wheat chromosomes were not observed. Using total DNA from hybrid plants, three RAPD primer combinations produced bands resembling the wheat profile. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using total wheat DNA as a probe revealed the presence of wheat DNA islands in the maize chromosomal background. The increased viability and the restored green color were the most-significant new traits as compared to the original maize parent. Other intermediate morphological traits of plants with hybrid origin were not found.

  19. Metabolite profiling of a diverse collection of wheat lines using ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawna B Matthews

    Full Text Available Genetic differences among major types of wheat are well characterized; however, little is known about how these distinctions affect the small molecule profile of the wheat seed. Ethanol/water (65% v/v extracts of seed from 45 wheat lines representing 3 genetically distinct classes, tetraploid durum (Triticum turgidum subspecies durum (DW and hexaploid hard and soft bread wheat (T. aestivum subspecies aestivum (BW were subjected to ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS. Discriminant analyses distinguished DW from BW with 100% accuracy due to differences in expression of nonpolar and polar ions, with differences attributed to sterol lipids/fatty acids and phospholipids/glycerolipids, respectively. Hard versus soft BW was distinguished with 100% accuracy by polar ions, with differences attributed to heterocyclic amines and polyketides versus phospholipid ions, respectively. This work provides a foundation for identification of metabolite profiles associated with desirable agronomic and human health traits and for assessing how environmental factors impact these characteristics.

  20. The Texas Adoption Project: adopted children and their intellectual resemblance to biological and adoptive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, J M

    1983-04-01

    Intelligence test scores were obtained from parents and children in 300 adoptive families and compared with similar measures available for the biological mothers of the same adopted children. Results supported the hypothesis that genetic variability is an important influence in the development of individual differences for intelligence. The most salient finding was that adopted children resemble their biological mothers more than they resemble the adoptive parents who reared them from birth. A small subset of the oldest adopted children did not resemble their biological mothers. The suggestion that the influence of genes declines with age is treated with caution since other adoption studies report a trend in the opposite direction.

  1. Wheat ferritins: Improving the iron content of the wheat grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Søren; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Tauris, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of the full complement of wheat ferritins show that the modern hexaploid wheat genome contains two ferritin genes, TaFer1 and TaFer2, each represented by three homeoalleles and placed on chromosome 5 and 4, respectively. The two genes are differentially regulated and expresse...

  2. Spontaneous de novo vaginal adenosis resembling Bartholin’s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adebayo Alade Adewole

    Spontaneous de novo vaginal adenosis resembling Bartholin's cyst: A case report ... 6 by 5 cm. The cervix, uterus, adnexa and Pouch of Douglas (POD) were normal. .... of vaginal cancer.2–4 Although, DES exposed daughters have an.

  3. Sodium azide mutagenesis in wheat: Mutants with golden glumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, K.A.; Jafri, K.A.; Arain, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    In bread wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (2n=6x=42, AABBDD), detection of induced mutations is hampered by the presence of duplicate and triplicate genes. Induced changes in spike characteristics are known, but mutants with changed glume colour do not seem to have been reported. Physical mutagens such as gamma rays, thermal neutrons and fast neutrons, and chemical mutagens like EMS, El, dES and NEH have been extensively used for induction of mutations in bread wheat but it seems as if these mutagens did not induce mutants with changed glume colour. We used sodium azide for inducing mutations in the widely adapted cultivar 'Sonalika', which is characterized by brown glume colour. Presoaked seeds were treated with 0.2M sodium azide for 3 hours. Three spikes were harvested from each M 1 plant. M 2 generation was space-planted as spike progeny. We were successful in identifying 3 mutants with golden glumes. The mutants resemble 'Sonalika' in other spike characteristics. The mutants glume colour was confirmed in M 3 . The mutants were also evaluated for agronomically important characteristics. Some characters were significantly different from the parent. Glume colours may be useful as genetic markers since such characters are less influenced by the environment. Our investigation confirms that also agronomically useful genetic variation may be readily induced in bread wheat through sodium azide

  4. (Neovossia indica ) resistance in wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Screening and multiplication of different wheat varieties under laboratory conditions using in vitro culture techniques may speed up the resistance breeding programmes. Hence, the present investigations were planned to study the nature and magnitude of gene effects of inhibition zone formed by the wheat embryos, callus-.

  5. BRS 374 – Wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS 374 is a wheat cultivar developed by Embrapa. It resulted from a cross between the F1 generation of PF 88618/Coker80.33 and Frontana/Karl. BRS 374 belongs to the soft wheat class, has a low plant height, a high potential grain yield, andwhite flour.

  6. Canola-Wheat Rotation versus Continuous Wheat for the Southern Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Duke, Jason C.; Epplin, Francis M.; Vitale, Jeffrey D.; Peeper, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    Crop rotations are not common in the wheat belt of the Southern Plains. After years of continuous wheat, weeds have become increasingly difficult and expensive to manage. Yield data were elicited from farmers and used to determine if canola-wheat-wheat rotations are economically competitive with continuous wheat in the region.

  7. THE IMPACT OF REFORMING WHEAT IMPORTING STATE-TRADING ENTERPRISES ON THE QUALITY OF WHEAT IMPORTED

    OpenAIRE

    Lavoie, Nathalie

    2003-01-01

    Recent surveys of wheat importers indicate that countries that import wheat via a state trader are less sensitive to quality issues in import decision making than countries that import wheat through private traders. This study examines conceptually and empirically the impact of the deregulation of wheat imports on the quality and source of wheat imports.

  8. Characterization of new allele influencing flowering time in bread wheat introgressed from Triticum militinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaničová, Zuzana; Jakobson, Irena; Reis, Diana; Šafář, Jan; Milec, Zbyněk; Abrouk, Michael; Doležel, Jaroslav; Järve, Kadri; Valárik, Miroslav

    2016-09-25

    Flowering time variation was identified within a mapping population of doubled haploid lines developed from a cross between the introgressive line 8.1 and spring bread wheat cv. Tähti. The line 8.1 carried introgressions from tetraploid Triticum militinae in the cv. Tähti genetic background on chromosomes 1A, 2A, 4A, 5A, 7A, 1B and 5B. The most significant QTL for the flowering time variation was identified within the introgressed region on chromosome 5A and its largest effect was associated with the VRN-A1 locus, accounting for up to 70% of phenotypic variance. The allele of T. militinae origin was designated as VRN-A1f-like. The effect of the VRN-A1f-like allele was verified in two other mapping populations. QTL analysis identified that in cv. Tähti and cv. Mooni genetic background, VRN-A1f-like allele incurred a delay of 1.9-18.6 days in flowering time, depending on growing conditions. Sequence comparison of the VRN-A1f-like and VRN-A1a alleles from the parental lines of the mapping populations revealed major mutations in the promoter region as well as in the first intron, including insertion of a MITE element and a large deletion. The sequence variation allowed construction of specific diagnostic PCR markers for VRN-A1f-like allele determination. Identification and quantification of the effect of the VRN-A1f-like allele offers a useful tool for wheat breeding and for studying fine-scale regulation of flowering pathways in wheat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Durum wheat modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, P.; Ranieri, R.; Matese, A.

    2012-01-01

    in predicting grain yield even before maturity for a wide range of growing conditions in the Mediterranean climate, governed by different annual weather patterns. The results were evaluated on the basis of regression and normalized root mean squared error with known crop yield statistics at regional level....... durum wheat during phenological development, at regional scale. We present an innovative system capable of predicting spatial yield variation and temporal yield fluctuation in long-term analysis, that are the main purposes of regional crop simulation study. The Delphi system was applied to simulate...

  10. Tetraploid Carrizo citrange rootstock (Citrus sinensis Osb.×Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) enhances natural chilling stress tolerance of common clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oustric, Julie; Morillon, Raphaël; Luro, François; Herbette, Stéphane; Lourkisti, Radia; Giannettini, Jean; Berti, Liliane; Santini, Jérémie

    2017-07-01

    Low temperatures can disturb the development, growth and geographic distribution of plants, particularly cold-sensitive plants in the Mediterranean area, where temperatures can reach seasonally low levels. In citrus crops, scion/rootstock combinations are used to improve fruit production and quality, and increase tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. In the last decade, several studies have shown that tetraploid citrus seedlings or rootstocks are more tolerant to abiotic stress than their respective diploid. The objective of this study was to test whether the use of tetraploid rootstocks can improve the chilling tolerance of the scion. We compared physiological and biochemical responses to low seasonal temperatures of common Clementine (Citrus sinensis Osb.×Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) grafted on diploid and tetraploid Carrizo citrange rootstocks, named C/2xCC and C/4xCC, respectively. During the coldest months, C/4xCC showed a smaller decrease in net photosynthesis (Pn), stomatal conductance (G s ), chlorophyll fluorescence (F v /F m ), and starch levels, and lower levels of malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage than C/2xCC. Specific activities of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) were higher in C/4xCC during the cold period, whereas chlorophyll, proline, ascorbate and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity did not vary significantly between C/4xCC and C/2xCC throughout the study period. Taken together, these results demonstrate that tetraploid Carrizo citrange rootstock improves the chilling tolerance of common clementine (scion) thanks to a part of the antioxidant system. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  11. Selecting a set of housekeeping genes for quantitative real-time PCR in normal and tetraploid haemocytes of soft-shell clams, Mya arenaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, A; Dohoo, C; McKenna, P; Delaporte, M; Berthe, F C J

    2008-09-01

    The transcripts involved in the molecular mechanisms of haemic neoplasia in relation to the haemocyte ploidy status of the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria, have yet to be identified. For this purpose, real-time quantitative RT-PCR constitutes a sensitive and efficient technique, which can help determine the gene expression involved in haemocyte tetraploid status in clams affected by haemic neoplasia. One of the critical steps in comparing transcription profiles is the stability of selected housekeeping genes, as well as an accurate normalization. In this study, we selected five reference genes, S18, L37, EF1, EF2 and actin, generally used as single control genes. Their expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR at different levels of haemocyte ploidy status in order to select the most stable genes. Using the geNorm software, our results showed that L37, EF1 and S18 represent the most stable gene expressions related to various ploidy status ranging from 0 to 78% of tetraploid haemocytes in clams sampled in North River (Prince Edward Island, Canada). However, actin gene expression appeared to be highly regulated. Hence, using it as a housekeeping gene in tetraploid haemocytes can result in inaccurate data. To compare gene expression levels related to haemocyte ploidy status in Mya arenaria, using L37, EF1 and S18 as housekeeping genes for accurate normalization is therefore recommended.

  12. Molecular Diversity and Population Structure of a Worldwide Collection of Cultivated Tetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) Germplasm as Revealed by Microsatellite Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Haiping; Chen, Zhihong; Zhang, Zhengli; Wang, Xuemin; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Zan

    2015-01-01

    Information on genetic diversity and population structure of a tetraploid alfalfa collection might be valuable in effective use of the genetic resources. A set of 336 worldwide genotypes of tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) was genotyped using 85 genome-wide distributed SSR markers to reveal the genetic diversity and population structure in the alfalfa. Genetic diversity analysis identified a total of 1056 alleles across 85 marker loci. The average expected heterozygosity and polymorphism information content values were 0.677 and 0.638, respectively, showing high levels of genetic diversity in the cultivated tetraploid alfalfa germplasm. Comparison of genetic characteristics across chromosomes indicated regions of chromosomes 2 and 3 had the highest genetic diversity. A higher genetic diversity was detected in alfalfa landraces than that of wild materials and cultivars. Two populations were identified by the model-based population structure, principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses, corresponding to China and other parts of the world. However, lack of strictly correlation between clustering and geographic origins suggested extensive germplasm exchanges of alfalfa germplasm across diverse geographic regions. The quantitative analysis of the genetic diversity and population structure in this study could be useful for genetic and genomic analysis and utilization of the genetic variation in alfalfa breeding.

  13. Fathers see stronger family resemblances than non-fathers in unrelated children's faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Paola; Dal Pos, Stefania

    2012-12-01

    Even after they have taken all reasonable measures to decrease the probability that their spouses cheat on them, men still face paternal uncertainty. Such uncertainty can lead to paternal disinvestment, which reduces the children's probability to survive and reproduce, and thus the reproductive success of the fathers themselves. A theoretical model shows that, other things being equal, men who feel confident that they have fathered their spouses' offspring tend to enjoy greater fitness (i.e., leave a larger number of surviving progeny) than men who do not. This implies that fathers should benefit from exaggerating paternal resemblance. We argue that the self-deceiving component of this bias could be concealed by generalizing this resemblance estimation boost to (1) family pairs other than father-child and (2) strangers. Here, we tested the prediction that fathers may see, in unrelated children's faces, stronger family resemblances than non-fathers. In Study 1, 70 men and 70 women estimated facial resemblances between children paired, at three different ages (as infants, children, and adolescents), either to themselves or to their parents. In Study 2, 70 men and 70 women guessed the true parents of the same children among a set of adults. Men who were fathers reported stronger similarities between faces than non-fathers, mothers, and non-mothers did, but were no better at identifying childrens' real parents. We suggest that, in fathers, processing of facial resemblances is biased in a manner that reflects their (adaptive) wishful thinking that fathers and children are related.

  14. Partners in health? Exploring resemblance in health between partners in married and cohabiting couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monden, Christiaan

    2007-04-01

    Sociological theories on family formation and families and health suggest that married and cohabiting partners will resemble each other in health status, positively or negatively. The family is often seen as a health-enhancing agent for individuals. However, there are large health differences among families. This study aims to answer the question whether it is the case that the healthy live with the healthy and individuals with poor health have partners who are also in poor health. Moreover, it examines whether resemblance in health is a consequence of partner choice--educational homogamy in particular--behaviour or shared circumstances. Younger and older couples are compared to investigate whether health resemblance increases over the lifecourse. Analyses of a nationally representative sample of almost 12,000 Dutch couples show that partners are indeed significantly alike with regard to several health indicators. Respondents whose partner reports poor health are almost three times more likely to report poor health than respondents whose partner is in good health. There is a strong accumulation of health problems within households. Partner selection with regard to education causes part of the partner resemblance in health. Less support is found for the hypotheses that risk behaviour, mutual influence or the effects of shared circumstances cause similarity between partners' health status. Surprisingly, partners in older couples, who have been together for a longer time, do not resemble each other significantly more than partners in younger couples. The implications of these findings for sociological theory and social inequalities in health are discussed.

  15. Molecular and Morpho-Agronomical Characterization of Root Architecture at Seedling and Reproductive Stages for Drought Tolerance in Wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Sewak Singh Tomar

    Full Text Available Water availability is a major limiting factor for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production in rain-fed agricultural systems worldwide. Root architecture is important for water and nutrition acquisition for all crops, including wheat. A set of 158 diverse wheat genotypes of Australian (72 and Indian (86 origin were studied for morpho-agronomical traits in field under irrigated and drought stress conditions during 2010-11 and 2011-12.Out of these 31 Indian wheat genotypes comprising 28 hexaploid (Triticum aestivum L. and 3 tetraploid (T. durum were characterized for root traits at reproductive stage in polyvinyl chloride (PVC pipes. Roots of drought tolerant genotypes grew upto137cm (C306 as compared to sensitive one of 63cm with a mean value of 94.8cm. Root architecture traits of four drought tolerant (C306, HW2004, HD2888 and NI5439 and drought sensitive (HD2877, HD2012, HD2851 and MACS2496 genotypes were also observed at 6 and 9 days old seedling stage. The genotypes did not show any significant variation for root traits except for longer coleoptiles and shoot and higher absorptive surface area in drought tolerant genotypes. The visible evaluation of root images using WinRhizo Tron root scanner of drought tolerant genotype HW2004 indicated compact root system with longer depth while drought sensitive genotype HD2877 exhibited higher horizontal root spread and less depth at reproductive stage. Thirty SSR markers were used to study genetic variation which ranged from 0.12 to 0.77 with an average value of 0.57. The genotypes were categorized into three subgroups as highly tolerant, sensitive, moderately sensitive and tolerant as intermediate group based on UPGMA cluster, STRUCTURE and principal coordinate analyses. The genotypic clustering was positively correlated to grouping based on root and morpho-agronomical traits. The genetic variability identified in current study demonstrated these traits can be used to improve drought tolerance and

  16. Molecular and Morpho-Agronomical Characterization of Root Architecture at Seedling and Reproductive Stages for Drought Tolerance in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod; Naik, Bhojaraja K.; Chand, Suresh; Deshmukh, Rupesh; Mallick, Niharika; Singh, Sanjay; Singh, Nagendra Kumar; Tomar, S. M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Water availability is a major limiting factor for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in rain-fed agricultural systems worldwide. Root architecture is important for water and nutrition acquisition for all crops, including wheat. A set of 158 diverse wheat genotypes of Australian (72) and Indian (86) origin were studied for morpho-agronomical traits in field under irrigated and drought stress conditions during 2010–11 and 2011-12.Out of these 31 Indian wheat genotypes comprising 28 hexaploid (Triticum aestivum L.) and 3 tetraploid (T. durum) were characterized for root traits at reproductive stage in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes. Roots of drought tolerant genotypes grew upto137cm (C306) as compared to sensitive one of 63cm with a mean value of 94.8cm. Root architecture traits of four drought tolerant (C306, HW2004, HD2888 and NI5439) and drought sensitive (HD2877, HD2012, HD2851 and MACS2496) genotypes were also observed at 6 and 9 days old seedling stage. The genotypes did not show any significant variation for root traits except for longer coleoptiles and shoot and higher absorptive surface area in drought tolerant genotypes. The visible evaluation of root images using WinRhizo Tron root scanner of drought tolerant genotype HW2004 indicated compact root system with longer depth while drought sensitive genotype HD2877 exhibited higher horizontal root spread and less depth at reproductive stage. Thirty SSR markers were used to study genetic variation which ranged from 0.12 to 0.77 with an average value of 0.57. The genotypes were categorized into three subgroups as highly tolerant, sensitive, moderately sensitive and tolerant as intermediate group based on UPGMA cluster, STRUCTURE and principal coordinate analyses. The genotypic clustering was positively correlated to grouping based on root and morpho-agronomical traits. The genetic variability identified in current study demonstrated these traits can be used to improve drought tolerance and association

  17. Identifikasi berat, diameter, dan tebal daging buah melon (Cucumis melo L. kultivar action 434 tetraploid akibat perlakuan kolkisin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ulung Anggraito

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian farmers are very dependence on certificated seed from another countries. In the other side the natural resources andmen powers very abundance. For these reason it is properly developed the research in agriculture sector, especially on plants breeding.It can be hoped that in the future the dependence on certificated seed from another countries can be minimized. The objective of thisresearch were: (1 to find out the concentration and dipping period which is effective to induce polyploid in musk melon plant, (2identify the weight, diameter, dan flesh thickness of tetraploid musk melon as result of colchicines treatment. The sample of this researchwas Action 434 musk melon cultivar, product of Chia-Thai Seed, Thailand. The number of sample was 480 plants, which plants on fieldrandomly. There were four colchicines concentration as an independent variable: 0.0%, 0.05%, 0.10% and 0.2%. The dipping periodwere 12, 16, 20, and 24 hours for each concentration respectively. Completely Random Design was used in three replications. Datameasurement were analyzed with Two Way ANOVA, DMRT, and LSD. From this research can be concluded that: (1 0.2 % colchicinesis the most effective concentration to induce polyploid on musk melon, with dipping period effective varied from 16–24 hours, (2 thereare changes in weight, diameter, and flesh thickness characters, with the increased tendency of each character in definite norm.

  18. Comparison of the developmental response of diploid and tetraploid Phalaris following irradiation of the dry seed, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, A.B.; Godward, M.B.E.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation and radiomimetic substances have been proved to be powerful tools for creating variability in plants. The present materials, i.e. Phalaris canariensis and P. minor, have been selected for the present studies because of their favourable size and number of chromosomes. The influence of filtered and unfiltered X-ray on the germination, survival and length of roots and shoots was studied. In the M 1 generation of P. canariensis, 10 krad of both types of X-ray had little effect on the percentage of germinating seeds; some reduction was effected by 20 and 30 krad, while in the P. minor, much greater effect was produced as the general reduction in germination of all doses. The progeny seeds (M 2 ) of the plants of irradiated M 1 seeds, survived to give offspring, showed difference between tetraploid (P. minor) and diploid (P. canariensis). Death of seedlings continued over a long period which varied with the dose of radiation. The growth of roots was reduced with increasing dose in both species. The reduction was larger in P. canariensis than in P. minor. There was larger variation in shoot length as growth proceeded in P. canariensis (2n) faster than in P. minor (4n+2) both in the controls and after 10 krad irradiation. The roots of both species were more sensitive to radiation than shoots, and P. minor was more radioresistant than P. canariensis. (Kobatake, H.)

  19. Family environment, not heredity, accounts for family resemblances in food preferences and attitudes: a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, P; Millman, L

    1987-04-01

    Monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twin pairs reported on their food preferences, the variety of foods of the same general category (e.g. types of soup) in their diet, and their concern about contact of their food with disgusting or other unacceptable substances (contamination sensitivity). Although there was substantial resemblance between siblings for many of these items, there was no clear evidence for a heritable component on any item. The only case for which there was an interpretable and significantly greater resemblance among monozygotic than among dizygotic twins (out of 23 questions) was preferred degree of hotness resulting from chili pepper in foods. These results confirm the prediction that in omnivorous animals, such as humans, genetic predispositions will be minimal with respect to food. The modest sibling resemblances on a number of measures are primarily attributable to a shared environment.

  20. Traumatic funicular phlebitis of the thoracic wall resembling Mondor's disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondo Takeshi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mondor's disease is a peculiar form of thrombophlebitis, involving a superficial vein in the subcutaneous fat of the breast or anterior chest wall. Case presentation The author presents a case of a 35-year-old male Japanese patient with cord-like induration in the right lateral thoracic wall. This lesion was diagnosed as traumatic funicular phlebitis, resembling Mondor's disease. Conclusion Traumatic funicular phlebitis, resembling Mondor's disease, is a clinical entity which may give suggestive insight to the etiology of Mondor's disease itself.

  1. MRI findings of uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung Hwan; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Hyun Young; Hwang, In Taek; Kim, Ju Heon; Lee, Seung Yeon [Eulji University Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor is a very rare uterine neoplasm that was first described by Clement and Scully in 1976. Since then, approximately 70 cases have been reported. However, these case reports have mainly described and discussed the pathologic and clinical features, and few radiologic findings have been presented. We experienced a case of a uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor, which was considered a uterine leiomyoma or leiomyosarcoma upon initial impression at preoperative evaluation including transvaginal ultrasonography and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging. Its diagnosis was pathologically confirmed after total abdominal hysterectomy.

  2. A Metabolic Gene Cluster in the Wheat W1 and the Barley Cer-cqu Loci Determines β-Diketone Biosynthesis and Glaucousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen-Avivi, Shelly; Savin, Orna; Racovita, Radu C; Lee, Wing-Sham; Adamski, Nikolai M; Malitsky, Sergey; Almekias-Siegl, Efrat; Levy, Matan; Vautrin, Sonia; Bergès, Hélène; Friedlander, Gilgi; Kartvelishvily, Elena; Ben-Zvi, Gil; Alkan, Noam; Uauy, Cristobal; Kanyuka, Kostya; Jetter, Reinhard; Distelfeld, Assaf; Aharoni, Asaph

    2016-06-01

    The glaucous appearance of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants, that is the light bluish-gray look of flag leaf, stem, and spike surfaces, results from deposition of cuticular β-diketone wax on their surfaces; this phenotype is associated with high yield, especially under drought conditions. Despite extensive genetic and biochemical characterization, the molecular genetic basis underlying the biosynthesis of β-diketones remains unclear. Here, we discovered that the wheat W1 locus contains a metabolic gene cluster mediating β-diketone biosynthesis. The cluster comprises genes encoding proteins of several families including type-III polyketide synthases, hydrolases, and cytochrome P450s related to known fatty acid hydroxylases. The cluster region was identified in both genetic and physical maps of glaucous and glossy tetraploid wheat, demonstrating entirely different haplotypes in these accessions. Complementary evidence obtained through gene silencing in planta and heterologous expression in bacteria supports a model for a β-diketone biosynthesis pathway involving members of these three protein families. Mutations in homologous genes were identified in the barley eceriferum mutants defective in β-diketone biosynthesis, demonstrating a gene cluster also in the β-diketone biosynthesis Cer-cqu locus in barley. Hence, our findings open new opportunities to breed major cereal crops for surface features that impact yield and stress response. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  3. Mapping of Leaf Rust Resistance Genes and Molecular Characterization of the 2NS/2AS Translocation in the Wheat Cultivar Jagger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shulin; Kolmer, James A; Wang, Shuwen; Yan, Liuling

    2018-04-19

    Winter wheat cultivar 'Jagger' was recently found to have an alien chromosomal segment 2NS that has Lr37 , a gene conferring resistance against leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina The objective of this study was to map and characterize the gene(s) for seedling leaf rust resistance in Jagger. The recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of Jagger × '2174' was inoculated with leaf rust pathogen THBJG and BBBDB, and evaluated for infection type (IT) response. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for THBJG and BBBDB was coincidently mapped to chromosome arm 2AS, and the QTL accounted for 56.6% - 66.2% of total phenotypic variation in infection type (IT) response to THBJG, and 72.1% - 86.9% to BBBDB. The causal gene for resistance to these rust races was mapped to the 2NS segment in Jagger. The 2NS segment was located in a region of approximately 27.8 Mb starting from the telomere of chromosome arm 2AS, based on the sequences of the A genome in tetraploid wheat. The Lr17a gene on chromosome arm 2AS was delimited to 3.1 Mb in the genomic region, which was orthologous to the 2NS segment. Therefore, the Lr37 gene in the 2NS segment can be pyramided with other effective resistance genes, rather than Lr17a in wheat, to improve resistance to rust diseases. Copyright © 2018, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  4. 21 CFR 137.200 - Whole wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole wheat flour. 137.200 Section 137.200 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.200 Whole wheat flour. (a) Whole wheat flour, graham flour, entire wheat flour is the food prepared by so grinding cleaned wheat, other than durum wheat and red durum...

  5. Children and Adolescents' Understandings of Family Resemblance: A Study of Naive Inheritance Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to provide developmental data on two connected naive inheritance concepts and to explore the coherence of children's naive biology knowledge. Two tasks examined children and adolescents' (4, 7, 10, and 14 years) conceptions of phenotypic resemblance across kin (in physical characteristics, disabilities, and personality traits). The…

  6. Resemblances of Parents and Twins in Sport Participation and Heart Rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, D.I.; van den Bree, M.B.; Orlebeke, J.F.; Molenaar, P.C.M.

    1989-01-01

    A model to analyze resemblances of twins and parents using LISREL is outlined and applied to sports participation and heart-rate data. Sports participation and heart rate were measured in 44 monozygotic and 46 dizygotic adolescent twin pairs and in their parents. Genetic factors influence variation

  7. Descriptive Understandings of the Nature of Science: Examining the Consensual and Family Resemblance Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento Rocha, Maristela; Gurgel, Ivã

    2017-01-01

    This paper performs a critical analysis of the consensual and family resemblance approaches to the nature of science. Despite the debate that surrounds them, between a pragmatic consensus and a more comprehensive understanding, both approaches have in common the goal of helping students to "internalize" knowledge about science in a…

  8. Effects of parenting quality on adolescents' personality resemblance to their parents. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenhof, M Rohaa; Komdeur, Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    This study considers the development of resemblance between 741 adolescents and their biological parents, across six NEO-PI-R personality traits known to be important in psychological problems: anger-hostility, impulsiveness, vulnerability, assertiveness, excitement-seeking, and self-discipline. We

  9. Effects of parenting quality on adolescents' personality resemblance to their parents. The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenhof, M Rohaa; Komdeur, Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-08-01

    This study considers the development of resemblance between 741 adolescents and their biological parents, across six NEO-PI-R personality traits known to be important in psychological problems: anger-hostility, impulsiveness, vulnerability, assertiveness, excitement-seeking, and self-discipline. We modelled the association between perceived parental warmth and rejection at age eleven and personality resemblance to parents at about age sixteen. Parenting experienced during early adolescence was related to the degree and direction in which adolescents resembled their parents five years later in life. Rejection, especially from fathers, significantly predicted a smaller resemblance to both the parents. Girls were more strongly affected by parental quality than boys, and there was some indication that adolescents responded in opposite ways to parenting from mothers and fathers. This study is a first step in uncovering the complex interplay between parenting, gender, and the current generation's ability to develop personality traits independent from the previous generation. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Family resemblance in fat intake, nutrition attitudes and beliefs : a study among three generations of women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis nutrition attitudes, beliefs, and fat intake in three generations of women are described. The aim of the study was twofold: the development of methods, and to study family resemblance in food habits. Based on literature study and qualitative pilot studies a questionnaire on

  11. PITHOMYCES CHARTARUM AS A PATHOGEN OF WHEAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tóth, B; Csösz, M; Dijksterhuis, J; Frisvad, J C; Varga, J

    2007-01-01

    During routine surveys of wheat-growing (Triticum aestivum L.) areas of Hungary, symptomatic leaf samples were collected from different wheat cultivars. Macro- and micromorphological examinations of singlespore isolates showed some of them to belong to Pithomyces chartarum (teleomorph:

  12. TaGS5-3A, a grain size gene selected during wheat improvement for larger kernel and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Li, Tian; Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Yuquan; Chen, Xinhong; Zhang, Xueyong

    2016-05-01

    Grain size is a dominant component of grain weight in cereals. Earlier studies have shown that OsGS5 plays a major role in regulating both grain size and weight in rice via promotion of cell division. In this study, we isolated TaGS5 homoeologues in wheat and mapped them on chromosomes 3A, 3B and 3D. Temporal and spatial expression analysis showed that TaGS5 homoeologues were preferentially expressed in young spikes and developing grains. Two alleles of TaGS5-3A, TaGS5-3A-T and TaGS5-3A-G were identified in wheat accessions, and a functional marker was developed to discriminate them. Association analysis revealed that TaGS5-3A-T was significantly correlated with larger grain size and higher thousand kernel weight. Biochemical assays showed that TaGS5-3A-T possesses a higher enzymatic activity than TaGS5-3A-G. Transgenic rice lines overexpressing TaGS5-3A-T also exhibited larger grain size and higher thousand kernel weight than TaGS5-3A-G lines, and the transcript levels of cell cycle-related genes in TaGS5-3A-T lines were higher than those in TaGS5-3A-G lines. Furthermore, systematic evolution analysis in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheat showed that TaGS5-3A underwent strong artificial selection during wheat polyploidization events and the frequency changes of two alleles demonstrated that TaGS5-3A-T was favoured in global modern wheat cultivars. These results suggest that TaGS5-3A is a positive regulator of grain size and its favoured allele TaGS5-3A-T exhibits a larger potential application in wheat high-yield breeding. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Mutation breeding in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, I.M.

    2002-01-01

    The study aims to improve the productivity of wheat by using gamma ray (100 - 600 Gy) in mutation breading. Five local varieties were used and the program continued for the Sakha 69 for seven generations. Seeds irradiated with 600 Gy were not germinated in the field, while low doses (100-150 Gy) stimulated the root growth and spike length. The higher doses caused gradual decrease of growth with differences in varieties response. in the second generation, a genetic differences were noticed in most varieties using doses of 100-300 Gy, and the dispike was disappeared when 250 Gy was used. 79 plants from irradiated Sakha 69 were selected according to spike length and the number of grains and planted with the control to test the third generation. differences between the varieties were noticed and 8 mutants with high productivity were selected and evaluated in the fourth and fifth generations with the local variety. The mutants improve the productivity and in particular the mutants Nos.. (19-1), (14-3), and (30-2). The experiment showed the relation between the planting sites and the mutants in the sixth and seven generations

  14. Soft durum wheat - a paradigm shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two traits define most aspects of wheat quality and utilization: kernel texture (hardness) and gluten. The former is far simpler genetically and is controlled by two genes, Puroindoline a and Puroindoline b. Durum wheat lacks puroindolines and has very hard kernels. As such, durum wheat when milled ...

  15. Durum wheat quality prediction in Mediterranean environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, P.; Gioli, B.; Genesio, L.

    2014-01-01

    Durum wheat is one of the most important agricultural crops in the Mediterranean area. In addition to yield, grain quality is very important in wheat markets because of the demand for high-quality end products such as pasta, couscous and bulgur wheat. Grain quality is directly affected by several...

  16. Pelletizing properties of torrefied wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Nielsen, Niels Peter; Hansen, Hans Ove

    2013-01-01

    of wheat straw have been analyzed. Laboratory equipment has been used to investigate the pelletizing properties of wheat straw torrefied at temperatures between 150 and 300 °C. IR spectroscopy and chemical analyses have shown that high torrefaction temperatures change the chemical properties of the wheat...

  17. Unfolding the potential of wheat cultivar mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, J.; Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Lecarpentier, C.

    2018-01-01

    and they are not encouraged by advisory services. Based on the methodology developed by Kiær et al. (2009), we achieved a meta-analysis of cultivar mixtures in wheat. Among the 120 publications dedicated to wheat, we selected 32 studies to analyze various factors that may condition the success or failure of wheat mixtures...

  18. Growing Wheat. People on the Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily life of the Don Riffel family, wheat farmers in Kansas. Beginning with early morning, the booklet traces the family's activities through a typical harvesting day in July, while explaining how a wheat farm is run. The booklet also briefly describes the wheat growing…

  19. Weed Dynamics and Management in Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabran, Khawar; Mahmood, Khalid; Melander, Bo

    2017-01-01

    ) chemical weed control; and (vi) integrated weed management strategy in wheat. A critical analysis of recent literature indicated that broadleaved weeds are the most common group of weeds in wheat fields followed by grass weeds, while sedges were rarely noted in wheat fields. Across the globe, the most...

  20. Improvement of wheat for resistance to Russian Wheat Aphid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinyua, M.; Malinga, J.N.; Wanyama, J.; Karanja, L.; Njau, P.; Leo, T.; Alomba, E.

    2001-01-01

    Breeding for resistance against Russian wheat aphid in Kenya is reported. Results of six of the lines were found to have high to moderate resistance to Russian wheat aphid. Popular lines were susceptible in the greenhouse when subjected to aphid pressure but showed moderate susceptibility when screened under field conditions, indicating that in years or location with low aphid pressure farmers may still get a crop. However in areas of high aphid pressure or bad years they may lose their crop. Consequently, developing resistant/torerant varieties is urgent

  1. Mutation induction of protein variability in wheat and rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narahari, P.; Bhatia, C.R.; Gopalakrishna, T.; Mitra, R.K.

    1976-01-01

    No high protein mutants of wheat have been obtained without depression of grain yield after screening a few thousand lines. The best wheat mutant identified in our programme so far is an erectoid mutant that has consistently shown about 1.5-2% points increase in protein over Kalyan sona for the last four years. Grain yield of the mutant is about 89% of the parent. No significant variation in amino composition is noted in the mutant. Preliminary analysis of over 200 macro mutants in three varieties of rice has resulted in identification of mutants with high protein content (10-22%) compared with 8.0 to 8.5% in the high yielding controls. The amino-acid composition of some of the mutant kernels do not show great deviation from the controls. All the high protein percentage mutants are lower in grain yield. Despite very high F 1 sterility in a cross involving the high protein genotype GMPR-51 and high yielding IR-8, several fertile F 2 plants resembling IR-8 have been isolated which on preliminary analysis have shown still higher protein content than GMPR-51, suggesting a transgressive mode of inheritance of this trait. (author)

  2. Integrated weed management in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwat, K.B.; Khan, M.A.; Nawab, K.; Khattak, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The paper summarizes the results of an experiment conducted on wheat at Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during winter 2004-05. Randomized complete block design with split-split-plot arrangement was used where wheat line and broadcast sowing were kept in main plots. Seed rates (100 and 150 kg ha-1) were assigned as sub-plots, while four herbicides (Topik, Isoproturon, Puma super and Buctril super) and weed check were assigned to sub-sub-plots. Results revealed that higher biological yield was recorded in line sowing. However, higher wheat seed rate decreased weed biomass and increased biological yield. Herbicides proved to be effective in decreasing weed biomass and enhancing grain yield and its contributing traits. It was suggested that line sowing in combination with higher seeding rate and Buctril super should be used in an integrated weed management fashion. However further studies are required to investigate various ranges of seeding rate and herbicides doses. (author)

  3. Gastrointestinal symptoms resembling ulcerative proctitis caused by larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Gaillard, Julien; Borée-Moreau, Diane; Bailly, Éric; Andres, Christian R; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of facultative intestinal myiasis due to larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax, also named the rat-tailed maggots. The development of larvae in the lower bowel was responsible for non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that resembled ulcerative proctitis. The diagnosis was established upon the observation of four spontaneously excreted mobile larvae. The definite identification of the E. tenax species was made possible by scanning electron microscopy. The clinical outcome was satisfactory.

  4. Facial Resemblance Exaggerates Sex-Specific Jealousy-Based Decisions1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Platek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in reaction to a romantic partner's infidelity are well documented and are hypothesized to be attributable to sex-specific jealousy mechanisms which are utilized to solve adaptive problems associated with risk of extra-pair copulation. Males, because of the risk of cuckoldry become more upset by sexual infidelity, while females, because of loss of resources and biparental investment tend to become more distressed by emotional infidelity. However, the degree to which these sex-specific reactions to jealousy interact with cues to kin are completely unknown. Here we investigated the interaction of facial resemblance with decisions about sex-specific jealousy scenarios. Fifty nine volunteers were asked to imagine that two different people (represented by facial composites informed them about their romantic partner's sexual or emotional infidelity. Consistent with previous research, males ranked sexual infidelity scenarios as most upsetting and females ranked emotional infidelity scenarios most upsetting. However, when information about the infidelity was provided by a face that resembled the subject, sex-specific reactions to jealousy were exaggerated. This finding highlights the use of facial resemblance as a putative self-referent phenotypic matching cue that impacts trusting behavior in sexual contexts.

  5. Elasticities for U.S. Wheat Food Use by Class

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    We conceptualize wheat for food use as an input into flour production and derive demand functions to quantify price responsiveness and economic substitutability across wheat classes. Cost, price, and substitution elasticities are estimated for hard red winter, hard red spring, soft red wheat, soft white winter, and durum wheat. In general, hard red winter and spring wheat varieties are much more responsive to their own price than are soft wheat varieties and durum wheat. Morishima elasticitie...

  6. Cargill: Biotechnology and Value Creation in Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Boland, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    About 40 percent of the world's food supply came from rice and wheat-based foods. The genome of wheat (a genome is a set of chromosomes) was much larger than those of other crops such as rice. Deciphering the wheat genome was a much more complex process. Wheat had six DNA strands (e.g., humans have only a double-helix DNA strand) and almost twice as many genes as humans. GM wheat would be available for production by 2004. The objective of this case is to describe: segregation and identity-pre...

  7. Canola versus Wheat Rotation Effects on Subsequent Wheat Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter canola (Brassica napus L.) (WC) is considered the most promising, domestically-produced oilseed feedstock for biodiesel production and for diversifying wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-based cropping systems in the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA (PNW). A law passed in 2006 requires that at least t...

  8. Evaluation of the quality attributes of wheat composite (wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composite flour was produced with wheat and other crops like rice, plantain and cassava at 20% substitution. The flour mixes were evaluated for proximate, physico-chemical properties and sensory evaluation was carried out on bread samples produced from these mixes. The moisture contents of these flours ranged from ...

  9. Effects of crop rotation on weed density, biomass and yield of wheat (Titicum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    A. Zareafeizabadi; H.R. Rostamzadeh

    2016-01-01

    In order to study the weed populations in wheat, under different crop rotations an experiment was carried out at Agricultural Research Station of Jolgeh Rokh, Iran. During growing season this project was done in five years, based on Randomized Complete Bloch Design with three replications, on Crop rotations included: wheat monoculture for the whole period (WWWWW), wheat- wheat- wheat- canola- wheat (WWWCW), wheat- sugar beet- wheat-sugar beet- wheat (WSWSW), wheat- potato- wheat- potato- whea...

  10. Patterns of suspected wheat-related allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker Christensen, Morten; Eller, Esben; Mortz, Charlotte G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy to wheat can present clinically in different forms: Sensitization to ingested wheat via the gastrointestinal tract can cause traditional food allergy or in combination with exercise, Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis (WDEIA). Sensitization to inhaled wheat flour may......). All children had atopic dermatitis, and most (13/15) outgrew their wheat allergy. Most children (13/15) had other food allergies. Challenge positive patients showed significantly higher levels of sIgE to wheat and significantly more were SPT positive than challenge negative. Group 2: Eleven out of 13...... of sIgE to ω-5-gliadin. The natural course is presently unknown. CONCLUSION: Wheat allergy can manifest in different disease entities, rendering a detailed case history and challenge mandatory. Patient age, occupation, concomitant allergies (food or inhalant) and atopic dermatitis are important factors...

  11. Multimodel ensembles of wheat growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martre, Pierre; Wallach, Daniel; Asseng, Senthold

    2015-01-01

    , but such studies are difficult to organize and have only recently begun. We report on the largest ensemble study to date, of 27 wheat models tested in four contrasting locations for their accuracy in simulating multiple crop growth and yield variables. The relative error averaged over models was 24...

  12. Determinants of wheat noodle color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noodles are a leading food in the world, and color is a key determinant of consumer acceptance. In this review the two prominent forms of wheat noodles are considered, white salted and alkaline. Many of the preparation and evaluation strategies are the same for both, with prominence placed on ‘brigh...

  13. IPR 118 - Bread wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cultivar IPR 118 developed by IAPAR has a good yield potential and is widely adapted. It is earlymaturing and moderately tolerant to shattering and soil aluminum, moderately resistant to leaf rust and presents high glutenstrength for bread-making. The overall yield exceeded controls by 13%.

  14. Identification methods for irradiated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shengtao; Kume, Tamikazu; Ishigaki, Isao.

    1992-02-01

    The effect of irradiation on wheat seeds was examined using various kinds of analytical methods for the identification of irradiated seeds. In germination test, the growth of sprouts was markedly inhibited at 500Gy, which was not affected by storage. The decrease in germination percentage was detected at 3300Gy. The results of enzymatic activity change in the germ measured by Vita-Scope germinator showed that the seeds irradiated at 10kGy could be identified. The content of amino acids in ungerminated and germinated seeds were analyzed. Irradiation at 10kGy caused the decrease of lysine content but the change was small which need very careful operation to detect it. The chemiluminescence intensity increased with radiation dose and decreased during storage. The wheat irradiated at 10kGy could be identified even after 3 months storage. In the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrum analysis, the signal intensity with the g value f 2.0055 of skinned wheat seeds increased with radiation dose. Among these methods, germination test was the most sensitive and effective for identification of irradiated wheat. (author)

  15. Drought resistance in durum wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simane, B.

    1993-01-01

    Durum wheat is widely grown as a rainfed crop in the semi-arid tropics. Its production is low and variable from season to season due to frequent drought-stress. Characterization of target environment and employing both analytical and empirical breeding approaches would speed up progress in

  16. 7 CFR 810.2201 - Definition of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of wheat. 810.2201 Section 810.2201... GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Terms Defined § 810.2201 Definition of wheat. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), club wheat...

  17. Acceptability of Noodles Produced from Blends of Wheat, Acha and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acha (Digitaria exilis) and soybean (Glycine max) were processed into flours and used to substitute wheat flour (Titicum aestivm) as a composite flour at different proportions of 100:0:0 (Wheat); 75:25:25 (Wheat: Acha: Soybean); 75:25 (Wheat: Acha); 75:25 (Wheat: Soybean) and 50:50 (Acha: soybean). The formulated ...

  18. Evaluation of the Effect of Crop Rotations on Yield and Yield Components of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Darya)

    OpenAIRE

    H. A. Fallahi; U. Mahmadyarov; H. Sabouri; M. Ezat-Ahmadi4

    2013-01-01

    Grain yield in wheat is influenced directly and indirectly by other plant characteristics. One of the main goals in wheat breeding programs is increase of grain yield. Considering the role of crop rotation in increasing grain yield, and in order to study the difference between crop rotations for wheat yield and yield components (Darya cultivar), an experiment was conducted with six rotation treatments (wheat-chickpea-wheat, wheat-cotton-wheat, wheat-watermelon-wheat, wheat-wheat-wheat, wheat-...

  19. Resembling a viper: implications of mimicry for conservation of the endangered smooth snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkonen, Janne K; Mappes, Johanna

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenon of Batesian mimicry, where a palatable animal gains protection against predation by resembling an unpalatable model, has been a core interest of evolutionary biologists for 150 years. An extensive range of studies has focused on revealing mechanistic aspects of mimicry (shared education and generalization of predators) and the evolutionary dynamics of mimicry systems (co-operation vs. conflict) and revealed that protective mimicry is widespread and is important for individual fitness. However, according to our knowledge, there are no case studies where mimicry theories have been applied to conservation of mimetic species. Theoretically, mimicry affects, for example, frequency dependency of predator avoidance learning and human induced mortality. We examined the case of the protected, endangered, nonvenomous smooth snake (Coronella austriaca) that mimics the nonprotected venomous adder (Vipera berus), both of which occur in the Åland archipelago, Finland. To quantify the added predation risk on smooth snakes caused by the rarity of vipers, we calculated risk estimates from experimental data. Resemblance of vipers enhances survival of smooth snakes against bird predation because many predators avoid touching venomous vipers. Mimetic resemblance is however disadvantageous against human predators, who kill venomous vipers and accidentally kill endangered, protected smooth snakes. We found that the effective population size of the adders in Åland is very low relative to its smooth snake mimic (28.93 and 41.35, respectively).Because Batesian mimicry is advantageous for the mimic only if model species exist in sufficiently high numbers, it is likely that the conservation program for smooth snakes will fail if adders continue to be destroyed. Understanding the population consequences of mimetic species may be crucial to the success of endangered species conservation. We suggest that when a Batesian mimic requires protection, conservation planners should

  20. A Drosophila gene encoding a protein resembling the human β-amyloid protein precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, D.R.; Martin-Morris, L.; Luo, L.; White, K.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have isolated genomic and cDNA clones for a Drosophila gene resembling the human β-amyloid precursor protein (APP). This gene produces a nervous system-enriched 6.5-kilobase transcript. Sequencing of cDNAs derived from the 6.5-kilobase transcript predicts an 886-amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide contains a putative transmembrane domain and exhibits strong sequence similarity to cytoplasmic and extracellular regions of the human β-amyloid precursor protein. There is a high probability that this Drosophila gene corresponds to the essential Drosophila locus vnd, a gene required for embryonic nervous system development

  1. Consolation in the aftermath of robberies resembles post-aggression consolation in chimpanzees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä; Bernasco, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Post-aggression consolation is assumed to occur in humans as well as in chimpanzees. While consolation following peer aggression has been observed in children, systematic evidence of consolation in human adults is rare. We used surveillance camera footage of the immediate aftermath of nonfatal...... to be consoled. Furthermore, we show that high levels of threat during the robbery increased the likelihood of receiving consolation afterwards. These patterns resemble post-aggression consolation in chimpanzees and suggest that emotions of empathic concern are involved in consolation across humans...... and chimpanzees....

  2. Dermatitis and lymphadenitis resembling juvenile cellulitis in a four-year-old dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuber, A E; van den Broek, A H M; Brownstein, D; Thoday, K L; Hill, P B

    2004-05-01

    A four-year-old, entire male toy poodle was presented with a two-and-a-half-week history of ocular discharge progressing to periorbital alopecia, depigmentation, alopecia and ulceration around the muzzle. There was also a haemorrhagic discharge from the ears, pyrexia, lethargy and generalised lymphadenopathy. The clinical, cytological, bacteriological and histopathological findings were consistent with a diagnosis of dermatitis resembling juvenile cellulitis in an adult dog. Glucocorticoid therapy led to rapid resolution of the clinical signs and the dog has remained in remission for two years after cessation of treatment.

  3. Mammographic texture resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Vachon, Celine M.; Scott, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:Breast density has been established as a major risk factor for breast cancer. We have previously demonstrated that mammographic texture resemblance (MTR), recognizing the local texture patterns of the mammogram, is also a risk factor for breast cancer, independent of percent breast...... density. We examine if these findings generalize to another population.METHODS:Texture patterns were recorded in digitalized pre-diagnosis (3.7years) film mammograms of a nested case-control study within the Dutch screening program (S1) comprising of 245 breast cancers and 250 matched controls...

  4. Combining different views of mammographic texture resemblance (MTR) marker of breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, S.; Karemore, Gopal; Chernoff, Konstantin

    the subsequent 4 years whereas 245 cases had a diagnosis 2-4 years post mammography. We employed the MTR supervised texture learning framework to perform risk evaluation from a single mammography view. In the framework 20,000 pixels were sampled and classified by a kNN pixel classifier. A feature selection step......PURPOSE Mammographic density is a well established breast cancer risk factor. Texture analysis in terms of the Mammographoc Texture Resemblance (MTR) marker has recently shown to add to risk segregation. Hitherto only single view MTR analysis has been performed. Standard mammography examinations...

  5. Determination of Zinc in Wheat and Wheat Bran by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazi Zahedi, M.; Bahrami Samani, A.; Sedaghati Zadeh, M.; Ghannadi Maragheh, M.

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of concentration of elements in foodstuffs is of significant interest. Wheat is one of the most consumed food stuffs in Iran and zinc is also considered as one of the necessary and vital elements. Since the measurement of some trace elements is not practical by the conventional analytical methods, due to the lower detection limit, the neutron activation analysis was applied to determine the zinc in wheat and wheat bran. Food sample of roughly 50 mg was irradiated for 24 hours. After cooling, the interval samples were counted by a gamma spectrometry system. The concentration of zinc in wheat without bran and the wheat bran were 18.444±0.656 and 19.927±0.698 ppm, respectively. The amount of zinc in wheat bran was noticeable so it showed that consuming wheat with bran is more beneficial than the wheat with no bran for the human-beings body requirements.

  6. Incorporating Yearly Derived Winter Wheat Maps Into Winter Wheat Yield Forecasting Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakun, S.; Franch, B.; Roger, J.-C.; Vermote, E.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C.; Santamaría-Artigas, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. Timely and accurate forecast of wheat yield and production at global scale is vital in implementing food security policy. Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) developed a generalized empirical model for forecasting winter wheat production using remote sensing data and official statistics. This model was implemented using static wheat maps. In this paper, we analyze the impact of incorporating yearly wheat masks into the forecasting model. We propose a new approach of producing in season winter wheat maps exploiting satellite data and official statistics on crop area only. Validation on independent data showed that the proposed approach reached 6% to 23% of omission error and 10% to 16% of commission error when mapping winter wheat 2-3 months before harvest. In general, we found a limited impact of using yearly winter wheat masks over a static mask for the study regions.

  7. Familial resemblance of borderline personality disorder features: genetic or cultural transmission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijn A Distel

    Full Text Available Borderline personality disorder is a severe personality disorder for which genetic research has been limited to family studies and classical twin studies. These studies indicate that genetic effects explain 35 to 45% of the variance in borderline personality disorder and borderline personality features. However, effects of non-additive (dominance genetic factors, non-random mating and cultural transmission have generally not been explored. In the present study an extended twin-family design was applied to self-report data of twins (N = 5,017 and their siblings (N = 1,266, parents (N = 3,064 and spouses (N = 939 from 4,015 families, to estimate the effects of additive and non-additive genetic and environmental factors, cultural transmission and non-random mating on individual differences in borderline personality features. Results showed that resemblance among biological relatives could completely be attributed to genetic effects. Variation in borderline personality features was explained by additive genetic (21%; 95% CI 17-26% and dominant genetic (24%; 95% CI 17-31% factors. Environmental influences (55%; 95% CI 51-60% explained the remaining variance. Significant resemblance between spouses was observed, which was best explained by phenotypic assortative mating, but it had only a small effect on the genetic variance (1% of the total variance. There was no effect of cultural transmission from parents to offspring.

  8. Distribution of protein components of wheat from different regions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kesiena

    2012-06-07

    Jun 7, 2012 ... The distribution of wheat protein components in different regions was researched to ..... properties of wheat gliadins II. effects on dynamic rheoligical ... fractions properties of wheat dough depending on molecular size and.

  9. Wheat yield dynamics: a structural econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Afsin; Akdi, Yilmaz; Arslan, Fahrettin

    2007-10-15

    In this study we initially have tried to explore the wheat situation in Turkey, which has a small-open economy and in the member countries of European Union (EU). We have observed that increasing the wheat yield is fundamental to obtain comparative advantage among countries by depressing domestic prices. Also the changing structure of supporting schemes in Turkey makes it necessary to increase its wheat yield level. For this purpose, we have used available data to determine the dynamics of wheat yield by Ordinary Least Square Regression methods. In order to find out whether there is a linear relationship among these series we have checked each series whether they are integrated at the same order or not. Consequently, we have pointed out that fertilizer usage and precipitation level are substantial inputs for producing high wheat yield. Furthermore, in respect for our model, fertilizer usage affects wheat yield more than precipitation level.

  10. Evaluation of the Effect of Rotation and Application Rate of Nitrogen on Yield, Yield Components and Nitrogen Efficiency Indexes in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nasri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction There are about 160 species in Brassica genus, which are mostly annuals and biennials. The plants in this genus have potential for fodder uses. The progress in plant breeding science has produced new crop varieties for oil and forage usages. Perko varieties are derived from crosses between tetraploid plants of winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.Var. napus and Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. var. sensulato. The new plants are superior to their parents from various aspects. Buko varieties are new amphiploid plants obtained by crossing between tetraploid winter rapeseed, Chinese cabbage and turnips (Brassica campestris L. var. Rapa. Oilseed radish with scientific name (Raphanus sativus L. is a genus of the Brassica and consumption, oil, green manure, feed and fodder (24. This plant in many countries, including Canada, is cultivated in gardens as cover crop. Oilseed radish grows fast in the cool seasons. Ramtil (Guizotia abyssinica belongs to the Compositae family, Phasilia (Phaceli atanacetifolia L. belongs to Boraginaceae family and clover is from Fabaceae family that is grown for feeding purposes. Materials and Methods A field experiment was conducted from 2011 to 2012 in the Karezan region of Ilam, Iran (42º33′N, 33º46′E on a silty-clay with low organic carbon (1.26% and slightly alkaline soil (pH=7.9. This site is characterized as temperate climate with 370 mm annual precipitation. The experiment was arranged in a split plot based on randomized complete block design with four replications. The main plots consisted of 6 pre-sowing plant treatments (control, Perko PVH, Buko, Clover and Oilseed radish and combination of three plants Ramtil, Phaselia andclover, and sub plots covered four N fertilizer rates including no fertilizer N (Control, 50% lower than recommended N rate, recommended N rate and 50% more than recommended N rate. Winter wheat (cv. Pishtaz was sown on mid-November with the row spacing of 15 cm and a

  11. Prehaustorial and posthaustorial resistance to wheat leaf rust in diploid wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anker, C.C.

    2001-01-01

    In modern wheat cultivars, resistance to wheat leaf rust, Puccinia triticina , is either based on hypersensitivity resistance or on partial resistance. Hypersensitivity resistance in wheat is monogenic, often complete and posthaustorial: it is induced after the

  12. Biotechnology in wheat improvement in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanja, L.; Kinyua, M.G.; Njau, P.N.; Maling'a, J.

    2001-01-01

    Use of double haploid (DH) and mutation techniques in breeding wheat lines and varieties tolerant to drought, acid soils and resistant to Russian Wheat Aphid (RWA) at the National Plant Breeding Research Center in the last 4 years, is reported. The wheat variety, ''Pasa'' irradiated in 1996 is reported to have undergone selection process through yield trials in 1999-2000. Work done in the year 2000 is mainly described

  13. Mutation induction in durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senay, A.; Sekerci, S.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the separate and combine effects of different doses of gamma rays and EMS concentrations on some characteristics of M1 plants of durum wheat, cv. Kunduru 1149. The seeds of durum wheat, cv. Kunduru 1149 which were irradiated with 50 Gy, 150 Gy and 250 Gy gamma rays and/or treated EMS for 6 hours at 30 C in 0,2 % and 0,4 % concentrated. According to the results of this research; separate and combine treatments of different doses of gamma rays and EMS have shown significant difference all of the observed traits at M1 plants of durum wheat cv. Kunduru 1149. The negative effects of increasing doses of mutagens on all plant characteristics for M1 plants were found statistically significant. Combined treatments were found to be more efficient than the sum of effects of the single treatments. In followed generation 3 mutant lines were selected according to plant height, spike height, number of seed, leaf relative water lost, and some quality traits. In M6 generation 3 desirable lines have been sown for preliminary field yield tests.

  14. Avaliação de genótipos tetraploides de bananeira cultivados em área infestada pelo agente causal do mal-do-Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião de Oliveira e Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O mal-do-Panamá é uma doença que causa grandes prejuízos à bananicultura no Brasil, uma vez que as principais cultivares em uso são suscetíveis ao Fusarium. Este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar características agronômicas e resistência ao mal-do-Panamá de híbridos tetraploides de bananeira. O experimento foi conduzido no campo experimental da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, em delineamento casualizado, com 14 tratamentos e 10 repetições, nos anos de 2000 e 2001. Foram avaliados 14 tetraploides (FHIA-03, PV03-44, PC42-01, PV42-53, PV42-68, PV42-81, PV42-85, PV42-129, PV42-142, PV42-143, SH3640, ST12-31, ST42-08 e YB42-21 e a cultivar Maçã, usada como testemunha. Avaliaram-se as características altura da planta (m e diâmetro do pseudocaule (cm a 30 cm do solo, peso da massa do cacho (kg, penca (kg e fruto (g, número de pencas por cacho, de frutos por penca e de dias do florescimento à colheita, e a incidência do mal-do-Panamá. As médias dos genótipos foram agrupadas pelo teste de Scott e Knott, a 5% de probabilidade. Observa-se uma ampla variação genética nos caracteres avaliados. Os genótipos FHIA 03, ST12-31, SH3640, PV42-142, PV42-53 e PV42-68apresentam boas características agronômicas e resistência ao mal-do-Panamá.

  15. Molecular characterisation of resistance against potato wart races 1, 2, 6 and 18 in a tetraploid population of potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Jennifer; Song, Yesu; Kellermann, Adolf; Schwarzfischer, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    Potato wart is caused by the obligate biotrophic fungus Synchytrium endobioticum, which is subject to quarantine regulations due to the production of long persisting spores in the soil and the lack of effective fungicides. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance against potato wart races (R) 1, 2, 6 and 18 in a tetraploid potato population developed by crossing cv. Saturna (resistant to R1) with cv. Panda (resistant to R1, R2, R6, R18). A total of 92 progenies were used for phenotyping and genotyping. Resistance tests were performed for races 1 and 18 in 2 years and for races 2 and 6 in 1 year on 10 to 20 eyepieces per genotype. Based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, linkage maps were established for the female and male parent, respectively. Single marker analysis followed by a multiple regression analysis revealed initial marker-trait associations. The interval mapping routine of TetraploidMap was applied for QTL analysis. A major QTL for resistance against race 1 explaining between 46 % and 56 % of the phenotypic variation was identified near Sen1, a known resistance locus for potato wart race 1 on chromosome XI. Other resistance QTL were detected on chromosomes I (to R2), II (to R6, 18), VI (to R1, 2, 6, 18), VII (to R2, 6, 18), VIII (to R1, 2, 6, 18), X (to R2, 6, 18), XI (to R2, 6, 18) and on an unknown linkage group (to R18) explaining minor to moderate effects of the phenotypic variation. Resistance QTL against different potato wart races often overlapped, particularly concerning races 2, 6 and 18. Overall, this study gives a valuable insight into the complex inheritance of resistance against potato wart.

  16. Menstrual blood closely resembles the uterine immune micro-environment and is clearly distinct from peripheral blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, R.G. van der; Schutten, J.H.; Cranenbroek, B. van; Meer, M. ter; Donckers, J.; Scholten, R.R.; Heijden, O.W.H. van der; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Joosten, I.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is menstrual blood a suitable source of endometrial derived lymphocytes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Mononuclear cells isolated from menstrual samples (menstrual blood mononuclear cells (MMC)) are clearly distinct from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and show a strong resemblance with

  17. Congenital biliary tract malformation resembling biliary cystadenoma in a captive juvenile African lion (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliendo, Valentina; Bull, Andrew C J; Stidworthy, Mark F

    2012-12-01

    A captive 3-mo-old white African lion (Panthera leo) presented with clinical signs of acute pain and a distended abdomen. Despite emergency treatment, the lion died a few hours after presentation. Postmortem examination revealed gross changes in the liver, spleen, and lungs and an anomalous cystic structure in the bile duct. Histologic examination identified severe generalized multifocal to coalescent necrotizing and neutrophilic hepatitis, neutrophilic splenitis, and mild interstitial pneumonia, consistent with bacterial septicemia. The abnormal biliary structures resembled biliary cystadenoma. However, due to the age of the animal, they were presumed to be congenital in origin. Biliary tract anomalies and cystadenomas have been reported previously in adult lions, and this case suggests that at least some of these examples may have a congenital basis. It is unclear whether the lesion was an underlying factor in the development of hepatitis.

  18. Mammographic Texture Resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernoff, Konstantin; Christopher, S G; Karemore, Gopal

    PURPOSE Breast density has been established as a risk factor of breast cancer in numerous studies. Mammographic Texture Resemblance (MTR) has shown to be a density independent risk factor, but only on a single study. We examine if the statistics of the texture recorded in one study generalize...... as an independent risk factor in an unrelated cohort. METHOD AND MATERIALS The statistics of texture were recorded in digitalized film-mammograms of one 4-year prospective study (S1, Dutch screening program) of 245 breast cancers and 250 matched controls. From an independent cohort study (S2, Mayo Mammography...... Health Study cohort) 226 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed through 2008 and 442 matched controls (on age) were used for scoring screening digitized mammograms that were ascertained years prior to diagnosis 1993-2006. Mammographic percent density (PD), using Cumulus, and other major risk factors were...

  19. A novel and automatic mammographic texture resemblance marker is an independent risk factor for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Karemore, Gopal; Loog, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether breast cancer is predicted by a breast cancer risk mammographic texture resemblance (MTR) marker. Methods: A previously published case-control study included 495 women of which 245 were diagnosed with breast cancer. In baseline mammograms, 2-4 years prior...... to diagnosis, the following mammographic parameters were analysed for relation to breast cancer risk: (C) categorical parenchymal pattern scores; (R) radiologist's percentage density, (P) computer-based percentage density; (H) computer-based breast cancer risk MTR marker; (E) computer-based hormone replacement...... treatment MTR marker; and (A) an aggregate of P and H. Results: Density scores, C, R, and P correlated (tau=0.3-0.6); no other pair of scores showed large (tau>0.2) correlation. For the parameters, the odds ratios of future incidence of breast cancer comparing highest to lowest categories (146 and 106...

  20. Acral Peeling Skin Syndrome Resembling Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex in a 10-Month-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kavaklieva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS is a rare autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by asymptomatic desquamation of the skin limited to the hands and feet and histologically by cleavage at the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum level [Kiritsi et al.: J Invest Dermatol 2010;130:1741-1746]. We report on a 10-month-old boy with a history of skin peeling limited to the hands and feet since 2 months of age. Clinical examination revealed erythematous erosions with peripheral desquamation and flaccid blisters. DNA mutation analysis detected two heterozygous TGM5 mutations: c.2T>C, p.M1T in exon 1 and c.337G>T, p.G113C in exon 3 in keeping with the diagnosis of APSS. The clinical presentation of APSS alone might be confusing and strongly resemble epidermolysis bullosa simplex making the differential diagnosis difficult.

  1. Acral peeling skin syndrome resembling epidermolysis bullosa simplex in a 10-month-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaklieva, S; Yordanova, I; Bruckner-Tuderman, L; Has, C

    2013-01-01

    The acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by asymptomatic desquamation of the skin limited to the hands and feet and histologically by cleavage at the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum level [Kiritsi et al.: J Invest Dermatol 2010;130:1741-1746]. We report on a 10-month-old boy with a history of skin peeling limited to the hands and feet since 2 months of age. Clinical examination revealed erythematous erosions with peripheral desquamation and flaccid blisters. DNA mutation analysis detected two heterozygous TGM5 mutations: c.2T>C, p.M1T in exon 1 and c.337G>T, p.G113C in exon 3 in keeping with the diagnosis of APSS. The clinical presentation of APSS alone might be confusing and strongly resemble epidermolysis bullosa simplex making the differential diagnosis difficult.

  2. Oxylipins discriminate between whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone intake: a metabolomics study on pig plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    were also found in the flour and the bread consumed by pigs. Since the germ is part of the whole grain flour, the germ is most likely responsible for the elevated level of oxylipins in plasma after whole grain wheat consumption. This finding may also point towards bioactive compounds, which can be used......A pig model was used to investigate the difference in metabolic response of plasma between whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone. Six pigs were fed in a cross-over design iso dietary fiber (DF) breads prepared from whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone and with a wash-out diet based on bread produced...

  3. Wheat TILLING mutants show that the vernalization gene VRN1 down-regulates the flowering repressor VRN2 in leaves but is not essential for flowering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Chen

    Full Text Available Most of the natural variation in wheat vernalization response is determined by allelic differences in the MADS-box transcription factor VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1. Extended exposures to low temperatures during the winter (vernalization induce VRN1 expression and promote the transition of the apical meristem to the reproductive phase. In contrast to its Arabidopsis homolog (APETALA1, which is mainly expressed in the apical meristem, VRN1 is also expressed at high levels in the leaves, but its function in this tissue is not well understood. Using tetraploid wheat lines with truncation mutations in the two homoeologous copies of VRN1 (henceforth vrn1-null mutants, we demonstrate that a central role of VRN1 in the leaves is to maintain low transcript levels of the VRN2 flowering repressor after vernalization. Transcript levels of VRN2 were gradually down-regulated during vernalization in both mutant and wild-type genotypes, but were up-regulated after vernalization only in the vrn1-null mutants. The up-regulation of VRN2 delayed flowering by repressing the transcription of FT, a flowering-integrator gene that encodes a mobile protein that is transported from the leaves to the apical meristem to induce flowering. The role of VRN2 in the delayed flowering of the vrn1-null mutant was confirmed using double vrn1-vrn2-null mutants, which flowered two months earlier than the vrn1-null mutants. Both mutants produced normal flowers and seeds demonstrating that VRN1 is not essential for wheat flowering, which contradicts current flowering models. This result does not diminish the importance of VRN1 in the seasonal regulation of wheat flowering. The up-regulation of VRN1 during winter is required to maintain low transcript levels of VRN2, accelerate the induction of FT in the leaves, and regulate a timely flowering in the spring. Our results also demonstrate the existence of redundant wheat flowering genes that may provide new targets for engineering wheat

  4. Deoxynivalenol in wheat and wheat products from a harvest affected by fusarium head blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Viera MACHADO

    Full Text Available Abstract Fusarium head blight is an important disease occurring in wheat, caused mainly by the fungus Fusarium graminearum. In addition to direct damage to crops, reduced quality and yield losses, the infected grains can accumulate mycotoxins (toxic metabolites originating from prior fungal growth, especially deoxynivalenol (DON. Wheat crops harvested in 2014/2015 in southern Brazil were affected by high levels of Fusarium head blight. In this context, the aim of this study was evaluate the mycotoxicological quality of Brazilian wheat grains and wheat products (wheat flour and wheat bran for DON. DON contamination was evaluated in 1,504 wheat and wheat product samples produced in Brazil during 2014. It was determined by high performance liquid chromatograph fitted to a mass spectrometer (LC-MS / MS. The results showed that 1,000 (66.5% out of the total samples tested were positive for DON. The mean level of sample contamination was 1047 µg.kg-1, but only 242 samples (16.1% had contamination levels above the maximum permissible levels (MPL - the maximum content allowed by current Brazilian regulation. As of 2017, MPL will be stricter. Thus, research should be conducted on DON contamination of wheat and wheat products, since wheat is a raw material widely used in the food industry, and DON can cause serious harm to public health.

  5. Radiocesium in wheat of the Po plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.; Malvicini, A.

    1988-01-01

    The Cs-137 measurements of many wheat samples, which was cultivated in Po plain during 1986 and 1987, are reported. A relationship is also shown between the quantity of Cs-137, which is contained in total fall-out, and that in the wheat by direct deposition

  6. WHEAT PATHOGEN RESISTANCE AND CHITINASE PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Gregorová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The powdery mildew and leaf rust caused by Blumeria graminis and Puccinia recondita (respectively are common diseases of wheat throughout the world. These fungal diseases greatly affect crop productivity. Incorporation of effective and durable disease resistance is an important breeding objective for wheat improvement. We have evaluated resistance of four bread wheat (Triticum aestivum and four spelt wheat (Triticum spelta cultivars. Chitinases occurrence as well as their activity was determined in leaf tissues. There was no correlation between resistance rating and activity of chitinase. The pattern of chitinases reveals four isoforms with different size in eight wheat cultivars. A detailed understanding of the molecular events that take place during a plant–pathogen interaction is an essential goal for disease control in the future.

  7. Effect of facial self-resemblance on the startle response and subjective ratings of erotic stimuli in heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Deuter, Christian E; Kuehl, Linn K; Schulz, Andre; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2011-10-01

    Cues of kinship are predicted to increase prosocial behavior due to the benefits of inclusive fitness, but to decrease approach motivation due to the potential costs of inbreeding. Previous studies have shown that facial resemblance, a putative cue of kinship, increases prosocial behavior. However, the effects of facial resemblance on mating preferences are equivocal, with some studies finding that facial resemblance decreases sexual attractiveness ratings, while other studies show that individuals choose mates partly on the basis of similarity. To further investigate this issue, a psychophysiological measure of affective processing, the startle response, was used in this study, assuming that differences in approach motivation to erotic pictures will modulate startle. Male volunteers (n = 30) viewed 30 pictures of erotic female nudes while startle eyeblink responses were elicited by acoustic noise probes. The female nude pictures were digitally altered so that the face either resembled the male participant or another participant, or were not altered. Non-nude neutral pictures were also included. Importantly, the digital alteration was undetected by the participants. Erotic pictures were rated as being pleasant and clearly reduced startle eyeblink magnitude as compared to neutral pictures. Participants showed greater startle inhibition to self-resembling than to other-resembling or non-manipulated female nude pictures, but subjective pleasure and arousal ratings did not differ among the three erotic picture categories. Our data suggest that visual facial resemblance of opposite-sex nudes increases approach motivation in men, and that this effect was not due to their conscious evaluation of the erotic stimuli.

  8. The identical-twin transfusion syndrome: a source of error in estimating IQ resemblance and heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsinger, H

    1977-01-01

    Published studies show that among identical twins, lower birthweight is associated with lower adult intelligence. However, no such relation between birthweight and adult IQ exists among fraternal twins. A likely explanation for the association between birthweight and intelligence among identical twins is the identical twin transfusion syndrome which occurs only between some monochorionic identical twin pairs. The IQ scores from separated identical twins were reanalysed to explore the consequences of identical twin transfusion syndrome for IQ resemblance and heritability. Among 129 published cases of identical twin pairs reared apart, 76 pairs contained some birthweight information. The 76 pairs were separated into three classes: 23 pairs in which there was clear evidence of a substantial birthweight differences (indicating the probable existence of the identical twin transfusion syndrome), 27 pairs in which the information on birthweight was ambiguous (?), and 26 pairs in which there was clear evidence that the twins were similar in birthweight. The reanalyses showed: (1) birthweight differences are positively associated with IQ differences in the total sample of separated identical twins; (2) within the group of 23 twin pairs who showed large birthweight differences, there was a positive relation between birthweight differences and IQ differences; (3) when heritability of IQ is estimated for those twins who do not suffer large birthweight differences, the resemblance (and thus, h2/b) of the separated identical twins' IG is 0-95. Given that the average reliability of the individual IQ test is around 0-95, these data suggest that genetic factors and errors of measurement cause the individual differences in IQ among human beings. Because of the identical twin transfusion syndrome, previous studies of MZ twins have underestimated the effect of genetic factors on IQ. An analysis of the IQs for heavier and lighter birthweight twins suggests that the main effect of the

  9. Impact of improved wheat technology adoption on productivity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important cereal crops cultivated in wide range of agro-ecologies in Eastern Africa. However, wheat productivity has remained low. This study was carried out in Ethiopia Aris Zone to determine the level and impact of adoption of improved wheat varieties on wheat productivity ...

  10. 21 CFR 137.205 - Bromated whole wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bromated whole wheat flour. 137.205 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.205 Bromated whole wheat flour. Bromated whole wheat flour... of ingredients, prescribed for whole wheat flour by § 137.200, except that potassium bromate is added...

  11. Breeding value of primary synthetic wheat genotypes for grain yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    To introduce new genetic diversity into the bread wheat gene pool from its progenitor, Aegilops tauschii (Coss.) Schmalh, 33 primary synthetic hexaploid wheat genotypes (SYN) were crossed to 20 spring bread wheat (BW) cultivars at the International Wheat and Maize Improvement Center. Modified single...

  12. Identification of novel QTL for sawfly resistance in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Sherman; D. K. Weaver; M. L. Hofland; S. E. Sing; M. Buteler; S. P. Lanning; Y. Naruoka; F. Crutcher; N. K. Blake; J. M. Martin; P. F. Lamb; G. R. Carlson; L. E. Talbert

    2010-01-01

    The wheat stem sawfly (WSS) (Cephus cinctus Nort.) is an important pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell.) in the Northern Great Plains. This paper reports the genetic analysis of antixenosis for egg-laying WSS females in recombinant inbred lines (RIL) of hard red spring wheat. Female WSS preferentially choose certain wheat genotypes for egg-laying, with the...

  13. End-use quality of soft kernel durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernel texture is a major determinant of end-use quality of wheat. Durum wheat has very hard kernels. We developed soft kernel durum wheat via Ph1b-mediated homoeologous recombination. The Hardness locus was transferred from Chinese Spring to Svevo durum wheat via back-crossing. ‘Soft Svevo’ had SKC...

  14. A Novel Wheat C-bZIP Gene, TabZIP14-B, Participates in Salt and Freezing Tolerance in Transgenic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The group C-bZIP transcription factors (TFs are involved in diverse biological processes, such as the regulation of seed storage protein (SSP production and the responses to pathogen challenge and abiotic stress. However, our knowledge of the abiotic functions of group C-bZIP genes in wheat remains limited. Here, we present the function of a novel TabZIP14-B gene in wheat. This gene belongs to the group C-bZIP TFs and contains six exons and five introns; three haplotypes were identified among accessions of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. A subcellular localization analysis indicated that TabZIP14-B was targeted to the nucleus of tobacco epidermal cells. A transactivation assay demonstrated that TabZIP14-B showed transcriptional activation ability and was capable of binding the abscisic acid (ABA responsive element (ABRE in yeast. RT-qPCR revealed that TabZIP14-B was expressed in the roots, stems, leaves, and young spikes and was up-regulated by exogenous ABA, salt, low-temperature, and polyethylene glycol (PEG stress treatments. Furthermore, Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TabZIP14-B exhibited enhanced tolerance to salt, freezing stresses and ABA sensitivity. Overexpression of TabZIP14-B resulted in increased expression of the AtRD29A, AtCOR47, AtRD20, AtGSTF6, and AtRAB18 genes and changes in several physiological characteristics. These results suggest that TabZIP14-B could function as a positive regulator in mediating the abiotic stress response.

  15. Dissemination of the highly expressed Bx7 glutenin subunit (Glu-B1al allele) in wheat as revealed by novel PCR markers and RP-HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butow, B J; Gale, K R; Ikea, J; Juhász, A; Bedö, Z; Tamás, L; Gianibelli, M C

    2004-11-01

    Increased expression of the high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) Bx7 is associated with improved dough strength of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) flour. Several cultivars and landraces of widely different genetic backgrounds from around the world have now been found to contain this so-called 'over-expressing' allelic form of the Bx7 subunit encoded by Glu-B1al. Using three methods of identification, SDS-PAGE, RP-HPLC and PCR marker analysis, as well as pedigree information, we have traced the distribution and source of this allele from a Uruguayan landrace, Americano 44D, in the mid-nineteenth century. Results are supported by knowledge of the movement of wheat lines with migrants. All cultivars possessing the Glu-B1al allele can be identified by the following attributes: (1) the elution of the By sub-unit peak before the Dx sub-unit peak by RP-HPLC, (2) high expression levels of Bx7 (>39% Mol% Bx), (3) a 43 bp insertion in the matrix-attachment region (MAR) upstream of the gene promoter relative to Bx7 and an 18 bp nucleotide duplication in the coding region of the gene. Evidence is presented indicating that these 18 and 43 bp sequence insertions are not causal for the high expression levels of Bx7 as they were also found to be present in a small number of hexaploid species, including Chinese Spring, and species expressing Glu-B1ak and Glu-B1a alleles. In addition, these sequence inserts were found in different isolates of the tetraploid wheat, T. turgidum, indicating that these insertion/deletion events occurred prior to hexaploidization.

  16. Resistance to Wheat Curl Mite in Arthropod-Resistant Rye-Wheat Translocation Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria Aguirre-Rojas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The wheat curl mite, Aceria toschiella (Keifer, and a complex of viruses vectored by A. toschiella substantially reduce wheat yields in every wheat-producing continent in the world. The development of A. toschiella-resistant wheat cultivars is a proven economically and ecologically viable method of controlling this pest. This study assessed A. toschiella resistance in wheat genotypes containing the H13, H21, H25, H26, H18 and Hdic genes for resistance to the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say and in 94M370 wheat, which contains the Dn7 gene for resistance to the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov. A. toschiella populations produced on plants containing Dn7 and H21 were significantly lower than those on plants of the susceptible control and no different than those on the resistant control. Dn7 resistance to D. noxia and H21 resistance to M. destructor resulted from translocations of chromatin from rye into wheat (H21—2BS/2RL, Dn7—1BL/1RS. These results provide new wheat pest management information, indicating that Dn7 and H21 constitute resources that can be used to reduce yield losses caused by A. toschiella, M. destructor, D. noxia, and wheat streak mosaic virus infection by transferring multi-pest resistance to single sources of germplasm.

  17. Sensibility of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar+ implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Huanhu; Jing Hua; Ma Aiping; Kang Xiuli; Yang Liping; Huang Mingjing; Ma Buzhou; Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Taiyuan

    2005-01-01

    The sensibility of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar + implantation was studied. The results showed that the survival rate of 21 wheat varieties (strains) at the dose of 6 x 10 16 Ar + /cm 2 could be divided into five groups: surplus sensitive varieties (strains), sensitive varieties (strains), transitional varieties (strains), obtuse varieties (strains) and surplus obtuse varieties (strains). The sensibility of wheat varieties (strains) to Ar + injection is high-moisture-fertility wheat varieties (strains) > medium-moisture-fertility wheat varieties (strains) > dry land wheat varieties (strains). The study has provided theoretical basis in induced mutation medial lethal dose of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar + implantation. (authors)

  18. Epithelial proliferation in small ducts of salivary cystadenoma resembling atypical ductal hyperplasia of breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Lisa; Weinreb, Ilan; Alexander, Cherupushpam; Perez Ordoñez, Bayardo

    2008-09-01

    Salivary gland cystadenomas are cystic neoplasms with diverse architecture and cytology. Cystadenomas may have a considerable intracystic epithelial component, but an epithelial proliferation in small ducts and cysts resembling atypical ductal hyperplasia of breast has not been documented. The patient was a 68-year-old man with a slow growing right submandibular mass. He has no recurrence 13 months after resection. The tumor was polycystic and measured 3.0 x 2.5 x 2.5 cm. The epithelium of the larger cysts was composed of flat, cuboidal, columnar, and apocrine-like cells. Many of the larger cysts showed "Roman bridges", epithelial tufting, and papillae. The smaller cysts and ducts had apocrine-like cells forming secondary glandular lumens. The ductal cells were surrounded by clear myoepithelial cells. Nuclear pleomorphism and hyperchromasia was seen in the apocrine-like cells. Adjacent to the larger cysts, there was an adenomatoid proliferation of small ducts surrounded by myoepithelial cells. No mitotic activity, necrosis, or stromal invasion was identified. The ductal cells were diffusely positive for keratin 7 and androgen receptors with focal expression of keratin 19 and high-molecular weight keratin. S-100, estrogen and progesterone receptors, and BRST-2 were negative in the ductal cells. Recognition of a prominent intraductal epithelial component in cystadenomas is important to avoid a misdiagnosis of cystadenocarcinoma or low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. Cystadenomas join the list of salivary gland lesions with microscopic similarities to primary lesions of the breast.

  19. Does the calcification of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma resemble the calcium deposition of osteogenesis/odontogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song-Tao, Qi; Xiao-Rong, Yan; Jun, Pan; Yong-Jian, Deng; Jin, Liang; Guang-Long, Huang; Yun-Tao, Lu; Jian, Ruan; Xiang-Zhao, Li; Jia-Ming, Xu

    2014-02-01

    Calcification in adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) is troublesome for surgical intervention. The aim of this study was to examine the osteogenic proteins that play important roles in the calcium deposition of the odontogenic/osteogenic tissues in craniopharyngioma. Craniopharyngiomas (n = 89) were investigated for the presence and expression pattern of the osteoinductive/odontoinductive factor bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Bmp2) and two osteoblastic differentiation makers, Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) and Osterix, using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Our results showed that Bmp2, Runx2 and Osterix levels increased in cases with high calcification and correlated positively with the degree of calcification in ACP, whereas they showed little or no expression in squamous papillary craniopharyngioma. In ACP, Bmp2 was expressed primarily in the stellate reticulum and whorl-like array cells; Runx2 and Osterix tended to be expressed in calcification-related epithelia, including whorl-like array cells and epithelia in/around wet keratin and calcification lesions. Our study indicated, for the first time, that osteogenic factor Bmp2 may play an important role in the calcification of ACP via autocrine or paracrine mechanisms. Given the presence of osteogenic markers (Runx2 and Osterix), craniopharyngioma cells could differentiate into an osteoblast-like lineage, and the process of craniopharyngioma calcification resembles that which occurs in osteogenesis/odontogenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Pulmonary Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in a Patient with Chronic Asthma Resembling Lung Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massood Hosseinzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Extramedullary hematopoiesis is most often seen in reticuloendothelial organs specially spleen, liver, or lymph nodes, and it is rarely seen in lung parenchyma. Almost all reported cases of pulmonary extramedullary hematopoiesis occurred following myeloproliferative disorders specially myelofibrosis. Other less common underlying causes are thalassemia syndromes and other hemoglobinopathies. There was not any reported case of pulmonary extramedullary hematopoiesis in asthmatic patients in the medical literature. Case. Here we reported a 65-year-old lady who was a known case of bronchial asthma with recent developed right lower lobe lung mass. Chest X-ray and CT studies showed an infiltrating mass resembling malignancy. Fine needle aspiration cytology of mass revealed pulmonary extramedullary hematopoiesis. The patient followed for 10 months with serial physical examination and laboratory evaluations which were unremarkable. Conclusion. Extramedullary hematopoiesis of lung parenchyma can be mistaken for lung cancer radiologically. Although previous reported cases occurred with myelofibrosis or hemoglobinopathies, we are reporting the first case of asthma-associated extramedullary hematopoiesis.

  1. Nuclear security culture in comparison with nuclear safety culture. Resemblances and differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Since the terrorist attacks on the U.S. on September 11th, 2001, Nuclear Security has been focused on and treated as a global issue in the international community and it has also been discussed as a real and serious threat to nuclear power plants in the world since 'The Great East Japan Earthquake' in March, 2011. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) issued a document including Nuclear Security Recommendations (INFCIRC/225/Rev.5) (NSS 13) in the Nuclear Security Series and emphasized the necessity of fostering Nuclear Security Culture. Nuclear Security Culture has been frequently discussed at various kinds of seminars and events. Since the officials in charge of Nuclear Security are familiar with the area of Nuclear Safety, the relationships between Nuclear Safety Culture and Nuclear Security Culture have been the point in controversy. This paper clarifies relevance between Nuclear Safety and Security, considers resemblances and differences of their concepts and lessons learned for each culture from nuclear power plant accidents, and promotes deeper understanding of Nuclear Safety and Nuclear Security Culture. (author)

  2. Prion disease resembling frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitrini Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical features of a familial prion disease with those of frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17. BACKGROUND: Prion diseases are not usually considered in the differential diagnosis of FTDP-17, since familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, the most common inherited prion disease, often manifests as a rapidly progressive dementia. Conversely, FTDP-17 usually has an insidious onset in the fifth decade, with abnormal behavior and parkinsonian features. METHOD: We present the clinical features of 12 patients from a family with CJD associated with a point mutation at codon 183 of the prion protein gene. RESULTS: The mean age at onset was 44.0 ± 3.7; the duration of the symptoms until death ranged from two to nine years. Behavioral disturbances were the predominant presenting symptoms. Nine patients were first seen by psychiatrists. Eight patients manifested parkinsonian signs. CONCLUSION: These clinical features bear a considerable resemblance to those described in FTDP-17.

  3. On Learning Natural-Science Categories That Violate the Family-Resemblance Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosofsky, Robert M; Sanders, Craig A; Gerdom, Alex; Douglas, Bruce J; McDaniel, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    The general view in psychological science is that natural categories obey a coherent, family-resemblance principle. In this investigation, we documented an example of an important exception to this principle: Results of a multidimensional-scaling study of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks (Experiment 1) suggested that the structure of these categories is disorganized and dispersed. This finding motivated us to explore what might be the optimal procedures for teaching dispersed categories, a goal that is likely critical to science education in general. Subjects in Experiment 2 learned to classify pictures of rocks into compact or dispersed high-level categories. One group learned the categories through focused high-level training, whereas a second group was required to simultaneously learn classifications at a subtype level. Although high-level training led to enhanced performance when the categories were compact, subtype training was better when the categories were dispersed. We provide an interpretation of the results in terms of an exemplar-memory model of category learning.

  4. WHITE WHEAT MARKET AND STRATEGY ANALYSIS FOR NORTH DAKOTA

    OpenAIRE

    Janzen, Edward L.; Wilson, William W.

    2001-01-01

    There is a growing interest and a perceived demand for hard white (HW) wheat to satisfy the needs of the growing Asian noodle market which is currently dominated by Australia. The wheat industry is reviewed with attention to U.S. and Australian production and international markets for white wheat. Quality issues and target markets/market development are discussed. Economic issues associated with production of HW wheat in hard red spring (HRS) wheat producing areas, primarily North Dakota, are...

  5. Expression of Pinellia pedatisecta Lectin Gene in Transgenic Wheat Enhances Resistance to Wheat Aphids

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoliang Duan; Qiling Hou; Guoyu Liu; Xiaomeng Pang; Zhenli Niu; Xiao Wang; Yufeng Zhang; Baoyun Li; Rongqi Liang

    2018-01-01

    Wheat aphids are major pests during the seed filling stage of wheat. Plant lectins are toxic to sap-sucking pests such as wheat aphids. In this study, Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin (ppa), a gene encoding mannose binding lectin, was cloned, and it shared 92.69% nucleotide similarity and 94% amino acid similarity with Pinellia ternata agglutinin (pta). The ppa gene, driven by the constitutive and phloem-specific ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit gene (rbcs) promoter in pBAC-rbcs...

  6. POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF GM WHEAT ON UNITED STATES AND NORTHERN PLAINS WHEAT TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Richard D.; DeVuyst, Eric A.; Koo, Won W.

    2003-01-01

    The potential introduction of genetically modified (GM) wheat has both supporters and opponents waging battle in the popular press and scholarly research. Supporters highlight the benefits to producers, while the opponents highlight the unknown safety factors for consumers. The topic is very important to the United States, as a large portion of the wheat production is exported overseas. Consumer groups in some countries are resisting GM wheat. This study utilizes a spatial equilibrium model t...

  7. Drying watery wheat grains by far infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, K.; Murata, K.; Hara, M.

    2004-01-01

    Summary A far infrared dryer was experimented to dry wheat grains for high performance and cost reduction. It is more efficient than a circulating dryer reducing drying time by 20% and fuel consumption by 20 - 30%. Whereas it takes more time and more fuel, when the drying rate is set at 1%/h. Moreover, on condition that the average drying rate is lower, it could decrease the rate of green wheat grains up to 3%. But green wheat grains did not disappear at all on the condition

  8. The peptide NDP-MSH induces phenotype changes in the heart that resemble ischemic preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Anna; Lonati, Caterina; Sordi, Andrea; Leonardi, Patrizia; Carlin, Andrea; Gatti, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is a pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptide that exerts multiple protective effects on host cells. Previous investigations showed that treatment with alpha-MSH or synthetic melanocortin agonists reduces heart damage in reperfusion injury and transplantation. The aim of this preclinical research was to determine whether melanocortin treatment induces preconditioning-like cardioprotection. In particular, the plan was to assess whether melanocortin administration causes phenotype changes similar to those induced by repetitive ischemic events. The idea was conceived because both ischemic preconditioning and melanocortin signaling largely depend on cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. Rats received single i.v. injections of 750microg/kg of the alpha-MSH analogue Nle(4),DPhe(7)-alpha-MSH (NDP-MSH) or saline and were sacrificed at 0.5, 1, 3, or 5h. Western blot analysis showed that rat hearts expressed melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) protein. Treatment with NDP-MSH was associated with early and marked increase in interleukin 6 (IL-6) mRNA. This was followed by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). There were no changes in expression of other cytokines of the IL-6 family. Expression of IL-10, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha was likewise unaltered. In hearts of rats treated with NDP-MSH there was increased expression of the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77. The data indicate that NDP-MSH induces phenotype changes that closely resemble ischemic preconditioning and likely contribute to its established protection against reperfusion injury. In addition, the increased expression of Nur77 and SOCS3 could be part of a broader anti-inflammatory effect.

  9. Parent–offspring resemblance in colony-specific adult survival of cliff swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles R.; Roche, Erin A.; Brown, Mary Bomberger

    2015-01-01

    Survival is a key component of fitness. Species that occupy discrete breeding colonies with different characteristics are often exposed to varying costs and benefits associated with group size or environmental conditions, and survival is an integrative net measure of these effects. We investigated the extent to which survival probability of adult (≥1-year old) cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) occupying different colonies resembled that of their parental cohort and thus whether the natal colony had long-term effects on individuals. Individuals were cross-fostered between colonies soon after hatching and their presence as breeders monitored at colonies in the western Nebraska study area for the subsequent decade. Colony-specific adult survival probabilities of offspring born and reared in the same colony, and those cross-fostered away from their natal colony soon after birth, were positively and significantly related to subsequent adult survival of the parental cohort from the natal colony. This result held when controlling for the effect of natal colony size and the age composition of the parental cohort. In contrast, colony-specific adult survival of offspring cross-fostered to a site was unrelated to that of their foster parent cohort or to the cohort of non-fostered offspring with whom they were reared. Adult survival at a colony varied inversely with fecundity, as measured by mean brood size, providing evidence for a survival–fecundity trade-off in this species. The results suggest some heritable variation in adult survival, likely maintained by negative correlations between fitness components. The study provides additional evidence that colonies represent non-random collections of individuals.

  10. Reducing prefrontal gamma-aminobutyric acid activity induces cognitive, behavioral, and dopaminergic abnormalities that resemble schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Takeshi; Tse, Maric T; Floresco, Stan B

    2011-03-01

    Perturbations in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-related markers have been reported in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients. However, a preclinical assessment of how suppression of prefrontal cortex GABA activity may reflect behavioral and cognitive pathologies observed in schizophrenia is forthcoming. We assessed the effects of pharmacologic blockade of prefrontal cortex GABA(A) receptors in rats on executive functions and other behaviors related to schizophrenia, as well as neural activity of midbrain dopamine neurons. Blockade of prefrontal cortex GABA(A) receptors with bicuculline (12.5-50 ng) did not affect working memory accuracy but did increase response latencies, resembling speed of processing deficits observed in schizophrenia. Prefrontal cortex GABA(A) blockade did not impede simple discrimination or reversal learning but did impair set-shifting in a manner dependent on when these treatments were given. Reducing GABA activity before the set-shift impaired the ability to acquire a novel strategy, whereas treatment before the initial discrimination increased perseveration during the shift. Latent inhibition was unaffected by bicuculline infusions before the preexposure/conditioning phases, suggesting that reduced prefrontal cortex GABA activity does not impair "learned irrelevance." GABA(A) blockade increased locomotor activity and showed synergic effects with a subthreshold dose of amphetamine. Furthermore, reducing medial prefrontal cortex GABA activity selectively increased phasic burst firing of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons, without altering the their overall population activity. These results suggest that prefrontal cortex GABA hypofunction may be a key contributing factor to deficits in speed of processing, cognitive flexibility, and enhanced phasic dopamine activity observed in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Image and Global Resemblance in the Light of Hadith “Who So Imitates other People Becomes One of Them”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERDAR DEMİREL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world, people from different countries, cities and institutions unprecedentedly resemble each other in every aspect of life. Likewise, the deeds and imagery aspirations of Oriental and Occidental people also resemble. In such an atmosphere, the local cultures rooted in history become accessories and lose their historical significance and metaphysical aspects in the edifice of the society. This study aims to analyze Prophet Muhammad’s (s.a.w. warning, “Who so imitates other people becomes one of them”, its layers of meaning and its relationship with “image and global resemblence”.

  12. Adaptive evolution of benzoxazinoids in wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, at "Evolution Canyon", Mount Carmel, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Abu, Yuval; Beiles, Avigdor; Flom, Dvir; Nevo, Eviatar

    2018-01-01

    "Evolution Canyon" (ECI) at Lower Nahal Oren, Mount Carmel, Israel, is an optimal natural microscale model for unraveling evolution-in-action, highlighting the evolutionary processes of biodiversity evolution, adaptation, and incipient sympatric speciation. A major model organism in ECI is the tetraploid wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides (TD), the progenitor of cultivated emmer and durum wheat. TD displays dramatic interslope adaptive evolutionary divergence on the tropical, savannoid-hot and dry south-facing, "African" slope (AS), and on the temperate, forested, cool and humid, north-facing, "European" slope (ES), separated on average by 250 m. From the perspective of chemical evolution and metabolomics, it is important to unravel interslope divergence in biologically relevant secondary metabolites between the abutting slope populations. Here, in TD we examined hydroxamic acid (Hx), which is a family of secondary cereal metabolites, and plays a major role in defending the plant against fungi, insects and weeds. Our examination revealed that higher concentrations of DIBOA and DIMBOA were found in seedlings growing in the same greenhouse from seeds collected from the cool and humid forested ES, whereas the seedlings of seeds collected from the savannoid AS (both in root and shoot tissues), showed no DIMBOA. Remarkably, only DIBOA appears in both shoots and roots of the AS seedlings. It rises to a peak and then decreases in both organs and in seedlings from both slopes. The DIMBOA, which appears only in the ES seedlings, rises to a peak and decreases in the shoot, but increased and remained in a plateau in the root, till the end of the experiment. The results suggest stronger genetic resistance of defense compounds DIBOA and DIMBOA against biotic stresses (fungi and other pathogens) by ES seedlings. However, AS seedlings responded earlier but were to the same biotic stresses. The genetic difference found in AS seedlings was caused by the main adaptive selection

  13. Adaptive evolution of benzoxazinoids in wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, at "Evolution Canyon", Mount Carmel, Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Ben-Abu

    Full Text Available "Evolution Canyon" (ECI at Lower Nahal Oren, Mount Carmel, Israel, is an optimal natural microscale model for unraveling evolution-in-action, highlighting the evolutionary processes of biodiversity evolution, adaptation, and incipient sympatric speciation. A major model organism in ECI is the tetraploid wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides (TD, the progenitor of cultivated emmer and durum wheat. TD displays dramatic interslope adaptive evolutionary divergence on the tropical, savannoid-hot and dry south-facing, "African" slope (AS, and on the temperate, forested, cool and humid, north-facing, "European" slope (ES, separated on average by 250 m. From the perspective of chemical evolution and metabolomics, it is important to unravel interslope divergence in biologically relevant secondary metabolites between the abutting slope populations. Here, in TD we examined hydroxamic acid (Hx, which is a family of secondary cereal metabolites, and plays a major role in defending the plant against fungi, insects and weeds.Our examination revealed that higher concentrations of DIBOA and DIMBOA were found in seedlings growing in the same greenhouse from seeds collected from the cool and humid forested ES, whereas the seedlings of seeds collected from the savannoid AS (both in root and shoot tissues, showed no DIMBOA. Remarkably, only DIBOA appears in both shoots and roots of the AS seedlings. It rises to a peak and then decreases in both organs and in seedlings from both slopes. The DIMBOA, which appears only in the ES seedlings, rises to a peak and decreases in the shoot, but increased and remained in a plateau in the root, till the end of the experiment.The results suggest stronger genetic resistance of defense compounds DIBOA and DIMBOA against biotic stresses (fungi and other pathogens by ES seedlings. However, AS seedlings responded earlier but were to the same biotic stresses. The genetic difference found in AS seedlings was caused by the main adaptive

  14. An endogenous reference gene of common and durum wheat for detection of genetically modified wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Shinjiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Nishitsuji, Yasuyuki; Kikuchi, Yosuke; Matsuoka, Yasuyuki; Arami, Shin-Ichiro; Sato, Megumi; Haraguchi, Hiroyuki; Kurimoto, Youichi; Mano, Junichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    To develop a method for detecting GM wheat that may be marketed in the near future, we evaluated the proline-rich protein (PRP) gene as an endogenous reference gene of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (Triticum durum L.). Real-time PCR analysis showed that only DNA of wheat was amplified and no amplification product was observed for phylogenetically related cereals, indicating that the PRP detection system is specific to wheat. The intensities of the amplification products and Ct values among all wheat samples used in this study were very similar, with no nonspecific or additional amplification, indicating that the PRP detection system has high sequence stability. The limit of detection was estimated at 5 haploid genome copies. The PRP region was demonstrated to be present as a single or double copy in the common wheat haploid genome. Furthermore, the PRP detection system showed a highly linear relationship between Ct values and the amount of plasmid DNA, indicating that an appropriate calibration curve could be constructed for quantitative detection of GM wheat. All these results indicate that the PRP gene is a suitable endogenous reference gene for PCR-based detection of GM wheat.

  15. Prevalence of Wheat Allergy in Japanese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eishin Morita

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of wheat allergy in Japanese adults was found to be 0.21% by using a combination of questionnaire-based examination, skin prick test and serum omega-5 gliadin-specific IgE test.

  16. Quantitative traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MSS

    2012-11-13

    Nov 13, 2012 ... Of the quantitative traits in wheat, spike length, number of spikes per m2, grain mass per spike, number ... design with four liming variants along with three replications, in which the experimental field .... The sampling was done.

  17. Production of ethanol from wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smuga-Kogut Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method for the production of ethanol from wheat straw lignocellulose where the raw material is chemically processed before hydrolysis and fermentation. The usefulness of wheat straw delignification was evaluated with the use of a 4:1 mixture of 95% ethanol and 65% HNO3 (V. Chemically processed lignocellulose was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis to produce reducing sugars, which were converted to ethanol in the process of alcoholic fermentation. Chemical processing damages the molecular structure of wheat straw, thus improving ethanol yield. The removal of lignin from straw improves fermentation by eliminating lignin’s negative influence on the growth and viability of yeast cells. Straw pretreatment facilitates enzymatic hydrolysis by increasing the content of reducing sugars and ethanol per g in comparison with untreated wheat straw.

  18. (Helianthus annuus L.) on physiology of wheat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (15), pp. 3555-3559, 4 ... physiology of wheat seedlings including protein, proline, sugars, DNA, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and .... (1956) as modified by Johnson et al. (1966).

  19. Characterization of wheat varieties by seed storageprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 6, No 5 (2007) > ... Wheat grains of thirteen varieties were collected from different ecological regions of Pakistan. ... the dendrogram for high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) gluten subunit bands.

  20. Common bunt resistant wheat composite cross populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffan, Philipp Matthias; Borgen, A.; Backes, Gunter Martin

    stability. However, a number of challenges must be met before diverse wheat populations can be introduced into commercial wheat production: one of these is the development of breeding technologies based on mass selection which enable breeders and farmers to improve specific traits in populations...... and maintain diversity at the same time. BIOBREED is a project which commenced in Denmark in 2011 to meet these challenges for wheat population breeding. The project focuses on the development of tools and methods for mass selection of traits relevant for organic and low input production, where it is expected...... that the highest benefits of utilizing diverse populations can be achieved. BIOBREED focuses on three main aspects of wheat population breeding for organic and low input production systems: i) common bunt (caused by Tilletia caries) resistance, ii) selection for improved protein content and iii) the influence...

  1. Sensitivity of European wheat to extreme weather

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkinen, H; Kaseva, J; Trnka, M

    2018-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of extreme weather is increasing concomitant with changes in the global climate change. Although wheat is the most important food crop in Europe, there is currently no comprehensive empirical information available regarding the sensitivity of European wheat to extreme...... weather. In this study, we assessed the sensitivity of European wheat yields to extreme weather related to phenology (sowing, heading) in cultivar trials across Europe (latitudes 37.21° to 61.34° and longitudes −6.02° to 26.24°) during the period 1991–2014. All the observed agro-climatic extremes (≥31 °C...... wheat cultivars that responded positively (+10%) to drought after sowing, or frost during winter (−15 °C and −20 °C). Positive responses to extremes were often shown by cultivars associated with specific regions, such as good performance under high temperatures by southern-origin cultivars. Consequently...

  2. Rising Temperatures Reduce Global Wheat Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asseng, S.; Ewert, F.; Martre, P.; Rötter, R. P.; Lobell, D. B.; Cammarano, D.; Kimball, B. A.; Ottman, M. J.; Wall, G. W.; White, J. W.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Crop models are essential tools for assessing the threat of climate change to local and global food production. Present models used to predict wheat grain yield are highly uncertain when simulating how crops respond to temperature. Here we systematically tested 30 different wheat crop models of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project against field experiments in which growing season mean temperatures ranged from 15 degrees C to 32? degrees C, including experiments with artificial heating. Many models simulated yields well, but were less accurate at higher temperatures. The model ensemble median was consistently more accurate in simulating the crop temperature response than any single model, regardless of the input information used. Extrapolating the model ensemble temperature response indicates that warming is already slowing yield gains at a majority of wheat-growing locations. Global wheat production is estimated to fall by 6% for each degree C of further temperature increase and become more variable over space and time.

  3. Short communication. Employment of molecular markers to develop tetraploid “supermale” asparagus from andromonoecious plants of the landrace ‘Morado de Huétor’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose J. Regalado

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the development of new “supermale” genotypes retaining the highest genetic diversity possible of the tetraploid asparagus landrace ‘Morado de Huétor’. The elite andromonoecious male HT664 of the ‘Morado de Huétor’ asparagus landrace and the andromonoecious hybrid male HC027, obtained by crossing between this landrace and a commercial cultivar of Asparagus officinalis, were selected for self-pollination to produce possible “supermales” with genes of ‘Morado de Huétor’ (SMHT. To confirm the hybrid nature of HC027, we characterized this genotype with EST-SSR (Expressed Sequence Tag-derived Simple Sequence Repeats markers. We also adopted the sex-linked marker Asp1-T7 for sex determination in ‘Morado de Huétor’ and the resulting hybrids between this landrace and other commercial cultivars. Asp1-T7 marker was used for the selection and genotyping of SMHT. “All-male” cultivars with a different genetic background can be generated by crossing females with these new “supermale” genotypes, and the agronomical traits of these new cultivars would be very different from the “all-male” cultivars currently available in the market, making them extremely interesting for asparagus breeding programs.

  4. The ultrastructure of the mature embryo sac in the natural tetraploid of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.: that has a very low rate of seed formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gönül Algan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ultrastructural organization of cells in the mature embryo sac of natural tetraploid Trifolium pratense L. was investigated. The mature embryo sac of this plant contains an egg cell with two synergids at the micropylar end, and a central cell with two polar nuclei. The ultrastructure of these cells agrees with what is known for most angiosperms studied with the electron microscope. The egg cell is a large and highly vacuolate cell, partially surrounded by a wall. Much of the cytoplasm is located around the nucleus at the chalazal end and there are few numbers of channel-shaped endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, plastids and numerous ribosomes distributed throughout the cytoplasm. Unlike the egg cell, much of the cytoplasm in synergid cells is located at micropylar part of the cell and the synergid cytoplasm contains especially, large numbers of rough endoplasmic reticulum, free ribosomes, mitochondria and plastids. The central cell of T. pratense L. contains two large polar nuclei which lie close to the egg apparatus. Each polar nucleus has a single, large, dense nucleolus that contains several nucleolar vacuoles. Much of the central cell cytoplasm consisting of granular and agranular endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, plastids, ribosomes, dictyosomes and lipid bodies are placed around polar nuclei.

  5. What's in a child's face? : effects of facial resemblance, love withdrawal, empathy and context on behavioral and neural responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heckendorf, E.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to increase our knowledge of individual differences in the neural processing and appraisal of children’s faces that differ in their degree of resemblance with the participant’s face. Chapter 2 focuses on participants’ neural responses to child faces that differ in

  6. Imaging manifestations of acquired elastopathy resembling pseudoxanthoma elasticum in patients with beta thalassaemia major and sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, Harish; Cheng, Ken; Lau, Ken; Harish, Radhika; Bowden, Donald K.

    2016-01-01

    Development of an acquired systemic elastopathy resembling pseudoxanthoma elasticum in patients with chronic haemoglobinopathies such as beta thalassaemia major and sickle cell disease is well documented. There is paucity of any comprehensive literature on the radiological manifestations of this entity. This pictorial review aims to describe and illustrate the multi system and multi modality imaging findings of this condition.

  7. Genetic Parameters of Common Wheat in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Bal Krishna Joshi; Dhruba Bahadur Thapa; Madan Raj Bhatta

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on variation within traits and their genetics are prerequisites in crop improvement program. Thus, in present paper we aimed to estimate genetic and environmental indices of common wheat genotypes. For the purpose, eight quantitative traits were measured from 30 wheat genotypes, which were in randomized complete block design with 3 replicates. Components of variance and covariance were estimated along with heritability, genetic gain, realized heritability, coheritability and correla...

  8. Evaluation of irradiated wheat populations. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salam, T Z [Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    This study was carried out from 1992 to 1994. It aimed to study genetic behaviour for plant height, dry weight/plant, earliness, grain yield/plant, and 100-grain weight at harvest time in three wheat cultivars Mexi back, Giza 155, and Saka 69; and and their hybrids in F{sub 3} - M{sub 1}, and F{sub 4} - M{sub 2} mutagenic generations after treatment of dry seeds with gamma ray doses of 75, 100, and 125 Gy. All doses caused an increase or decrease in growth, yield, and yield attributes of the wheat cultivars. In G{sub 1}55 Mexi back hybrid wheat the 100 Gy caused an increase in 100 - grain weight, grain yield/plant, and dry weight/plant in F{sub 4} - M{sub 2} generation only. But in Mexi back X G{sub 1}55 hybrid wheat the 75 Gy increased plant height, 100 - grain weight, grain yield/plant, and dry weight/plant in both generations F{sub 3} - M{sub 1} and F{sub 4} -M{sub 2}. SK{sub 69} X Mexi back hybrid wheat at 75 Gy caused earliness by about 13 days, and high grain yield in F{sub 4} - M{sub 2} generation only. however, in Mexi back x SK{sub 69} hybrid wheat, 100 Gy caused earliness about 7 days but with low grain yield. 3 tabs.

  9. Evaluation of irradiated wheat populations. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, T.Z.

    1996-01-01

    This study was carried out from 1992 to 1994. It aimed to study genetic behaviour for plant height, dry weight/plant, earliness, grain yield/plant, and 100-grain weight at harvest time in three wheat cultivars Mexi back, Giza 155, and Saka 69; and and their hybrids in F 3 - M 1 , and F 4 - M 2 mutagenic generations after treatment of dry seeds with gamma ray doses of 75, 100, and 125 Gy. All doses caused an increase or decrease in growth, yield, and yield attributes of the wheat cultivars. In G 1 55 Mexi back hybrid wheat the 100 Gy caused an increase in 100 - grain weight, grain yield/plant, and dry weight/plant in F 4 - M 2 generation only. But in Mexi back X G 1 55 hybrid wheat the 75 Gy increased plant height, 100 - grain weight, grain yield/plant, and dry weight/plant in both generations F 3 - M 1 and F 4 -M 2 . SK 69 X Mexi back hybrid wheat at 75 Gy caused earliness by about 13 days, and high grain yield in F 4 - M 2 generation only. however, in Mexi back x SK 69 hybrid wheat, 100 Gy caused earliness about 7 days but with low grain yield. 3 tabs

  10. Age and Gender Differences in Facial Attractiveness, but Not Emotion Resemblance, Contribute to Age and Gender Stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Palumbo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable research has shown effects of facial appearance on trait impressions and group stereotypes. We extended those findings in two studies that investigated the contribution of resemblance to emotion expressions and attractiveness to younger adults (YA and older adults (OA age and gender stereotypes on the dimensions of warmth and competence. Using connectionist modeling of facial metrics of 240 neutral younger and older faces, Study 1 found that, neutral expression older faces or female faces showed greater structural resemblance to happy expressions and less resemblance to angry expressions than did younger or male faces, respectively. In addition, neutral female faces showed greater resemblance to surprise expressions. In Study 2, YA and OA rated the faces of Study 1 for attractiveness and for 4 traits that we aggregated on the dimensions of competence (competent, healthy and warmth (trustworthy, not shrewd. We found that YA, but not OA, age stereotypes replicated previous research showing higher perceived warmth and lower perceived competence in older adults. In addition, previously documented gender stereotypes were moderated by face age for both YA and OA. The greater attractiveness of younger than older faces and female than male faces influenced age and gender stereotypes, including these deviations from prior research findings using category labels rather than faces. On the other hand, face age and face sex differences in emotion resemblance did not influence age or gender stereotypes, contrary to prediction. Our results provide a caveat to conclusions about age and gender stereotypes derived from responses to category labels, and they reveal the importance of assessing stereotypes with a methodology that is sensitive to influences of group differences in appearance that can exacerbate or mitigate stereotypes in more ecologically valid contexts. Although the gender differences in attractiveness in the present study may not have

  11. Age and Gender Differences in Facial Attractiveness, but Not Emotion Resemblance, Contribute to Age and Gender Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Rocco; Adams, Reginald B; Hess, Ursula; Kleck, Robert E; Zebrowitz, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Considerable research has shown effects of facial appearance on trait impressions and group stereotypes. We extended those findings in two studies that investigated the contribution of resemblance to emotion expressions and attractiveness to younger adults (YA) and older adults (OA) age and gender stereotypes on the dimensions of warmth and competence. Using connectionist modeling of facial metrics of 240 neutral younger and older faces, Study 1 found that, neutral expression older faces or female faces showed greater structural resemblance to happy expressions and less resemblance to angry expressions than did younger or male faces, respectively. In addition, neutral female faces showed greater resemblance to surprise expressions. In Study 2, YA and OA rated the faces of Study 1 for attractiveness and for 4 traits that we aggregated on the dimensions of competence (competent, healthy) and warmth (trustworthy, not shrewd). We found that YA, but not OA, age stereotypes replicated previous research showing higher perceived warmth and lower perceived competence in older adults. In addition, previously documented gender stereotypes were moderated by face age for both YA and OA. The greater attractiveness of younger than older faces and female than male faces influenced age and gender stereotypes, including these deviations from prior research findings using category labels rather than faces. On the other hand, face age and face sex differences in emotion resemblance did not influence age or gender stereotypes, contrary to prediction. Our results provide a caveat to conclusions about age and gender stereotypes derived from responses to category labels, and they reveal the importance of assessing stereotypes with a methodology that is sensitive to influences of group differences in appearance that can exacerbate or mitigate stereotypes in more ecologically valid contexts. Although the gender differences in attractiveness in the present study may not have generalizability

  12. Deoxynivalenol. Derivation of concentration limits in wheat and wheat containing food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters MN; Fiolet DCM; Baars AJ; CSR

    1999-01-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by fungi of the Fusarium genus may occur in various cereal crops. A provisional TDI of 1.1 ug per kg body weight was derived to calculate concentration limits for the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), in wheat and wheat food products. Children (1-4 years

  13. Strategies to reduce or prevent wheat coeliacimmunogenicity and wheat sensitivity through food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Meer, van der I.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Cereals are among the oldest foods of humans. Wheat is one of these. In present times,several syndromes are, whether true or false, increasingly attributed to the consumption of wheat, with increasing costs for medical care and decreasing turnover for the food industry, especially the bakery sector.

  14. Quality of shear fractionated wheat gluten – comparison to commercial vital wheat gluten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalm, van der E.E.J.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The functional properties of gluten obtained with a shear-induced separation process, recently proposed by Peighambardoust et al. (2008), are compared with a commercially available vital wheat gluten. Two tests were performed. First, a relatively strong wheat flour, Soissons, was enriched with

  15. Submergence sensitivity of durum wheat, bread wheat and barley at the germination stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iduna Arduini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil waterlogging at initial growth stages can cause heavy yield losses of winter cereals. Therefore, the screening for submergence tolerance traits in seeds of commercial varieties is of high concern worldwide. Ten Italian varieties of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf., bread wheat (T. aestivum L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. were investigated for their ability to germinate in submerged conditions and to recover after submergence periods of three to 15 days. Submergence prevented germination and decreased germinability, at rates that increased with duration of submergence. Sensitivity ranked in the order: barley >durum wheat >bread wheat. We related the higher sensitivity of barley to its slower germination and slightly higher leakage of electrolytes, whereas the percentage of abnormal seedlings was lower than in other species. It was less than 4%, compared to less than 15 and 8% in durum wheat and bread wheat, respectively. Wide varietal differences were found in all species. According to variety, after 6-day submergence, germinability ranged from 2 to 42% in barley, from 5 to 80% in durum wheat, and from 30 to 77% in bread wheat. Varieties with more than 40% seed survival were three, six and seven per species, in the same order. The differential submergence sensitivity of varieties indicates a potential to select for waterlogging tolerance within Italian genotypes of winter cereal crops.

  16. Antifungal properties of wheat histones (H1-H4) and purified wheat histone H1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat (Triticum sp.) histones H1, H2, H3, and H4 were extracted. H1 was further purified. Their activities against fungi with varying degrees of wheat pathogenicity were determined. They included Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, F. oxysporum, F. verticillioides, F. solani, F. graminearu...

  17. The pangenome of hexaploid bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Juan D; Golicz, Agnieszka A; Bayer, Philipp E; Hurgobin, Bhavna; Lee, HueyTyng; Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Visendi, Paul; Lai, Kaitao; Doležel, Jaroslav; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David

    2017-06-01

    There is an increasing understanding that variation in gene presence-absence plays an important role in the heritability of agronomic traits; however, there have been relatively few studies on variation in gene presence-absence in crop species. Hexaploid wheat is one of the most important food crops in the world and intensive breeding has reduced the genetic diversity of elite cultivars. Major efforts have produced draft genome assemblies for the cultivar Chinese Spring, but it is unknown how well this represents the genome diversity found in current modern elite cultivars. In this study we build an improved reference for Chinese Spring and explore gene diversity across 18 wheat cultivars. We predict a pangenome size of 140 500 ± 102 genes, a core genome of 81 070 ± 1631 genes and an average of 128 656 genes in each cultivar. Functional annotation of the variable gene set suggests that it is enriched for genes that may be associated with important agronomic traits. In addition to variation in gene presence, more than 36 million intervarietal single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified across the pangenome. This study of the wheat pangenome provides insight into genome diversity in elite wheat as a basis for genomics-based improvement of this important crop. A wheat pangenome, GBrowse, is available at http://appliedbioinformatics.com.au/cgi-bin/gb2/gbrowse/WheatPan/, and data are available to download from http://wheatgenome.info/wheat_genome_databases.php. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effects of imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments on wheat aphids and their natural enemies on winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xuefeng; Zhao, Yunhe; Wei, Yan; Mu, Wei; Liu, Feng

    2016-06-01

    Wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is one of the major pests of winter wheat and has posed a significant threat to winter wheat production in China. Although neonicotinoid insecticidal seed treatments have been suggested to be a control method, the season-long efficacy on pests and the impact on their natural enemies are still uncertain. Experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of imidacloprid and clothianidin on the control of aphids, the number of their natural enemies and the emergence rate and yield of wheat during 2011-2014. Imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments had no effect on the emergence rate of winter wheat and could prevent yield losses and wheat aphid infestations throughout the winter wheat growing season. Furthermore, their active ingredients were detected in winter wheat leaves up to 200 days after sowing. Imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments had no adverse effects on ladybirds, hoverflies or parasitoids, and instead increased the spider-aphid ratios. Wheat seeds treated with imidacloprid and clothianidin were effective against wheat aphids throughout the winter wheat growing season and reduced the yield loss under field conditions. Imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments may be an important component of the integrated management of wheat aphids on winter wheat. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Augmenting the salt tolerance in wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Augmenting the salt tolerance in wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) through exogenously applied silicon. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... physiology and biochemistry of wheat genotypes (salt sensitive; Auqab-2000 and salt tolerant; SARC-5) ...

  20. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-02-19

    Feb 19, 2007 ... Key words: Agaricus bisporus, wheat straw, waste tea leaves, wheat chaff, pin head formation, compost temperature .... kg then filled into plastic bags as 7 kg wet weight basis. ..... substrate environment for mushroom growing.

  1. Management of parthenium weed by extracts and residue of wheat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehsan Zaidi

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... bioassay, dried and chopped wheat straw of the four test wheat varieties was thoroughly mixed in pot ... environment from living plants and the subsequent ... Copped materials were mixed in sandy loam soil in plastic pots of 8.

  2. Molecular markers for predicting end-products quality of wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular markers for predicting end-products quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT ... Four new Saudi wheat lines (KSU 102, KSU 103, KSU 105 and KSU 106) and two. American ...

  3. Molecular characterization of genetic diversity in some durum wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization of genetic diversity in some durum wheat ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Thus, RAPD offer a potentially simple, rapid and reliable method to evaluate genetic variation and relatedness among ten wheat ...

  4. Aneuploids of wheat and chromosomal localization of genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aneuploids of wheat and chromosomal localization of genes. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... cytogenetic methods for the chromosomal localization of major genes in wheat including Chinese spring (CS) monosomics (Triticum aestivum, ...

  5. Stability of wheat germ oil obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    심정은

    accumulated gas volume passing through the apparatus were measured using a gas flow meter. Wheat germ oil was ..... of rancidity in wheat germ analyzed by headspace gas chromatography and sensory analysis. J. Agric. Food Chem.

  6. An overview of wheat genome sequencing and its implications for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    National Institute of Plant Genome Research, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, India ... Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) serves as the staple food for. 30% of the global .... bread wheat genome is a product of multiple rounds of hybrid.

  7. Classification system for rain fed wheat grain cultivars using artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artificial neural network (ANN) models have found wide applications, including ... of grains is essential for various applications as wheat grain industry and cultivation. In order to classify the rain fed wheat cultivars using artificial neural network ...

  8. Wheat Breeding Technologies for a Shifting Global Climate

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This dataset will contain phenotypic observations of a large number of wheat genotypes evaluated in 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 at the International Maize and Wheat...

  9. QUALITY PREMIUMS FOR AUSTRALIAN WHEAT IN THE GROWING ASIAN MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi-Esfahani, Fredoun Z.; Stanmore, Roland G.

    1994-01-01

    An hedonic price function is applied to Australia's wheat exports to the growing Asian markets. The values for the quality characteristics in the wheat markets of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand are estimated. The data base for the study is from the Australian Wheat Board shipments over the period 1984 to 1991. The sample is divided into two separate time periods to test the consistency in demand for export wheat and to trace recent trends in quality premiums. The im...

  10. Occupational allergic multiorgan disease induced by wheat flour

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Torrijos, Elisa; Rodríguez Sanchez, Joaquín; Diaz Perales, Araceli; García, R.; Feo-Brito, F.; García, C.; Pineda, Fernando; Quirce, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Bakers are repeatedly exposed to wheat flour (WF) and may develop sensitization and occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and/or asthma to WF allergens.1 Several wheat proteins have been identified as causative allergens of occupational respiratory allergy in bakery workers.1 Testing of IgE reactivity in patients with different clinical profiles of wheat allergy (food allergy, wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, and baker's asthma) to salt-soluble and salt-insoluble protein fractions fro...

  11. Asymmetric Price Transmission in Indonesia's Wheat Flour Market

    OpenAIRE

    Varela, Gonzalo J.; Taniguchi, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Data indicate that its domestic price in Indonesia has been increasing regardless of movements in the international price of wheat. A test for asymmetric price transmission from international wheat to domestic wheat flour markets is conducted using an error correction model and find the presence of asymmetric price transmission. The upward adjustment in the domestic price of wheat flour is much faster than its adjustment downward when it deviates from long-run equilibrium. Our results are rob...

  12. Genome-wide identification of mitogen-activated protein kinase gene family in Gossypium raimondii and the function of their corresponding orthologs in tetraploid cultivated cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueying; Wang, Liman; Xu, Xiaoyang; Cai, Caiping; Guo, Wangzhen

    2014-12-10

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play a crucial role in plant growth and development as well as biotic and abiotic stress responses. Knowledge about the MAPK gene family in cotton is limited, and systematic investigation of MAPK family proteins has not been reported. By performing a bioinformatics homology search, we identified 28 putative MAPK genes in the Gossypium raimondii genome. These MAPK members were anchored onto 11 chromosomes in G. raimondii, with uneven distribution. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the MAPK candidates could be classified into the four known A, B, C and D groups, with more MAPKs containing the TEY phosphorylation site (18 members) than the TDY motif (10 members). Furthermore, 21 cDNA sequences of MAPKs with complete open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in G. hirsutum via PCR-based approaches, including 13 novel MAPKs and eight with homologs reported previously in tetraploid cotton. The expression patterns of 23 MAPK genes reveal their important roles in diverse functions in cotton, in both various developmental stages of vegetative and reproductive growth and in the stress response. Using a reverse genetics approach based on tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (TRV-VIGS), we further verified that MPK9, MPK13 and MPK25 confer resistance to defoliating isolates of Verticillium dahliae in cotton. Silencing of MPK9, MPK13 and MPK25 can significantly enhance cotton susceptibility to this pathogen. This study presents a comprehensive identification of 28 mitogen-activated protein kinase genes in G. raimondii. Their phylogenetic relationships, transcript expression patterns and responses to various stressors were verified. This study provides the first systematic analysis of MAPKs in cotton, improving our understanding of defense responses in general and laying the foundation for future crop improvement using MAPKs.

  13. GABA Shunt in Durum Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronia Carillo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant responses to salinity are complex, especially when combined with other stresses, and involve many changes in gene expression and metabolic fluxes. Until now, plant stress studies have been mainly dealt only with a single stress approach. However, plants exposed to multiple stresses at the same time, a combinatorial approach reflecting real-world scenarios, show tailored responses completely different from the response to the individual stresses, due to the stress-related plasticity of plant genome and to specific metabolic modifications. In this view, recently it has been found that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA but not glycine betaine (GB is accumulated in durum wheat plants under salinity only when it is combined with high nitrate and high light. In these conditions, plants show lower reactive oxygen species levels and higher photosynthetic efficiency than plants under salinity at low light. This is certainly relevant because the most of drought or salinity studies performed on cereal seedlings have been done in growth chambers under controlled culture conditions and artificial lighting set at low light. However, it is very difficult to interpret these data. To unravel the reason of GABA accumulation and its possible mode of action, in this review, all possible roles for GABA shunt under stress are considered, and an additional mechanism of action triggered by salinity and high light suggested.

  14. Adapting wheat in Europe for climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, M A; Stratonovitch, P; Alghabari, F; Gooding, M J

    2014-05-01

    Increasing cereal yield is needed to meet the projected increased demand for world food supply of about 70% by 2050. Sirius, a process-based model for wheat, was used to estimate yield potential for wheat ideotypes optimized for future climatic projections for ten wheat growing areas of Europe. It was predicted that the detrimental effect of drought stress on yield would be decreased due to enhanced tailoring of phenology to future weather patterns, and due to genetic improvements in the response of photosynthesis and green leaf duration to water shortage. Yield advances could be made through extending maturation and thereby improve resource capture and partitioning. However the model predicted an increase in frequency of heat stress at meiosis and anthesis. Controlled environment experiments quantify the effects of heat and drought at booting and flowering on grain numbers and potential grain size. A current adaptation of wheat to areas of Europe with hotter and drier summers is a quicker maturation which helps to escape from excessive stress, but results in lower yields. To increase yield potential and to respond to climate change, increased tolerance to heat and drought stress should remain priorities for the genetic improvement of wheat.

  15. Microsatellites in wheat and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, P.; Bryan, G.J.; Kirby, J.; Gale, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    The development of large panels of simply analyzable genetic markers for diversity studies and tagging, agronomically important genes in hexaploid bread wheat is an important goal in applied cereal genetic research. We have isolated and sequenced over two-hundred clones containing microsatellites from the wheat genome, and have tested 150 primer pairs for genetic polymorphism using a panel of ten wheat varieties, including the parents of our main mapping cross. A total of 125 loci were detected by 82 primer pairs, of which 105 loci from 63 primer pairs can be unequivocally allocated to one of the wheat chromosomes. A relatively low frequency of the loci detected are from the D-genome (24%). Generally, the microsatellites show high levels of genetic polymorphism and an average 3.5 alleles per locus with an average polymorphism information content (PIC) value of 0.5. The observed levels of polymorphism are positively correlated with the length of the microsatellite repeats. A high proportion, approximately one half, of primer pairs designed to detect simple sequence repeat (SSR) variation in wheat do not generate the expected amplification products and, more significantly, often generate unresolvable Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) products. In general our results agree closely with those obtained from other recent studies using microsatellites in plants. (author)

  16. Household and familial resemblance in risk factors for type 2 diabetes and related cardiometabolic diseases in rural Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Bahendeka, Silver K.; Whyte, Susan R.

    2017-01-01

    prevention and screening, we investigated the resemblance of T2D risk factors at household level and by type of familial dyadic relationship in a rural Ugandan community. Methods: This cross-sectional household-based study included 437 individuals ≥13 years of age from 90 rural households in south......-western Uganda. Resemblance in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), anthropometry, blood pressure, fitness status and sitting time were analysed using a general mixed model with random effects (by household or dyad) to calculate household intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and dyadic regression coefficients...... (ICC=0.24), HbA1c (ICC=0.18) and systolic blood pressure (ICC=0.11). Regarding dyadic resemblance, the highest standardised regression coefficient was seen in fitness status for spouses (0.54, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.76), parent–offspring (0.41, 95% CI 0.28 0.54) and siblings (0.41, 95% CI 0.25 to 0...

  17. Postharvest tillage reduces Downy Brome infestations in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest, downy brome continues to infest winter wheat producing regions especially in low-rainfall areas where the winter wheat-summer fallow rotation is the dominate production system. In Washington, a study was conducted for 2 years at each of two locations in the winter wheat -su...

  18. Effects on respiratory system due to exposure to wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Mohammed Said

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Exposure to wheat flour increases the risk of developing respiratory symptoms; it also causes reduction in the pulmonary function parameters, as regards spirometry and DLCOSB. Exposure to wheat flour causes interstitial lung disease as detected by HRCT chest. Smoking augments the wheat flour induced lung disease.

  19. Effect of Sucrose Esters on the Physicochemical Properties of Wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of sucrose esters on the physicochemical properties of wheat starch. Methods: Sucrose ester was mixed with wheat starch extracted from normal soft wheat cultivars and heated. Change in starch properties arising from the interaction between were assessed for starch blue value, viscosity ...

  20. 78 FR 27857 - United States Standards for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... RIN 0580-AB12 United States Standards for Wheat AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards... (GIPSA) is revising the United States Standards for Wheat under the United States Grain Standards Act (USGSA) to change the definition of Contrasting classes (CCL) in the class Hard White wheat. This change...

  1. 7 CFR 407.17 - Group risk plan for wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for wheat. 407.17 Section 407.17..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.17 Group risk plan for wheat. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Wheat for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows: 1...

  2. 77 FR 23420 - United States Standards for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... and Stockyards Administration 7 CFR Part 810 RIN 0580-AB12 United States Standards for Wheat AGENCY..., 2012, regarding a proposal to revise the U.S. Standards for Wheat under the U.S. Grain Standards Act. The proposed rule would change the definition of Contrasting classes in Hard White wheat and change...

  3. The mechanism on rhizosphere phosphorus activation of two wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanism on rhizosphere phosphorus activation of two wheat genotypes with different phosphorus efficiency. ... genotype would be a potential approach for maintaining wheat yield potential in soils with low P bioavailability. Key words: Wheat, P efficiency, rhizosphere properties, P fractions, phosphates activity.

  4. Characterization of a new synthetic wheat – Aegilops biuncialis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the experiments was to identify the synthetic wheat – Aegilops biuncialis germplasm Line 15-3-2 with 42 chromosomes. Morphologically, the spike of line 15-3-2 is intermediate to those of its wheat and Aegilops parents. Line 15-3-2 displays stable fertility and immunity to wheat powdery mildew and stripe rust.

  5. Fungal flora and deoxynivalenol (DON) level in wheat from Jeddah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to explore the fungal flora along with the DON concentration in the collected wheat samples from Jeddah market to correlate between this flora and the detected DON. Whole grain wheat samples were collected from Jeddah market and this represents imported and locally produced wheat. The results ...

  6. Microwave fixation enhances gluten fibril formation in wheat endosperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wheat storage proteins, primarily glutenin and gliadin, contribute unique functional properties in food products and play a critical role in determining the end-use quality of wheat. In the wheat endosperm these proteins form a proteinaceous matrix deposited among starch granules only to be brou...

  7. Stem rust seedling resistance genes in Ethiopian wheat cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty durum wheat (19 commercial cultivars and 11 breeding lines) and 30 bread wheat (20 commercial cultivars and 10 breeding lines) were tested for gene postulation. Stem rust infection types produced on wheat cultivars and breeding lines by ten Pgt races was compared with infection types produced on 40 near ...

  8. Development of RAPD based markers for wheat rust resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rust diseases are the major cause of low yield of wheat in Pakistan. Wheat breeders all over the world as well as in Pakistan are deriving rust resistance genes from alien species like Triticum ventricosum and introducing them in common wheat (Triticum aestivum). One such example is the introgression of rust resistance ...

  9. Study on genetic diversity in Pakistani wheat varieties using simple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... Common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a grass species, cultivated world wide. Globally, it is ... A high degree of genetic polymorphism was observed among the wheat varieties with average ... cold, heat, soil salinization and water logging and (ii) ... and to find genetically most diverse genotypes of wheat.

  10. 7 CFR 782.18 - Wheat purchased for export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat purchased for export. 782.18 Section 782.18... § 782.18 Wheat purchased for export. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of export to a foreign country or...

  11. Ancestral QTL alleles from wild emmer wheat improve drought resistance and productivity in modern wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne eMerchuk-Ovnat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum and bread (T. aestivum wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4 were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690–710 mm and water-limited (290–320 mm conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS, and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS. In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass - specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background, under both treatments (2BS QTL, and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL. The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance.

  12. Variation in Susceptibility to Wheat dwarf virus among Wild and Domesticated Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Jim; Shad, Nadeem; Kvarnheden, Anders; Westerbergh, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the variation in plant response in host-pathogen interactions between wild (Aegilops spp., Triticum spp.) and domesticated wheat (Triticum spp.) and Wheat dwarf virus (WDV). The distribution of WDV and its wild host species overlaps in Western Asia in the Fertile Crescent, suggesting a coevolutionary relationship. Bread wheat originates from a natural hybridization between wild emmer wheat (carrying the A and B genomes) and the wild D genome donor Aegilops tauschii, followed by polyploidization and domestication. We studied whether the strong selection during these evolutionary processes, leading to genetic bottlenecks, may have resulted in a loss of resistance in domesticated wheat. In addition, we investigated whether putative fluctuations in intensity of selection imposed on the host-pathogen interactions have resulted in a variation in susceptibility to WDV. To test our hypotheses we evaluated eighteen wild and domesticated wheat taxa, directly or indirectly involved in wheat evolution, for traits associated with WDV disease such as leaf chlorosis, different growth traits and WDV content. The plants were exposed to viruliferous leafhoppers (Psammotettix alienus) in a greenhouse trial and evaluated at two time points. We found three different plant response patterns: i) continuous reduction in growth over time, ii) weak response at an early stage of plant development but a much stronger response at a later stage, and iii) remission of symptoms over time. Variation in susceptibility may be explained by differences in the intensity of natural selection, shaping the coevolutionary interaction between WDV and the wild relatives. However, genetic bottlenecks during wheat evolution have not had a strong impact on WDV resistance. Further, this study indicates that the variation in susceptibility may be associated with the genome type and that the ancestor Ae. tauschii may be useful as genetic resource for the improvement of WDV resistance in wheat. PMID

  13. Variation in susceptibility to Wheat dwarf virus among wild and domesticated wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Nygren

    Full Text Available We investigated the variation in plant response in host-pathogen interactions between wild (Aegilops spp., Triticum spp. and domesticated wheat (Triticum spp. and Wheat dwarf virus (WDV. The distribution of WDV and its wild host species overlaps in Western Asia in the Fertile Crescent, suggesting a coevolutionary relationship. Bread wheat originates from a natural hybridization between wild emmer wheat (carrying the A and B genomes and the wild D genome donor Aegilops tauschii, followed by polyploidization and domestication. We studied whether the strong selection during these evolutionary processes, leading to genetic bottlenecks, may have resulted in a loss of resistance in domesticated wheat. In addition, we investigated whether putative fluctuations in intensity of selection imposed on the host-pathogen interactions have resulted in a variation in susceptibility to WDV. To test our hypotheses we evaluated eighteen wild and domesticated wheat taxa, directly or indirectly involved in wheat evolution, for traits associated with WDV disease such as leaf chlorosis, different growth traits and WDV content. The plants were exposed to viruliferous leafhoppers (Psammotettix alienus in a greenhouse trial and evaluated at two time points. We found three different plant response patterns: i continuous reduction in growth over time, ii weak response at an early stage of plant development but a much stronger response at a later stage, and iii remission of symptoms over time. Variation in susceptibility may be explained by differences in the intensity of natural selection, shaping the coevolutionary interaction between WDV and the wild relatives. However, genetic bottlenecks during wheat evolution have not had a strong impact on WDV resistance. Further, this study indicates that the variation in susceptibility may be associated with the genome type and that the ancestor Ae. tauschii may be useful as genetic resource for the improvement of WDV resistance in

  14. Aroma of wheat porridge and bread-crumb is influenced by the wheat variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starr, Gerrard; Hansen, Åse Solvej; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2015-01-01

    evaluation, from these eight were selected for bread evaluation. Porridge and bread results were compared. Variations were found in both evaluations. Five odour- and nine flavour descriptors were found to be common to both wheat porridge and bread. The results for two descriptors: "cocoa" and "oat porridge......" were correlated between the wheat porridge and bread samples. Analysis of whole-meal and low-extraction samples revealed that the descriptors "malt", "oat-porridge", "øllebrød", "cocoa" and "grain" mostly characterized wheat bran, while descriptors for "maize", "bean-shoots", "chamomile", "umami...

  15. Effects legumes, Fallow and wheat on subsequent wheat production in Central Anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M. B.; Akin, A.; Aydin, M.

    1996-01-01

    In order to determine the Nsub 2- fixation capacities of lentil, vetch, chickpea and fodderpea in a legume-wheat rotation by using the A-value method of N 15 technique, and to assess the amount of carry-over of N to wheat from the previous legume as well as water contribution of fallow, wheat and legumes to the following wheat under rainfed Central Anatolia conditions field experiments were conducted in 1992 and 1993 at three different provinces using completely randomized block design with 5 replications. Results we obtained showed that %Ndff values among legumesdid not differ significantly neither within or between locations. Legumesvaried significantly (P<0.05) in their %Ndfa values at each location and highest values of %Ndfa were obtained at Eskisehir. In general, %Ndfa varied from59-84, and 36-85 for chickpea,lentils and vetchs. The evaluation of the yield and N data obtained in 1993 indicated that lentil (winter or summer) -wheat rotation at Ankara and Eskisehir conditions and chickpea-wheat rotation at Konya conditions should be prefered, due to the higher seed and total yields, higher N yields and higher %NUE values obtained from these rotations in comparison to the others. In order to estimate the carry-over of nitrogen from legumes to the succeeding wheat crop, % nitrogen derived from unknown (%Ndfu) were also calculated. Highest amount of carry-over from the legumesto the succeeding wheat were 31.1 kgN/ha from summer lentil at Ankara; 16.9 kgN/ha from summer lentil at Eskisehir; and 8.0 kgN/ha from chickpea at Konya. These results obtined showed that a lentil-wheat rotation at Ankara and Eskisehir and a chickpea-wheat rotation at Konya. Mean while, the evaluation of the soil and WUE data at both Eskisehir and Ankara indicated that winter lentil-wheat rotation should be prefered in these areas due to more efficient use of water by wheat crop after this rotation system

  16. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Leipold, Frank; Bindslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    O3 generated in a plasma at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, fed with dried air (or oxygen-enriched dried air), has been used for the degradation of lignin in wheat straw to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis and to get more fermentable sugars. A fixed bed reactor was used combined...... with a CO2 detector and an online technique for O3 measurement in the fed and exhaust gas allowing continuous measurement of the consumption of O3. This rendered it possible for us to determine the progress of the pretreatment in real time (online analysis). The process time can be adjusted to produce wheat...... straw with desired lignin content because of the online analysis. The O3 consumption of wheat straw and its polymeric components, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, as well as a mixture of these, dry as well as with 50% water, were studied. Furthermore, the process parameters dry matter content...

  17. A recombinant wheat serpin with inhibitory activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren K; Dahl, Søren Weis; Nørgård, Anette

    1996-01-01

    A full-length clone encoding the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) serpin WSZ1 was isolated from a cDNA library based on mRNA from immature grain. The 398 amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA was corroborated by sequencing CNBr peptides of WSZ1 purified from resting grain. WSZ1 belongs to the sub......A full-length clone encoding the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) serpin WSZ1 was isolated from a cDNA library based on mRNA from immature grain. The 398 amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA was corroborated by sequencing CNBr peptides of WSZ1 purified from resting grain. WSZ1 belongs...... sequencing indicated that only few serpins are encoded by wheat, but at least three distinct genes are expressed in the grain. Cleavage experiments on a chymotrypsin column suggested a Gln-Gln reactive site bond not previously observed in inhibitory serpins....

  18. Radioimmunoassay of deoxynivalenol in wheat and corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y.C.; Zhang, G.S.; Chu, F.S.

    1986-01-01

    With the availability of antibody against deoxynivalenol triacetate (DON-triacetate), a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for DON in wheat was developed. DON is extracted from the sample with acetonitrile-water defatted with hexane, and then reacted with acetic anhydride to form DON-triacetate. The reaction mixture is loaded onto a C-18 cartridge to remove excess reagents and impurities. Acetylated DON is eluted from the cartridge with 50% methanol in water, and then analyzed by radioimmunoassay utilizing antiserum against DON-triacetate and tritiated DON-triacetate. Overall recovery for DON added to wheat between 50 and 5000 ppb was 86% with a standard deviation of 7% and coefficient of variation of 8%. The limit of detection for DON was about 20 ppb. Analysis of 12 naturally contaminated wheat, corn, and mixed feed samples for DON revealed that RIA results agreed well with thin layer chromatographic analyses performed by other laboratories

  19. Experimental mutation of disease resistance in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanisova, A.; Hanis, M.; Knytl, V.; Cerny, J.

    1980-01-01

    In 1968 to 1974, 19 cultivars and lines of wheat were treated with mutagens (i.e., with X rays, gamma radiation, neutrons, EMS). ALtogether 140 lines were obtained showing better resistance and/or tolerance to black stem rust, yellow rust, stem rust of wheat, powdery mildew of cereals, and root-rot of wheat. The frequency of the induced mutations was sufficiently high, i.e., 0.0012 to 0.078 mutants per 100 plants of M 2 . The major part of mutant lines showed a lower agronomical value due to negative pleiotropy of mutant genes and a changed genetic background of mutants. Some mutant lines can be used as the starting material in hybridization programmes. (author)

  20. NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EMMER WHEAT VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional compounds (fat, sugars, crude protein, soluble fiber, ash and starch of four emmer wheat varieties grown under the conditions of organic farming system. The experiment was established on Scientific Research base Dolná Malanta, near Nitra in Slovakia during 2010 – 2011 and 2011 – 2012 growing seasons. Nutritional parameters, except crude protein content, were not influenced by the variety and weather conditions. Agnone variety had the highest content of fat, crude protein and starch but the lowest content of soluble dietary fiber. The lowest values of fat, crude protein had Molise sel Colli variety; Farvento variety had the lowest sugars and starch content. Emmer wheat as ancient wheat has a unique composition in secondary components, such as starch, which may play a role as functional food ingredients.

  1. Biodegradability of wheat gluten based bioplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenek, Sandra; Feuilloley, Pierre; Gratraud, Jean; Morel, Marie-Hélène; Guilbert, Stéphane

    2004-01-01

    A large variety of wheat gluten based bioplastics, which were plasticized with glycerol, were subjected to biodegradation. The materials covered the total range available for the biochemical control parameter Fi, which expresses the percentage of aggregated proteins. This quantity can be related to the density of covalent crosslinks in the wheat gluten network, which are induced by technological treatments. The biodegradability tests were performed in liquid medium (modified Sturm test) and in farmland soil. All gluten materials were fully degraded after 36 days in aerobic fermentation and within 50 days in farmland soil. No significant differences were observed between the samples. The mineralization half-life time of 3.8 days in the modified Sturm test situated gluten materials among fast degrading polymers. The tests of microbial inhibition experiments revealed no toxic effects of the modified gluten or of its metabolites. Thus, the protein bulk of wheat gluten materials is non-toxic and fully biodegradable, whatever the technological process applied.

  2. Wheat streak mosaic virus coat protein is a determinant for vector transmission by the wheat curl mite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV; genus Tritimovirus; family Potyviridae), is transmitted by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella Keifer). The requirement of coat protein (CP) for WSMV transmission by the wheat curl mite was examined using a series of viable deletion and point mutations. Mite trans...

  3. Dissection of the multigenic wheat stem rust resistance present in the Montenegrin spring wheat accession PI 362698

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research to identify and characterize stem rust resistance genes in common wheat, Triticum aestivum, has been stimulated by the emergence of Ug99-lineage races of the wheat stem rust pathogen, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt), in Eastern Africa. The Montenegrin spring wheat landrace PI 362698 ...

  4. Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, Hikmet; Kantar, Melda; Yucebilgili Kurtoglu, Kuaybe

    2013-01-01

    The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by “omics” studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides), which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance. PMID:23766697

  5. Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet Budak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum and durum wheat (Triticum durum and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by “omics” studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides, which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance.

  6. Use of Carbon Isotope Discrimination as Tool for Improving Drought Tolerance of Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Hakimi, A. S.

    2004-01-01

    As in many countries of the region, agriculture in Yemen has been strongly affected by drought conditions, and cereal production is the most concerned. So to this regard, two approaches could be adopted to solve this problem; enhancement of irrigated areas, but negative effects can also be noted as salinity (e.g. Marib, area) and development of foliar diseases. The second approaches is improvement of water use and drought resistance of wheat cultivars: this long-term strategy, which is a part of a general approach giving more attention to the sustainability of farming systems, is at the basis of the present study. Several morphophysiological mechanisms of drought tolerance involved in dehydration tolerance, As for other morphophysiological traits, the possibility of using carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) in breeding for water use efficiency (WUE) in drought prone environments is related to i) the facility of measurement, ii) the existence of variability, iii) high values of heritability, and iv) a good knowledge of eventual associations between Δ and other phenological or morphophysiological traits. The use of stable isotopes has until recently been limited because of the cost of mass spectrometers designed and the requirements for sample preparation. However, the recent linkage of an automatic gas sample preparation apparatus with a dual-inlet mass spectrometer has made the technique more convenient for fast and accurate analysis of stable isotope composition of the most important elements. The present study has been conducted to evaluate the interest of (Δ) in mature kernels as a criterion for the improvement of water use efficiency and yield under drought in tetraploid wheat species. For this purpose, T. durum Om Rabi 5 was crossed by T. polonicum 9 (Tp9) which had been found to be more droughts tolerant and to have a lower □ value of the grain. The F2 population showed a wide segregation for this last trait. Further, divergent selections were made among

  7. Biotechnology Assisted Wheat Breeding for Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffan, Philipp Matthias

    model identified two novel QTL for common bunt resistance located on wheat chromosomes 2B and 7 A. The identification of new resistance loci may help to broaden our understanding of common bunt resistance in wheat, and QTL may potentially be exploited by marker assisted selection in plant breeding. QTL...... markers for common bunt resistance may potentially help to speed up resistance breeding by shortening the long time required for phenotypic disease screening. Here, we report the results of 1. an association mapping study for common bunt resistance, 2. a QTL mapping study for the localization of common...

  8. Induced mutations for disease resistance in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerny, J.; Hanis, M.; Hanisova, A.; Knytl, V.; Sasek, A.

    1983-01-01

    Mutation induction has been used over a period of 20 years to obtain mutants of wheat with improved disease resistance. 34 wheat cultivars have been treated with X-rays, gamma rays, thermal neutrons or EMS. A great number of mutants were selected. Their mutational origin was verified by electrophoretic analysis of gliadin spectra. Resistances have been confirmed over several generations. None of the mutants have been released yet for commercial cultivation because of shortcomings in yield or susceptibility to other diseases. The use of mutants in cross-breeding is considered. (author)

  9. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Euro Pannacci; Francesco Tei; Marcello Guiducci

    2017-01-01

    Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08) in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l.) in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i) spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days) in t...

  10. Genetic effects of feeding irradiated wheat to mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayalaxmi

    1976-01-01

    The effects of feeding irradiated wheat in mice on bone marrow and testis chromosomes, germ cell numbers and dominant lethal mutations were investigated. Feeding of freshly irradiated wheat resulted in significantly increased incidence of polyploid cells in bone marrow, aneuploid cells in testis, reduction in number of spermatogonia of types A, B and resting primary spermatocytes as well as a higher mutagenic index. Such a response was not observed when mice were fed stored irradiated wheat. Also there was no difference between the mice fed un-irradiated wheat and stored irradiated wheat. (author)

  11. Pricing behavior of USA exporter in wheat international market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, R. P.; Sumono; Iddrisu, Y.; Darus, M.; Sihombing, L. P.; Jufri

    2018-02-01

    The number of wheat producing countries is changing over time. It is expected the change in wheat supply will lead world wheat market become more competitive and reduce market power of major exporter country. This paper tries to identify and examined the degree of market power on wheat international market for USA by using the Pricing to Market (PTM) method. USA is the biggest producer and exporter in wheat market. The PTM method found that USA impose noncompetitive strategy by applying price discrimination and apply market power to their importer country.

  12. From FRA to RFN, or How the Family Resemblance Approach Can Be Transformed for Science Curriculum Analysis on Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ebru; Erduran, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of Nature of Science (NOS) in the science curriculum has been advocated around the world for several decades. One way of defining NOS is related to the family resemblance approach (FRA). The family resemblance idea was originally described by Wittgenstein. Subsequently, philosophers and educators have applied Wittgenstein's idea to…

  13. Improving wheat simulation capabilities in Australia from a cropping systems perspective. III. The integrated wheat model (I-WHEAT).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinke, H.; Hammer, G.L.; Keulen, van H.; Rabbinge, R.

    1998-01-01

    Previous work has identified several short-comings in the ability of four spring wheat and one barley model to simulate crop processes and resource utilization. This can have important implications when such models are used within systems models where final soil water and nitrogen conditions of one

  14. Natural variation in grain composition of wheat and related cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Ann-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica A M; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

    2013-09-04

    The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23-26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. Principal component analysis allowed the 150 bread wheat lines to be classified on the basis of differences in their contents of bioactive components and wheat species (bread, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn wheats) to be clearly separated from related cereals (barley, rye, and oats). Such multivariate analyses could be used to define substantial equivalence when novel (including transgenic) cereals are considered.

  15. Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors for Spousal Resemblance in Obesity Status and Habitual Physical Activity in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Jen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses’ body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses’ resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses’ sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006–2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-scale resemblance indices (correlation and kappa coefficients in body mass index (BMI and HPA were estimated by couples’ socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We found that spousal difference in BMI was smaller for couples with a lower household income, for who were both unemployed, and for older spouses. Correlation coefficient between spouses’ BMI was 0.24, differing by race/ethnicity and family size. Kappa coefficient for weight status (obesity: BMI ≥ 30, overweight: 30 > BMI ≥ 25 was 0.11 and 0.35 for HPA. Never-working women’s husbands had lower odds of obesity than employed women’s husbands (OR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.53–0.89. Men’s unemployment status was associated with wives’ greater odds of obesity (OR = 1.31 (95% CI = 1.01–1.71. HPA was associated with men’s employment status and income level, but not with women’s. The population representative survey showed that spousal resemblance in weight status and HPA varied with socioeconomic and demographic factors.

  16. Pilot Study: Comparison of Sourdough Wheat Bread and Yeast-Fermented Wheat Bread in Individuals with Wheat Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Laatikainen, Reijo; Koskenpato, Jari; Hongisto, Sanna-Maria; Loponen, Jussi; Poussa, Tuija; Huang, Xin; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula; Salmenkari, Hanne; Korpela, Riitta

    2017-01-01

    Many patients suspect wheat as being a major trigger of their irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. Our aim was to evaluate whether sourdough wheat bread baked without baking improvers and using a long dough fermentation time (>12 h), would result in lower quantities of alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) and Fermentable, Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides and Polyols (FODMAPs), and would be better tolerated than yeast-fermented wheat bread for subjects with IBS who have a poor subjectiv...

  17. Binding of zinc and iron to wheat bread, wheat bran, and their components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Beigi, F; Faraji, B; Reinhold, J G

    1977-10-01

    Wholemeal wheat bread decreases the availability and intestinal absorption of divalent metals. To define this action further, binding of zinc in vitro to a wheat wholemeal bread (Tanok), dephytinized Tanok, and cellulose was determined at pH 5.0 to 7.5. Zinc binding by each was highly pH-dependent and reached a maximum at pH 6.5 to 7.5. Removal of phytate from Tanok did not reduce its binding capability. Wheat bran at pH 6.5 and 6.8 bound 72% of iron (0.5 microgram/ml of solution) and 82.5% of zinc (1.43 microgram/ml solution), respectively. Lignin and two of the hemicellulose fractions of wheat bran and high binding capabilities for zinc (85.6, 87.1, and 82.1%, respectively) whereas a third had a lower zinc-binding capability (38.7%). Binding of zinc to various celluloses and dextrans is also demonstrated. Formation of complexes of these metals with wheat fiber can explain, at least in part, the decreased availability of dietary iron and zinc in wholemeal wheat bread.

  18. Pirimiphos-methyl residues in stored wheat and barley, bread, burghul and parboiled wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidemetriou, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Residues of 14 C-pirimiphos-methyl in stored grain declined to 88% in wheat and 82% in barley after 12 months. Corresponding percentages with the unlabelled insecticide were 78% and 59% since only the parent chemical was determined. Surface residues, removed by washing the grain with water, decreased from 3.3 to 0.2 mg/kg for wheat and from 2.0 to 0.2 mg/kg for barley. Bound residues increased gradually with time and reached a maximum of 2.2% for wheat and 3.0% for barley in 12 months. Pirimiphos-methyl residues in flour increased from 1.1 at 0 time to 2.2 mg/kg after one year. The mean values of residues contained in the unwashed wheat grain were 81% for bran and 19% for flour. The loss in milling during preparation of wholemeal flour from prewashed grain was 7% for wheat and 6% for barley. Processed products from wheat showed residue losses ranging from 24 to 45%. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Response of wheat to tillage and nitrogen fertilization in rice-wheat system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, R.; Ehsanullah, A.; Ahmad, R.; Iqbal, M.

    2012-01-01

    In a rice-wheat system, rice stubbles remaining in the field often delay early planting of winter wheat to utilize residual soil moisture and reduce operating costs. A randomized complete block design in a split plot arrangement was conducted with four seasonal tillage methods [conventional tillage, CT; deep tillage, DT; zero tillage with zone disk tiller, ZDT; and happy seeder, HS] as main plots and five N levels [0, 75, 100, 125, and 150 kg ha/sup -1/] as subplots during 2009 to 2010 and 2010 to 2011 wheat growing seasons. Results showed that DT significantly decreased soil bulk density, penetration resistance, and volumetric moisture content compared with CT, ZDT and HS. However, wheat growth and yield parameter such as fertile tillers, plant height, root length, spike length, grain yields, and water and nutrient-use efficiency was significantly higher in DT compared with other tillage treatments. Wheat growth and yield was more increased by N fertilization at 125 kg ha/sup -1/ than other N rates. However, when the wheat plant productivity index was plotted over N rates, the non-linear relationship showed that N fertilization at 80 kg N ha-1 accounted for 85% of the variability in the plant productivity under DT and HS while ZDT had the same productivity at 120 kg N ha/sup -1/. (author)

  20. Expression of Pinellia pedatisecta Lectin Gene in Transgenic Wheat Enhances Resistance to Wheat Aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Duan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheat aphids are major pests during the seed filling stage of wheat. Plant lectins are toxic to sap-sucking pests such as wheat aphids. In this study, Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin (ppa, a gene encoding mannose binding lectin, was cloned, and it shared 92.69% nucleotide similarity and 94% amino acid similarity with Pinellia ternata agglutinin (pta. The ppa gene, driven by the constitutive and phloem-specific ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit gene (rbcs promoter in pBAC-rbcs-ppa expression vector, was transferred into the wheat cultivar Baofeng104 (BF104 by particle bombardment transformation. Fifty-four T0 transgenic plants were generated. The inheritance and expression of the ppa gene were confirmed by PCR and RT-PCR analysis respectively, and seven homozygous transgenic lines were obtained. An aphid bioassay on detached leaf segments revealed that seven ppa transgenic wheat lines had lower aphid growth rates and higher inhibition rates than BF104. Furthermore, two-year aphid bioassays in isolated fields showed that aphid numbers per tiller of transgenic lines were significantly decreased, compared with wild type BF104. Therefore, ppa could be a strong biotechnological candidate to produce aphid-resistant wheat.

  1. Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis Sensitized with Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein in Soap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Chinuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA is a specific form of wheat allergy typically induced by exercise after ingestion of wheat products. Wheat ω-5 gliadin is a major allergen associated with conventional WDEIA, and detection of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE specific to recombinant ω-5 gliadin is a reliable method for its diagnosis. Recently, an increased incidence of a new subtype of WDEIA, which is likely to be sensitized via a percutaneous and/or rhinoconjunctival route to hydrolyzed wheat protein (HWP, has been observed. All of the patients with this new subtype had used the same brand of soap, which contained HWP. Approximately half of these patients developed contact allergy several months later and subsequently developed WDEIA. In each of these patients, contact allergy with soap exposure preceded food ingestion-induced reactions. Other patients directly developed generalized symptoms upon ingestion of wheat products. The predominant observed symptom of the new WDEIA subtype was angioedema of the eyelids; a number of patients developed anaphylaxis. This new subtype of WDEIA has little serum ω-5 gliadin-specific serum IgE.

  2. Characterization of expressed sequence tags from developing fibers of Gossypium barbadense and evaluation of insertion-deletion variation in tetraploid cultivated cotton species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yuanda; Zhao, Liang; Xu, Xiaoyang; Wang, Lei; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2013-03-13

    Cotton is the leading fiber crop worldwide. Gossypium barbadense is an important species of cotton because of its extra-long staple fibers with superior luster and silkiness. However, a systematic analysis and utilization of cDNA sequences from G. barbadense fiber development remains understudied. A total of 21,079 high quality sequences were generated from two non-normalized cDNA libraries prepared by using a mixture of G. barbadense Hai7124 fibers and ovules. After assembly processing, a set of 8,653 unigenes were obtained. Of those, 7,786 were matched to known proteins and 7,316 were assigned to functional categories. The molecular functions of these unigenes were mostly related to binding and catalytic activity, and carbohydrate, amino acid, and energy metabolisms were major contributors among the subsets of metabolism. Sequences comparison between G. barbadense and G. hirsutum revealed that 8,245 unigenes from G. barbadense were detected the similarity with those released publicly in G. hirsutum, however, the remaining 408 sequences had no hits against G. hirsutum unigenes database. Furthermore, 13,275 putative ESTs InDels loci involved in the orthologous and/or homoeologous differences between/within G. barbadense and G. hirsutum were discovered by in silico analyses, and 2,160 InDel markers were developed by ESTs with more than five insertions or deletions. By gel electrophoresis combined with sequencing verification, 71.11% candidate InDel loci were reconfirmed orthologous and/or homoeologous loci polymorphisms using G. hirsutum acc TM-1 and G. barbadense cv Hai7124. Blastx result showed among 2,160 InDel loci, 81 with significant function similarity with known genes associated with secondary wall synthesis process, indicating the important roles in fiber quality in tetraploid cultivated cotton species. Sequence comparisons and InDel markers development will lay the groundwork for promoting the identification of genes related to superior agronomic traits

  3. [Wheat anaphylaxis or wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis caused by use of a soap product which contains hydrolyzed wheat proteins. -a report of 12 cases-].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Akiko; Kishikawa, Reiko; Nishie, Haruko; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Shimoda, Terufumi; Iwanaga, Tomoaki; Nishima, Sankei; Furue, Masutaka

    2011-11-01

    Recently, it has become a social problem that hydrolyzed wheat protein in facial soap can induce wheat allergy including wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). We described the clinical characteristics of the patients related. We collected 12 cases who had had a medical examination from January to October in 2010. All the patients were female and mean age was 36.0± 9.9 years. All of them had had no prior symptoms history of wheat allergy, they gradually developed wheat anaphylaxis or WDEIA in an average of 2 years after they started to use a soap product in question which contains hydrolyzed wheat proteins. Most patients suffered immediate contact allergic reactions after or at the time of washing their face with the soap product. 10 of 12 patients showed a low level of IgE to CAP-recombinant ω-5-gliadin. Episodes of anaphylaxis were prevented by avoiding both intake of wheat-containing foods and usage of the soap product. We concluded that their wheat anaphylaxis is likely to be caused by epicutaneous sensitization of the hydrolyzed wheat proteins in the soap product. It was important that physicians should know the possibility of sensitization from non-dietary antigen.

  4. Molecular genetic studies on irradiated wheat plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, O.M.

    2002-01-01

    Composite genotype(octamer hybrid) was obtained from crossing among eight Egyptian hexaploid wheat cultivars differing in their tolerance to drought stress to produce a genotype, which can economize on the irrigation water requirements or can tolerate drought stress. Gamma irradiation with 10-Krad was used to induce mutations, which could improve drought tolerance for this composite. From eight Egyptian wheat cultivars, two were chosen as drought tolerant and drought sensitive genotypes (G-160 and Sk-61, respectively. They were evaluated along with their F1 and F2 for their relative drought tolerance for some yield-related traits. Bulked segregating analysis developed some RAPD and SSR markers with different primers, which were considered as molecular for drought tolerance in wheat. Hal 2-like gene was introduced into Egyptian wheat cultivar G-164 via micro projectile bombardment. Two putative transgenic plants were successfully detected by leaf painting with the herbicide basta. PCR/ Southern blotting analysis indicated the presence of both/either bar and/or Hal 2-like genes in the genomic background of the two transgenic plants

  5. TEXTURE OF COOKED SPELT WHEAT NOODLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available At present, there are limited and incomplete data on the ability of spelt to produce alimentary pasta of suitable quality. Noodles are traditional cereal-based food that is becoming increasingly popular worldwide because of its convenience, nutritional qualities, and palatability. It is generally accepted that texture is the main criterion for assessing overall quality of cooked noodles. We present selected indicators of noodle texture of three spelt cultivars – Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system at the locality of Dolna Malanta near Nitra. A texture analyzer TA.XT PLUS was used to determine cooked spelt wheat noodle firmness (N (AACC 66-50. The texture of cooked spelt wheat noodles was expressed also as elasticity (N and extensibility (mm. Statistical analysis showed significant influence of the variety and year of growing on the firmness, elasticity and extensibility of cooked noodles. The wholemeal spelt wheat noodles were characterized with lower cutting firmness than the flour noodles. Flour noodles were more tensile than wholemeal noodles. The best elasticity and extensibility of flour noodles was found in noodles prepared from Rubiota however from wholemeal noodles it was Oberkulmer Rotkorn. Spelt wheat is suitable for noodle production, however also here it is necessary to differentiate between varieties. According to achieved results, wholemeal noodles prepared from Oberkulmer Rotkorn can be recommended for noodle industry due to their consistent structure and better texture quality after cooking.

  6. The pangenome of hexaploid bread wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Montenegro, J. D.; Golicz, A. A.; Bayer, P.E.; Hurgobin, B.; Lee, H. T.; Chan, C. K. K.; Visendi, P.; Lai, K.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Batley, J.; Edwards, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 5 (2017), s. 1007-1013 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : database * diversity * genome * pangenome * single nucleotide polymorphisms * Triticum aestivum * wheat Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.901, year: 2016

  7. The quest for celiac-safe wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeck, van den H.C.

    2010-01-01

    Gluten proteins from wheat have the unique property to interact with each other and form a network in dough preparation. In this gluten network gas bubbles can be retained that are produced by yeast, which is added during dough preparation. The result is a voluminous, viscoelastic dough for bread

  8. Registration of 'Prevail' hard red spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grower and end-user acceptance of new Hard Red Spring Wheat (HRSW; Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars is largely contingent upon satisfactory agronomic performance, end-use quality potential, and disease resistance levels. Additional characteristics, such as desirable plant height, can also contribute...

  9. Winter Wheat Root Growth and Nitrogen Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Irene Skovby

    in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Field experiments on the effect of sowing date, N fertilization and cultivars were conducted on a sandy loam soil in Taastrup, Denmark. The root studies were conducted by means of the minirhizotron method. Also, a field experiment on the effect of defoliation and N...

  10. Plant regeneration in wheat mature embryo culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamil Haliloğlu

    2011-11-09

    Nov 9, 2011 ... Success in genetic engineering of cereals depends on the callus formation and efficient plant regeneration system. Callus formation and plant regeneration of wheat mature embryos ... compiled by modification of methods previously mentioned in ..... of more and readily available nutrition than artificial cul-.

  11. Sensitivity of European wheat to extreme weather

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mäkinen, H.; Kaseva, J.; Trnka, Miroslav; Balek, Jan; Kersebaum, K. C.; Nendel, C.; Gobin, A.; Olesen, J. E.; Bindi, M.; Ferrise, R.; Moriondo, M.; Rodríguez, A.; Ruiz-Ramos, M.; Takáč, J.; Bezák, P.; Ventrella, D.; Ruget, F.; Capellades, G.; Kahiluoto, H.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 222, jun (2018), s. 209-217 ISSN 0378-4290 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MZe(CZ) QJ1610072 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Climate change * Cultivar * European wheat * Extreme * Weather * Yield response Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 3.048, year: 2016

  12. Wheat shorts in diets of gestating swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L G; King, G L

    1981-03-01

    Sixty-four gilts were assigned to be bred at first or third observed estrus and fed gestation diets of pelleted wheat shorts with a free choice mineral-vitamin supplement or fortified corn-soybean meal. Only the dietary effects are included in this report. The gilts were fed their respective diets starting at 25 days after insemination. The experiment continued through three gestation-lactation cycles. Females fed the wheat shorts received less digestible energy during gestation and weighed less at day 109 of gestation and days 1, 7 and 21 of lactation in each of the three gestation-lactation periods. Females fed wheat shorts had lighter pigs at birth, weaned more pigs per litter in each parity and returned to estrus more slowly after weaning than females fed a corn-soybean meal diet. Results of a metabolism trial conducted with 12 barrows revealed that wheat shorts contained approximately 2.93 kcal digestible energy/kg dry matter and had an apparent protein digestibility of 72%, compared with values of 4.0 kcal and 86%, respectively, for the corn-soybean meal diets.

  13. Drought tolerant wheat varieties developed through mutation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In search for higher yielding drought tolerant wheat varieties, one of the Kenyan high yielding variety 'Pasa' was irradiated with gamma rays (at 150, 200, and 250gy) in 1997 so as to induce variability and select for drought tolerance. Six mutants ((KM10, KM14, KM15, KM18, KM20 and KM21) were selected at M4 for their ...

  14. Boron rates for triticale and wheat crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrêa Juliano Corulli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available No reports are registered on responses to boron fertilization nutrient deficiency and toxicity in triticale crops. The aim of this study was to evaluate triticale response to different rates of boron in comparison to wheat in an hapludox with initial boron level at 0.08 mg dm-3 4 4 factorial design trial completely randomized blocks design (n = 4. Boron rates were 0; 0.62; 1.24 and 1.86 mg dm-3; triticale cultivars were IAC 3, BR 4 and BR 53 and IAPAR 38 wheat crop was used for comparison. The wheat (IAPAR 38 crop presented the highest boron absorption level of all. Among triticale cultivars, the most responsive was IAC 53, presenting similar characteristics to wheat, followed by BR 4; these two crops are considered tolerant to higher boron rates in soil. Regarding to BR 53, no absorption effect was observed, and the cultivars was sensitive to boron toxicity. Absorption responses differed for each genotype. That makes it possible to choose and use the best-adapted plants to soils with different boron rates.

  15. Evaluation of wheat by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... wheat grains, the low molecular weight (LMW) (10 –70. KDa) and the high ... phoresis has been used to show that large size variation exists between LMW ... extraction buffer (Tris-Hcl 0.05M (pH 8), 0.02% SDS, 30.3% urea,.

  16. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much

  17. Flowering time control in European winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Martin Langer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time is an important trait in wheat breeding as it affects adaptation and yield potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars. To this end a population of 410 winter wheat varieties was evaluated in multi-location field trials and genotyped by a genotyping-by-sequencing approach and candidate gene markers. Our analyses revealed that the photoperiod regulator Ppd-D1 is the major factor affecting flowering time in this germplasm set, explaining 58% of the genotypic variance. Copy number variation at the Ppd-B1 locus was present but explains only 3.2% and thus a comparably small proportion of genotypic variance. By contrast, the plant height loci Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 had no effect on flowering time. The genome-wide scan identified six QTL which each explain only a small proportion of genotypic variance and in addition we identified a number of epistatic QTL, also with small effects. Taken together, our results show that flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars is mainly controlled by Ppd-D1 while the fine tuning to local climatic conditions is achieved through Ppd-B1 copy number variation and a larger number of QTL with small effects.

  18. Phytochelatin and cadmium accumulation in wheat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolt, J.P.; Sneller, F.E.C.; Bryngelson, T.; Lundborg, T.; Schat, H.

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential heavy metal that can be harmful at low concentrations in organisms. Therefore, it is necessary to decrease Cd accumulation in the grains of wheats aimed for human consumption. In response to Cd, higher plants synthesize sulphur-rich peptides, phytochelatins (PCs).

  19. Sequence divergence between spelt and common wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liu, M.; Zhao, Q.; Qi, F.; Stiller, J.; Tang, Q.; Miao, J.; Vrána, Jan; Holušová, Kateřina; Liu, D.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Manners, J. M.; Han, B. P.; Liu, C.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 5 (2018), s. 1125-1132 ISSN 0040-5752 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : BREAD WHEAT * DNA * DIVERSITY Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 4.132, year: 2016

  20. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galinha, C. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Anawar, H.M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Freitas, M.C., E-mail: cfreitas@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Pacheco, A.M.G. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Almeida-Silva, M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A.S. [INRB/INIA-Elvas, National Institute of Biological Resources, Est. Gil Vaz, 7350-228 Elvas (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordao/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300 mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit <22 mg/kg) indicating that soils should be supplemented with Zn during cultivation. The concentrations of metals in roots and straw of both varieties of wheat decreased in the order of K>Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30 mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation

  1. Specific patterns of gene space organisation revealed in wheat by using the combination of barley and wheat genomic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waugh Robbie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of its size, allohexaploid nature and high repeat content, the wheat genome has always been perceived as too complex for efficient molecular studies. We recently constructed the first physical map of a wheat chromosome (3B. However gene mapping is still laborious in wheat because of high redundancy between the three homoeologous genomes. In contrast, in the closely related diploid species, barley, numerous gene-based markers have been developed. This study aims at combining the unique genomic resources developed in wheat and barley to decipher the organisation of gene space on wheat chromosome 3B. Results Three dimensional pools of the minimal tiling path of wheat chromosome 3B physical map were hybridised to a barley Agilent 15K expression microarray. This led to the fine mapping of 738 barley orthologous genes on wheat chromosome 3B. In addition, comparative analyses revealed that 68% of the genes identified were syntenic between the wheat chromosome 3B and barley chromosome 3 H and 59% between wheat chromosome 3B and rice chromosome 1, together with some wheat-specific rearrangements. Finally, it indicated an increasing gradient of gene density from the centromere to the telomeres positively correlated with the number of genes clustered in islands on wheat chromosome 3B. Conclusion Our study shows that novel structural genomics resources now available in wheat and barley can be combined efficiently to overcome specific problems of genetic anchoring of physical contigs in wheat and to perform high-resolution comparative analyses with rice for deciphering the organisation of the wheat gene space.

  2. Genetic map of Triticum turgidum based on a hexaploid wheat population without genetic recombination for D genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A synthetic doubled-haploid hexaploid wheat population, SynDH1, derived from the spontaneous chromosome doubling of triploid F1 hybrid plants obtained from the cross of hybrids Triticum turgidum ssp. durum line Langdon (LDN and ssp. turgidum line AS313, with Aegilops tauschii ssp. tauschii accession AS60, was previously constructed. SynDH1 is a tetraploidization-hexaploid doubled haploid (DH population because it contains recombinant A and B chromosomes from two different T. turgidum genotypes, while all the D chromosomes from Ae. tauschii are homogenous across the whole population. This paper reports the construction of a genetic map using this population. Results Of the 606 markers used to assemble the genetic map, 588 (97% were assigned to linkage groups. These included 513 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT markers, 72 simple sequence repeat (SSR, one insertion site-based polymorphism (ISBP, and two high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS markers. These markers were assigned to the 14 chromosomes, covering 2048.79 cM, with a mean distance of 3.48 cM between adjacent markers. This map showed good coverage of the A and B genome chromosomes, apart from 3A, 5A, 6A, and 4B. Compared with previously reported maps, most shared markers showed highly consistent orders. This map was successfully used to identify five quantitative trait loci (QTL, including two for spikelet number on chromosomes 7A and 5B, two for spike length on 7A and 3B, and one for 1000-grain weight on 4B. However, differences in crossability QTL between the two T. turgidum parents may explain the segregation distortion regions on chromosomes 1A, 3B, and 6B. Conclusions A genetic map of T. turgidum including 588 markers was constructed using a synthetic doubled haploid (SynDH hexaploid wheat population. Five QTLs for three agronomic traits were identified from this population. However, more markers are needed to increase the density and resolution of

  3. Genetic map of Triticum turgidum based on a hexaploid wheat population without genetic recombination for D genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Luo, Jiang-Tao; Hao, Ming; Zhang, Lian-Quan; Yuan, Zhong-Wei; Yan, Ze-Hong; Liu, Ya-Xi; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Bao-Long; Liu, Chun-Ji; Zhang, Huai-Gang; Zheng, You-Liang; Liu, Deng-Cai

    2012-08-13

    A synthetic doubled-haploid hexaploid wheat population, SynDH1, derived from the spontaneous chromosome doubling of triploid F1 hybrid plants obtained from the cross of hybrids Triticum turgidum ssp. durum line Langdon (LDN) and ssp. turgidum line AS313, with Aegilops tauschii ssp. tauschii accession AS60, was previously constructed. SynDH1 is a tetraploidization-hexaploid doubled haploid (DH) population because it contains recombinant A and B chromosomes from two different T. turgidum genotypes, while all the D chromosomes from Ae. tauschii are homogenous across the whole population. This paper reports the construction of a genetic map using this population. Of the 606 markers used to assemble the genetic map, 588 (97%) were assigned to linkage groups. These included 513 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers, 72 simple sequence repeat (SSR), one insertion site-based polymorphism (ISBP), and two high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) markers. These markers were assigned to the 14 chromosomes, covering 2048.79 cM, with a mean distance of 3.48 cM between adjacent markers. This map showed good coverage of the A and B genome chromosomes, apart from 3A, 5A, 6A, and 4B. Compared with previously reported maps, most shared markers showed highly consistent orders. This map was successfully used to identify five quantitative trait loci (QTL), including two for spikelet number on chromosomes 7A and 5B, two for spike length on 7A and 3B, and one for 1000-grain weight on 4B. However, differences in crossability QTL between the two T. turgidum parents may explain the segregation distortion regions on chromosomes 1A, 3B, and 6B. A genetic map of T. turgidum including 588 markers was constructed using a synthetic doubled haploid (SynDH) hexaploid wheat population. Five QTLs for three agronomic traits were identified from this population. However, more markers are needed to increase the density and resolution of this map in the future study.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A FUNCTIONAL PURPOSE WHIPPED BREAD WHOLE GRAIN WHEAT, RYE AND WHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of whipped bakery products enriched with dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins retinol, tocopherol, group, polyunsaturated fatty acids through the use of rye and wheat bran and flour of wholegrain wheat. The main raw material for enrichment whipped bakery products used wheat bran and rye. Choice of rye and wheat bran as supplementation prepared whipped bread is explained not only from the point of view of the rationality of the use of this secondary raw materials, but also its rich vitamin and mineral composition. Wheat bran contain the necessary man of b vitamins, including B1, B2, B6, PP and others. Found provitamin a (carotene and vitamin E (tocopherol. Bran is rich in mineral substances. Among them potassium, magnesium, chromium, zinc, copper, selenium and other trace elements. Thanks to this composition bran are essential dietary product. They are rich in insoluble fiber and can be useful to reduce the risk of developing colon cancer. Rye bran contain dietary fiber, tocopherol E, thiamin B1, Riboflavin B2, Pantothenic acid B5, B4 (choline, nicotinic acid B3, etc. In the bran rich set of microelements and macroelements such as iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, iodine, selenium, chromium, etc. the Introduction in the diet, bran rye contribute to the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, diabetes and anemia. They restore blood pressure, reduce blood sugar levels and improve the cardiovascular system. Flour from wholegrain wheat is the main supplier of bread protein and starch, while preserving the maximum of the original nutritional value of the grain, enriched whipped bread macro - and micronutrients. The analysis of the chemical composition of flour from wholegrain wheat, rye and wheat bran leads to the conclusion that the choice of these types of materials suitable for making the recipe whipped bakery products, because their use can increase the content in bread is not only the

  5. Discrimination of artificial categories structured by family resemblances: a comparative study in people (Homo sapiens) and pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Hiroshi; Jitsumori, Masako

    2007-02-01

    Adult humans (Homo sapiens) and pigeons (Columba livia) were trained to discriminate artificial categories that the authors created by mimicking 2 properties of natural categories. One was a family resemblance relationship: The highly variable exemplars, including those that did not have features in common, were structured by a similarity network with the features correlating to one another in each category. The other was a polymorphous rule: No single feature was essential for distinguishing the categories, and all the features overlapped between the categories. Pigeons learned the categories with ease and then showed a prototype effect in accord with the degrees of family resemblance for novel stimuli. Some evidence was also observed for interactive effects of learning of individual exemplars and feature frequencies. Humans had difficulty in learning the categories. The participants who learned the categories generally responded to novel stimuli in an all-or-none fashion on the basis of their acquired classification decision rules. The processes that underlie the classification performances of the 2 species are discussed.

  6. Resemblance in dietary intakes between urban low-income African American adolescents and their mothers: The HEALTH-KIDS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Li, Ji; Caballero, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association and predictors of dietary intake resemblance between urban low-income African American adolescents and their mothers. Methods Detailed dietary data collected from 121 child-parent pairs in Chicago in Fall 2003 were used. The association was assessed using correlation coefficients, kappa, and percentage of agreement, and logistic regression models. Results Overall, the association was weak as indicated by correlations and other measures. None of the mother-son correlations for nutrients and food groups were greater than 0.20. Mother-daughter pairs had stronger correlations (0.26 for energy and 0.30 for fat). The association was stronger in normal weight- than overweight or obese mothers. Logistic models showed that mother being a current smoker, giving child more pocket money, and allowing child to eat or purchase snacks without parental permission or presence predicted a higher probability of resemblance in undesirable eating patterns, such as high-energy, high-fat, and high-snack intakes (p<0.05). Conclusions Mother-child diet association was generally weak, and varied considerably across groups and intake variables in this homogenous population. Some maternal characteristics seem to affect the association. PMID:19103323

  7. Vaginal Microbiota of Adolescent Girls Prior to the Onset of Menarche Resemble Those of Reproductive-Age Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Roxana J.; Zhou, Xia; Settles, Matthew L.; Erb, Julie; Malone, Kristin; Hansmann, Melanie A.; Shew, Marcia L.; Van Der Pol, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Puberty is an important developmental stage wherein hormonal shifts mediate the physical and physiological changes that lead to menarche, but until now, the bacterial composition of vaginal microbiota during this period has been poorly characterized. We performed a prospective longitudinal study of perimenarcheal girls to gain insight into the timing and sequence of changes that occur in the vaginal and vulvar microbiota during puberty. The study enrolled 31 healthy, premenarcheal girls between the ages of 10 and 12 years and collected vaginal and vulvar swabs quarterly for up to 3 years. Bacterial composition was characterized by Roche 454 pyrosequencing and classification of regions V1 to V3 of 16S rRNA genes. Contrary to expectations, lactic acid bacteria, primarily Lactobacillus spp., were dominant in the microbiota of most girls well before the onset of menarche in the early to middle stages of puberty. Gardnerella vaginalis was detected at appreciable levels in approximately one-third of subjects, a notable finding considering that this organism is commonly associated with bacterial vaginosis in adults. Vulvar microbiota closely resembled vaginal microbiota but often exhibited additional taxa typically associated with skin microbiota. Our findings suggest that the vaginal microbiota of girls begin to resemble those of adults well before the onset of menarche. PMID:25805726

  8. Acute paretic syndrome in juvenile White Leghorn chickens resembles late stages of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preisinger Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sudden limb paresis is a common problem in White Leghorn flocks, affecting about 1% of the chicken population before achievement of sexual maturity. Previously, a similar clinical syndrome has been reported as being caused by inflammatory demyelination of peripheral nerve fibres. Here, we investigated in detail the immunopathology of this paretic syndrome and its possible resemblance to human neuropathies. Methods Neurologically affected chickens and control animals from one single flock underwent clinical and neuropathological examination. Peripheral nervous system (PNS alterations were characterised using standard morphological techniques, including nerve fibre teasing and transmission electron microscopy. Infiltrating cells were phenotyped immunohistologically and quantified by flow cytometry. The cytokine expression pattern was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. These investigations were accomplished by MHC genotyping and a PCR screen for Marek's disease virus (MDV. Results Spontaneous paresis of White Leghorns is caused by cell-mediated, inflammatory demyelination affecting multiple cranial and spinal nerves and nerve roots with a proximodistal tapering. Clinical manifestation coincides with the employment of humoral immune mechanisms, enrolling plasma cell recruitment, deposition of myelin-bound IgG and antibody-dependent macrophageal myelin-stripping. Disease development was significantly linked to a 539 bp microsatellite in MHC locus LEI0258. An aetiological role for MDV was excluded. Conclusions The paretic phase of avian inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuritis immunobiologically resembles the late-acute disease stages of human acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and is characterised by a Th1-to-Th2 shift.

  9. Alterations and abnormal mitosis of wheat chromosomes induced by wheat-rye monosomic addition lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulan Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wheat-rye addition lines are an old topic. However, the alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes caused by wheat-rye monosomic addition lines are seldom reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Octoploid triticale was derived from common wheat T. aestivum L. 'Mianyang11'×rye S. cereale L. 'Kustro' and some progeny were obtained by the controlled backcrossing of triticale with 'Mianyang11' followed by self-fertilization. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH using rye genomic DNA and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH using repetitive sequences pAs1 and pSc119.2 as probes were used to analyze the mitotic chromosomes of these progeny. Strong pSc119.2 FISH signals could be observed at the telomeric regions of 3DS arms in 'Mianyang11'. However, the pSc119.2 FISH signals were disappeared from the selfed progeny of 4R monosomic addition line and the changed 3D chromosomes could be transmitted to next generation stably. In one of the selfed progeny of 7R monosomic addition line, one 2D chromosome was broken and three 4A chromosomes were observed. In the selfed progeny of 6R monosomic addition line, structural variation and abnormal mitotic behaviour of 3D chromosome were detected. Additionally, 1A and 4B chromosomes were eliminated from some of the progeny of 6R monosomic addition line. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicated that single rye chromosome added to wheat might cause alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes and it is possible that the stress caused by single alien chromosome might be one of the factors that induced karyotype alteration of wheat.

  10. Alterations and Abnormal Mitosis of Wheat Chromosomes Induced by Wheat-Rye Monosomic Addition Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shulan; Yang, Manyu; Fei, Yunyan; Tan, Feiquan; Ren, Zhenglong; Yan, Benju; Zhang, Huaiyu; Tang, Zongxiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Wheat-rye addition lines are an old topic. However, the alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes caused by wheat-rye monosomic addition lines are seldom reported. Methodology/Principal Findings Octoploid triticale was derived from common wheat T. aestivum L. ‘Mianyang11’×rye S. cereale L. ‘Kustro’ and some progeny were obtained by the controlled backcrossing of triticale with ‘Mianyang11’ followed by self-fertilization. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using rye genomic DNA and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using repetitive sequences pAs1 and pSc119.2 as probes were used to analyze the mitotic chromosomes of these progeny. Strong pSc119.2 FISH signals could be observed at the telomeric regions of 3DS arms in ‘Mianyang11’. However, the pSc119.2 FISH signals were disappeared from the selfed progeny of 4R monosomic addition line and the changed 3D chromosomes could be transmitted to next generation stably. In one of the selfed progeny of 7R monosomic addition line, one 2D chromosome was broken and three 4A chromosomes were observed. In the selfed progeny of 6R monosomic addition line, structural variation and abnormal mitotic behaviour of 3D chromosome were detected. Additionally, 1A and 4B chromosomes were eliminated from some of the progeny of 6R monosomic addition line. Conclusions/Significance These results indicated that single rye chromosome added to wheat might cause alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes and it is possible that the stress caused by single alien chromosome might be one of the factors that induced karyotype alteration of wheat. PMID:23936213

  11. Quality of synthetic hexaploid wheat containing null alleles at Glu-A1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GSs. However, incorporation of HMW-GS from Ae. tauschii in six synthetic hexaploid wheat lines significantly increased most quality related parameters. The potential values of these wheat lines in improving the quality of wheat are discussed.

  12. Salt tolerance in wheat - an overview. (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.

    2005-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been made during the past few years to overcome the problem of salinity through the development of salt tolerant lines of important crop species using screening, breeding and molecular biology techniques. In view of considerable importance of spring wheat as a major staple food crop of many countries, plant scientists have directed there attention to identify and develop salt tolerant genotypes that can be of direct use on salt-affected soils. Although considerable progress in understanding individual phenomenon and genes involved in plant response to salinity stress has been made over the past few years, underlying physiological mechanisms producing salt tolerant plants is still unclear. It has been suggested that salt tolerance of plants could be improved by defining genes or characters. Twenty years ago, it was suggested that genes located on the D genome of bread wheat confer salinity tolerance to hexaploid wheat by reducing Na/sup +/ accumulation in the leaf tissue and increasing discrimination in favour of K/sup +/. However, recently, low Na/sup +/ accumulation and high K/sup +/Na/sup +/ discrimination, of similar magnitude to bread wheat, in several selections of durum wheat has been observed, supporting the notion that salt tolerance is controlled by multiple genes, which are distributed throughout the entire set of chromosomes. In addition, various physiological selection criteria such as compatible osmolytes (glycinebetaine, proline, trehalose, mannitol etc.), antioxidants, carbon discrimination, high K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratio etc. have been discussed. Although tolerance to salinity is known to have a multigenic inheritance, mediated by a large number of genes, knowledge of heritability and the genetic mode of salinity tolerance is still lacking because few studies have yet been conducted in these areas. Indeed, genetic information is lagging behind the physiological information. Modern methods such as recombinant DNA technology

  13. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Pannacci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08 in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l. in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days in the crop sowed at narrow (traditional row spacing (0.15 m; and ii split-hoeing and finger-weeder, alone and combined at T1, in the crop sowed at wider row spacing (0.30 m. At the time T1 winter wheat was at tillering and weeds were at the cotyledons-2 true leaves growth stage. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates. Six weeks after mechanical treatments, weed ground cover (% was rated visually using the Braun-Blanquet coverabundance scale; weeds on three squares (0.6×0.5 m each one per plot were collected, counted, weighed, dried in oven at 105°C to determine weed density and weed above-ground dry biomass. At harvest, wheat ears density, grain yield, weight of 1000 seeds and hectolitre weight were recorded. Total weed flora was quite different in the three experiments. The main weed species were: Polygonum aviculare L. (exp. 1 and 2, Fallopia convolvulus (L. Á. Löve (exp. 1 and 3, Stachys annua (L. L. (exp. 1, Anagallis arvensis L. (exp. 2, Papaver rhoeas L. (exp.3, Veronica hederifolia L. (exp. 3. In the winter wheat sowed at narrow rows, 2 passages with spring-tine harrowing at the same time seems to be the best option in order to reconcile a good efficacy with the feasibility of treatment. In wider rows spacing the best weed control was obtained by split hoeing alone or combined with finger-weeder. The grain yield, on average 10% higher in narrow rows, the lower costs and the good selectivity of spring-tine harrowing

  14. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinha, C.; Anawar, H.M.; Freitas, M.C.; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Almeida-Silva, M.; Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordao/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300 mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30 mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation, Jordao presented higher transfer coefficients than Marialva, in particular for Co, Fe, and Na. The Jordao and Marialva cultivars accumulated not statistically significant different

  15. Guinea-pig interpubic joint (symphysis pubica relaxation at parturition: Underlying cellular processes that resemble an inflammatory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz-de-Toro Mónica

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At term, cervical ripening in coordination with uterine contractions becomes a prerequisite for a normal vaginal delivery. Currently, cervical ripening is considered to occur independently from uterine contractions. Many evidences suggest that cervical ripening resembles an inflammatory process. Comparatively little attention has been paid to the increased flexibility of the pelvic symphysis that occurs in many species to enable safe delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the guinea-pig interpubic joint relaxation process observed during late pregnancy and parturition resembles an inflammatory process. Methods Samples of pubic symphysis were taken from pregnant guinea-pigs sacrificed along gestation, parturition and postpartum. Serial sections of paraffin-embedded tissues were used to measure the interpubic distance on digitalized images, stained with Giemsa to quantify leukocyte infiltration and to describe the vascular area changes, or studied by the picrosirius-polarization method to evaluate collagen remodeling. P4 and E2 serum levels were measured by a sequential immunometric assay. Results Data showed that the pubic relaxation is associated with an increase in collagen remodeling. In addition, a positive correlation between E2 serum levels and the increase in the interpubic distance was found. On the other hand, a leukocyte infiltration in the interpubic tissue around parturition was described, with the presence of almost all inflammatory cells types. At the same time, histological images show an increase in vascular area (angiogenesis. Eosinophils reached their highest level immediately before parturition; whereas for the neutrophilic and mononuclear infiltration higher values were recorded one day after parturition. Correlation analysis showed that eosinophils and mononuclear cells were positively correlated with E2 levels, but only eosinophilic infiltration was associated with collagen remodeling

  16. Lipase inactivation in wheat germ by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Pankaj Kumar; Kudachikar, V.B.; Kumar, Sourav

    2013-01-01

    An attempt was made to improve the shelf life of wheat germ by optimizing processing conditions involving γ-irradiation. Studies were carried out to investigate the effect of γ-irradiation (0–30 kGy doses) on the chemical composition of wheat germ with respect to variation in moisture, total ash, crude fat, free fatty acid, protein and lipase activity. The results demonstrate that shelf stability of wheat germ was achieved by inactivation of lipase at doses of γ-irradiation greater than 12 kGy. - Highlights: Ø γ-irradiation was found to inactivate Lipase present in Wheat Germ. Ø The treatment did not result in significant changes in Total Ash, Moisture and Protein Content of Wheat Germ. Ø The irradiation at 30 kGy resulted in 31.2 % inactivation of Lipase in Wheat Germ

  17. The International Heat Stress Genotype Experiment for modeling wheat response to heat: field experiments and AgMIP-Wheat multi-model simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martre, P.; Reynolds, M.P.; Asseng, S.; Ewert, F.; Alderman, P.D.; Cammarano, D.; Maiorano, Andrea; Ruane, A.C.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Anothai, J.; Supit, I.; Wolf, J.

    2017-01-01

    The data set contains a portion of the International Heat Stress Genotype Experiment (IHSGE) data used in the AgMIP-Wheat project to analyze the uncertainty of 30 wheat crop models and quantify the impact of heat on global wheat yield productivity. It includes two spring wheat cultivars grown during

  18. Stress-induced accumulation of wheat germ agglutinin and abscisic acid in roots of wheat seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cammue, B.P.A.; Broekaert, W.F.; Kellens, J.T.C.; Peumans, W.J.; Raikhel, N.V.

    1989-01-01

    Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) levels in roots of 2-day-old wheat seedlings increased up to three-fold when stressed by air-drying. Similar results were obtained when seedling roots were incubated either in 0.5 molar mannitol or 180 grams per liter polyethylene glycol 6,000, with a peak level of WGA after 5 hours of stress. Longer periods of osmotic treatment resulted in a gradual decline of WGA in the roots. Since excised wheat roots incorporate more [ 35 S]cysteine into WGA under stress conditions, the observed increase of lectin levels is due to de novo synthesis. Measurement of abscisic acid (ABA) levels in roots of control and stressed seedlings indicated a 10-fold increase upon air-drying. Similarly, a five- and seven-fold increase of ABA content of seedling roots was found after 2 hours of osmotic stress by polyethylene glycol 6,000 and mannitol, respectively. Finally, the stress-induced increase of WGA in wheat roots could be inhibited by growing seedlings in the presence of fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA synthesis. These results indicate that roots of water-stressed wheat seedlings (a) contain more WGA as a result of an increased de novo synthesis of this lectin, and (b) exhibit higher ABA levels. The stress-induced increase of lectin accumulation seems to be under control of ABA

  19. Epistatic determinism of durum wheat resistance to the wheat spindle streak mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Yan; Bonnefoy, Michel; Viader, Véronique; Ardisson, Morgane; Rode, Nicolas O; Poux, Gérard; Roumet, Pierre; Marie-Jeanne, Véronique; Ranwez, Vincent; Santoni, Sylvain; Gouache, David; David, Jacques L

    2017-07-01

    The resistance of durum wheat to the Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) is controlled by two main QTLs on chromosomes 7A and 7B, with a huge epistatic effect. Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) is a major disease of durum wheat in Europe and North America. Breeding WSSMV-resistant cultivars is currently the only way to control the virus since no treatment is available. This paper reports studies of the inheritance of WSSMV resistance using two related durum wheat populations obtained by crossing two elite cultivars with a WSSMV-resistant emmer cultivar. In 2012 and 2015, 354 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) were phenotyped using visual notations, ELISA and qPCR and genotyped using locus targeted capture and sequencing. This allowed us to build a consensus genetic map of 8568 markers and identify three chromosomal regions involved in WSSMV resistance. Two major regions (located on chromosomes 7A and 7B) jointly explain, on the basis of epistatic interactions, up to 43% of the phenotypic variation. Flanking sequences of our genetic markers are provided to facilitate future marker-assisted selection of WSSMV-resistant cultivars.

  20. Introgression of novel traits from a wild wheat relative improves drought adaptation in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placido, Dante F; Campbell, Malachy T; Folsom, Jing J; Cui, Xinping; Kruger, Greg R; Baenziger, P Stephen; Walia, Harkamal

    2013-04-01

    Root architecture traits are an important component for improving water stress adaptation. However, selection for aboveground traits under favorable environments in modern cultivars may have led to an inadvertent loss of genes and novel alleles beneficial for adapting to environments with limited water. In this study, we elucidate the physiological and molecular consequences of introgressing an alien chromosome segment (7DL) from a wild wheat relative species (Agropyron elongatum) into cultivated wheat (Triticum aestivum). The wheat translocation line had improved water stress adaptation and higher root and shoot biomass compared with the control genotypes, which showed significant drops in root and shoot biomass during stress. Enhanced access to water due to higher root biomass enabled the translocation line to maintain more favorable gas-exchange and carbon assimilation levels relative to the wild-type wheat genotypes during water stress. Transcriptome analysis identified candidate genes associated with root development. Two of these candidate genes mapped to the site of translocation on chromosome 7DL based on single-feature polymorphism analysis. A brassinosteroid signaling pathway was predicted to be involved in the novel root responses observed in the A. elongatum translocation line, based on the coexpression-based gene network generated by seeding the network with the candidate genes. We present an effective and highly integrated approach that combines root phenotyping, whole-plant physiology, and functional genomics to discover novel root traits and the underlying genes from a wild related species to improve drought adaptation in cultivated wheat.

  1. Cellulase production using different streams of wheat grain- and wheat straw-based ethanol processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyalai-Korpos, Miklós; Mangel, Réka; Alvira, Pablo; Dienes, Dóra; Ballesteros, Mercedes; Réczey, Kati

    2011-07-01

    Pretreatment is a necessary step in the biomass-to-ethanol conversion process. The side stream of the pretreatment step is the liquid fraction, also referred to as the hydrolyzate, which arises after the separation of the pretreated solid and is composed of valuable carbohydrates along with compounds that are potentially toxic to microbes (mainly furfural, acetic acid, and formic acid). The aim of our study was to utilize the liquid fraction from steam-exploded wheat straw as a carbon source for cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei RUT C30. Results showed that without detoxification, the fungus failed to utilize any dilution of the hydrolyzate; however, after a two-step detoxification process, it was able to grow on a fourfold dilution of the treated liquid fraction. Supplementation of the fourfold-diluted, treated liquid fraction with washed pretreated wheat straw or ground wheat grain led to enhanced cellulase (filter paper) activity. Produced enzymes were tested in hydrolysis of washed pretreated wheat straw. Supplementation with ground wheat grain provided a more efficient enzyme mixture for the hydrolysis by means of the near-doubled β-glucosidase activity obtained.

  2. Do ancient types of wheat have health benefits compared with modern bread wheat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R

    2018-01-01

    A number of studies have suggested that ancient wheats have health benefits compared with modern bread wheat. However, the mechanisms are unclear and limited numbers of genotypes have been studied, with a particular focus on Kamut ® (Khorasan wheat). This is important because published analyses have shown wide variation in composition between genotypes, with further effects of growth conditions. The present article therefore critically reviews published comparisons of the health benefits of ancient and modern wheats, in relation to the selection and growth of the lines, including dietary interventions and comparisons of adverse effects (allergy, intolerance, sensitivity). It is concluded that further studies are urgently required, particularly from a wider range of research groups, but also on a wider range of genotypes of ancient and modern wheat species. Furthermore, although most published studies have made efforts to ensure the comparability of material in terms of growth conditions and processing, it is essential that these are standardised in future studies and this should perhaps be a condition of publication.

  3. Hybrid breeding in wheat: technologies to improve hybrid wheat seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Ryan; Fleury, Delphine; Reif, Jochen C; Garcia, Melissa; Okada, Takashi; Korzun, Viktor; Langridge, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Global food security demands the development and delivery of new technologies to increase and secure cereal production on finite arable land without increasing water and fertilizer use. There are several options for boosting wheat yields, but most offer only small yield increases. Wheat is an inbred plant, and hybrids hold the potential to deliver a major lift in yield and will open a wide range of new breeding opportunities. A series of technological advances are needed as a base for hybrid wheat programmes. These start with major changes in floral development and architecture to separate the sexes and force outcrossing. Male sterility provides the best method to block self-fertilization, and modifying the flower structure will enhance pollen access. The recent explosion in genomic resources and technologies provides new opportunities to overcome these limitations. This review outlines the problems with existing hybrid wheat breeding systems and explores molecular-based technologies that could improve the hybrid production system to reduce hybrid seed production costs, a prerequisite for a commercial hybrid wheat system.

  4. Differential representation of albumins and globulins during grain development in durum wheat and its possible functional consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Simona; D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Vitale, Monica; Mazzeo, Fiorella; Mamone, Gianfranco; Di Stasio, Luigia; Maccaferri, Marco; Curci, Pasquale Luca; Sonnante, Gabriella; Zambrano, Nicola; Scaloni, Andrea

    2017-06-06

    -DIGE-based comparative analysis of the albumin/globulin fraction from durum wheat caryopses at six developmental stages was performed to describe the dynamic subproteomic changes associated with grain development. Quantitative variations of 217 differentially proteins demonstrated that highly affected are the functional categories of carbon metabolism, energy, protein destination/storage, disease/defense and cell growth/division, which displayed a general over-representation, consistently with concomitant occurrence of grain size increase and starch/protein reserve accumulation. Bioinformatics revealed a complex protein network centered mainly at enzymes involved in carbon and protein metabolism. Differentially represented proteins and corresponding functional categories highly resembled those previously identified as variable in developing bread wheat grain. This suggests that the main differences in kernel hardness between durum and bread wheat probably do not depend on proteomic changes in corresponding albumins/globulins, but on other specific factors affecting the interaction between the starch granules and the endosperm protein matrix in the kernel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Layering Milling Technology on Distribution of Green Wheat Main Physicochemical Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Shuang-Qi; Li, Yong-Heng; Chen, Zhi-Cheng; Qiao, Yong-Feng

    2017-01-01

    With layered milling flour technology, the efficiency of the nutrient distribution and hardness was demonstrated with the green and normal wheat separation milling. The results showed that the total content of amino acid in green wheat was 8.3%–13.0% higher compared to the common wheat. Comparing the main nutriments Se, Fe, and Ca between green wheat and common wheat, the results showed that different milling treatment methods are capable of separating the different wheat flour from endosperm...

  6. Impact of Graze-­‐Out in Hard Red Winter Wheat Production

    OpenAIRE

    Neupane, Diwash; Moss, Charles B.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between wheat graze-­‐out and cattle-­‐wheat price ratio and moisture level and examine the impact of graze-­‐out on wheat yield in major wheat-­‐producing states in US. Results indicate that cattle-­‐wheat price ratio and moisture level affect farmers’ graze out decision and graze-­‐out have significant impact on wheat yield.

  7. Influence of Higher Wheat Prices on Ready-to-Eat Cereal Companies in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    HERNANDEZ LOERA CHAVEZ, PABLO

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, sever droughts and fires destroyed 20 percent of Russia’s wheat crop. This incident increased dramatically the prices of wheat worldwide. This paper studies the financial consequences that these higher wheat prices brought to companies that use wheat to manufacture ready-to-eat cereal and wheat-related products. The international cereal companies selected for this study were Kellogg Company, Nestlé Group and Ralcorp Holdings, Inc., owner of Post Foods Company. Keywords: Wheat, ce...

  8. Wheat Intercropping Enhances the Resistance of Watermelon to Fusarium Wilt

    OpenAIRE

    Huifang Lv; Huifang Lv; Haishun Cao; Muhammad A. Nawaz; Hamza Sohail; Yuan Huang; Fei Cheng; Qiusheng Kong; Zhilong Bie

    2018-01-01

    A fungus Fusarium oxysporum F. sp. niveum (FON) is the causal organism of Fusarium wilt in watermelon. In this study, we evaluated the effect of wheat intercropping on the Fusarium wilt of watermelon. Our results showed that wheat intercropping decreases the incidence of Fusarium wilt of watermelon, likely due to the secretion of coumaric acid from the roots of wheat that dramatically inhibits FON spore germination, sporulation, and growth. The secretion of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid...

  9. Rejecting New Technology: The Case of Genetically Modified Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Derek Berwald; Colin A. Carter; Guillaume P. Gruère

    2006-01-01

    Canada has stringent regulations covering the release of new wheat varieties, but the United States has virtually no regulations in this area. Monsanto Co. developed genetically modified (GM) spring wheat for North America, and made a commitment to the U.S. industry to release this new technology simultaneously in both Canada and the United States, or not at all. The Canadian regulatory bias against new varieties acted as a veto against GM wheat and caused Monsanto to shelve the technology in...

  10. Impact of Added Colored Wheat Bran on Bread Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Lenka Machálková; Marie Janečková; Luděk Hřivna; Yvona Dostálová; Joany Hernandez; Eva Mrkvicová; Tomáš Vyhnánek; Václav Trojan

    2017-01-01

    The impact of colored wheat bran addition on bread quality was tested on wheat varieties with purple pericarp (Konini, Rosso and Karkulka) and on a variety containing blue aleurone (Skorpion). The effect of 10 %, 15 % and 20 % bran addition on sensory evaluation, bread color and texture was compared to the characteristics of bread prepared from wheat variety Mulan. The addition of 10 % bran significantly increased the sensory evaluation scores of bread. Crumb characteristics were improved mai...

  11. QTLs for seedling traits under salinity stress in hexaploid wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Yongzhe; Xu, Yanhua; Teng, Wan; Li, Bin; Lin, Tongbao

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Soil salinity limits agricultural production and is a major obstacle for increasing crop yield. Common wheat is one of the most important crops with allohexaploid characteristic and a highly complex genome. QTL mapping is a useful way to identify genes for quantitative traits such as salinity tolerance in hexaploid wheat. In the present study, a hydroponic trial was carried out to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with salinity tolerance of wheat under 150mM NaCl co...

  12. BRS 331 – Early cycle double-haploid wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Scheeren

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The wheat cultivar ‘BRS 331’ was developed by Embrapa. It results from an interspecific cross between wheat and maize by double-hapolid method. ‘BRS 331’ shows solid stem in the base of the plant, short leaves and super-early cycle to maturity. It is classified as bread wheat in all of the regions that is recommended in the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná and Santa Catarina, Brazil.

  13. An analysis on equal width quantization and linearly separable subcode encoding-based discretization and its performance resemblances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Meng-Hui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biometric discretization extracts a binary string from a set of real-valued features per user. This representative string can be used as a cryptographic key in many security applications upon error correction. Discretization performance should not degrade from the actual continuous features-based classification performance significantly. However, numerous discretization approaches based on ineffective encoding schemes have been put forward. Therefore, the correlation between such discretization and classification has never been made clear. In this article, we aim to bridge the gap between continuous and Hamming domains, and provide a revelation upon how discretization based on equal-width quantization and linearly separable subcode encoding could affect the classification performance in the Hamming domain. We further illustrate how such discretization can be applied in order to obtain a highly resembled classification performance under the general Lp distance and the inner product metrics. Finally, empirical studies conducted on two benchmark face datasets vindicate our analysis results.

  14. Family Resemblances: Human Reproductive Cloning as an Example for Reconsidering the Mutual Relationships between Bioethics and Science Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Solveig L

    2018-03-08

    In the traditions of narrative ethics and casuistry, stories have a well-established role. Specifically, illness narratives provide insight into patients' perspectives and histories. However, because they tend to see fiction as an aesthetic endeavour, practitioners in these traditions often do not realize that fictional stories are valuable moral sources of their own. In this paper I employ two arguments to show the mutual relationship between bioethics and fiction, specifically, science fiction. First, both discourses use imagination to set a scene and determine a perspective. Second, bioethics and science fiction share the family resemblance of expressing moral beliefs. I then consider how understanding bioethics and science fiction as interrelated discourses can be the basis of a methodology for inquiry into relational autonomy in the context of biotechnologies and medicine. As an example of this methodology, I analyse Fay Weldon's novel The Cloning of Joanna May (1989).

  15. 'Hair-on-end' skull changes resembling thalassemia caused by marrow expansion in uncorrected complex cyanotic heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walor, David M.; Berdon, Walter E. [Columbia University Medical Center, Department of Radiology Children' s Hospital of New York, New York, NY (United States); Westra, Sjirk J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    ''Hair-on-end'' skull changes resembling thalassemia were rarely described in the 1950s and 1960s in children with cyanotic congenital heart diseases; these changes were described almost entirely in patients with tetralogy of Fallot or D-transposition of the great arteries. As these lesions have become correctable, the osseous changes, never common, seem now only to exist in a small number of patients with uncorrectable complex cyanotic congenital heart disease who survive in a chronic hypoxic state. We present two cases: a case of marked marrow expansion in the skull of a 5-year-old boy with uncorrectable cyanotic heart disease studied by CT, and a second case of an 8-year-old with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia studied by plain skull radiographs. The true incidence of these findings is unknown. (orig.)

  16. 'Hair-on-end' skull changes resembling thalassemia caused by marrow expansion in uncorrected complex cyanotic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walor, David M.; Berdon, Walter E.; Westra, Sjirk J.

    2005-01-01

    ''Hair-on-end'' skull changes resembling thalassemia were rarely described in the 1950s and 1960s in children with cyanotic congenital heart diseases; these changes were described almost entirely in patients with tetralogy of Fallot or D-transposition of the great arteries. As these lesions have become correctable, the osseous changes, never common, seem now only to exist in a small number of patients with uncorrectable complex cyanotic congenital heart disease who survive in a chronic hypoxic state. We present two cases: a case of marked marrow expansion in the skull of a 5-year-old boy with uncorrectable cyanotic heart disease studied by CT, and a second case of an 8-year-old with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia studied by plain skull radiographs. The true incidence of these findings is unknown. (orig.)

  17. Nonparenchymal cells cultivated from explants of fibrotic liver resemble endothelial and smooth muscle cells from blood vessel walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, B.; Rauterberg, J.; Pott, G.; Brehmer, U.; Allam, S.; Lehmann, R.; von Bassewitz, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    Tissue specimens from human fibrotic liver obtained by needle biopsy were cultured. Two cell types emerged from the tissue explants. From their morphology and biosynthetic products they resembled smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells from blood vessel walls. In the endothelial cells, factor VIII-associated protein was demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence. Synthesis of collagen types I and III, basement membrane collagen types IV and V, and fibronectin by both cell types was observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Homogeneous cultures of smooth muscle cells were observed in subcultures. After incubation with [ 14 C]glycine, collagen was isolated and characterized by CM cellulose chromatography, and consisted mainly of types I and III. These data suggest involvement of mesenchymal cells in hepatic fibrosis; they presumably originate from blood vessel or sinusoidal walls

  18. Lynch Syndrome Associated Colon Adenocarcinoma Resembling Lymphoma on Fluoro-Deoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparici, Carina Mari; Win, Aung Zaw

    2015-01-01

    The patient was a 46-year-old Asian male diagnosed with lynch syndrome associated colon adenocarcinoma in the right ascending colon. A presurgical staging 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) found increased metabolic activity in the cervical, axillary, mediastinal, supraclavicular, para-aortic and mesenteric lymph nodes. This pattern of metastasis was very unusual for lynch syndrome associated colon adenocarcinoma and the involvement of those lymph nodes resembles the pattern of spread of lymphoma. He underwent right hemicolectomy and he was subsequently treated with 12 cycles of folinic acid (leucovorin), fluorouracil (5-FU), irinotecan. A restaging FDG-PET/CT at the end of the chemotherapy showed interval decrease in size and metabolic activity in the affected lymph nodes. FDG-PET/CT is a useful imaging modality in following-up the treatment response in colon adenocarcinoma

  19. Pathogenesis of Candida albicans infections in the alternative chorio-allantoic membrane chicken embryo model resembles systemic murine infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse D Jacobsen

    Full Text Available Alternative models of microbial infections are increasingly used to screen virulence determinants of pathogens. In this study, we investigated the pathogenesis of Candida albicans and C. glabrata infections in chicken embryos infected via the chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM and analyzed the virulence of deletion mutants. The developing immune system of the host significantly influenced susceptibility: With increasing age, embryos became more resistant and mounted a more balanced immune response, characterized by lower induction of proinflammatory cytokines and increased transcription of regulatory cytokines, suggesting that immunopathology contributes to pathogenesis. While many aspects of the chicken embryo response resembled murine infections, we also observed significant differences: In contrast to systemic infections in mice, IL-10 had a beneficial effect in chicken embryos. IL-22 and IL-17A were only upregulated after the peak mortality in the chicken embryo model occurred; thus, the role of the Th17 response in this model remains unclear. Abscess formation occurs frequently in murine models, whereas the avian response was dominated by granuloma formation. Pathogenicity of the majority of 15 tested C. albicans deletion strains was comparable to the virulence in mouse models and reduced virulence was associated with significantly lower transcription of proinflammatory cytokines. However, fungal burden did not correlate with virulence and for few mutants like bcr1Δ and tec1Δ different outcomes in survival compared to murine infections were observed. C. albicans strains locked in the yeast stage disseminated significantly more often from the CAM into the embryo, supporting the hypothesis that the yeast morphology is responsible for dissemination in systemic infections. These data suggest that the pathogenesis of C. albicans infections in the chicken embryo model resembles systemic murine infections but also differs in some aspects. Despite

  20. Adult family members and their resemblance of coronary heart disease risk factors: The Cardiovascular Disease Study in Finnmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenn, Tormod

    1997-01-01

    Coronary heart disease tends to run in families, and the familial resemblance of major risk factors for the disease was examined among various types of adult family members. Family units were assembled from a total of 4,738 men and women who took part in a cross sectional health survey in four Norwegian municipalities where all inhabitants between 20 and 52 years of age were invited. After adjusting for age and other confounders, correlation coefficients were derived as a measure of the degree of resemblance. Viewed across all types of investigated familial relationships, similarity was found to be stronger for total cholesterol than for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, and also stronger for systolic than for diastolic blood pressure. Between husbands and wives (3,060 subjects), correlations were small (between 0.02 and 0.06), except for 0.11 for total cholesterol. Lipid and blood pressure correlations ranged from 0.13 to 0.27 for parents and their offspring (471 subjects, p < 0.05) and from 0.11 to 0.22 among siblings (2,166 subjects, p < 0.01). Sibling correlations were consistent across age groups. Furthermore, reports from each individual on daily smoking (yes or no) revealed that husbands and wives had similar habits in 63.5% of all marriages as compared with the expected 49.4% had no smoking similarity at all been present. Smoking concordance was also demonstrated among siblings (p < 0.01). The persistent pattern of lipid and blood pressure aggregation among genetically related individuals from 20 to 52 years of age and the much weaker such similarity between husbands and wives, point towards genes or commonly shared environment at early ages as a major reason why coronary heart disease runs in families

  1. Resemblance profiles as clustering decision criteria: Estimating statistical power, error, and correspondence for a hypothesis test for multivariate structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilborn, Joshua P; Jones, David L; Peebles, Ernst B; Naar, David F

    2017-04-01

    Clustering data continues to be a highly active area of data analysis, and resemblance profiles are being incorporated into ecological methodologies as a hypothesis testing-based approach to clustering multivariate data. However, these new clustering techniques have not been rigorously tested to determine the performance variability based on the algorithm's assumptions or any underlying data structures. Here, we use simulation studies to estimate the statistical error rates for the hypothesis test for multivariate structure based on dissimilarity profiles (DISPROF). We concurrently tested a widely used algorithm that employs the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) to estimate the proficiency of clustering with DISPROF as a decision criterion. We simulated unstructured multivariate data from different probability distributions with increasing numbers of objects and descriptors, and grouped data with increasing overlap, overdispersion for ecological data, and correlation among descriptors within groups. Using simulated data, we measured the resolution and correspondence of clustering solutions achieved by DISPROF with UPGMA against the reference grouping partitions used to simulate the structured test datasets. Our results highlight the dynamic interactions between dataset dimensionality, group overlap, and the properties of the descriptors within a group (i.e., overdispersion or correlation structure) that are relevant to resemblance profiles as a clustering criterion for multivariate data. These methods are particularly useful for multivariate ecological datasets that benefit from distance-based statistical analyses. We propose guidelines for using DISPROF as a clustering decision tool that will help future users avoid potential pitfalls during the application of methods and the interpretation of results.

  2. Meningiomas with conventional MRI findings resembling intraaxial tumors: can perfusion-weighted MRI be helpful in differentiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakyemez, Bahattin; Yildirim, Nalan; Erdogan, Cueneyt; Parlak, Mufit; Kocaeli, Hasan; Korfali, Ender

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the contribution of perfusion-weighted MRI to the differentiation of meningiomas with atypical conventional MRI findings from intraaxial tumors. We retrospectively analyzed 54 meningiomas, 12 glioblastomas and 13 solitary metastases. We detected 6 meningiomas with atypical features on conventional MRI resembling intraaxial tumors. The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBV) ratios of all tumors were calculated via perfusion-weighted MRI. The signal intensity-time curves were plotted and three different curve patterns were observed. The type 1 curve resembled normal brain parenchyma or the postenhancement part was minimally below the baseline, the type 2 curve was similar to the type 1 curve but with the postenhancement part above the baseline, and the type 3 curve had the postenhancement part below the baseline accompanied by widening of the curve. Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis. On CBV images meningiomas were hypervascular and the mean rCBV ratio was 10.58±2.00. For glioblastomas and metastatic lesions, the rCBV ratios were 5.02±1.40 and 4.68±1.54, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in rCBV ratios between meningiomas and glioblastomas and metastases (P<0.001). Only one of the meningiomas displayed a type 2 curve while five showed a type 3 curve. Glioblastomas and metastases displayed either a type 1 or a type 2 curve. None of the meningiomas showed a type 1 curve and none of the glioblastomas or metastases showed a type 3 curve. (orig.)

  3. Meningiomas with conventional MRI findings resembling intraaxial tumors: can perfusion-weighted MRI be helpful in differentiation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakyemez, Bahattin [Uludag University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Bursa (Turkey); Bursa State Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bursa (Turkey); Yildirim, Nalan; Erdogan, Cueneyt; Parlak, Mufit [Uludag University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Bursa (Turkey); Kocaeli, Hasan; Korfali, Ender [Uludag University Medical School, Department of Neurosurgery, Bursa (Turkey)

    2006-10-15

    To investigate the contribution of perfusion-weighted MRI to the differentiation of meningiomas with atypical conventional MRI findings from intraaxial tumors. We retrospectively analyzed 54 meningiomas, 12 glioblastomas and 13 solitary metastases. We detected 6 meningiomas with atypical features on conventional MRI resembling intraaxial tumors. The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBV) ratios of all tumors were calculated via perfusion-weighted MRI. The signal intensity-time curves were plotted and three different curve patterns were observed. The type 1 curve resembled normal brain parenchyma or the postenhancement part was minimally below the baseline, the type 2 curve was similar to the type 1 curve but with the postenhancement part above the baseline, and the type 3 curve had the postenhancement part below the baseline accompanied by widening of the curve. Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis. On CBV images meningiomas were hypervascular and the mean rCBV ratio was 10.58{+-}2.00. For glioblastomas and metastatic lesions, the rCBV ratios were 5.02{+-}1.40 and 4.68{+-}1.54, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in rCBV ratios between meningiomas and glioblastomas and metastases (P<0.001). Only one of the meningiomas displayed a type 2 curve while five showed a type 3 curve. Glioblastomas and metastases displayed either a type 1 or a type 2 curve. None of the meningiomas showed a type 1 curve and none of the glioblastomas or metastases showed a type 3 curve. (orig.)

  4. Antioxidant activity of wheat and buckwheat flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedej Ivana J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidative activities of wheat flours (type 500 and wholegrain and buckwheat flours (light and wholegrain were tested using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·-scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity on Fe2+. Also, the content of the total phenolics of ethanolic extracts was estimated. Polyphenolics content (expressed as gallic acid equivalent, GAE in wheat flours varied between 37.1 and 137.2 μg GAE/g extract, while its content in buckwheat flour were at least four time higher and ranged between 476.3 and 618.9μg GAE/g extract. Ethanolic extracts of buckwheat flours exhibited higher antioxidant activities in all the assays, except for chelating activity. Regarding all the obtained results, it can be concluded that bakery products produced with buckwheat flour could be regarded as potential functional foods.

  5. Induced multiple disease resistance in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borojevic, K.; Worland, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The existence of genes suppressing resistance to leaf rust, stem rust and yellow rust in hexaploid wheat has been suggested. If such genes are deleted or inactivated, a more resistant variety may be obtained. In mutant lines of the wheat variety San Pastore, selected after treatment with 20,000 rad of gamma-rays, resistance to leaf rust, yellow rust, stem rust, and to some extent to Erysiphe graminis was determined. The mutants responded to infection by producing necrotic flecks in the presence of high level of disease inoculum. Similar flecks develop under stress condition. It is likely that the mother variety San Pastore carries genes for resistance which are masked by suppressor genes. Irradiation inactivates suppressors so that resistance genes which were previously masked are expressed. The first results of monosomic analysis indicate that chromosomes of groups 4 and 5 or possibly 7 may be critical for expression of resistance in the mutant lines. (author)

  6. DNA microsatellite region for a reliable quantification of soft wheat adulteration in durum wheat-based foodstuffs by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnante, Gabriella; Montemurro, Cinzia; Morgese, Anita; Sabetta, Wilma; Blanco, Antonio; Pasqualone, Antonella

    2009-11-11

    Italian industrial pasta and durum wheat typical breads must be prepared using exclusively durum wheat semolina. Previously, a microsatellite sequence specific of the wheat D-genome had been chosen for traceability of soft wheat in semolina and bread samples, using qualitative and quantitative Sybr green-based real-time experiments. In this work, we describe an improved method based on the same soft wheat genomic region by means of a quantitative real-time PCR using a dual-labeled probe. Standard curves based on dilutions of 100% soft wheat flour, pasta, or bread were constructed. Durum wheat semolina, pasta, and bread samples were prepared with increasing amounts of soft wheat to verify the accuracy of the method. Results show that reliable quantifications were obtained especially for the samples containing a lower amount of soft wheat DNA, fulfilling the need to verify labeling of pasta and typical durum wheat breads.

  7. Natural Variation in Grain Composition of Wheat and Related Cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica AM; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

    2013-01-01

    The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23−26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. P...

  8. The Marketing Performance of Illinois and Kansas Wheat Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, Sarah N.; Aulerich, Nicole M.; Irwin, Scott H.; Good, Darrel L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the marketing performance of wheat farmers in Illinois and Kansas over 1982-2004. The results show that farmer benchmark prices for wheat in Illinois and Kansas fall in the middle-third of the price range about half to three-quarters of the time. Consistent with previous studies, this refutes the contention that Illinois and Kansas wheat farmers routinely market the bulk of their wheat crop in the bottom portion of the price range. Tests of the aver...

  9. Wheat yield vulnerability: relation to rainfall and suggestions for adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Tafoughalti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat production is of paramount importance in the region of Meknes, which is mainly produced under rainfed conditions. It is the dominant cereal, the greater proportion being the soft type. During the past few decades, rainfall flaws have caused a number of cases of droughts. These flaws have seriously affecting wheat production. The main objective of this study is the assessment of rainfall variability at monthly, seasonal and annual scales and to determine their impact on wheat yields. To reduce this impact we suggested some mechanisms of adaptation. We used monthly rainfall records for three decades and wheat yields records of fifteen years. Rainfall variability is assessed utilizing the precipitation concentration index and the variation coefficient. The association between wheat yields and cumulative rainfall amounts of different scales was calculated based on a regression model to evaluate the impact of rainfall on wheat yields. Data analysis shown moderate seasonal and irregular annual rainfall distribution. Yields fluctuated from 210 to 4500 Kg/ha with 52% of coefficient of variation. The correlation results shows that soft wheat and hard wheat are strongly correlated with the period of January to March than with the whole growing-season. While they are adversely correlated with the mid-spring. This investigation concluded that synchronizing appropriate adaptation with the period of January to March was crucial to achieving success yield of wheat.

  10. Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunwell, Jim M.

    Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.

  11. Starch and protein analysis of wheat bread enriched with phenolics-rich sprouted wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2017-08-01

    Wheat flour in the bread formula was replaced with sprouted wheat flour (SF) characterized by enhanced nutraceutical properties, at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% levels. The addition of SF slightly increased the total protein content; however, it decreased their digestibility. Some qualitative and quantitative changes in the electrophoretic pattern of proteins were also observed; especially, in the bands corresponding with 27kDa and 15-17kDa proteins. These results were also confirmed by SE-HPLC technique, where a significant increase in the content of proteins and peptides (molecular masses breads with 20% of SF. Bread enriched with sprouted wheat flour had more resistant starch, but less total starch, compared to control bread. The highest in vitro starch digestibility was determined for the control bread. The studied bread with lowered nutritional value but increased nutritional quality can be used for special groups of consumers (obese, diabetic). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic Parameters of Common Wheat in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Krishna Joshi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on variation within traits and their genetics are prerequisites in crop improvement program. Thus, in present paper we aimed to estimate genetic and environmental indices of common wheat genotypes. For the purpose, eight quantitative traits were measured from 30 wheat genotypes, which were in randomized complete block design with 3 replicates. Components of variance and covariance were estimated along with heritability, genetic gain, realized heritability, coheritability and correlated response. Differences between phenotypic and genotypic variances in heading days, maturity days and plant height were not large. Grain yield and plant height showed the highest phenotypic (18.189% and genotypic (12.06% coefficient of variances, respectively. Phenotypic covariance was higher than genotypic and environmental covariance in most of the traits. The highest heritability and realized heritability were of heading days followed by maturity days. Genetic gain for plant height was the highest. Co-heritability of 1000-grain weight with tillers number was the highest. The highest correlated response was expressed by grain yield with tillers number. This study indicates the possibility of improving wheat genotypes through selection utilizing existing variation in these traits.

  13. Breeding wheat for disease resistance in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, P.N.; Kinyua, M.G.; Karanja, L.; Maling'a, J.

    2001-01-01

    Yellow rust caused by Puccinia striformis and stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis tritici are most destructive diseases in Kenya. In wheat improvement, development of varieties of wheat with resistance to these diseases has been among the foremost contributions in wheat breeding. In breeding programs each disease is considered as a separate problem. Attention has been given to varieties resistant to stem rust, yellow rust and leaf rust among other diseases. In the year 2001 program stem rust and yellow rust were recorded in all the sites where NPT was performed. Breeding for resistance for the two diseases is approached through the Introductions and Hybridisation. The Doubled Haploid Technique is used to quicken the time of homozygous lines production. The introduction and the homozygous lines are then evaluated for yield and disease resistance in the field under preliminary yield trials and the National Performance Trials (NPT) in 2001, 18 lines and 2 check varieties were included in the NPT. The results show that there were some differences in reaction to the three diseases where lines R946, K7972-1 and R899 had the lowest score of the diseases in all sites. In the commercial variety trial the results show that all the varietieshave become susceptible to stem rust and so the need to develop new cultivars which will be resistance to the rusts. Yombi a newly developed variety showed a substantially high level resistance. (author)

  14. Rain-induced spring wheat harvest losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A.; Black, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    When rain or a combination of rain and high humidity delay wheat harvest, losses can occur in grain yield and/or grain quality. Yield losses can result from shattering, from reduction in test weight, and in the case of windrowed grain, from rooting of sprouting grain at the soil: windrow contact. Losses in grain quality can result from reduction in test weight and from sprouting. Sprouting causes a degradation of grain proteins and starches, hence flour quality is reduced, and the grain price deteriorates to the value of feed grain. Although losses in grain yield and quality are rain-induced, these losses do not necessarily occur because a standing or windrowed crop is wetted by rain. Spike water concentration in hard red spring wheat must be increased to about 45-49% before sprouting is initiated in grain that has overcome dormancy. The time required to overcome this dormancy after the cultivar has dried to 12 to 14% water concentration differs with hard red spring cultivars. The effect of rain on threshing-ready standing and windrowed hard red spring wheat grain yeild and quality was evaluated. A goal was to develop the capability to forecast the extent of expected loss of grain yield and quality from specific climatic events that delay threshing.

  15. Nitrate movement in soil under irrigated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    In field experiments on wheat from 1994 to 1998, grain yields and yield-contributing components increased with the amount of fertilizer N; however, differences with 120 and 180 kg N ha -1 were not statistically significant. Grain yields ranged between 1.22 to 5.25 Mg ha -1 over the four growing seasons. Water-use efficiency values increased with amount of fertilizer N applied. Total-N uptake was always highest with the 180 kg N ha -1 treatment, i.e. with 50% more fertilizer applied than the locally recommended 120 kg N ha -1 . The use of 15 N revealed that percent N derived from fertilizer from the first split application at planting, 40 or 60 kg N ha -1 , was lower than that applied as a second split of 80 and 120 kg N ha -1 , respectively, at growth stage Z-30; this trend prevailed in all the cropping seasons. Fertilizer-N uptake was highest with 180 kg N ha -1 and varied from 16 to 50% of that applied. Nitrogen applied to the wheat had positive residual effects on subsequently grown rice in comparison with the zero-N checks. The downward flux of water measured in a nearby plot increased with depth, but showed a decreasing trend with wheat growth; the fertilizer-N fraction was relatively lower with depth. A minor fraction of applied N moved down to 120 cm, indicating little likelihood of pollution of groundwater by NO 3 - from fertilizer. (author)

  16. Genetic evolution and utilization of wheat germplasm resources in Huanghuai winter wheat region of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiyong, C.; Haixia, X.U.; Feng, C.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the genetic variation of wheat germplasm resources and improve their use in wheat breeding, 215 wheat cultivars and advanced lines from the Huanghuai Wheat Region of China were used to identify 14 agronomic traits and 7 quality traits, as well as the evolution and utilization of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and low molecular weight-glutenin subunits (LMW-GS). From land race cultivars to current cultivars there had been significant increases in grain numbers spike/sip -1/, grain weight spike/sup -1/, 1000-kernel weight, grain weight plant/sup -1/, spikelet number spike/sup -1/, sterile spikelet numbers spike/sup -1/, flag leaf width, and flag leaf area. There had been significant decreases in spike number plant/sup -1/, plant height, the first inter node length, flag leaf length, kernel protein content and wet gluten content. Based on Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results, a novel HMW-GS combination 20/8 was identified in 1B chromosome of Chinese landrace cultivar Heputou. Subunits 22, 20/8, 2.2+12, and GluB3a were only found in cultivars before the 1960s, and subunits 6+8, 13+16, 3+12, and 4+12 were only found in the cultivars after the 1980s. The average diversity index of 21 traits and allele variance of HMW-GS showed a decreasing-increasing-decreasing tendency. HMW-GS and LMW-GS combination-type cultivars showed an increasing-decreasing tendency. Before the 1980s, most parental strains were from foreign cultivars and landrace cultivars, while after the 1980s, most parental strains were from released cultivars and germplasm created by distant hybridization. This study provided useful information for improvement of wheat breeding in Huanghuai winter wheat region. (author)

  17. Wheat Yield Trend and Soil Fertility Status in Long Term Rice-Rice-Wheat Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabin Rawal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A long-term soil fertility experiment under rice-rice-wheat system was performed to evaluate the long term effects of inorganic fertilizer and manure applications on soil properties and grain yield of wheat. The experiment began since 1978 was laid out in randomized complete block design with 9 treatments replicated 3 times. From 1990 onwards, periodic modifications have been made in all the treatments splitting the plots in two equal halves of 4 x 3 m2 leaving one half as original. In the original treatments, recent data revealed that the use of Farm Yard Manure (FYM @10 t ha-1 gave significantly (P≤0.05 higher yield of 2.3 t ha-1 in wheat, whereas control plot gave the lowest grain yield of 277 kg ha-1. Similarly, in the modified treatments, the use of FYM @10 t ha-1 along with inorganic Nitrogen (N and Potassium oxide (K2O @ 50 kg ha-1 produced significantly (P≤0.05 the highest yield of 2.4 t/ha in wheat. The control plot with an indigenous nutrient supply only produced wheat yield of 277 kg ha-1 after 35th year completion of rice-rice-wheat system. A sharp decline in wheat yields was noted in minus N, phosphorus (P, Potassium (K treatments during recent years. Yields were consistently higher in the N:P2O5:K2O and FYM treatments than in treatments, where one or more nutrients were lacking. The application of P2O5 and K2O caused a partial recovery of yield in P and K deficient plots. There was significant (P≤0.05 effect of use of chemical fertilizers and manure on soil properties. The soil analysis data showed an improvement in soil pH (7.8, soil organic matter (4.1%, total N content (0.16%, available P (503.5 kg P2O5 ha-1 and exchangeable K (137.5 kg K2O ha-1 in FYM applied treatments over all other treatments. The findings showed that the productivity of the wheat can be increased and sustained by improving nutrient through the integrated use of organic and inorganic manures in long term.

  18. Discrimination of volatiles of refined and whole wheat bread containing red and white wheat bran using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapirstein, Harry D; Siddhu, Silvi; Aliani, Michel

    2012-11-01

    The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the capability of electronic (E) nose technology to discriminate refined and whole wheat bread made with white or red wheat bran according to their headspace volatiles. Whole wheat flour was formulated with a common refined flour from hard red spring wheat, blended at the 15% replacement level with bran milled from representative samples of one hard red and 2 hard white wheats. A commercial formula was used for breadmaking. Results varied according to the nature of the sample, that is, crust, crumb, or whole slices. Bread crust and crumb were completely discriminated. Crumb of whole wheat bread made with red bran was distinct from other bread types. When misclassified, whole wheat bread crumb with white bran was almost invariably identified as refined flour bread crumb. Using crust as the basis for comparisons, the largest difference in volatiles was between refined flour bread and whole wheat bread as a group. When refined flour bread crust was misclassified, samples tended to be confused with whole white wheat crust. Samples prepared from whole bread slices were poorly discriminated in general. E-nose results indicated that whole wheat bread formulated with white bran was more similar in volatile makeup to refined flour bread compared to whole wheat bread made with red bran. The E-nose appears to be very capable to accommodate differentiation of bread volatiles whose composition varies due to differences in flour or bran type. Consumer preference of bread made using refined flour in contrast to whole wheat flour is partly due to the different aroma of whole wheat bread. This study used an electronic nose to analyze bread volatiles, and showed that whole wheat bread incorporating white bran was different from counterpart bread made using red bran, and was closer in volatile makeup to "white" bread made without bran. Commercial millers and bakers can take advantage of these results to formulate whole wheat flour

  19. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure and Ancestral Origin of Australian Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Joukhadar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of wheat into Australia by the First Fleet settlers, germplasm from different geographical origins has been used to adapt wheat to the Australian climate through selection and breeding. In this paper, we used 482 cultivars, representing the breeding history of bread wheat in Australia since 1840, to characterize their diversity and population structure and to define the geographical ancestral background of Australian wheat germplasm. This was achieved by comparing them to a global wheat collection using in-silico chromosome painting based on SNP genotyping. The global collection involved 2,335 wheat accessions which was divided into 23 different geographical subpopulations. However, the whole set was reduced to 1,544 accessions to increase the differentiation and decrease the admixture among different global subpopulations to increase the power of the painting analysis. Our analysis revealed that the structure of Australian wheat germplasm and its geographic ancestors have changed significantly through time, especially after the Green Revolution. Before 1920, breeders used cultivars from around the world, but mainly Europe and Africa, to select potential cultivars that could tolerate Australian growing conditions. Between 1921 and 1970, a dependence on African wheat germplasm became more prevalent. Since 1970, a heavy reliance on International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT germplasm has persisted. Combining the results from linkage disequilibrium, population structure and in-silico painting revealed that the dependence on CIMMYT materials has varied among different Australian States, has shrunken the germplasm effective population size and produced larger linkage disequilibrium blocks. This study documents the evolutionary history of wheat breeding in Australia and provides an understanding for how the wheat genome has been adapted to local growing conditions. This information provides a guide for industry to

  20. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure and Ancestral Origin of Australian Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukhadar, Reem; Daetwyler, Hans D; Bansal, Urmil K; Gendall, Anthony R; Hayden, Matthew J

    2017-01-01

    Since the introduction of wheat into Australia by the First Fleet settlers, germplasm from different geographical origins has been used to adapt wheat to the Australian climate through selection and breeding. In this paper, we used 482 cultivars, representing the breeding history of bread wheat in Australia since 1840, to characterize their diversity and population structure and to define the geographical ancestral background of Australian wheat germplasm. This was achieved by comparing them to a global wheat collection using in-silico chromosome painting based on SNP genotyping. The global collection involved 2,335 wheat accessions which was divided into 23 different geographical subpopulations. However, the whole set was reduced to 1,544 accessions to increase the differentiation and decrease the admixture among different global subpopulations to increase the power of the painting analysis. Our analysis revealed that the structure of Australian wheat germplasm and its geographic ancestors have changed significantly through time, especially after the Green Revolution. Before 1920, breeders used cultivars from around the world, but mainly Europe and Africa, to select potential cultivars that could tolerate Australian growing conditions. Between 1921 and 1970, a dependence on African wheat germplasm became more prevalent. Since 1970, a heavy reliance on International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) germplasm has persisted. Combining the results from linkage disequilibrium, population structure and in-silico painting revealed that the dependence on CIMMYT materials has varied among different Australian States, has shrunken the germplasm effective population size and produced larger linkage disequilibrium blocks. This study documents the evolutionary history of wheat breeding in Australia and provides an understanding for how the wheat genome has been adapted to local growing conditions. This information provides a guide for industry to assist with

  1. Muscle-type nicotinic receptor modulation by 2,6-dimethylaniline, a molecule resembling the hydrophobic moiety of lidocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Alberola-Die

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To identify the molecular determinants responsible for lidocaine blockade of muscle-type nAChRs, we have studied the effects on this receptor of 2,6-dimethylaniline (DMA, which resembles lidocaine’s hydrophobic moiety. Torpedo marmorata nAChRs were microtransplanted to Xenopus oocytes and currents elicited by ACh (IACh, either alone or co-applied with DMA, were recorded. DMA reversibly blocked IACh and, similarly to lidocaine, exerted a closed-channel blockade, as evidenced by the enhancement of IACh blockade when DMA was pre-applied before its co-application with ACh, and hastened IACh decay. However, there were marked differences among its mechanisms of nAChR inhibition and those mediated by either the entire lidocaine molecule or diethylamine (DEA, a small amine resembling lidocaine’s hydrophilic moiety. Thereby, the IC50 for DMA, estimated from the dose-inhibition curve, was in the millimolar range, which is one order of magnitude higher than that for either DEA or lidocaine. Besides, nAChR blockade by DMA was voltage-independent in contrast to the increase of IACh inhibition at negative potentials caused by the more polar lidocaine or DEA molecules. Accordingly, virtual docking assays of DMA on nAChRs showed that this molecule binds predominantly at intersubunit crevices of the transmembrane-spanning domain, but also at the extracellular domain. Furthermore, DMA interacted with residues inside the channel pore, although only in the open-channel conformation. Interestingly, co-application of ACh with DEA and DMA, at their IC50s, had additive inhibitory effects on IACh and the extent of blockade was similar to that predicted by the allotopic model of interaction, suggesting that DEA and DMA bind to nAChRs at different loci. These results indicate that DMA mainly mimics the low potency and non-competitive actions of lidocaine on nAChRs, as opposed to the high potency and voltage-dependent block by lidocaine, which is emulated by the

  2. Vaginal microbiota of adolescent girls prior to the onset of menarche resemble those of reproductive-age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Roxana J; Zhou, Xia; Settles, Matthew L; Erb, Julie; Malone, Kristin; Hansmann, Melanie A; Shew, Marcia L; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Forney, Larry J

    2015-03-24

    Puberty is an important developmental stage wherein hormonal shifts mediate the physical and physiological changes that lead to menarche, but until now, the bacterial composition of vaginal microbiota during this period has been poorly characterized. We performed a prospective longitudinal study of perimenarcheal girls to gain insight into the timing and sequence of changes that occur in the vaginal and vulvar microbiota during puberty. The study enrolled 31 healthy, premenarcheal girls between the ages of 10 and 12 years and collected vaginal and vulvar swabs quarterly for up to 3 years. Bacterial composition was characterized by Roche 454 pyrosequencing and classification of regions V1 to V3 of 16S rRNA genes. Contrary to expectations, lactic acid bacteria, primarily Lactobacillus spp., were dominant in the microbiota of most girls well before the onset of menarche in the early to middle stages of puberty. Gardnerella vaginalis was detected at appreciable levels in approximately one-third of subjects, a notable finding considering that this organism is commonly associated with bacterial vaginosis in adults. Vulvar microbiota closely resembled vaginal microbiota but often exhibited additional taxa typically associated with skin microbiota. Our findings suggest that the vaginal microbiota of girls begin to resemble those of adults well before the onset of menarche. This study addresses longitudinal changes in vaginal and vulvar microbial communities prior to and immediately following menarche. The research is significant because microbial ecology of the vagina is an integral aspect of health, including resistance to infections. The physiologic changes of puberty and initiation of cyclic menstruation are likely to have profound effects on vaginal microbiota, but almost nothing is known about changes that normally occur during this time. Our understanding has been especially hampered by the lack of thorough characterization of microbial communities using techniques

  3. An Investigation into the Mechanics of Windblown Dust Entrainment from Nickel Slag Surfaces Resembling Armoured Desert Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Robert Steven

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the dynamics of PM 10 emission from a nickel slag stockpile that closely resembles a desert pavement in physical characteristics. In the field, it was observed that slag surfaces develop by natural processes into a well-armoured surface over some period of time. The surface then consists of two distinct layers; a surficial armour layer containing only non-erodible gravel and cobble-sized clasts, and an underlying dust-laden layer, which contains a wide size range of slag particles, from clay-sized to cobble-sized. This surficial armour layer protects the underlying fines from wind entrainment, at least under typical wind conditions; however, particle emissions still do occur under high wind speeds. The dynamics of particle entrainment from within these surfaces are investigated herein. It is shown that the dynamics of the boundary layer flow over these lag surfaces are influenced by the inherent roughness and permeability of the surficial armour layer, such that the flow resembles those observed over and within vegetation canopies, and those associated with permeable gravel-bed river channels. Restriction of air flow within the permeable surface produces a high-pressure zone within the pore spaces, resulting in a Kelvin-Helmholtz shear instability, which triggers coherent motions in the form of repeating burst-sweep cycles. Using Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA), it is demonstrated that the lower boundary layer is characterized by both Q4 sweeping motions and Q2 bursting motions, while the upper boundary layer is dominated by Q2 bursts. Pore air motions within the slag material were measured using buried pressure ports. It is shown that the mean pressure gradient which forms within the slag material results in net upward displacement of air, or wind pumping. However, this net upward motion is a result of rapid oscillatory motions which are directly driven by coherent boundary layer motions. It is also demonstrated that

  4. Structural and molecular basis of starch viscosity in hexaploid wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ral, J-P; Cavanagh, C R; Larroque, O; Regina, A; Morell, M K

    2008-06-11

    Wheat starch is considered to have a low paste viscosity relative to other starches. Consequently, wheat starch is not preferred for many applications as compared to other high paste viscosity starches. Increasing the viscosity of wheat starch is expected to increase the functionality of a range of wheat flour-based products in which the texture is an important aspect of consumer acceptance (e.g., pasta, and instant and yellow alkaline noodles). To understand the molecular basis of starch viscosity, we have undertaken a comprehensive structural and rheological analysis of starches from a genetically diverse set of wheat genotypes, which revealed significant variation in starch traits including starch granule protein content, starch-associated lipid content and composition, phosphate content, and the structures of the amylose and amylopectin fractions. Statistical analysis highlighted the association between amylopectin chains of 18-25 glucose residues and starch pasting properties. Principal component analysis also identified an association between monoesterified phosphate and starch pasting properties in wheat despite the low starch-phosphate level in wheat as compared to tuber starches. We also found a strong negative correlation between the phosphate ester content and the starch content in flour. Previously observed associations between internal starch granule fatty acids and the swelling peak time and pasting temperature have been confirmed. This study has highlighted a range of parameters associated with increased starch viscosity that could be used in prebreeding/breeding programs to modify wheat starch pasting properties.

  5. Thermal transitions of the amorphous polymers in wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Clemons, Craig; Holm, Jens K.

    2011-01-01

    The thermal transitions of the amorphous polymers in wheat straw were investigated using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The study included both natural and solvent extracted wheat straw, in moist (8–9% water content) and dry conditions, and was compared to spruce samples. Under...

  6. Allelopathic appraisal effects of straw extract wheat varieties on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-29

    Nov 29, 2010 ... Ben HM, Ghorbal H, Kremer RJ, Oussama O (2001). Allelopathic effects of barley extracts on germination and seedlings growth of bread and durum wheats. Agronomie, 21: 65-71. Dias LS (1991). Allelopathic activity of decomposing straw of wheat and oat and associated soil on some crop species. Soil Till.

  7. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of whole wheat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole wheat contains an array of phytochemicals. We quantified alkylresorcinols (AR), phenolic acids, phytosterols, and tocols in six whole wheat products and characterized their antioxidant capacity and ability to induce quinone reductase activity (QR). Total AR content ranged from 136.8 to 233.9 m...

  8. Breeding of newly licensed wheat variety Huapei 8 and improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-28

    Dec 28, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. Breeding of newly licensed wheat variety Huapei 8 and improved breeding strategy by anther culture ... more efficient in pure line selection rather than the hete- .... Regional and productivity tests showed that Huapei 8 had .... Large-scale production of wheat and triticale double.

  9. Population densities of wheat thrips, Haplothrips tritici Kurdjumov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population densities of Haplothrips tritici (H. tritici) Kurdjumov (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) were studied in Kahramanmaras, Turkey. In 2002, bread wheat cultivars, Bocro 4, Pehlivan and Yüreğir 89, durum wheat cultivars, Balcali 85, Ceylan 95 and Harran 95 and barley cultivars, Esterel and Pacific, were used. In 2003 ...

  10. Breeding of newly licensed wheat variety Huapei 8 and improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H2 was the best selection generation for traits with high heredity ability, and H3 was the best selection for grain traits and yield test. Consequently, we bred and licensed six new wheat varieties derived from anther culture and significantly reduced breeding time to three to five years. Huapei 8 was the newest released wheat ...

  11. Soft wheat quality characteristics required for making baking powder biscuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifteen soft wheat varieties were evaluated for their grain, milling, flour and dough mixing characteristics, as well as their solvent retention capacities (SRCs), pasting properties and suitability for making baking powder biscuits, to identify wheat quality characteristics required for making bisc...

  12. economics of herbicide weed management in wheat in ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Effective use of herbicides for the control of annual grass and broadleaf weeds in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was not a reality in Ethiopia, until in recent years. This study aimed at evaluating different post-emergence herbicides against annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in wheat for selection and incorporation into an ...

  13. Biochemical characterization of digestive amylase of wheat bug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... ... Boyd et al., 2002). Wheat bug also feeds on different stage of developing grains. ... the grain during feeding, Wheat bug enzymes degrade gluten proteins and cause rapid relaxation of dough resulting in the production of .... A blank without substrate but with α-amylase extract and a control containing no ...

  14. Protein modeling of yellow rust disease in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, S.E.; Bano, R.; Zayed, M.E.; Elshikh, M.S.; Khan, M.H.; Chaudhry, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat production in Pakistan is affected by yellow rust disease caused by a fungus Puccinia striiformis. There is a need to broaden the genetic basis of wheat by identifying new resistance genes. The present study was aimed to identify an alternate resistance gene for yellow rust disease in wheat caused by Puccinia striiformis. Genome sequence was compared with databases and similar gene was identified for disease resistance in rye plant. Structural analysis of RGA1 gene (resistance gene in wheat) was carried out using different bioinformatics tools and an alternative gene having same structure was identified on the basis of structural and sequence homology. Rye plant is the proposed plant for the alternate new resistance gene. The result of pairwise alignment of RGA1 gene in wheat and gene of rye plant is 94.2% with accession DQ494535 .The secondary structures of both the genes was compared and found similar to each other. These comparisons between the wheat resistance gene and gene from rye plant depict structural similarities between the two genes. Results of RGA1 gene's structural analysis in wheat is as follow: Helices: 59, Extended sheets: 30, Turns: 12, Coils: 13 and for alternate resistance genes in Rye is as follow: Helices: 52, Extended sheets: 30, Turns: 14, Coils: 17. As structures are similar, the alternate identified gene could be used for resistance in wheat. (author)

  15. 77 FR 25375 - United States Standards for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... and Stockyards Administration 7 CFR Part 810 RIN 0580-AB12 United States Standards for Wheat... 20.0 Wheat of other classes: \\2\\ Contrasting classes 1.0 2.0 3.0 10.0 10.0 Total \\3\\ 3.0 5.0 10.0 10...

  16. Farmers’ adoption of extensive wheat production – Determinants and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finger, R.; Benni, El N.

    2013-01-01

    Using farm-level panel data, we analyze farmers’ adoption decisions with respect to extensive wheat production, which is supported in Switzerland since 1992 with an ecological direct payment scheme. It shows that in particular farms with a small area under wheat, low levels of input use and low

  17. Factors affecting wheat nutritional value for broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez del Alamo Oms, A.

    2009-01-01

    In Europe, broiler chickens are fed with balanced diets where the energy is mainly supplied by wheat. The feed industry considers wheat a moderately uniform raw material and therefore its energy content and nutrient digestibility are taken from feeding tables (tabulated values) and assigned to all

  18. Genotype-dependent responses of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted under controlled conditions to investigate the growth and physiological - biochemical responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings to UV-B, drought, and their combined stresses. Both UV-B and drought treatments retarded seedling growth with UV-B having worse impact on wheat plants ...

  19. Response of bread wheat ( Tritcum aestivum L. ) to nitrogen after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop rotation is a common practice in the study area, but there is no enough information on the specific rate of nitrogen to be applied after legumes for wheat production. Hence, on farm field experiments were conducted to determine the amount of nitrogen fertilizer rates needed for bread wheat after chick pea, grass pea, ...

  20. Nitrogen economy in relay intercropping systems of wheat and cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.Z.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Zhang, S.; Li, B.; Werf, van der W.

    2008-01-01

    Relay intercropping of wheat and cotton is practiced on a large scale in China. Winter wheat is thereby grown as a food crop from November to June and cotton as a cash crop from April to October. The crops overlap in time, growing as an intercrop, from April till June. High levels of nitrogen are

  1. Assessment of genetic diversity among sixty bread wheat (Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mwale

    2016-05-25

    May 25, 2016 ... the highest genetic diversity followed by genome B while genome D was the lowest diverse. Cluster ... and 95% of people in the developing countries eat wheat or maize in ... area for wheat production in China due to pressure from ...... hypertension in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat. Cell.

  2. Management Effects On Quality of Organically Grown Winter Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Schweinzer, A.; Friedel, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for improving wheat grain quality by management strategies involving crop rotation, catch crops, and organic manure was tested in organic long-term experiments in Denmark and Austria. Growing grass clover in a four-year rotation resulted in a higher wheat yield increase that could n...

  3. Study on genetic diversity in Pakistani wheat varieties using simple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) is a grass species, cultivated world wide. Globally, it is the most important human food grain and ranks second in total production as a cereal crop behind maize. Genetic diversity evaluation of germplasm is the basis of improvement in wheat. In the present study genetic diversity of 10 ...

  4. Assessment of genetic diversity among sixty bread wheat ( Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of genetic diversity among wheat cultivars is important to ensure that a continuous pool of cultivars with varying desirable traits is maintained. In view of this, a molecular study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity of sixty wheat cultivars using sixty microsatellite markers. Amplified alleles from each ...

  5. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the pin head formation time and yield values of Agaricus bisporus on some casing materials. Composts were prepared basically from wheat straw and waste tea leaves by using wheat chaff as activator substance. Temperatures of the compost formulas were measured during ...

  6. Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar facilitate its adaptation to salt stress. L Chen, H Yin, J Xu, X Liu. Abstract. Wheat cultivars capable of accumulating minerals under salt stress are of considerable interest for their potential to improve crop productivity and crop quality. This study addressed the ...

  7. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View

  8. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of the wheat pathogenic fungus Zymoseptoria tritici

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Yin, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Zymoseptoria tritici causes Septoria tritici blotch disease of wheat. To obtain a comprehensive protein dataset of this fungal pathogen, proteomes of Z. tritici growing in nutrient-limiting and rich media and in vivo at a late stage of wheat infection were fractionated by 1D gel or strong cation...

  9. Population densities of wheat thrips, Haplothrips tritici Kurdjumov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... Key words: Thysanoptera, Haplothrips tritici, population density, bread wheat, durum wheat, barley, cultivars. INTRODUCTION. Some thrips types of the order Thysanoptera constitute one of the harmful groups found on grains (Minaei and. Mound, 2008). The most common species observed on grains in ...

  10. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Twelve Indian spring wheat cultivars and the spring wheat landrace Chinese Spring were characterized for their flowering times by seeding them every month for five years under natural field conditions in New Delhi. Near isogenic Vrn-1 Ppd-D1 and Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a lines constructed in two genetic backgrounds were also ...

  11. Wheat and barley differently affect porcine intestinal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Eva; Aumiller, Tobias; Spindler, Hanns K

    2016-01-01

    Diet influences the porcine intestinal microbial ecosystem. Barrows were fitted with ileal T-cannulas to compare short-term effects of eight different wheat or barley genotypes and period-to-period effects on seven bacterial groups in ileal digesta and faeces by qPCR. Within genotypes of wheat an...

  12. Silicon mediated biochemical changes in wheat under salinized and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silicon (Si) can alleviate salinity damage, a major threat to agriculture that causes instability in wheat production. We report on the effects of silicon (150 mg L-1) on the morphological, physiological and biochemical traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (salt sensitive; Auqab-2000 and salt tolerant; SARC-5) differing ...

  13. Variability in wheat: factors affecting its nutritional value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez del Alamo Oms, A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hartog, den L.A.; Villamide, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Wheat is a common raw material used to provide energy in broiler diets. Its apparent metabolisable energy and its influence on broiler performance varies between wheat samples. Reasons for that variability can be classified as intrinsic (variety, chemical composition) and extrinsic factors (growing

  14. stem rust seedling resistance genes in ethiopian wheat cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the major biotic limiting factors for wheat production in Ethiopia. Host plant resistance is the best option to manage stem rust from its economic and environmental points of view. Wheat cultivars are released for production without carrying race specific tests against ...

  15. foreign exchange rationing and wheat markets in ethiopia1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rahel

    markets and the international market are by no means straightforward. ... domestic wheat prices closely tracked import parity prices. Then, from April 2007 to May 2008, good domestic harvests coincided with increase international wheat ... assessing the effects of rationing on real exchange rates and domestic prices of.

  16. IPR CATUARA TM – new cultivar of high gluten wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The wheat cultivar IPR Catuara TM, obtained from a cross between the line LD 975 and the cultivar IPR 85, exhibits high gluten strength, which will allow the milling industry to supplement flours from wheats with weaker gluten strength, resulting in better quality products for the final consumer.

  17. Molecular Characterization of wheat stem rust races in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem or black rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) Erikss. & Henning causes severe losses to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), historically threatening global wheat production. Characterizing prevalent isolates of Pgt would enhance the knowledge of population dynamics and evolution of t...

  18. Ridge Regression: A tool to forecast wheat area and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Jamal

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This research study is designed to develop forecasting models for acreage and production of wheat crop for Chakwal district of Rawalpindi region keeping in view the assumptions of OLS estimation. The forecasting models are developed on the basis of 15 years data from 1984-85 to 1998-99 then wheat area and production for next five years from 1999-2000 to 2003-04 is forecasted through the models and compared with the actual figures. After evaluating the accuracy of the models, final models are developed on the basis of 20 years data for the period 1984-85 to 2003-04. These linear models can be used to forecast wheat area and production of next five years. The Urea fertilizer, DAP fertilizer and manures plays a significant role to enhance the production of wheat crop. Number of ploughs in the wheat fields is significant factor to increase the production of wheat crop. Good rains in the month of October and November significantly contributes to increase the production of wheat crop and mean maximum temperature in the month of March is a significant factor to reduce the production of wheat crop.

  19. Salt tolerance analysis of chickpea, faba bean and durum wheat varieties. II. Durum wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Nachit, M.M.; Oweis, T.

    2005-01-01

    Seven varieties of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum), provided by ICARDA, were tested in a greenhouse experiment for their salt tolerance. Afterwards two varieties, differing in salt tolerance, were irrigated with waters of three different salinity levels in a lysimeter experiment to analyse their

  20. Extending the honey bee venome with the antimicrobial peptide apidaecin and a protein resembling wasp antigen 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vaerenbergh, M; Cardoen, D; Formesyn, E M; Brunain, M; Van Driessche, G; Blank, S; Spillner, E; Verleyen, P; Wenseleers, T; Schoofs, L; Devreese, B; de Graaf, D C

    2013-04-01

    Honey bee venom is a complex mixture of toxic proteins and peptides. In the present study we tried to extend our knowledge of the venom composition using two different approaches. First, worker venom was analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and this revealed the antimicrobial peptide apidaecin for the first time in such samples. Its expression in the venom gland was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR and by a peptidomic analysis of the venom apparatus tissue. Second, genome mining revealed a list of proteins with resemblance to known insect allergens or venom toxins, one of which showed homology to proteins of the antigen 5 (Ag5)/Sol i 3 cluster. It was demonstrated that the honey bee Ag5-like gene is expressed by venom gland tissue of winter bees but not of summer bees. Besides this seasonal variation, it shows an interesting spatial expression pattern with additional production in the hypopharyngeal glands, the brains and the midgut. Finally, our immunoblot study revealed that both synthetic apidaecin and the Ag5-like recombinant from bacteria evoke no humoral activity in beekeepers. Also, no IgG4-based cross-reactivity was detected between the honey bee Ag5-like protein and its yellow jacket paralogue Ves v 5. © 2013 Royal Entomological Society.