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Sample records for resemble fungal hyphae

  1. High turnover of fungal hyphae in incubation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Franciska T; Bååth, Erland; Kuyper, Thom W; Bloem, Jaap

    2009-03-01

    Soil biological studies are often conducted on sieved soils without the presence of plants. However, soil fungi build delicate mycelial networks, often symbiotically associated with plant roots (mycorrhizal fungi). We hypothesized that as a result of sieving and incubating without plants, the total fungal biomass decreases. To test this, we conducted three incubation experiments. We expected total and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal biomass to be higher in less fertilized soils than in fertilized soils, and thus to decrease more during incubation. Indeed, we found that fungal biomass decreased rapidly in the less fertilized soils. A shift towards thicker hyphae occurred, and the fraction of septate hyphae increased. However, analyses of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and neutral lipid fatty acids could not clarify which fungal groups were decreasing. We propose that in our soils, there was a fraction of fungal biomass that was sensitive to fertilization and disturbance (sieving, followed by incubation without plants) with a very high turnover (possibly composed of fine hyphae of AM and saprotrophic fungi), and a fraction that was much less vulnerable with a low turnover (composed of saprotrophic fungi and runner hyphae of AMF). Furthermore, PLFAs might not be as sensitive in detecting changes in fungal biomass as previously thought.

  2. [In Vivo Study of Chitin in Fungal Hyphae Based on Confocal Raman Microscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-li; Luo, Liu-bin; Zhou, Bin-xiong; Hu, Xiao-qian; Sun, Chan-jun; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Chitin is an important structural polysaccharide of fungal cell wall. In this paper, aerial hyphae of Colletotrichum camelliae Massee was first studied by confocal Raman microscopy in vivo. Firstly, the optimal experimental parameters of hyphae for collecting the Raman spectra were determined, and the typical Raman spectra of hyphae, chitin standard and background were acquired. By comparing analysis, characteristic peaks of chitin were found in hyphae. Then, a region of interesting on hyphae was selected for Raman scanning. Through principal component analysis, the Raman signal of hyphae and background in the scanning area can be separated clearly. Combined with loading weight plot, two main characteristic peaks of hyphae were obtained, 1 622 cm(-1) was belong to chitin and 1 368 cm(-1) was assigned to pectic polysaccharide. Finally, two and three dimension chemical images of fungal hyphae were realized based on Raman fingerprint spectra of chitin in a nondestructive way.

  3. A new model for fungal hyphae growth using the thin viscous sheet equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, T.G.; Prokert, G.; Hulshof, J.; Itou, H.; Kimura, M.; Chalupecký, V.; Ohtsuka, K.; Tagami, D.; Takada, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we model the growth of single nonbranching fungal hypha cell. The growth proceeds as an elongating expansion in a single direction. Modelling of hyphae growth consists out of two parts: transport of cell wall building material to the cell wall and growth of the cell wall as new cell

  4. Growth of chitinolytic dune soil ß-subclass Proteobacteria in response to invading fungal hyphae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, W.; Klein Gunnewiek, P.J.A.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    It has frequently been reported that chitinolytic soil bacteria, in particular biocontrol strains, can lyse living fungal hyphae, thereby releasing potential growth substrate. However, the conditions used in such assays (high bacterial density, rich media, fragmented hyphae) make it difficult to

  5. Mechanisms of Bacterial (Serratia marcescens) Attachment to, Migration along, and Killing of Fungal Hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hover, Tal; Maya, Tal; Ron, Sapir; Sandovsky, Hani; Shadkchan, Yana; Kijner, Nitzan; Mitiagin, Yulia; Fichtman, Boris; Harel, Amnon; Shanks, Robert M Q; Bruna, Roberto E; García-Véscovi, Eleonora; Osherov, Nir

    2016-05-01

    We have found a remarkable capacity for the ubiquitous Gram-negative rod bacterium Serratia marcescens to migrate along and kill the mycelia of zygomycete molds. This migration was restricted to zygomycete molds and several basidiomycete species. No migration was seen on any molds of the phylum Ascomycota. S. marcescens migration did not require fungal viability or surrounding growth medium, as bacteria migrated along aerial hyphae as well.S. marcescens did not exhibit growth tropism toward zygomycete mycelium. Bacterial migration along hyphae proceeded only when the hyphae grew into the bacterial colony. S. marcescens cells initially migrated along the hyphae, forming attached microcolonies that grew and coalesced to generate a biofilm that covered and killed the mycelium. Flagellum-defective strains of S. marcescens were able to migrate along zygomycete hyphae, although they were significantly slower than the wild-type strain and were delayed in fungal killing. Bacterial attachment to the mycelium does not necessitate type 1 fimbrial adhesion, since mutants defective in this adhesin migrated equally well as or faster than the wild-type strain. Killing does not depend on the secretion of S. marcescens chitinases, as mutants in which all three chitinase genes were deleted retained wild-type killing abilities. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which S. marcescens binds to, spreads on, and kills fungal hyphae might serve as an excellent model system for such interactions in general; fungal killing could be employed in agricultural fungal biocontrol. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Application of image recognition-based automatic hyphae detection in fungal keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuelian; Tao, Yuan; Qiu, Qingchen; Wu, Xinyi

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of two methods in diagnosis of fungal keratitis, whereby one method is automatic hyphae detection based on images recognition and the other method is corneal smear. We evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the method in diagnosis of fungal keratitis, which is automatic hyphae detection based on image recognition. We analyze the consistency of clinical symptoms and the density of hyphae, and perform quantification using the method of automatic hyphae detection based on image recognition. In our study, 56 cases with fungal keratitis (just single eye) and 23 cases with bacterial keratitis were included. All cases underwent the routine inspection of slit lamp biomicroscopy, corneal smear examination, microorganism culture and the assessment of in vivo confocal microscopy images before starting medical treatment. Then, we recognize the hyphae images of in vivo confocal microscopy by using automatic hyphae detection based on image recognition to evaluate its sensitivity and specificity and compare with the method of corneal smear. The next step is to use the index of density to assess the severity of infection, and then find the correlation with the patients' clinical symptoms and evaluate consistency between them. The accuracy of this technology was superior to corneal smear examination (p hyphae detection of image recognition was 89.29%, and the specificity was 95.65%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.946. The correlation coefficient between the grading of the severity in the fungal keratitis by the automatic hyphae detection based on image recognition and the clinical grading is 0.87. The technology of automatic hyphae detection based on image recognition was with high sensitivity and specificity, able to identify fungal keratitis, which is better than the method of corneal smear examination. This technology has the advantages when compared with the conventional artificial identification of confocal

  7. Interactions of liposome carriers with infectious fungal hyphae reveals the role of β-glucans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Neelam L; Young, Joseph K; Drezek, Rebekah A; Lewis, Russell; Bikram, Malavosklish

    2012-09-04

    Relatively little is known about how liposomal formulations modulate drug delivery to fungal pathogens. We compared patterns of hyphal cell wall binding for empty rhodmine-labeled liposomes and the clinically available amphotericin B-containing liposomal formulation (AmBisome) in Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. Following 0.5 h of coincubation with A. fumigatus , empty liposomes concentrated primarily in fungal septae along at the surface of the cell wall, suggesting that liposome uptake is concentrated in areas of the cell wall where linear glucan is exposed on the cell surface, which was confirmed by aniline blue staining. Consistent with this hypothesis, pretreatment of liposomes with soluble linear glucan (laminarin) decreased liposome binding in both Aspergillus and Candida fungal hyphae, while growth of Aspergillus hyphae in the presence of an agent that increases fungal cell wall surface exposure of linear β-glucans without cell death (caspofungin) increased liposome uptake throughout the Aspergillus fungal cell wall. Increasing the polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentration in liposomes from 0 to 30% significantly increased fungal uptake of liposomes that was only modestly attenuated when fungal cells were incubated in serum concentrations ranging from 10 to 100%. The presence of β-glucans on the fungal hyphae cell walls of Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the factors responsible for mediating the binding of liposome carriers to the hyphae and could explain possible synergy reported between liposomal amphotericin B and echinocanins.

  8. Living fungal hyphae-templated porous gold microwires using nanoparticles as building blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Asma; Majeed, Muhammad Irfan; Ihsan, Ayesha; Hussain, Syed Zajif; Saif-ur-Rehman; Ghauri, Muhammad Afzal; Khalid, Zafar M.; Hussain, Irshad

    2011-01-01

    A simple and environmentally benign green method is reported to decorate growing fungal hyphae with high loading of gold nanoparticles, which were initially produced using aqueous tea extract as a sole reducing/stabilizing agent. Inoculation of fungal spores in aqueous suspension of nanoparticles led to the growth of intensely red-coloured fungal hyphae due to the accumulation of gold nanoparticles. Heat treatment of these hybrid materials led to the formation of porous gold microwires. This report is thus an interesting example of using green and sustainable approach to produce nanostructured materials which have potential applications in catalysis, sensing and electronics.Graphical AbstractPorous gold microwires are formed by the heat treatment of fungal hyphae–gold nanoparticle composites. These nanoparticle-loaded composites were formed by growing Aspergillus niger in gold nanoparticles suspension produced using tea extract as the sole chemical source in addition to the gold salt.

  9. A model for growth of a single fungal hypha based on well-mixed tanks in series: simulation of nutrient and vesicle transport in aerial reproductive hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmant, Wellington; Sugai-Guérios, Maura Harumi; Coradin, Juliana Hey; Krieger, Nadia; Furigo Junior, Agenor; Mitchell, David Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Current models that describe the extension of fungal hyphae and development of a mycelium either do not describe the role of vesicles in hyphal extension or do not correctly describe the experimentally observed profile for distribution of vesicles along the hypha. The present work uses the n-tanks-in-series approach to develop a model for hyphal extension that describes the intracellular transport of nutrient to a sub-apical zone where vesicles are formed and then transported to the tip, where tip extension occurs. The model was calibrated using experimental data from the literature for the extension of reproductive aerial hyphae of three different fungi, and was able to describe different profiles involving acceleration and deceleration of the extension rate. A sensitivity analysis showed that the supply of nutrient to the sub-apical vesicle-producing zone is a key factor influencing the rate of extension of the hypha. Although this model was used to describe the extension of a single reproductive aerial hypha, the use of the n-tanks-in-series approach to representing the hypha means that the model has the flexibility to be extended to describe the growth of other types of hyphae and the branching of hyphae to form a complete mycelium.

  10. Fungal hyphae stimulate bacterial degradation of 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær; Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Albers, Christian Nyrop; Rosendahl, Søren; Aamand, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Introduction of specific degrading microorganisms into polluted soil or aquifers is a promising remediation technology provided that the organisms survive and spread in the environment. We suggest that consortia, rather than single strains, may be better suited to overcome these challenges. Here we introduced a fungal–bacterial consortium consisting of Mortierella sp. LEJ702 and the 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM)-degrading Aminobacter sp. MSH1 into small sand columns. A more rapid mineralisation of BAM was obtained by the consortium compared to MSH1 alone especially at lower moisture contents. Results from quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) demonstrated better spreading of Aminobacter when Mortierella was present suggesting that fungal hyphae may stimulate bacterial dispersal. Extraction and analysis of BAM indicated that translocation of the compound was also affected by the fungal hyphae in the sand. This suggests that fungal–bacterial consortia are promising for successful bioremediation of pesticide contamination. -- Highlights: •Presence of fungi increased the rate of BAM mineralization by Aminobacter sp. MSH1. •Fungal–bacterial consortium enhanced BAM degradation at low moisture contents. •Mortierella hyphae facilitated transport of the BAM degrader Aminobacter sp. MSH1. -- This study brings new knowledge to the benefits of applying bacterial–fungal consortia for bioremediation

  11. Fungal hyphae stimulate bacterial degradation of 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær; Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Albers, Christian Nyrop; Rosendahl, Søren; Aamand, Jens

    2013-10-01

    Introduction of specific degrading microorganisms into polluted soil or aquifers is a promising remediation technology provided that the organisms survive and spread in the environment. We suggest that consortia, rather than single strains, may be better suited to overcome these challenges. Here we introduced a fungal-bacterial consortium consisting of Mortierella sp. LEJ702 and the 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM)-degrading Aminobacter sp. MSH1 into small sand columns. A more rapid mineralisation of BAM was obtained by the consortium compared to MSH1 alone especially at lower moisture contents. Results from quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) demonstrated better spreading of Aminobacter when Mortierella was present suggesting that fungal hyphae may stimulate bacterial dispersal. Extraction and analysis of BAM indicated that translocation of the compound was also affected by the fungal hyphae in the sand. This suggests that fungal-bacterial consortia are promising for successful bioremediation of pesticide contamination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microscopy Observations of Habitable Space in Biochar for Colonization by Fungal Hyphae From Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noraini M. Jaafar; Peta L. Clode; Lynette K. Abbott

    2014-01-01

    Biochar is a potential micro-environment for soil microorganisms but evidence to support this suggestion is limited. We explored imaging techniques to visualize and quantify fungal colonization of habitable spaces in a biochar made from a woody feedstock. In addition to characterization of the biochar, it was necessary to optimize preparation and observation methodologies for examining fungal colonization of the biochar. Biochar surfaces and pores were investigated using several microscopy techniques. Biochar particles were compared in soilless media and after deposition in soil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and characterization of the biochar demonstrated structural heterogeneity within and among biochar particles. Fungal colonization in and on biochar particles was observed using light, fluorescence and electron microscopy. Fluorescent brightener RR 2200 was more effective than Calcolfuor White as a hyphal stain. Biochar retrieved from soil and observed using lfuorescence microscopy exhibited distinct hyphal networks on external biochar surfaces. The extent of hyphal colonization of biochar incubated in soil was much less than for biochar artiifcially inoculated with fungi in a soilless medium. The location of fungal hyphae was more clearly visible using SEM than with lfuorescence microscopy. Observations of biochar particles colonized by hyphae from soil posed a range of dififculties including obstruction by the presence of soil particles on biochar surfaces and inside pores. Extensive hyphal colonization of the surface of the biochar in the soilless medium contrasted with limited hyphal colonization of pores within the biochar. Both visualization and quantiifcation of hyphal colonization of surfaces and pores of biochar were restricted by two-dimensional imaging associated with uneven biochar surfaces and variable biochar pore structure. There was very little colonization of biochar from hyphae in the agricultural soil used in this study.

  13. Efflux of hydraulically lifted water from mycorrhizal fungal hyphae during imposed drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querejeta, José Ignacio; Allen, Michael F

    2008-01-01

    Apart from improving plant and soil water status during drought, it has been suggested that hydraulic lift (HL) could enhance plant nutrient capture through the flow of mineral nutrients directly from the soil to plant roots, or by maintaining the functioning of mycorrhizal fungi. We evaluated the extent to which the diel cycle of water availability created by HL covaries with the efflux of HL water from the tips of extramatrical (external) mycorrhizal hyphae, and the possible effects on biogeochemical processes. Phenotypic mycorrhizal fungal variables, such as total and live hyphal lengths, were positively correlated with HL efflux from hyphae, soil water potential (dawn), and plant response variables (foliar 15N). The efflux of HL water from hyphae was also correlated with bacterial abundance and soil enzyme activity (P), and the moistening of soil organic matter. Such findings indicate that the efflux of HL water from the external mycorrhizal mycelia may be a complementary explanation for plant nutrient acquisition and survival during drought. PMID:19704776

  14. Spermine modulates fungal morphogenesis and activates plasma membrane H+-ATPase during yeast to hyphae transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Jesus Dorighetto Cogo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyamines play a regulatory role in eukaryotic cell growth and morphogenesis. Despite many molecular advances, the underlying mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we investigate a mechanism by which spermine affects the morphogenesis of a dimorphic fungal model of emerging relevance in plant interactions, Yarrowia lipolytica, through the recruitment of a phytohormone-like pathway involving activation of the plasma membrane P-type H+-ATPase. Morphological transition was followed microscopically, and the H+-ATPase activity was analyzed in isolated membrane vesicles. Proton flux and acidification were directly probed at living cell surfaces by a non-invasive selective ion electrode technique. Spermine and indol-3-acetic acid (IAA induced the yeast-hypha transition, influencing the colony architecture. Spermine induced H+-ATPase activity and H+ efflux in living cells correlating with yeast-hypha dynamics. Pharmacological inhibition of spermine and IAA pathways prevented the physio-morphological responses, and indicated that spermine could act upstream of the IAA pathway. This study provides the first compelling evidence on the fungal morphogenesis and colony development as modulated by a spermine-induced acid growth mechanism analogous to that previously postulated for the multicellular growth regulation of plants.

  15. Comparative daily dynamics of mycorrhizal fungal hyphae across differing ecosystems using an automated minirhizotron and sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. F.

    2013-05-01

    Fungal hyphae represent the second largest standing crop biomass in most terrestrial ecosystems. Mycorrhizal fungal hyphae are largely using newly-fixed carbon to explore the soil volume and provide nutrients and water to the host plant. Yet we know almost nothing about their dynamics in situ. We used a high-resolution (100x) automated minirhizotron to take daily images of mycorrhizal fungal hyphae in three distinct environments to describe fungal dynamics, a tropical rainforest (La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica), a hot desert (Boyd Deep Canyon University of California NRS, USA), and a Mediterranean-climate mixed conifer forest (James San Jacinto University of California NRS, USA). 4400 images per tube per day were organized into mosaics, observed, and hyphal dynamics measured. All tube locations were also fitted with soil sensors for CO2, temperature (T), and soil moisture (SM), and atmospheric sensors for relative humidity, PAR, precipitation, and air temperature. At all sites, mycorrhizal fungal hyphae responded rapidly to precipitation and drying events. By observing individual hyphae, we found that both production and mortality peaked in association with these events. In the rain forest, soils were normally wet, restricting gas diffusion. Soil CO2 levels went as high as 50,000ppm. Hyphae continued to grow all year, but there was a peak in growth as soils dried, followed by mortality as the long dry period continued, as SM and soil CO2 declined but T increased. In the hot desert, soils were very dry except immediately following a large precipitation event. With precipitation, fine roots and hyphae start growing within a day. CO2 levels go up to 20,000ppm but then drop rapidly as CO2 diffuses out of the soil profile. Hyphal lengths remain high until they slowly die back. At the conifer forest, hyphae responded to precipitation and soil warming, but some persisted through the dry season and under snow. These observations tell us that newer technologies

  16. Detection of fungal hyphae using smartphone and pocket magnifier: going cellular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Tushar; Bandivadekar, Pooja; Satpathy, Gita; Sharma, Namrata; Titiyal, Jeewan S

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to detect fungal hyphae in a corneal scraping sample using a cost-effective assembly of smartphone and pocket magnifier. In this case report, a tissue sample was obtained by conventional corneal scraping from a clinically suspicious case of mycotic keratitis. The smear was stained with Gram stain, and a 10% potassium hydroxide mount was prepared. It was imaged using a smartphone coupled with a compact pocket magnifier and integrated light-emitting diode assembly at point-of-care. Photographs of multiple sections of slides were viewed using smartphone screen and pinch-to-zoom function. The same slides were subsequently screened under a light microscope by an experienced microbiologist. The scraping from the ulcer was also inoculated on blood agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar. Smartphone-based digital imaging revealed the presence of gram-positive organism with hyphae. Examination under a light microscope also yielded similar findings. Fusarium was cultured from the corneal scraping, confirming the diagnosis of mycotic keratitis. The patient responded to topical 5% natamycin therapy, with resolution of the ulcer after 4 weeks. Smartphones can be successfully used as novel point-of-care, cost-effective, reliable microscopic screening tools.

  17. Testing an Alternative Method for Estimating the Length of Fungal Hyphae Using Photomicrography and Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qinhua; Kirschbaum, Miko U F; Hedley, Mike J; Camps Arbestain, Marta

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and test an unbiased and rapid methodology to estimate the length of external arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) hyphae in soil. The traditional visual gridline intersection (VGI) method, which consists in a direct visual examination of the intersections of hyphae with gridlines on a microscope eyepiece after aqueous extraction, membrane-filtration, and staining (e.g., with trypan blue), was refined. For this, (i) images of the stained hyphae were taken by using a digital photomicrography technique to avoid the use of the microscope and the method was referred to as "digital gridline intersection" (DGI) method; and (ii), the images taken in (i) were processed and the hyphal length was measured by using ImageJ software, referred to as the "photomicrography-ImageJ processing" (PIP) method. The DGI and PIP methods were tested using known grade lengths of possum fur. Then they were applied to measure the hyphal lengths in soils with contrasting phosphorus (P) fertility status. Linear regressions were obtained between the known lengths (Lknown) of possum fur and the values determined by using either the DGI (LDGI) (LDGI = 0.37 + 0.97 × Lknown, r2 = 0.86) or PIP (LPIP) methods (LPIP = 0.33 + 1.01 × Lknown, r2 = 0.98). There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences between the LDGI and LPIP values. While both methods provided accurate estimation (slope of regression being 1.0), the PIP method was more precise, as reflected by a higher value of r2 and lower coefficients of variation. The average hyphal lengths (6.5-19.4 m g-1) obtained by the use of these methods were in the range of those typically reported in the literature (3-30 m g-1). Roots growing in P-deficient soil developed 2.5 times as many hyphae as roots growing in P-rich soil (17.4 vs 7.2 m g-1). These tests confirmed that the use of digital photomicrography in conjunction with either the grid-line intersection principle or image processing is a suitable method for the

  18. Monitoring the metabolic state of fungal hyphae and the presence of melanin by nonlinear spectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, Helene; Blab, Gerhard A; Agronskaia, Alexandra V; van den Heuvel, Dave J; Gerritsen, Hans C; Wösten, Han A B

    2013-10-01

    Label-free nonlinear spectral imaging microscopy (NLSM) records two-photon-excited fluorescence emission spectra of endogenous fluorophores within the specimen. Here, NLSM is introduced as a novel, minimally invasive method to analyze the metabolic state of fungal hyphae by monitoring the autofluorescence of NAD(P)H and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Moreover, the presence of melanin was analyzed by NLSM. NAD(P)H, FAD, and melanin were used as biomarkers for freshness of mushrooms of Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) that had been stored at 4°C for 0 to 17 days. During this period, the mushrooms did not show changes in morphology or color detectable by eye. In contrast, FAD/NAD(P)H and melanin/NAD(P)H ratios increased over time. For instance, these ratios increased from 0.92 to 2.02 and from 0.76 to 1.53, respectively, at the surface of mushroom caps that had been harvested by cutting the stem. These ratios were lower under the skin than at the surface of fresh mushrooms (0.78 versus 0.92 and 0.41 versus 0.76, respectively), indicative of higher metabolism and lower pigment formation within the fruiting body. Signals were different not only between tissues of the mushroom but also between neighboring hyphae. These data show that NLSM can be used to determine the freshness of mushrooms and to monitor the postharvest browning process at an early stage. Moreover, these data demonstrate the potential of NLSM to address a broad range of fundamental and applied microbiological processes.

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal hyphae contribute to the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanzheng; Cheng, Zhaoxia; Ling, Wanting; Huang, Jing

    2010-09-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) hyphae-mediated uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by the roots of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was investigated using three-compartment systems. Glomus mosseae and Glomus etunicatum were chosen, and fluorene and phenanthrene were used as representative PAHs. When roots were grown in un-spiked soils, AM hyphae extended into PAH-spiked soil and clearly absorbed and transported PAHs to roots, resulting in high concentrations of fluorene and phenanthrene in roots. This was further confirmed by the batch equilibration experiment, which revealed that the partition coefficients (K(d)) of tested PAHs by mycorrhizal hyphae were 270-356% greater than those by roots, suggesting the great potential of hyphae to absorb PAHs. Because of fluorene's lower molecular weight and higher water solubility, its translocation by hyphae was greater than that of phenanthrene. These results provide new perspectives on the AM hyphae-mediated uptake by plants of organic contaminants from soil. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Permeabilization of fungal hyphae by the plant defensin NaD1 occurs through a cell wall-dependent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weerden, Nicole L; Hancock, Robert E W; Anderson, Marilyn A

    2010-11-26

    The antifungal activity of the plant defensin NaD1 involves specific interaction with the fungal cell wall, followed by permeabilization of the plasma membrane and entry of NaD1 into the cytoplasm. Prior to this study, the role of membrane permeabilization in the activity of NaD1, as well as the relevance of cell wall binding, had not been investigated. To address this, the permeabilization of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum hyphae by NaD1 was investigated and compared with that by other antimicrobial peptides, including the cecropin-melittin hybrid peptide CP-29, the bovine peptide BMAP-28, and the human peptide LL-37, which are believed to act largely through membrane disruption. NaD1 appeared to permeabilize cells via a novel mechanism that required the presence of the fungal cell wall. NaD1 and Bac2A, a linear variant of the bovine peptide bactenecin, were able to enter the cytoplasm of treated hyphae, indicating that cell death is accelerated by interaction with intracellular targets.

  1. Fungal Morphogenesis, from the Polarized Growth of Hyphae to Complex Reproduction and Infection Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Meritxell; Aguirre, Jesús; Bartnicki-García, Salomon; Braus, Gerhard H; Feldbrügge, Michael; Fleig, Ursula; Hansberg, Wilhelm; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Kämper, Jörg; Kück, Ulrich; Mouriño-Pérez, Rosa R; Takeshita, Norio; Fischer, Reinhard

    2018-06-01

    Filamentous fungi constitute a large group of eukaryotic microorganisms that grow by forming simple tube-like hyphae that are capable of differentiating into more-complex morphological structures and distinct cell types. Hyphae form filamentous networks by extending at their tips while branching in subapical regions. Rapid tip elongation requires massive membrane insertion and extension of the rigid chitin-containing cell wall. This process is sustained by a continuous flow of secretory vesicles that depends on the coordinated action of the microtubule and actin cytoskeletons and the corresponding motors and associated proteins. Vesicles transport cell wall-synthesizing enzymes and accumulate in a special structure, the Spitzenkörper, before traveling further and fusing with the tip membrane. The place of vesicle fusion and growth direction are enabled and defined by the position of the Spitzenkörper, the so-called cell end markers, and other proteins involved in the exocytic process. Also important for tip extension is membrane recycling by endocytosis via early endosomes, which function as multipurpose transport vehicles for mRNA, septins, ribosomes, and peroxisomes. Cell integrity, hyphal branching, and morphogenesis are all processes that are largely dependent on vesicle and cytoskeleton dynamics. When hyphae differentiate structures for asexual or sexual reproduction or to mediate interspecies interactions, the hyphal basic cellular machinery may be reprogrammed through the synthesis of new proteins and/or the modification of protein activity. Although some transcriptional networks involved in such reprogramming of hyphae are well studied in several model filamentous fungi, clear connections between these networks and known determinants of hyphal morphogenesis are yet to be established. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Golgi organization and the apical extension of fungal hyphae: an essential relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Steven D

    2013-07-01

    The Golgi apparatus performs crucial functions in the sorting and processing of proteins destined for secretion from eukaryotic cells. In filamentous fungi, organization of the Golgi apparatus reflects the unique challenges brought about by the highly polarized nature of hyphal growth. Recent results show that Golgi compartments are spatially segregated within hyphal tip cells in a manner that depends upon the integrity of the cytoskeleton. Moreover, loss of normal Golgi organization stops polarized hyphal extension and triggers de-polarization of the hyphal tip. These results emphasize the point that a spatially organized and dynamic Golgi apparatus represents an adaptation that is as important for hyphal extension as is the presence of a Spitzenkörper. In addition, they also identify regulatory mechanisms that could enable controlled de-polarization of hyphae during development or infection-related morphogenesis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. New insights into membrane-active action in plasma membrane of fungal hyphae by the lipopeptide antibiotic bacillomycin L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Dong, Chunjuan; Shang, Qingmao; Han, Yuzhu; Li, Pinglan

    2013-09-01

    Bacillomycin L, a natural iturinic lipopeptide produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, is characterized by strong antifungal activities against a variety of agronomically important filamentous fungi including Rhizoctonia solani Kühn. Prior to this study, the role of membrane permeabilization in the antimicrobial activity of bacillomycin L against plant pathogenic fungi had not been investigated. To shed light on the mechanism of this antifungal activity, the permeabilization of R. solani hyphae by bacillomycin L was investigated and compared with that by amphotericin B, a polyene antibiotic which is thought to act primarily through membrane disruption. Our results derived from electron microscopy, various fluorescent techniques and gel retardation experiments revealed that the antifungal activity of bacillomycin L may be not solely a consequence of fungal membrane permeabilization, but related to the interaction of it with intracellular targets. Our findings provide more insights into the mode of action of bacillomycin L and other iturins, which could in turn help to develop new or improved antifungal formulations or result in novel strategies to prevent fungal spoilage. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Organic Nitrogen-Driven Stimulation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Hyphae Correlates with Abundance of Ammonia Oxidizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukovská, Petra; Gryndler, Milan; Gryndlerová, Hana; Püschel, David; Jansa, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Large fraction of mineral nutrients in natural soil environments is recycled from complex and heterogeneously distributed organic sources. These sources are explored by both roots and associated mycorrhizal fungi. However, the mechanisms behind the responses of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) hyphal networks to soil organic patches of different qualities remain little understood. Therefore, we conducted a multiple-choice experiment examining hyphal responses to different soil patches within the root-free zone by two AM fungal species (Rhizophagus irregularis and Claroideoglomus claroideum) associated with Medicago truncatula, a legume forming nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Hyphal colonization of the patches was assessed microscopically and by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) using AM taxon-specific markers, and the prokaryotic and fungal communities in the patches (pooled per organic amendment treatment) were profiled by 454-amplicon sequencing. Specific qPCR markers were then designed and used to quantify the abundance of prokaryotic taxa showing the strongest correlation with the pattern of AM hyphal proliferation in the organic patches as per the 454-sequencing. The hyphal density of both AM fungi increased due to nitrogen (N)-containing organic amendments (i.e., chitin, DNA, albumin, and clover biomass), while no responses as compared to the non-amended soil patch were recorded for cellulose, phytate, or inorganic phosphate amendments. Abundances of several prokaryotes, including Nitrosospira sp. (an ammonium oxidizer) and an unknown prokaryote with affiliation to Acanthamoeba endosymbiont, which were frequently recorded in the 454-sequencing profiles, correlated positively with the hyphal responses of R. irregularis to the soil amendments. Strong correlation between abundance of these two prokaryotes and the hyphal responses to organic soil amendments by both AM fungi was then confirmed by qPCR analyses using all individual replicate patch samples. Further

  5. Swarms, swarming and entanglements of fungal hyphae and of plant roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Peter W.; Fisahn, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    There has been recent interest in the possibility that plant roots can show oriented collective motion, or swarming behavior. We examine the evidence supportive of root swarming and we also present new observations on this topic. Seven criteria are proposed for the definition of a swarm, whose application can help identify putative swarming behavior in plants. Examples where these criteria are fulfilled, at many levels of organization, are presented in relation to plant roots and root systems, as well as to the root-like mycelial cords (rhizomorphs) of fungi. The ideas of both an “active” swarming, directed by a signal which imposes a common vector on swarm element aggregation, and a “passive” swarming, where aggregation results from external constraint, are introduced. Active swarming is a pattern of cooperative behavior peculiar to the sporophyte generation of vascular plants and is the antithesis of the competitive behavior shown by the gametophyte generation of such plants, where passive swarming may be found. Fungal mycelial cords could serve as a model example of swarming in a multi-cellular, non-animal system. PMID:24255743

  6. Simultaneous immobilization of cadmium and lead in contaminated soils by hybrid bio-nanocomposites of fungal hyphae and nano-hydroxyapatites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhihui; Liang, Lifen; Yang, Weichun; Shi, Wei; Tong, Yunping; Chai, Liyuan; Gao, Shikang; Liao, Qi

    2018-04-01

    Self-aggregation of bulk nano-hydroxyapatites (n-HAPs) undermines their immobilization efficiencies of heavy metals in the contaminated soils. Here, the low-cost, easily obtained, and environment-friendly filamentous fungi have been introduced for the bio-matrices of the hybrid bio-nanocomposites to potentially solve such problem of n-HAPs. According to SEM, TEM, XRD, and FT-IR analyses, n-HAPs were successfully coated onto the fungal hyphae and their self-aggregation was improved. The immobilization efficiencies of diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd and Pb in the contaminated soils by the bio-nanocomposites were individually one to four times of that by n-HAPs or the fungal hyphae. Moreover, the Aspergillus niger-based bio-nanocomposite (ANHP) was superior to the Penicillium Chrysogenum F1-based bio-nanocomposite (PCHP) in immobilization of Cd and Pb in the contaminated soils. In addition, the results of XRD showed that one of the potential mechanisms of metal immobilization by the hybrid bio-nanocomposites was dissolution of n-HAPs followed by precipitation of new metal phosphate minerals. Our results suggest that the hybrid bio-nanocomposite (ANHP) can be recognized as a promising soil amendment candidate for effective remediation on the soils simultaneously contaminated by Cd and Pb.

  7. Hyphae colonizing bacteria associated with Penicillium bilaii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghodsalavi, Behnoushsadat

    shown that mycorrhizal helper bacteria presenting in mycorrhizal fungi could stimulate fungal growth, promote establishment of root-fungus symbiosis and enhance plant production. But it is unknown if the comparable relationship exist between the non-mycorrhizal fungus P. bilaii and its hyphae associated...... bacteria. In the current PhD thesis, we assumed that hyphae-associated microbiome of P. bilaii might harbor helper bacteria with ability to improve fungal growth and P solubilization performance. Therefore, we aimed to isolate bacteria associated with the P. bilaii hyphae and identify the fungal growth...... stimulating bacteria with the perspective of promoting efficiency of Jumpstart in soil – plant system. For this purpose, most of the work within the current project was carried out by development of suitable model systems by mimicking the natural soil habitat to reach to the reliable performance in soil...

  8. Relative abundance and activity of melanized hyphae in different soil ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wal, A.; Bloem, J.; Mulder, C.H.; De Boer, W.

    2009-01-01

    Here we report on the frequency of melanized fungal hyphae in 323 soils, covering different land use types. The proportion of total hyphae that was melanized averaged 61%. Arable fields with loamy sand, heathlands and city parks on sandy soils had the highest percentage of melanized hyphae. In

  9. Vesicular thick-walled swollen hyphae in pulmonary zygomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masatomo; Ito, Hiroyuki

    2009-03-01

    An autopsy case of pulmonary zygomycosis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis on immunosuppressive therapy is presented herein. There was a pulmonary cavitated infarct caused by mycotic thrombosis. Thin-walled narrow hyphae and vesicular thick-walled swollen hyphae were found on the pleural surface and in the necrotic tissue at the periphery of the cavity. Findings of such shaped fungal elements may cause erroneous histopathological diagnosis because pauciseptate broad thin-walled hyphae are usually the only detectable fungal elements in zygomycosis tissue. Although immunohistochemistry confirmed these unusual elements to be zygomycetous in the present case, it is important for the differential diagnosis to be aware that zygomycetes can form thin narrow hyphae and vesicular thick-walled swollen hyphae.

  10. [Differential diagnosis for detection of hyphae in tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintelnot, K

    2013-11-01

    Usually the detection of hyphae in tissue is unmistakable evidence of a deep mycosis requiring antimycotic treatment. Micromorphology alone rarely allows a specific diagnosis, thus confusion is possible between Candida, Aspergillus, Alternaria and Fusarium species or several other fungal agents. If broad, nearly non-septated hyphae are detected histologically mucormycosis can be suspected. Detection of hyphae in tissue is always a cause for concern because therapeutic consequences must follow. Because therapeutic strategies may differ depending on the specific fungal agent, a suspected diagnosis should be supplemented by other methods, e.g. culture of unfixed specimens, by immunohistology or molecular biological methods.

  11. Characterization of mannitol in Curvularia protuberata hyphae by FTIR and Raman spectromicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenor, Merrill; Kaminskyj, Susan G W; Rodriguez, Russell J; Redman, Regina S; Gough, Kathleen M

    2010-12-01

    FTIR and Raman spectromicroscopy were used to characterize the composition of Curvularia protuberata hyphae, and to compare a strain isolated from plants inhabiting geothermal soils with a non-geothermal isolate. Thermal IR source images of hyphae have been acquired with a 64 × 64 element focal plane array detector; single point IR spectra have been obtained with synchrotron source light. In some C. protuberata hyphae, we have discovered the spectral signature of crystalline mannitol, a fungal polyol with complex protective roles. With FTIR-FPA imaging, we have determined that the protein content in cells remains fairly constant throughout the length of a hypha, whereas the mannitol is found at discrete, irregular locations. This is the first direct observation of mannitol in intact fungal hyphae. Since the concentration of mannitol in cells varies with respect to position and is not present in all hyphae, this discovery may be related to habitat adaptation, fungal structure and growth stages.

  12. Fungal endophthalmitis caused by Paecilomyces variotii, in an immunocompetent patient, following intraocular lens implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 70-year-old man who was admitted for anterior endophthalmitis following an intraocular lens implantation. He had developed a fluffy growth resembling a fungal mass on the iris of the right eye. The mass was removed and sent for fungal studies to our department. Direct microscopy revealed hyphae. Further studies helped identify the fungus to belong to genus Paecilomyces. This is a rare case of fungal endophthalmitis caused by Paecilomyces variotii in an immunocompetent person.

  13. Aspergillosis in the common sea fan Gorgonia ventalina: isolation of waterborne hyphae and spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troeger, Victoria J; Sammarco, Paul W; Caruso, John H

    2014-07-03

    The octocoral disease aspergillosis is caused by the terrestrial fungus Aspergillus sydowii. The possibility of secondary (horizontal) transmission of aspergillosis among common sea fans Gorgonia ventalina would require waterborne transmission of hyphae and/or spores. A laboratory filtration experiment confirmed that fungal hyphae and spores were shed into the water by infected fans. This suggests that secondary infection might be possible in this species. It remains to be determined whether healthy fans actually develop aspergillosis after contact with hyphae-laden water.

  14. Identification of salivary components that induce transition of hyphae to yeast in Candida albicans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leito, J.T.D.; Ligtenberg, A.J.M.; Nazmi, K.; Veerman, E.C.I.

    2009-01-01

    Candida albicans, the major human fungal pathogen, undergoes a reversible morphological transition from single yeast cells to pseudohyphae and hyphae filaments. The hyphae form is considered the most invasive form of the fungus. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of saliva on

  15. 7 CFR 201.58d - Fungal endophyte test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... staining solution. Slightly crush the seeds. Use caution to prevent carryover hyphae of fungal endophyte... compound microscope at 100-400x magnification, scoring a seed as positive if any identifiable hyphae are...

  16. Growth of Candida albicans hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudbery, Peter E

    2011-08-16

    The fungus Candida albicans is often a benign member of the mucosal flora; however, it commonly causes mucosal disease with substantial morbidity and in vulnerable patients it causes life-threatening bloodstream infections. A striking feature of its biology is its ability to grow in yeast, pseudohyphal and hyphal forms. The hyphal form has an important role in causing disease by invading epithelial cells and causing tissue damage. This Review describes our current understanding of the network of signal transduction pathways that monitors environmental cues to activate a programme of hypha-specific gene transcription, and the molecular processes that drive the highly polarized growth of hyphae.

  17. A novel baiting microcosm approach used to identify the bacterial community associated with Penicillium bilaii hyphae in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghodsalavi, Behnoushsadat; Svenningsen, Nanna Bygvraa; Hao, Xiuli

    2017-01-01

    It is important to identify and recover bacteria associating with fungi under natural soil conditions to enable eco-physiological studies, and to facilitate the use of bacterial-fungal consortia in environmental biotechnology. We have developed a novel type of baiting microcosm, where fungal hyphae...... interact with bacteria under close-to-natural soil conditions; an advantage compared to model systems that determine fungal influences on bacterial communities in laboratory media. In the current approach, the hyphae are placed on a solid support, which enables the recovery of hyphae with associated...... bacteria in contrast to model systems that compare bulk soil and mycosphere soil. We used the baiting microcosm approach to determine, for the first time, the composition of the bacterial community associating in the soil with hyphae of the phosphate-solubilizer, Penicillium bilaii. By applying...

  18. Mycorrhizal hyphae as ecological niche for highly specialized hypersymbionts – or just soil free-riders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eJansa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycorrhizal fungi interconnect two different kinds of environments, namely the plant roots with the surrounding soil. This widespread coexistence of plants and fungi has important consequences for plant mineral nutrition, water acquisition, carbon allocation, tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses and interplant competition. Yet some current research indicates a number of important roles to be played by hyphae-associated microbes, in addition to the hyphae themselves, in foraging for and acquisition of soil resources and in transformation of organic carbon in the soil-plant systems. We critically review the available scientific evidence for the theory that the surface of mycorrhizal hyphae in soil is colonized by highly specialized microbial communities, and that these fulfill important functions in the ecology of mycorrhizal fungal hyphae such as accessing recalcitrant forms of mineral nutrients, and production of signaling and other compounds in the vicinity of the hyphae. The validity of another hypothesis will then be addressed, namely that the specific associative microbes are rewarded with exclusive access to fungal carbon, which would qualify them as hypersymbionts (i.e. symbionts of symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi. Thereafter, we ask whether recruitment of functionally different microbial assemblages by the hyphae is required under different soil conditions (questioning what evidence is available for such an effect, and we identify knowledge gaps requiring further attention.

  19. Identification of salivary components that induce transition of hyphae to yeast in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leito, Jelani T D; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; Nazmi, Kamran; Veerman, Enno C I

    2009-10-01

    Candida albicans, the major human fungal pathogen, undergoes a reversible morphological transition from single yeast cells to pseudohyphae and hyphae filaments. The hyphae form is considered the most invasive form of the fungus. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of saliva on hyphae growth of C. albicans. Candida albicans hyphae were inoculated in Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium with whole saliva, parotid saliva or buffer mimicking the saliva ion composition, and cultured for 18 h at 37 degrees C under aerobic conditions with 5% CO(2). Whole saliva and parotid saliva induced transition to yeast growth, whereas the culture with buffer remained in the hyphae form. Parotid saliva was fractionated on a reverse-phase C8 column and each fraction was tested for inducing transition to yeast growth. By immunoblotting, the salivary component in the active fraction was identified as statherin, a phosphoprotein of 43 amino acids that has been implicated in remineralization of the teeth. Synthetically made statherin induced transition of hyphae to yeast. By deletion of five amino acids at the negatively charged N-terminal site (DpSpSEE), yeast-inducing activity and binding to C. albicans were increased. In conclusion, statherin induces transition to yeast of C. albicans hyphae and may thus contribute to the oral defense against candidiasis.

  20. Evaluation of adhesion forces of Staphylococcus aureus along the length of Candida albicans hyphae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ovchinnikova, E.S.; Krom, B.P.; Busscher, H.J.; van der Mei, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Candida albicans is a human fungal pathogen, able to cause both superficial and serious, systemic diseases and is able to switch from yeast cells to long, tube-like hyphae, depending on the prevailing environmental conditions. Both morphological forms of C. albicans are found in infected

  1. Evaluation of adhesion forces of Staphylococcus aureus along the length of Candida albicans hyphae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ovchinnikova, Ekaterina S.; Krom, Bastiaan P.; Busscher, Henk J.; van der Mei, Henny C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans is a human fungal pathogen, able to cause both superficial and serious, systemic diseases and is able to switch from yeast cells to long, tube-like hyphae, depending on the prevailing environmental conditions. Both morphological forms of C. albicans are found in infected

  2. Beyond the rhizosphere: growth and function of arbuscular mycorrhizal external hyphae in sands of varying pore sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drew, E.A.; Murray, R.S.; Smith, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    Research on nutrient acquisition by symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has mainly focused on the root fungus interface and less attention has been given to the growth and functioning of external hyphae in the bulk soil. The growth and function of external hyphae may be affected....... intraradices obtained a greater proportion of P at a distance from the host roots. Differences in P acquisition were not correlated with production of external hyphae in the four media zones and changes in sand pore size did not affect the ability of the fungi studied to acquire P at a distance from the host...... roots. Production of external hyphae in HC2 was influenced by fungal species and media treatment. Both fungi produced maximum amounts of external hyphae in the soil medium. Sand pore size affected growth of G. intraradices (but not G. mosseae) and hyphal diameter distributions of both fungi. The results...

  3. A novel baiting microcosm approach used to identify the bacterial community associated with Penicillium bilaii hyphae in soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnoushsadat Ghodsalavi

    Full Text Available It is important to identify and recover bacteria associating with fungi under natural soil conditions to enable eco-physiological studies, and to facilitate the use of bacterial-fungal consortia in environmental biotechnology. We have developed a novel type of baiting microcosm, where fungal hyphae interact with bacteria under close-to-natural soil conditions; an advantage compared to model systems that determine fungal influences on bacterial communities in laboratory media. In the current approach, the hyphae are placed on a solid support, which enables the recovery of hyphae with associated bacteria in contrast to model systems that compare bulk soil and mycosphere soil. We used the baiting microcosm approach to determine, for the first time, the composition of the bacterial community associating in the soil with hyphae of the phosphate-solubilizer, Penicillium bilaii. By applying a cultivation-independent 16S rRNA gene-targeted amplicon sequencing approach, we found a hypha-associated bacterial community with low diversity compared to the bulk soil community and exhibiting massive dominance of Burkholderia OTUs. Burkholderia is known be abundant in soil environments affected by fungi, but the discovery of this massive dominance among bacteria firmly associating with hyphae in soil is novel and made possible by the current bait approach.

  4. Fungicide application and phosphorus uptake by hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi into field-grown peas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiger, P.F.; Spliid, N.H.; Jakobsen, I.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of two commercial fungicide formulations on phosphorus (P) uptake into peas via hyphae of a native arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal community was examined in the field. The fungicides contained carbendazim or a mixture of propiconazole and fenpropimorph as their active ingredients...... from overall P uptake, Fungicides were added to the soil inside the HCs at concentrations assumed to reflect their concentration in the surrounding soil. At two harvests, plant growth, total P and P-32 uptake as well as root length density and AM root colonisation were measured. Length of hyphae inside...

  5. Surface control of blastospore attachment and ligand-mediated hyphae adhesion of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Nisha; Yang, Sijie; Sejwal, Preeti; Luk, Yan-Yeung

    2013-11-14

    Adhesion on a surface via nonspecific attachment or multiple ligand-receptor interactions is a critical event for fungal infection by Candida albicans. Here, we find that the tri(ethylene glycol)- and d-mannitol-terminated monolayers do not resist the blastospore attachment, but prevent the hyphae adhesion of C. albicans. The hyphae adhesion can be facilitated by tripeptide sequences of arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) covalently decorated on a background of tri(ethylene glycol)-terminated monolayers. This adhesion mediated by selected ligands is sensitive to the scrambling of peptide sequences, and is inhibited by the presence of cyclic RGD peptides in the solution.

  6. Real-time visualization of immune cell clearance of Aspergillus fumigatus spores and hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Benjamin P; Huttenlocher, Anna; Keller, Nancy P

    2017-08-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a disease of the immunocompromised host and generally caused by the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. While both host and fungal factors contribute to disease severity and outcome, there are fundamental features of IA development including fungal morphological transition from infectious conidia to tissue-penetrating hyphae as well as host defenses rooted in mechanisms of innate phagocyte function. Here we address recent advances in the field and use real-time in vivo imaging in the larval zebrafish to visually highlight conserved vertebrate innate immune behaviors including macrophage phagocytosis of conidia and neutrophil responses post-germination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Epithelial invasion outcompetes hypha development during Candida albicans infection as revealed by an image-based systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, Franziska; Wilson, Duncan; Lehnert, Teresa; Hube, Bernhard; Thilo Figge, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Candida albicans is the most common opportunistic fungal pathogen of the human mucosal flora, frequently causing infections. The fungus is responsible for invasive infections in immunocompromised patients that can lead to sepsis. The yeast to hypha transition and invasion of host-tissue represent major determinants in the switch from benign colonizer to invasive pathogen. A comprehensive understanding of the infection process requires analyses at the quantitative level. Utilizing fluorescence microscopy with differential staining, we obtained images of C. albicans undergoing epithelial invasion during a time course of 6 h. An image-based systems biology approach, combining image analysis and mathematical modeling, was applied to quantify the kinetics of hyphae development, hyphal elongation, and epithelial invasion. The automated image analysis facilitates high-throughput screening and provided quantities that allow for the time-resolved characterization of the morphological and invasive state of fungal cells. The interpretation of these data was supported by two mathematical models, a kinetic growth model and a kinetic transition model, that were developed using differential equations. The kinetic growth model describes the increase in hyphal length and revealed that hyphae undergo mass invasion of epithelial cells following primary hypha formation. We also provide evidence that epithelial cells stimulate the production of secondary hyphae by C. albicans. Based on the kinetic transition model, the route of invasion was quantified in the state space of non-invasive and invasive fungal cells depending on their number of hyphae. This analysis revealed that the initiation of hyphae formation represents an ultimate commitment to invasive growth and suggests that in vivo, the yeast to hypha transition must be under exquisitely tight negative regulation to avoid the transition from commensal to pathogen invading the epithelium. © 2013 International Society for

  8. [Liesegang's rings resembling helminthiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámecník, M; Riedl, I

    1996-12-01

    So called Liesegang's rings are lamellar corpuscles which develop after periodical precipitation of oversaturated solutions in gel medium. They can occur in cysts, closed cavities, inflammatory exudates and necroses. They resemble parasitic eggs, larvae or adult forms. A case of 28-year-old woman is presented with many Liesegang's rings in a stuff from dilated renal calyx. Their preliminary evaluation considered helminths, especially Dioctophyma renale.

  9. Anastomosis behavior differs between asymbiotic and symbiotic hyphae of Rhizophagus clarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purin, Sonia; Morton, Joseph B

    2013-01-01

    The life history of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, Glomeromycota) consists of a short asymbiotic phase when spores germinate and a longer symbiotic phase where hyphae form a network within roots and subsequently in the rhizosphere. Hyphal anastomosis contributes to colony formation, yet this process has been studied mostly in the asymbiotic phase rather than in mycorrhizal plants because of methodological limitations. We sought to compare patterns of anastomosis during each phase of fungal growth by measuring hyphal fusions in genetically identical and different single spore isolates of Rhizophagus clarus from different environments and geographic locations. These isolates were genotyped with two anonymous markers of microsatellite-flanking regions. Anastomosis of hyphae from germinating spores was examined in axenic Petri dishes. A rhizohyphatron consisting of agar-coated glass slides bridging single or paired mycorrhizal sorghum plants allowed evaluation of anastomosis of symbiotic hyphae. Anastomosis of hyphae within a colony, defined here as a mycelium from an individual germinating spore or from mycorrhizal roots of one plant, occurred with similar frequencies (8-38%). However, anastomosis between paired colonies was observed in germinating spores from either genetically identical or different isolates, but it was never detected in symbiotic hyphae. The frequency of anastomosis in asymbiotic hyphae from paired interactions was low, occurring in fewer than 6% of hyphal contacts. These data suggest that anastomosis is relatively unconstrained when interactions occur within a colony but is confined to asymbiotic hyphae when interactions occur between paired colonies. This pattern of behavior suggests that asymbiotic and symbiotic phases of mycelium development by R. clarus may differ in function. Anastomosis in the asymbiotic phase may provide brief opportunities for gene flow between populations of this and possibly other AMF species.

  10. Evaluation of adhesion forces of Staphylococcus aureus along the length of Candida albicans hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikova, Ekaterina S; Krom, Bastiaan P; Busscher, Henk J; van der Mei, Henny C

    2012-11-27

    Candida albicans is a human fungal pathogen, able to cause both superficial and serious, systemic diseases and is able to switch from yeast cells to long, tube-like hyphae, depending on the prevailing environmental conditions. Both morphological forms of C. albicans are found in infected tissue, often in combination with Staphylococcus aureus. Although bacterial adhesion to the different morphologies of C. albicans has been amply studied, possible differences in staphylococcal adhesion forces along the length of C. albicans hyphae have never been determined. In this study, we aim to verify the hypothesis that the forces mediating S. aureus NCTC8325-4GFP adhesion to hyphae vary along the length of C. albicans SC5314 and MB1 hyphae, as compared with adhesion to yeast cells. C. albicans hyphae were virtually divided into a "tip" (the growing and therefore youngest part of the hyphae), a "middle" and a so-called "head" region (the yeast cell from which germination started). Adhesion forces between S. aureus NCTC8325-4GFP and the different regions of C. albicans SC5314 hyphae were measured using atomic force microscopy. Strong adhesion forces were found at the tip and middle regions of C. albicans hyphae (-4.1 nN and -4.0 nN, respectively), while much smaller adhesion forces were measured at the head region (-0.3 nN). Adhesion forces exerted by the head region were comparable with the forces arising from budding yeast cells (-0.5 nN). A similar regional dependence of the staphylococcal adhesion forces was found for the clinical isolate involved in this study, C. albicans MB1. This is the first time that differences in adhesion forces between S. aureus and different regions of C. albicans hyphae have been demonstrated on a quantitative basis, supporting the view that the head region is different from the remainder of the hyphae. Notably it can be concluded that the properties of the hyphal head region are similar to those of budding yeast cells. These novel findings

  11. Flow cytometric purification of Colletotrichum higginsianum biotrophic hyphae from Arabidopsis leaves for stage-specific transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Hiroyuki; Dolf, Andreas; Endl, Elmar; O'Connell, Richard

    2009-08-01

    Generation of stage-specific cDNA libraries is a powerful approach to identify pathogen genes that are differentially expressed during plant infection. Biotrophic pathogens develop specialized infection structures inside living plant cells, but sampling the transcriptome of these structures is problematic due to the low ratio of fungal to plant RNA, and the lack of efficient methods to isolate them from infected plants. Here we established a method, based on fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), to purify the intracellular biotrophic hyphae of Colletotrichum higginsianum from homogenates of infected Arabidopsis leaves. Specific selection of viable hyphae using a fluorescent vital marker provided intact RNA for cDNA library construction. Pilot-scale sequencing showed that the library was enriched with plant-induced and pathogenicity-related fungal genes, including some encoding small, soluble secreted proteins that represent candidate fungal effectors. The high purity of the hyphae (94%) prevented contamination of the library by sequences derived from host cells or other fungal cell types. RT-PCR confirmed that genes identified in the FACS-purified hyphae were also expressed in planta. The method has wide applicability for isolating the infection structures of other plant pathogens, and will facilitate cell-specific transcriptome analysis via deep sequencing and microarray hybridization, as well as proteomic analyses.

  12. Microecology: Using Fast-Growing Filamentous Fungi to Study the Effects of Environmental Gradients on the Growth Patterns of Hyphae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpech, Roger

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes some simple and rapid techniques for examining the growth responses of fungal hyphae cultivated on environmental gradients. The creation of such gradients using agar-based growth media in petri dishes is explained, along with recommendations for quantitative macroscopic and microscopic measurements. The intention is to provide…

  13. Direct and indirect effects of glomalin, mycorrhizal hyphae, and roots on aggregate stability in rhizosphere of trifoliate orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang-Sheng; Cao, Ming-Qin; Zou, Ying-Ning; He, Xin-hua

    2014-07-25

    To test direct and indirect effects of glomalin, mycorrhizal hyphae, and roots on aggregate stability, perspex pots separated by 37-μm nylon mesh in the middle were used to form root-free hyphae and root/hyphae chambers, where trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) seedlings were colonized by Funneliformis mosseae or Paraglomus occultum in the root/hyphae chamber. Both fungal species induced significantly higher plant growth, root total length, easily-extractable glomalin-related soil protein (EE-GRSP) and total GRSP (T-GRSP), and mean weight diameter (an aggregate stability indicator). The Pearson correlation showed that root colonization or soil hyphal length significantly positively correlated with EE-GRSP, difficultly-extractable GRSP (DE-GRSP), T-GRSP, and water-stable aggregates in 2.00-4.00, 0.50-1.00, and 0.25-0.50 mm size fractions. The path analysis indicated that in the root/hyphae chamber, aggregate stability derived from a direct effect of root colonization, EE-GRSP or DE-GRSP. Meanwhile, the direct effect was stronger by EE-GRSP or DE-GRSP than by mycorrhizal colonization. In the root-free hyphae chamber, mycorrhizal-mediated aggregate stability was due to total effect but not direct effect of soil hyphal length, EE-GRSP and T-GRSP. Our results suggest that GRSP among these tested factors may be the primary contributor to aggregate stability in the citrus rhizosphere.

  14. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  15. Do fungivores trigger the transfer of protective metabolites from host plants to arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhamel, Marie; Pel, Roel; Ooms, Astra; Bücking, Heike; Jansa, Jan; Ellers, Jacintha; van Straalen, Nico M; Wouda, Tjalf; Vandenkoornhuyse, Philippe; Kiers, E Toby

    2013-09-01

    A key objective in ecology is to understand how cooperative strategies evolve and are maintained in species networks. Here, we focus on the tri-trophic relationship between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, host plants, and fungivores to ask if host plants are able to protect their mutualistic mycorrhizal partners from being grazed. Specifically, we test whether secondary metabolites are transferred from hosts to fungal partners to increase their defense against fungivores. We grew Plantago lanceolata hosts with and without mycorrhizal inoculum, and in the presence or absence of fungivorous springtails. We then measured fungivore effects on host biomass and mycorrhizal abundance (using quantitative PCR) in roots and soil. We used high-performance liquid chromatography to measure host metabolites in roots, shoots, and hyphae, focusing on catalpol, aucubin, and verbascoside. Our most striking result was that the metabolite catalpol was consistently found in AM fungal hyphae in host plants exposed to fungivores. When fungivores were absent, catalpol was undetectable in hyphae. Our results highlight the potential for plant-mediated protection of the mycorrhizal hyphal network.

  16. Susceptibility testing of terbinafine alone and in combination with amphotericin B, itraconazole, or voriconazole against conidia and hyphae of dematiaceous molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancalana, Fernanda Simas Corrêa; Lyra, Luzia; Moretti, Maria Luiza; Schreiber, Angélica Zaninelli

    2011-12-01

    Studies have demonstrated excellent in vivo efficacy of terbinafine combined with other antifungal agents against dematiaceous molds; however, there is a lack of in vitro studies. Most studies evaluated conidia inocula, but susceptibility testing of hyphae could mimic the fungal status in infected tissues and might reflect the therapeutic potential of the agent. We investigated the in vitro susceptibility of terbinafine alone and in combination with amphotericin B, itraconazole, or voriconazole against conidia by microdilution and dynamic measurement of hyphae growth of dematiaceous molds. The MIC values for hyphae were, until 3 dilutions, below the MIC obtained for conidia. The results indicated 100% synergistic interactions between terbinafine and azoles or amphotericin B in all tests, but lower MICs for hyphae. In conclusion, our findings allow us to say that the hyphal form of tested dematiaceous molds showed high susceptibility to all antifungal agents evaluated, alone and in combination with terbinafine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ivarsson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The oceanic crust is believed to host the largest potential habitat for microbial life on Earth, yet, still we lack substantial information about the abundance, diversity, and consequence of its biosphere. The last two decades have involved major research accomplishments within this field and a change in view of the ocean crust and its potential to harbour life. Here fossilised fungal colonies in subseafloor basalts are reported from three different seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. The fungal colonies consist of various characteristic structures interpreted as fungal hyphae, fruit bodies and spores. The fungal hyphae are well preserved with morphological characteristics such as hyphal walls, septa, thallic conidiogenesis, and hyphal tips with hyphal vesicles within. The fruit bodies consist of large (∼50–200 µm in diameter body-like structures with a defined outer membrane and an interior filled with calcite. The fruit bodies have at some stage been emptied of their contents of spores and filled by carbonate-forming fluids. A few fruit bodies not filled by calcite and with spores still within support this interpretation. Spore-like structures (ranging from a few µm to ∼20 µm in diameter are also observed outside of the fruit bodies and in some cases concentrated to openings in the membrane of the fruit bodies. The hyphae, fruit bodies and spores are all closely associated with a crust lining the vein walls that probably represent a mineralized biofilm. The results support a fungal presence in deep subseafloor basalts and indicate that such habitats were vital between ∼81 and 48 Ma.

  18. Identification of inhibitors of yeast-to-hyphae transition in Candida albicans by a reporter screening assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz-Buschart, Anna; Eickhoff, Holger; Hohn, Erwin; Bilitewski, Ursula

    2013-03-10

    Candida albicans is one of the most common opportunistic fungal pathogens, causing life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients. As it is not primarily a pathogen, but can exist in a commensal state, we aimed at the identification of new anti-infective compounds which do not eradicate the fungus, but primarily disable a virulence determinant. The yeast–hyphae-dimorphism of C. albicans is considered a major contributor to fungal disease, as mutants locked into either yeast or hyphal state have been shown to be less virulent in the mouse-model. We devised a high-throughput screening procedure which allows us to find inhibitors of the induction of hyphae. Hyphae-formation was induced by nitrogen starvation at 37 °C and neutral pH in a reporter strain, which couples promoter activity of the hyphae-specific HWP1 to β-galactosidase expression. In a pilot screening of 720 novel synthetic compounds, we identified substances which inhibited the outgrowth of germ tubes. They belonged to chemical classes not yet known for antimycotic properties, namely methyl aryl-oxazoline carboxylates, dihydrobenzo[d]isoxazolones and thiazolo[4,5-e]benzoisoxazoles. In conclusion we developed a novel screening assay, which addresses the morphological switch from the yeast form of C. albicans to its hyphal form and identified novel chemical structures with activity against C. albicans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Switching from a unicellular to multicellular organization in an Aspergillus niger hypha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleichrodt, Robert-Jan; Hulsman, Marc; Wösten, Han A B; Reinders, Marcel J T

    2015-03-03

    Pores in fungal septa enable cytoplasmic streaming between hyphae and their compartments. Consequently, the mycelium can be considered unicellular. However, we show here that Woronin bodies close ~50% of the three most apical septa of growing hyphae of Aspergillus niger. The incidence of closure of the 9th and 10th septa was even ≥94%. Intercompartmental streaming of photoactivatable green fluorescent protein (PA-GFP) was not observed when the septa were closed, but open septa acted as a barrier, reducing the mobility rate of PA-GFP ~500 times. This mobility rate decreased with increasing septal age and under stress conditions, likely reflecting a regulatory mechanism affecting septal pore diameter. Modeling revealed that such regulation offers effective control of compound concentration between compartments. Modeling also showed that the incidence of septal closure in A. niger had an even stronger impact on cytoplasmic continuity. Cytoplasm of hyphal compartments was shown not to be in physical contact when separated by more than 4 septa. Together, data show that apical compartments of growing hyphae behave unicellularly, while older compartments have a multicellular organization. The hyphae of higher fungi are compartmentalized by porous septa that enable cytosolic streaming. Therefore, it is believed that the mycelium shares cytoplasm. However, it is shown here that the septa of Aspergillus niger are always closed in the oldest part of the hyphae, and therefore, these compartments are physically isolated from each other. In contrast, only part of the septa is closed in the youngest part of the hyphae. Still, compartments in this hyphal part are physically isolated when separated by more than 4 septa. Even open septa act as a barrier for cytoplasmic mixing. The mobility rate through such septa reduces with increasing septal age and under stress conditions. Modeling shows that the septal pore width is set such that its regulation offers maximal control of

  20. Identification of Aspergillus fumigatus Surface Components That Mediate Interaction of Conidia and Hyphae With Human Platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambach, Günter; Blum, Gerhard; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Fontaine, Thierry; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Hagleitner, Magdalena; Jeckström, Hanna; Weigel, Günter; Würtinger, Philipp; Pfaller, Kristian; Krappmann, Sven; Löffler, Jürgen; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Speth, Cornelia

    2015-10-01

    Platelets were recently identified as a part of innate immunity. They are activated by contact with Aspergillus fumigatus; putative consequences include antifungal defense but also thrombosis, excessive inflammation, and thrombocytopenia. We aimed to identify those fungal surface structures that mediate interaction with platelets. Human platelets were incubated with Aspergillus conidia and hyphae, isolated wall components, or fungal surface mutants. Interaction was visualized microscopically; activation was quantified by flow cytometry of specific markers. The capacity of A. fumigatus conidia to activate platelets is at least partly due to melanin, because this effect can be mimicked with "melanin ghosts"; a mutant lacking melanin showed reduced platelet stimulating potency. In contrast, conidial hydrophobin masks relevant structures, because an A. fumigatus mutant lacking the hydrophobin protein induced stronger platelet activation than wild-type conidia. A. fumigatus hyphae also contain surface structures that interact with platelets. Wall proteins, galactomannan, chitin, and β-glucan are not the relevant hyphal components; instead, the recently identified fungal polysaccharide galactosaminogalactan potently triggered platelet activation. Conidial melanin and hydrophobin as well as hyphal galactosaminogalactan represent important pathogenicity factors that modulate platelet activity and thus might influence immune responses, inflammation, and thrombosis in infected patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Distinct innate immune phagocyte responses to Aspergillus fumigatus conidia and hyphae in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Benjamin P; Deng, Qing; Rood, Mary; Eickhoff, Jens C; Keller, Nancy P; Huttenlocher, Anna

    2014-10-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common filamentous fungal pathogen of immunocompromised hosts, resulting in invasive aspergillosis (IA) and high mortality rates. Innate immunity is known to be the predominant host defense against A. fumigatus; however, innate phagocyte responses to A. fumigatus in an intact host and their contributions to host survival remain unclear. Here, we describe a larval zebrafish A. fumigatus infection model amenable to real-time imaging of host-fungal interactions in live animals. Following infection with A. fumigatus, innate phagocyte populations exhibit clear preferences for different fungal morphologies: macrophages rapidly phagocytose conidia and form aggregates around hyphae, while the neutrophil response is dependent upon the presence of hyphae. Depletion of macrophages rendered host larvae susceptible to invasive disease. Moreover, a zebrafish model of human leukocyte adhesion deficiency with impaired neutrophil function also resulted in invasive disease and impaired host survival. In contrast, macrophage-deficient but not neutrophil-deficient larvae exhibited attenuated disease following challenge with a less virulent (ΔlaeA) strain of A. fumigatus, which has defects in secondary metabolite production. Taking these results together, we have established a new vertebrate model for studying innate immune responses to A. fumigatus that reveals distinct roles for neutrophils and macrophages in mediating host defense against IA. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Phosphorus acquisition efficiency in arbuscular mycorrhizal maize is correlated with the abundance of root-external hyphae and the accumulation of transcripts encoding PHT1 phosphate transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawers, Ruairidh J H; Svane, Simon F; Quan, Clement

    2016-01-01

    content, abundance of intra-radical and root-external fungal structures, mycorrhizal phosphorus uptake, and accumulation of transcripts encoding plant PHT1 family phosphate transporters varied among lines. Larger growth responses in Oh43 were correlated with extensive development of root-external hyphae...

  3. Phosphorus acquisition efficiency in arbuscular mycorrhizal maize is correlated with the abundance of root-external hyphae and the accumulation of transcripts encoding PHT1 phosphate transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawers, Ruairidh J. H.; Svane, Simon; Quan, Clement

    2017-01-01

    -internal and -external fungal structures, mycorrhizal phosphorus uptake, and accumulation of transcripts encoding plant PHT1 family phosphate transporters varied among lines. Superior response in Oh43 is correlated with extensive development of root-external hyphae, accumulation of specific Pht1 transcripts and high...

  4. Resemblance and investment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinska, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    According to evolutionary explanations men hardly ever are absolutely certain about their biological fatherhood therefore they must seek various sources of information to subjectively establish whether they are the genetic fathers of the children they raise. Apicella and Marlowe (2004) showed that fathers who perceived greater similarity between their children and themselves were willing to invest more resources (e.g., time, money, care) in their offspring presumably because the perceived resemblance indicated to the fathers their genetic relatedness with their children. The present study extended the design of Apicella and Marlowe's original study and included both fathers and mothers as participants. Parents were recruited by a female confederate at the airport and at the railway station in Wroclaw (Poland). Multiple regression analyses showed that perceived resemblance predicted parental investment in the child for both men and women. The fact that mothers' declarations of investment in their children also depended on the perceived resemblance factor is not consistent with evolutionary formulations delineated by Apicella and Marlowe (2004; 2007). Future studies must resolve the issue of whether the resemblance-investment relation in fathers results from men relaying on child's resemblance to themselves as an indicator of their own biological paternity, or whether it results from the more parsimonious phenomenon that people in general are attracted more to other people who are similar to them.

  5. Significance of hyphae formation in virulence of Candida tropicalis and transcriptomic analysis of hyphal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cen; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Tian, Yuan; Dong, Danfeng; Peng, Yibing

    2016-11-01

    Recently, the proportion of Candida tropicalis in clinical isolates has significantly increased. Some C. tropicalis strains colonize the skin or mucosal surfaces as commensals; others trigger invasive infection. To date, the pathogenicity of C. tropicalis has not been thoroughly researched. This study reports several virulence factors, including biofilm and hyphae formation, proteinase, phospholipase, lipase and hemolytic activity, in 52 clinical isolates of C. tropicalis collected from five hospitals in four provinces of China. Some C. tropicalis tended to produce more hyphae than others in the same circumstance. Six C. tropicalis strains with different morphologies were injected into mice via the tail vein, and the survival proportions and fungal burdens of the strains were evaluated. Hyphal production by C. tropicalis was associated with stronger virulence. RNA sequencing revealed that C. tropicalis with more hyphae up-regulated several genes involved in morphological differentiation and oxidative response, including IF2, Atx1, and Sod2. It appears that hyphal formation plays a vital role in the pathogenicity of C. tropicalis, and interacts with the oxidative stress response to strengthen the organism's virulence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Evolution of the Immune Response to Chronic Airway Colonization with Aspergillus fumigatus Hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urb, Mirjam; Snarr, Brendan D; Wojewodka, Gabriella; Lehoux, Mélanie; Lee, Mark J; Ralph, Benjamin; Divangahi, Maziar; King, Irah L; McGovern, Toby K; Martin, James G; Fraser, Richard; Radzioch, Danuta; Sheppard, Donald C

    2015-09-01

    Airway colonization by the mold Aspergillus fumigatus is common in patients with underlying lung disease and is associated with chronic airway inflammation. Studies probing the inflammatory response to colonization with A. fumigatus hyphae have been hampered by the lack of a model of chronic colonization in immunocompetent mice. By infecting mice intratracheally with conidia embedded in agar beads (Af beads), we have established an in vivo model to study the natural history of airway colonization with live A. fumigatus hyphae. Histopathological examination and galactomannan assay of lung homogenates demonstrated that hyphae exited beads and persisted in the lungs of mice up to 28 days postinfection without invasive disease. Fungal lesions within the airways were surrounded by a robust neutrophilic inflammatory reaction and peribronchial infiltration of lymphocytes. Whole-lung cytokine analysis from Af bead-infected mice revealed an increase in proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines early in infection. Evidence of a Th2 type response was observed only early in the course of colonization, including increased levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), elevated IgE levels in serum, and a mild increase in airway responsiveness. Pulmonary T cell subset analysis during infection mirrored these results with an initial transient increase in IL-4-producing CD4(+) T cells, followed by a rise in IL-17 and Foxp3(+) cells by day 14. These results provide the first report of the evolution of the immune response to A. fumigatus hyphal colonization. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. A molecular key for building hyphae aggregates: the role of the newly identified Streptomyces protein HyaS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebsch, Ilona; Overbeck, Jens; Piepmeyer, Sophie; Meschke, Holger; Schrempf, Hildgund

    2009-05-01

    Streptomycetes produce many metabolites with medical and biotechnological applications. During fermentations, their hyphae build aggregates, a process in which the newly identified protein HyaS plays an important role. The corresponding hyaS gene is present within all investigated Streptomyces species. Reporter fusions indicate that transcription of hyaS occurs within substrate hyphae of the Streptomyces lividans wild type (WT). The HyaS protein is dominantly associated with the substrate hyphae. The WT strain forms cylindrically shaped clumps of densely packed substrate hyphae, often fusing to higher aggregates (pellets), which remain stably associated during shaking. Investigations by electron microscopy suggest that HyaS induces tight fusion-like contacts among substrate hyphae. In contrast, the pellets of the designed hyaS disruption mutant ΔH are irregular in shape, contain frequently outgrowing bunches of hyphae, and fuse less frequently. ΔH complemented with a plasmid carrying hyaS resembles the WT phenotype. Biochemical studies indicate that the C-terminal region of HyaS has amine oxidase activity. Investigations of ΔH transformants, each carrying a specifically mutated gene, lead to the conclusion that the in situ oxidase activity correlates with the pellet-inducing role of HyaS, and depends on the presence of certain histidine residues. Furthermore, the level of undecylprodigiosin, a red pigment with antibiotic activity, is influenced by the engineered hyaS subtype within a strain. These data present the first molecular basis for future manipulation of pellets, and concomitant production of secondary metabolites during biotechnological processes. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Cell wall glycans and soluble factors determine the interactions between the hyphae of Candida albicans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Alexandra; Barnes, Julia D; Mackenzie, Kevin S; Odds, Frank C; Gow, Neil A R

    2008-10-01

    The fungus, Candida albicans, and the bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are opportunistic human pathogens that have been coisolated from diverse body sites. Pseudomonas aeruginosa suppresses C. albicans proliferation in vitro and potentially in vivo but it is the C. albicans hyphae that are killed while yeast cells are not. We show that hyphal killing involves both contact-mediated and soluble factors. Bacterial culture filtrates contained heat-labile soluble factors that killed C. albicans hyphae. In cocultures, localized points of hyphal lysis were observed, suggesting that adhesion and subsequent bacteria-mediated cell wall lysis is involved in the killing of C. albicans hyphae. The glycosylation status of the C. albicans cell wall affected the rate of contact-dependent killing because mutants with severely truncated O-linked, but not N-linked, glycans were hypersensitive to Pseudomonas-mediated killing. Deletion of HWP1, ALS3 or HYR1, which encode major hypha-associated cell wall proteins, had no effect on fungal susceptibility.

  9. Benomyl inhibits phosphorus transport but not fungal alkaline phosphatase activity in a Glomus-cucumber symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.; Thingstrup, I.; Jakobsen, I.

    1996-01-01

    when benomyl was applied to the HC at 10 µg g-1 soil, whereas the uptake of 32P from RHC I roots + hyphae) was reduced only at the highest dose of application to the RHC (100 µ g g-1 soil). In contrast to the marked reduction of benomyl on fungal P transport, the activity of fungal alkaline phosphatase...

  10. On-target labeling of intracellular metabolites combined with chemical mapping of individual hyphae revealing cytoplasmic relocation of isotopologues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie-Bi; Chen, Yu-Chie; Urban, Pawel L

    2012-06-05

    A microscale analytical platform integrating microbial cell culture, isotopic labeling, along with visual and mass spectrometric imaging with single-cell resolution has been developed and applied in the monitoring of cellular metabolism in fungal mycelium. The method implements open chips with a two-dimensional surface pattern composed of hydrophobic and hydrophilic zones. Two hydrophilic islands are used as medium reservoirs, while the hydrophobic area constitutes the support for the growing aerial hyphae, which do not have direct contact with the medium. The first island, containing (12)C(6)-glucose medium, was initially inoculated with the mycelium (Neurospora crassa), and following the initial incubation period, the hyphae progressed toward the second medium island, containing an isotopically labeled substrate ((13)C(6)-glucose). The (13)C atoms were gradually incorporated into cellular metabolites, which was revealed by MALDI-MS. The fate of the chitin-biosynthesis precursor, uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), was monitored by recording mass spectra with characteristic isotopic patterns, which indicated the presence of various (12)C/(13)C isotopologues. The method enabled mapping the (13)C-labeled UDP-GlcNAc in fungal mycelium and recording its redistribution in hyphae, directly on the chip.

  11. Proof-of-principle for SERS imaging of Aspergillus nidulans hyphae using in vivo synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusinkiewicz, Martin A; Farazkhorasani, Fatemeh; Dynes, James J; Wang, Jian; Gough, Kathleen M; Kaminskyj, Susan G W

    2012-11-07

    High spatial resolution methods to assess the physiology of growing cells should permit analysis of fungal biochemical composition. Whole colony methods cannot capture the details of physiology and organism-environment interaction, in part because the structure, function and composition of fungal hyphae vary within individual cells depending on their distance from the growing apex. Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) can provide chemical information on materials that are in close contact with appropriate metal substrates, such as nanopatterned gold surfaces and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Since nanoparticles can be generated by living cells, we have created conditions for AuNP formation within and on the surface of Aspergillus nidulans hyphae in order to explore their potential for SERS analysis. AuNP distribution and composition have been assessed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, fluorescence light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. AuNPs were often associated with hyphal walls, both in the peripheral cytoplasm and on the outer wall surface. Interpretation of SERS spectra is challenging, and will require validation for the diversity of organic molecules present. Here, we show proof-of-principle that it is possible to generate SERS spectra from nanoparticles grown in situ by living hyphae.

  12. Differential effects of D-mannose and 2-deoxym-D-glucose on attempted powdery mildew fungal infection of inappropriate and appropriate Gramineae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeyen, R.J.; Kruger, W.M.; Lyngkjær, Michael Foged

    2002-01-01

    -mannose had little effect on autofluorescence or HR. DDG arrested the development of fungal haustoria and apparently prohibited biotrophy leading to secondary hyphae. D-mannose allowed haustorial development and functional biotrophy leading to the production of elongating secondary hyphae. This suggests...

  13. Anti-fungal properties of chitinolytic dune soil bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, W.; Klein Gunnewiek, P.J.A.; Lafeber, P.; Janse, J.H.; Spit, B.E.; Woldendorp, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Anti-fungal properties of chitinolytic soil bacteria may enable them to compete successfully for chitin with fungi. Additionally, the production of chitinase may be part of a lytic system that enables the bacteria to use living hyphae rather than chitin as the actual growth substrate, since chitin

  14. The Role of Hydrophobicity and Surface Receptors at Hyphae of Lyophyllum sp. Strain Karsten in the Interaction with Burkholderia terrae BS001 – Implications for Interactions in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Taissa; Nazir, Rashid; Rozental, Sonia; dos Santos, Giulia M. P.; Calixto, Renata O. R.; Barreto-Bergter, Eliana; Wick, Lukas Y.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The soil bacterium Burkholderia terrae strain BS001 can interact with varying soil fungi, using mechanisms that range from the utilization of carbon/energy sources such as glycerol to the ability to reach novel territories in soil via co-migration with growing fungal mycelia. Here, we investigate the intrinsic properties of the B. terrae BS001 interaction with the basidiomycetous soil fungus Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten. In some experiments, the ascomycetous Trichoderma asperellum 302 was also used. The hyphae of Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten were largely hydrophilic on water-containing media versus hydrophobic when aerial, as evidenced by contact angle analyses (CA). Co-migration of B. terrae strain BS001 cells with the hyphae of the two fungi occurred preferentially along the - presumably hydrophilic - soil-dwelling hyphae, whereas aerial hyphae did not allow efficient migration, due to reduced thickness of their surrounding mucous films. Moreover, the cell numbers over the length of the hyphae in soil showed an uneven distribution, i.e., the CFU numbers increased from minima at the inoculation point to maximal numbers in the middle of the extended hyphae, then decreasing toward the terminal side. Microscopic analyses of the strain BS001 associations with the Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten hyphae in the microcosms confirmed the presence of B. terrae BS001 cells on the mucous matter that was present at the hyphal surfaces of the fungi used. Cell agglomerates were found to accumulate at defined sites on the hyphal surfaces, which were coined ‘fungal-interactive’ hot spots. Evidence was further obtained for the contention that receptors for a physical bacterium-fungus interaction occur at the Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten hyphal surface, in which the specific glycosphingolipid ceramide monohexoside (CMH) plays an important role. Thus, bacterial adherence may be mediated by heterogeneously distributed fungal-specific receptors, implying the CMH moieties. This

  15. Fungal cultivation on glass-beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

    Transcription of various bioactive compounds and enzymes are dependent on fungal cultivation method. In this study we cultivate Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani on glass-beads with liquid media in petri dishes as an easy and inexpensive cultivation method, that resembles in secondary...... metabolite production to agar-cultivation but with an easier and more pure RNA-extraction of total fungal mycelia....

  16. Archaic artifacts resembling celestial spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakoudis, S.; Papaspyrou, P.; Petoussis, V.; Moussas, X.

    We present several bronze artifacts from the Archaic Age in Greece (750-480 BC) that resemble celestial spheres or forms of other astronomical significance. They are studied in the context of the Dark Age transition from Mycenaean Age astronomical themes to the philosophical and practical revival of astronomy in the Classical Age with its plethora of astronomical devices. These artifacts, mostly votive in nature are spherical in shape and appear in a variety of forms their most striking characteristic being the depiction of meridians and/or an equator. Most of those artifacts come from Thessaly, and more specifically from the temple of Itonia Athena at Philia, a religious center of pan-Hellenic significance. Celestial spheres, similar in form to the small artifacts presented in this study, could be used to measure latitudes, or estimate the time at a known place, and were thus very useful in navigation.

  17. Quantification of water uptake by arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae and its significance for leaf growth, water relations, and gas exchange of barley subjected to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalvati, M A; Hu, Y; Mozafar, A; Schmidhalter, U

    2005-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviate drought stress in their host plants via the direct uptake and transfer of water and nutrients through the fungal hyphae to the host plants. To quantify the contribution of the hyphae to plant water uptake, a new split-root hyphae system was designed and employed on barley grown in loamy soil inoculated with Glomus intraradices under well-watered and drought conditions in a growth chamber with a 14-h light period and a constant temperature (15 degrees C; day/night). Drought conditions were initiated 21 days after sowing, with a total of eight 7-day drying cycles applied. Leaf water relations, net photosynthesis rates, and stomatal conductance were measured at the end of each drying cycle. Plants were harvested 90 days after sowing. Compared to the control treatment, the leaf elongation rate and the dry weight of the shoots and roots were reduced in all plants under drought conditions. However, drought resistance was comparatively increased in the mycorrhizal host plants, which suffered smaller decreases in leaf elongation, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and turgor pressure compared to the non-mycorrhizal plants. Quantification of the contribution of the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae to root water uptake showed that, compared to the non-mycorrhizal treatment, 4 % of water in the hyphal compartment was transferred to the root compartment through the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae under drought conditions. This indicates that there is indeed transport of water by the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae under drought conditions. Although only a small amount of water transport from the hyphal compartment was detected, the much higher hyphal density found in the root compartment than in the hyphal compartment suggests that a larger amount of water uptake by the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae may occur in the root compartment.

  18. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, M.; Bengtson, S.

    2013-12-01

    The oceanic crust makes up the largest potential habitat for life on Earth, yet next to nothing is known about the abundance, diversity and ecology of its biosphere. Our understanding of the deep biosphere of subseafloor crust is, with a few exceptions, based on a fossil record. Surprisingly, a majority of the fossilized microorganisms have been interpreted or recently re-interpreted as remnants of fungi rather than prokaryotes. Even though this might be due to a bias in fossilization the presence of fungi in these settings can not be neglected. We have examined fossilized microorganisms in drilled basalt samples collected at the Emperor Seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomography microscopy (SRXTM) studies has revealed a complex morphology and internal structure that corresponds to characteristic fungal morphology. Chitin was detected in the fossilized hyphae, which is another strong argument in favour of a fungal interpretation. Chitin is absent in prokaryotes but a substantial constituent in fungal cell walls. The fungal colonies consist of both hyphae and yeast-like growth states as well as resting structures and possible fruit bodies, thus, the fungi exist in vital colonies in subseafloor basalts. The fungi have also been involved in extensive weathering of secondary mineralisations. In terrestrial environments fungi are known as an important geobiological agent that promotes mineral weathering and decomposition of organic matter, and they occur in vital symbiosis with other microorganisms. It is probable to assume that fungi would play a similar role in subseafloor basalts and have great impact on the ecology and on biogeochemical cycles in such environments.

  19. Fungal Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Fungal Meningitis Language: English Spanish Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... the brain or spinal cord. Investigation of Fungal Meningitis, 2012 In September 2012, the Centers for Disease ...

  20. Oil hyphae of endolithic lichens and their fatty acid composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushnir, E; Tietz, A; Galun, M

    1978-01-01

    The structure of medullary oil hyphae of twelve endolithic lichen species, belonging to different taxa and colonizing different habitats, was examined by light and electron microscopy. The chemical composition of lipids isolated from the oil hyphae and from two corresponding mycobionts grown in culture was determined. The oil hyphae of the various species appeared in different forms and contained large amounts of lipid in the form of oil globules. The hyphae of mycobionts isolated from two of the endoliths and grown in culture also contained large amounts of lipids. Triacylglycerol was the predominant lipid component in all the organisms examined. Hexadecanoic acid was the main saturated fatty acid; octadecenoic acid and octadecdienoic acid the predominant unsaturated fatty acids. Tetradecanoic, hexadecenoic, octadecanoic and octadectrienoic acids were also detected. The fatty acid distribution pattern appeared unaffected by the nature of substrate and climatic conditions. There is a certain similarity in the fatty acid composition in related species. 9 figures, 2 tables.

  1. [Organization of mitochondria in the growing hyphae of Neurospora crassa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapova, T V; Boĭtsova, L Iu; Golyshev, S A; Popinako, A V

    2013-01-01

    In vivo fluorescent labeling of mitochondria in Neurospora crassa showed the concentration of filamentous mitochondria within 30 μm of apex in growing hyphae. These mitochondrial assemblies propagated forward with the elongation of hyphae, split and segregated as the growing tip bifurcated and formed de novo when new branches formed farther away from the apex. The efficiency of the mitochondria concentration in the apical 30 μm zone is related to the growth rate and identical in hyphae cultivated in glucose- and sorbitol-containing media. The obtained data are discussed in connection with the behavior of microtubules in growing hyphae as well as with the electric heterogeneity of N. crassa hyphal apex described previously.

  2. Single cell transcriptomics of neighboring hyphae of Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Single cell profiling was performed to assess differences in RNA accumulation in neighboring hyphae of the fungus Aspergillus niger. A protocol was developed to isolate and amplify RNA from single hyphae or parts thereof. Microarray analysis resulted in a present call for 4 to 7% of the A. niger genes, of which 12% showed heterogeneous RNA levels. These genes belonged to a wide range of gene categories. PMID:21816052

  3. Surface-bound phosphatase activity in living hyphae of ectomycorrhizal fungi of Nothofagus obliqua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Maricel; Godoy, Roberto; Heyser, Wolfgang; Härtel, Steffen

    2004-01-01

    We determined the location and the activity of surface-bound phosphomonoesterase (SBP) of five ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi of Nothofagus oblique. EM fungal mycelium of Paxillus involutus, Austropaxillus boletinoides, Descolea antartica, Cenococcum geophilum and Pisolithus tinctorius was grown in media with varying concentrations of dissolved phosphorus. SBP activity was detected at different pH values (3-7) under each growth regimen. SBP activity was assessed using a colorimetric method based on the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) to p-nitrophenol phosphate (pNP) + P. A new technique involving confocal laser-scanning microscopy (LSM) was used to locate and quantify SBP activity on the hyphal surface. EM fungi showed two fundamentally different patterns of SBP activity in relation to varying environmental conditions (P-concentrations and pH). In the cases of D. antartica, A. boletinoides and C. geophilum, changes in SBP activity were induced primarily by changes in the number of SBP-active centers on the hyphae. In the cases of P. tinctorius and P. involutus, the number of SBP-active centers per μm hyphal length changed much less than the intensity of the SBP-active centers on the hyphae. Our findings not only contribute to the discussion about the role of SBP-active centers in EM fungi but also introduce LSM as a valuable method for studying EM fungi.

  4. Effect of zinc compounds on Fusarium verticillioides growth, hyphae alterations, conidia, and fumonisin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Geovana D; Vitorino, Vinícius; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J; Scussel, Vildes M

    2013-10-01

    Several strategies are used to eliminate toxigenic fungi that produce fumonisins in grains. Fusarium verticillioides can be controlled by the application of synthetic fungicides in the field or during storage. However, there may also be residuals, which may remain in the foods. Inorganic compounds such as zinc are cheap, stable and could present strong antifungal activity. Some Zn compounds can be utilized as dietary supplements and are authorized for the fortification of foods. Knowing the advantages and that low concentrations of Zn can have antimicrobial activity, our objective was to evaluate the effects of Zn compounds on the growth of F. verticillioides and the production of fumonisin and conidia. In addition, we aimed to verify that Zn compounds cause morphological alterations of the hyphae, mortality and production of reactive oxygen species. Zn compounds efficiently reduced fungal growth and fumonisin production. Treatment using zinc perchlorate gave the best results. All treatments inhibited conidia production and caused morphological alterations of the hyphae. It was possible to observe cell death and production of reactive oxygen species. Zn compounds have advantages compared to other antifungal compounds. In particular, they are non-toxic for the organism in appropriate amounts. They could be studied further as potential fungicides in agriculture. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Hyphae-specific genes HGC1, ALS3, HWP1, and ECE1 and relevant signaling pathways in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yan; He, Hong; Dong, Yan; Pan, Hengbiao

    2013-12-01

    Fungal virulence mechanisms include adhesion to epithelia, morphogenesis, production of secretory hydrolytic enzymes, and phenotype switching, all of which contribute to the process of pathogenesis. A striking feature of the biology of Candida albicans is its ability to grow in yeast, pseudohyphal, and hyphal forms. The hyphal form plays an important role in causing disease, by invading epithelial cells and causing tissue damage. In this review, we illustrate some of the main hyphae-specific genes, namely HGC1, UME6, ALS3, HWP1, and ECE1, and their relevant and reversed signal transduction pathways in reactions stimulated by environmental factors, including pH, CO2, and serum.

  6. High Spatial Resolution Analysis of Fungal Cell Biochemistry: Bridging the Analytical Gap using Synchrotron FTIR Spectromicroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminskyj, S.; Konstantin, J.; Szeghalmi, A.; Gough, K.

    2008-01-01

    Fungi impact humans and the environment in many ways, for good and ill. Some fungi support the growth of terrestrial plants or are used in biotechnology, and yet others are established or emerging pathogens. In some cases, the same organism may play different roles depending on the context or the circumstance. A better understanding of the relationship between fungal biochemical composition as related to the fungal growth environment is essential if we are to support or control their activities. Synchrotron FTIR (sFTIR) spectromicroscopy of fungal hyphae is a major new tool for exploring cell composition at a high spatial resolution. Brilliant synchrotron light is essential for this analysis due to the small size of fungal hyphae. sFTIR biochemical characterization of subcellular variation in hyphal composition will allow detailed exploration of fungal responses to experimental treatments and to environmental factors.

  7. Transport of trace elements through the hyphae of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus into marigold determined by the multitracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, H.; Kumagai, H.; Oohashi, K.; Sakamoto, K.; Inubushi, K.; Enomoto, S.

    2001-01-01

    The contribution of the hyphae of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus to the uptake of traceelements by marigold (Tagetes patula L.) was studied using a multitracer consisting of radionuclides of 7 Be, 22 Na, 46 Sc, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 59 Fe, 56 Co, 65 Zn, 75 Se, 83 Rb, 85 Sr, 88 Y, 88 Zr, and 95m Tc. Marigold plants colonized and not colonized with Glomus etunicatum were grown for 40 and 60 d in pots with a hyphal compartment separated from the rooting medium by a fine nylon mesh. The multitracer was applied to the hyphal compartment. We found that the uptake of 22 Na, 65 Zn , 75 Se, 83 Rb, 85 Sr, and 88 Y by the mycorrhizal plants was higher than that by the non-mycorrhizal ones. In the case of 95m Tc, the uptake by the mycorrhizal plants was similar to that by the control ones. The radioactivity of 7 Be, 46 Sc, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 59 Fe, 56 Co, and 88 Zr could not be detected in any plants. Our results suggest that the AM fungus can absorb Na, Zn, Se, Rh, Sr, and Y from the soil and transport these elements to the plant through its hyphae. The transport ability of the AM fungal hyphae to plant for Be, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zr, and Tc is likely to be low. (author)

  8. Staphylococcus aureus adherence to Candida albicans hyphae is mediated by the hyphal adhesin Als3p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brian M; Ovchinnikova, Ekaterina S; Krom, Bastiaan P; Schlecht, Lisa Marie; Zhou, Han; Hoyer, Lois L; Busscher, Henk J; van der Mei, Henny C; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2012-12-01

    The bacterium Staphylococcus (St.) aureus and the opportunistic fungus Candida albicans are currently among the leading nosocomial pathogens, often co-infecting critically ill patients, with high morbidity and mortality. Previous investigations have demonstrated preferential adherence of St. aureus to C. albicans hyphae during mixed biofilm growth. In this study, we aimed to characterize the mechanism behind this observed interaction. C. albicans adhesin-deficient mutant strains were screened by microscopy to identify the specific receptor on C. albicans hyphae recognized by St. aureus. Furthermore, an immunoassay was developed to validate and quantify staphylococcal binding to fungal biofilms. The findings from these experiments implicated the C. albicans adhesin agglutinin-like sequence 3 (Als3p) in playing a major role in the adherence process. This association was quantitatively established using atomic force microscopy, in which the adhesion force between single cells of the two species was significantly reduced for a C. albicans mutant strain lacking als3. Confocal microscopy further confirmed these observations, as St. aureus overlaid with a purified recombinant Als3 N-terminal domain fragment (rAls3p) exhibited robust binding. Importantly, a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae heterologously expressing Als3p was utilized to further confirm this adhesin as a receptor for St. aureus. Although the parental strain does not bind bacteria, expression of Als3p on the cell surface conferred upon the yeast the ability to strongly bind St. aureus. To elucidate the implications of these in vitro findings in a clinically relevant setting, an ex vivo murine model of co-infection was designed using murine tongue explants. Fluorescent microscopic images revealed extensive hyphal penetration of the epithelium typical of C. albicans mucosal infection. Interestingly, St. aureus bacterial cells were only seen within the epithelial tissue when associated with the invasive

  9. Fungal Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2016-01-01

    Fungal endocarditis is a rare and fatal condition. The Candida and Aspergillus species are the two most common etiologic fungi found responsible for fungal endocarditis. Fever and changing heart murmur are the most common clinical manifestations. Some patients may have a fever of unknown origin as the onset symptom. The diagnosis of fungal endocarditis is challenging, and diagnosis of prosthetic valve fungal endocarditis is extremely difficult. The optimum antifungal therapy still remains debatable. Treating Candida endocarditis can be difficult because the Candida species can form biofilms on native and prosthetic heart valves. Combined treatment appears superior to monotherapy. Combination of antifungal therapy and surgical debridement might bring about better prognosis.

  10. The production of monokaryotic hyphae by Cryptococcus neoformans can be induced by high temperature arrest of the cell cycle and is independent of same-sex mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jianmin; Morris, Ian R; Wickes, Brian L

    2013-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a heterothallic fungal pathogen of humans and animals. Although the fungus grows primarily as a yeast, hyphae are produced during the sexual phase and during a process called monokaryotic fruiting, which is also believed to involve sexual reproduction, but between cells of the same mating type. Here we report a novel monokaryotic fruiting mechanism that is dependent on the cell cycle and occurs in haploid cells in the absence of sexual reproduction. Cells grown at 37°C were found to rapidly produce hyphae (∼4 hrs) and at high frequency (∼40% of the population) after inoculation onto hyphae-inducing agar. Microscopic examination of the 37°C seed culture revealed a mixture of normal-sized and enlarged cells. Micromanipulation of single cells demonstrated that only enlarged cells were able to produce hyphae and genetic analysis confirmed that hyphae did not arise from α-α mating or endoduplication. Cell cycle analysis revealed that cells grown at 37°C had an increased population of cells in G2 arrest, with the proportion correlated with the frequency of monokaryotic fruiting. Cell sorting experiments demonstrated that enlarged cells were only found in the G2-arrested population and only this population contained cells able to produce hyphae. Treatment of cells at low temperature with the G2 cell cycle arrest agent, nocodazole, induced hyphal growth, confirming the role of the cell cycle in this process. Taken together, these results reveal a mating-independent mechanism for monokaryotic fruiting, which is dependent on the cell cycle for induction of hyphal competency.

  11. Nuclear traffic and peloton formation in fungal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Marcus; Hickey, Patrick; Lewkiewicz, Stephanie; Dressaire, Emilie; Read, Nick

    2013-11-01

    Hyphae, the network of microfluidic pipes that make up a growing fungal cell, must balance their function as conduits for the transport of nuclei with other cellular functions including secretion and growth. Constant flow of nuclei may interfere with the protein traffic that enables other functions to be performed. Live-cell imaging reveals that nuclear flows are anti-congestive; that groups of nuclei flow faster than single nuclei, and that nuclei sweep through the colony in dense clumps. We call these clumps pelotons, after the term used to describe groups of cycle racers slip-streaming off each other. Because of the pelotons, individual hyphae transport nuclei only intermittently, producing long intervals in which hyphae can perform their other functions. Modeling reveals how pelotons are created by interactions between nuclei and the hyphal cytoskeleton, and reveal the control that the fungus enjoys over peloton assembly and timing.

  12. Novel structural features in Candida albicans hyphal glucan provide a basis for differential innate immune recognition of hyphae versus yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Douglas W; Greene, Rachel R; Bearden, Daniel W; Kruppa, Michael D; Pottier, Max; Monteiro, Mario A; Soldatov, Dmitriy V; Ensley, Harry E; Cheng, Shih-Chin; Netea, Mihai G; Williams, David L

    2014-02-07

    The innate immune system differentially recognizes Candida albicans yeast and hyphae. It is not clear how the innate immune system effectively discriminates between yeast and hyphal forms of C. albicans. Glucans are major components of the fungal cell wall and key fungal pathogen-associated molecular patterns. C. albicans yeast glucan has been characterized; however, little is known about glucan structure in C. albicans hyphae. Using an extraction procedure that minimizes degradation of the native structure, we extracted glucans from C. albicans hyphal cell walls. (1)H NMR data analysis revealed that, when compared with reference (1→3,1→6) β-linked glucans and C. albicans yeast glucan, hyphal glucan has a unique cyclical or "closed chain" structure that is not found in yeast glucan. GC/MS analyses showed a high abundance of 3- and 6-linked glucose units when compared with yeast β-glucan. In addition to the expected (1→3), (1→6), and 3,6 linkages, we also identified a 2,3 linkage that has not been reported previously in C. albicans. Hyphal glucan induced robust immune responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages via a Dectin-1-dependent mechanism. In contrast, C. albicans yeast glucan was a much less potent stimulus. We also demonstrated the capacity of C. albicans hyphal glucan, but not yeast glucan, to induce IL-1β processing and secretion. This finding provides important evidence for understanding the immune discrimination between colonization and invasion at the mucosal level. When taken together, these data provide a structural basis for differential innate immune recognition of C. albicans yeast versus hyphae.

  13. Fungal endophytes characterization from four species of Diplazium Swartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affina-Eliya, A. A.; Noraini, T.; Nazlina, I.; Ruzi, A. R.

    2014-09-01

    Four species on genus Diplazium namely Diplazium tomentosum, D. sorzogonense, D. asperum and D. accedens of Peninsular Malaysia were studied for presence of fungal endophyte. The objective of this study is to characterize fungal endophytes in the rhizome of four Diplazium species. The rhizome was surface sterilized and incubated to isolate fungal endophytes. Characterization of the colonies was performed by macroscopic morphological, microscopic identification, types of hyphae and mycelium, and spore structure. For isolation that produces spores, the structure of conidiophores and conidia were identified. From this study, four fungal have been isolated and determined as Aspergillus sp. (isolates AE 1), Aspergillus fumigatus (isolates AE 2), Aspergillus versicolor (isolates AE 3) and Verticillium sp. (isolates AE 4). The fungal isolates from this study were classified from the same family Moniliaceae.

  14. Differential methods of localisation of fungal endophytes in the seagrasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Raja

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sections of three seagrass species (Halophila ovalis, Cymodocea serrulata and Halodule pinifolia were assessed for endophytes based on differential staining using light and fluorescence microscopy method. Acridine orange and aniline blue detected endophytic fungi in 20% and 10% of the segments, respectively, whereas lactophenol cotton blue was more sensitive to detect the fungal hyphae in 70% of the segments. Hyphae were the principal fungal structures generally observed under the cuticle, within the epidermal cells, mesophyll (Parenchyma cells and occasionally within the vascular tissue that varied in type, size and location within the leaf tissue. Present study also recorded the sporulation for the first time from the seagrass endophytes. Successfully amplified products of the ITS region of endophytic fungal DNA, directly from seagrass tissue and also from culture-dependent fungal DNA clearly depicted the presence of endophytic fungi in H. ovalis with two banding patterns (903 and 1381 bp confirming the presence of two dominant fungal genera. The fingerprinting of endophytic fungal community within the seagrass tissue was assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE that derived with multiple bands that clarified the presence of more than one taxon within the seagrass tissue.

  15. Structural proteins involved in emergence of microbial aerial hyphae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wosten, HAB; Willey, JM

    1999-01-01

    Filamentous fungi and filamentous bacteria (i.e., the streptomycetes) belong to different kingdoms that diverged early in evolution, Yet, they adopted similar lifestyles, After a submerged feeding mycelium has been established, hyphae grow into the air and form aerial structures from which (a)sexual

  16. Spread and change in stress resistance of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 on fungal colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ken-Ichi; Kobayashi, Naoki; Watanabe, Maiko; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Tsubone, Hirokazu; Kumagai, Susumu; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2014-11-01

    To elucidate the effect of fungal hyphae on the behaviour of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, the spread and change in stress resistance of the bacterium were evaluated after coculture with 11 species of food-related fungi including fermentation starters. Spread distances of STEC O157 varied depending on the co-cultured fungal species, and the motile bacterial strain spread for longer distances than the non-motile strain. The population of STEC O157 increased when co-cultured on colonies of nine fungal species but decreased on colonies of Emericella nidulans and Aspergillus ochraceus. Confocal scanning microscopy visualization of green fluorescent protein-tagged STEC O157 on fungal hyphae revealed that the bacterium colonized in the water film that existed on and between hyphae. To investigate the physiological changes in STEC O157 caused by co-culturing with fungi, the bacterium was harvested after 7 days of co-culturing and tested for acid resistance. After co-culture with eight fungal species, STEC O157 showed greater acid resistance compared to those cultured without fungi. Our results indicate that fungal hyphae can spread the contamination of STEC O157 and can also enhance the stress resistance of the bacteria. © 2013 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Neutrophilic dermatosis resembling pyoderma gangrenosum in a dog with polyarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardagí, M; Lloret, A; Fondati, A; Ferrer, L

    2007-04-01

    This report describes a case of neutrophilic dermatosis in a dog, with a number of clinical and pathological similarities to human pyoderma gangrenosum. A seven-year-old, female German shepherd dog with a history of non-erosive idiopathic polyarthritis was presented with severe facial swelling, bilateral erosivoulcerative lesions on the muzzle and multiple, eroded, dermal-subcutaneous nodules on the cranial trunk. Histopathological examination of skin biopsies revealed a necrotising neutrophilic dermatitis. No infectious agents could be detected using specific stains, immunohistochemistry, serology and bacterial aerobic, anaerobic or fungal cultures. A sterile neutrophilic dermatosis resembling human pyoderma gangrenosum was presumptively diagnosed, and the patient showed an excellent response to treatment with prednisone and ciclosporin.

  18. Posaconazole Enhances the Activity of Amphotericin B against Aspergillus Hyphae In Vitro▿

    OpenAIRE

    Perkhofer, Susanne; Lugger, Helene; Dierich, Manfred P.; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    2006-01-01

    The MICs and fractional inhibitory concentrations of posaconazole (POS) and voriconazole (VRZ), alone and in combination with amphotericin B (AMB), for the conidia and hyphae of 100 Aspergillus isolates were evaluated. POS-AMB had more synergistic activity against hyphae (75% of isolates) than VRZ-AMB (37%) and significantly more synergistic activity against hyphae than against conidia (12%).

  19. HYDROPHOBIN GENES INVOLVED IN FORMATION OF AERIAL HYPHAE AND FRUIT BODIES IN SCHIZOPHYLLUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WESSELS, JGH; DEVRIES, OMH; ASGEIRSDOTTIR, SA; SCHUREN, FHJ

    Fungi typically grow by apical extension of hyphae that penetrate moist substrates. After establishing a branched feeding mycelium, the hyphae differentiate and grow away from the substrate into the air where they form various structures such as aerial hyphae and mushrooms. In the basidiomycete

  20. Contributions of ectomycorrhizal fungal mats to forest soil respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Phillips; L.A. Kluber; J.P. Martin; B.A. Caldwell; B.J. Bond

    2012-01-01

    Distinct aggregations of fungal hyphae and rhizomorphs, or “mats”, formed by some genera of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi are common features of soils in coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest. We measured in situ respiration rates of Piloderma mats and neighboring non-mat soils in an old-growth Douglas-fir forest in western Oregon to investigate whether there was...

  1. Susceptibility screening of hyphae-forming fungi with a new, easy, and fast inoculum preparation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalreck, Arno; Willinger, Birgit; Czaika, Viktor; Fegeler, Wolfgang; Becker, Karsten; Blum, Gerhard; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    2012-12-01

    In vitro susceptibility testing of clinically important fungi becomes more and more essential due to the rising number of fungal infections in patients with impaired immune system. Existing standardized microbroth dilution methods for in vitro testing of molds (CLSI, EUCAST) are not intended for routine testing. These methods are very time-consuming and dependent on sporulating of hyphomycetes. In this multicentre study, a new (independent of sporulation) inoculum preparation method (containing a mixture of vegetative cells, hyphae, and conidia) was evaluated. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of amphotericin B, posaconazole, and voriconazole of 180 molds were determined with two different culture media (YST and RPMI 1640) according to the DIN (Deutsches Institut für Normung) microdilution assay. 24 and 48 h MIC of quality control strains, tested per each test run, prepared with the new inoculum method were in the range of DIN. YST and RPMI 1640 media showed similar MIC distributions for all molds tested. MIC readings at 48 versus 24 h yield 1 log(2) higher MIC values and more than 90 % of the MICs read at 24 and 48 h were within ± 2 log(2) dilution. MIC end point reading (log(2 MIC-RPMI 1640)-log(2 MIC-YST)) of both media demonstrated a tendency to slightly lower MICs with RPMI 1640 medium. This study reports the results of a new, time-saving, and easy-to-perform method for inoculum preparation for routine susceptibility testing that can be applied for all types of spore-/non-spore and hyphae-forming fungi.

  2. Atypical mycobacterial infection resembles sporotrichosis in elderly patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurani Fauziah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Atypical mycobacterial (AM infection is caused by Mycobacterium species other than M.tuberculosis. AM skin infection has clinical manifestations that resemble M. tuberculosis infection and deep fungal infection. Laboratory workup is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. An 83-year old female came with a painful lump and swelling on her right lower extremity since three months before admission. Physical examination revealed a plaque consisting, of multiple erythematous and hyperpigmented papules and nodules, diffuse erythematous lesion, and shallow ulcers partially covered with pus and crust. Histopathological features showed tuberculoid granuloma. Direct test and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS staining of the skin biopsy found no fungal element nor acid-fast bacilli (AFB. Culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR of M. tuberculosis were negative. The working diagnosis was atypical mycobacterial infection and treatment with 450 mg rifampicin and 100 mg minocycline daily were administered accordingly. In two months observation following the treatment, the pain was no longer exist, the ulcers were completely healed, and some nodules were in the process of healing Among other Mycobacterium spp, M.marinum is the most common cause of AM infrections. Clinical manifestation of M. marinum infection may present as solitary or multiple nodules on the hands, feet, elbows and knees with sporotrichoid spreading patern. The diagnosis of AM was established based on clinical and laboratory examination. The diagnosis was also confirmed by good clinical response to minocycline and rifampicin.

  3. Human Fungal Pathogens of Mucorales and Entomophthorales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Leonel; Vilela, Raquel; Voelz, Kerstin; Ibrahim, Ashraf S; Voigt, Kerstin; Lee, Soo Chan

    2014-11-06

    In recent years, we have seen an increase in the number of immunocompromised cohorts as a result of infections and/or medical conditions, which has resulted in an increased incidence of fungal infections. Although rare, the incidence of infections caused by fungi belonging to basal fungal lineages is also continuously increasing. Basal fungal lineages diverged at an early point during the evolution of the fungal lineage, in which, in a simplified four-phylum fungal kingdom, Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota belong to the basal fungi, distinguishing them from Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Currently there are no known human infections caused by fungi in Chytridiomycota; only Zygomycotan fungi are known to infect humans. Hence, infections caused by zygomycetes have been called zygomycosis, and the term "zygomycosis" is often used as a synonym for "mucormycosis." In the four-phylum fungal kingdom system, Zygomycota is classified mainly based on morphology, including the ability to form coenocytic (aseptated) hyphae and zygospores (sexual spores). In the Zygomycota, there are 10 known orders, two of which, the Mucorales and Entomophthorales, contain species that can infect humans, and the infection has historically been known as zygomycosis. However, recent multilocus sequence typing analyses (the fungal tree of life [AFTOL] project) revealed that the Zygomycota forms not a monophyletic clade but instead a polyphyletic clade, whereas Ascomycota and Basidiomycota are monophyletic. Thus, the term "zygomycosis" needed to be further specified, resulting in the terms "mucormycosis" and "entomophthoramycosis." This review covers these two different types of fungal infections. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  4. Allergic fungal sinusitis - new aspects of clinical features, laboratory diagnosis and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić-Arsenijević Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS is a chronic non­invasive disease. Hypersensitive immune response is usually initiated by allergens of filamentous fungi Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Bipolaris, Curvularia and Alternaria. AFS is a clinical and immune analogue of the allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA as the sinus exudate resembles that of the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL in ABPA. Patients with AFS are usually immunocompetent, atopic and males. The most common symptoms are headache, fullness in the paranasal sinuses, and difficult breathing through the nose. Clinically, there is a chronic mucosal inflammation and histopathologic finding shows allergic mucin and eosinophils. Specific staining methods, Gomori’s Methenamine Silver (GMS or periodic acid­Schiff (PAS, are used for microscopic visualisation of hyphae, which are, in addition to the isolated fungi, most reliable evidence of AFS. Computerized tomography (CT of paranasal sinuses shows the areas of hyperdensity. In cases where AFS is complicated by the erosion of bone tissue, discontinuation of the sinus bone wall can be seen. Significant laboratory finding, which correlate highly with the AFS, are high immunoglobulin E (IgE antibodies specific for fungi, detected by the skin prick test or in serum. Treatment is often surgical, and after removal of the allergic mucin, therapy involves oral and nasal corticosteroids, immunotherapy and locally applied antimycotics (with verified fungal etiology. During treatment, the total/specific IgE is monitored - concentration increases with the development of AFS, and decreases during the improvement process. Knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms of AFS is scarce, and represents the focus of further research in order to define an optimal diagnostic and therapeutic approach. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke republike Srbije, br. OI175034

  5. Fungal hyphae stimulate bacterial degradation of 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær; Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Albers, Christian Nyrop

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Introduction of specific degrading microorganisms into polluted soil or aquifers is a promising remediation technology provided that the organisms survive and spread in the environment. We suggest that consortia, rather than single strains, may be better suited to overcome these challenges...

  6. A Synchrotron FTIR Microspectroscopy Investigation of Fungal Hyphae Grown under Optimal and Stressed Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeghalmi, A.; Kaminskyj, S.; Gough, K.

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron FTIR can provide high spatial resolution ( o C but have growth defects at 42 o C. We have also investigated Neurospora and Rhizopus cultures grown in media with optimal or elevated pH. Significant differences between the spectra of the three fungi are likely related to differences in composition and structure. In addition, high spatial resolution synchrotron FTIR spectroscopy provides an outstanding method for monitoring subtle subcellular changes that accompany environmental stress

  7. Application of quasi-steady state methods to molecular motor transport on microtubules in fungal hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvergne, Duncan; Edelstein-Keshet, Leah

    2015-08-21

    We consider bidirectional transport of cargo by molecular motors dynein and kinesin that walk along microtubules, and/or diffuse in the cell. The motors compete to transport cargo in opposite directions with respect to microtubule polarity (towards the plus or minus end of the microtubule). In recent work, Gou et al. (2014) used a hierarchical set of models, each consisting of continuum transport equations to track the evolution of motors and their cargo (early endosomes) in the specific case of the fungus Ustilago maydis. We complement their work using a framework of quasi-steady state analysis developed by Newby and Bressloff (2010) and Bressloff and Newby (2013) to reduce the models to an approximating steady state Fokker-Plank equation. This analysis allows us to find analytic approximations to the steady state solutions in many cases where the full models are not easily solved. Consequently, we can make predictions about parameter dependence of the resulting spatial distributions. We also characterize the overall rates of bulk transport and diffusion, and how these are related to state transition parameters, motor speeds, microtubule polarity distribution, and specific assumptions made. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Organic Nitrogen-Driven Stimulation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Hyphae Correlates with Abundance of Ammonia Oxidizers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bukovská, Petra; Gryndler, Milan; Gryndlerová, Hana; Püschel, David; Jansa, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, MAY 12 (2016), s. 711 ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/1665; GA MŠk(CZ) LK11224 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : soil heterogeneity * organic amendments * arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2016

  9. Sorption of 241Am by Aspergillus niger spore and hyphae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuanyou Yang; Ning Liu; Jiali Liao; Jiannan Jin; Shunzhong Luo; Taiming Zhang; Pengji Zhao

    2004-01-01

    Biosorption of 241 Am by a fungus A. niger, including the spore and hyphae, was investigated. The preliminary results showed that the adsorption of 241 Am by the microorganism was efficient. More than 96% of the total 241 Am could be removed from 241 Am solutions of 5.6-111 MBq/l (C 0 ) by spore and hyphae of A. niger, with adsorbed 241 Am metal (Q) of 7.2-142.4 MBq/g biomass, and 5.2-106.5 MBq/g, respectively. The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 1 hour and the optimum pH range was pH 1-3. No obvious effects on 241 Am adsorption by the fungus were observed at 10-45 deg C, or in solutions containing Au 3+ or Ag + , even 2000 times above the 241 Am concentration. The 241 Am biosorption by the fungus obeys the Freundlich adsorption equation. There was no significant difference between the adsorption behavior of A. niger spore and hyphae. (author)

  10. Image-Processing Scheme to Detect Superficial Fungal Infections of the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Mäder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of superficial fungal infections is assumed to be 20 to 25% of the global human population. Fluorescence microscopy of extracted skin samples is frequently used for a swift assessment of infections. To support the dermatologist, an image-analysis scheme has been developed that evaluates digital microscopic images to detect fungal hyphae. The aim of the study was to increase diagnostic quality and to shorten the time-to-diagnosis. The analysis, consisting of preprocessing, segmentation, parameterization, and classification of identified structures, was performed on digital microscopic images. A test dataset of hyphae and false-positive objects was created to evaluate the algorithm. Additionally, the performance for real clinical images was investigated using 415 images. The results show that the sensitivity for hyphae is 94% and 89% for singular and clustered hyphae, respectively. The mean exclusion rate is 91% for the false-positive objects. The sensitivity for clinical images was 83% and the specificity was 79%. Although the performance is lower for the clinical images than for the test dataset, a reliable and fast diagnosis can be achieved since it is not crucial to detect every hypha to conclude that a sample consisting of several images is infected. The proposed analysis therefore enables a high diagnostic quality and a fast sample assessment to be achieved.

  11. Scanning Electron Microscope Studies of Interactions between Agaricus bisporus (Lang) Sing Hyphae and Bacteria in Casing Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Masaphy, Segula; Levanon, D.; Tchelet, R.; Henis, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Relationships between the hyphae of Agaricus bisporus (Lang) Sing and bacteria from the mushroom bed casing layer were examined with a scanning electron microscope. Hyphae growing in the casing layer differed morphologically from compost-grown hyphae. Whereas the compost contained thin single hyphae surrounded by calcium oxalate crystals, the casing layer contained mainly wide hyphae or mycelial strands without crystals. The bacterial population in the hyphal environment consisted of several ...

  12. Spitzenkorper, exocyst, and polarisome components in Candida albicans hyphae show different patterns of localization and have distinct dynamic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laura A; Sudbery, Peter E

    2010-10-01

    During the extreme polarized growth of fungal hyphae, secretory vesicles are thought to accumulate in a subapical region called the Spitzenkörper. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans can grow in a budding yeast or hyphal form. When it grows as hyphae, Mlc1 accumulates in a subapical spot suggestive of a Spitzenkörper-like structure, while the polarisome components Spa2 and Bud6 localize to a surface crescent. Here we show that the vesicle-associated protein Sec4 also localizes to a spot, confirming that secretory vesicles accumulate in the putative C. albicans Spitzenkörper. In contrast, exocyst components localize to a surface crescent. Using a combination of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) experiments and cytochalasin A to disrupt actin cables, we showed that Spitzenkörper-located proteins are highly dynamic. In contrast, exocyst and polarisome components are stably located at the cell surface. It is thought that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae exocyst components are transported to the cell surface on secretory vesicles along actin cables. If each vesicle carried its own complement of exocyst components, then it would be expected that exocyst components would be as dynamic as Sec4 and would have the same pattern of localization. This is not what we observe in C. albicans. We propose a model in which a stream of vesicles arrives at the tip and accumulates in the Spitzenkörper before onward delivery to the plasma membrane mediated by exocyst and polarisome components that are more stable residents of the cell surface.

  13. Study of trans-trans farnesol effect on hyphae formation by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Patrícia Martins Botelho; da Rocha, Silvia Maria; Amaral, Priscilla Filomena Fonseca; da Rocha-Leão, Maria Helena Miguez

    2013-12-01

    Dimorphism is an ability of certain fungi related to its adaptation to the environment and provides a selective advantage under stress conditions and is associated to the development of human diseases. Hyphae inducing- and inhibitory-effect of farnesol on hyphae formation by the dimorphic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica was evaluated through digital image analysis. The agitation speed of the culture was the most effective hyphae inducer in comparison to bovine calf serum and N-acetylglucosamine. In low agitation system, bovine calf serum was more effective for hyphae formation inducing 57 % of hyphae transition. Farnesol inhibited hyphae formation even in low concentration (300 μM) and this effect increased with increasing concentrations. In the presence of N-acetylglucosamine, this effect was more evident in comparison to the presence of bovine calf serum, which might have protected the cells from farnesol. Digital image analysis was an important tool to evaluate this phenomenon.

  14. Traumatic bone cyst resembling apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, D J; Ardekian, L; Machtei, E E; Peled, M; Manor, R; Laufer, D

    1997-10-01

    Among the pseudocysts of the jaws, the traumatic bone cyst is known as an asymptomatic lesion often noted unintentionally during routine radiographic examinations. The lesion neither devitalizes the teeth within its borders, nor does it cause resorption of their roots. The well-demarcated traumatic bone cyst often projects into the intraradicular septa and hence has been described as having scalloped borders. The following presentation is of a traumatic bone cyst that resembled periodontal pathology in its appearance.

  15. Recognition of Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae by human plasmacytoid dendritic cells is mediated by dectin-2 and results in formation of extracellular traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loures, Flávio V; Röhm, Marc; Lee, Chrono K; Santos, Evelyn; Wang, Jennifer P; Specht, Charles A; Calich, Vera L G; Urban, Constantin F; Levitz, Stuart M

    2015-02-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) were initially considered as critical for innate immunity to viruses. However, our group has shown that pDCs bind to and inhibit the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae and that depletion of pDCs renders mice hypersusceptible to experimental aspergillosis. In this study, we examined pDC receptors contributing to hyphal recognition and downstream events in pDCs stimulated by A. fumigatus hyphae. Our data show that Dectin-2, but not Dectin-1, participates in A. fumigatus hyphal recognition, TNF-α and IFN-α release, and antifungal activity. Moreover, Dectin-2 acts in cooperation with the FcRγ chain to trigger signaling responses. In addition, using confocal and electron microscopy we demonstrated that the interaction between pDCs and A. fumigatus induced the formation of pDC extracellular traps (pETs) containing DNA and citrullinated histone H3. These structures closely resembled those of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). The microarray analysis of the pDC transcriptome upon A. fumigatus infection also demonstrated up-regulated expression of genes associated with apoptosis as well as type I interferon-induced genes. Thus, human pDCs directly recognize A. fumigatus hyphae via Dectin-2; this interaction results in cytokine release and antifungal activity. Moreover, hyphal stimulation of pDCs triggers a distinct pattern of pDC gene expression and leads to pET formation.

  16. Recognition of Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae by human plasmacytoid dendritic cells is mediated by dectin-2 and results in formation of extracellular traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio V Loures

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs were initially considered as critical for innate immunity to viruses. However, our group has shown that pDCs bind to and inhibit the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae and that depletion of pDCs renders mice hypersusceptible to experimental aspergillosis. In this study, we examined pDC receptors contributing to hyphal recognition and downstream events in pDCs stimulated by A. fumigatus hyphae. Our data show that Dectin-2, but not Dectin-1, participates in A. fumigatus hyphal recognition, TNF-α and IFN-α release, and antifungal activity. Moreover, Dectin-2 acts in cooperation with the FcRγ chain to trigger signaling responses. In addition, using confocal and electron microscopy we demonstrated that the interaction between pDCs and A. fumigatus induced the formation of pDC extracellular traps (pETs containing DNA and citrullinated histone H3. These structures closely resembled those of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs. The microarray analysis of the pDC transcriptome upon A. fumigatus infection also demonstrated up-regulated expression of genes associated with apoptosis as well as type I interferon-induced genes. Thus, human pDCs directly recognize A. fumigatus hyphae via Dectin-2; this interaction results in cytokine release and antifungal activity. Moreover, hyphal stimulation of pDCs triggers a distinct pattern of pDC gene expression and leads to pET formation.

  17. Ultrastructural aspects in perithecia hyphae septal pores of Glomerella cingulata F. SP. Phaseoli

    OpenAIRE

    Roca M.,María Gabriela; Ongarelli,Maria das Graças; Davide,Lisete Chamma; Mendes-Costa,Maria Cristina

    2000-01-01

    Glomerella cingulata (Stonem.) Spauld. & Schrenk f. sp. phaseoli, better known in its anamorphic state Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magn.) Briosi & Cav., is a causal agent of anthracnose in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Ultrastructural aspects of the perithecial hyphae of this pathogen were studied. The perithecia hyphae septal pores were found either plugged by a vesicle or unplugged. Some perithecia hyphae septa presented no pore. The Woronin bodies, close to the sept...

  18. Polyphosphates in Intraradical and Extraradical Hyphae of an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus, Gigaspora margarita

    OpenAIRE

    Solaiman, M. Zakaria; Ezawa, Tatsuhiro; Kojima, Tomoko; Saito, Masanori

    1999-01-01

    The amount of polyphosphate in the intraradical and extraradical hyphae of Gigaspora margarita was estimated from successive extractions with trichloroacetic acid (TCA), EDTA, and phenol-chloroform (PC). In the intraradical hyphae, most of the polyphosphate was present in TCA- and EDTA-soluble (short-chain and long-chain) fractions, whereas most of the polyphosphate in the extraradical hyphae was present in EDTA- and PC-soluble (long-chain and granular) fractions.

  19. Clinical characteristics and distribution of pathogens in fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the clinical characteristics and distribution of pathogens in patients with fungal keratitis and to provide evidence for diagnosis and treatment of this disease.METHODS:The clinical data of 98 cases(98 eyeswith fungal keratitis from January 2012 to July 2015 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Yangtze University were retrospectively reviewed.RESULTS:The main cause for fungal keratitis was corneal injury by plants. The inappropriate use of contact lenses and glucocorticoids therapy were the next cause. Almost all of the patients had hyphae moss, pseudopodia, immune ring, and satellite signs. A few of patients had endothelial plaque and anterior chamber empyema. The majority pathogens of fungal keratitis was Fusarium spp(73.5%,followed by Aspergillus spp(13.2%,Candida spp(9.2%and others(4.1%.Sixty-five patients(65 eyestreated with 5% natamycin were cured. The condition of 15 patients was improved. Eighteen patients were invalid, in which 13 patients became better and 5 patients became worse after voriconazole was added into the therapy, leading to amniotic membrance cover in 3 patients and eyeball removal in 2 patients at last.CONCLUSION:Fusarium genus is the predominant pathogen for fungal keratitis in Jingzhou. Natamycin can be used as the preferred drug for the prevention and treatment for fungal keratitis. The clinicians should pay attention to the fungal keratitis, in order to early diagnosis and timely treatment.

  20. Scanning Electron Microscope Studies of Interactions between Agaricus bisporus (Lang) Sing Hyphae and Bacteria in Casing Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaphy, Segula; Levanon, D.; Tchelet, R.; Henis, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Relationships between the hyphae of Agaricus bisporus (Lang) Sing and bacteria from the mushroom bed casing layer were examined with a scanning electron microscope. Hyphae growing in the casing layer differed morphologically from compost-grown hyphae. Whereas the compost contained thin single hyphae surrounded by calcium oxalate crystals, the casing layer contained mainly wide hyphae or mycelial strands without crystals. The bacterial population in the hyphal environment consisted of several types, some attached to the hyphae with filamentlike structures. This attachment may be important in stimulation of pinhead initiation. Images PMID:16347340

  1. Multiple ureterolithiasis resembling steinstrasse: An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Pandey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Steinstrasse or “stone street” is an expected complication after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in patients with high stone burden. However, there are published reports of multiple ureterolithiasis resembling steinstrasse in patients with distal renal tubular acidosis. Here we report an uncommon case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with right renal calculi. Her right ureter was studded with multiple calculi up to the vesicoureteric junction. The affected right kidney was nonfunctional and was managed by nephroureterectomy.

  2. Schizophyllum commune a causative agent of fungal sinusitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premamalini, T; Ambujavalli, B T; Anitha, S; Somu, L; Kindo, Anupma J

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of maxillary sinusitis caused by Schizophyllum commune, in a 50-year-old female. The patient presented with nasal obstruction, purulent nasal discharge from right side of the nose, cough, headache, and sneezing. Computed tomography revealed extensive opacity of the right maxillary sinus as well as erosion of the nasal wall and maxillary bone. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery was done, and fungal debris present on right side of the maxillary sinus was removed and sent to laboratory. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) examination of the nasal discharge showed hyaline, septate hyphae. Primary isolation on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) yielded a white woolly mould. Banana peel culture after 8 weeks showed macroscopically visible fan-shaped fruiting bodies. Lactophenol cotton blue (LPCB) mount of the same revealed hyaline septate hyphae, often with clamp connections. Identification was confirmed by the presence of clamp connections formed on the hyphae and by vegetative compatibility with known isolates.

  3. Schizophyllum Commune a Causative Agent of Fungal Sinusitis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Premamalini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of maxillary sinusitis caused by Schizophyllum commune, in a 50-year-old female. The patient presented with nasal obstruction, purulent nasal discharge from right side of the nose, cough, headache, and sneezing. Computed tomography revealed extensive opacity of the right maxillary sinus as well as erosion of the nasal wall and maxillary bone. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery was done, and fungal debris present on right side of the maxillary sinus was removed and sent to laboratory. Potassium hydroxide (KOH examination of the nasal discharge showed hyaline, septate hyphae. Primary isolation on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA yielded a white woolly mould. Banana peel culture after 8 weeks showed macroscopically visible fan-shaped fruiting bodies. Lactophenol cotton blue (LPCB mount of the same revealed hyaline septate hyphae, often with clamp connections. Identification was confirmed by the presence of clamp connections formed on the hyphae and by vegetative compatibility with known isolates.

  4. Neurons show the path: tip-to-nucleus communication in filamentous fungal development and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxebeste, Oier; Espeso, Eduardo A

    2016-09-01

    Multiple fungal species penetrate substrates and accomplish host invasion through the fast, permanent and unidirectional extension of filamentous cells known as hyphae. Polar growth of hyphae results, however, in a significant increase in the distance between the polarity site, which also receives the earliest information about ambient conditions, and nuclei, where adaptive responses are executed. Recent studies demonstrate that these long distances are overcome by signal transduction pathways which convey sensory information from the polarity site to nuclei, controlling development and pathogenesis. The present review compares the striking connections of the mechanisms for long-distance communication in hyphae with those from neurons, and discusses the importance of their study in order to understand invasion and dissemination processes of filamentous fungi, and design strategies for developmental control in the future. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. On-line study of growth kinetics of single hyphae of Aspergillus oryzae in a flow-through cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Torben; Spohr, Anders Bendsen; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1999-01-01

    Using image analysis the growth kinetics of the single hyphae of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae has been determined on-line in a flow-through cell at different glucose concentrations in the range from 26 mg L-1 to 20 g L-1. The tip extension rate of the individual hyphae can be described...... with saturation type kinetics with respect to the length of the hyphae. The maximum tip extension rate is constant for all hyphae measured at the same glucose concentration, whereas the saturation constant for the hyphae varies significantly between the hyphae even within the same hyphal element. When apical...... branching occurs, it is observed that the tip extension rate decreases temporarily. The number of branches formed on a hypha is proportional to the length of the hypha that exceeds a certain minimum length required to support the growth of a new branch. The observed kinetics has been used to simulate...

  6. Damage to Candida albicans Hyphae and Pseudohyphae by the Myeloperoxidase System and Oxidative Products of Neutrophil Metabolism In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Diamond, Richard D.; Clark, Robert A.; Haudenschild, Christian C.

    1980-01-01

    In previous studies, we noted that Candida hyphae and pseudohyphae could be damaged and probably killed by neutrophils, primarily by oxygen-dependent nonphagocytic mechanisms. In extending these studies, amount of damage to hyphae again was measured by inhibition of [14C]cytosine uptake. Neutrophils from only one of four patients with chronic granulomatous disease damaged hyphae at all, and neutrophils from this single patient damaged hyphae far less efficiently than simultaneously tested neu...

  7. Body elimination attitude family resemblance in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fayez, Ghenaim; Awadalla, Abdelwahid; Arikawa, Hiroko; Templer, Donald I; Hutton, Shane

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the family resemblance of attitude toward body elimination in Kuwaiti participants. This study was conceptualized in the context of the theories of moral development, importance of cleanliness in the Muslim religion, cross-cultural differences in personal hygiene practices, previous research reporting an association between family attitudes and body elimination attitude, and health implications. The 24-item Likert-type format Body Elimination Attitude Scale-Revised was administered to 277 Kuwaiti high school students and 437 of their parents. Females scored higher, indicating greater disgust, than the males. Moreover, sons' body elimination attitude correlated more strongly with fathers' attitude (r = .85) than with that of the mothers (r = .64). Daughters' attitude was similarly associated with the fathers' (r = .89) and the mothers' attitude (r = .86). The high correlations were discussed within the context of Kuwait having a collectivistic culture with authoritarian parenting style. The higher adolescent correlations, and in particular the boys' correlation with fathers than with mothers, was explained in terms of the more dominant role of the Muslim father in the family. Public health and future research implications were suggested. A theoretical formulation was advanced in which "ideal" body elimination attitude is relative rather than absolute, and is a function of one's life circumstances, one's occupation, one's culture and subculture, and the society that one lives in.

  8. Ultrastructural aspects in perithecia hyphae septal pores of Glomerella cingulata F. SP. Phaseoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roca M. María Gabriela

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomerella cingulata (Stonem. Spauld. & Schrenk f. sp. phaseoli, better known in its anamorphic state Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magn. Briosi & Cav., is a causal agent of anthracnose in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Ultrastructural aspects of the perithecial hyphae of this pathogen were studied. The perithecia hyphae septal pores were found either plugged by a vesicle or unplugged. Some perithecia hyphae septa presented no pore. The Woronin bodies, close to the septal pores, appeared as globose structures which were more electron dense than the occlusions plugging the septal pore.

  9. Structural and functional organization of growing tips of Neurospora crassa Hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapova, T V

    2014-07-01

    Data are presented on a variety of intracellular structures of the vegetative hyphae of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa and the involvement of these structures in the tip growth of the hyphae. Current ideas on the molecular and genetic mechanisms of tip growth and regulation of this process are considered. On the basis of comparison of data on behaviors of mitochondria and microtubules and data on the electrical heterogeneity of the hyphal apex, a hypothesis is proposed about a possible supervisory role of the longitudinal electric field in the structural and functional organization of growing tips of the N. crassa hyphae.

  10. Growth and extracellular phosphatase activity of arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae as influenced by soil organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joner, E.J.; Jakobsen, I.

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments were set up to investigate the influence of soil organic matter on growth of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) hyphae and concurrent changes in soil inorganic P, organic P and phosphatase activity. A sandy loam soil was kept for 14 months under two regimes (outdoor where surplus...... additions. In soil with added clover alkaline phosphatase activity increased due to the presence of mycorrhizal hyphae. We suggest that mycorrhizas may influence the exudation of acid phosphatase by roots. Hyphae of G. invermaium did apparently not excrete extracellular phosphatases, but their presence may...

  11. Symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, D J; Ducket, J G; Francis, R; Ligron, R; Russell, A

    2000-06-29

    these plants are similar to those seen in mycorrhizal associations of ericaceous plants like Vaccinium. Cross inoculation experiments have confirmed that a typical mycorrhizal endophyte of ericaceous plants, Hymenoscyphus ericae, will form associations in liverworts which are structurally identical to those seen in nature. Again, the functional significance of these associations remains to be examined. Some members of the Jungermanniales and Metzgeriales form associations with basidiomycetous fungi. These produce intracellular coils of hyphae, which are similar to the pelotons seen in orchid mycorrhizas, which also involve basidiomycetes. The fungal associates of the autotrophic Aneura and of its heterotrophic relative Cryptothallus mirabilis have been isolated. In the latter case it has been shown that the fungal symbiont is an ectomycorrhizal associate of Betula, suggesting that the apparently obligate nature of the association between the hepatic and Betula in nature is based upon requirement for this particular heterotroph.

  12. Effect of 60Co γ-rays on growth of Agaricus blazei murill hypha and its cell shape structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Boqi; Jiang Zhihe; Lin Yong; Huang Tingjun; Xiao Shuxia

    2003-01-01

    The effect of 60 Co γ-rays at different dosage on growth, tangle and structure of cell shape of Agarius blazei Murill (Abm) hypha were studied. The experiment results showed that the cell wall of treatment Abm hypha was thicker than that of the control, huge separation between cytoplasm and cell wall of Abm hypha appeared when Abm hypha was irradiated at the low dosage (0.2-0.5 kGy). The cell wall became thin and small separation between cytoplasm and cell wall appeared with the increase of the irradiation dosage. The growth of Abm hypha became slow and scare by irradiation with higher dosage. The growth and tangle of hypha could be improved and the yield of fruit body increased by 34.8% when irradiated with low dosage

  13. Fungal cell gigantism during mammalian infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Zaragoza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between fungal pathogens with the host frequently results in morphological changes, such as hyphae formation. The encapsulated pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is not considered a dimorphic fungus, and is predominantly found in host tissues as round yeast cells. However, there is a specific morphological change associated with cryptococcal infection that involves an increase in capsule volume. We now report another morphological change whereby gigantic cells are formed in tissue. The paper reports the phenotypic characterization of giant cells isolated from infected mice and the cellular changes associated with giant cell formation. C. neoformans infection in mice resulted in the appearance of giant cells with cell bodies up to 30 microm in diameter and capsules resistant to stripping with gamma-radiation and organic solvents. The proportion of giant cells ranged from 10 to 80% of the total lung fungal burden, depending on infection time, individual mice, and correlated with the type of immune response. When placed on agar, giant cells budded to produce small daughter cells that traversed the capsule of the mother cell at the speed of 20-50 m/h. Giant cells with dimensions that approximated those in vivo were observed in vitro after prolonged culture in minimal media, and were the oldest in the culture, suggesting that giant cell formation is an aging-dependent phenomenon. Giant cells recovered from mice displayed polyploidy, suggesting a mechanism by which gigantism results from cell cycle progression without cell fission. Giant cell formation was dependent on cAMP, but not on Ras1. Real-time imaging showed that giant cells were engaged, but not engulfed by phagocytic cells. We describe a remarkable new strategy for C. neoformans to evade the immune response by enlarging cell size, and suggest that gigantism results from replication without fission, a phenomenon that may also occur with other fungal pathogens.

  14. Fungal cell gigantism during mammalian infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Oscar; García-Rodas, Rocío; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Casadevall, Arturo

    2010-06-17

    The interaction between fungal pathogens with the host frequently results in morphological changes, such as hyphae formation. The encapsulated pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is not considered a dimorphic fungus, and is predominantly found in host tissues as round yeast cells. However, there is a specific morphological change associated with cryptococcal infection that involves an increase in capsule volume. We now report another morphological change whereby gigantic cells are formed in tissue. The paper reports the phenotypic characterization of giant cells isolated from infected mice and the cellular changes associated with giant cell formation. C. neoformans infection in mice resulted in the appearance of giant cells with cell bodies up to 30 microm in diameter and capsules resistant to stripping with gamma-radiation and organic solvents. The proportion of giant cells ranged from 10 to 80% of the total lung fungal burden, depending on infection time, individual mice, and correlated with the type of immune response. When placed on agar, giant cells budded to produce small daughter cells that traversed the capsule of the mother cell at the speed of 20-50 m/h. Giant cells with dimensions that approximated those in vivo were observed in vitro after prolonged culture in minimal media, and were the oldest in the culture, suggesting that giant cell formation is an aging-dependent phenomenon. Giant cells recovered from mice displayed polyploidy, suggesting a mechanism by which gigantism results from cell cycle progression without cell fission. Giant cell formation was dependent on cAMP, but not on Ras1. Real-time imaging showed that giant cells were engaged, but not engulfed by phagocytic cells. We describe a remarkable new strategy for C. neoformans to evade the immune response by enlarging cell size, and suggest that gigantism results from replication without fission, a phenomenon that may also occur with other fungal pathogens.

  15. Biosorption of radionuclide Americium-241 by A. niger spore and hyphae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuanyou; Liu Ning; Jin Jiannan; Hua Xinfeng; Zhang Taiming; Luo Shunzhong; Sun Qiling

    2002-01-01

    The biosorption of radionuclide 241 Am from solution was studied by a. niger spore and hyphae, and the effects of the operational conditions on the treatment were investigated. The results showed the treatment by A. niger spore and hyphae were very efficient. An average of 96% of the total 241 Am was removed from 241 Am solutions of 5.6-111 MBq/L (C 0 ), with adsorption capacities (W) of 7.2-142.4 MBq/g biomass, 5.2-106.5 MBq/g, respectively. The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 1 h and the optimum pH value ranged 3-0.1 mol/L HNO 3 and 3-2 for spore and hyphae of A. niger, respectively. No significant effects on 241 Am biosorption were observed at 15 degree C-45 degree C, or challenged with containing Au 3+ or Ag + , even 2000 times above 241 Am amount. the index relationship between concentrations and adsorption capacities of 241 Am indicated that the 241 Am biosorption by A. niger spore and hyphae obey to Freundlich adsorption equation. The adsorption behavior of A. niger spore and hyphae were basically coincident

  16. Branching is coordinated with mitosis in growing hyphae of Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Jens Østergaard; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Filamentous fungi like Aspergillus nidulans can effectively colonize their surroundings by the formation of new branches along the existing hyphae. While growth conditions, chemical perturbations, and mutations affecting branch formation have received great attention during the last decades......, the mechanisms that regulates branching is still poorly understood. In this study, a possible relation between cell cycle progression and branching was studied by testing the effect of a nuclei distribution mutation, cell cycle inhibitors. and conditional cell cycle mutations in combination with tip......-growth inhibitors and varying substrate concentrations on branch initiation. Formation of branches was blocked after inhibition of nuclear division, which was not caused by a reduced growth rate. In hyphae of a nuclei distribution mutant branching was severely reduced in anucleated hyphae whereas the number...

  17. Subcompartmentalization by cross-membranes during early growth of Streptomyces hyphae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yagüe, Paula; Willemse, Joost; Koning, Roman I

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Streptomyces are a model system for bacterial multicellularity. Their mycelial life style involves the formation of long multinucleated hyphae during vegetative growth, with occasional cross-walls separating long compartments. Reproduction occurs by specialized aerial hyphae......, which differentiate into chains of uninucleoid spores. While the tubulin-like FtsZ protein is required for the formation of all peptidoglycan-based septa in Streptomyces, canonical divisome-dependent cell division only occurs during sporulation. Here we report extensive subcompartmentalization in young...... vegetative hyphae of Streptomyces coelicolor, whereby 1 μm compartments are formed by nucleic acid stain-impermeable barriers. These barriers possess the permeability properties of membranes and at least some of them are cross-membranes without detectable peptidoglycan. Z-ladders form during the early growth...

  18. Albumin Enhances Caspofungin Activity against Aspergillus Species by Facilitating Drug Delivery to Germinating Hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Petros; Andrianaki, Aggeliki; Akoumianaki, Tonia; Kyrmizi, Irene; Albert, Nathaniel; Perlin, David; Samonis, George; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Chamilos, Georgios

    2015-12-07

    The modest in vitro activity of echinocandins against Aspergillus implies that host-related factors augment the action of these antifungal agents in vivo. We found that, in contrast to the other antifungal agents (voriconazole, amphotericin B) tested, caspofungin exhibited a profound increase in activity against various Aspergillus species under conditions of cell culture growth, as evidenced by a ≥4-fold decrease in minimum effective concentrations (MECs) (P = 0. 0005). Importantly, the enhanced activity of caspofungin against Aspergillus spp. under cell culture conditions was strictly dependent on serum albumin and was not observed with the other two echinocandins, micafungin and anidulafungin. Of interest, fluorescently labeled albumin bound preferentially on the surface of germinating Aspergillus hyphae, and this interaction was further enhanced upon treatment with caspofungin. In addition, supplementation of cell culture medium with albumin resulted in a significant, 5-fold increase in association of fluorescently labeled caspofungin with Aspergillus hyphae (P hyphae. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Albumin Enhances Caspofungin Activity against Aspergillus Species by Facilitating Drug Delivery to Germinating Hyphae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Petros; Andrianaki, Aggeliki; Akoumianaki, Tonia; Kyrmizi, Irene; Albert, Nathaniel; Perlin, David; Samonis, George

    2015-01-01

    The modest in vitro activity of echinocandins against Aspergillus implies that host-related factors augment the action of these antifungal agents in vivo. We found that, in contrast to the other antifungal agents (voriconazole, amphotericin B) tested, caspofungin exhibited a profound increase in activity against various Aspergillus species under conditions of cell culture growth, as evidenced by a ≥4-fold decrease in minimum effective concentrations (MECs) (P = 0. 0005). Importantly, the enhanced activity of caspofungin against Aspergillus spp. under cell culture conditions was strictly dependent on serum albumin and was not observed with the other two echinocandins, micafungin and anidulafungin. Of interest, fluorescently labeled albumin bound preferentially on the surface of germinating Aspergillus hyphae, and this interaction was further enhanced upon treatment with caspofungin. In addition, supplementation of cell culture medium with albumin resulted in a significant, 5-fold increase in association of fluorescently labeled caspofungin with Aspergillus hyphae (P Aspergillus hyphae. PMID:26643329

  20. Diverse honeydew-consuming fungal communities associated with scale insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet K Dhami

    Full Text Available Sooty mould fungi are ubiquitous, abundant consumers of insect-honeydew that have been little-studied. They form a complex of unrelated fungi that coexist and compete for honeydew, which is a chemically complex resource. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy in combination with T-RFLP community profiling and ITS-based tag-pyrosequencing to extensively describe the sooty mould community associated with the honeydews of two ecologically important New Zealand coelostomidiid scale insects, Coelostomidia wairoensis and Ultracoelostoma brittini. We tested the influence of host plant on the community composition of associated sooty moulds, and undertook limited analyses to examine the influence of scale insect species and geographic location. We report here a previously unknown degree of fungal diversity present in this complex, with pyrosequencing detecting on average 243 operational taxonomic units across the different sooty mould samples. In contrast, T-RFLP detected only a total of 24 different "species" (unique peaks. Nevertheless, both techniques identified similar patterns of diversity suggesting that either method is appropriate for community profiling. The composition of the microbial community associated with individual scale insect species varied although the differences may in part reflect variation in host preference and site. Scanning electron microscopy visualised an intertwined mass of fungal hyphae and fruiting bodies in near-intact physical condition, but was unable to distinguish between the different fungal communities on a morphological level, highlighting the need for molecular research. The substantial diversity revealed for the first time by pyrosequencing and our inability to identify two-thirds of the diversity to further than the fungal division highlights the significant gap in our knowledge of these fungal groups. This study provides a first extensive look at the community diversity of the fungal community

  1. Freshwater Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails to resolve with appropriate antibacterial therapy.

  2. Dose-response relationships between four pesticides and phosphorus uptake by hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiger, P.F.; Jakobsen, I.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of the fungicides carbendazim, fenpropimorph and propiconazole and of the insecticide dimethoate on plant P uptake via external hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi was examined. Mycorrhizal plants were grown in a two-compartment system where a root-free hyphal compartment...... was separated from the main root compartment by nylon mesh. After 5 weeks of plant growth external hyphae of the AM fungi had spread throughout the hyphal compartment. At this time aqueous solutions of both P-32 and pesticide were added to the hyphal compartment. Resulting soil pesticide concentrations covered...

  3. Pulmonary and systemic fungal infections in an Atlantic spotted dolphin and a Bryde's whale, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groch, Kátia R; Díaz-Delgado, Josué; Sacristán, Carlos; Oliveira, Denyiélim E; Souza, Gabriela; Sánchez-Sarmiento, Angélica M; Costa-Silva, Samira; Marigo, Juliana; Castilho, Pedro V; Cremer, Marta J; Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline; Esperón, Fernando; Catão-Dias, José L

    2018-03-22

    We report the gross and microscopic findings and molecular identification of 2 cases of hyphate fungal infection in cetaceans from Brazil. The first case involved an adult male Atlantic spotted dolphin Stenella frontalis with localized pulmonary disease characterized by pyogranulomatous and necrotizing bronchopneumonia with intralesional hyphae. The second case involved an adult male Bryde's whale Balaenoptera edeni with orchitis, periorchitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis and pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia with intralesional hyphae. PCR analysis from the dolphin's lung yielded Aspergillus fumigatus, and the fungus from the whale's mesenteric lymph node showed the greatest identity to Nanniziopsis obscura and Stagonosporopsis cucurbitacearum These cases represent the first reports of pulmonary aspergillosis by A. fumigatus in an Atlantic spotted dolphin and systemic mycosis by a possibly novel Onygenales in marine mammals.

  4. Pareidolia in Neuroendocrinology: A Pituitary Macroadenoma Resembling "Big Bird".

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Herder, Wouter W

    2016-04-01

    The MRI picture of a pituitary macroadenoma with supra- and perisellar expansion resembled a famous character from a children's television series demonstrating that pareidolia is also observed in neuro-endocrinology and -radiology.

  5. Deep Invasive Fungal Infection of the Hand in a Child Mimicking a Local Gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Chatterjee, Shamita

    2018-04-01

    Subcutaneous and deep fungal infections in the hand are rare among children. These are usually found in immunocompromised adults or in persons engaged in soil handling activities, due to direct exposure, especially in the tropics. Delay in diagnosis is usual because pyogenic and other granulomatous infections are considered first. The authors present the case of a healthy, immunocompetent 2½-year-old child who presented with progressive swelling of the right hand mimicking a localized gigantism of the entire hand. Multiple operative drainage procedures done previously had failed to resolve the condition. A biopsy established the presence of fungal hyphae, thus confirming the diagnosis of deep fungal infection of the hand and guided proper therapeutic intervention. A strong index of suspicion needs to be maintained in cases not responding to conventional antibacterial therapy, and both microbiologic and histopathologic samples need to be obtained to establish the diagnosis.

  6. Fungal dimorphism: the switch from hyphae to yeast is a specialized morphogenetic adaptation allowing colonization of a host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Kylie J; Andrianopoulos, Alex

    2015-11-01

    The ability of pathogenic fungi to switch between a multicellular hyphal and unicellular yeast growth form is a tightly regulated process known as dimorphic switching. Dimorphic switching requires the fungus to sense and respond to the host environment and is essential for pathogenicity. This review will focus on the role of dimorphism in fungi commonly called thermally dimorphic fungi, which switch to a yeast growth form during infection. This group of phylogenetically diverse ascomycetes includes Talaromyces marneffei (recently renamed from Penicillium marneffei), Blastomyces dermatitidis (teleomorph Ajellomyces dermatitidis), Coccidioides species (C. immitis and C. posadasii), Histoplasma capsulatum (teleomorph Ajellomyces capsulatum), Paracoccidioides species (P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii) and Sporothrix schenckii (teleomorph Ophiostoma schenckii). This review will explore both the signalling pathways regulating the morphological transition and the transcriptional responses necessary for intracellular growth. The physiological requirements of yeast cells during infection will also be discussed, highlighting recent advances in the understanding of the role of iron and calcium acquisition during infection. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Fungal mycelia in soils - a new method for quantification of their biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabløs Eldhuset, Toril; Lange, Holger; Svetlik, Jan; Børja, Isabella

    2013-04-01

    All plant-bearing soils are interwoven with fungal hyphae. Their structure and function are affected by environmental factors like drought, which might be a stress factor of increasing importance in many world regions due to climate change. The fungal mycelium in soil is important both for mycorrhizal symbiosis with plant roots and for litter decomposition, and thereby also for carbon turnover in soils. However, the mycelium biomass has been difficult to assess. Here we describe a simple and feasible method to quantify the biomass of fungal mycelium. We report on a manipulation study in the field where drought stress has been induced. The experiment was performed in a Norway spruce (Picea abies) 20 years old stand planted on former agricultural land, with a control plot and a roofed plot where precipitation was excluded. To investigate the fungal mycelium, nylon nets (mesh size 1 mm, width 7 cm and length 25 cm), were inserted vertically into the soil down to 20 cm depth. The nets were left in the soil from October to June, removed and replaced by new nets that were left in the soil from June to October. After removal, by cutting a block of soil around each net, the nets were cleaned from residual soil and scanned using the image scanner CanoScan 9000F. The resulting images were analyzed using the image processing software ImageJ. The image analysis was based on the distribution of grey values in the individual pixels which characterize the different components in the image (voids, hyphae, the nylon net, and soil). Based on the repeated visual evaluation of hyphal coverage in the net segments, we obtained an exponential equation allowing us to determine automatically the coverage of net windows by hyphae in percentage for each net scanned. In this way we can compare the hyphal coverage in the control and the drought-exposed plots. Based on the hyphal coverage scans together with hyphal dry weight on clean nets, we account for the soil particles adhering to the nets

  8. Identification of the Transcription Factor Znc1p, which Regulates the Yeast-to-Hypha Transition in the Dimorphic Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Vazquez, Azul; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Angelica; Domínguez, Ángel; Rachubinski, Richard; Riquelme, Meritxell; Cuellar-Mata, Patricia; Guzman, Juan Carlos Torres

    2013-01-01

    The dimorphic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is used as a model to study fungal differentiation because it grows as yeast-like cells or forms hyphal cells in response to changes in environmental conditions. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a gene, ZNC1, involved in the dimorphic transition in Y. lipolytica. The ZNC1 gene encodes a 782 amino acid protein that contains a Zn(II)2C6 fungal-type zinc finger DNA-binding domain and a leucine zipper domain. ZNC1 transcription is elevated during yeast growth and decreases during the formation of mycelium. Cells in which ZNC1 has been deleted show increased hyphal cell formation. Znc1p-GFP localizes to the nucleus, but mutations within the leucine zipper domain of Znc1p, and to a lesser extent within the Zn(II)2C6 domain, result in a mislocalization of Znc1p to the cytoplasm. Microarrays comparing gene expression between znc1::URA3 and wild-type cells during both exponential growth and the induction of the yeast-to-hypha transition revealed 1,214 genes whose expression was changed by 2-fold or more under at least one of the conditions analyzed. Our results suggest that Znc1p acts as a transcription factor repressing hyphal cell formation and functions as part of a complex network regulating mycelial growth in Y. lipolytica. PMID:23826133

  9. Phosphorus acquisition efficiency in arbuscular mycorrhizal maize is correlated with the abundance of root-external hyphae and the accumulation of transcripts encoding PHT1 phosphate transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawers, Ruairidh J H; Svane, Simon F; Quan, Clement; Grønlund, Mette; Wozniak, Barbara; Gebreselassie, Mesfin-Nigussie; González-Muñoz, Eliécer; Chávez Montes, Ricardo A; Baxter, Ivan; Goudet, Jerome; Jakobsen, Iver; Paszkowski, Uta

    2017-04-01

    Plant interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have long attracted interest for their potential to promote more efficient use of mineral resources in agriculture. Their use, however, remains limited by a lack of understanding of the processes that determine the outcome of the symbiosis. In this study, the impact of host genotype on growth response to mycorrhizal inoculation was investigated in a panel of diverse maize lines. A panel of 30 maize lines was evaluated with and without inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The line Oh43 was identified to show superior response and, along with five other reference lines, was characterized in greater detail in a split-compartment system, using 33 P to quantify mycorrhizal phosphorus uptake. Changes in relative growth indicated variation in host capacity to profit from the symbiosis. Shoot phosphate content, abundance of root-internal and -external fungal structures, mycorrhizal phosphorus uptake, and accumulation of transcripts encoding plant PHT1 family phosphate transporters varied among lines. Superior response in Oh43 is correlated with extensive development of root-external hyphae, accumulation of specific Pht1 transcripts and high phosphorus uptake by mycorrhizal plants. The data indicate that host genetic factors influence fungal growth strategy with an impact on plant performance. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. 1,4-Naphthoquinone derivatives potently suppress Candida albicans growth, inhibit formation of hyphae and show no toxicity toward zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeczko, Monika; Kubiński, Konrad; Martyna, Aleksandra; Muzyczka, Angelika; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Czernik, Sławomir; Tokarska-Rodak, Małgorzata; Chwedczuk, Marta; Demchuk, Oleg M; Golczyk, Hieronim; Masłyk, Maciej

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we applied various assays to find new activities of 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives for potential anti-Candida albicans applications. These assays determined (a) the antimicrobial effect on growth/cell multiplication in fungal cultures, (b) the effect on formation of hyphae and biofilm, (c) the influence on cell membrane integrity, (d) the effect on cell morphology using atomic force microscopy, and (e) toxicity against zebrafish embryos. We have demonstrated the activity of these compounds against different Candida species and clinical isolates of C. albicans. 1,4-Naphthoquinones significantly affected fungal strains at 8-250 mg l -1 of MIC. Interestingly, at concentrations below MICs, the chemicals showed effectiveness in inhibition of hyphal formation and cell aggregation in Candida. Of note, atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis revealed an influence of the compounds on cell morphological properties. However, at low concentrations (0.8-31.2 mg l -1 ), it did not exert any evident toxic effects on zebrafish embryos. Our research has evidenced the effectiveness of 1,4-naphthoquinones as potential anti-Candida agents.

  11. [Inhibitory effects of ethyl acetate extract of Huanglian Jiedu decoction on hyphae development of Candida albicans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian-ming; Yan, Yuan-yuan; Shi, Gao-xiang; Xia, Dan; Shao, Jing; Wang, Chang-zhong

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effects of ethyl acetate extract of Huanglian Jiedu decoction (EAHD) on hyphae development of Candida albicans. Inverted microscope, fluorescence microscope, SEM were applied to inspect the Morphological change of C. albicans treated by EAHD at different concentrations. Solid agar plate was utilized to evaluate the colony morphology. Quantitative Real-ime PCR(qRT-PCR) was adopted to observe the expression of hyphae-specific genes such as HWP1, ALS3, UME6, CSH1, SUN41, CaPDE2. EAHD with concentration of 312 and 1 250 mg . L-1 could inhibit formation of hyphae and colony morphology. The expression of HWP1, ALS3, UME6, CSH1 were downregulated 4. 13, 3. 64, 2. 46, 2. 75 folds ,while the expression of SUN41 were upregulated 7. 26 folds, CaPDE2 keep unchanged. EAHD could inhibit formation of hyphae and colony morphologies of C. albicans through downregulating HWP1, ALS3, UME6 and CSH1.

  12. Nano-functionalized filamentous fungus hyphae with fast reversible macroscopic assembly & disassembly features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiying; Li, Xiaorui; Chai, Liyuan; Zhang, Liyuan

    2015-05-18

    A uniform decoration of hyphae by polyaniline nanoparticles (PANI NPs) was achieved here. This novel hybrid structure can be effectively assembled into a film by filtration and disassembled in water by shaking. This reversible process is very fast, which promises applications in nanomaterials including adsorption.

  13. Targeted mutation of the SC3 hydrophobin gene of Schizophyllum commune affects formation of aerial hyphae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanWetter, MA; Schuren, FHJ; Schuurs, TA; Wessels, JGH

    1996-01-01

    The SC3 hydrophobin gene of Schizophyllum commune was disrupted by homologous integration of an SC3 genomic fragment interrupted by a phleomycin resistance cassette. The phenotype of the mutant was particularly clear in sealed plates in which formation of aerial hyphae was blocked. In non-sealed

  14. Mycorrhizal hyphae as ecological niche for highly specialized hypersymbionts - or just soil free-riders?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jansa, Jan; Bukovská, Petra; Gryndler, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 4, MAY 2013 (2013) ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/1665; GA MŠk(CZ) LK11224 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : carbon * hypersymbionts * hyphae-associated microbes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.637, year: 2013

  15. Yeasts dominate soil fungal communities in three lowland Neotropical rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunthorn, Micah; Kauserud, Håvard; Bass, David; Mayor, Jordan; Mahé, Frédéric

    2017-10-01

    Forest soils typically harbour a vast diversity of fungi, but are usually dominated by filamentous (hyphae-forming) taxa. Compared to temperate and boreal forests, though, we have limited knowledge about the fungal diversity in tropical rainforest soils. Here we show, by environmental metabarcoding of soil samples collected in three Neotropical rainforests, that Yeasts dominate the fungal communities in terms of the number of sequencing reads and OTUs. These unicellular forms are commonly found in aquatic environments, and their hyperdiversity may be the result of frequent inundation combined with numerous aquatic microenvironments in these rainforests. Other fungi that are frequent in aquatic environments, such as the abundant Chytridiomycotina, were also detected. While there was low similarity in OTU composition within and between the three rainforests, the fungal communities in Central America were more similar to each other than the communities in South America, reflecting a general biogeographic pattern also seen in animals, plants and protists. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Endosymbiont-dependent host reproduction maintains bacterial-fungal mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partida-Martinez, Laila P; Monajembashi, Shamci; Greulich, Karl-Otto; Hertweck, Christian

    2007-05-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts play essential roles for many organisms, and thus specialized mechanisms have evolved during evolution that guarantee the persistence of the symbiosis during or after host reproduction. The rice seedling blight fungus Rhizopus microsporus represents a unique example of a mutualistic life form in which a fungus harbors endobacteria (Burkholderia sp.) for the production of a phytotoxin. Here we report the unexpected observation that in the absence of endosymbionts, the host is not capable of vegetative reproduction. Formation of sporangia and spores is restored only upon reintroduction of endobacteria. To monitor this process, we succeeded in GFP labeling cultured endosymbionts. We also established a laserbeam transformation technique for the first controlled introduction of bacteria into fungi to observe their migration to the tips of the aseptate hyphae. The persistence of this fungal-bacterial mutualism through symbiont-dependent sporulation is intriguing from an evolutionary point of view and implies that the symbiont produces factors that are essential for the fungal life cycle. Reproduction of the host has become totally dependent on endofungal bacteria, which in return provide a highly potent toxin for defending the habitat and accessing nutrients from decaying plants. This scenario clearly highlights the significance for a controlled maintenance of this fungal-bacterial symbiotic relationship.

  17. Comparison of plain potassium hydroxide mounts, fungal cultures and nail plate biopsies in the diagnosis of onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Naveed Akhter; Nasiruddin; Dar, Nasser Rasheed; Khan, Ashfaq Ahmed

    2006-10-01

    To compare the relative sensitivity of direct microscopy, fungal culture and nail plate biopsy in the diagnosis of onychomycosis. Cross-sectional study. The Skin Department, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from February 1998 to February 1999. A total of 50 patients who were suffering from different clinical variants of onychomycosis, irrespective of their age, gender, with or without simultaneous presence of systemic diseases, were subjected to laboratory investigations including direct microscopy with 20% potassium hydroxide (KOH) for fungal hyphae, fungal cultures and nail plate biopsies. These patients were later categorized into two groups based upon the results of nail plate biopsies. Of 50 patients, 15 (30%) were positive for fungal elements in direct microscopy, 8 (16%) were positive for fungal culture and 16 (32%) revealed positive results in nail plate biopsies. Amongst nail plate biopsy positive cases, 10 (63%) were positive for direct microscopy and 6 (37.5%) were positive for fungal cultures. In biopsy negative cases, positive results for direct microscopy were seen in 5 (14.7%) patients and positive fungal culture was found in 2 (5.88%) patients. The clinical impression of onychomycosis is not true in all the cases. Nail scraping for direct microscopy with 20% KOH should be the first line screening test for all patients which should then be supplemented with fungal culture and/ or nail plate biopsy.

  18. Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-12

    The JGI Fungal Genomics Program aims to scale up sequencing and analysis of fungal genomes to explore the diversity of fungi important for energy and the environment, and to promote functional studies on a system level. Combining new sequencing technologies and comparative genomics tools, JGI is now leading the world in fungal genome sequencing and analysis. Over 120 sequenced fungal genomes with analytical tools are available via MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a web-portal for fungal biologists. Our model of interacting with user communities, unique among other sequencing centers, helps organize these communities, improves genome annotation and analysis work, and facilitates new larger-scale genomic projects. This resulted in 20 high-profile papers published in 2011 alone and contributing to the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, which targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts). Our next grand challenges include larger scale exploration of fungal diversity (1000 fungal genomes), developing molecular tools for DOE-relevant model organisms, and analysis of complex systems and metagenomes.

  19. Attenuation of PAMP-triggered immunity in maize requires down-regulation of the key β-1,6-glucan synthesis genes KRE5 and KRE6 in biotrophic hyphae of Colletotrichum graminicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Garcia, Ely; Deising, Holger B

    2016-08-01

    In plants, pathogen defense is initiated by recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via plasma membrane-localized pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). Fungal structural cell wall polymers such as branched β-glucans are essential for infection structure rigidity and pathogenicity, but at the same time represent PAMPs. Kre5 and Kre6 are key enzymes in β-1,6-glucan synthesis and formation of branch points of the β-glucan network. In spite of the importance of branched β-glucan for hyphal rigidity and plant-fungus interactions, neither the role of KRE5 and KRE6 in pathogenesis nor mechanisms allowing circumventing branched β-glucan-triggered immune responses are known. We functionally characterized KRE5 and KRE6 of the ascomycete Colletotrichum graminicola, a hemibiotroph that infects maize (Zea mays). After appressorial plant invasion, this fungus sequentially differentiates biotrophic and highly destructive necrotrophic hyphae. RNAi-mediated reduction of KRE5 and KRE6 transcript abundance caused appressoria to burst and swelling of necrotrophic hyphae, indicating that β-1,6-glucosidic bonds are essential in these cells. Live cell imaging employing KRE5:mCherry and KRE6:mCherry knock-in strains and probing of infection structures with a YFP-conjugated β-1,6-glucan-binding protein showed expression of these genes and exposure of β-1,6-glucan in conidia, appressoria and necrotrophic, but not in biotrophic hyphae. Overexpression of KRE5 and KRE6 in biotrophic hyphae led to activation of broad-spectrum plant defense responses, including papilla and H2 O2 formation, as well as transcriptional activation of several defense-related genes. Collectively, our results strongly suggest that down-regulation of synthesis and avoidance of exposure of branched β-1,3-β-1,6-glucan in biotrophic hyphae is required for attenuation of plant immune responses. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. An F-actin-depleted zone is present at the hyphal tip of invasive hyphae of Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suei, S; Garrill, A

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of filamentous actin (F-actin) in invasive and noninvasive hyphae of the ascomycete Neurospora crassa was investigated. Eighty six percent of noninvasive hyphae had F-actin in the tip region compared to only 9% of invasive hyphae. The remaining 91% of the invasive hyphae had no obvious tip high concentration of F-actin staining; instead they had an F-actin-depleted zone in this region, although some F-actin, possibly associated with the Spitzenkörper, remained at the tip. The size of the F-actin-depleted zone in invasive hyphae increased with an increase in agar concentration. The membrane stain FM 4-64 reveals a slightly larger accumulation of vesicles at the tips of invasive hyphae relative to noninvasive hyphae, although this difference is unlikely to be sufficient to account for the exclusion of F-actin from the depleted zone. Antibodies raised against the actin filament-severing protein cofilin from both yeast and human cells localize to the tips of invasive hyphae. The human cofilin antibody shows a more random distribution in noninvasive hyphae locating primarily at the hyphal periphery but with some diffuse cytoplasmic staining. This antibody also identifies a single band at 21 kDa in immunoblots of whole hyphal fractions. These data suggest that a protein with epitopic similarity to cofilin may function in F-actin dynamics that underlie invasive growth. The F-actin-depleted zone may play a role in the regulation of tip yielding to turgor pressure, thus increasing the protrusive force necessary for invasive growth.

  1. Innate and adaptive immune response to chronic pulmonary infection of hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus in a new murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyuan; Zhang, Caiyun; Jiang, Yuan; Kou, Caixia; Kong, Qingtao; Long, Nanbiao; Lu, Ling; Sang, Hong

    2017-10-01

    The pathogenesis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) has seldom been studied due partly to a lack of animal models. Since hypha is the main morphology colonizing the airway in CPA, it's critical to study the immune reaction to chronic pulmonary infection of hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus, which also has seldom been studied in vivo before. We established a novel murine model of chronic pulmonary infection of hyphae by challenging immunocompetent mice with tightly-structured hyphae balls intratracheally, and described the ensuing immunoreaction to hyphae and conidia, and the pathogenesis of CPA. Our experiment proved that the hyphae balls could induce a chronic pulmonary infection for 28 days with a considerable recrudescence at day 28 post-infection. Lungs infected with hyphae balls were remarkable for the many neutrophils and macrophages that flooded into airway lumens, with peribronchiolar infiltration of leukocytes. There was a transient increase of Th2 cells and Th17 cells at day 7 post-infection in the lung tissue. In contrast, lungs infected with conidia showed no peribronchiolar infiltration of leukocytes, but an influx of a great number of macrophages, and a much less number of neutrophils in the lumen. Besides, conidia activated the co-response of Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells with an increase of Treg cells in the lung tissue (quite different from most previous studies). We established a new murine model of chronic infection of hyphae to mimic the formation of CPA, and provide a new marker for different immune responses to hyphae and conidia.

  2. Pulmonary fungal infection caused by Neoscytalidium dimidiatum in a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elad, Daniel; Morick, Danny; David, Dan; Scheinin, Aviad; Yamin, Gilad; Blum, Shlomo; Goffman, Oz

    2011-05-01

    Neoscytalidium dimidiatum was isolated from two 12-18 cm abscesses in the lung and the mediastinal lymph nodes of a stranded Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus). Histopathologic examination of samples of these organs revealed the presence of hyphae and sclerotic body-like fungal elements. Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae was recovered from the dolphin's organs which also were found to contain numerous Monorygma grimaldii cysts. No histopathological signs of morbillivirus infection were seen. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of N. dimidiatum infection in a sea mammal.

  3. Fungal Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... touching the infected area. Diagnosis Skin scrapings or cultures Doctors may suspect a fungal infection when they ...

  4. JGI Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-03-14

    Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 50 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such 'parts' suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here

  5. Fungal symbiosis unearthed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Cullen

    2008-01-01

    Associations between plant roots and fungi are a feature of many terrestrial ecosystems. The genome sequence of a prominent fungal partner opens new avenues for studying such mycorrhizal interactions....

  6. The challenge of unravelling family resemblance related to illness behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardol, M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Dijk, L. van; Bosch, W. van den; Bakker, D.H. de

    2005-01-01

    Background: Efforts to promote health or prevent disease may conflict with patients’ habits at home. Irrespective of the national setting, families are important social contexts in which illness occurs and resolves. Family members resemble each other in their illness behaviour, even across

  7. Familial Resemblance in Dietary Intakes of Children, Adolescents, and Parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogl, Leonie H.; Silventoinen, Karri; Hebestreit, Antje

    2017-01-01

    Information on familial resemblance is important for the design of effective family-based interventions. We aimed to quantify familial correlations and estimate the proportion of variation attributable to genetic and shared environmental effects (i.e., familiality) for dietary intake variables an...

  8. Fungal Fluorescence in Hematoxylin-Eosin Stained Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Durdu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A forty-six-year-old male presented to our dermatology clinic with two-year history of itching on his groin. His medical history revealed various topical corticosteroid creams without improvement of the skin lesion. Dermatological examination revealed erythematous nodules and follicular pustules on erythematous background on the inguinal area (Figure 1a. Potassium hydroxide (KOH examination was negative. Tzanck smear revealed abundant neutrophils without bacteria, fungi, or parasite. The histopathological examination showed granuloma formation with multinuclear giant cells and Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS-positive hyphae and spores around the hair follicles (Figure 1b, 1c. Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E-stained slides were examined under an immunofluorescence microscope, and these hyphae and spores showed autofluorescence (Figure 1d. Based on the clinical and histopathological findings, a Majocchi’s granuloma was considered. All lesions disappeared with topical and systemic terbinafine (250 mg/day treatment for six weeks.\tPearls;\tClinical: Not only bacteria, but also fungi, parasites, and viruses may cause folliculitis. Cytology should be initially done to identify the causes of infectious folliculitis. In case of negative cytology, histopathological examination and molecular methods can be used.\tCytological: To cytologically identify all of the causes of folliculitis, four separate samples should be taken: (i the first sample is stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa for routine cytological examination; (ii the second sample is used for KOH testing; (iii the third sample is stained with an acid-fast stain to detect mycobacteria; and (iv the last specimen is Gram-stained to identify whether it is Gram-positive or Gram-negative (1. Histopathological: In infectious diseases, a definitive diagnosis should be done to identify the etiologic agent. The detection of fungal elements is challenging, when histopathological examination is performed with the H

  9. CS-137 transfer factors soil-plant and density of hyphae in soil of spruce forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemt, E.; Deuss, H.; Drissner, J.; Krapf, M.; Miller, R.; Zibold, G.

    1999-01-01

    Samples of soil and plants were taken at spruce stand sites in southern Baden-Wuerttemberg. Fern always had the highest aggregated Cs-137 transfer factor (T ag ) varying between 0.01 and 0.27 m 2 kg -1 . There is a tendency for higher T ag s in soils with thicker raw humus layers, lower pH, lower cation exchange capacity (CEC) in the O h horizon, and lower clay content below the organic deposit. The density of hyphae is determined by the season and its weather conditions and it usually decreases continuously from O f to top B horizon. In analyzing our data no correlation between aggregated or horizon-specific transfer factors of different plants and density of hyphae could be found. Refs. 5 (author)

  10. Schizosaccharomyces japonicus: the fission yeast is a fusion of yeast and hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niki, Hironori

    2014-03-01

    The clade of Schizosaccharomyces includes 4 species: S. pombe, S. octosporus, S. cryophilus, and S. japonicus. Although all 4 species exhibit unicellular growth with a binary fission mode of cell division, S. japonicus alone is dimorphic yeast, which can transit from unicellular yeast to long filamentous hyphae. Recently it was found that the hyphal cells response to light and then synchronously activate cytokinesis of hyphae. In addition to hyphal growth, S. japonicas has many properties that aren't shared with other fission yeast. Mitosis of S. japonicas is referred to as semi-open mitosis because dynamics of nuclear membrane is an intermediate mode between open mitosis and closed mitosis. Novel genetic tools and the whole genomic sequencing of S. japonicas now provide us with an opportunity for revealing unique characters of the dimorphic yeast. © 2013 The Author. Yeast Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Uptake of different forms of nitrogen by hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xia; Zhang Junling

    2007-01-01

    A two-compartment incorporating air-gap device and 15 N-labeling technique was used to investigate the uptake of different forms of N by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Maize (Zea mays L.) was in association with Glomus mosseae, or Glomus intraradices. Solutions labeled with different forms of 15 N were supplied to the hyphae compartment 48 h before harvesting. The results showed that the uptake capability of 15 N varied with fungi species and N forms supplied. Percentage of 15 N taken up over 48 h by G. intraradices was higher than that by G. mosseae. The uptake capability of 15 N by AMF was in the order of 15 NH 4 + > 15 N-Gln> 15 N-Gly> 15 NO 3 - . 15 N uptake by AMF hyphae accounted for 0.005-0.032% of total N uptake. (authors)

  12. Mobilization and utilization of sparingly soluble phosphates by VA mycorrhizal fungus external hyphae I-32P indirectly labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Qing; Zhao Zijuan; Feng Gu; Li Xiaolin; Chen Baodong

    2000-01-01

    Red clover were grown in three-compartment boxes, and were inoculated with VA mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus mosseae. External hyphae were separated from root system by 30 μm pore size membrane. Phosphorus fertilizer indirectly labelled with 32 P and five kind of phosphates were applied in the hyphae compartment, and the ability of external hyphae to mobilize the sparingly soluble phosphates were evaluated. the results showed that external hyphae mobilized and up took Ca 2 -P, Ca 8 -P, Al-P, Fe.P, but not Ca 10 -P. The phosphorus uptake by clover from phosphates and the contribution of phosphates to clover phosphorus nutrition were ranked as Ca 2 -P > Ca 8 -P, Al-P > Fe-P

  13. Human Neutrophils Use Different Mechanisms To Kill Aspergillus fumigatus Conidia and Hyphae: Evidence from Phagocyte Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazendam, Roel P; van Hamme, John L; Tool, Anton T J; Hoogenboezem, Mark; van den Berg, J Merlijn; Prins, Jan M; Vitkov, Ljubomir; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; van den Berg, Timo K; Roos, Dirk; Kuijpers, Taco W

    2016-02-01

    Neutrophils are known to play a pivotal role in the host defense against Aspergillus infections. This is illustrated by the prevalence of Aspergillus infections in patients with neutropenia or phagocyte functional defects, such as chronic granulomatous disease. However, the mechanisms by which human neutrophils recognize and kill Aspergillus are poorly understood. In this work, we have studied in detail which neutrophil functions, including neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, are involved in the killing of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia and hyphae, using neutrophils from patients with well-defined genetic immunodeficiencies. Recognition of conidia involves integrin CD11b/CD18 (and not dectin-1), which triggers a PI3K-dependent nonoxidative intracellular mechanism of killing. When the conidia escape from early killing and germinate, the extracellular destruction of the Aspergillus hyphae needs opsonization by Abs and involves predominantly recognition via Fcγ receptors, signaling via Syk, PI3K, and protein kinase C to trigger the production of toxic reactive oxygen metabolites by the NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase. A. fumigatus induces NET formation; however, NETs did not contribute to A. fumigatus killing. Thus, our findings reveal distinct killing mechanisms of Aspergillus conidia and hyphae by human neutrophils, leading to a comprehensive insight in the innate antifungal response. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  14. Candida glabrata Binding to Candida albicans Hyphae Enables Its Development in Oropharyngeal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tati, Swetha; Davidow, Peter; McCall, Andrew; Hwang-Wong, Elizabeth; Rojas, Isolde G; Cormack, Brendan; Edgerton, Mira

    2016-03-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms of Candida glabrata in oral candidiasis, especially because of its inability to form hyphae, are understudied. Since both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are frequently co-isolated in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), we examined their co-adhesion in vitro and observed adhesion of C. glabrata only to C. albicans hyphae microscopically. Mice were infected sublingually with C. albicans or C. glabrata individually, or with both species concurrently, to study their ability to cause OPC. Infection with C. glabrata alone resulted in negligible infection of tongues; however, colonization by C. glabrata was increased by co-infection or a pre-established infection with C. albicans. Furthermore, C. glabrata required C. albicans for colonization of tongues, since decreasing C. albicans burden with fluconazole also reduced C. glabrata. C. albicans hyphal wall adhesins Als1 and Als3 were important for in vitro adhesion of C. glabrata and to establish OPC. C. glabrata cell wall protein coding genes EPA8, EPA19, AWP2, AWP7, and CAGL0F00181 were implicated in mediating adhesion to C. albicans hyphae and remarkably, their expression was induced by incubation with germinated C. albicans. Thus, we found a near essential requirement for the presence of C. albicans for both initial colonization and establishment of OPC infection by C. glabrata.

  15. Comparison of plain potassium hydroxide mounts, fungal cultures and nail plate biopsies in the diagnosis of onychomycosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, N.A.; Nasiruddin, A.

    2006-01-01

    To compare the relative sensitivity of direct microscopy, fungal culture and nail plate biopsy in the diagnosis of onychomycosis. A total of 50 patients who were suffering from different clinical variants of onychomycosis, irrespective of their age, gender, with or without simultaneous presence of systemic diseases, were subjected to laboratory investigations including direct microscopy with 20% potassium hydroxide (KOH) for fungal hyphae, fungal cultures and nail plate biopsies. These patients were later categorized into two groups based upon the results of nail plate biopsies. Of 50 patients, 15 (30%) were positive for fungal elements in direct microscopy, 8 (16%) were positive for fungal culture and 16 (32%) revealed positive results in nail plate biopsies. Amongst nail plate biopsy positive cases, 10 (63%) were positive for direct microscopy and 6 (37.5%) were positive for fungal cultures. In biopsy negative cases, positive results for direct microscopy were seen in 5 (14.7%) patients and positive fungal culture was found in 2 (5.88%) patients. (author)

  16. Phosphate transport by hyphae of field communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at two levels of P fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingstrup, I.; Kahiluoto, H.; Jakobsen, I.

    2000-01-01

    at the higher P level (77 and 49% of total P uptake, respectively). The AMF in P-fertilized soil transported less P-32 from the root-free compartment to the plant after 23 days than the AMF in unfertilized soil, but this difference disappeared in plants harvested after 27 and 32 days. The production of hyphae...... was largely similar in both fertilization treatments, indicating that the capacity for P uptake and transport by hyphae of the two AMF communities was similar....

  17. Damage to Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizopus oryzae Hyphae by Oxidative and Nonoxidative Microbicidal Products of Human Neutrophils In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Diamond, Richard D.; Clark, Robert A.

    1982-01-01

    Our previous studies established that human neutrophils could damage and probably kill hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizopus oryzae in vitro, primarily by oxygen-dependent mechanisms active at the cell surface. These studies were extended, again quantitating hyphal damage by reduction in uptake of 14C-labeled uracil or glutamine. Neither A. fumigatus nor R. oryzae hyphae were damaged by neutrophils from patients with chronic granulomatous disease, confirming the importance of oxidative...

  18. RESEMBLANCE OF INDIRECTNESS IN POLITENESS OF EFL LEARNERS’ REQUEST REALIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indawan Syahri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Politeness principles are universally utilized by the speakers of any language when realizing various speech acts. However, the speakers of particular languages relatively apply politeness due to the cultural norms embedded. The present study attempts to delineate how the Indonesian learners of English (ILE apply the politeness principles in request realizations. Specifically it devotes to the types of politeness strategies applied and resemblance of the indirectness in politeness strategies in requesting acts. The FTAs and indirectness are the theoretical bases used to trace the typologies of both politeness and request strategies. The data werere collected by means of certain elicitation techniques, i.e. DCTs and Role-plays. The analyses werere done through three stages; determining request strategies, politeness strategies, and resemblance of indirectness in politeness. The results show that the indirectness generally is parallel to politeness. Besides, some pragmatic transfers are found in terms of applying native-culture norms in realizing target speech acts.

  19. Plant and fungal gene expression in mycorrhizal protocorms of the orchid Serapias vomeracea colonized by Tulasnella calospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Raffaella; Nerva, Luca; Sillo, Fabiano; Girlanda, Mariangela; Perotto, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Little is known on the molecular bases of plant-fungal interactions in orchid mycorrhiza. We developed a model system to investigate gene expression in mycorrhizal protocorms of Serapias vomeracea colonised by Tulasnella calospora. Our recent results with a small panel of genes as indicators of plant response to mycorrhizal colonization indicate that genes related with plant defense were not significantly up-regulated in mycorrhizal tissues. Here, we used laser microdissection to investigate whether expression of some orchid genes was restricted to specific cell types. Results showed that SvNod1, a S. vomeracea nodulin-like protein containing a plastocyanin-like domain, is expressed only in protocorm cells containing intracellular fungal hyphae. In addition, we investigated a family of fungal zinc metallopeptidases (M36). This gene family has expanded in the T. calospora genome and RNA-Seq experiments indicate that some members of the M36 metallopeptidases family are differentially regulated in orchid mycorrhizal protocorms.

  20. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide Resembling Impetigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changhyun; Craiglow, Brittany G; Watsky, Kalman L; Antaya, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with recurring severe dermatitis of the face of 5-months duration that resembled impetigo. He had been treated with several courses of antibiotics without improvement. Biopsy showed changes consistent with allergic contact dermatitis and patch testing later revealed sensitization to benzoyl peroxide, which the patient had been using for the treatment of acne vulgaris. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Detecting analogical resemblance without retrieving the source analogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, Bogdan; Cleary, Anne M; Severin, Kaye; Miller, Samuel W

    2010-06-01

    We examined whether people can detect analogical resemblance to an earlier experimental episode without being able to recall the experimental source of the analogical resemblance. We used four-word analogies (e.g., robin-nest/beaver-dam), in a variation of the recognition-without-cued-recall method (Cleary, 2004). Participants studied word pairs (e.g., robin-nest) and were shown new word pairs at test, half of which analogically related to studied word pairs (e.g., beaver-dam) and half of which did not. For each test pair, participants first attempted to recall an analogically similar pair from the study list. Then, regardless of whether successful recall occurred, participants were prompted to rate the familiarity of the test pair, which was said to indicate the likelihood that a pair that was analogically similar to the test pair had been studied. Across three experiments, participants demonstrated an ability to detect analogical resemblance without recalling the source analogy. Findings are discussed in terms of their potential relevance to the study of analogical reasoning and insight, as well as to the study of familiarity and recognition memory.

  2. Snake fungal disease caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in a free-ranging mud snake (Farancia abacura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, Lisa A; Fenton, Heather; Gonyor-McGuire, Jessica; Moore, Matthew; Yabsley, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Snake fungal disease is an emerging infectious disease caused by the fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola leading to severe dermatitis and facial disfiguration in numerous free-ranging and captive snakes. A free-ranging mud snake (Farancia abacura) from Bulloch County, Georgia, was presented for autopsy because of facial swelling and emaciation. Extensive ulceration of the skin, which was especially severe on the head, and retained shed were noted on external examination. Microscopic examination revealed severe heterophilic dermatitis with intralesional fungal hyphae and arthroconidia consistent with O. ophiodiicola A skin sample incubated on Sabouraud dextrose agar yielded a white-to-tan powdery fungal culture that was confirmed to be O. ophiodiicola by polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis. Heavy infestation with adult tapeworms (Ophiotaenia faranciae) was present within the intestine. Various bacterial and fungal species, interpreted to either be secondary invaders or postmortem contaminants, were associated with oral lesions. Although the role of these other organisms in the overall health of this individual is not known, factors such as concurrent infections or immunosuppression should be considered in order to better understand the overall manifestation of snake fungal disease, which remains poorly characterized in its host range and geographic distribution. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Cotton plants export microRNAs to inhibit virulence gene expression in a fungal pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Yun-Long; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Wang, Sheng; Jin, Yun; Chen, Zhong-Qi; Fang, Yuan-Yuan; Hua, Chen-Lei; Ding, Shou-Wei; Guo, Hui-Shan

    2016-09-26

    Plant pathogenic fungi represent the largest group of disease-causing agents on crop plants, and are a constant and major threat to agriculture worldwide. Recent studies have shown that engineered production of RNA interference (RNAi)-inducing dsRNA in host plants can trigger specific fungal gene silencing and confer resistance to fungal pathogens 1-7 . Although these findings illustrate efficient uptake of host RNAi triggers by pathogenic fungi, it is unknown whether or not such an uptake mechanism has been evolved for a natural biological function in fungus-host interactions. Here, we show that in response to infection with Verticillium dahliae (a vascular fungal pathogen responsible for devastating wilt diseases in many crops) cotton plants increase production of microRNA 166 (miR166) and miR159 and export both to the fungal hyphae for specific silencing. We found that two V. dahliae genes encoding a Ca 2+ -dependent cysteine protease (Clp-1) and an isotrichodermin C-15 hydroxylase (HiC-15), and targeted by miR166 and miR159, respectively, are both essential for fungal virulence. Notably, V. dahliae strains expressing either Clp-1 or HiC-15 rendered resistant to the respective miRNA exhibited drastically enhanced virulence in cotton plants. Together, our findings identify a novel defence strategy of host plants by exporting specific miRNAs to induce cross-kingdom gene silencing in pathogenic fungi and confer disease resistance.

  4. Biodegradable and bioactive CGP/PVA film for fungal growth inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bárbara Dumas S; Ulhoa, Cirano J; Batista, Karla A; Di Medeiros, Maria Carolina; Da Silva Filho, Rômulo Roosevelt; Yamashita, Fabio; Fernandes, Kátia F

    2012-07-01

    In this study, chitinolytic enzymes produced by Trichoderma asperellum were immobilized on a biodegradable film manufactured with a blend of cashew gum polysaccharide (CGP) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and tested as a fungal growth inhibitor. The film was produced by casting a blend of CGP and PVA solution on glass molds. The CGP/PVA film showed 68% water solubility, tensile strength of 23.7 MPa, 187.2% elongation and 52% of mass loss after 90 days in soil. The presence of T-CWD enzymes immobilized by adsorption or covalent attachment resulted in effective inhibition of fungal growth. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was the most sensitive organism, followed by Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. SEM micrograph showed that the presence of immobilized T-CWD enzymes on CGP/PVA film produced morphological modifications on vegetative and germinative structures of the microorganisms, particularly hyphae disruption and changes of spores shape. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation of fungal homokaryotic lines from heterokaryotic transformants by sonic disruption of mycelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashi, Zafer Dallal; Khachatourians, George; Hegedus, Dwayne Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Fungal hyphae--and in some cases, spores--are multi-nucleate. During genetic transformation of these spores or mycelia, only one nucleus generally receives the transferred T-DNA generating heterokaryotic colonies. Characterization of genetic changes, such as the effects of gene disruption in the transformants, requires purified homokaryotic lines. Hyphal tip transfer has conventionally been used to isolate homokaryons. We developed an alternative method for purification of fungal homokaryons from transformed heterokaryotic lines of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Ultrasound pulses were used to generate bi-septate, unicellular hyphal fragments that regenerate under selection to produce homokaryotic lines that can be easily identified using colony PCR. This technique facilitates the purification of transformed lines, which allows for routine genome manipulation, and should be adaptable for other filamentous fungi.

  6. Direct Surface Analysis of Fungal Species by Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, Nancy B.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wahl, Jon H.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Kingsley, Mark T.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wahl, Karen L.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2001-12-01

    Intact spores and/or hyphae of Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae, Trichoderma reesei and Phanerochaete chrysosporium are analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). This study investigates various methods of sample preparation and matrices to determine optimum collection and analysis criteria for fungal analysis by MALDI-MS. Fungi are applied to the MALDI sample target as untreated, sonicated, acid/heat treated, or blotted directly from the fungal culture with double-stick tape. Ferulic acid or sinapinic acid matrix solution is layered over the dried samples and analyzed by MALDI-MS. Statistical analysis of the data show that simply using double stick tape to collect and transfer to a MALDI sample plate typically worked as well as the other preparation methods, but requires the least sample handling.

  7. Increasing phosphorus concentration in the extraradical hyphae of Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198 leads to a concomitant increase in metal minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Jiang, Caiyun; Zhou, Jiachao; Declerck, Stéphane; Tian, Changyan; Feng, Gu

    2016-11-01

    Plants associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) acquire phosphorus via roots and extraradical hyphae. How soil P level affects P accumulation within hyphae and how P in hyphae influences the accumulation of metal minerals remains little explored. A bi-compartmented in vitro cultivation system separating a root compartment (RC), containing a Ri T-DNA transformed carrot root associated to the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198, from a hyphal compartment (HC), containing only the extraradical hyphae, was used. The HC contained a liquid growth medium (i.e., the modified Strullu-Romand medium containing P in the form of KH 2 PO 4 ) without (0 μM) or adjusted to 35, 100, and 700 μM of KH 2 PO 4 . The accumulation of P and metal minerals (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Cu, Mn) within extraradical hyphae and AMF-colonized roots, and the expression of the phosphate transporter gene GintPT were assessed. The expression of GintPT in the extraradical hyphae did not differ in absence of KH 2 PO 4 or in presence of 35 and 100 μM KH 2 PO 4 in the HC but was markedly reduced in presence of 700 μM KH 2 PO 4 . Hyphal P concentration was significantly lowest in absence of KH 2 PO 4 , intermediate at 35 and 100 μM KH 2 PO 4 and significantly highest in presence of 700 μM KH 2 PO 4 in the HC. The concentrations of K, Mg, and Na were positively associated with the concentration of P in the extraradical hyphae developing in the HC. Similarly, P concentration in extraradical hyphae in the HC was related to P concentration in the growth medium and influenced the concentration of K, Mg, and Na. The accumulation of the metal mineral K, Mg, and Na in the extraradical hyphae developing in the HC was possibly related to their function in neutralizing the negative charges of PolyP accumulated in the hyphae.

  8. Fungal genomics beyond Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious...

  9. Probing the effect of tip pressure on fungal growth: Application to Aspergillus nidulans

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Bermúdez, Blanca; Li, Qingxuan; Guinea, Gustavo V.; Peñalva, Miguel A.; Plaza, Gustavo R.

    2017-08-01

    The study of fungal cells is of great interest due to their importance as pathogens and as fermenting fungi and for their appropriateness as model organisms. The differential pressure between the hyphal cytoplasm and the bordering medium is essential for the growth process, because the pressure is correlated with the growth rate. Notably, during the invasion of tissues, the external pressure at the tip of the hypha may be different from the pressure in the surrounding medium. We report the use of a method, based on the micropipette-aspiration technique, to study the influence of this external pressure at the hyphal tip. Moreover, this technique makes it possible to study hyphal growth mechanics in the case of very thin hyphae, not accessible to turgor pressure probes. We found a correlation between the local pressure at the tip and the growth rate for the species Arpergillus nidulans. Importantly, the proposed method allows one to measure the pressure at the tip required to arrest the hyphal growth. Determining that pressure could be useful to develop new medical treatments for fungal infections. Finally, we provide a mechanical model for these experiments, taking into account the cytoplasm flow and the wall deformation.

  10. Calcium signaling during reproduction and biotrophic fungal interactions in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junyi; Gutjahr, Caroline; Bleckmann, Andrea; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Many recent studies have indicated that cellular communications during plant reproduction, fungal invasion, and defense involve identical or similar molecular players and mechanisms. Indeed, pollen tube invasion and sperm release shares many common features with infection of plant tissue by fungi and oomycetes, as a tip-growing intruder needs to communicate with the receptive cells to gain access into a cell and tissue. Depending on the compatibility between cells, interactions may result in defense, invasion, growth support, or cell death. Plant cells stimulated by both pollen tubes and fungal hyphae secrete, for example, small cysteine-rich proteins and receptor-like kinases are activated leading to intracellular signaling events such as the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the generation of calcium (Ca(2+)) transients. The ubiquitous and versatile second messenger Ca(2+) thereafter plays a central and crucial role in modulating numerous downstream signaling processes. In stimulated cells, it elicits both fast and slow cellular responses depending on the shape, frequency, amplitude, and duration of the Ca(2+) transients. The various Ca(2+) signatures are transduced into cellular information via a battery of Ca(2+)-binding proteins. In this review, we focus on Ca(2+) signaling and discuss its occurrence during plant reproduction and interactions of plant cells with biotrophic filamentous microbes. The participation of Ca(2+) in ROS signaling pathways is also discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fungal invasion of normally non-phagocytic host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott G Filler

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Many fungi that cause invasive disease invade host epithelial cells during mucosal and respiratory infection, and subsequently invade endothelial cells during hematogenous infection. Most fungi invade these normally non-phagocytic host cells by inducing their own uptake. Candida albicans hyphae interact with endothelial cells in vitro by binding to N-cadherin on the endothelial cell surface. This binding induces rearrangement of endothelial cell microfilaments, which results in the endocytosis of the organism. The capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans is composed of glucuronoxylomannan, which binds specifically to brain endothelial cells, and appears to mediate both adherence and induction of endocytosis. The mechanisms by which other fungal pathogens induce their own uptake are largely unknown. Some angioinvasive fungi, such as Aspergillus species and the Zygomycetes, invade endothelial cells from the abluminal surface during the initiation of invasive disease, and subsequently invade the luminal surface of endothelial cells during hematogenous dissemination. Invasion of normally non-phagocytic host cells has different consequences, depending on the type of invading fungus. Aspergillus fumigatus blocks apoptosis of pulmonary epithelial cells, whereas Paracoccidioides brasiliensis induces apoptosis of epithelial cells. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which diverse fungal pathogens invade normally non-phagocytic host cells and discusses gaps in our knowledge that provide opportunities for future research.

  12. Fungal prostatitis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayayo, Emilio; Fernández-Silva, Fabiola

    2014-06-01

    Prostate pathology is a daily occurrence in urological and general medical consultations. Besides hyperplasia and neoplastic pathology, other processes, such as infectious ones, are also documented. Their etiology is diverse and varied. Within the infectious prostatic processes, fungi can also be a specific cause of prostatitis. Fungal prostatitis often appears in patients with impaired immunity and can also be rarely found in healthy patients. It can result from a disseminated infection, but it can also be localized. Fungal prostatitis is a nonspecific and harmless process. Diagnosis is commonly made by fine needle aspiration cytology or by biopsy. A number of fungi can be involved. Although there are not many reported cases, they are becoming more frequent, in particular in patients with some degree of immunodeficiency or those who live in areas where specific fungi are endemic or in visitors of those areas. We present a comprehensive review of the various forms of fungal prostatitis, and we describe the morphological characteristics of the fungi more frequently reported as causes of fungal prostatitis. We also report our own experience, aiming to alert physicians, urologists and pathologists of these particular infections.

  13. Fungal Wound Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-28

    Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma.  Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/28/2016.

  14. The Fungal Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heitman, Joseph; Howlett, B.J.; Crous, P.W.; Stukenbrock, E.H.; James, T.Y.; Gow, N.A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Fungi research and knowledge grew rapidly following recent advances in genetics and genomics. This book synthesizes new knowledge with existing information to stimulate new scientific questions and propel fungal scientists on to the next stages of research. This book is a comprehensive guide on

  15. Pulsed growth of fungal hyphal tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Franco, R; Bartnicki-Garcia, S; Bracker, C E

    1994-12-06

    Somatic fungal hyphae are generally assumed to elongate at steady linear rates when grown under constant environmental conditions with ample nutrients. However, patterns of pulsed hyphal elongation were detected during apparent steady growth of hyphal tips in fungi from several major taxonomic groups (Oomycetes, Pythium aphanidermatum and Saprolegnia ferax; Zygomycetes, Gilbertella persicaria; Deuteromycetes, Trichoderma viride; Ascomycetes, Neurospora crassa and Fusarium culmorum; Basidiomycetes, Rhizoctonia solani). Growing hyphal tips were recorded with video-enhanced phase-contrast microscopy at high magnification, and digital images were measured at very short time intervals (1-5 s). In all fungi tested, the hyphal elongation rate was never perfectly steady but fluctuated continuously with alternating periods of fast and slow growth at more or less regular intervals. Pulsed growth was observed in fungi differing in cell diameter, overall growth rate, taxonomic position, and presence and pattern of Spitzenkörper organization, suggesting that this is a general phenomenon. Frequency and amplitude of the pulses varied among the test organisms. T. viride and N. crassa showed the most frequent pulses (average of 13-14 per min), and F. culmorum the least frequent (2.7 per min). Average pulse amplitude varied from 0.012 microns/s for F. culmorum to 0.068 microns/s for G. persicaria. In F. culmorum and T. viride, the fast phase of the growth pulses was correlated with the merger of satellite Spitzenkörper with the main Spitzenkörper. These findings are consistent with a causal relationship between fluctuations in the overall rate of secretory vesicle delivery/discharge at the hyphal apex and the fluctuations in hyphal elongation rate.

  16. Clash of kingdoms or why Drosophila larvae positively respond to fungal competitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohlfs Marko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Competition with filamentous fungi has been demonstrated to be an important cause of mortality for the vast group of insects that depend on ephemeral resources (e.g. fruit, dung, carrion. Recent data suggest that the well-known aggregation of Drosophila larvae across decaying fruit yields a competitive advantage over mould, by which the larvae achieve a higher survival probability in larger groups compared with smaller ones. Feeding and locomotor behaviour of larger larval groups is assumed to cause disruption of fungal hyphae, leading to suppression of fungal growth, which in turn improves the chances of larval survival to the adult stage. Given the relationship between larval density, mould suppression and larval survival, the present study has tested whether fungal-infected food patches elicit communal foraging behaviour on mould-infected sites by which larvae might hamper mould growth more efficiently. Results Based on laboratory experiments in which Drosophila larvae were offered the choice between fungal-infected and uninfected food patches, larvae significantly aggregated on patches containing young fungal colonies. Grouping behaviour was also visible when larvae were offered only fungal-infected or only uninfected patches; however, larval aggregation was less strong under these conditions than in a heterogeneous environment (infected and uninfected patches. Conclusion Because filamentous fungi can be deadly competitors for insect larvae on ephemeral resources, social attraction of Drosophila larvae to fungal-infected sites leading to suppression of mould growth may reflect an adaptive behavioural response that increases insect larval fitness and can thus be discussed as an anti-competitor behaviour. These observations support the hypothesis that adverse environmental conditions operate in favour of social behaviour. In a search for the underlying mechanisms of communal behaviour in Drosophila, this study highlights

  17. Localization and role of MYO-1, an endocytic protein in hyphae of Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Rojas, Fernando; Bartnicki-García, Salomón; Mouriño-Pérez, Rosa R

    2016-03-01

    The subapical endocytic collar is a prominent feature of hyphae of Neurospora crassa. It comprises a dynamic collection of actin patches associated with a number of proteins required for endocytosis, namely, ARP-2/3 complex, fimbrin, coronin, etc. We presently show that MYO-1 is another key component of this endocytic collar. A myo-1 sequence was identified in the genome of N. crassa and used it to generate a strain with a myo-1-sgfp allele under the ccg1 promoter. Examination of living hyphae by confocal microscopy, revealed MYO-1-GFP located mainly as a dynamic collection of small patches arranged in collar-like fashion in the hyphal subapex. Dual tagging showed MYO-1-GFP partially colocalized with two other endocytic proteins, fimbrin and coronin. MYO-1 was also present during septum formation. By recovering a viable strain, albeit severely inhibited, after deletion of myo-1, it was possible to investigate the phenotypic consequences of the elimination of MYO-1. Deletion of myo-1 caused a severe reduction in growth rate (95%), near absence of aerial mycelium and no conidiation. A reduced uptake of the lipophilic dye FM4-64 indicated a deficiency in endocytosis in the Δmyo-1 mutant. Hyphae were produced by the Δmyo-1 mutant but their morphogenesis was severely affected; hyphal morphology was distorted displaying irregular periods of isotropic and polarized growth. The morphological alterations were accompanied, and presumably caused, by a disruption in the organization and dynamics of a myosin-deprived actin cytoskeleton that, ultimately, compromised the stability and function of the Spitzenkörper as a vesicle supply center. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of the cadmium binding compounds in Agaricus arvensis hyphae using 109Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackl, G.A.; Kollmer, W.E.; Reidel, G.

    1987-01-01

    Hyphae from the edible mushroom Agaricus arvensis were grown in a liquid medium supplemented with 1 mg cadmium per litre. The heavy metal had no influence on the growth of the fungus at this concentration. Cell extracts were labeled in vitro with radioactive 109 Cd. Cadmium was found in two main fractions having apparent molecular weights of about 500 and 1500 dalton. These fractions were identified by chemical analysis of cadmium as well as by radioactive labeling. The in vitro labeling procedure with radioactive cadmium is a more rapid procedure than analyzing the element in the original sample. (author)

  19. Septation of infectious hyphae is critical for appressoria formation and virulence in the smut fungus Ustilago maydis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Freitag

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Differentiation of hyphae into specialized infection structures, known as appressoria, is a common feature of plant pathogenic fungi that penetrate the plant cuticle. Appressorium formation in U. maydis is triggered by environmental signals but the molecular mechanism of this hyphal differentiation is largely unknown. Infectious hyphae grow on the leaf surface by inserting regularly spaced retraction septa at the distal end of the tip cell leaving empty sections of collapsed hyphae behind. Here we show that formation of retraction septa is critical for appressorium formation and virulence in U. maydis. We demonstrate that the diaphanous-related formin Drf1 is necessary for actomyosin ring formation during septation of infectious hyphae. Drf1 acts as an effector of a Cdc42 GTPase signaling module, which also consists of the Cdc42-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor Don1 and the Ste20-like kinase Don3. Deletion of drf1, don1 or don3 abolished formation of retraction septa resulting in reduced virulence. Appressorium formation in these mutants was not completely blocked but infection structures were found only at the tip of short filaments indicating that retraction septa are necessary for appressorium formation in extended infectious hyphae. In addition, appressoria of drf1 mutants penetrated the plant tissue less frequently.

  20. Septation of infectious hyphae is critical for appressoria formation and virulence in the smut fungus Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Johannes; Lanver, Daniel; Böhmer, Christian; Schink, Kay Oliver; Bölker, Michael; Sandrock, Björn

    2011-05-01

    Differentiation of hyphae into specialized infection structures, known as appressoria, is a common feature of plant pathogenic fungi that penetrate the plant cuticle. Appressorium formation in U. maydis is triggered by environmental signals but the molecular mechanism of this hyphal differentiation is largely unknown. Infectious hyphae grow on the leaf surface by inserting regularly spaced retraction septa at the distal end of the tip cell leaving empty sections of collapsed hyphae behind. Here we show that formation of retraction septa is critical for appressorium formation and virulence in U. maydis. We demonstrate that the diaphanous-related formin Drf1 is necessary for actomyosin ring formation during septation of infectious hyphae. Drf1 acts as an effector of a Cdc42 GTPase signaling module, which also consists of the Cdc42-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor Don1 and the Ste20-like kinase Don3. Deletion of drf1, don1 or don3 abolished formation of retraction septa resulting in reduced virulence. Appressorium formation in these mutants was not completely blocked but infection structures were found only at the tip of short filaments indicating that retraction septa are necessary for appressorium formation in extended infectious hyphae. In addition, appressoria of drf1 mutants penetrated the plant tissue less frequently.

  1. Intra-abdominal fungal pseudomycetoma in two cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Matheus V; Laisse, Cláudio J M; Vargas, Thainã P; Wouters, Flademir; Boabaid, Fabiana M; Pavarini, Saulo P; Ferreiro, Laerte; Driemeier, David

    Pseudomycetomas are deep cutaneous to subcutaneous lesions caused by Microsporum canis mainly described in Persian cats, with few reports of intra-abdominal location. This report describes the clinical signs and lesions of intra-abdominal pseudomycetomas caused by M. canis in two Persian cats. Two Persian cats with a history of previous laparotomy (ovariohysterectomy and nephrostomy) and fecal impaction were examined. Cat #1 was euthanized and subjected to necropsy, histopathology and mycological evaluation. Cat #2 presented with chronic dermatophytosis, and an intra-abdominal mass, that was subjected to histopathology evaluation. Cat #1 presented at necropsy a white-grayish, firm mass (6cm×3.5cm×2.8cm) in the uterine cervix. Cat #2 presented a firm whitish mass (6.5cm×1.5cm×0.5cm) located close to the left kidney. Histologically, both masses contained multifocal granules with hyphae and spores surrounded by Splendore-Hoeppli reaction, with a pyogranulomatous inflammatory infiltrate and fibrous connective tissue proliferation in the periphery. Hyphae and spores exhibited marked Grocott and periodic acid-Schiff staining. M. canis was identified by fungal isolation in cat #1. Pseudomycetoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cats, especially in Persian cats presenting with an intra-abdominal mass. Entrance of the agent into the cavity can occur during laparotomy. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF FOUR FUNGAL ISOLATES TO GANODERMA BONINENSE, THE CAUSAL AGENT OF BASAL STEM ROT OF OIL PALM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKKY SETYAWATI DHARMAPUTRA

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Four fungal isolates from soils obtained from three sites of the oil palm plantations in North Sumatra were found antagonistic to Ganoderma boninense, the causal agent of basal stem rot of oil palm. Penicillium citrinum inhibited the growth of the pathogen and formed a zone of inhibition on the agar media. Trichoderma harzianum BIO - 1 as well as BIO - 2 and T. viride not only repressed the growth of the pathogen but also caused lysis of the hyphae, and the colony was totally overgrown by the antagonists.

  3. Muscular dystrophy in a dog resembling human becker muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, A B; Abellonio, F; Pagano, T B; Esposito, I; Peirone, B; Papparella, S; Paciello, O

    2014-05-01

    A 3-year-old, male Labrador retriever dog was presented with clinical signs of progressive exercise intolerance, bilateral elbow extension, rigidity of the forelimbs, hindlimb flexion and kyphosis. Microscopical examination of muscle tissue showed marked variability in myofibre size, replacement of muscle with mature adipose tissue and degeneration/regeneration of muscle fibres, consistent with muscular dystrophy. Immunohistochemical examination for dystrophin showed markedly reduced labelling with monoclonal antibodies specific for the rod domain and the carboxy-terminal of dystrophin, while expression of β-sarcoglycan, γ-sarcoglycan and β-dystroglycan was normal. Immunoblotting revealed a truncated dystrophin protein of approximately 135 kDa. These findings supported a diagnosis of congenital canine muscular dystrophy resembling Becker muscular dystrophy in man. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An endophytic fungus isolated from finger millet (Eleucine coracona produces anti-fungal natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Kamel Mousa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Finger millet is an ancient African cereal crop, domesticated 7000 years ago in Ethiopia, reaching India at 3000 BC. Finger millet is reported to be resistant to various fungal pathogens including Fusarium sp. We hypothesized that finger millet may host beneficial endophytes (plant-colonizing microbes that contribute to the antifungal activity. Here we report the first isolation of endophyte(s from finger millet. Five distinct fungal species were isolated from roots and predicted taxonomically based on 18S rDNA sequencing. Extracts from three putative endophytes inhibited growth of F. graminearum and three other pathogenic Fusarium species. The most potent anti-Fusarium strain (WF4, predicted to be a Phoma sp. was confirmed to behave as an endophyte using pathogenicity and confocal microscopy experiments. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the WF4 extract identified four anti-fungal compounds, viridicatol, tenuazonic acid, alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether. All the purified compounds caused dramatic breakage of F. graminearum hyphae in vitro. These compounds have not previously been reported to have anti-Fusarium activity. None of the compounds, except for tenuazonic acid, have previously been reported to be produced by Phoma. We conclude that the ancient, disease-tolerant crop, finger millet, is a novel source of endophytic anti-fungal natural products. This paper suggests the value of the crops grown by subsistence farmers as sources of endophytes and their natural products. Application of these natural chemicals to solve real world problems will require further validation.

  5. An endophytic fungus isolated from finger millet (Eleusine coracana) produces anti-fungal natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Walaa K; Schwan, Adrian; Davidson, Jeffrey; Strange, Philip; Liu, Huaizhi; Zhou, Ting; Auzanneau, France-Isabelle; Raizada, Manish N

    2015-01-01

    Finger millet is an ancient African cereal crop, domesticated 7000 years ago in Ethiopia, reaching India at 3000 BC. Finger millet is reported to be resistant to various fungal pathogens including Fusarium sp. We hypothesized that finger millet may host beneficial endophytes (plant-colonizing microbes) that contribute to the antifungal activity. Here we report the first isolation of endophyte(s) from finger millet. Five distinct fungal species were isolated from roots and predicted taxonomically based on 18S rDNA sequencing. Extracts from three putative endophytes inhibited growth of F. graminearum and three other pathogenic Fusarium species. The most potent anti-Fusarium strain (WF4, predicted to be a Phoma sp.) was confirmed to behave as an endophyte using pathogenicity and confocal microscopy experiments. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the WF4 extract identified four anti-fungal compounds, viridicatol, tenuazonic acid, alternariol, and alternariol monomethyl ether. All the purified compounds caused dramatic breakage of F. graminearum hyphae in vitro. These compounds have not previously been reported to have anti-Fusarium activity. None of the compounds, except for tenuazonic acid, have previously been reported to be produced by Phoma. We conclude that the ancient, disease-tolerant crop, finger millet, is a novel source of endophytic anti-fungal natural products. This paper suggests the value of the crops grown by subsistence farmers as sources of endophytes and their natural products. Application of these natural chemicals to solve real world problems will require further validation.

  6. Organization of organelles within hyphae of Ashbya gossypii revealed by electron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibeaux, Romain; Hoepfner, Dominic; Schlatter, Ivan; Antony, Claude; Philippsen, Peter

    2013-11-01

    Ashbya gossypii grows as multinucleated and constantly elongating hyphae. Nuclei are in continuous forward and backward motion, also move during mitosis, and frequently bypass each other. Whereas these nuclear movements are well documented, comparatively little is known about the density and morphology of organelles which very likely influence these movements. To understand the three-dimensional subcellular organization of hyphae at high resolution, we performed large-scale electron tomography of the tip regions in A. gossypii. Here, we present a comprehensive space-filling model in which most membrane-limited organelles including nuclei, mitochondria, endosomes, multivesicular bodies, vacuoles, autophagosomes, peroxisomes, and vesicles are modeled. Nuclei revealed different morphologies and protrusions filled by the nucleolus. Mitochondria are very abundant and form a tubular network with a polarized spherical fraction. The organelles of the degradative pathways show a clustered organization. By analyzing vesicle-like bodies, we identified three size classes of electron-dense vesicles (∼200, ∼150, and ∼100 nm) homogeneously distributed in the cytoplasm which most likely represent peroxisomes. Finally, coated and uncoated vesicles with approximately 40-nm diameters show a polarized distribution toward the hyphal tip with the coated vesicles preferentially localizing at the hyphal periphery.

  7. Contact-induced apical asymmetry drives the thigmotropic responses of Candida albicans hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Darren D; Wehmeier, Silvia; Byfield, FitzRoy J; Janmey, Paul A; Caballero-Lima, David; Crossley, Alison; Brand, Alexandra C

    2015-03-01

    Filamentous hyphae of the human pathogen, Candida albicans, invade mucosal layers and medical silicones. In vitro, hyphal tips reorient thigmotropically on contact with small obstacles. It is not known how surface topography is sensed but hyphae lacking the cortical marker, Rsr1/Bud1, are unresponsive. We show that, on surfaces, the morphology of hyphal tips and the position of internal polarity protein complexes are asymmetrically skewed towards the substratum and biased towards the softer of two surfaces. In nano-fabricated chambers, the Spitzenkörper (Spk) responded to touch by translocating across the apex towards the point of contact, where its stable maintenance correlated with contour-following growth. In the rsr1Δ mutant, the position of the Spk meandered and these responses were attenuated. Perpendicular collision caused lateral Spk oscillation within the tip until after establishment of a new growth axis, suggesting Spk position does not predict the direction of growth in C. albicans. Acute tip reorientation occurred only in cells where forward growth was countered by hyphal friction sufficient to generate a tip force of ∼ 8.7 μN (1.2 MPa), more than that required to penetrate host cell membranes. These findings suggest mechanisms through which the organization of hyphal tip growth in C. albicans facilitates the probing, penetration and invasion of host tissue. © 2014 The Authors. Cellular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Fungal endocarditis in paediatrics: a review of 192 cases (1971-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Vithiya; Ponnusamy, Shunmuga Sundaram; Sundaramurthy, Raja

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this article were to review the published literature on fungal endocarditis in children and to discuss the aetiology and diagnosis, with emphasis on non-invasive methods and various treatment regimes. We systematically reviewed published cases and case series of fungal endocarditis in children. We searched the literature, including PubMed and individual references for publications of original articles, single cases, or case series of paediatric fungal endocarditis, with the following keywords: "fungal endocarditis", "neonates", "infants", "child", and "cardiac vegetation". There have been 192 documented cases of fungal endocarditis in paediatrics. The highest number of cases was reported in infants (93/192, 48%) including 60 in neonates. Of the neonatal cases, 57 were premature with a median gestational age of 27 weeks and median birth weight of 860 g. Overall, 120 yeast - fungus that grows as a single cell - infections and 43 mould - fungus that grows in multicellular filaments, hyphae - infections were reported. With increasing age, there was an increased infection rate with moulds. All the yeast infections were detected by blood culture. In cases with mould infection, diagnosis was mainly established by culture or histology of emboli or infected valves after invasive surgical procedures. There have been a few recent cases of successful early diagnosis by non-invasive methods such as blood polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for moulds. The overall mortality for paediatric fungal endocarditis was 56.25%. The most important cause of death was cardiac complications due to heart failure. Among the various treatment regimens used, none of them was significantly associated with better outcome. Non-invasive methods such as PCR tests can be used to improve the chances of detecting and identifying the aetiological agent in a timely manner. Delays in the diagnosis of these infections may result in high mortality and morbidity. No significant difference was noted

  9. THE THN MUTATION OF SCHIZOPHYLLUM-COMMUNE, WHICH SUPPRESSES FORMATION OF AERIAL HYPHAE, AFFECTS EXPRESSION OF THE SC3 HYDROPHOBIN GENE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WESSELS, JGH; DEVRIES, OMH; ASGEIRSDOTTIR, SA; SPRINGER, J

    1991-01-01

    The spontaneous and recessive mutation thn in the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune suppresses the formation of aerial hyphae in the monokaryon and, if present as a double dose, the formation of both aerial hyphae and fruit-bodies in the dikaryon. In the monokaryon, the mutation prevents

  10. Two Cdc2 Kinase Genes with Distinct Functions in Vegetative and Infectious Hyphae in Fusarium graminearum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiquan Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cell cycle involves a number of protein kinases important for the onset and progression through mitosis, most of which are well characterized in the budding and fission yeasts and conserved in other fungi. However, unlike the model yeast and filamentous fungi that have a single Cdc2 essential for cell cycle progression, the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum contains two CDC2 orthologs. The cdc2A and cdc2B mutants had no obvious defects in growth rate and conidiation but deletion of both of them is lethal, indicating that these two CDC2 orthologs have redundant functions during vegetative growth and asexual reproduction. However, whereas the cdc2B mutant was normal, the cdc2A mutant was significantly reduced in virulence and rarely produced ascospores. Although deletion of CDC2A had no obvious effect on the formation of penetration branches or hyphopodia, the cdc2A mutant was limited in the differentiation and growth of infectious growth in wheat tissues. Therefore, CDC2A plays stage-specific roles in cell cycle regulation during infectious growth and sexual reproduction. Both CDC2A and CDC2B are constitutively expressed but only CDC2A was up-regulated during plant infection and ascosporogenesis. Localization of Cdc2A- GFP to the nucleus but not Cdc2B-GFP was observed in vegetative hyphae, ascospores, and infectious hyphae. Complementation assays with chimeric fusion constructs showed that both the N- and C-terminal regions of Cdc2A are important for its functions in pathogenesis and ascosporogenesis but only the N-terminal region is important for its subcellular localization. Among the Sordariomycetes, only three Fusarium species closely related to F. graminearum have two CDC2 genes. Furthermore, F. graminearum uniquely has two Aurora kinase genes and one additional putative cyclin gene, and its orthologs of CAK1 and other four essential mitotic kinases in the budding yeast are dispensable for viability. Overall, our data

  11. Two Cdc2 Kinase Genes with Distinct Functions in Vegetative and Infectious Hyphae in Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiquan; Zhang, Shijie; Ma, Jiwen; Dai, Yafeng; Li, Chaohui; Lyu, Xueliang; Wang, Chenfang; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2015-06-01

    Eukaryotic cell cycle involves a number of protein kinases important for the onset and progression through mitosis, most of which are well characterized in the budding and fission yeasts and conserved in other fungi. However, unlike the model yeast and filamentous fungi that have a single Cdc2 essential for cell cycle progression, the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum contains two CDC2 orthologs. The cdc2A and cdc2B mutants had no obvious defects in growth rate and conidiation but deletion of both of them is lethal, indicating that these two CDC2 orthologs have redundant functions during vegetative growth and asexual reproduction. However, whereas the cdc2B mutant was normal, the cdc2A mutant was significantly reduced in virulence and rarely produced ascospores. Although deletion of CDC2A had no obvious effect on the formation of penetration branches or hyphopodia, the cdc2A mutant was limited in the differentiation and growth of infectious growth in wheat tissues. Therefore, CDC2A plays stage-specific roles in cell cycle regulation during infectious growth and sexual reproduction. Both CDC2A and CDC2B are constitutively expressed but only CDC2A was up-regulated during plant infection and ascosporogenesis. Localization of Cdc2A- GFP to the nucleus but not Cdc2B-GFP was observed in vegetative hyphae, ascospores, and infectious hyphae. Complementation assays with chimeric fusion constructs showed that both the N- and C-terminal regions of Cdc2A are important for its functions in pathogenesis and ascosporogenesis but only the N-terminal region is important for its subcellular localization. Among the Sordariomycetes, only three Fusarium species closely related to F. graminearum have two CDC2 genes. Furthermore, F. graminearum uniquely has two Aurora kinase genes and one additional putative cyclin gene, and its orthologs of CAK1 and other four essential mitotic kinases in the budding yeast are dispensable for viability. Overall, our data indicate that cell cycle

  12. Leprae reaction resembling rheumatologic disease as presenting feature of leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharuddin, Hazlyna; Taib, Tarita; Zain, Mollyza Mohd; Ch'ng, Shereen

    2016-10-01

    Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae with predominant involvement of skin and nerves. We present a 70-year-old man with leprosy whose initial presentation resembled rheumatologic disease, due to leprae reaction. He presented with an 8-week history of worsening neuropathic pain in the right forearm, associated with necrotic skin lesions on his fingers that had ulcerated. Physical examination revealed two tender necrotic ulcers at the tip of the right middle finger and the dorsal aspect of the left middle finger. The patient had right wrist tenosynovitis and right elbow bursitis. Apart from raised inflammatory markers, the investigations for infection, connective tissue disease, vasculitis, thromboembolic disease and malignancy were negative. During the fourth week of hospitalization, we noticed a 2-cm hypoesthetic indurated plaque on the right inner arm. Further examination revealed thickened bilateral ulnar, radial and popliteal nerves. A slit skin smear was negative. Two skin biopsies and a biopsy of the olecranon bursa revealed granulomatous inflammation. He was diagnosed with paucibacillary leprosy with neuritis. He responded well to multidrug therapy and prednisolone; his symptoms resolved over a few weeks. This case illustrates the challenges in diagnosing a case of leprosy with atypical presentation in a non-endemic country. © 2016 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Neurogenesis in Aplysia californica resembles nervous system formation in vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    The pattern of neurogenesis of the central nervous system of Aplysia californica was investigated by [ 3 H]thymidine autoradiography. Large numbers of animals at a series of early developmental stages were labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine for 24 or 48 hr and were subsequently sampled at specific intervals throughout the life cycle. I found that proliferative zones, consisting of columnar and placodal ectodermal cells, are established in regions of the body wall adjacent to underlying mesodermal cells. Mitosis in the proliferative zones generates a population of cells which leave the surface and migrate inward to join the nearby forming ganglia. Tracing specific [ 3 H]thymidine-labeled cells from the body wall to a particular ganglion and within the ganglion over time suggests that the final genomic replication of the neuronal precursors occurs before the cells join the ganglion while glial cell precursors and differentiating glial cells continue to divide within the ganglion for some time. Ultrastructural examination of the morphological features of the few mitosing cells observed within the Aplysia central nervous system supports this interpretation. The pattern of neurogenesis in the Aplysia central nervous system resembles the proliferation of cells in the neural tube and the migration of neural crest and ectodermal placode cells in the vertebrate nervous system but differs from the pattern described for other invertebrates

  14. A Para-Canalicular Abscess Resembling an Inflamed Chalazion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diamantis Almaliotis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lacrimal infections by Actinomyces are rare and commonly misdiagnosed for long periods of time. They account for 2% of all lacrimal diseases. Case Report. We report a case of a 70-year-old female patient suffering from a para-canalicular abscess in the medial canthus of the left eye, beside the lower punctum lacrimale, resembling a chalazion. Purulence exited from the punctum lacrimale due to inflammation of the inferior canaliculus (canaliculitis. When pressure was applied to the mass, a second exit of purulence was also observed under the palpebral conjunctiva below the lacrimal caruncle. A surgical excision was performed followed by administration of local antibiotic therapy. The histopathological examination of the extracted mass revealed the existence of actinomycosis. Conclusion. Persistent or recurrent infections and lumps of the eyelids should be thoroughly investigated. Actinomyces as a causative agent should be considered. Differential diagnosis is broad and should include canaliculitis, chalazion, and multiple types of neoplasias. For this reason, in nonconclusive cases, a histopathological examination should be performed.

  15. Autosomal dominant syndrome resembling Coffin-Siris syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Maureen A; Milunsky, Jeff M

    2006-06-15

    Coffin-Siris syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome with phenotypic variability [OMIM 135900]. The diagnosis is based solely on clinical findings, as there is currently no molecular, biochemical, or cytogenetic analysis available to confirm a diagnosis. Although typically described as an autosomal recessive disorder, autosomal dominant inheritance has also been infrequently reported. We describe a mother and her two daughters who all have features that resemble Coffin-Siris syndrome. However, this is not a completely convincing diagnosis given that hypertelorism is not a feature of Coffin-Siris syndrome and the family is relatively mildly affected. Yet, this family provides further evidence of an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance for a likely variant of Coffin-Siris syndrome (at least in some families). In addition, Sibling 1 had premature thelarche. She is the second reported individual within the spectrum of Coffin-Siris syndrome to have premature thelarche, indicating that it may be a rare clinical feature. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Extended retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis with genital involvement, resembling fournier gangrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Motokazu; Matsuura, Kenji; Takayama, Hiroshi; Kayo, Munefumi; Ie, Tomotsugu

    2010-10-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious infection that originates in the subcutaneous tissues. Although many reports have been published about necrotizing infections of other anatomical sites, retroperitoneal necrotizing soft tissue infection is a rare entity that has been described in only a few case reports. The etiology and clinical course of retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis can be variable and it is often difficult to identify the etiology of the infective process. We report a 58-year-old man with rapidly progressive, gas-producing, necrotizing inflammation in the retroperitoneum, complicated with genital involvement resembling Fournier gangrene. The patient was managed successfully by aggressive drainage, debridement, and sequential laparotomies to track and control the extensive necrosis of the retroperitoneum and perineum, in addition to systemic care to control sepsis. After his general condition stabilized, early rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma was identified and resected curatively. He remained well at follow up, six months after discharge. In retrospect, the trigger of the disease process was unclear. Although it was believed possibly to be due to the colon lesion, adenocarcinoma of the rectosigmoid colon was identified and the patient was managed successfully. Similar to necrotizing infections at other anatomical sites, early diagnosis and timely surgical intervention and systemic antimicrobial therapy are mandatory for treating patients with retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis.

  17. Simultaneous transcriptome analysis of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and tomato fruit pathosystem reveals novel fungal pathogenicity and fruit defense strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Noam; Friedlander, Gilgi; Ment, Dana; Prusky, Dov; Fluhr, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides breaches the fruit cuticle but remains quiescent until fruit ripening signals a switch to necrotrophy, culminating in devastating anthracnose disease. There is a need to understand the distinct fungal arms strategy and the simultaneous fruit response. Transcriptome analysis of fungal-fruit interactions was carried out concurrently in the appressoria, quiescent and necrotrophic stages. Conidia germinating on unripe fruit cuticle showed stage-specific transcription that was accompanied by massive fruit defense responses. The subsequent quiescent stage showed the development of dendritic-like structures and swollen hyphae within the fruit epidermis. The quiescent fungal transcriptome was characterized by activation of chromatin remodeling genes and unsuspected environmental alkalization. Fruit response was portrayed by continued highly integrated massive up-regulation of defense genes. During cuticle infection of green or ripe fruit, fungi recapitulate the same developmental stages but with differing quiescent time spans. The necrotrophic stage showed a dramatic shift in fungal metabolism and up-regulation of pathogenicity factors. Fruit response to necrotrophy showed activation of the salicylic acid pathway, climaxing in cell death. Transcriptome analysis of C. gloeosporioides infection of fruit reveals its distinct stage-specific lifestyle and the concurrent changing fruit response, deepening our perception of the unfolding fungal-fruit arms and defenses race. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Coupling auto trophic in vitro plant cultivation system to scanning electron microscope to study plant-fungal interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, N. de; Decock, C.; Declereck, S.; Providencia, I. E. de la

    2010-07-01

    The interactions of plants with pathogens and beneficial micro-organisms have been seldom compared on the same host and under strict controlled auto trophic in vitro culture conditions. Here, the life cycle of two plant beneficial (Glomus sp. MUCL 41833 and Trichoderma harzianum) and one plant pathogen (Rhizoctonia solani) fungi were described on potato (Solanum tuberosum) plantlets under auto trophic in vitro culture conditions using video camera imaging and the scanning electron microscope (SEM). (i) The colony developmental pattern of the extraradical mycelium within the substrate, (ii) the reproduction structures and (iii) the three-dimensional spatial arrangements of the fungal hyphae within the potato root cells were successfully visualized, monitored and described. The combination of the autotrophic in vitro culture system and SEM represent a powerful tool for improving our knowledge on the dynamics of plant-fungal interactions. (Author) 41 refs.

  19. Ultrastructural differences between wall apices of growing and non-growing hyphae of Schizophyllum commune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeulen, C.A.; Wessels, J.G.H.

    1984-01-01

    Newly synthesized chitin at the hyphal apex of Schizophyllum commune was shown to be highly susceptible to chitinase degradiation and solubilization by dilute mineral acid. With time this chitin became gradually more resistant to these treatments. With a combination of the shadow-cast technique and electron microscopic autoradiography it could be shown that this process occurred as the newly synthesized chitin moved into subapical parts of growing hyphae but also in non-growing apices which had ceased growth after incorporation of the N-acetyl[6- 3 H]glucosamine. These results are in agreement with a model which explains apical morphogenesis by assuming that the newly synthesized wall material at the apex is plastic due to the presence of individual polymer chains but becomes rigidified because of subsequent physical and chemical changes involving these polymers. (Author)

  20. Live imaging of β-1,3-glucan synthase FKS-1 in Neurospora crassa hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-León, Eddy; Riquelme, Meritxell

    2015-09-01

    The subcellular localization and dynamics of FKS-1, the putative catalytic subunit of the β-1,3-glucan synthase complex, was analyzed in growing hyphae of Neurospora crassa by live confocal microscopy. GFP-tagged FKS-1 accumulated at the outer layer of the Spitzenkörper (Spk), and at the apical plasma membrane (PM). Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis revealed arrival of FKS-1-containing carriers first at the immediate surroundings of the core region of the Spk, and thereafter to the Spk most outer region. The results obtained here and previous data suggest that FKS-1 is transported to the Spk in macrovesicles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mass flow and velocity profiles in Neurospora hyphae: partial plug flow dominates intra-hyphal transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadeh, Aryan; Lew, Roger R

    2013-11-01

    Movement of nuclei, mitochondria and vacuoles through hyphal trunks of Neurospora crassa were vector-mapped using fluorescent markers and green fluorescent protein tags. The vectorial movements of all three were strongly correlated, indicating the central role of mass (bulk) flow in cytoplasm movements in N. crassa. Profiles of velocity versus distance from the hyphal wall did not match the parabolic shape predicted by the ideal Hagen-Poiseuille model of flow at low Reynolds number. Instead, the profiles were flat, consistent with a model of partial plug flow due to the high concentration of organelles in the flowing cytosol. The intra-hyphal pressure gradients were manipulated by localized external osmotic treatments to demonstrate the dependence of velocity (and direction) on pressure gradients within the hyphae. The data support the concept that mass transport, driven by pressure gradients, dominates intra-hyphal transport. The transport occurs by partial plug flow due to the organelles in the cytosol.

  2. Nitrogen transfer via VA mycorrhiza hyphae link between roots of red clover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Junling; Li Xiaolin; Yang Zhifu

    1997-01-01

    Five compartments with a air gap was designed to examine underground N transfer via VAM hyphae link between roots of red clover. 15 N was injected into the root compartment for donor plant 4 weeks after planting. Plants were harvested 6 weeks afterwards. The experiment had four treatments: two N levels (receiver root compartment); mycorrhiza and non-mycorrhiza treatment (B compartment), and each with four replicates. It was demonstrated that there was no significant difference in 15 N abundance in receiver red clover regardless of the inoculation of mycorrhiza fungi and nitrogen fertilization. Both shoot and root dry weight of receiver plants were not affected too, however, plant P and N nutrient status got better under this condition

  3. Spatial variability in mycorrhizal hyphae and nutrient and water availability in a soil-weathered bedrock profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.M. Egerton-Warburton; R.C. Graham; K.R. Hubbert

    2003-01-01

    We documented the spatial distribution, abundance and molecular diversity of mycorrhizal hyphae and physical and chemical properties of soil-weathered bedrock in a chaparral community that experiences seasonal drought. Because plants in this community were known to rely on bedrock-stored water during the summer, the data were used to evaluate the potential role of...

  4. Fungal biodiversity to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambergo, Felipe S; Valencia, Estela Y

    2016-03-01

    Fungal habitats include soil, water, and extreme environments. With around 100,000 fungus species already described, it is estimated that 5.1 million fungus species exist on our planet, making fungi one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms of eukaryotes. Fungi show remarkable metabolic features due to a sophisticated genomic network and are important for the production of biotechnological compounds that greatly impact our society in many ways. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on fungal biodiversity, with special emphasis on filamentous fungi and the most recent discoveries in the field of identification and production of biotechnological compounds. More than 250 fungus species have been studied to produce these biotechnological compounds. This review focuses on three of the branches generally accepted in biotechnological applications, which have been identified by a color code: red, green, and white for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial biotechnology, respectively. We also discuss future prospects for the use of filamentous fungi in biotechnology application.

  5. Biofilm development by blastospores and hyphae of Candida albicans on abraded denture acrylic resin surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sarah; Coulthwaite, Lisa; Loewy, Zvi; Scallan, Anthony; Verran, Joanna

    2014-10-01

    Candida albicans is a known etiologic agent of denture stomatitis. Candida hyphae exhibit the ability to respond directionally to environmental stimuli. This characteristic is thought to be important in the penetration of substrata such as resilient denture liners and host epithelium. It has been suggested that hyphal production also enhances adhesion and survival of Candida on host and denture surfaces. Surface roughness, in addition, can enhance adhesion where stronger interactions occur between cells and surface features of similar dimensions. The purpose of this study was to assess the development of hyphal and blastospore biofilms on abraded denture acrylic resin specimens and measure the ease of removal of these biofilms. Biofilms were grown for 48 hours on abraded 1-cm² denture acrylic resin specimens from adhered hyphal phase C albicans or from adhered blastospores. Subsequently, all specimens were stained with Calcofluor White and examined with confocal scanning laser microscopy. Biofilms were removed by vortex mixing in sterile phosphate buffered saline solution. Removed cells were filtered (0.2-μm pore size). Filters were dried at 37°C for 24 hours for dry weight measurements. Any cells that remained on the acrylic resin specimens were stained with 0.03% acridine orange and examined with epifluorescence microscopy. Biofilms grown from both cell types contained all morphologic forms of C albicans. Although the underlying surface topography did not affect the amount of biofilm produced, biofilms grown from hyphal phase Candida were visibly thicker and had greater biomass (Phyphae in early Candida biofilms increased biofilm mass and resistance to removal. Increased surface roughness enhances retention of hyphae and yeast cells, and, therefore, will facilitate plaque regrowth. Therefore, minimization of denture abrasion during cleaning is desirable. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  6. Do general radiographic examinations resemble a person-centred environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayre, C.M.; Blackman, S.; Eyden, A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim and objective: It is argued whether general radiographic examinations adhere to a person-centred approach within the direct digital radiography (DDR) environment. General radiographic examinations continue to increase and constitute approximately 90% of all examinations undertaken in the clinical environment. This study explored the potential impact patients experience whilst undergoing general imaging examinations. Method: An ethnographic methodology provided insight of two general radiography environments in the United Kingdom (UK) using participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Findings: The findings highlighted an ‘in and out’ culture whereby patients are ‘hurried’ and ‘rushed’ out of X-ray rooms in response to increasing time pressures experienced by diagnostic radiographers. In addition, this study challenged that patients may begin to rank ‘speed’ and ‘waiting times’ above other elements of radiographic care thus presenting new challenges for radiographers within the clinical environment. Conclusion: It is asserted that radiographers should remain holistic healthcare professionals and not begin to resemble operators on the production line. Further, it challenges whether patients are beginning to rank aspects of radiographic care within contemporary practices. Advances in knowledge: Few studies have explored the radiographer–patient relationship within the DDR environment, yet this study provides insight of person-centred practices within contemporary practices. - Highlights: • Challenges whether the use of DDR conforms to a person-centred approach. • Challenges whether radiographers are ‘treating patients as persons’ using DDR. • Patients may begin to rank ‘speed’ and ‘waiting times’ above other aspects of radiographic care.

  7. Current management of fungal infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    The management of superficial fungal infections differs significantly from the management of systemic fungal infections. Most superficial infections are treated with topical antifungal agents, the choice of agent being determined by the site and extent of the infection and by the causative organism,

  8. The evolution of fungal epiphytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hongsanan, S.; Sánchez-Ramírez, S.; Crous, P.W.; Ariyawansa, H.A.; Zhao, R.L.; Hyde, K.D.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal epiphytes are a polyphyletic group found on the surface of plants, particularly on leaves, with a worldwide distribution. They belong in the phylum Ascomycota, which contains the largest known number of fungal genera. There has been little research dating the origins of the common ancestors

  9. A conserved fungal glycosyltransferase facilitates pathogenesis of plants by enabling hyphal growth on solid surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert King

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic fungi must extend filamentous hyphae across solid surfaces to cause diseases of plants. However, the full inventory of genes which support this is incomplete and many may be currently concealed due to their essentiality for the hyphal growth form. During a random T-DNA mutagenesis screen performed on the pleomorphic wheat (Triticum aestivum pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici, we acquired a mutant unable to extend hyphae specifically when on solid surfaces. In contrast "yeast-like" growth, and all other growth forms, were unaffected. The inability to extend surface hyphae resulted in a complete loss of virulence on plants. The affected gene encoded a predicted type 2 glycosyltransferase (ZtGT2. Analysis of >800 genomes from taxonomically diverse fungi highlighted a generally widespread, but discontinuous, distribution of ZtGT2 orthologues, and a complete absence of any similar proteins in non-filamentous ascomycete yeasts. Deletion mutants of the ZtGT2 orthologue in the taxonomically un-related fungus Fusarium graminearum were also severely impaired in hyphal growth and non-pathogenic on wheat ears. ZtGT2 expression increased during filamentous growth and electron microscopy on deletion mutants (ΔZtGT2 suggested the protein functions to maintain the outermost surface of the fungal cell wall. Despite this, adhesion to leaf surfaces was unaffected in ΔZtGT2 mutants and global RNAseq-based gene expression profiling highlighted that surface-sensing and protein secretion was also largely unaffected. However, ΔZtGT2 mutants constitutively overexpressed several transmembrane and secreted proteins, including an important LysM-domain chitin-binding virulence effector, Zt3LysM. ZtGT2 likely functions in the synthesis of a currently unknown, potentially minor but widespread, extracellular or outer cell wall polysaccharide which plays a key role in facilitating many interactions between plants and fungi by enabling hyphal growth on solid matrices.

  10. A conserved fungal glycosyltransferase facilitates pathogenesis of plants by enabling hyphal growth on solid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Amy; Halsey, Kirstie; Lovegrove, Alison; Hammond-Kosack, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Pathogenic fungi must extend filamentous hyphae across solid surfaces to cause diseases of plants. However, the full inventory of genes which support this is incomplete and many may be currently concealed due to their essentiality for the hyphal growth form. During a random T-DNA mutagenesis screen performed on the pleomorphic wheat (Triticum aestivum) pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici, we acquired a mutant unable to extend hyphae specifically when on solid surfaces. In contrast “yeast-like” growth, and all other growth forms, were unaffected. The inability to extend surface hyphae resulted in a complete loss of virulence on plants. The affected gene encoded a predicted type 2 glycosyltransferase (ZtGT2). Analysis of >800 genomes from taxonomically diverse fungi highlighted a generally widespread, but discontinuous, distribution of ZtGT2 orthologues, and a complete absence of any similar proteins in non-filamentous ascomycete yeasts. Deletion mutants of the ZtGT2 orthologue in the taxonomically un-related fungus Fusarium graminearum were also severely impaired in hyphal growth and non-pathogenic on wheat ears. ZtGT2 expression increased during filamentous growth and electron microscopy on deletion mutants (ΔZtGT2) suggested the protein functions to maintain the outermost surface of the fungal cell wall. Despite this, adhesion to leaf surfaces was unaffected in ΔZtGT2 mutants and global RNAseq-based gene expression profiling highlighted that surface-sensing and protein secretion was also largely unaffected. However, ΔZtGT2 mutants constitutively overexpressed several transmembrane and secreted proteins, including an important LysM-domain chitin-binding virulence effector, Zt3LysM. ZtGT2 likely functions in the synthesis of a currently unknown, potentially minor but widespread, extracellular or outer cell wall polysaccharide which plays a key role in facilitating many interactions between plants and fungi by enabling hyphal growth on solid matrices. PMID:29020037

  11. Superficial fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert A

    Superficial fungal infections arise from a pathogen that is restricted to the stratum corneum, with little or no tissue reaction. In this Seminar, three types of infection will be covered: tinea versicolor, piedra, and tinea nigra. Tinea versicolor is common worldwide and is caused by Malassezia spp, which are human saprophytes that sometimes switch from yeast to pathogenic mycelial form. Malassezia furfur, Malassezia globosa, and Malassezia sympodialis are most closely linked to tinea versicolor. White and black piedra are both common in tropical regions of the world; white piedra is also endemic in temperate climates. Black piedra is caused by Piedraia hortae; white piedra is due to pathogenic species of the Trichosporon genus. Tinea nigra is also common in tropical areas and has been confused with melanoma.

  12. Fungal keratitis: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jastaneiah, Sabah S.; Al-Rajhi, Ali A.

    2006-01-01

    Keratomycosis is a vision-threatening fungal corneal infection. The dramatic increase in the number of cases over the past three decades is attributable not only to better diagnostic recognition, improved laboratory techniques and greater awareness by the ophthalmic society as a whole, but is also due to a true increase in the incidence of keratitis related to the indiscriminate use of topical broad-spectrum antibiotics, corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs, as well as surgical trauma. Corneal trauma has remained the main predisposing factor over the years, though in recent years HIV-positive cases and AIDS are taking lead in certain areas. Aspergillus, Fusarium and Candida species remains the commonest 'organisms' isolated worldwide. Although the approach to this form of keratitis is similar to other types of microbial keratitis, it remains the most difficult in terms of diagnosis and management. Early recognition, prevention, prompt treatment and timely keratoplasty are crucial for a better outcome. (author)

  13. Role of Arf GTPases in fungal morphogenesis and virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayet Labbaoui

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Virulence of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans depends on the switch from budding to filamentous growth, which requires sustained membrane traffic and polarized growth. In many organisms, small GTPases of the Arf (ADP-ribosylation factor family regulate membrane/protein trafficking, yet little is known about their role in fungal filamentous growth. To investigate these GTPases in C. albicans, we generated loss of function mutants in all 3 Arf proteins, Arf1-Arf3, and 2 Arf-like proteins, Arl1 and Arl3. Our results indicate that of these proteins, Arf2 is required for viability and sensitivity to antifungal drugs. Repressible ARF2 expression results in defects in filamentous growth, cell wall integrity and virulence, likely due to alteration of the Golgi. Arl1 is also required for invasive filamentous growth and, although arl1/arl1 cells can initiate hyphal growth, hyphae are substantially shorter than that of the wild-type, due to the inability of this mutant to maintain hyphal growth at a single site. We show that this defect does not result from an alteration of phospholipid distribution and is unlikely to result from the sole Golgin Imh1 mislocalization, as Imh1 is not required for invasive filamentous growth. Rather, our results suggest that the arl1/arl1 hyphal growth defect results from increased secretion in this mutant. Strikingly, the arl1/arl1 mutant is drastically reduced in virulence during oropharyngeal candidiasis. Together, our results highlight the importance of Arl1 and Arf2 as key regulators of hyphal growth and virulence in C. albicans and identify a unique function of Arl1 in secretion.

  14. Water condensation promotes fungal growth in ventilation ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasanen, P.; Pasanen, A.-L. (University of Kupopio, Department of Environmental Sciences, Kuopio (Finland)); Jantunen, M. (National Public Health Institute, Kuopio (Finland))

    1993-01-01

    In a subarctic climate the diurnal variation in temperature may cause water condensation in ducts placed in the unheated spaces of a building. In this study, germination time and sporulation of a fungus, Penicillium verrucosum, were studied on dusty, galvanized steel sheet under different moisture conditions at room temperature. The effect of condensed water in a supply air duct on spore amplification was studied in an experimental ventilation set-up. In the field, air temperatures and the dew point temperature of air in the duct were monitored continuously for a week. P. verrucosum germinated on steel surfaces during five-hour incubation of the surface under humid conditions, when the surface has been moist for half an hour, germ tubes appeared within 17 hours. During 24-hour incubation under moist conditions, P. verrucosum produced hyphae and spores. In the experimental set-up the airborne spore counts increased when the air passed through a water-condensing section of the duct. Penicillium was the most abundant fungus sporulated on the moist duct surface. In the field, during humid weather, the surface temperature on the air stream surface decreased to the dew point temperature of the air in the duct. thus water condensation in air ducts may promote fungal growth. (au)

  15. Bilateral fungal keratitis with ring infiltrates: a rare scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaniyara, Manthan Hasmukhbhai; Pujari, Amar; Urkude, Jayanand; Sharma, Namrata

    2017-10-09

    A 12-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with chief complaints of pain, redness, discharge and diminution of vision in both eyes over the previous 20 days. There was no history of preceding trauma, contact lens use, any eye drop usage or ocular surgery. Systemic history was not significant. Presenting uncorrected visual acuity in his right eye was counting fingers at 1 m and 20/200 in the left eye, with accurate projection of rays in both eyes. Slit lamp biomicroscopy showed the presence of bilateral diffuse conjunctival congestion, corneal ring infiltrates and epithelial defect with corneal oedema. Potassium hydroxide wet mount showed the presence of septate fungal hyphae. The patient was treated with topical 5% natamycin and 1% voriconazole over a period of 6 weeks. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/600 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye at 6-month follow-up. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Fungal Ferromanganese Mineralisation in Cretaceous Dinosaur Bones from the Gobi Desert, Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owocki, Krzysztof; Kremer, Barbara; Wrzosek, Beata; Królikowska, Agata; Kaźmierczak, Józef

    2016-01-01

    Well-preserved mycelia of fungal- or saprolegnia-like biota mineralised by ferromanganese oxides were found for the first time in long bones of Late Cretaceous dinosaurs from the Gobi Desert (Nemegt Valley, Mongolia). The mycelia formed a biofilm on the wall of the bone marrow cavity and penetrated the osteon channels of the nearby bone tissue. Optical microscopy, Raman, SEM/EDS, SEM/BSE, electron microprobe and cathodoluminescence analyses revealed that the mineralisation of the mycelia proceeded in two stages. The first stage was early post-mortem mineralisation of the hyphae by Fe/Mn-oxide coatings and microconcretions. Probably this proceeded in a mildly acidic to circumneutral environment, predominantly due to heterotrophic bacteria degrading the mycelial necromass and liberating Fe and Mn sorbed by the mycelia during its lifetime. The second stage of mineralisation, which proceeded much later following the final burial of the bones in an alkaline environment, resulted from the massive precipitation of calcite and occasionally barite on the iron/manganese-oxide-coated mycelia. The mineral phases produced by fungal biofilms colonising the interiors of decaying dinosaur bones not only enhance the preservation (fossilisation) of fungal remains but can also be used as indicators of the geochemistry of the dinosaur burial sites.

  17. Nitriles at Silica Interfaces Resemble Supported Lipid Bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, Bruce J; Fourkas, John T; Walker, Robert A; Weeks, John D

    2016-09-20

    Nitriles are important solvents not just for bulk reactions but also for interfacial processes such as separations, heterogeneous catalysis, and electrochemistry. Although nitriles have a polar end and a lipophilic end, the cyano group is not hydrophilic enough for these substances to be thought of as prototypical amphiphiles. This picture is now changing, as research is revealing that at a silica surface nitriles can organize into structures that, in many ways, resemble lipid bilayers. This unexpected organization may be a key component of unique interfacial behavior of nitriles that make them the solvents of choice for so many applications. The first hints of this lipid-bilayer-like (LBL) organization of nitriles at silica interfaces came from optical Kerr effect (OKE) experiments on liquid acetonitrile confined in the pores of sol-gel glasses. The orientational dynamics revealed by OKE spectroscopy suggested that the confined liquid is composed of a relatively immobile sublayer of molecules that accept hydrogen bonds from the surface silanol groups and an interdigitated, antiparallel layer that is capable of exchanging into the centers of the pores. This picture of acetonitrile has been borne out by molecular dynamics simulations and vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) experiments. Remarkably, these simulations further indicate that the LBL organization is repeated with increasing disorder at least 20 Å into the liquid from a flat silica surface. Simulations and VSFG and OKE experiments indicate that extending the alkyl chain to an ethyl group leads to the formation of even more tightly packed LBL organization featuring entangled alkyl tails. When the alkyl portion of the molecule is a bulky t-butyl group, packing constraints prevent well-ordered LBL organization of the liquid. In each case, the surface-induced organization of the liquid is reflected in its interfacial dynamics. Acetonitrile/water mixtures are favored solvent systems for separations

  18. Anaerobic fungal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookman, J.L.; Nicholson, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The development of molecular techniques has greatly broadened our view of microbial diversity and enabled a more complete detection and description of microbial communities. The application of these techniques provides a simple means of following community changes, for example, Ishii et al. described transient and more stable inhabitants in another dynamic microbial system, compost. Our present knowledge of anaerobic gut fungal population diversity within the gastrointestinal tract is based upon isolation, cultivation and observations in vivo. It is likely that there are many species yet to be described, some of which may be non-culturable. We have observed a distinct difference in the ease of cultivation between the different genera, for example, Caecomyes isolates are especially difficult to isolate and maintain in vitro, a feature that is likely to result in the under representation of this genera in culture-based enumerations. The anaerobic gut fungi are the only known obligately anaerobic fungi. For the majority of their life cycles, they are found tightly associated with solid digesta in the rumen and/or hindgut. They produce potent fibrolytic enzymes and grow invasively on and into the plant material they are digesting making them important contributors to fibre digestion. This close association with intestinal digesta has made it difficult to accurately determine the amount of fungal biomass present in the rumen, with Orpin suggesting 8% contribution to the total microbial biomass, whereas Rezaeian et al. more recently gave a value of approximately 20%. It is clear that the rumen microbial complement is affected by dietary changes, and that the fungi are more important in digestion in the rumens of animals fed with high-fibre diets. It seems likely that the gut fungi play an important role within the rumen as primary colonizers of plant fibre, and so we are particularly interested in being able to measure the appearance and diversity of fungi on the plant

  19. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are mild skin rashes, but others can be deadly, like fungal pneumonia. Because of this, it’s important ... the environment. Fungi live outdoors in soil, on plants, trees, and other vegetation. They are also on ...

  20. Cancer Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are mild skin rashes, but others can be deadly, like fungal pneumonia. Because of this, it’s important ... the environment. Fungi live outdoors in soil, on plants, trees, and other vegetation. They are also on ...

  1. Pathogenesis of Candida albicans infections in the alternative chorio-allantoic membrane chicken embryo model resembles systemic murine infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse D Jacobsen

    Full Text Available Alternative models of microbial infections are increasingly used to screen virulence determinants of pathogens. In this study, we investigated the pathogenesis of Candida albicans and C. glabrata infections in chicken embryos infected via the chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM and analyzed the virulence of deletion mutants. The developing immune system of the host significantly influenced susceptibility: With increasing age, embryos became more resistant and mounted a more balanced immune response, characterized by lower induction of proinflammatory cytokines and increased transcription of regulatory cytokines, suggesting that immunopathology contributes to pathogenesis. While many aspects of the chicken embryo response resembled murine infections, we also observed significant differences: In contrast to systemic infections in mice, IL-10 had a beneficial effect in chicken embryos. IL-22 and IL-17A were only upregulated after the peak mortality in the chicken embryo model occurred; thus, the role of the Th17 response in this model remains unclear. Abscess formation occurs frequently in murine models, whereas the avian response was dominated by granuloma formation. Pathogenicity of the majority of 15 tested C. albicans deletion strains was comparable to the virulence in mouse models and reduced virulence was associated with significantly lower transcription of proinflammatory cytokines. However, fungal burden did not correlate with virulence and for few mutants like bcr1Δ and tec1Δ different outcomes in survival compared to murine infections were observed. C. albicans strains locked in the yeast stage disseminated significantly more often from the CAM into the embryo, supporting the hypothesis that the yeast morphology is responsible for dissemination in systemic infections. These data suggest that the pathogenesis of C. albicans infections in the chicken embryo model resembles systemic murine infections but also differs in some aspects. Despite

  2. Rhizopus oryzae hyphae are damaged by human natural killer (NK) cells, but suppress NK cell mediated immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stanislaw; Tramsen, Lars; Perkhofer, Susanne; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Hanisch, Mitra; Röger, Frauke; Klingebiel, Thomas; Koehl, Ulrike; Lehrnbecher, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Mucormycosis has a high mortality and is increasingly diagnosed in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. In this setting, there is a growing interest to restore host defense to combat infections by adoptively transferring donor-derived immunocompetent cells. Natural killer (NK) cells exhibit antitumor and antiinfective activity, but the interaction with Mucormycetes is unknown. Our data demonstrate that both unstimulated and IL-2 prestimulated human NK cells damage Rhizopus oryzae hyphae, but do not affect resting conidia. The damage of the fungus is mediated, at least in part, by perforin. R. oryzae hyphae decrease the secretion of immunoregulatory molecules by NK cells, such as IFN-γ and RANTES, indicating an immunosuppressive effect of the fungus. Our data indicate that NK cells exhibit activity against Mucormycetes and future research should evaluate NK cells as a potential tool for adoptive immunotherapy in HSCT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Fungal colonization and decomposition of leaves and stems of Salix arctica on deglaciated moraines in high-Arctic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osono, Takashi; Matsuoka, Shunsuke; Hirose, Dai; Uchida, Masaki; Kanda, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Fungal colonization, succession, and decomposition of leaves and stems of Salix arctica were studied to estimate the roles of fungi in the decomposition processes in the high Arctic. The samples were collected from five moraines with different periods of development since deglaciation to investigate the effects of ecosystem development on the decomposition processes during the primary succession. The total hyphal lengths and the length of darkly pigmented hyphae increased during decomposition of leaves and stems and were not varied with the moraines. Four fungal morphotaxa were frequently isolated from both leaves and stems. The frequencies of occurrence of two morphotaxa varied with the decay class of leaves and/or stems. The hyphal lengths and the frequencies of occurrence of fungal morphotaxa were positively or negatively correlated with the contents of organic chemical components and nutrients in leaves and stems, suggesting the roles of fungi in chemical changes in the field. Pure culture decomposition tests demonstrated that the fungal morphotaxa were cellulose decomposers. Our results suggest that fungi took part in the chemical changes in decomposing leaves and stems even under the harsh environment of the high Arctic.

  4. Structural Analysis of Fungal Cerebrosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana eBarreto-Bergter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, gluco- and galactosylceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. Their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS, electrospray ionization (ESI-MS, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/CID-MS. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR has also been used successfully. Such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical separation, such as HPTLC and column chromatography, has led to the structural elucidation of a great number of fungal CMHs. The structure of fungal CMH is conserved among fungal species and consists of a glucose or galactose residue attached to a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine with an amidic linkage to hydroxylated fatty acids, most commonly having 16 or 18 carbon atoms and unsaturation between C-3 and C-4. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. Fungal cerebrosides were also characterized as antigenic molecules directly or indirectly involved in cell growth or differentiation in Schizophyllum commune, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans, A.fumigatus and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Besides classical techniques for cerebroside (CMH analysis, we now describe new approaches, combining conventional TLC and mass spectrometry, as well as emerging technologies for subcellular localization and distribution of glycosphingolipids by SIMS and imaging MALDI TOF .

  5. Serious fungal infections in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, J; Denning, D W; Paz-Y-Miño, A; Solís, M B; Arias, L M

    2017-06-01

    There is a dearth of data from Ecuador on the burden of life-threatening fungal disease entities; therefore, we estimated the burden of serious fungal infections in Ecuador based on the populations at risk and available epidemiological databases and publications. A full literature search was done to identify all epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates. WHO, ONU-AIDS, Index Mundi, Global Asthma Report, Globocan, and national data [Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC), Ministerio de Salud Pública (MSP), Sociedad de Lucha Contra el Cáncer (SOLCA), Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante de Órganos, Tejidos y Células (INDOT)] were reviewed. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology by LIFE. Ecuador has a variety of climates from the cold of the Andes through temperate to humid hot weather at the coast and in the Amazon basin. Ecuador has a population of 15,223,680 people and an average life expectancy of 76 years. The median estimate of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) population at risk for fungal disease (Ecuador is affected by serious fungal infection.

  6. Streptococcus mutans competence-stimulating peptide inhibits Candida albicans hypha formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Lucja M; Deng, Dong Mei; van der Mei, Henny C; Crielaard, Wim; Krom, Bastiaan P

    2009-11-01

    The oral cavity is colonized by microorganisms growing in biofilms in which interspecies interactions take place. Streptococcus mutans grows in biofilms on enamel surfaces and is considered one of the main etiological agents of human dental caries. Candida albicans is also commonly found in the human oral cavity, where it interacts with S. mutans. C. albicans is a polymorphic fungus, and the yeast-to-hypha transition is involved in virulence and biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to investigate interkingdom communication between C. albicans and S. mutans based on the production of secreted molecules. S. mutans UA159 inhibited C. albicans germ tube (GT) formation in cocultures even when physically separated from C. albicans. Only S. mutans spent medium collected in the early exponential phase (4-h-old cultures) inhibited the GT formation of C. albicans. During this phase, S. mutans UA159 produces a quorum-sensing molecule, competence-stimulating peptide (CSP). The role of CSP in inhibiting GT formation was confirmed by using synthetic CSP and a comC deletion strain of S. mutans UA159, which lacks the ability to produce CSP. Other S. mutans strains and other Streptococcus spp. also inhibited GT formation but to different extents, possibly reflecting differences in CSP amino acid sequences among Streptococcus spp. or differences in CSP accumulation in the media. In conclusion, CSP, an S. mutans quorum-sensing molecule secreted during the early stages of growth, inhibits the C. albicans morphological switch.

  7. Phosphate Uptake from Phytate Due to Hyphae-Mediated Phytase Activity by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Xin; Hoffland, Ellis; Feng, Gu; Kuyper, Thomas W

    2017-01-01

    Phytate is the most abundant form of soil organic phosphorus (P). Increased P nutrition of arbuscular mycorrhizal plants derived from phytate has been repeatedly reported. Earlier studies assessed acid phosphatase rather than phytase as an indication of mycorrhizal fungi-mediated phytate use. We investigated the effect of mycorrhizal hyphae-mediated phytase activity on P uptake by maize. Two maize ( Zea mays L.) cultivars, non-inoculated or inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Funneliformis mosseae or Claroideoglomus etunicatum , were grown for 45 days in two-compartment rhizoboxes, containing a root compartment and a hyphal compartment. The soil in the hyphal compartment was supplemented with 20, 100, and 200 mg P kg -1 soil as calcium phytate. We measured activity of phytase and acid phosphatase in the hyphal compartment, hyphal length density, P uptake, and plant biomass. Our results showed: (1) phytate addition increased phytase and acid phosphatase activity, and resulted in larger P uptake and plant biomass; (2) increases in P uptake and biomass were correlated with phytase activity but not with acid phosphatase activity; (3) lower phytate addition rate increased, but higher addition rate decreased hyphal length density. We conclude that P from phytate can be taken up by arbuscular mycorrhizal plants and that phytase plays a more important role in mineralizing phytate than acid phosphatase.

  8. The metabolic response of Candida albicans to farnesol under hyphae-inducing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ting-Li; Cannon, Richard D; Villas-Bôas, Silas G

    2012-12-01

    Farnesol is a quorum-sensing molecule (QSM) produced, and sensed, by the polymorphic fungus, Candida albicans. This cell-to-cell communication molecule is known to suppress the hyphal formation of C. albicans at high cell density. Despite many studies investigating the signalling mechanisms by which QSMs influence the morphogenesis of C. albicans, the downstream metabolic effect of these signalling pathways in response to farnesol-mediated morphogenesis remains obscure. Here, we have used metabolomics to investigate the metabolic response of C. albicans upon exposure to farnesol under hyphae-inducing conditions. We have found a general up-regulation of central carbon metabolic pathways when hyphal formation was suppressed by farnesol evidenced by a considerably larger number of central carbon metabolic intermediates detected under this condition at an overall lower intracellular level. By combining the metabolic profiles from farnesol-exposed cells with previous metabolomics data for C. albicans undergoing morphogenesis, we have identified several metabolic pathways that are likely to be associated with the morphogenetic process of C. albicans, as well as metabolic pathways such as those involved in lipid metabolism that appeared to be specifically affected by farnesol. Therefore, our results provide important new insights into the metabolic role of farnesol in C. albicans metabolism. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Metabolic response of Candida albicans to phenylethyl alcohol under hyphae-inducing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ting-Li; Tumanov, Sergey; Cannon, Richard D; Villas-Boas, Silas G

    2013-01-01

    Phenylethyl alcohol was one of the first quorum sensing molecules (QSMs) identified in C. albicans. This extracellular signalling molecule inhibits the hyphal formation of C. albicans at high cell density. Little is known, however, about the underlying mechanisms by which this QSM regulates the morphological switches of C. albicans. Therefore, we have applied metabolomics and isotope labelling experiments to investigate the metabolic changes that occur in C. albicans in response to phenylethyl alcohol under defined hyphae-inducing conditions. Our results showed a global upregulation of central carbon metabolism when hyphal development was suppressed by phenylethyl alcohol. By comparing the metabolic changes in response to phenylethyl alcohol to our previous metabolomic studies, we were able to short-list 7 metabolic pathways from central carbon metabolism that appear to be associated with C. albicans morphogenesis. Furthermore, isotope-labelling data showed that phenylethyl alcohol is indeed taken up and catabolised by yeast cells. Isotope-labelled carbon atoms were found in the majority of amino acids as well as in lactate and glyoxylate. However, isotope-labelled carbon atoms from phenylethyl alcohol accumulated mainly in the pyridine ring of NAD(+)/NADH and NADP(-/)NADPH molecules, showing that these nucleotides were the main products of phenylethyl alcohol catabolism. Interestingly, two metabolic pathways where these nucleotides play an important role, nitrogen metabolism and nicotinate/nicotinamide metabolism, were also short-listed through our previous metabolomics works as metabolic pathways likely to be closely associated with C. albicans morphogenesis.

  10. Evolution of multinucleated Ashbya gossypii hyphae from a budding yeast-like ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Hans-Peter; Philippsen, Peter

    2011-06-01

    In the filamentous ascomycete Ashbya gossypii polarity establishment at sites of germ tube and lateral branch emergence depends on homologues of Saccharomyces cerevisiae factors controlling bud site selection and bud emergence. Maintenance of polar growth involves homologues of well-known polarity factors of budding yeast. To achieve the much higher rates of sustained polar surface expansion of hyphae compared to mainly non-polarly growing yeast buds five important alterations had to evolve. Permanent presence of the polarity machinery at a confined area in the rapidly expanding hyphal tip, increased cytoplasmic space with a much enlarged ER surface for generating secretory vesicles, efficient directed transport of secretory vesicles to and accumulation at the tip, increased capacity of the exocytosis system to process these vesicles, and an efficient endocytosis system for membrane and polarity factor recycling adjacent to the zone of exocytosis. Morphological, cell biological, and molecular aspects of this evolution are discussed based on experiments performed within the past 10 y. Copyright © 2011 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinase β and δ regulate neutrophil oxidase activation in response to Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Keith B; Gyori, David; Sindrilaru, Anca; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Taylor, Philip R; Mócsai, Attila; Stephens, Len R; Hawkins, Phillip T

    2011-03-01

    An effective immune response to the ubiquitous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is dependent upon production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the NADPH oxidase. This is evidenced by the acute sensitivity of oxidase-deficient humans and mice to invasive aspergillosis. Neutrophils are recruited to the lungs shortly postinfection and respond by phagocytosing conidia and mediating extracellular killing of germinated hyphae in a ROS-dependent manner. However, the signaling mechanisms regulating the generation of ROS in response to hyphae are poorly understood. PI3Ks are important regulators of numerous cellular processes, with much recent work describing unique roles for the different class I PI3K isoforms. We showed by live-cell imaging that the lipid products of class I PI3Ks accumulated at the hyphal-bound neutrophil plasma membrane. Further, we used pharmacological and genetic approaches to demonstrate essential, but overlapping, roles for PI3Kβ and PI3Kδ in the ROS and spreading responses of murine neutrophils to Aspergillus hyphae. Hyphal-induced ROS responses were substantially inhibited by deletion of the common β2-integrin subunit CD18, with only a minor, redundant role for Dectin-1. However, addition of soluble algal glucans plus the genetic deletion of CD18 were required to significantly inhibit activation of the PI3K-effector protein kinase B. Hyphal ROS responses were also totally dependent on the presence of Syk, but not its ITAM-containing adaptor proteins FcRγ or DAP12, and the Vav family of Rac-guanine nucleotide exchange factors. These results start to define the signaling network controlling neutrophil ROS responses to A. fumigatus hyphae.

  12. The dectin-1/inflammasome pathway is responsible for the induction of protective T-helper 17 responses that discriminate between yeasts and hyphae of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shih-Chin; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Lenardon, Megan; Stoffels, Monique; Plantinga, Theo; Smeekens, Sanne; Rizzetto, Lisa; Mukaremera, Liliane; Preechasuth, Kanya; Cavalieri, Duccio; Kanneganti, Thirumala Devi; van der Meer, Jos W M; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Joosten, Leo A B; Gow, Neil A R; Netea, Mihai G

    2011-08-01

    In the mucosa, the immune pathways discriminating between colonizing and invasive Candida, thus inducing tolerance or inflammation, are poorly understood. Th17 responses induced by Candida albicans hyphae are central for the activation of mucosal antifungal immunity. An essential step for the discrimination between yeasts and hyphae and induction of Th17 responses is the activation of the inflammasome by C. albicans hyphae and the subsequent release of active IL-1β in macrophages. Inflammasome activation in macrophages results from differences in cell-wall architecture between yeasts and hyphae and is partly mediated by the dectin-1/Syk pathway. These results define the dectin-1/inflammasome pathway as the mechanism that enables the host immune system to mount a protective Th17 response and distinguish between colonization and tissue invasion by C. albicans.

  13. Neutrophil-mediated protection of cultured human vascular endothelial cells from damage by growing Candida albicans hyphae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.E. Jr.; Rotrosen, D.; Fontaine, J.W.; Haudenschild, C.C.; Diamond, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    Interactions were studied between human neutrophils and cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells invaded by Candida albicans. In the absence of neutrophils, progressive Candida germination and hyphal growth extensively damaged endothelial cell monolayers over a period of 4 to 6 hours, as determined both by morphological changes and release of 51 Cr from radiolabeled endothelial cells. Monolayers were completely destroyed and replaced by hyphae after 18 hours of incubation. In contrast, when added 2 hours after the monolayers had been infected with Candida, neutrophils selectively migrated toward and attached to hyphae at points of hyphal penetration into individual endothelial cells (observed by time-lapse video-microscopy). Attached neutrophils spread over hyphal surfaces both within and beneath the endothelial cells; neutrophil recruitment to initial sites of leukocyte-Candida-endothelial cell interactions continued throughout the first 60 minutes of observation. Neutrophil spreading and stasis were observed only along Candida hyphae and at sites of Candida-endothelial cell interactions. These events resulted in 58.0% killing of Candida at 2 hours and subsequent clearance of Candida from endothelial cell monolayers, as determined by microcolony counts and morphological observation. On introduction of additional neutrophils to yield higher ratios of neutrophils to endothelial cells (10 neutrophils:1 endothelial cell), neutrophil migration toward hyphal elements continued. Despite retraction or displacement of occasional endothelial cells by invading Candida and neutrophils, most endothelial cells remained intact, viable, and motile as verified both by morphological observations and measurement of 51 Cr release from radiolabeled monolayers

  14. The general transcriptional repressor Tup1 is required for dimorphism and virulence in a fungal plant pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Elías-Villalobos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A critical step in the life cycle of many fungal pathogens is the transition between yeast-like growth and the formation of filamentous structures, a process known as dimorphism. This morphological shift, typically triggered by multiple environmental signals, is tightly controlled by complex genetic pathways to ensure successful pathogenic development. In animal pathogenic fungi, one of the best known regulators of dimorphism is the general transcriptional repressor, Tup1. However, the role of Tup1 in fungal dimorphism is completely unknown in plant pathogens. Here we show that Tup1 plays a key role in orchestrating the yeast to hypha transition in the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis. Deletion of the tup1 gene causes a drastic reduction in the mating and filamentation capacity of the fungus, in turn leading to a reduced virulence phenotype. In U. maydis, these processes are controlled by the a and b mating-type loci, whose expression depends on the Prf1 transcription factor. Interestingly, Δtup1 strains show a critical reduction in the expression of prf1 and that of Prf1 target genes at both loci. Moreover, we observed that Tup1 appears to regulate Prf1 activity by controlling the expression of the prf1 transcriptional activators, rop1 and hap2. Additionally, we describe a putative novel prf1 repressor, named Pac2, which seems to be an important target of Tup1 in the control of dimorphism and virulence. Furthermore, we show that Tup1 is required for full pathogenic development since tup1 deletion mutants are unable to complete the sexual cycle. Our findings establish Tup1 as a key factor coordinating dimorphism in the phytopathogen U. maydis and support a conserved role for Tup1 in the control of hypha-specific genes among animal and plant fungal pathogens.

  15. Evaluation of pulmonary fungal diseases in patients with fungal rhino-sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sh. Badawy

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Universal screening for pulmonary fungal infection especially in patients with fungal rhino sinusitis is highly recommended to treat it early, decrease morbidity and mortality of the diseases.

  16. Comparison of fungal spores concentrations measured with wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor and Hirst methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, S.; Tormo-Molina, R.; Lemonis, N.; Clot, B.; O'Connor, D. J.; Sodeau, John R.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this work was to provide both a comparison of traditional and novel methodologies for airborne spores detection (i.e. the Hirst Burkard trap and WIBS-4) and the first quantitative study of airborne fungal concentrations in Payerne (Western Switzerland) as well as their relation to meteorological parameters. From the traditional method -Hirst trap and microscope analysis-, sixty-three propagule types (spores, sporangia and hyphae) were identified and the average spore concentrations measured over the full period amounted to 4145 ± 263.0 spores/m3. Maximum values were reached on July 19th and on August 6th. Twenty-six spore types reached average levels above 10 spores/m3. Airborne fungal propagules in Payerne showed a clear seasonal pattern, increasing from low values in early spring to maxima in summer. Daily average concentrations above 5000 spores/m3 were almost constant in summer from mid-June onwards. Weather parameters showed a relevant role for determining the observed spore concentrations. Coniferous forest, dominant in the surroundings, may be a relevant source for airborne fungal propagules as their distribution and predominant wind directions are consistent with the origin. The comparison between the two methodologies used in this campaign showed remarkably consistent patterns throughout the campaign. A correlation coefficient of 0.9 (CI 0.76-0.96) was seen between the two over the time period for daily resolutions (Hirst trap and WIBS-4). This apparent co-linearity was seen to fall away once increased resolution was employed. However at higher resolutions upon removal of Cladosporium species from the total fungal concentrations (Hirst trap), an increased correlation coefficient was again noted between the two instruments (R = 0.81 with confidence intervals of 0.74 and 0.86).

  17. Microbiological diagnostics of fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Girmenia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests for the detection of fungal infections are easy to perform. The main obstacle to a correct diagnosis is the correlation between the laboratory findings and the clinical diagnosis. Among pediatric patients, the most common fungal pathogen is Candida. The detection of fungal colonization may be performed through the use of chromogenic culture media, which allows also the identification of Candida subspecies, from which pathogenicity depends. In neonatology, thistest often drives the decision to begin a empiric therapy; in this regard, a close cooperation between microbiologists and clinicians is highly recommended. Blood culture, if positive, is a strong confirmation of fungal infection; however, its low sensitivity results in a high percentage of false negatives, thus decreasing its reliability. Molecular diagnostics is still under evaluation, whereas the detection of some fungal antigens, such as β-D-glucan, galactomannan, mannoprotein, and cryptococcal antigen in the serum is used for adults, but still under evaluations for pediatric patients.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i1S.862

  18. Electron tomography of the microtubule cytoskeleton in multinucleated hyphae of Ashbya gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibeaux, Romain; Lang, Claudia; Politi, Antonio Z; Jaspersen, Sue L; Philippsen, Peter; Antony, Claude

    2012-12-01

    We report the mechanistic basis guiding the migration pattern of multiple nuclei in hyphae of Ashbya gossypii. Using electron tomography, we reconstructed the cytoplasmic microtubule (cMT) cytoskeleton in three tip regions with a total of 13 nuclei and also the spindle microtubules of four mitotic nuclei. Each spindle pole body (SPB) nucleates three cMTs and most cMTs above a certain length grow according to their plus-end structure. Long cMTs closely align for several microns along the cortex, presumably marking regions where dynein generates pulling forces on nuclei. Close proximity between cMTs emanating from adjacent nuclei was not observed. The majority of nuclei carry duplicated side-by-side SPBs, which together emanate an average of six cMTs, in most cases in opposite orientation with respect to the hyphal growth axis. Such cMT arrays explain why many nuclei undergo short-range back and forth movements. Only occasionally do all six cMTs orient in one direction, a precondition for long-range nuclear bypassing. Following mitosis, daughter nuclei carry a single SPB with three cMTs. The increased probability that all three cMTs orient in one direction explains the high rate of nuclear bypassing observed in these nuclei. The A. gossypii mitotic spindle was found to be structurally similar to that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in terms of nuclear microtubule (nMT) number, length distribution and three-dimensional organization even though the two organisms differ significantly in chromosome number. Our results suggest that two nMTs attach to each kinetochore in A. gossypii and not only one nMT like in S. cerevisiae.

  19. Study of the External Hyphae of AMF in Understanding the Function to Contribution of P Sorption by Plants Using the Thin Section Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machfud Effendy

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of the external hyphae of AMF was conducted for getting data of the soil hyphae distribution from the observation using thin section preparation. The experiment was arranged in factorial fully randomized design. The first factors were dosages of P application: 0; 45; 90; 135; and 180 kg ha-1. The second factors were AMF spore inoculation: with inoculation and without inoculation. The observations were conducted to roots and shoots oven dried, absorption of P, P32- fertilizer and P31 from soil. The soil was separated from T-pots and to prepare for making the thin section of soil for observation to hyphae distribution at every 2 cm level. The experiment results showed that the prepared of thin section was documented at the 200 µm x 200 µm (= 40.000 µm2 dimension can be used for external hifas observation. In the 400 µm2 areas of soil without AMF inoculated has about 24 to 27 external hyphal, so at the 40.000 µm2 areas has 2.400 until 2.700 hyphae. The soil was AMF inoculated has 19 to 25 hyphae at 400 µm2 areas of soil, and in the 40.000 µm2 areas has 1.900 until 2.500 hyphae and the length of hyphae about 67-75 m g-1. The diameter hifas at soil without AMF inoculation about 8-10 µm, and at the soil with AMF inoculated has hyphae diameter about 8-11 µm, and the long of hyphae about 53-69 m g-1. The growth speed of hyphae about 0.74-0.89 m day-1 or about 0.031-0.035 m hour-1. The inoculated plant with AMF spore gave more in contribution to P32 fertilizer and soil P31 than that in uninoculated plant, but the yield of shoot and root oven dried was higher for plants without inoculated AMF spore. The inoculated soil with spore of AMF caused to sum of AMF spore and soil P availability was higher than that in uninoculated soil.

  20. The Fungal Defensin Family Enlarged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are an emerging source of peptide antibiotics. With the availability of a large number of model fungal genome sequences, we can expect that more and more fungal defensin-like peptides (fDLPs will be discovered by sequence similarity search. Here, we report a total of 69 new fDLPs encoded by 63 genes, in which a group of fDLPs derived from dermatophytes are defined as a new family (fDEF8 according to sequence and phylogenetic analyses. In the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpine, fDLPs have undergone extensive gene expansion. Our work further enlarges the fungal defensin family and will help characterize new peptide antibiotics with therapeutic potential.

  1. Fungal contamination in hospital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdelli, F; Cristina, M L; Sartini, M; Spagnolo, A M; Dallera, M; Ottria, G; Lombardi, R; Grimaldi, M; Orlando, P

    2006-01-01

    To assess the degree of fungal contamination in hospital environments and to evaluate the ability of air conditioning systems to reduce such contamination. We monitored airborne microbial concentrations in various environments in 10 hospitals equipped with air conditioning. Sampling was performed with a portable Surface Air System impactor with replicate organism detection and counting plates containing a fungus-selective medium. The total fungal concentration was determined 72-120 hours after sampling. The genera most involved in infection were identified by macroscopic and microscopic observation. The mean concentration of airborne fungi in the set of environments examined was 19 +/- 19 colony-forming units (cfu) per cubic meter. Analysis of the fungal concentration in the different types of environments revealed different levels of contamination: the lowest mean values (12 +/- 14 cfu/m(3)) were recorded in operating theaters, and the highest (45 +/- 37 cfu/m(3)) were recorded in kitchens. Analyses revealed statistically significant differences between median values for the various environments. The fungal genus most commonly encountered was Penicillium, which, in kitchens, displayed the highest mean airborne concentration (8 +/- 2.4 cfu/m(3)). The percentage (35%) of Aspergillus documented in the wards was higher than that in any of the other environments monitored. The fungal concentrations recorded in the present study are comparable to those recorded in other studies conducted in hospital environments and are considerably lower than those seen in other indoor environments that are not air conditioned. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of air-handling systems in reducing fungal contamination.

  2. [Inhibitory effects of butyl alcohol extract of Baitouweng decoction on yeast-to-hyphae transition of Candida albicans isolates from VVC in alkaline pH environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng-xiang; Xia, Dan; Shi, Gao-xiang; Shao, Jing; Wang, Tian-ming; Tang, Chuan-chao; Wang, Chang-zhong

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effects of butyl alcohol extract of Baitouweng decoction ( BAEB) on yeast-to-hyphae transition of Candida albicans isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in alkaline pH. Serial 2-fold dilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Baitouweng decoction extracts against C. albicans isolates from VVC, XTT assay was applied to determine the metabolic activity of C. albicans hypha treated by BAEB for 6 h. The morphological change of C. albicans treated by BAEB was inspected at different pH by inverted microscope, fluorescence microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Solid agar plate and semi-solid agar were utilized to evaluate colony morphology and invasive growth of C. albicans, respectively. Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was adopted to observe the expressions of hyphae-specific genes including HWP1, ALS3, CSH1, SUN41 and CaPDE2. The MIC of BAEB against C. albicans is less than that of other extracts; hyphae grow best at pH 8. 0; 512 mg · L(-1) and 1,024 mg · L(-1) BAEB could inhibit formation of hyphae and influence colony morphology. When treated by 512 mg · L(-1) and 1,024 mg · L(-1) BAEB, the colonies became smooth; while by 0 and 256 mg · L(-1) BAEB, the colonies became wrinkled. In semi-solid agar, the length of hyphae decreased steadily as the concentration of BAEB lowered. The expression of HWP1, ALS3, CSHl, SUN41 were downregulated by 5.12, 4.26, 3.2 and 2.74 folds, and CaPDE2 was upregulated by 2.38 fold. BAEB could inhibit yeast-to-hyphae transition of C. albicans isolates from VVC in alkaline pH.

  3. Cell cycle and cell death are not necessary for appressorium formation and plant infection in the fungal plant pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barhoom Sima

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to initiate plant infection, fungal spores must germinate and penetrate into the host plant. Many fungal species differentiate specialized infection structures called appressoria on the host surface, which are essential for successful pathogenic development. In the model plant pathogen Magnaporthe grisea completion of mitosis and autophagy cell death of the spore are necessary for appressoria-mediated plant infection; blocking of mitosis prevents appressoria formation, and prevention of autophagy cell death results in non-functional appressoria. Results We found that in the closely related plant pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, blocking of the cell cycle did not prevent spore germination and appressoria formation. The cell cycle always lagged behind the morphogenetic changes that follow spore germination, including germ tube and appressorium formation, differentiation of the penetrating hypha, and in planta formation of primary hyphae. Nuclear division was arrested following appressorium formation and was resumed in mature appressoria after plant penetration. Unlike in M. grisea, blocking of mitosis had only a marginal effect on appressoria formation; development in hydroxyurea-treated spores continued only for a limited number of cell divisions, but normal numbers of fully developed mature appressoria were formed under conditions that support appressoria formation. Similar results were also observed in other Colletotrichum species. Spores, germ tubes, and appressoria retained intact nuclei and remained viable for several days post plant infection. Conclusion We showed that in C. gloeosporioides the differentiation of infection structures including appressoria precedes mitosis and can occur without nuclear division. This phenomenon was also found to be common in other Colletotrichum species. Spore cell death did not occur during plant infection and the fungus primary infection structures remained viable

  4. The Texas Adoption Project: adopted children and their intellectual resemblance to biological and adoptive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, J M

    1983-04-01

    Intelligence test scores were obtained from parents and children in 300 adoptive families and compared with similar measures available for the biological mothers of the same adopted children. Results supported the hypothesis that genetic variability is an important influence in the development of individual differences for intelligence. The most salient finding was that adopted children resemble their biological mothers more than they resemble the adoptive parents who reared them from birth. A small subset of the oldest adopted children did not resemble their biological mothers. The suggestion that the influence of genes declines with age is treated with caution since other adoption studies report a trend in the opposite direction.

  5. Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections Recommend on Facebook ... Mold . Top of Page Preventing fungal infections in stem cell transplant patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because ...

  6. Increases in soil aggregation following phosphorus additions in a tropical premontane forest are not driven by root and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenzind, Tessa; Papathanasiou, Helena; Foerster, Antje; Dietrich, Karla; Hertel, Dietrich; Homeier, Juergen; Oelmann, Yvonne; Olsson, Pål Axel; Suárez, Juan; Rillig, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    Tropical ecosystems have an important role in global change scenarios, in part because they serve as a large terrestrial carbon pool. Carbon protection is mediated by soil aggregation processes, whereby biotic and abiotic factors influence the formation and stability of aggregates. Nutrient additions may affect soil structure indirectly by simultaneous shifts in biotic factors, mainly roots and fungal hyphae, but also via impacts on abiotic soil properties. Here, we tested the hypothesis that soil aggregation will be affected by nutrient additions primarily via changes in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) hyphae and root length in a pristine tropical forest system. Therefore, the percentage of water-stable macroaggregates (> 250µm) (WSA) and the soil mean weight diameter (MWD) was analyzed, as well as nutrient contents, pH, root length and AMF abundance. Phosphorus additions significantly increased the amount of WSA, which was consistent across two different sampling times. Despite a positive effect of phosphorus additions on extraradical AMF biomass, no relationship between WSA and extra-radical AMF nor roots was revealed by regression analyses, contrary to the proposed hypothesis. These findings emphasize the importance of analyzing soil structure in understudied tropical systems, since it might be affected by increasing nutrient deposition expected in the future.

  7. Increases in soil aggregation following phosphorus additions in a tropical premontane forest are not driven by root and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal abundances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa eCamenzind

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical ecosystems have an important role in global change scenarios, in part because they serve as a large terrestrial carbon pool. Carbon protection is mediated by soil aggregation processes, whereby biotic and abiotic factors influence the formation and stability of aggregates. Nutrient additions may affect soil structure indirectly by simultaneous shifts in biotic factors, mainly roots and fungal hyphae, but also via impacts on abiotic soil properties. Here, we tested the hypothesis that soil aggregation will be affected by nutrient additions primarily via changes in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF hyphae and root length in a pristine tropical forest system. Therefore, the percentage of water-stable macroaggregates (> 250µm (WSA and the soil mean weight diameter (MWD was analyzed, as well as nutrient contents, pH, root length and AMF abundance. Phosphorus additions significantly increased the amount of WSA, which was consistent across two different sampling times. Despite a positive effect of phosphorus additions on extraradical AMF biomass, no relationship between WSA and extra-radical AMF nor roots was revealed by regression analyses, contrary to the proposed hypothesis. These findings emphasize the importance of analyzing soil structure in understudied tropical systems, since it might be affected by increasing nutrient deposition expected in the future.

  8. The Effect of Lead on the Glomalin Content of Hypha and Root Reactive with Monoclonal Antibody and Bradford in both in Vitro and Pot Culture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Malekzadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glomalin is known as a specific fungal glycoprotein belonging to the order Glomerales in phylum Glomeromycota and has been introduced as a heat shock protein. We hypothesised that increasing the level of Pb would lead to increase in glomalin production. Glomalin is usually determined by two methods, the Bradford protein dye-binding assay and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Since many laboratories are not equipped to carry out the ELISA assay, many studies have measured glomalin-related soil protein using the Bradford colorimetric total protein assay. While, the ELISA method specifically measures glomalin by using monoclonal antibody MAb32B11. Materials and Methods: The pot experiment was conducted in the sterile free-glomalin sand with Trifolium repens L. mycorrhized by Rhizophagus irregularis fungus and treated with the Pb levels of 0, 150, 300 and 450 µM. Thus, in vitro experiment was performed in two-compartments plates containing of the transformed carrot roots (Daucus carota L. mycorrhized with the same fungus in root compartment and hyphal compartment treated with the Pb levels of 0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mM as Pb(NO32. For glomalin extraction, hyphal or root samples were autoclaved at 121 ⁰C with 50 mM sodium citrate buffer for 60 min in three cycles. Protein concentrations in the extracted samples were determined using a modified Bradford protein assay. Also, glomalin content in the samples were determined by indirect ELISA using monoclonal antibody MAb32B11. The percentages of the total root length were colonised by mycorrhizal fungi in pot culture and both hyphal and spore densities in the metal-containing hyphal compartment were determined. Results and Discussion: In the in vitro culture the percentage of total hyphae and spore frequency decreased, while Bradford reactive total hyphal protein (BRHP and Immunoreactive hyphal protein (IRHP in hyphal compartment increased as the concentrations of Pb increased

  9. Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as an alternative host to study fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Patrícia Canteri; Morey, Alexandre Tadachi; Castanheira, Gabriel Marcondes; Bocate, Karla Paiva; Panagio, Luciano Aparecido; Ito, Fabio Augusto; Furlaneto, Márcia Cristina; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie; Costa, Idessânia Nazareth; Mora-Montes, Hector Manuel; Almeida, Ricardo Sergio

    2015-11-01

    Models of host–pathogen interactions are crucial for the analysis of microbial pathogenesis. In this context, invertebrate hosts, including Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode) and Galleria mellonella (moth), have been used to study the pathogenesis of fungi and bacteria. Each of these organisms offers distinct benefits in elucidating host–pathogen interactions. In this study,we present a newinvertebrate infection model to study fungal infections: the Tenebrio molitor (beetle) larvae. Here we performed T. molitor larvae infection with one of two important fungal human pathogens, Candida albicans or Cryptococcus neoformans, and analyzed survival curves and larva infected tissues.We showed that increasing concentrations of inoculum of both fungi resulted in increased mortality rates, demonstrating the efficiency of the method to evaluate the virulence of pathogenic yeasts. Additionally, following 12 h post-infection, C. albicans formsmycelia, spreading its hyphae through the larva tissue,whilst GMS stain enabled the visualization of C. neoformans yeast and theirmelanin capsule. These larvae are easier to cultivate in the laboratory than G. mellonella larvae, and offer the same benefits. Therefore, this insect model could be a useful alternative tool to screen clinical pathogenic yeast strainswith distinct virulence traits or different mutant strains.

  10. N-acetylglucosamine increases symptoms and fungal burden in a murine model of oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishijima, Sanae A; Hayama, Kazumi; Takahashi, Miki; Holmes, Ann R; Cannon, Richard D; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    The amino sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is an in vitro inducer of the hyphal mode of growth of the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans. The development of hyphae by C. albicans is considered to contribute to the pathogenesis of mucosal oral candidiasis. GlcNAc is also a commonly used nutritional supplement for the self-treatment of conditions such as arthritis. To date, no study has investigated whether ingestion of GlcNAc has an effect on the in vivo growth of C. albicans or the pathogenesis of a C. albicans infection. Using a murine model of oral candidiasis, we have found that administration of GlcNAc, but not glucose, increased oral symptoms of candidiasis and fungal burden. Groups of mice were given GlcNAc in either water or in a viscous carrier, i.e., 1% methylcellulose. There was a dose-dependent relationship between GlcNAc concentration and the severity of oral symptoms. Mice given the highest dose of GlcNAc, 45.2 mM, also showed a significant increase in fungal burden, and increased histological evidence of infection compared to controls given water alone. We propose that ingestion of GlcNAc, as a nutritional supplement, may have an impact on oral health in people susceptible to oral candidiasis.

  11. UV-Surface Treatment of Fungal Resistant Polyether Polyurethane Film-Induced Growth of Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lando, Gabriela Albara; Marconatto, Letícia; Kessler, Felipe; Lopes, William; Schrank, Augusto; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; Weibel, Daniel Eduardo

    2017-07-18

    Synthetic polymers are the cause of some major environmental impacts due to their low degradation rates. Polyurethanes (PU) are widely used synthetic polymers, and their growing use in industry has produced an increase in plastic waste. A commercial polyether-based thermoplastic PU with hydrolytic stability and fungus resistance was only attacked by an entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhiziumanisopliae , when the films were pre-treated with Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in the presence of reactive atmospheres. Water contact angle, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection mode (FTIR-ATR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and profilometer measurements were mainly used for analysis. Permanent hydrophilic PU films were produced by the UV-assisted treatments. Pristine polyether PU films incubated for 10, 30, and 60 days did not show any indication of fungal growth. On the contrary, when using oxygen in the UV pre-treatment a layer of fungi spores covered the sample, indicating a great adherence of the microorganisms to the polymer. However, if acrylic acid vapors were used during the UV pre-treatment, a visible attack by the entomopathogenic fungi was observed. SEM and FTIR-ATR data showed clear evidence of fungal development: growth and ramifications of hyphae on the polymer surface with the increase in UV pre-treatment time and fungus incubation time. The results indicated that the simple UV surface activation process has proven to be a promising alternative for polyether PU waste management.

  12. Cerebral scedosporiosis: an emerging fungal infection in severe neutropenic patients. CT features and CT pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marco de Lucas, Enrique; Sadaba, Pablo; Lastra Garcia-Baron, Pedro; Ruiz Delgado, Maria Luisa; Gonzalez Mandly, Andres; Gutierrez, Agustin; Diez, Consuelo [Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, Department of Radiology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Cuevas, Jorge; Fernandez, Fidel [Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, Department of Pathology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Salesa, Ricardo [Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, Department of Microbiology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Bermudez, Arancha [Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, Department of Hematology, Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Marco de Lucas, Fernando [Hospital de Basurto, Department of Hematology, Bilbao, Vizcaya (Spain)

    2006-02-01

    Scedosporium prolificans is an emerging opportunistic fungal agent encountered in severely neutropenic patients. The purpose of this paper is to describe the main cranial CT findings from a retrospective review of six patients (four men and two women, 18-66 years old) afflicted with disseminated infection by S. prolificans with neurological symptoms. They were severely neutropenic and presented with severe respiratory failure and conscience deterioration, with a subsequent 100% mortality. The final diagnosis was established by autopsy (performed in five patients) and blood culture findings. Cranial CT showed multiple low-density lesions in four patients without contrast enhancement located in the basal ganglia and corticomedullary junction. Autopsy findings of these lesions demonstrated necrosis and hyphae proliferation inside brain infarcts. Also, two of the patients had a subarachnoid hemorrhage, but angiography could not be performed. CT and autopsy findings were fairly similar to those encountered in cerebral aspergillosis; however, possibly because of its rapid and fatal evolution, no edema or ring enhancing lesions were encountered. Thus, Scedosporium can be included as a rare but possible cause of invasive fungal disseminated central nervous system infections in severely neutropenic patients. (orig.)

  13. Cerebral scedosporiosis: an emerging fungal infection in severe neutropenic patients. CT features and CT pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco de Lucas, Enrique; Sadaba, Pablo; Lastra Garcia-Baron, Pedro; Ruiz Delgado, Maria Luisa; Gonzalez Mandly, Andres; Gutierrez, Agustin; Diez, Consuelo; Cuevas, Jorge; Fernandez, Fidel; Salesa, Ricardo; Bermudez, Arancha; Marco de Lucas, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Scedosporium prolificans is an emerging opportunistic fungal agent encountered in severely neutropenic patients. The purpose of this paper is to describe the main cranial CT findings from a retrospective review of six patients (four men and two women, 18-66 years old) afflicted with disseminated infection by S. prolificans with neurological symptoms. They were severely neutropenic and presented with severe respiratory failure and conscience deterioration, with a subsequent 100% mortality. The final diagnosis was established by autopsy (performed in five patients) and blood culture findings. Cranial CT showed multiple low-density lesions in four patients without contrast enhancement located in the basal ganglia and corticomedullary junction. Autopsy findings of these lesions demonstrated necrosis and hyphae proliferation inside brain infarcts. Also, two of the patients had a subarachnoid hemorrhage, but angiography could not be performed. CT and autopsy findings were fairly similar to those encountered in cerebral aspergillosis; however, possibly because of its rapid and fatal evolution, no edema or ring enhancing lesions were encountered. Thus, Scedosporium can be included as a rare but possible cause of invasive fungal disseminated central nervous system infections in severely neutropenic patients. (orig.)

  14. Characterization and control of fungal morphology for improved production performance in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Rainer; Wucherpfennig, Thomas; Esfandabadi, Manely Eslahpazir; Walisko, Robert; Melzer, Guido; Hempel, Dietmar C; Kampen, Ingo; Kwade, Arno; Wittmann, Christoph

    2013-01-20

    Filamentous fungi have been widely applied in industrial biotechnology for many decades. In submerged culture processes, they typically exhibit a complex morphological life cycle that is related to production performance--a link that is of high interest for process optimization. The fungal forms can vary from dense spherical pellets to viscous mycelia. The resulting morphology has been shown to be influenced strongly by process parameters, including power input through stirring and aeration, mass transfer characteristics, pH value, osmolality and the presence of solid micro-particles. The surface properties of fungal spores and hyphae also play a role. Due to their high industrial relevance, the past years have seen a substantial development of tools and techniques to characterize the growth of fungi and obtain quantitative estimates on their morphological properties. Based on the novel insights available from such studies, more recent studies have been aimed at the precise control of morphology, i.e., morphology engineering, to produce superior bio-processes with filamentous fungi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. UV-Surface Treatment of Fungal Resistant Polyether Polyurethane Film-Induced Growth of Entomopathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Albara Lando

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic polymers are the cause of some major environmental impacts due to their low degradation rates. Polyurethanes (PU are widely used synthetic polymers, and their growing use in industry has produced an increase in plastic waste. A commercial polyether-based thermoplastic PU with hydrolytic stability and fungus resistance was only attacked by an entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhiziumanisopliae, when the films were pre-treated with Ultraviolet (UV irradiation in the presence of reactive atmospheres. Water contact angle, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection mode (FTIR-ATR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and profilometer measurements were mainly used for analysis. Permanent hydrophilic PU films were produced by the UV-assisted treatments. Pristine polyether PU films incubated for 10, 30, and 60 days did not show any indication of fungal growth. On the contrary, when using oxygen in the UV pre-treatment a layer of fungi spores covered the sample, indicating a great adherence of the microorganisms to the polymer. However, if acrylic acid vapors were used during the UV pre-treatment, a visible attack by the entomopathogenic fungi was observed. SEM and FTIR-ATR data showed clear evidence of fungal development: growth and ramifications of hyphae on the polymer surface with the increase in UV pre-treatment time and fungus incubation time. The results indicated that the simple UV surface activation process has proven to be a promising alternative for polyether PU waste management.

  16. Ultrastructural aspects in perithecia hyphae septal pores of Glomerella cingulata F. SP. Phaseoli Ultraestrutura dos poros septais em hifas de peritécios de Glomerella cingulata f. sp. phaseoli

    OpenAIRE

    María Gabriela Roca M.; Maria das Graças Ongarelli; Lisete Chamma Davide; Maria Cristina Mendes-Costa

    2000-01-01

    Glomerella cingulata (Stonem.) Spauld. & Schrenk f. sp. phaseoli, better known in its anamorphic state Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magn.) Briosi & Cav., is a causal agent of anthracnose in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Ultrastructural aspects of the perithecial hyphae of this pathogen were studied. The perithecia hyphae septal pores were found either plugged by a vesicle or unplugged. Some perithecia hyphae septa presented no pore. The Woronin bodies, close to the septal pores, ap...

  17. Fungal Endophytes: Beyond Herbivore Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamisope S. Bamisile

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of entomopathogenic fungi as biocontrol agents into Integrated Pest Management (IPM programs without doubt, has been highly effective. The ability of these fungal pathogens such as Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to exist as endophytes in plants and protect their colonized host plants against the primary herbivore pests has widely been reported. Aside this sole role of pest management that has been traditionally ascribed to fungal endophytes, recent findings provided evidence of other possible functions as plant yield promoter, soil nutrient distributor, abiotic stress and drought tolerance enhancer in plants. However, reports on these additional important effects of fungal endophytes on the colonized plants remain scanty. In this review, we discussed the various beneficial effects of endophytic fungi on the host plants and their primary herbivore pests; as well as some negative effects that are relatively unknown. We also highlighted the prospects of our findings in further increasing the acceptance of fungal endophytes as an integral part of pest management programs for optimized crop production.

  18. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FUNGAL TREATMENT BULLETIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal treatment technology uses white rot fungi (lignin degrading fungi) to treat organic contaminated soils in situ. Organic materials inoculated with the fungi are mechanically mixed into the contaminated soil. Using enzymes normally produced for wood degradation as well as ot...

  19. [Fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkoudakis, Emmanouil; Realdi, Giuseppe; Dore, Maria Pina

    2005-06-01

    In immunocompetent subjects fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract are uncommon. Candida esophagitis remains the single most common fungal infection in immunocompromised hosts or in H. pylori- infected patients who receive antibiotic therapy. Enteric fungal infections are uncommon even in HIV-infected patients. Antifungal agents such as amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and the various formulations of itraconazole are effective for most cases.

  20. Daphnia can protect diatoms from fungal parasitism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kagami, M.; Van Donk, E.; De Bruin, A.; Rijkeboer, M.; Ibelings, B.W.

    2004-01-01

    Many phytoplankton species are susceptible to chytrid fungal parasitism. Much attention has been paid to abiotic factors that determine whether fungal infections become epidemic. It is still unknown, however, how biotic factors, such as interactions with zooplankton, affect the fungal infection

  1. Spontaneous de novo vaginal adenosis resembling Bartholin’s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adebayo Alade Adewole

    Spontaneous de novo vaginal adenosis resembling Bartholin's cyst: A case report ... 6 by 5 cm. The cervix, uterus, adnexa and Pouch of Douglas (POD) were normal. .... of vaginal cancer.2–4 Although, DES exposed daughters have an.

  2. Contributions of Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Mats to Forest Soil Carbon Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluber, L. A.; Phillips, C. L.; Myrold, D. D.; Bond, B. J.

    2008-12-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi are a prominent and ubiquitous feature of forest soils, forming symbioses with most tree species, yet little is known about the magnitude of their impact on forest carbon cycles. A subset of EM fungi form dense, perennial aggregations of hyphae, which have elevated respiration rates compared with neighboring non-mat soils. These mats are a foci of EM activity and thereby a natural laboratory for examining how EM fungi impact forest soils. In order to constrain the contributions of EM fungi to forest soil respiration, we quantified the proportion of respiration derived from EM mat soils in an old-growth Douglas-fir stand in western Oregon. One dominant genus of mat-forming fungi, Piloderma, covered 56% of the soil surface area. Piloderma mats were monitored for respiration rates over 15 months and found to have on average 10% higher respiration than non-mat soil. At the stand level, this amounts to roughly 6% of soil respiration due to the presence of Piloderma mats. We calculate that these mats may constitute 27% of autotrophic respiration, based on respiration rates from trenched plots in a neighboring forest stand. Furthermore, enzyme activity and microbial community profiles in mat and non-mat soil provide evidence that specialized communities utilizing chitin contribute to this increased efflux. With 60% higher chitinase activity in mats, the breakdown of chitin is likely an important carbon flux while providing carbon and nitrogen to the microbial communities associated with mats. Quantitative PCR showed similar populations of fungi and bacteria in mat and non-mat soils; however, community analysis revealed distinct fungal and bacterial communities in the two soil types. The higher respiration associated with EM mats does not appear to be due only to a proliferation of EM fungi, but to a shift in overall community composition to organisms that efficiently utilize the unique resources available within the mat, including plant and

  3. FTIR spectroscopy and reflectance of modern charcoals and fungal decayed woods: implications for studies of inertinite in coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.; Bustin, R.M. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Ocean Sciences

    1998-09-01

    The chemical and physical characteristics of laboratory produced charcoals, natural charcoals, fungal decayed woods and inertinite from a variety of Western Canadian coals were investigated using FTIR and standard petrologic techniques. The studies confirm and extend earlier work in showing that almost all inertinite macerals can be attributed to wildfire in peat swamps, and that variation in the petrological characteristics of inertinite are a product of temperature, duration of heating and the nature of the initial plant material. The relationships between reflectance and temperature, as well as heating duration of charcoal formation are established as a reference for the examination of inertinite, and the probable temperature of inertinite precursor (fossil charcoal) formation in paleo-widlfire. Fungi do not directly contribute to the formation of charcoal and inertinite apart from the fungal bodies themselves (funginite: sclerotia and hyphae) and perhaps by increasing the extent of shrinkage and cracking (increasing surface area) of the plant materials and thus susceptibility to charring. Evidence of fungal activity progressively decreases with increasing degree of charing in response to duration of heating or increased charing temperature. The reflectance values and FTIR spectral characteristics of inertinites in Western Canadian coal suggest that most inertinite formed by wildfires at temperatures over 400{degree}C. The great abundance of semifusinite in Western Canadian coal may reflect frequent but short duration wildfires in precursor peat swamps. 44 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. DIAGNOSIS & MANAGEMENT OF ALLERGIC FUNGAL SINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syam Manohar Gadhamsetty

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic sinusitis is one of the common diagnosis in ENT practice. Allergic fungal sinusitis is a clinical entity with characteristic clinical, radiographic and histopathological findings. Allergic fungal sinusitis and eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis can easily be misdiagnosed. AIM OF STUDY A prospective clinical study of allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis to use diagnostic criteria to confirm the disease with Radiological, Pathological & Microbiological investigations and their management. MATERIALS & METHODS A prospective study of allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis in 2 years from November 2011 to October 2013. Among the patients who attended the ENT OPD during this period, 21 patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis are selected.

  5. Why Mycophoris is not an orchid seedling, and why Synaptomitus is not a fungal symbiont within this fossil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selosse, Marc-Andre; Brundrett, Mark; Dearnaley, John

    2017-01-01

    A recent publication in Botany introduced two new taxa: a fossil orchid seed (Mycophoris) and a fossilized basidiomycete fungus (Synaptomitus) in an alleged relationship with this orchid, encased in 15–20 million year old Dominican amber (Poinar, G. 2017. Two new genera, Mycophoris gen. nov......., (Orchidaceae) and Synaptomitus gen. nov. (Basidiomycota) based on a fossil seed with developing embryo and associated fungus in Dominican amber. Botany, 95: 1–8). From the working knowledge of extant orchid seeds, seedlings, and mycorrhiza shared among us, we cannot support these interpretations. Here we...... analyse: (i) why Mycophoris may not be an orchid seed, (ii) why Mycophoris is not a germinating seed, (iii) why fungal hyphae and a symbiotic fungus are absent in Mycophoris, and (iv) why Synaptomitus is likely not a fossil basidiomycete....

  6. Disruption of the Candida albicans TPS1 Gene Encoding Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase Impairs Formation of Hyphae and Decreases Infectivity†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Oscar; Blazquez, Miguel A.; Gancedo, Carlos

    1998-01-01

    The TPS1 gene from Candida albicans, which encodes trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, has been cloned by functional complementation of a tps1 mutant from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast with the wild-type strain, the double tps1/tps1 disruptant did not accumulate trehalose at stationary phase or after heat shock. Growth of the tps1/tps1 disruptant at 30°C was indistinguishable from that of the wild type. However, at 42°C it did not grow on glucose or fructose but grew normally on galactose or glycerol. At 37°C, the yeast-hypha transition in the mutant in glucose-calf serum medium did not occur. During growth at 42°C, the mutant did not form hyphae in galactose or in glycerol. Some of the growth defects observed may be traced to an unbalanced sugar metabolism that reduces the cellular content of ATP. Mice inoculated with 106 CFU of the tps1/tps1 mutant did not show visible symptoms of infection 16 days after inoculation, while those similarly inoculated with wild-type cells were dead 12 days after inoculation. PMID:9683476

  7. Spatially resolved investigation of the oil composition in single intact hyphae of Mortierella spp. with micro-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münchberg, Ute; Wagner, Lysett; Spielberg, Eike T; Voigt, Kerstin; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2013-02-01

    Zygomycetes are well known for their ability to produce various secondary metabolites. Fungi of the genus Mortierella can accumulate highly unsaturated lipids in large amounts as lipid droplets. However, no information about the spatial distribution or homogeneity of the oil inside the fungi is obtainable to date due to the invasive and destructive analytical techniques applied so far. Raman spectroscopy has been demonstrated to be well suited to investigate biological samples on a micrometre scale. It also has been shown that the degree of unsaturation of lipids can be determined from Raman spectra. We applied micro-Raman spectroscopy to investigate the spatial distribution and composition of lipid vesicles inside intact hyphae. For Mortierella alpina and Mortierella elongata distinct differences in the degree of unsaturation and even the impact of growth conditions are determined from the Raman spectra. In both species we found that the fatty acid saturation in the vesicles is highly variable in the first 600 μm of the growing hyphal tip and fluctuates towards a constant composition and saturation ratio in all of the remaining mycelium. Our approach facilitates in vivo monitoring of the lipid production and allows us to investigate the impact of cultivation parameters on the oil composition directly in the growing hyphae without the need for extensive extraction procedures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhance the copper tolerance of Tagetes patula through the sorption and barrier mechanisms of intraradical hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xishi; Fu, Lei; Xia, Yan; Zheng, Luqing; Chen, Chen; Shen, Zhenguo; Chen, Yahua

    2017-07-19

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are widespread soil fungi that can form endosymbiotic structures with the root systems of most plants and can improve the tolerance of host plants to heavy metals. In the present study, we investigated the effects of AMF (Glomus coronatum) inoculation on the tolerance of Tagetes patula L. to Cu. Almost all of the non-mycorrhizal plants exposed to 100 μM Cu died after 3 d, whereas phytotoxicity was only observed in mycorrhizal plants that were exposed to Cu concentrations greater than 100 μM. Analysing the dynamic accumulation of Cu indicated that, after 7 d of Cu exposure, less Cu was absorbed or accumulated by mycorrhizal plants than by control plants, and significantly less Cu was translocated to the shoots. Meanwhile, analysing the root morphology, the integrity of the root plasma membranes, the photosynthesis rate, and the content of essential elements of plants growing in cultures with 50 μM Cu revealed that AMF inoculation markedly alleviated the toxic effects of Cu stress on root system activity, photosynthesis rate, and mineral nutrient accumulation. In addition, to understand the Cu allocation, an energy spectrum analysis of Cu content at the transverse section of root tips was conducted and subsequently provided direct evidence that intraradical hyphae at the root endodermis could selectively immobilise large amounts of Cu. Indeed, the sorption and barrier mechanisms of AMF hyphae reduce Cu toxicity in the roots of T. patula and eventually enhance the plants' Cu tolerance.

  9. Isolation and characterization of Candida albicans morphological mutants derepressed for the formation of filamentous hypha-type structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, C.; Pomes, R.; Nombela, C.

    1990-01-01

    Several Candida albicans morphological mutants were obtained by a procedure based on a combined treatment with nitrous acid plus UV irradiation and a double-enrichment step to increase the proportion of mutants growing as long filamentous structures. Altered cell morphogenesis in these mutants correlated with an altered colonial phenotype. Two of these mutants, C. albicans NEL102 and NEL103, were selected and characterized. Mutant blastoconidia initiated budding but eventually gave rise to filamentous hypha-type formations. These filaments were long and septate, and they branched very regularly at positions near septa. Calcofluor white (which is known to bind chitin-rich areas) stained septa, branching zones, and filament tips very intensely, as observed under the fluorescence microscope. Wild-type hybrids were obtained by fusing protoplasts of strain NEL102 with B14, another morphological mutant previously described as being permanently pseudomycelial, indicating that genetic determinants responsible for the two altered phenotypes are different. The mutants characterized in this work seemed to sequentially express the morphogenic characteristics of C. albicans, from blastoconidia to hyphae, in the absence of any inducer. Further characterization of these strains could be relevant to gain understanding of the genetic control of dimorphism in this species

  10. Energetic Constraints on Fungal Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Luke L M; Jones, Nick S; Fricker, Mark D

    2016-02-01

    Saprotrophic fungi are obliged to spend energy on growth, reproduction, and substrate digestion. To understand the trade-offs involved, we developed a model that, for any given growth rate, identifies the strategy that maximizes the fraction of energy that could possibly be spent on reproduction. Our model's predictions of growth rates and bioconversion efficiencies are consistent with empirical findings, and it predicts the optimal investment in reproduction, resource acquisition, and biomass recycling for a given environment and timescale of reproduction. Thus, if the timescale of reproduction is long compared to the time required for the fungus to double in size, the model suggests that the total energy available for reproduction is maximal when a very small fraction of the energy budget is spent on reproduction. The model also suggests that fungi growing on substrates with a high concentration of low-molecular-weight compounds will not benefit from recycling: they should be able to grow more rapidly and allocate more energy to reproduction without recycling. In contrast, recycling offers considerable benefits to fungi growing on recalcitrant substrates, where the individual hyphae are not crowded and the time taken to consume resource is significantly longer than the fungus doubling time.

  11. Development of Snake Fungal Disease after Experimental Challenge with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in Cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorous.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Allender

    Full Text Available Snake fungal disease (SFD is a clinical syndrome associated with dermatitis, myositis, osteomyelitis, and pneumonia in several species of free-ranging snakes in the US. The causative agent has been suggested as Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, but other agents may contribute to the syndrome and the pathogenesis is not understood. To understand the role of O. ophiodiicola in SFD, a cottonmouth snake model of SFD was designed. Five cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorous were experimentally challenged by nasolabial pit inoculation with a pure culture of O. ophiodiicola. Development of skin lesions or facial swelling at the site of inoculation was observed in all snakes. Twice weekly swabs of the inoculation site revealed variable presence of O. ophiodiicola DNA by qPCR in all five inoculated snakes for 3 to 58 days post-inoculation; nasolabial flushes were not a useful sampling method for detection. Inoculated snakes had a 40% mortality rate. All inoculated snakes had microscopic lesions unilaterally on the side of the swabbed nasolabial pit, including erosions to ulcerations and heterophilic dermatitis. All signs were consistent with SFD; however, the severity of lesions varied in individual snakes, and fungal hyphae were only observed in 3 of 5 inoculated snakes. These three snakes correlated with post-mortem tissue qPCR evidence of O. ophiodiicola. The findings of this study conclude that O. ophiodiicola inoculation in a cottonmouth snake model leads to disease similar to SFD, although lesion severity and the fungal load are quite variable within the model. Future studies may utilize this model to further understand the pathogenesis of this disease and develop management strategies that mitigate disease effects, but investigation of other models with less variability may be warranted.

  12. Systemic fungal infections in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in neonatal management have led to considerable improvement in newborn survival. However, early (72hours onset systemic infections, both bacterial and fungal, remain a devastating complication and an important cause of morbidity and mortality in these babies. Most neonatal fungal infections are due to Candida species, particularly Candida albicans. The sources of candidiasis in NICU are often endogenous following colonization of the babies with fungi. About 10% of these babies get colonized in first week of life and up to 64% babies get colonized by 4 weeks of hospital stay. Disseminated candidiasis presents like bacterial sepsis and can involve multiple organs such as the kidneys, brain, eye, liver, spleen, bone, joints, meninges and heart. Confirming the diagnosis by laboratory tests is difficult and a high index of suspicion is required. The diagnosis of fungemia can be made definitely only by recovering the organism from blood or other sterile bodily fluid. Amphotericin B continues to be the mainstay of therapy for systemic fungal infections but its use is limited by the risks of nephrotoxicity and hypokalemia. Newer formulations of amphotericin B, namely the liposomal and the lipid complex forms, have recently become available and have been reported to have lesser toxicity. More recently Indian liposomal Amphotericin B derived from neutral lipids (L-Amp -LRC-1 has shown good response with less toxicity. A clinical trial with this preparation has shown to be safe and efficacious in neonatal fungal infections. Compared to other liposomal preparations, L-Amp-LRC-1 is effective at lower dose and is less expensive drug for the treatment of neonatal candidiasis.

  13. Systems biology of fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eHorn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections.A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal infection by taking a systems biological approach, i.e., by a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the non-linear and selective interactions of a large number of functionally diverse, and frequently multifunctional, sets of elements, e.g., genes, proteins, metabolites, which produce coherent and emergent behaviours in time and space. The recent advances in systems biology will now make it possible to uncover the structure and dynamics of molecular and cellular cause-effect relationships within these pathogenic interactions.We review current efforts to integrate omics and image-based data of host-pathogen interactions into network and spatio-temporal models. The modelling will help to elucidate pathogenicity mechanisms and to identify diagnostic biomarkers and potential drug targets for therapy and could thus pave the way for novel intervention strategies based on novel antifungal drugs and cell therapy.

  14. Fungal genome resources at NCBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbertse, B.; Tatusova, T.

    2011-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is well known for the nucleotide sequence archive, GenBank and sequence analysis tool BLAST. However, NCBI integrates many types of biomolecular data from variety of sources and makes it available to the scientific community as interactive web resources as well as organized releases of bulk data. These tools are available to explore and compare fungal genomes. Searching all databases with Fungi [organism] at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ is the quickest way to find resources of interest with fungal entries. Some tools though are resources specific and can be indirectly accessed from a particular database in the Entrez system. These include graphical viewers and comparative analysis tools such as TaxPlot, TaxMap and UniGene DDD (found via UniGene Homepage). Gene and BioProject pages also serve as portals to external data such as community annotation websites, BioGrid and UniProt. There are many different ways of accessing genomic data at NCBI. Depending on the focus and goal of research projects or the level of interest, a user would select a particular route for accessing genomic databases and resources. This review article describes methods of accessing fungal genome data and provides examples that illustrate the use of analysis tools. PMID:22737589

  15. Fathers see stronger family resemblances than non-fathers in unrelated children's faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Paola; Dal Pos, Stefania

    2012-12-01

    Even after they have taken all reasonable measures to decrease the probability that their spouses cheat on them, men still face paternal uncertainty. Such uncertainty can lead to paternal disinvestment, which reduces the children's probability to survive and reproduce, and thus the reproductive success of the fathers themselves. A theoretical model shows that, other things being equal, men who feel confident that they have fathered their spouses' offspring tend to enjoy greater fitness (i.e., leave a larger number of surviving progeny) than men who do not. This implies that fathers should benefit from exaggerating paternal resemblance. We argue that the self-deceiving component of this bias could be concealed by generalizing this resemblance estimation boost to (1) family pairs other than father-child and (2) strangers. Here, we tested the prediction that fathers may see, in unrelated children's faces, stronger family resemblances than non-fathers. In Study 1, 70 men and 70 women estimated facial resemblances between children paired, at three different ages (as infants, children, and adolescents), either to themselves or to their parents. In Study 2, 70 men and 70 women guessed the true parents of the same children among a set of adults. Men who were fathers reported stronger similarities between faces than non-fathers, mothers, and non-mothers did, but were no better at identifying childrens' real parents. We suggest that, in fathers, processing of facial resemblances is biased in a manner that reflects their (adaptive) wishful thinking that fathers and children are related.

  16. Partners in health? Exploring resemblance in health between partners in married and cohabiting couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monden, Christiaan

    2007-04-01

    Sociological theories on family formation and families and health suggest that married and cohabiting partners will resemble each other in health status, positively or negatively. The family is often seen as a health-enhancing agent for individuals. However, there are large health differences among families. This study aims to answer the question whether it is the case that the healthy live with the healthy and individuals with poor health have partners who are also in poor health. Moreover, it examines whether resemblance in health is a consequence of partner choice--educational homogamy in particular--behaviour or shared circumstances. Younger and older couples are compared to investigate whether health resemblance increases over the lifecourse. Analyses of a nationally representative sample of almost 12,000 Dutch couples show that partners are indeed significantly alike with regard to several health indicators. Respondents whose partner reports poor health are almost three times more likely to report poor health than respondents whose partner is in good health. There is a strong accumulation of health problems within households. Partner selection with regard to education causes part of the partner resemblance in health. Less support is found for the hypotheses that risk behaviour, mutual influence or the effects of shared circumstances cause similarity between partners' health status. Surprisingly, partners in older couples, who have been together for a longer time, do not resemble each other significantly more than partners in younger couples. The implications of these findings for sociological theory and social inequalities in health are discussed.

  17. Phylogenetic distribution of fungal sterols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Weete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ergosterol has been considered the "fungal sterol" for almost 125 years; however, additional sterol data superimposed on a recent molecular phylogeny of kingdom Fungi reveals a different and more complex situation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The interpretation of sterol distribution data in a modern phylogenetic context indicates that there is a clear trend from cholesterol and other Delta(5 sterols in the earliest diverging fungal species to ergosterol in later diverging fungi. There are, however, deviations from this pattern in certain clades. Sterols of the diverse zoosporic and zygosporic forms exhibit structural diversity with cholesterol and 24-ethyl -Delta(5 sterols in zoosporic taxa, and 24-methyl sterols in zygosporic fungi. For example, each of the three monophyletic lineages of zygosporic fungi has distinctive major sterols, ergosterol in Mucorales, 22-dihydroergosterol in Dimargaritales, Harpellales, and Kickxellales (DHK clade, and 24-methyl cholesterol in Entomophthorales. Other departures from ergosterol as the dominant sterol include: 24-ethyl cholesterol in Glomeromycota, 24-ethyl cholest-7-enol and 24-ethyl-cholesta-7,24(28-dienol in rust fungi, brassicasterol in Taphrinales and hypogeous pezizalean species, and cholesterol in Pneumocystis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Five dominant end products of sterol biosynthesis (cholesterol, ergosterol, 24-methyl cholesterol, 24-ethyl cholesterol, brassicasterol, and intermediates in the formation of 24-ethyl cholesterol, are major sterols in 175 species of Fungi. Although most fungi in the most speciose clades have ergosterol as a major sterol, sterols are more varied than currently understood, and their distribution supports certain clades of Fungi in current fungal phylogenies. In addition to the intellectual importance of understanding evolution of sterol synthesis in fungi, there is practical importance because certain antifungal drugs (e.g., azoles target reactions in

  18. Family environment, not heredity, accounts for family resemblances in food preferences and attitudes: a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, P; Millman, L

    1987-04-01

    Monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twin pairs reported on their food preferences, the variety of foods of the same general category (e.g. types of soup) in their diet, and their concern about contact of their food with disgusting or other unacceptable substances (contamination sensitivity). Although there was substantial resemblance between siblings for many of these items, there was no clear evidence for a heritable component on any item. The only case for which there was an interpretable and significantly greater resemblance among monozygotic than among dizygotic twins (out of 23 questions) was preferred degree of hotness resulting from chili pepper in foods. These results confirm the prediction that in omnivorous animals, such as humans, genetic predispositions will be minimal with respect to food. The modest sibling resemblances on a number of measures are primarily attributable to a shared environment.

  19. Traumatic funicular phlebitis of the thoracic wall resembling Mondor's disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondo Takeshi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mondor's disease is a peculiar form of thrombophlebitis, involving a superficial vein in the subcutaneous fat of the breast or anterior chest wall. Case presentation The author presents a case of a 35-year-old male Japanese patient with cord-like induration in the right lateral thoracic wall. This lesion was diagnosed as traumatic funicular phlebitis, resembling Mondor's disease. Conclusion Traumatic funicular phlebitis, resembling Mondor's disease, is a clinical entity which may give suggestive insight to the etiology of Mondor's disease itself.

  20. MRI findings of uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung Hwan; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Hyun Young; Hwang, In Taek; Kim, Ju Heon; Lee, Seung Yeon [Eulji University Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor is a very rare uterine neoplasm that was first described by Clement and Scully in 1976. Since then, approximately 70 cases have been reported. However, these case reports have mainly described and discussed the pathologic and clinical features, and few radiologic findings have been presented. We experienced a case of a uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor, which was considered a uterine leiomyoma or leiomyosarcoma upon initial impression at preoperative evaluation including transvaginal ultrasonography and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging. Its diagnosis was pathologically confirmed after total abdominal hysterectomy.

  1. Invasive fungal infections after natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Park, Benjamin J

    2014-03-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed.

  2. Convergent evolution of chromosomal sex-determining regions in the animal and fungal kingdoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Fraser

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexual identity is governed by sex chromosomes in plants and animals, and by mating type (MAT loci in fungi. Comparative analysis of the MAT locus from a species cluster of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus revealed sequential evolutionary events that fashioned this large, highly unusual region. We hypothesize that MAT evolved via four main steps, beginning with acquisition of genes into two unlinked sex-determining regions, forming independent gene clusters that then fused via chromosomal translocation. A transitional tripolar intermediate state then converted to a bipolar system via gene conversion or recombination between the linked and unlinked sex-determining regions. MAT was subsequently subjected to intra- and interallelic gene conversion and inversions that suppress recombination. These events resemble those that shaped mammalian sex chromosomes, illustrating convergent evolution in sex-determining structures in the animal and fungal kingdoms.

  3. Fungal Endocarditis: Update on Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Ahmed Khurshid; Lee, Justin Z; Low, See-Wei; Desai, Hem; Lee, Kwan S; Al Mohajer, Mayar

    2016-10-01

    Fungal endocarditis is an extremely debilitating disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. Candida spp. are the most common isolated organisms in fungal endocarditis. It is most prevalent in patients who are immunosuppressed and intravenous drug users. Most patients present with constitutional symptoms, which are indistinguishable from bacterial endocarditis, hence a high index of suspicion is required for pursuing diagnosis. Diagnosis of fungal endocarditis can be very challenging: most of the time, blood cultures are negative or take a long time to yield growth. Fungal endocarditis mandates an aggressive treatment strategy. A medical and surgical combined approach is the cornerstone of therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Aerial hyphae in surface cultures of Streptomyces lividans and Streptomyces coelicolor originate from viable segments surviving an early programmed cell death event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manteca, Angel; Claessen, Dennis; Lopez-Iglesias, Carmen; Sanchez, Jesus

    Morphogenesis in streptomycetes is characterized by the formation of aerial hyphae that emerge from the substrate mycelium. Despite many years of study, a detailed picture of the events that occur during the transition from substrate to aerial mycelium has yet to be defined. In this paper, it was

  5. The SC15 protein of Schizophyllum commune mediates formation of aerial hyphae and attachment in the absence of the SC3 hydrophobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugones, L G; de Jong, J F; de Vries, O M H; Jalving, R; Dijksterhuis, J; Wösten, H A B

    Disruption of the SC3 gene in the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune affected not only formation of aerial hyphae but also attachment to hydrophobic surfaces. However, these processes were not completely abolished, indicating involvement of other molecules. We here show that the SC15 protein

  6. A termite symbiotic mushroom maximizing sexual activity at growing tips of vegetative hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Huei-Mei; Chung, Mei-Chu; Chen, Pao-Yang; Hsu, Fei-Man; Liao, Wen-Wei; Sung, Ai-Ning; Lin, Chun-Ru; Wang, Chung-Ju Rachel; Kao, Yu-Hsin; Fang, Mei-Jane; Lai, Chi-Yung; Huang, Chieh-Chen; Chou, Jyh-Ching; Chou, Wen-Neng; Chang, Bill Chia-Han; Ju, Yu-Ming

    2017-09-19

    Termitomyces mushrooms are mutualistically associated with fungus-growing termites, which are widely considered to cultivate a monogenotypic Termitomyces symbiont within a colony. Termitomyces cultures isolated directly from termite colonies are heterokaryotic, likely through mating between compatible homokaryons. After pairing homokaryons carrying different haplotypes at marker gene loci MIP and RCB from a Termitomyces fruiting body associated with Odontotermes formosanus, we observed nuclear fusion and division, which greatly resembled meiosis, during each hyphal cell division and conidial formation in the resulting heterokaryons. Surprisingly, nuclei in homokaryons also behaved similarly. To confirm if meiotic-like recombination occurred within mycelia, we constructed whole-genome sequencing libraries from mycelia of two homokaryons and a heterokaryon resulting from mating of the two homokaryons. Obtained reads were aligned to the reference genome of Termitomyces sp. J132 for haplotype reconstruction. After removal of the recombinant haplotypes shared between the heterokaryon and either homokaryons, we inferred that 5.04% of the haplotypes from the heterokaryon were the recombinants resulting from homologous recombination distributed genome-wide. With RNA transcripts of four meiosis-specific genes, including SPO11, DMC1, MSH4, and MLH1, detected from a mycelial sample by real-time quantitative PCR, the nuclear behavior in mycelia was reconfirmed meiotic-like. Unlike other basidiomycetes where sex is largely restricted to basidia, Termitomyces maximizes sexuality at somatic stage, resulting in an ever-changing genotype composed of a myriad of coexisting heterogeneous nuclei in a heterokaryon. Somatic meiotic-like recombination may endow Termitomyces with agility to cope with termite consumption by maximized genetic variability.

  7. Children and Adolescents' Understandings of Family Resemblance: A Study of Naive Inheritance Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to provide developmental data on two connected naive inheritance concepts and to explore the coherence of children's naive biology knowledge. Two tasks examined children and adolescents' (4, 7, 10, and 14 years) conceptions of phenotypic resemblance across kin (in physical characteristics, disabilities, and personality traits). The…

  8. Resemblances of Parents and Twins in Sport Participation and Heart Rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, D.I.; van den Bree, M.B.; Orlebeke, J.F.; Molenaar, P.C.M.

    1989-01-01

    A model to analyze resemblances of twins and parents using LISREL is outlined and applied to sports participation and heart-rate data. Sports participation and heart rate were measured in 44 monozygotic and 46 dizygotic adolescent twin pairs and in their parents. Genetic factors influence variation

  9. Descriptive Understandings of the Nature of Science: Examining the Consensual and Family Resemblance Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento Rocha, Maristela; Gurgel, Ivã

    2017-01-01

    This paper performs a critical analysis of the consensual and family resemblance approaches to the nature of science. Despite the debate that surrounds them, between a pragmatic consensus and a more comprehensive understanding, both approaches have in common the goal of helping students to "internalize" knowledge about science in a…

  10. Effects of parenting quality on adolescents' personality resemblance to their parents. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenhof, M Rohaa; Komdeur, Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    This study considers the development of resemblance between 741 adolescents and their biological parents, across six NEO-PI-R personality traits known to be important in psychological problems: anger-hostility, impulsiveness, vulnerability, assertiveness, excitement-seeking, and self-discipline. We

  11. Effects of parenting quality on adolescents' personality resemblance to their parents. The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenhof, M Rohaa; Komdeur, Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-08-01

    This study considers the development of resemblance between 741 adolescents and their biological parents, across six NEO-PI-R personality traits known to be important in psychological problems: anger-hostility, impulsiveness, vulnerability, assertiveness, excitement-seeking, and self-discipline. We modelled the association between perceived parental warmth and rejection at age eleven and personality resemblance to parents at about age sixteen. Parenting experienced during early adolescence was related to the degree and direction in which adolescents resembled their parents five years later in life. Rejection, especially from fathers, significantly predicted a smaller resemblance to both the parents. Girls were more strongly affected by parental quality than boys, and there was some indication that adolescents responded in opposite ways to parenting from mothers and fathers. This study is a first step in uncovering the complex interplay between parenting, gender, and the current generation's ability to develop personality traits independent from the previous generation. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Family resemblance in fat intake, nutrition attitudes and beliefs : a study among three generations of women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis nutrition attitudes, beliefs, and fat intake in three generations of women are described. The aim of the study was twofold: the development of methods, and to study family resemblance in food habits. Based on literature study and qualitative pilot studies a questionnaire on

  13. Evidence of an Unidentified Extracellular Heat-Stable Factor Produced by Lysobacter enzymogenes (OH11) that Degrade Fusarium graminearum PH1 Hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, Benard Omondi; Xu, Gaoge; Qian, Guoliang; Liu, Fengquan

    2017-04-01

    Lysobacter enzymogenes OH11 produces heat-stable antifungal factor (HSAF) and lytic enzymes possessing antifungal activity. This study bio-prospected for other potential antifungal factors besides those above. The cells and extracellular metabolites of L. enzymogenes OH11 and the mutants ΔchiA, ΔchiB, ΔchiC, Δclp, Δpks, and ΔpilA were examined for antifungal activity against Fusarium graminearum PH1, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB). Results evidenced that OH11 produces an unidentified extracellular heat-stable degrading metabolite (HSDM) that exhibit degrading activity on F. graminearum PH1 chitinous hyphae. Interestingly, both heat-treated and non-heat-treated extracellular metabolites of OH11 mutants exhibited hyphae-degrading activity against F. graminearum PH1. Enzyme activity detection of heat-treated metabolites ruled out the possibility of enzyme degradation activity. Remarkably, the PKS-NRPS-deficient mutant Δpks cannot produce HSAF or analogues, yet its metabolites exhibited hyphae-degrading activity. HPLC analysis confirmed no HSAF production by Δpks. Δclp lacks hyphae-degrading ability. Therefore, clp regulates HSDM and extracellular lytic enzymes production in L. enzymogenes OH11. ΔpilA had impaired surface cell motility and significantly reduced antagonistic properties. ΔchiA, ΔchiB, and ΔchiC retained hyphae-degrading ability, despite having reduced abilities to produce chitinase enzymes. Ultimately, L. enzymogenes OH11 can produce other unidentified HSDM independent of the PKS-NRPS genes. This suggests HSAF and lytic enzymes production are a fraction of the antifungal mechanisms in OH11. Characterization of HSDM, determination of its biosynthetic gene cluster and understanding its mode of action will provide new leads in the search for effective drugs for FHB management.

  14. Fungal transmission of plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R N

    1996-01-01

    Thirty soilborne viruses or virus-like agents are transmitted by five species of fungal vectors. Ten polyhedral viruses, of which nine are in the family Tombusviridae, are acquired in the in vitro manner and do not occur within the resting spores of their vectors, Olpidium brassicae and O. bornovanus. Fungal vectors for other viruses in the family should be sought even though tombusviruses are reputed to be soil transmitted without a vector. Eighteen rod-shaped viruses belonging to the furo- and bymovirus groups and to an unclassified group are acquired in the in vivo manner and survive within the resting spores of their vector, O. brassicae, Polymyxa graminis, P. betae, and Spongospora subterranea. The viral coat protein has an essential role in in vitro transmission. With in vivo transmission a site in the coat protein-read through protein (CP-RT) of beet necrotic yellow vein furovirus determines vector transmissibility as does a site in a similar 98-kDa polyprotein of barley mild mosaic bymovirus. The mechanisms by which virions move (or are moved) into and out of the protoplasm of zoospores or of thalli needs study.

  15. Optimal Fungal Space Searching Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenova, Elitsa; Lin, Hsin-Yu; Fu, Eileen; Nicolau, Dan V; Nicolau, Dan V

    2016-10-01

    Previous experiments have shown that fungi use an efficient natural algorithm for searching the space available for their growth in micro-confined networks, e.g., mazes. This natural "master" algorithm, which comprises two "slave" sub-algorithms, i.e., collision-induced branching and directional memory, has been shown to be more efficient than alternatives, with one, or the other, or both sub-algorithms turned off. In contrast, the present contribution compares the performance of the fungal natural algorithm against several standard artificial homologues. It was found that the space-searching fungal algorithm consistently outperforms uninformed algorithms, such as Depth-First-Search (DFS). Furthermore, while the natural algorithm is inferior to informed ones, such as A*, this under-performance does not importantly increase with the increase of the size of the maze. These findings suggest that a systematic effort of harvesting the natural space searching algorithms used by microorganisms is warranted and possibly overdue. These natural algorithms, if efficient, can be reverse-engineered for graph and tree search strategies.

  16. [Iron and invasive fungal infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Florencio; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Aguado, José María

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential factor for both the growth and virulence of most of microorganisms. As a part of the innate (or nutritional) immune system, mammals have developed different mechanisms to store and transport this element in order to limit free iron bioavailability. To survive in this hostile environment, pathogenic fungi have specific uptake systems for host iron sources, one of the most important of which is based on the synthesis of siderophores-soluble, low-molecular-mass, high-affinity iron chelators. The increase in free iron that results from iron-overload conditions is a well-established risk factor for invasive fungal infection (IFI) such as mucormycosis or aspergillosis. Therefore, iron chelation may be an appealing therapeutic option for these infections. Nevertheless, deferoxamine -the first approved iron chelator- paradoxically increases the incidence of IFI, as it serves as a xeno-siderophore to Mucorales. On the contrary, the new oral iron chelators (deferiprone and deferasirox) have shown to exert a deleterious effect on fungal growth both in vitro and in animal models. The present review focuses on the role of iron metabolism in the pathogenesis of IFI and summarises the preclinical data, as well as the limited clinical experience so far, in the use of new iron chelators as treatment for mucormycosis and invasive aspergillosis. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Fungal effector proteins: past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Mehrabi, R.; Burg, van den H.A.; Stergiopoulos, I.

    2009-01-01

    The pioneering research of Harold Flor on flax and the flax rust fungus culminated in his gene-for-gene hypothesis. It took nearly 50 years before the first fungal avirulence (Avr) gene in support of his hypothesis was cloned. Initially, fungal Avr genes were identified by reverse genetics and

  18. A novel class of fungal lipoxygenases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heshof, R.; Jylhä, S.; Haarmann, T.; Jørgensen, A.L.W.; Dalsgaard, T.K.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2014-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are well-studied enzymes in plants and mammals. However, fungal LOXs are less studied. In this study, we have compared fungal LOX protein sequences to all known characterized LOXs. For this, a script was written using Shell commands to extract sequences from the NCBI database

  19. Fungal infection knowledge gap in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EPHA USER33

    receiving immunosuppressive therapy, and patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (1). Fungi also play a role in allergic fungal disease such as allergic broncho- pulmonary Aspergilosis (ABPA) and chronic or deep tissue infections. The laboratory diagnosis of fungal infection starts with a simple potassium hydroxide.

  20. Clinical consideration of fungal paranasal sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuni, Tsuyoshi; Asakura, Koji; Homma, Tomo; Kawaguchi, Ryuichi; Ishikawa, Tadataka; Yamazaki, Norikazu; Himi, Tetsuo

    2008-01-01

    Fungal paranasal sinusitis is included in the differential diagnosis of unilateral paranasal lesion. Recently the incidence of fungal paranasal sinusitis has been increasing. We reviewed 24 patients (9 males and 15 females) with fungal paranasal sinusitis treated at Muroran City Hospital between January 2001 and May 2006, and clinical presentation and CT findings with those of 56 patients (36 males and 20 females) with chronic unilateral sinusitis. Fungal sinusitis patients ranged in age from 45 to 87, and the average age was 65.9 years old. In contrast, the age of chronic sinusitis patients ranged from 24 to 83, and the average age was 54.4 years old. The chief complaint of both fungal sinusitis and chronic sinusitis included rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction and post nasal discharge. CT exam was performed in all patients. In 23 cases of paranasal fungal sinusitis and 54 cases of chronic sinusitis the findings involved the maxillary sinus. The most common observation (69.6%) was bone density within the affected sinus in fungal sinusitis. However, only 2 cases of chronic sinusitis (3.9%) showed calcification. All cases of fungal sinusitis were diagnosed by pathological examinations. Most cases were proved to be aspergillus, while only one case was mucor. We treated all cases surgically, 18 cases underwent Caldwell-Luc's procedure and 5 cases underwent endoscopic sinus surgery under local anesthesia. (author)

  1. Histone Acetylation in Fungal Pathogens of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyun Jeon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylation of histone lysine residues occurs in different organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals for the regulation of diverse cellular processes. With the identification of enzymes that create or reverse this modification, our understanding on histone acetylation has expanded at an amazing pace during the last two decades. In fungal pathogens of plants, however, the importance of such modification has only just begun to be appreciated in the recent years and there is a dearth of information on how histone acetylation is implicated in fungal pathogenesis. This review covers the current status of research related to histone acetylation in plant pathogenic fungi and considers relevant findings in the interaction between fungal pathogens and host plants. We first describe the families of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Then we provide the cases where histone acetylation was investigated in the context of fungal pathogenesis. Finally, future directions and perspectives in epigenetics of fungal pathogenesis are discussed.

  2. Soil fungal community responses to global changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugwitz, Merian Skouw

    Global change will affect the functioning and structure of terrestrial ecosystems and since soil fungi are key players in organic matter decomposition and nutrient turnover, shifts in fungal community composition might have a strong impact on soil functioning. The main focus of this thesis...... was therefore to investigate the impact of global environmental changes on soil fungal communities in a temperate and subartic heath ecosystem. The objective was further to determine global change effects on major functional groups of fungi and analyze the influence of fungal community changes on soil carbon...... and nutrient availability and storage. By combining molecular methods such as 454 pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of fungal ITS amplicons with analyses of soil enzymes, nutrient pools of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus we were able to characterize soil fungal communities as well as their impact on nutrient...

  3. INCIDENCE OF FUNGAL ELEMENTS IN SINONASAL POLYPOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh G. S

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nasal polyposis is a disease entity characterised by formation of pseudoedema of sinonasal mucus membrane progressing to form polyps. It presents clinically with nasal obstruction and fleshy masses in the nasal cavity. The nasal mucosa reacts to formation of polypi in allergic fungal sinusitis also. The present study is an attempt to demonstrate possible fungal elements from the polypi removed during surgery by KOH study and HPE study. The aim of the study is to find out the incidence of fungal elements in sinonasal polyposis. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 patients attending the ENT OPD for nasal obstruction and showing polypi on anterior rhinoscopy were selected. All the patients were subjected to surgery and specimens collected were subjected to KOH study and histopathology to demonstrate fungal elements. RESULTS Among 50 patients, the age range was from 9-57 years; mean age- 36.46 years. The male-to-female ratio was 1.5:1. Deviated nasal septum was found in 38% of patients. Among the unilateral cases, 47% were antrochoanal polyps and 53% were ethmoid polyps. Out of 50 patients, only 3 specimens were positive for fungal elements with KOH study and only 2 cases with fungal culture. Thus, the incidence of fungal elements in sinonasal polyposis was 6%. CONCLUSION The incidence of fungal elements in sinonasal polyposis was 6%. Histopathological examination of polypectomy specimen was negative for invasive fungal disease and showed inflammatory changes only. There is no difference in the detection of the presence of fungal by two methods.

  4. Agarose cell block technique as a complementary method in the diagnosis of fungal osteomyelitis in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Rocha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year-old Labrador Retriever female dog presenting left forelimb lameness for one day was admitted to the Veterinary Hospital (UNESP-Botucatu for clinical evaluation. Several tests, including blood and image analysis, microbiological culture and cytology of lytic areas of affected bone were made in order to establish a diagnosis. Serum biochemical profile revealed increased levels of liver enzymes, plasma globulin, creatine kinase (CK and calcium. Hemogram revealed anemia and leukocytosis; left humerus image analysis revealed an osteolytic lesion and cytology revealed a suppurative periostitis. Differential diagnosis was a nonspecific infectious inflammatory process or osteosarcoma. Since it was not possible to achieve a definitive diagnosis and there was a highly suspicious for an infectious agent, an agarose cell block of the bone marrow fine-needle aspiration was made. The cytological examination of cell block presented similar findings as described previously. However, additional stains including periodic acid-Schiff (PAS were positive for fungal hyphae, which rendered a diagnosis of fungal osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus spp. This case report illustrates an uncommon cause of osteomyelitis for breed that was diagnosed by an underused method in veterinary medicine.

  5. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival.

  6. Gastrointestinal symptoms resembling ulcerative proctitis caused by larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Gaillard, Julien; Borée-Moreau, Diane; Bailly, Éric; Andres, Christian R; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of facultative intestinal myiasis due to larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax, also named the rat-tailed maggots. The development of larvae in the lower bowel was responsible for non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that resembled ulcerative proctitis. The diagnosis was established upon the observation of four spontaneously excreted mobile larvae. The definite identification of the E. tenax species was made possible by scanning electron microscopy. The clinical outcome was satisfactory.

  7. Facial Resemblance Exaggerates Sex-Specific Jealousy-Based Decisions1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Platek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in reaction to a romantic partner's infidelity are well documented and are hypothesized to be attributable to sex-specific jealousy mechanisms which are utilized to solve adaptive problems associated with risk of extra-pair copulation. Males, because of the risk of cuckoldry become more upset by sexual infidelity, while females, because of loss of resources and biparental investment tend to become more distressed by emotional infidelity. However, the degree to which these sex-specific reactions to jealousy interact with cues to kin are completely unknown. Here we investigated the interaction of facial resemblance with decisions about sex-specific jealousy scenarios. Fifty nine volunteers were asked to imagine that two different people (represented by facial composites informed them about their romantic partner's sexual or emotional infidelity. Consistent with previous research, males ranked sexual infidelity scenarios as most upsetting and females ranked emotional infidelity scenarios most upsetting. However, when information about the infidelity was provided by a face that resembled the subject, sex-specific reactions to jealousy were exaggerated. This finding highlights the use of facial resemblance as a putative self-referent phenotypic matching cue that impacts trusting behavior in sexual contexts.

  8. Processing of Candida albicans Ece1p Is Critical for Candidalysin Maturation and Fungal Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P. Richardson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen responsible for superficial and life-threatening infections in humans. During mucosal infection, C. albicans undergoes a morphological transition from yeast to invasive filamentous hyphae that secrete candidalysin, a 31-amino-acid peptide toxin required for virulence. Candidalysin damages epithelial cell plasma membranes and stimulates the activating protein 1 (AP-1 transcription factor c-Fos (via p38–mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK], and the MAPK phosphatase MKP1 (via extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 [ERK1/2]–MAPK, which trigger and regulate proinflammatory cytokine responses, respectively. The candidalysin toxin resides as a discrete cryptic sequence within a larger 271-amino-acid parental preproprotein, Ece1p. Here, we demonstrate that kexin-like proteinases, but not secreted aspartyl proteinases, initiate a two-step posttranslational processing of Ece1p to produce candidalysin. Kex2p-mediated proteolysis of Ece1p after Arg61 and Arg93, but not after other processing sites within Ece1p, is required to generate immature candidalysin from Ece1p, followed by Kex1p-mediated removal of a carboxyl arginine residue to generate mature candidalysin. C. albicans strains harboring mutations of Arg61 and/or Arg93 did not secrete candidalysin, were unable to induce epithelial damage and inflammatory responses in vitro, and showed attenuated virulence in vivo in a murine model of oropharyngeal candidiasis. These observations identify enzymatic processing of C. albicans Ece1p by kexin-like proteinases as crucial steps required for candidalysin production and fungal pathogenicity.

  9. Rapid analysis of fungal cultures and dried figs for secondary metabolites by LC/TOF-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senyuva, Hamide Z. [Ankara Test and Analysis Laboratory, Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, Ankara 06330 (Turkey)], E-mail: hamide.senyuva@tubitak.gov.tr; Gilbert, John [Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ (United Kingdom); Oztuerkoglu, Sebnem [Ankara Test and Analysis Laboratory, Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, Ankara 06330 (Turkey)

    2008-06-09

    A liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOF-MS) method has been developed for profiling fungal metabolites. The performance of the procedure in terms of mass accuracy, selectivity (specificity) and repeatability was established by spiking aflatoxins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes and other metabolites into blank growth media. After extracting, and carrying out LC/TOF-MS analysis, the standards were correctly identified by searching a specially constructed database of 465 secondary metabolites. To demonstrate the viability of this approach 11 toxigenic and four non-toxigenic fungi from reference collections were grown on various media, for 7-14 days. The method was also applied to two toxigenic fungi, A. flavus (200-138) and A. parasiticus (2999-465) grown on gamma radiation sterilised dried figs, for 7-14 days. The fungal hyphae plus a portion of growth media or portions of dried figs were solvent extracted and analysed by LC/TOF-MS using a rapid resolution microbore LC column. Data processing based on cluster analysis, showed that electrospray ionization (ESI)-TOF-MS could be used to unequivocally identify metabolites in crude extracts. Using the elemental metabolite database, it was demonstrated that from culture collection isolates, anticipated metabolites. The speed and simplicity of the method has meant that levels of these metabolites could be monitored daily in sterilised figs. Over a 14-day period, levels of aflatoxins and kojic acid maximised at 5-6 days, whilst levels of 5-methoxysterigmatocystin remained relatively constant. In addition to the known metabolites expected to be produced by these fungi, roquefortine A, fumagillin, fumigaclavine B, malformins (peptides), aspergillic acid, nigragillin, terrein, terrestric acid and penicillic acid were also identified.

  10. A novel fungal fruiting structure formed by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius in grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Cristina; Nguyen, Trang Thoaivan; Gubler, Walter Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Sour rot, is a pre-harvest disease that affects many grape varieties. Sour rot symptoms include initial berry cracking and breakdown of berry tissue. This is a disease complex with many filamentous fungi and bacteria involved, but is usually initiated by Aspergillus niger or Aspergillus carbonarius. Usually, by the time one sees the rot there are many other organisms involved and it is difficult to attribute the disease to one species. In this study two species of Aspergillus were shown to produce a previously unknown fruiting structure in infected berries. The nodulous morphology, bearing conidia, suggests them to be an 'everted polymorphic stroma'. This structure forms freely inside the berry pulp and assumes multiple shapes and sizes, sometimes sclerotium-like in form. It is composed of a mass of vegetative hyphae with or without tissue of the host containing spores or fruiting bodies bearing spores. Artificially inoculated berries placed in soil in winter showed the possible overwintering function of the fruiting body. Inoculated berry clusters on standing vines produced fruiting structures within 21 d post inoculation when wounds were made at veraison or after (July-September). Histological studies confirmed that the fruiting structure was indeed fungal tissue. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Root fungal colonisation in Deschampsia flexuosa: Effects of pollution and neighbouring trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Markkola, Annamari; Kozlov, Mikhail V.

    2007-01-01

    In industrial barrens adjacent to a nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, the Kola Peninsula, root colonisation in Deschampsia flexuosa by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM)-type of hyphae was lower than in unpolluted forests (60.9 vs. 80.4%), while Olpidium-colonisation showed a marginally significant decline, and dark septate endophytic (DSE) hyphal colonisation was not affected. We detected an interactive effect of pollution and a neighbouring tree on DSE hyphal colonisation: at the highly polluted sites, colonisation was lower in D. flexuosa growing near trees, whereas at sites with low pollution the presence of the neighbouring tree had no effect on colonisation. High numbers of intracellular DSE sclerotia in the industrial barrens (13.3 vs. 3.4%) may indicate a survial strategy in an unfavourable environment and a dispersal strategy into a more favourable environment. While lower root colonisation by AM fungi has been also earlier reported in graminoids for heavy metal contamination, the results on other ubiquitous fungi colonising D. flexuosa roots are more novel. - Severe pollution decreased root colonisation by some fungal groups; neighbouring trees decreased root colonisation by dark septate endophytic fungi in highly polluted sites

  12. Root fungal colonisation in Deschampsia flexuosa: Effects of pollution and neighbouring trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa [Botanical Museum, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland) and Section of Ecology, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland)]. E-mail: annu.ruotsalainen@oulu.fi; Markkola, Annamari [Department of Biology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland) and Department of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Niemenkatu 73, FIN-15140 Lahti (Finland)]. E-mail: annamari.markkola@oulu.fi; Kozlov, Mikhail V. [Section of Ecology, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland)]. E-mail: mikoz@utu.fi

    2007-06-15

    In industrial barrens adjacent to a nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, the Kola Peninsula, root colonisation in Deschampsia flexuosa by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM)-type of hyphae was lower than in unpolluted forests (60.9 vs. 80.4%), while Olpidium-colonisation showed a marginally significant decline, and dark septate endophytic (DSE) hyphal colonisation was not affected. We detected an interactive effect of pollution and a neighbouring tree on DSE hyphal colonisation: at the highly polluted sites, colonisation was lower in D. flexuosa growing near trees, whereas at sites with low pollution the presence of the neighbouring tree had no effect on colonisation. High numbers of intracellular DSE sclerotia in the industrial barrens (13.3 vs. 3.4%) may indicate a survial strategy in an unfavourable environment and a dispersal strategy into a more favourable environment. While lower root colonisation by AM fungi has been also earlier reported in graminoids for heavy metal contamination, the results on other ubiquitous fungi colonising D. flexuosa roots are more novel. - Severe pollution decreased root colonisation by some fungal groups; neighbouring trees decreased root colonisation by dark septate endophytic fungi in highly polluted sites.

  13. Fungal infection of gingiva in a patient with hyperimmunoglobulin-E (Job′s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES, also known as Job′s syndrome, is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by eczema, recurrent skin and lung infections, elevated serum IgE, and connective tissue and skeletal abnormalities. Individuals with HIES share a characteristic facial appearance and many oral manifestations including retained primary dentition, a high-arched palate, variations of the oral mucosa and gingiva, and recurrent oral candidiasis. An 18-year-old lady presented with gingival swelling, bleeding from the gums, recurrent skin infections, and recurrent respiratory infections with intermittent fever. After thorough extra oral, intra oral and radiographic examination, serological investigations were performed. Growth of candida hyphae in the biopsy specimen of gingiva and increased levels of serum IgE with typical extra oral findings established the diagnosis as Job′s syndrome (hyper IgE syndrome. Treatment with anti-fungal antibiotics and phase-I therapy including scaling and root planing followed by gingivoplasty using diode laser (980 nm was performed. HIES was previously defined on the basis of clinical manifestations and laboratory markers that were not specific to the disease. With the identification of STAT3 mutations as the cause of HIES, we can definitively characterize the disease at molecular and immunologic levels. This case emphasizes the role of the dentist in the diagnosis of rare syndromes which alters the treatment plan.

  14. Black fungal colonies as units of survival: hyphal mycosporines synthesized by rock-dwelling microcolonial fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbushina, A.A.; Whitehead, K.; Dornieden, T.; Niesse, A.; Schulte, A.; Hedges, J.I.

    2003-01-01

    Microcolonial fungi, long-living modified mycelia frequently occurring on desert and pseudodesert rock surfaces, are exposed to strong ultraviolet (UV) radiation, desiccation, and nutrient scarcity. They lack ascospores; all their cells grow by mitotic cell divisions and possess a thick melanized cell wall. Colonies of several randomly selected microcolonial strains were cultured and their structure was examined by cryo-scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Extracts of nine strains were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography interfaced with mass spectrometry for the presence of mycosporines. These UV-absorbing compounds, common in spores and other survival structures, were thought to be limited to reproductive morphogenesis and unknown in growing hyphae. Mycosporines were present in eight of the strains, and mycosporine-glutaminol-glucoside (λmax = 310 nm; MH+ = 465) was the major mycosporine detected. Mycosporines present in the vegetative fungal microcolonies may be associated with the high survival potential, nonexpansive intracolonial growth; and longevity of these fungi. Intrahyphal growth and recolonization of old cells by new ones were observed in all strains investigated. (author)

  15. Black fungal colonies as units of survival: hyphal mycosporines synthesized by rock-dwelling microcolonial fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbushina, A.A. [Geomicrobiology, Inst. for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment, Oldenburg (Germany); Whitehead, K. [Univ. of Washington, School of Oceanography, Seattle, Washington (United States); Dornieden, T.; Niesse, A.; Schulte, A. [Geomicrobiology, Inst. for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment, Oldenburg (Germany); Hedges, J.I. [Univ. of Washington, School of Oceanography, Seattle, Washington (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Microcolonial fungi, long-living modified mycelia frequently occurring on desert and pseudodesert rock surfaces, are exposed to strong ultraviolet (UV) radiation, desiccation, and nutrient scarcity. They lack ascospores; all their cells grow by mitotic cell divisions and possess a thick melanized cell wall. Colonies of several randomly selected microcolonial strains were cultured and their structure was examined by cryo-scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Extracts of nine strains were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography interfaced with mass spectrometry for the presence of mycosporines. These UV-absorbing compounds, common in spores and other survival structures, were thought to be limited to reproductive morphogenesis and unknown in growing hyphae. Mycosporines were present in eight of the strains, and mycosporine-glutaminol-glucoside ({lambda}max = 310 nm; MH+ = 465) was the major mycosporine detected. Mycosporines present in the vegetative fungal microcolonies may be associated with the high survival potential, nonexpansive intracolonial growth; and longevity of these fungi. Intrahyphal growth and recolonization of old cells by new ones were observed in all strains investigated. (author)

  16. Penetration Peg Formation and Invasive Hyphae Development Require Stage-Specific Activation of MoGTI1 in Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wang, Guanghui; Xu, Jin-Rong; Jiang, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The hemibiotrophic pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae causes one of the most destructive diseases in cultivated rice. Complex infection-related morphogenesis and production of various effectors are known to be important for successful colonization and disease development. In this study, we characterized the activation of the MoGTI1 transcription factor and its role in infection-related morphogenesis and effector gene expression. The Mogti1 mutant was nonpathogenic, although it was normal in appressorium formation and turgor generation. Close examination showed that Mogti1 was defective in penetration and growth of normal invasive hyphae. Deletion of MoGTI1 affected the expression of the majority of effector genes. The expression of MoGti1 appeared to be controlled by the Mps1 but not Pmk1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and the mps1 and Mogti1 mutants had similar phenotypes in plant infection and cell wall integrity defects. However, lack of MAPK phosphorylation sites and dispensability of the putative MAPK docking site suggested that MoGti1 is not a direct target of Mps1. Site-specific mutagenesis analyses showed that the putative protein kinase A phosphorylation site was not essential for localization of MoGti1 to the nucleus but important for its normal function. Although the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) phosphorylation site of MoGti1 is dispensable during vegetative growth and appressorium formation, the S77A mutation affected penetration and invasive growth. Localization of MoGti1(S77A)-green fluorescent protein to the nucleus in late stages of appressorium formation and during invasive growth was not observed, suggesting a stage-specific CDK phosphorylation of MoGti1. Overall, our data indicate that Mps1 may indirectly regulate the expression of MoGti1 in maintaining cell wall integrity, conidiation, and plant infection. MoGti1 is likely a stage-specific target of CDK and plays a crucial role in effector gene expression and morphogenesis related to the

  17. Fungal infection in organ transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Wen, Hai; Liao, Wanqing

    2003-09-01

    To review the characteristics and evolution of the fungal spectrum, and the risk factors causing fungal infection, and to make progress in diagnosing fungal infection after organ transplantation. An English-language literature search (MEDLINE 1990 - 2000) and bibliographic review of textbooks and review articles. Twenty-three articles were selected from the literature that specifically addressed the stated purpose. Fungal infections in organ transplant patients were generally divided into two types: (1) disseminated primary or reactivation infection with one of the geographically restricted systemic mycoses; (2) opportunistic infection by fungal species that rarely cause invasive infection in normal hosts. The risk factors of fungal infection after a transplant can be evaluated and predicted according to the organ recipient's conditions before, during and after the transplant. Progress in early diagnostic methods during the past 10 years has mainly revolved around two aspects, culture and non-culture. It is important to undertake a systemic evaluation on the condition of the organ recipient before, during and after a transplant; should any risk factor for fungal infection be suspected, diagnosis should be made as early as possible by employing mycological techniques including culture and non-culture methods.

  18. Fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljaljević-Grbić Milica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi have been implicated as quantitatively the most important bioaerosol component of indoor air associated with contaminated air-conditioning systems. rarely, indoor fungi may cause human infections, but more commonly allergenic responses ranging from pneumonitis to asthma-like symptoms. From all air conditioner filters analyzed, 16 fungal taxa were isolated and identified. Aspergillus fumigatus causes more lethal infections worldwide than any other mold. Air-conditioning filters that adsorb moisture and volatile organics appear to provide suitable substrates for fungal colonization. It is important to stress that fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems should not be ignored, especially in hospital environments.

  19. Fungal infections in neutropenic cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, T.

    2003-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients with prolonged neutropenia following chemotherapy. Recent trends indicate a change toward infections by Aspergillus species, non-albicans species of Candida, and previously uncommon fungal pathogens. These have decreased susceptibility to current antifungal agents. In the last decade there has been much effort to find solutions for these changing trends. This article reviews current approaches to prevention and treatment of opportunistic fungal infections in postchemotherapy neutropenic patients and discussion future antifungal approaches and supportive methods. (author)

  20. Insight into litter decomposition driven by nutrient demands of symbiosis system through the hypha bridge of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangshi; Jia, Yanyan; Song, Fuqiang; Tian, Kai; Lin, Hong; Bei, Zhanlin; Jia, Xiuqin; Yao, Bei; Guo, Peng; Tian, Xingjun

    2018-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an important role in litter decomposition. This study investigated how soil nutrient level affected the process. Results showed that AMF colonization had no significant effect on litter decomposition under normal soil nutrient conditions. However, litter decomposition was accelerated significantly under lower nutrient conditions. Soil microbial biomass in decomposition system was significantly increased. Especially, in moderate lower nutrient treatment (condition of half-normal soil nutrient), litters exhibited the highest decomposition rate, AMF hypha revealed the greatest density, and enzymes (especially nitrate reductase) showed the highest activities as well. Meanwhile, the immobilization of nitrogen (N) in the decomposing litter remarkably decreased. Our results suggested that the roles AMF played in ecosystem were largely affected by soil nutrient levels. At normal soil nutrient level, AMF exhibited limited effects in promoting decomposition. When soil nutrient level decreased, the promoting effect of AMF on litter decomposition began to appear, especially on N mobilization. However, under extremely low nutrient conditions, AMF showed less influence on decomposition and may even compete with decomposer microorganisms for nutrients.

  1. Ferric reductase genes involved in high-affinity iron uptake are differentially regulated in yeast and hyphae of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeeves, Rose E; Mason, Robert P; Woodacre, Alexandra; Cashmore, Annette M

    2011-09-01

    The pathogenic yeast Candida albicans possesses a reductive iron uptake system which is active in iron-restricted conditions. The sequestration of iron by this mechanism initially requires the reduction of free iron to the soluble ferrous form, which is catalysed by ferric reductase proteins. Reduced iron is then taken up into the cell by a complex of a multicopper oxidase protein and an iron transport protein. Multicopper oxidase proteins require copper to function and so reductive iron and copper uptake are inextricably linked. It has previously been established that Fre10 is the major cell surface ferric reductase in C. albicans and that transcription of FRE10 is regulated in response to iron levels. We demonstrate here that Fre10 is also a cupric reductase and that Fre7 also makes a significant contribution to cell surface ferric and cupric reductase activity. It is also shown, for the first time, that transcription of FRE10 and FRE7 is lower in hyphae compared to yeast and that this leads to a corresponding decrease in cell surface ferric, but not cupric, reductase activity. This demonstrates that the regulation of two virulence determinants, the reductive iron uptake system and the morphological form of C. albicans, are linked. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. In Candida albicans hyphae, Sec2p is physically associated with SEC2 mRNA on secretory vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Lima, David; Hautbergue, Guillaume M; Wilson, Stuart A; Sudbery, Peter E

    2014-11-01

    Candida albicans hyphae grow in a highly polarized fashion from their tips. This polarized growth requires the continuous delivery of secretory vesicles to the tip region. Vesicle delivery depends on Sec2p, the Guanine Exchange Factor (GEF) for the Rab GTPase Sec4p. GTP bound Sec4p is required for the transit of secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi to sites of polarized growth. We previously showed that phosphorylation of Sec2p at residue S584 was necessary for Sec2p to support hyphal, but not yeast growth. Here we show that on secretory vesicles SEC2 mRNA is physically associated with Sec2p. Moreover, we show that the phosphorylation of S584 allows SEC2 mRNA to dissociate from Sec2p and we speculate that this is necessary for Sec2p function and/or translation. During hyphal extension, the growing tip may be separated from the nucleus by up to 15 μm. Transport of SEC2 mRNA on secretory vesicles to the tip localizes SEC2 translation to tip allowing a sufficient accumulation of this key protein at the site of polarized growth. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Impact of the lectin chaperone calnexin on the stress response, virulence and proteolytic secretome of the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret V Powers-Fletcher

    Full Text Available Calnexin is a membrane-bound lectin chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER that is part of a quality control system that promotes the accurate folding of glycoproteins entering the secretory pathway. We have previously shown that ER homeostasis is important for virulence of the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, but the contribution of calnexin has not been explored. Here, we determined the extent to which A. fumigatus relies on calnexin for growth under conditions of environmental stress and for virulence. The calnexin gene, clxA, was deleted from A. fumigatus and complemented by reconstitution with the wild type gene. Loss of clxA altered the proteolytic secretome of the fungus, but had no impact on growth rates in either minimal or complex media at 37°C. However, the ΔclxA mutant was growth impaired at temperatures above 42°C and was hypersensitive to acute ER stress caused by the reducing agent dithiothreitol. In contrast to wild type A. fumigatus, ΔclxA hyphae were unable to grow when transferred to starvation medium. In addition, depleting the medium of cations by chelation prevented ΔclxA from sustaining polarized hyphal growth, resulting in blunted hyphae with irregular morphology. Despite these abnormal stress responses, the ΔclxA mutant remained virulent in two immunologically distinct models of invasive aspergillosis. These findings demonstrate that calnexin functions are needed for growth under conditions of thermal, ER and nutrient stress, but are dispensable for surviving the stresses encountered in the host environment.

  4. Evaluation of the morphological effects of TDT 067 (terbinafine in Transfersome) and conventional terbinafine on dermatophyte hyphae in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannoum, M; Isham, N; Henry, W; Kroon, H-A; Yurdakul, S

    2012-05-01

    TDT 067 is a novel, carrier-based dosage form of terbinafine in Transfersome (1.5%) formulated for topical delivery of terbinafine to the nail, nail bed, and surrounding tissue. We examined the effects of TDT 067 and conventional terbinafine on the morphology of dermatophytes. Trichophyton rubrum hyphae were exposed to TDT 067 or terbinafine (15 mg/ml) and examined under white light, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Subungual debris from patients treated with TDT 067 in a clinical trial was also examined. Exposure of T. rubrum hyphae to TDT 067 led to rapid and extensive ultrastructural changes. Hyphal distortion was evident as early as 4 h after exposure to TDT 067. After 24 h, there was complete disruption of hyphal structure with few intact hyphae remaining. Exposure to terbinafine resulted in morphological alterations similar to those seen with TDT 067; however, the effects of TDT 067 were more extensive, whereas a portion of hyphae remained intact after 24 h of exposure to terbinafine. Lipid droplets were observed under TEM following 30 min of exposure to TDT 067, which after 24 h had filled the intracellular space. These effects were confirmed in vivo in subungual debris from patients with onychomycosis who received topical treatment with TDT 067. The Transfersome in TDT 067 may potentiate the action of terbinafine by delivering terbinafine more effectively to its site of action inside the fungus. Our in vivo data confirm that TDT 067 can enter fungus in the nail bed of patients with onychomycosis and exert its antifungal effects.

  5. PNNL Fungal Biotechnology Core DOE-OBP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Scott E.; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Butcher, Mark G.; Collett, James R.; Culley, David E.; Dai, Ziyu; Magnuson, Jon K.; Panisko, Ellen A.

    2009-11-30

    In 2009, we continued to address barriers to fungal fermentation in the primary areas of morphology control, genomics, proteomics, fungal hyperproductivity, biomass-to-products via fungal based consolidated bioprocesses, and filamentous fungal ethanol. “Alternative renewable fuels from fungi” was added as a new subtask. Plans were also made to launch a new advanced strain development subtask in FY2010.

  6. Fungal oxidative dissolution of the Mn(II)-bearing mineral rhodochrosite and the role of metabolites in manganese oxide formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuanzhi; Zeiner, Carolyn A; Santelli, Cara M; Hansel, Colleen M

    2013-04-01

    Microbially mediated oxidation of Mn(II) to Mn(III/IV) oxides influences the cycling of metals and remineralization of carbon. Despite the prevalence of Mn(II)-bearing minerals in nature, little is known regarding the ability of microbes to oxidize mineral-hosted Mn(II). Here, we explored oxidation of the Mn(II)-bearing mineral rhodochrosite (MnCO3 ) and characteristics of ensuing Mn oxides by six Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycete fungi. All fungal species substantially enhanced rhodochrosite dissolution and surface modification. Mineral-hosted Mn(II) was oxidized resulting in formation of Mn(III/IV) oxides that were all similar to δ-MnO2 but varied in morphology and distribution in relation to cellular structures and the MnCO3 surface. For four fungi, Mn(II) oxidation occurred along hyphae, likely mediated by cell wall-associated proteins. For two species, Mn(II) oxidation occurred via reaction with fungal-derived superoxide produced at hyphal tips. This pathway ultimately resulted in structurally unique Mn oxide clusters formed at substantial distances from any cellular structure. Taken together, findings for these two fungi strongly point to a role for fungal-derived organic molecules in Mn(III) complexation and Mn oxide templation. Overall, this study illustrates the importance of fungi in rhodochrosite dissolution, extends the relevance of biogenic superoxide-based Mn(II) oxidation and highlights the potential role of mycogenic exudates in directing mineral precipitation. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. HIV/AIDS and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch People living with HIV/AIDS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As ... Page Preventing fungal infections in people living with HIV/AIDS Fungi are difficult to avoid because they ...

  8. Postharvest fungal deterioration of tomato ( Lycopersicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ... tomatoes and pepper were sourced from Mile 12 Market in Lagos state. ... the ingestion of mycotoxins that are usually associated with fungal species), ...

  9. Fungal rhino sinusitisin in tehran, iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeri, M.; Hashemi, S.J.; Ardehali, M.; Rezaei, S.; Seyedmousavi, S.; Zareei, M.; Hosseinjani, E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fungal rhino sinusitis (FRS) is an important infection of para nasal sinuses, which encompasses two main categories; invasive and noninvasive forms according to histopathological findings. Aspergillus spp are the most common species isolated from noninvasive form, while Mucorales are

  10. Zoosporic fungal parasites of marine biota

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RaghuKumar, C.

    laboratory media. In such instances, a detailed and careful examination of the disease symptoms and the endobiotic fungal parasites is to be recorded. Maintaining dual culture of the healthy and infected host also helps to fulfill these postulates partially....

  11. Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are mild skin rashes, but others can be deadly, like fungal pneumonia. Because of this, it’s important ... the environment. Fungi live outdoors in soil, on plants, trees, and other vegetation. They are also on ...

  12. Air Contamination With Fungals In Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlat, Iuliana; Haiducu, Maria; Stepa, Raluca

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the studies was to determine the level and kind of fungal contamination of air in museum, deposits patrimony, restoration and conservation laboratories and their effects on health of workers. Microbiological air purity was measured with a SAS-100 Surface Air System impactor. The fungal contamination was observed in all 54 rooms where we made determinations. The highest levels of fungal were recorded at rooms with hygroscopic patrimony objects, eg carpets, chairs, upholstered chairs, books etc. The most species identified included under common allergens: Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Mucor. There fungal species belonging to the genus identified in this study, can trigger serious diseases museum workers, such as for example Aspergillus fumigatus, known allergies and toxic effects that may occur. In some places of the museum, occupational exposure limit values to fungi present in the air in the work environment, recommended by the specialized literature, have been overcome.

  13. Fungal keratitis - improving diagnostics by confocal microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Esben; Heegaard, S; Prause, J U

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Introducing a simple image grading system to support the interpretation of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) images in filamentous fungal keratitis. Setting: Clinical and confocal studies took place at the Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Histopathological...... analysis was performed at the Eye Pathology Institute, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Methods: A recent series of consecutive patients with filamentous fungal keratitis is presented to demonstrate the results from in-house IVCM. Based upon our experience...... with IVCM and previously published images, we composed a grading system for interpreting IVCM images of filamentous fungal keratitis. Results: A recent case series of filamentous fungal keratitis from 2011 to 2012 was examined. There were 3 male and 3 female patients. Mean age was 44.5 years (range 12...

  14. Resembling a viper: implications of mimicry for conservation of the endangered smooth snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkonen, Janne K; Mappes, Johanna

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenon of Batesian mimicry, where a palatable animal gains protection against predation by resembling an unpalatable model, has been a core interest of evolutionary biologists for 150 years. An extensive range of studies has focused on revealing mechanistic aspects of mimicry (shared education and generalization of predators) and the evolutionary dynamics of mimicry systems (co-operation vs. conflict) and revealed that protective mimicry is widespread and is important for individual fitness. However, according to our knowledge, there are no case studies where mimicry theories have been applied to conservation of mimetic species. Theoretically, mimicry affects, for example, frequency dependency of predator avoidance learning and human induced mortality. We examined the case of the protected, endangered, nonvenomous smooth snake (Coronella austriaca) that mimics the nonprotected venomous adder (Vipera berus), both of which occur in the Åland archipelago, Finland. To quantify the added predation risk on smooth snakes caused by the rarity of vipers, we calculated risk estimates from experimental data. Resemblance of vipers enhances survival of smooth snakes against bird predation because many predators avoid touching venomous vipers. Mimetic resemblance is however disadvantageous against human predators, who kill venomous vipers and accidentally kill endangered, protected smooth snakes. We found that the effective population size of the adders in Åland is very low relative to its smooth snake mimic (28.93 and 41.35, respectively).Because Batesian mimicry is advantageous for the mimic only if model species exist in sufficiently high numbers, it is likely that the conservation program for smooth snakes will fail if adders continue to be destroyed. Understanding the population consequences of mimetic species may be crucial to the success of endangered species conservation. We suggest that when a Batesian mimic requires protection, conservation planners should

  15. Biological roles of fungal carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Javier; Carmen Limón, M

    2015-08-01

    Carotenoids are terpenoid pigments widespread in nature, produced by bacteria, fungi, algae and plants. They are also found in animals, which usually obtain them through the diet. Carotenoids in plants provide striking yellow, orange or red colors to fruits and flowers, and play important metabolic and physiological functions, especially relevant in photosynthesis. Their functions are less clear in non-photosynthetic microorganisms. Different fungi produce diverse carotenoids, but the mutants unable to produce them do not exhibit phenotypic alterations in the laboratory, apart of lack of pigmentation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functional basis for carotenoid production in fungi. Different lines of evidence support a protective role of carotenoids against oxidative stress and exposure to visible light or UV irradiation. In addition, the carotenoids are intermediary products in the biosynthesis of physiologically active apocarotenoids or derived compounds. This is the case of retinal, obtained from the symmetrical oxidative cleavage of β-carotene. Retinal is the light-absorbing prosthetic group of the rhodopsins, membrane-bound photoreceptors present also in many fungal species. In Mucorales, β-carotene is an intermediary in the synthesis of trisporoids, apocarotenoid derivatives that include the sexual hormones the trisporic acids, and they are also presumably used in the synthesis of sporopollenin polymers. In conclusion, fungi have adapted their ability to produce carotenoids for different non-essential functions, related with stress tolerance or with the synthesis of physiologically active by-products.

  16. A Drosophila gene encoding a protein resembling the human β-amyloid protein precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, D.R.; Martin-Morris, L.; Luo, L.; White, K.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have isolated genomic and cDNA clones for a Drosophila gene resembling the human β-amyloid precursor protein (APP). This gene produces a nervous system-enriched 6.5-kilobase transcript. Sequencing of cDNAs derived from the 6.5-kilobase transcript predicts an 886-amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide contains a putative transmembrane domain and exhibits strong sequence similarity to cytoplasmic and extracellular regions of the human β-amyloid precursor protein. There is a high probability that this Drosophila gene corresponds to the essential Drosophila locus vnd, a gene required for embryonic nervous system development

  17. Consolation in the aftermath of robberies resembles post-aggression consolation in chimpanzees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä; Bernasco, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Post-aggression consolation is assumed to occur in humans as well as in chimpanzees. While consolation following peer aggression has been observed in children, systematic evidence of consolation in human adults is rare. We used surveillance camera footage of the immediate aftermath of nonfatal...... to be consoled. Furthermore, we show that high levels of threat during the robbery increased the likelihood of receiving consolation afterwards. These patterns resemble post-aggression consolation in chimpanzees and suggest that emotions of empathic concern are involved in consolation across humans...... and chimpanzees....

  18. Dermatitis and lymphadenitis resembling juvenile cellulitis in a four-year-old dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuber, A E; van den Broek, A H M; Brownstein, D; Thoday, K L; Hill, P B

    2004-05-01

    A four-year-old, entire male toy poodle was presented with a two-and-a-half-week history of ocular discharge progressing to periorbital alopecia, depigmentation, alopecia and ulceration around the muzzle. There was also a haemorrhagic discharge from the ears, pyrexia, lethargy and generalised lymphadenopathy. The clinical, cytological, bacteriological and histopathological findings were consistent with a diagnosis of dermatitis resembling juvenile cellulitis in an adult dog. Glucocorticoid therapy led to rapid resolution of the clinical signs and the dog has remained in remission for two years after cessation of treatment.

  19. Mammographic texture resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Vachon, Celine M.; Scott, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:Breast density has been established as a major risk factor for breast cancer. We have previously demonstrated that mammographic texture resemblance (MTR), recognizing the local texture patterns of the mammogram, is also a risk factor for breast cancer, independent of percent breast...... density. We examine if these findings generalize to another population.METHODS:Texture patterns were recorded in digitalized pre-diagnosis (3.7years) film mammograms of a nested case-control study within the Dutch screening program (S1) comprising of 245 breast cancers and 250 matched controls...

  20. Combining different views of mammographic texture resemblance (MTR) marker of breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, S.; Karemore, Gopal; Chernoff, Konstantin

    the subsequent 4 years whereas 245 cases had a diagnosis 2-4 years post mammography. We employed the MTR supervised texture learning framework to perform risk evaluation from a single mammography view. In the framework 20,000 pixels were sampled and classified by a kNN pixel classifier. A feature selection step......PURPOSE Mammographic density is a well established breast cancer risk factor. Texture analysis in terms of the Mammographoc Texture Resemblance (MTR) marker has recently shown to add to risk segregation. Hitherto only single view MTR analysis has been performed. Standard mammography examinations...

  1. Burden of fungal infections in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiane, Aida S; Ndiaye, Daouda; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    Senegal has a high rate of tuberculosis and a low HIV seropositivity rate and aspergilloma, life-threatening fungal infections, dermatophytosis and mycetoma have been reported in this study. All published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from Senegal were identified. Where no data existed, we used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in each to estimate national incidence or prevalence. The results show that tinea capitis is common being found in 25% of children, ~1.5 million. About 191,000 Senegalese women get recurrent vaginal thrush, ≥4 times annually. We estimate 685 incident cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) following TB and prevalence of 2160 cases. Asthma prevalence in adults varies from 3.2% to 8.2% (mean 5%); 9976 adults have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and 13,168 have severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS). Of the 59,000 estimated HIV-positive patients, 366 develop cryptococcal meningitis; 1149 develop Pneumocystis pneumonia and 1946 develop oesophageal candidiasis, in which oral candidiasis (53%) and dermatophytosis (16%) are common. Since 2008-2010, 113 cases of mycetoma were diagnosed. In conclusion, we estimate that 1,743,507 (12.5%) people in Senegal suffer from a fungal infection, excluding oral candidiasis, fungal keratitis, invasive candidiasis or aspergillosis. Diagnostic and treatment deficiencies should be rectified to allow epidemiological studies. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Familial resemblance of borderline personality disorder features: genetic or cultural transmission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijn A Distel

    Full Text Available Borderline personality disorder is a severe personality disorder for which genetic research has been limited to family studies and classical twin studies. These studies indicate that genetic effects explain 35 to 45% of the variance in borderline personality disorder and borderline personality features. However, effects of non-additive (dominance genetic factors, non-random mating and cultural transmission have generally not been explored. In the present study an extended twin-family design was applied to self-report data of twins (N = 5,017 and their siblings (N = 1,266, parents (N = 3,064 and spouses (N = 939 from 4,015 families, to estimate the effects of additive and non-additive genetic and environmental factors, cultural transmission and non-random mating on individual differences in borderline personality features. Results showed that resemblance among biological relatives could completely be attributed to genetic effects. Variation in borderline personality features was explained by additive genetic (21%; 95% CI 17-26% and dominant genetic (24%; 95% CI 17-31% factors. Environmental influences (55%; 95% CI 51-60% explained the remaining variance. Significant resemblance between spouses was observed, which was best explained by phenotypic assortative mating, but it had only a small effect on the genetic variance (1% of the total variance. There was no effect of cultural transmission from parents to offspring.

  3. Arabinogalactan Proteins Accumulate in the Cell Walls of Searching Hyphae of the Stem Parasitic Plants, Cuscuta campestris and Cuscuta japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozumi, Akitaka; Bera, Subhankar; Fujiwara, Daiki; Obayashi, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Ryusuke; Nishitani, Kazuhiko; Aoki, Koh

    2017-11-01

    Stem parasitic plants (Cuscuta spp.) develop a specialized organ called a haustorium to penetrate their hosts' stem tissues. To reach the vascular tissues of the host plant, the haustorium needs to overcome the physical barrier of the cell wall, and the parasite-host interaction via the cell wall is a critical process. However, the cell wall components responsible for the establishment of parasitic connections have not yet been identified. In this study, we investigated the spatial distribution patterns of cell wall components at a parasitic interface using parasite-host complexes of Cuscuta campestris-Arabidopsis thaliana and Cuscuta japonica-Glycine max. We focused on arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), because AGPs accumulate in the cell walls of searching hyphae of both C. campestris and C. japonica. We found more AGPs in elongated haustoria than in pre haustoria, indicating that AGP accumulation is developmentally regulated. Using in situ hybridization, we identified five genes in C. campestris that encode hyphal-expressed AGPs that belong to the fasciclin-like AGP (FLA) family, which were named CcFLA genes. Three of the five CcFLA genes were expressed in the holdfast, which develops on the Cuscuta stem epidermis at the attachment site for the host's stem epidermis. Our results suggest that AGPs are involved in hyphal elongation and adhesion to host cells, and in the adhesion between the epidermal tissues of Cuscuta and its host. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. RNA-mediated gene silencing in Candida albicans: inhibition of hyphae formation by use of RNAi technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazeni, Maryam; Khoramizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Kordbacheh, Parivash; Sepehrizadeh, Zargham; Zeraati, Hojat; Noorbakhsh, Fatemeh; Teimoori-Toolabi, Ladan; Rezaie, Sassan

    2012-09-01

    The introduction of RNA silencing machinery in fungi has led to the promising application of RNAi methodology to knock down essential vital factor or virulence factor genes in the microorganisms. Efg1p is required for development of a true hyphal growth form which is known to be essential for interactions with human host cells and for the yeast's pathogenesis. In this paper, we describe the development of a system for presenting and studying the RNAi function on the EFG1 gene in C. albicans. The 19-nucleotide siRNA was designed on the basis of the cDNA sequence of the EFG1 gene in C. albicans and transfection was performed by use of a modified-PEG/LiAc method. To investigate EFG1 gene silencing in siRNA-treated cells, the yeasts were grown in human serum; to induce germ tubes a solid medium was used with the serum. Quantitative changes in expression of the EFG1 gene were analyzed by measuring the cognate EFG1 mRNA level by use of a quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay. Compared with the positive control, true hyphae formation was significantly reduced by siRNA at concentrations of 1 μM, 500 nM, and 100 nM (P < 0.05). In addition, siRNA at a concentration of 1 μM was revealed to inhibit expression of the EFG1 gene effectively (P < 0.05). On the basis of the potential of post-transcriptional gene silencing to control the expression of specific genes, these techniques may be regarded as promising means of drug discovery, with applications in biomedicine and functional genomics analysis.

  5. Fungal-host diversity among mycoheterotrophic plants increases proportionally to their fungal-host overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Sofia I F; Merckx, Vincent S F T; Saavedra, Serguei

    2017-05-01

    The vast majority of plants obtain an important proportion of vital resources from soil through mycorrhizal fungi. Generally, this happens in exchange of photosynthetically fixed carbon, but occasionally the interaction is mycoheterotrophic, and plants obtain carbon from mycorrhizal fungi. This process results in an antagonistic interaction between mycoheterotrophic plants and their fungal hosts. Importantly, the fungal-host diversity available for plants is restricted as mycoheterotrophic interactions often involve narrow lineages of fungal hosts. Unfortunately, little is known whether fungal-host diversity may be additionally modulated by plant-plant interactions through shared hosts. Yet, this may have important implications for plant competition and coexistence. Here, we use DNA sequencing data to investigate the interaction patterns between mycoheterotrophic plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. We find no phylogenetic signal on the number of fungal hosts nor on the fungal hosts shared among mycoheterotrophic plants. However, we observe a potential trend toward increased phylogenetic diversity of fungal hosts among mycoheterotrophic plants with increasing overlap in their fungal hosts. While these patterns remain for groups of plants regardless of location, we do find higher levels of overlap and diversity among plants from the same location. These findings suggest that species coexistence cannot be fully understood without attention to the two sides of ecological interactions.

  6. Protection by fungal starters against growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal spoilers of cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M S; Frisvad, J C; Nielsen, P V

    1998-06-30

    The influence of fungal starter cultures on growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal contaminants associated with cheese was studied on laboratory media and Camembert cheese. Isolates of the species Penicillium nalgiovense, P. camemberti, P. roqueforti and Geotrichum candidum were used as fungal starters. The species P. commune, P. caseifulvum, P. verrucosum, P. discolor, P. solitum, P. coprophilum and Aspergillus versicolor were selected as contaminants. The fungal starters showed different competitive ability on laboratory media and Camembert cheese. The presence of the Penicillium species, especially P. nalgiovense, showed an inhibitory effect on the growth of the fungal contaminants on laboratory media. G. candidum caused a significant inhibition of the fungal contaminants on Camembert cheese. The results indicate that G. candidum plays an important role in competition with undesirable microorganisms in mould fermented cheeses. Among the starters, P. nalgiovense caused the largest reduction in secondary metabolite production of the fungal contaminants on the laboratory medium. On Camembert cheese no significant changes in metabolite production of the fungal contaminants was observed in the presence of the starters.

  7. Burden of serious fungal infections in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, N; Samayoa, B; Lau-Bonilla, D; Denning, D W; Herrera, R; Mercado, D; Guzmán, B; Pérez, J C; Arathoon, E

    2017-06-01

    Guatemala is a developing country in Central America with a high burden of HIV and endemic fungal infections; we attempted to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections for the country. A full literature search was done to identify epidemiology papers reporting fungal infections from Guatemala. We used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in the population to estimate national rates. The population of Guatemala in 2013 was 15.4 million; 40% were younger than 15 and 6.2% older than 60. There are an estimated 53,000 adults with HIV infection, in 2015, most presenting late. The estimated cases of opportunistic fungal infections were: 705 cases of disseminated histoplasmosis, 408 cases of cryptococcal meningitis, 816 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia, 16,695 cases of oral candidiasis, and 4,505 cases of esophageal candidiasis. In the general population, an estimated 5,568 adult asthmatics have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) based on a 2.42% prevalence of asthma and a 2.5% ABPA proportion. Amongst 2,452 pulmonary tuberculosis patients, we estimated a prevalence of 495 for chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in this group, and 1,484 for all conditions. An estimated 232,357 cases of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis is likely. Overall, 1.7% of the population are affected by these conditions. The true fungal infection burden in Guatemala is unknown. Tools and training for improved diagnosis are needed. Additional research on prevalence is needed to employ public health measures towards treatment and improving the reported data of fungal diseases.

  8. Fungal Genomics for Energy and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2013-03-11

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 200 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  9. Fungal endophytes: modifiers of plant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Posy E; Ridout, Mary; Newcombe, George

    2016-04-01

    Many recent studies have demonstrated that non-pathogenic fungi within plant microbiomes, i.e., endophytes ("endo" = within, "phyte" = plant), can significantly modify the expression of host plant disease. The rapid pace of advancement in endophyte ecology warrants a pause to synthesize our understanding of endophyte disease modification and to discuss future research directions. We reviewed recent literature on fungal endophyte disease modification, and here report on several emergent themes: (1) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease span the full spectrum from pathogen antagonism to pathogen facilitation, with pathogen antagonism most commonly reported. (2) Agricultural plant pathosystems are the focus of research on endophyte disease modification. (3) A taxonomically diverse group of fungal endophytes can influence plant disease severity. And (4) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease severity are context-dependent. Our review highlights the importance of fungal endophytes for plant disease across a broad range of plant pathosystems, yet simultaneously reveals that complexity within plant microbiomes presents a significant challenge to disentangling the biotic environmental factors affecting plant disease severity. Manipulative studies integrating eco-evolutionary approaches with emerging molecular tools will be poised to elucidate the functional importance of endophytes in natural plant pathosystems that are fundamental to biodiversity and conservation.

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of fungal ABC transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Andriy; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2010-03-16

    The superfamily of ABC proteins is among the largest known in nature. Its members are mainly, but not exclusively, involved in the transport of a broad range of substrates across biological membranes. Many contribute to multidrug resistance in microbial pathogens and cancer cells. The diversity of ABC proteins in fungi is comparable with those in multicellular animals, but so far fungal ABC proteins have barely been studied. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of the ABC proteins extracted from the genomes of 27 fungal species from 18 orders representing 5 fungal phyla thereby covering the most important groups. Our analysis demonstrated that some of the subfamilies of ABC proteins remained highly conserved in fungi, while others have undergone a remarkable group-specific diversification. Members of the various fungal phyla also differed significantly in the number of ABC proteins found in their genomes, which is especially reduced in the yeast S. cerevisiae and S. pombe. Data obtained during our analysis should contribute to a better understanding of the diversity of the fungal ABC proteins and provide important clues about their possible biological functions.

  11. Fungal endophytes for sustainable crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugtenberg, Ben J J; Caradus, John R; Johnson, Linda J

    2016-12-01

    This minireview highlights the importance of endophytic fungi for sustainable agriculture and horticulture production. Fungal endophytes play a key role in habitat adaptation of plants resulting in improved plant performance and plant protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. They encode a vast variety of novel secondary metabolites including volatile organic compounds. In addition to protecting plants against pathogens and pests, selected fungal endophytes have been used to remove animal toxicities associated with fungal endophytes in temperate grasses, to create corn and rice plants that are tolerant to a range of biotic and abiotic stresses, and for improved management of post-harvest control. We argue that practices used in plant breeding, seed treatments and agriculture, often caused by poor knowledge of the importance of fungal endophytes, are among the reasons for the loss of fungal endophyte diversity in domesticated plants and also accounts for the reduced effectiveness of some endophyte strains to confer plant benefits. We provide recommendations on how to mitigate against these negative impacts in modern agriculture. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Fueling the Future with Fungal Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-10-27

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the JGI Fungal Genomic Program. One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts and pathogens) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation and sugar fermentation) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Science Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 400 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics will lead to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such ‘parts’ suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  13. Menstrual blood closely resembles the uterine immune micro-environment and is clearly distinct from peripheral blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, R.G. van der; Schutten, J.H.; Cranenbroek, B. van; Meer, M. ter; Donckers, J.; Scholten, R.R.; Heijden, O.W.H. van der; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Joosten, I.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is menstrual blood a suitable source of endometrial derived lymphocytes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Mononuclear cells isolated from menstrual samples (menstrual blood mononuclear cells (MMC)) are clearly distinct from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and show a strong resemblance with

  14. Congenital biliary tract malformation resembling biliary cystadenoma in a captive juvenile African lion (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliendo, Valentina; Bull, Andrew C J; Stidworthy, Mark F

    2012-12-01

    A captive 3-mo-old white African lion (Panthera leo) presented with clinical signs of acute pain and a distended abdomen. Despite emergency treatment, the lion died a few hours after presentation. Postmortem examination revealed gross changes in the liver, spleen, and lungs and an anomalous cystic structure in the bile duct. Histologic examination identified severe generalized multifocal to coalescent necrotizing and neutrophilic hepatitis, neutrophilic splenitis, and mild interstitial pneumonia, consistent with bacterial septicemia. The abnormal biliary structures resembled biliary cystadenoma. However, due to the age of the animal, they were presumed to be congenital in origin. Biliary tract anomalies and cystadenomas have been reported previously in adult lions, and this case suggests that at least some of these examples may have a congenital basis. It is unclear whether the lesion was an underlying factor in the development of hepatitis.

  15. Mammographic Texture Resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernoff, Konstantin; Christopher, S G; Karemore, Gopal

    PURPOSE Breast density has been established as a risk factor of breast cancer in numerous studies. Mammographic Texture Resemblance (MTR) has shown to be a density independent risk factor, but only on a single study. We examine if the statistics of the texture recorded in one study generalize...... as an independent risk factor in an unrelated cohort. METHOD AND MATERIALS The statistics of texture were recorded in digitalized film-mammograms of one 4-year prospective study (S1, Dutch screening program) of 245 breast cancers and 250 matched controls. From an independent cohort study (S2, Mayo Mammography...... Health Study cohort) 226 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed through 2008 and 442 matched controls (on age) were used for scoring screening digitized mammograms that were ascertained years prior to diagnosis 1993-2006. Mammographic percent density (PD), using Cumulus, and other major risk factors were...

  16. A novel and automatic mammographic texture resemblance marker is an independent risk factor for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Karemore, Gopal; Loog, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether breast cancer is predicted by a breast cancer risk mammographic texture resemblance (MTR) marker. Methods: A previously published case-control study included 495 women of which 245 were diagnosed with breast cancer. In baseline mammograms, 2-4 years prior...... to diagnosis, the following mammographic parameters were analysed for relation to breast cancer risk: (C) categorical parenchymal pattern scores; (R) radiologist's percentage density, (P) computer-based percentage density; (H) computer-based breast cancer risk MTR marker; (E) computer-based hormone replacement...... treatment MTR marker; and (A) an aggregate of P and H. Results: Density scores, C, R, and P correlated (tau=0.3-0.6); no other pair of scores showed large (tau>0.2) correlation. For the parameters, the odds ratios of future incidence of breast cancer comparing highest to lowest categories (146 and 106...

  17. Acral Peeling Skin Syndrome Resembling Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex in a 10-Month-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kavaklieva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS is a rare autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by asymptomatic desquamation of the skin limited to the hands and feet and histologically by cleavage at the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum level [Kiritsi et al.: J Invest Dermatol 2010;130:1741-1746]. We report on a 10-month-old boy with a history of skin peeling limited to the hands and feet since 2 months of age. Clinical examination revealed erythematous erosions with peripheral desquamation and flaccid blisters. DNA mutation analysis detected two heterozygous TGM5 mutations: c.2T>C, p.M1T in exon 1 and c.337G>T, p.G113C in exon 3 in keeping with the diagnosis of APSS. The clinical presentation of APSS alone might be confusing and strongly resemble epidermolysis bullosa simplex making the differential diagnosis difficult.

  18. Acral peeling skin syndrome resembling epidermolysis bullosa simplex in a 10-month-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaklieva, S; Yordanova, I; Bruckner-Tuderman, L; Has, C

    2013-01-01

    The acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by asymptomatic desquamation of the skin limited to the hands and feet and histologically by cleavage at the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum level [Kiritsi et al.: J Invest Dermatol 2010;130:1741-1746]. We report on a 10-month-old boy with a history of skin peeling limited to the hands and feet since 2 months of age. Clinical examination revealed erythematous erosions with peripheral desquamation and flaccid blisters. DNA mutation analysis detected two heterozygous TGM5 mutations: c.2T>C, p.M1T in exon 1 and c.337G>T, p.G113C in exon 3 in keeping with the diagnosis of APSS. The clinical presentation of APSS alone might be confusing and strongly resemble epidermolysis bullosa simplex making the differential diagnosis difficult.

  19. The fungus Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. causes skin infections that resemble white-nose syndrome of hibernating bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Minnis, Andrew M.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Redell, Jennifer A.; White, J. Paul; Kaarakka, Heather M.; Muller, Laura K.; Lindner, David L.; Verant, Michelle L.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Blehert, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Before the discovery of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, there were no reports of fungal skin infections in bats during hibernation. In 2011, bats with grossly visible fungal skin infections similar in appearance to WNS were reported from multiple sites in Wisconsin, USA, a state outside the known range of P. destructans and WNS at that time. Tape impressions or swab samples were collected from affected areas of skin from bats with these fungal infections in 2012 and analyzed by microscopy, culture, or direct DNA amplification and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). A psychrophilic species ofTrichophyton was isolated in culture, detected by direct DNA amplification and sequencing, and observed on tape impressions. Deoxyribonucleic acid indicative of the same fungus was also detected on three of five bat carcasses collected in 2011 and 2012 from Wisconsin, Indiana, and Texas, USA. Superficial fungal skin infections caused by Trichophyton sp. were observed in histopathology for all three bats. Sequencing of the ITS of Trichophyton sp., along with its inability to grow at 25 C, indicated that it represented a previously unknown species, described herein as Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. Genetic diversity present within T. redellii suggests it is native to North America but that it had been overlooked before enhanced efforts to study fungi associated with bats in response to the emergence of WNS.

  20. The fungus Trichophyton redellii sp. Nov. Causes skin infections that resemble white-nose syndrome of hibernating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Minnis, Andrew M; Meteyer, Carol U; Redell, Jennifer A; White, J Paul; Kaarakka, Heather M; Muller, Laura K; Lindner, Daniel L; Verant, Michelle L; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Blehert, David S

    2015-01-01

    Before the discovery of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, there were no reports of fungal skin infections in bats during hibernation. In 2011, bats with grossly visible fungal skin infections similar in appearance to WNS were reported from multiple sites in Wisconsin, US, a state outside the known range of P. destructans and WNS at that time. Tape impressions or swab samples were collected from affected areas of skin from bats with these fungal infections in 2012 and analyzed by microscopy, culture, or direct DNA amplification and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). A psychrophilic species of Trichophyton was isolated in culture, detected by direct DNA amplification and sequencing, and observed on tape impressions. Deoxyribonucleic acid indicative of the same fungus was also detected on three of five bat carcasses collected in 2011 and 2012 from Wisconsin, Indiana, and Texas, US. Superficial fungal skin infections caused by Trichophyton sp. were observed in histopathology for all three bats. Sequencing of the ITS of Trichophyton sp., along with its inability to grow at 25 C, indicated that it represented a previously unknown species, described herein as Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. Genetic diversity present within T. redellii suggests it is native to North America but that it had been overlooked before enhanced efforts to study fungi associated with bats in response to the emergence of WNS.

  1. Molecular Diagnostics for Soilborne Fungal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Paplomatas

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Several classical approaches have been developed to detect and identify soil fungal inhabitants through the years. Selective media have been devised to exclude the large number of soil organisms and allow growth of target fungi. However the advent of molecular biology has offered a number of revolutionary insights into the detection and enumeration of soilborne fungal pathogens and also has started to provide information on the identification of unknown species from DNA sequences. This review paper focuses on the application of various molecular techniques in the detection, identification, characterization and quantification of soilborne fungal plant pathogens. This is based on information from the literature and is combined with personal research findings of the author.

  2. Fungal endophytes of sorghum in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zida, E P; Thio, I G; Néya, B J

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the natural occurrence and distribution of fungal endophytes in sorghum in relation to plant performance in two distinct agro-ecological zones in Burkina Faso. Sorghum farm-saved seeds were sown in 48 farmers’ fields in Sahelian and North Sudanian zones to produce...... sorghum plants. In each field, leaf samples were collected from five well-developed (performing) and five less-developed (non-performing) plants at 3-5 leaf stage, while at plant maturity leaf, stem and root samples were collected from the same plants and fungal endophytes were isolated. A total of 39...... fungal species belonging to 25 genera were isolated. The most represented genera included Fusarium, Leptosphaeria, Curvularia, Nigrospora and Penicillium. The genera Fusarium and Penicillium occurred significantly higher in performing plants as compared to non-performing plants while the genera...

  3. Identification & Characterization of Fungal Ice Nucleation Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Jan Frederik; Kunert, Anna Theresa; Kampf, Christopher Johannes; Mauri, Sergio; Weidner, Tobias; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2016-04-01

    Freezing of water at relatively warm subfreezing temperatures is dependent on ice nucleation catalysis facilitated by ice nuclei (IN). These IN can be of various origins and although extensive research was done and progress was achieved, the nature and mechanisms leading to an effective IN are to date still poorly understood. Some of the most important processes of our geosphere like the water cycle are highly dependent on effective ice nucleation at temperatures between -2°C - -8°C, a temperature range which is almost exclusively covered by biological IN (BioIN). BioIN are usually macromolecular structures of biological polymers. Sugars as well as proteins have been reported to serve as IN and the best characterized BioIN are ice nucleation proteins (IN-P) from gram negative bacteria. Fungal strains from Fusarium spp. were described to be effective IN at subfreezing temperatures up to -2°C already 25 years ago and more and more fungal species are described to serve as efficient IN. Fungal IN are also thought to be proteins or at least contain a proteinaceous compound, but to date the fungal IN-P primary structure as well as their coding genetic elements of all IN active fungi are unknown. The aim of this study is a.) to identify the proteins and their coding genetic elements from IN active fungi (F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, M. alpina) and b.) to characterize the mechanisms by which fungal IN serve as effective IN. We designed an interdisciplinary approach using biological, analytical and physical methods to identify fungal IN-P and describe their biological, chemical, and physical properties.

  4. Mucormycosis: a devastating fungal infection in diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, M.; Bari, A.; Mehmood, S.; Tariq, K.M.; Haq, I.; Niwaz, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a highly invasive, devastating and usually fatal fungal infection of the sinuses, brain, or lungs that occurs primarily in people with immune disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, a high mortality still exists. We present a middle aged diabetic male with this serious fungal infection involving nose, paranasal area and adjacent periorbital regions with a high risk of progressing further towards the dura mater. He was promptly diagnosed and managed with serial surgical debridements with systemic antifungals and was later fitted with a nasal prosthesis. (author)

  5. Fungal infections of the lung in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toma, Paolo; Colafati, Giovanna Stefania; D' Andrea, Maria Luisa [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Imaging, Rome (Italy); Bertaina, Alice; Mastronuzzi, Angela [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology and Transfusion Medicine, Rome (Italy); Castagnola, Elio [IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Department of Infective Diseases, Genoa (Italy); Finocchi, Andrea [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Rome (Italy); Lucidi, Vincenzina [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Cystic Fibrosis Center, Rome (Italy); Granata, Claudio [IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    Fungal infections of the lungs are relatively common and potentially life-threatening conditions in immunocompromised children. The role of imaging in children with lung mycosis is to delineate the extension of pulmonary involvement, to assess response to therapy, and to monitor for adverse sequelae such as bronchiectasis and cavitation. The aim of this paper is to show imaging findings in a series of patients with fungal pneumonia from two tertiary children's hospitals, to discuss differential diagnoses and to show how imaging findings can vary depending on the host immune response. (orig.)

  6. Exchange of adsorbed serum proteins during adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus to an abiotic surface and Candida albicans hyphae--an AFM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikova, Ekaterina S; van der Mei, Henny C; Krom, Bastiaan P; Busscher, Henk J

    2013-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans are the second and third most commonly isolated microorganisms in hospital-related-infections, that are often multi-species in nature causing high morbidity and mortality. Here, adhesion forces between a S. aureus strain and abiotic (tissue-culture-polystyrene, TCPS) or partly biotic (TCPS with adhering hyphae of C. albicans) surfaces were investigated in presence of fetal-bovine-serum or individual serum proteins and related with staphylococcal adhesion. Atomic-force-microscopy was used to measure adhesion forces between S. aureus and the abiotic and biotic surfaces. Adsorption of individual serum proteins like albumin and apo-transferrin to abiotic TCPS surfaces during 60min, impeded development of strong adhesion forces as compared to fibronectin, while 60min adsorption of proteins from fetal-bovine-serum yielded a decrease in adhesion force from -5.7nN in phosphate-buffered-saline to -0.6nN. Adsorption of albumin and apo-transferrin also decreased staphylococcal adhesion forces to hyphae as compared with fibronectin. During 60min exposure to fetal-bovine-serum however, initial (5min protein adsorption) staphylococcal adhesion forces were low (-1.6nN), but strong adhesion forces of around -5.5nN were restored within 60min. This suggests for the first time that in whole fetal-bovine-serum exchange of non-adhesive proteins by fibronectin occurs on biotic C. albicans hyphal surfaces. No evidence was found for such protein exchange on abiotic TCPS surfaces. Staphylococcal adhesion of abiotic and biotic surfaces varied in line with the adhesion forces and was low on TCPS in presence of fetal-bovine-serum. On partly biotic TCPS, staphylococci aggregated in presence of fetal-bovine-serum around adhering C. albicans hyphae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The pmr gene, encoding a Ca2+-ATPase, is required for calcium and manganese homeostasis and normal development of hyphae and conidia in Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Barry J; Abreu, Stephen; Johl, Jessica K; Bowman, Emma Jean

    2012-11-01

    The pmr gene is predicted to encode a Ca(2+)-ATPase in the secretory pathway. We examined two strains of Neurospora crassa that lacked PMR: the Δpmr strain, in which pmr was completely deleted, and pmr(RIP), in which the gene was extensively mutated. Both strains had identical, complex phenotypes. Compared to the wild type, these strains required high concentrations of calcium or manganese for optimal growth and had highly branched, slow-growing hyphae. They conidiated poorly, and the shape and size of the conidia were abnormal. Calcium accumulated in the Δpmr strains to only 20% of the wild-type level. High concentrations of MnCl(2) (1 to 5 mM) in growth medium partially suppressed the morphological defects but did not alter the defect in calcium accumulation. The Δpmr Δnca-2 double mutant (nca-2 encodes a Ca(2+)-ATPase in the plasma membrane) accumulated 8-fold more calcium than the wild type, and the morphology of the hyphae was more similar to that of wild-type hyphae. Previous experiments failed to show a function for nca-1, which encodes a SERCA-type Ca(2+)-ATPase in the endoplasmic reticulum (B. J. Bowman, S. Abreu, E. Margolles-Clark, M. Draskovic, and E. J. Bowman, Eukaryot. Cell 10:654-661, 2011). The pmr(RIP) Δnca-1 double mutant accumulated small amounts of calcium, like the Δpmr strain, but exhibited even more extreme morphological defects. Thus, PMR can apparently replace NCA-1 in the endoplasmic reticulum, but NCA-1 cannot replace PMR. The morphological defects in the Δpmr strain are likely caused, in part, by insufficient concentrations of calcium and manganese in the Golgi compartment; however, PMR is also needed to accumulate normal levels of calcium in the whole cell.

  8. DsRNA-free transmissible hypovirulence associated with formation of intra-hyphal hyphae in Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jian Bo; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Long; Qin, Li Hong; Jiang, Dao Hong; Li, Guo Qing; Huang, Hung-Chang

    2011-07-01

    A spontaneous mutant CanBc-3HV and its parental strain CanBc-3 of Botrytis cinerea were investigated in terms of pathogenicity, colony morphology, hypovirulence transmissibility, presence of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), and formation of intra-hyphal hyphae (IH). Results showed that inoculation of CanBc-3HV on detached leaves of Brassica napus did not produce any visible necrotic lesions (20°C, 72h), whereas inoculation of CanBc-3 caused necrotic leaf lesions. Compared to CanBc-3, CanBc-3HV grew slowly, formed numerous mycelial sectors, sporulated sporadically and failed to produce sclerotia on potato dextrose agar (PDA) (20°C, 15d). Hypovirulence and the abnormal cultural characteristics of CanBc-3HV were transmissible from CanBc-3HV to CanBc-3 in pair cultures on PDA. However, the transmission was unsuccessful from CanBc-3HV to another virulent strain CanBc-2 of B. cinerea. These results suggest that transmission of the hypovirulence and the abnormal cultural characteristics of CanBc-3HV are strain-specific. No dsRNA was detected in mycelia of either CanBc-3HV or CanBc-3, implying that the hypovirulence of CanBc-3HV is caused by a transmissible element (TE) of non-RNA mycoviral origin. Formation of IH through self-infection was observed in CanBc-3HV, CanBc-3T1 (a hypovirulent derivative of CanBc-3 trans-infected by TE in CanBc-3HV), but was not observed in CanBc-3, suggesting that IH formation is associated with the hypovirulence of CanBc-3HV. To our knowledge, this is the first report of dsRNA-free transmissible hypovirulence associated with IH formation in B. cinerea. Copyright © 2011 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Carbon transfer from photosynthesis to below ground fine root/hyphae respiration in Quercus serrata using stable carbon isotope pulse labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannoura, M.; Kominami, Y.; Takanashi, S.; Takahashi, K.

    2013-12-01

    Studying carbon allocation in trees is a key to better understand belowground carbon cycle and its response to climate change. Tracing 13C in tree and soil compartments after pulse labeling is one of powerful tool to study the fate of carbon in forest ecosystems. This experiment was conducted in Yamashiro experimental forest, Kyoto, Japan. Annual mean temperature and precipitation from 1994 to 2009 are 15.5 ° C and 1,388 mm respectively. The branch pulse labeling were done 7 times in 2011 using same branch of Quercus serrata (H:11.7 m, DBH; 33.7 cm) to see seasonal variations of carbon velocity. Whole crown labeling of Quercus serrata (H:9 m, DBH; 13.7 cm) was done in 2012 to study carbon allocation and to especially focus on belowground carbon flux until to the hyphae respiration. Pure 13CO2 (99.9%) was injected to the labeling chamber which was set to branch or crown. Then, after one hour of branch labeling and 3.5 hour for crown labeling, the chamber was opened. Trunk respiration chambers, fine root chambers and hyphae chambers were set to the target tree to trace labeled carbon in the CO2 efflux. 41 μm mesh was used to exclude ingrowth of roots into hyphae chambers. The results show that the velocity of carbon through the tree varied seasonally, with higher velocity in summer than autumn, averaging 0.47 m h-1. Half-lives of labeled carbon in autotrophic respiration were similar above and below ground during the growing season, but they were twice longer in trunk than in root in autumn. From the whole crown labeling done end of growing season, the 13CO2 signal was observed 25 hours after labeling in trunk chamber and 34-37.7 hours after labeling in fine root and hyphae respiration almost simultaneously. Half-lives of 13 was longer in trunk than below ground. Trunk respiration was still using labelled carbon during winter suggesting that winter trunk respiration is partly fueled by carbon stored in the trunk at the end of the growing season.

  10. MycoCosm, an Integrated Fungal Genomics Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabalov, Igor; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-16

    MycoCosm is a web-based interactive fungal genomics resource, which was first released in March 2010, in response to an urgent call from the fungal community for integration of all fungal genomes and analytical tools in one place (Pan-fungal data resources meeting, Feb 21-22, 2010, Alexandria, VA). MycoCosm integrates genomics data and analysis tools to navigate through over 100 fungal genomes sequenced at JGI and elsewhere. This resource allows users to explore fungal genomes in the context of both genome-centric analysis and comparative genomics, and promotes user community participation in data submission, annotation and analysis. MycoCosm has over 4500 unique visitors/month or 35000+ visitors/year as well as hundreds of registered users contributing their data and expertise to this resource. Its scalable architecture allows significant expansion of the data expected from JGI Fungal Genomics Program, its users, and integration with external resources used by fungal community.

  11. Effect of facial self-resemblance on the startle response and subjective ratings of erotic stimuli in heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Deuter, Christian E; Kuehl, Linn K; Schulz, Andre; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2011-10-01

    Cues of kinship are predicted to increase prosocial behavior due to the benefits of inclusive fitness, but to decrease approach motivation due to the potential costs of inbreeding. Previous studies have shown that facial resemblance, a putative cue of kinship, increases prosocial behavior. However, the effects of facial resemblance on mating preferences are equivocal, with some studies finding that facial resemblance decreases sexual attractiveness ratings, while other studies show that individuals choose mates partly on the basis of similarity. To further investigate this issue, a psychophysiological measure of affective processing, the startle response, was used in this study, assuming that differences in approach motivation to erotic pictures will modulate startle. Male volunteers (n = 30) viewed 30 pictures of erotic female nudes while startle eyeblink responses were elicited by acoustic noise probes. The female nude pictures were digitally altered so that the face either resembled the male participant or another participant, or were not altered. Non-nude neutral pictures were also included. Importantly, the digital alteration was undetected by the participants. Erotic pictures were rated as being pleasant and clearly reduced startle eyeblink magnitude as compared to neutral pictures. Participants showed greater startle inhibition to self-resembling than to other-resembling or non-manipulated female nude pictures, but subjective pleasure and arousal ratings did not differ among the three erotic picture categories. Our data suggest that visual facial resemblance of opposite-sex nudes increases approach motivation in men, and that this effect was not due to their conscious evaluation of the erotic stimuli.

  12. The identical-twin transfusion syndrome: a source of error in estimating IQ resemblance and heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsinger, H

    1977-01-01

    Published studies show that among identical twins, lower birthweight is associated with lower adult intelligence. However, no such relation between birthweight and adult IQ exists among fraternal twins. A likely explanation for the association between birthweight and intelligence among identical twins is the identical twin transfusion syndrome which occurs only between some monochorionic identical twin pairs. The IQ scores from separated identical twins were reanalysed to explore the consequences of identical twin transfusion syndrome for IQ resemblance and heritability. Among 129 published cases of identical twin pairs reared apart, 76 pairs contained some birthweight information. The 76 pairs were separated into three classes: 23 pairs in which there was clear evidence of a substantial birthweight differences (indicating the probable existence of the identical twin transfusion syndrome), 27 pairs in which the information on birthweight was ambiguous (?), and 26 pairs in which there was clear evidence that the twins were similar in birthweight. The reanalyses showed: (1) birthweight differences are positively associated with IQ differences in the total sample of separated identical twins; (2) within the group of 23 twin pairs who showed large birthweight differences, there was a positive relation between birthweight differences and IQ differences; (3) when heritability of IQ is estimated for those twins who do not suffer large birthweight differences, the resemblance (and thus, h2/b) of the separated identical twins' IG is 0-95. Given that the average reliability of the individual IQ test is around 0-95, these data suggest that genetic factors and errors of measurement cause the individual differences in IQ among human beings. Because of the identical twin transfusion syndrome, previous studies of MZ twins have underestimated the effect of genetic factors on IQ. An analysis of the IQs for heavier and lighter birthweight twins suggests that the main effect of the

  13. Weed control and cover crop management affect mycorrhizal colonization of grapevine roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spore populations in a California vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Kendra; Smith, Richard F; Bettiga, Larry

    2005-03-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi naturally colonize grapevines in California vineyards. Weed control and cover cropping may affect AM fungi directly, through destruction of extraradical hyphae by soil disruption, or indirectly, through effects on populations of mycorrhizal weeds and cover crops. We examined the effects of weed control (cultivation, post-emergence herbicides, pre-emergence herbicides) and cover crops (Secale cereale cv. Merced rye, x Triticosecale cv.Trios 102) on AM fungi in a Central Coast vineyard. Seasonal changes in grapevine mycorrhizal colonization differed among weed control treatments, but did not correspond with seasonal changes in total weed frequency. Differences in grapevine colonization among weed control treatments may be due to differences in mycorrhizal status and/or AM fungal species composition among dominant weed species. Cover crops had no effect on grapevine mycorrhizal colonization, despite higher spring spore populations in cover cropped middles compared to bare middles. Cover crops were mycorrhizal and shared four AM fungal species (Glomus aggregatum, G. etunicatum, G. mosseae, G. scintillans) in common with grapevines. Lack of contact between grapevine roots and cover crop roots may have prevented grapevines from accessing higher spore populations in the middles.

  14. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal 14-3-3 Proteins Are Involved in Arbuscule Formation and Responses to Abiotic Stresses During AM Symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhongfeng; Song, Jiabin; Xin, Xi'an; Xie, Xianan; Zhao, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are soil-borne fungi belonging to the ancient phylum Glomeromycota and are important symbionts of the arbuscular mycorrhiza, enhancing plant nutrient acquisition and resistance to various abiotic stresses. In contrast to their significant physiological implications, the molecular basis involved is poorly understood, largely due to their obligate biotrophism and complicated genetics. Here, we identify and characterize three genes termed Fm201 , Ri14-3-3 and RiBMH2 that encode 14-3-3-like proteins in the AM fungi Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus irregularis , respectively. The transcriptional levels of Fm201 , Ri14-3-3 and RiBMH2 are strongly induced in the pre-symbiotic and symbiotic phases, including germinating spores, intraradical hyphae- and arbuscules-enriched roots. To functionally characterize the Fm201 , Ri14-3-3 and RiBMH2 genes, we took advantage of a yeast heterologous system owing to the lack of AM fungal transformation systems. Our data suggest that all three genes can restore the lethal Saccharomyces cerevisiae bmh1 bmh2 double mutant on galactose-containing media. Importantly, yeast one-hybrid analysis suggests that the transcription factor RiMsn2 is able to recognize the STRE (CCCCT/AGGGG) element present in the promoter region of Fm201 gene. More importantly, Host-Induced Gene Silencing of both Ri14-3-3 and RiBMH2 in Rhizophagus irregularis impairs the arbuscule formation in AM symbiosis and inhibits the expression of symbiotic PT4 and MST2 genes from plant and fungal partners, respectively. We further subjected the AM fungus- Medicago truncatula association system to drought or salinity stress. Accordingly, the expression profiles in both mycorrhizal roots and extraradical hyphae reveal that these three 14-3-3-like genes are involved in response to drought or salinity stress. Collectively, our results provide new insights into molecular functions of the AM fungal 14-3-3 proteins in abiotic stress responses and

  15. Plant Signals Disrupt (regulate?) Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Growth Under Enhanced Ozone and CO2 Growing Conditions for Populus tremuloides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. M.; Podila, G. K.

    2008-12-01

    An understanding of the genetic determinants of keystone symbiotic relationships is essential to elucidating adaptive mechanisms influencing higher-order processes, including shifts in community composition following environmental perturbations. The Aspen FACE project offers a unique opportunity to address adaptive processes with an imposed three way interaction experiment composed of the atmospheric pollutant ozone (eO3), elevated CO2 (eCO2) fumigations, five Populus tremuloides (aspen) genotypes, and both arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungal interactions. The 10 year time span of this experiment has allowed for a realistic and mechanistic understanding of above ground responses of the aspen genotypes to eCO2, eO3 and the interaction effects of eCO2 and eO3. Even so, treatment influences to the below ground, including carbon allocation to roots and associated mycorrhizal symbionts, and rhizosphere dynamics are just beginning to be understood. We hypothesized that mycorrhizal fungal responses to eCO2, eO3, and the interaction effects of eCO2+eO3 are conditioned by the degree of response of their aspen hosts. We intend to describe the molecular mechanisms of an important critical interaction between host and fungus using microarray analysis of expression profiles, as well as metabolic profiling of aspen roots and their associated mycorrhizal partner, the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus intraradices, under eCO2, eO3 and eCO2+eO3. We present evidence that host-derived factors, expressed in response to eCO2+eO3, trigger responses in Glomus leading to the partitioning or metabolic shift in lipid biosynthesis that is associated with reduced extraradical hyphae growth and altered lipid metabolism. We then scale these lower-level responses to give better insight to fungal intraradical and extraradical allocation of biomass and fungal and root lipid and carbohydrate content in association with aspen genotype responses to the imposed treatments. By

  16. Packaging conditions hindering fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Haasum, Iben

    1997-01-01

    Fungal contamination is one of the most important quality deteriorating factors on cheese. During the last 5 years we have studied in detail the underlying factors controlling these unwanted processes in a collaborative project financed by the Danish Dairy Board and the Ministry of Agriculture...

  17. Fungal peroxidases : molecular aspects and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conesa, A.; Punt, P.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J.

    2002-01-01

    Peroxidases are oxidoreductases that utilize hydrogen peroxide to catalyze oxidative reactions. A large number of peroxidases have been identified in fungal species and are being characterized at the molecular level. In this manuscript we review the current knowledge on the molecular aspects of this

  18. Fungal Planet description sheets: 400-468

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, M. J.; Richardson, D. M.; Le Roux, J. J.; Strasberg, D.; Edwards, J.; Roets, F.; Hubka, V.; Taylor, P.W.J.; Heykoop, M.; Martín, M.P.; Moreno, G.; Sutton, D.A.; Wiederhold, N.P.; Barnes, C.W.; Carlavilla, J.R.; Gené, J.; Giraldo, A.; Guarnaccia, V.; Guarro, J.; Hernández-Restrepo, M.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Manjón, J.L.; Pascoe, I.G.; Popov, E.S.; Sandoval-Denis, M.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Acharya, K.; Alexandrova, A.V.; Alvarado, P.; Barbosa, R.N.; Baseia, I.G.; Blanchette, R.A.; Boekhout, T.; Burgess, T.I.; Cano-Lira, J.F.; Čmoková, A.; Dimitrov, R.A.; Dyakov, M.Yu.; Dueñas, M.; Dutta, A.K.; Esteve- Raventós, F.; Fedosova, A.G.; Fournier, J.; Gamboa, P.; Gouliamova, D.E.; Grebenc, T.; Groenewald, M.; Hanse, B.; Hardy, G.E.St.J.; Held, B.W.; Jurjević, Ž.; Kaewgrajang, T.; Latha, K.P.D.; Lombard, L.; Luangsa-Ard, J.J.; Lysková, P.; Mallátová, N.; Manimohan, P.; Miller, A.N.; Mirabolfathy, M.; Morozova, O.V.; Obodai, M.; Oliveira, N.T.; Otto, E.C.; Paloi, S.; Peterson, S.W.; Phosri, C.; Roux, J.; Salazar, W.A.; Sánchez, A.; Sarria, G.A.; Shin, H.-D.; Silva, B.D.B.; Silva, G.A.; Smith, M.Th.; Souza-Motta, C.M.; Stchigel, A.M.; Stoilova-Disheva, M.M.; Sulzbacher, M.A.; Telleria, M.T.; Toapanta, C.; Traba, J.M.; Valenzuela-Lopez, N.; Watling, R.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 36, July (2016), s. 316-458 ISSN 0031-5850 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : ITS DNA barcodes * LSU * fungal species Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 7.511, year: 2016

  19. A biotechnology perspective of fungal proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Monteiro de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Proteases hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins into peptides and amino acids, being found in all living organisms, and are essential for cell growth and differentiation. Proteolytic enzymes have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, laundry detergent and pharmaceutical. Proteases from microbial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. Fungal proteases are used for hydrolyzing protein and other components of soy beans and wheat in soy sauce production. Proteases can be produced in large quantities in a short time by established methods of fermentation. The parameters such as variation in C/N ratio, presence of some sugars, besides several other physical factors are important in the development of fermentation process. Proteases of fungal origin can be produced cost effectively, have an advantage faster production, the ease with which the enzymes can be modified and mycelium can be easily removed by filtration. The production of proteases has been carried out using submerged fermentation, but conditions in solid state fermentation lead to several potential advantages for the production of fungal enzymes. This review focuses on the production of fungal proteases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications.

  20. High prevalence of a fungal prion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debets, A.J.M.; Dalstra, H.J.P.; Slakhorst, S.M.; Koopmanschap-Memelink, A.B.; Hoekstra, R.F.; Saupe, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Prions are infectious proteins that cause fatal diseases in mammals. Prions have also been found in fungi, but studies on their role in nature are scarce. The proposed biological function of fungal prions is debated and varies from detrimental to benign or even beneficial. [Het-s] is a prion of the

  1. October 2012 Multistate Fungal Meningitis Outbreak

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-17

    This podcast gives an overview of the October 2012 multistate fungal meningitis outbreak, including symptoms to watch for and a website for up-to-date information.  Created: 10/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  2. Fungal biology and agriculture: revisiting the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarden, O.; Ebbole, D.J.; Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Dickman, M. B.

    2003-01-01

    Plant pathology has made significant progress over the years, a process that involved overcoming a variety of conceptual and technological hurdles. Descriptive mycology and the advent of chemical plant-disease management have been followed by biochemical and physiological studies of fungi and their hosts. The later establishment of biochemical genetics along with the introduction of DNA-mediated transformation have set the stage for dissection of gene function and advances in our understanding of fungal cell biology and plant-fungus interactions. Currently, with the advent of high-throughput technologies, we have the capacity to acquire vast data sets that have direct relevance to the numerous subdisciplines within fungal biology and pathology. These data provide unique opportunities for basic research and for engineering solutions to important agricultural problems. However, we also are faced with the challenge of data organization and mining to analyze the relationships between fungal and plant genomes and to elucidate the physiological function of pertinent DNA sequences. We present our perspective of fungal biology and agriculture, including administrative and political challenges to plant protection research.

  3. Fungal Systematics and Evolution: FUSE 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, Pedro W; Schumacher, René K; Wingfield, Michael J; Lombard, Lorenzo; Giraldo, Alejandra; Christensen, Martha; Gardiennet, Alain; Nakashima, Chiharu; Pereira, Olinto L; Smith, Alexander J; Groenewald, Johannes Z

    2015-01-01

    Fungal Systematics and Evolution (FUSE) is introduced as a new series to expedite the publication of issues relating to the epitypification of formerly described species, report new sexual-asexual connections, the merging of sexual and asexual gen¬era following the end of dual nomenclature, and to

  4. Fungal Planet description sheets: 371-399

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Crous, P. W.; Wingfield, M. J.; Le Roux, J. J.; Richardson, D. M.; Strasberg, D.; Shivas, R.G.; Alvarado, P.; Edwards, J.; Moreno, G.; Sharma, R.; Sonawane, M.S.; Tan, Y.P.; Altés, A.; Barasubiye, T.; Barnes, C.W.; Blanchette, R.A.; Boertmann, D.; Bogo, A.; Carlavilla, J.R.; Cheewangkoon, R.; Daniel, R.; de Beer, Z.W.; de Yáňez-Morales, J.; Duong, T.A.; Fernández-Vicente, J.; Geering, A.D.W.; Guest, D.I.; Held, B.W.; Heykoop, M.; Hubka, V.; Ismail, A.M.; Kajale, S.C.; Khemmuk, W.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Kurli, R.; Lebeuf, R.; Levesque, C.A.; Lombard, L.; Magista, D.; Manjón, J.L.; Marincowitz, S.; Mohedano, J.M.; Nováková, Alena; Oberlies, N.H.; Otto, E.C.; Paguigan, N.D.; Pascoe, I.G.; Peréz-Butrón, J.L.; Perrone, G.; Rahi, P.; Raja, H.A.; Rintoul, T.; Sanhueza, R.M.V.; Scarlett, K.; Shouche, Y.S.; Shuttleworth, L.A.; Taylor, P.W.J.; Thorn, R.G.; Vawdrey, L.L.; Solano-Vidal, R.; Voitk, A.; Wong, P.T.W.; Wood, A.R.; Zamora, J.C.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, December (2015), s. 264-327 ISSN 0031-5850 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : ITS DNA barcodes * LSU * novel fungal species Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.725, year: 2015

  5. Fungal ABC Transporter Deletion and Localization Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalchuk, A.; Weber, S.S.; Nijland, J.G.; Bovenberg, R.A.L.; Driessen, A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Fungal cells are highly complex as their metabolism is compartmentalized harboring various types of subcellular organelles that are bordered by one or more membranes. Knowledge about the intracellular localization of transporter proteins is often required for the understanding of their biological

  6. CT scan findings of fungal pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckmann, M.; Uder, M.; Bautz, W.; Heinrich, M.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of fungal infection of the lung in immunocompromised patients has increased substantially during the last decades. Numerically the most patients are those with neutropenia, e.g. patients with malignancies or solid organ and stem cell transplantation, chemotherapy, corticosteroid use and HIV infection. Although fungal infections can occur in immunocompetent patients, their frequency in this population is rare. The clinical symptoms such as fever accompanied with non-productive cough are unspecific. In some patients progression to hypoxemia and dyspnea may occur rapidly. In spite of improved antifungal therapy morbidity and mortality of these infections are still high. Therefore an early and non-invasive diagnosis is very important. That is why CT and even better High-Resolution-CT (HR-CT) is a very important modality in examining immunocompromised patients with a probability of fungal infection. CT is everywhere available and, as a non-invasive method, able to give the relevant diagnose efficiently. This paper should give an overview about the radiologic findings and possible differential diagnosis of diverse pulmonary fungal infections in CT. Pneumonias caused by Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Candida, Histoplasma, Mucor and Geotrichum capitatum are illustrated. (orig.)

  7. The Amstersam declaration on fungal nomenclature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawksworth, David L.; Crous, Pedro W.; Redhead, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was agreed at an international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19–20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the current...

  8. 50-plus years of fungal viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabrial, Said A., E-mail: saghab00@email.uky.edu [Plant Pathology Department, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Castón, José R. [Department of Structure of Macromolecules, Centro Nacional Biotecnologıa/CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Jiang, Daohong [State Key Lab of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China); Nibert, Max L. [Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Suzuki, Nobuhiro [Institute of Plant Science and Resources, Okayama University, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Mycoviruses are widespread in all major taxa of fungi. They are transmitted intracellularly during cell division, sporogenesis, and/or cell-to-cell fusion (hyphal anastomosis), and thus their life cycles generally lack an extracellular phase. Their natural host ranges are limited to individuals within the same or closely related vegetative compatibility groups, although recent advances have established expanded experimental host ranges for some mycoviruses. Most known mycoviruses have dsRNA genomes packaged in isometric particles, but an increasing number of positive- or negative-strand ssRNA and ssDNA viruses have been isolated and characterized. Although many mycoviruses do not have marked effects on their hosts, those that reduce the virulence of their phytopathogenic fungal hosts are of considerable interest for development of novel biocontrol strategies. Mycoviruses that infect endophytic fungi and those that encode killer toxins are also of special interest. Structural analyses of mycoviruses have promoted better understanding of virus assembly, function, and evolution. - Highlights: • Historical perspective of fungal virus research. • Description, classification and diversity of fungal virus families. • Structural features of fungal virus particles. • Hypovirulence and exploitation of mycoviruses in biological control of plant pathogenic fungi.

  9. Fungal peritonitis in children on peritoneal dialysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, R.; Schroder, C.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Cornelissen, E.A.M.; Warris, A.

    2007-01-01

    Fungal peritonitis is a rare but serious complication in children on peritoneal dialysis (PD). In this study, risk factors were evaluated, and therapeutic measures were reviewed. A retrospective, multi-centre study was performed in 159 Dutch paediatric PD patients, between 1980 and 2005 (3,573

  10. UV-guided isolation of fungal metabolites by HSCCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, P.W.; Nielsen, K.F.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2005-01-01

    Analytical standardised reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) data can be helpful in finding a suitable solvent combination for isolation of fungal metabolites by high-speed counter current chromatography. Analysis of the distribution coefficient (K-D) of fungal metabolites in a series...... peptides from a crude fungal extract....

  11. Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Wadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the burden of fungal infections in Jordan for the first time. Material and Methods: Population data was from UN 2011 statistics and TB cases from WHO in 2012. Fewer than 100 patients with HIV were recorded in Jordan in 2013. Approximately 100 renal transplants and eight liver transplants are performed annually. There were 12,233 major surgical procedures in Jordan in 2013, of which 5.3% were major abdominal surgeries; candidemia was estimated in 5% of the population based on other countries, with 33% occurring in the ICU. Candida peritonitis/intra-abdominal candidiasis was estimated to affect 50% of the number of ICU candidemia cases. No adult asthma rates have been recorded for Jordan, so the rate from the Holy Land (8.54% clinical asthma from To et al. has been used. There are an estimated 49,607 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients in Jordan, with 64% symptomatic, 25% Gold stage 3% or 4%, and 7% (3472 are assumed to be admitted to hospital each year. No cystic fibrosis cases have been recorded. Literature searches on fungal infections revealed few data and no prevalence data on fungal keratitis or tinea capitis, even though tinea capitis comprised 34% of patients with dermatophytoses in Jordan. Results: Jordan has 6.3 million inhabitants (65% adults, 6% are >60 years old. The current burden of serious fungal infections in Jordan was estimated to affect ~119,000 patients (1.9%, not including any cutaneous fungal infections. Candidemia was estimated at 316 cases and invasive aspergillosis in leukemia, transplant, and COPD patients at 84 cases. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis prevalence was estimated to affect 36 post-TB patients, and 175 in total. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS prevalence in adults with asthma were estimated at 8900 and 11,748 patients. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis was estimated to affect 97,804 patients, using a 6

  12. Epithelial proliferation in small ducts of salivary cystadenoma resembling atypical ductal hyperplasia of breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Lisa; Weinreb, Ilan; Alexander, Cherupushpam; Perez Ordoñez, Bayardo

    2008-09-01

    Salivary gland cystadenomas are cystic neoplasms with diverse architecture and cytology. Cystadenomas may have a considerable intracystic epithelial component, but an epithelial proliferation in small ducts and cysts resembling atypical ductal hyperplasia of breast has not been documented. The patient was a 68-year-old man with a slow growing right submandibular mass. He has no recurrence 13 months after resection. The tumor was polycystic and measured 3.0 x 2.5 x 2.5 cm. The epithelium of the larger cysts was composed of flat, cuboidal, columnar, and apocrine-like cells. Many of the larger cysts showed "Roman bridges", epithelial tufting, and papillae. The smaller cysts and ducts had apocrine-like cells forming secondary glandular lumens. The ductal cells were surrounded by clear myoepithelial cells. Nuclear pleomorphism and hyperchromasia was seen in the apocrine-like cells. Adjacent to the larger cysts, there was an adenomatoid proliferation of small ducts surrounded by myoepithelial cells. No mitotic activity, necrosis, or stromal invasion was identified. The ductal cells were diffusely positive for keratin 7 and androgen receptors with focal expression of keratin 19 and high-molecular weight keratin. S-100, estrogen and progesterone receptors, and BRST-2 were negative in the ductal cells. Recognition of a prominent intraductal epithelial component in cystadenomas is important to avoid a misdiagnosis of cystadenocarcinoma or low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. Cystadenomas join the list of salivary gland lesions with microscopic similarities to primary lesions of the breast.

  13. Does the calcification of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma resemble the calcium deposition of osteogenesis/odontogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song-Tao, Qi; Xiao-Rong, Yan; Jun, Pan; Yong-Jian, Deng; Jin, Liang; Guang-Long, Huang; Yun-Tao, Lu; Jian, Ruan; Xiang-Zhao, Li; Jia-Ming, Xu

    2014-02-01

    Calcification in adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) is troublesome for surgical intervention. The aim of this study was to examine the osteogenic proteins that play important roles in the calcium deposition of the odontogenic/osteogenic tissues in craniopharyngioma. Craniopharyngiomas (n = 89) were investigated for the presence and expression pattern of the osteoinductive/odontoinductive factor bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Bmp2) and two osteoblastic differentiation makers, Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) and Osterix, using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Our results showed that Bmp2, Runx2 and Osterix levels increased in cases with high calcification and correlated positively with the degree of calcification in ACP, whereas they showed little or no expression in squamous papillary craniopharyngioma. In ACP, Bmp2 was expressed primarily in the stellate reticulum and whorl-like array cells; Runx2 and Osterix tended to be expressed in calcification-related epithelia, including whorl-like array cells and epithelia in/around wet keratin and calcification lesions. Our study indicated, for the first time, that osteogenic factor Bmp2 may play an important role in the calcification of ACP via autocrine or paracrine mechanisms. Given the presence of osteogenic markers (Runx2 and Osterix), craniopharyngioma cells could differentiate into an osteoblast-like lineage, and the process of craniopharyngioma calcification resembles that which occurs in osteogenesis/odontogenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Pulmonary Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in a Patient with Chronic Asthma Resembling Lung Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massood Hosseinzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Extramedullary hematopoiesis is most often seen in reticuloendothelial organs specially spleen, liver, or lymph nodes, and it is rarely seen in lung parenchyma. Almost all reported cases of pulmonary extramedullary hematopoiesis occurred following myeloproliferative disorders specially myelofibrosis. Other less common underlying causes are thalassemia syndromes and other hemoglobinopathies. There was not any reported case of pulmonary extramedullary hematopoiesis in asthmatic patients in the medical literature. Case. Here we reported a 65-year-old lady who was a known case of bronchial asthma with recent developed right lower lobe lung mass. Chest X-ray and CT studies showed an infiltrating mass resembling malignancy. Fine needle aspiration cytology of mass revealed pulmonary extramedullary hematopoiesis. The patient followed for 10 months with serial physical examination and laboratory evaluations which were unremarkable. Conclusion. Extramedullary hematopoiesis of lung parenchyma can be mistaken for lung cancer radiologically. Although previous reported cases occurred with myelofibrosis or hemoglobinopathies, we are reporting the first case of asthma-associated extramedullary hematopoiesis.

  15. Nuclear security culture in comparison with nuclear safety culture. Resemblances and differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Since the terrorist attacks on the U.S. on September 11th, 2001, Nuclear Security has been focused on and treated as a global issue in the international community and it has also been discussed as a real and serious threat to nuclear power plants in the world since 'The Great East Japan Earthquake' in March, 2011. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) issued a document including Nuclear Security Recommendations (INFCIRC/225/Rev.5) (NSS 13) in the Nuclear Security Series and emphasized the necessity of fostering Nuclear Security Culture. Nuclear Security Culture has been frequently discussed at various kinds of seminars and events. Since the officials in charge of Nuclear Security are familiar with the area of Nuclear Safety, the relationships between Nuclear Safety Culture and Nuclear Security Culture have been the point in controversy. This paper clarifies relevance between Nuclear Safety and Security, considers resemblances and differences of their concepts and lessons learned for each culture from nuclear power plant accidents, and promotes deeper understanding of Nuclear Safety and Nuclear Security Culture. (author)

  16. Prion disease resembling frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitrini Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical features of a familial prion disease with those of frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17. BACKGROUND: Prion diseases are not usually considered in the differential diagnosis of FTDP-17, since familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, the most common inherited prion disease, often manifests as a rapidly progressive dementia. Conversely, FTDP-17 usually has an insidious onset in the fifth decade, with abnormal behavior and parkinsonian features. METHOD: We present the clinical features of 12 patients from a family with CJD associated with a point mutation at codon 183 of the prion protein gene. RESULTS: The mean age at onset was 44.0 ± 3.7; the duration of the symptoms until death ranged from two to nine years. Behavioral disturbances were the predominant presenting symptoms. Nine patients were first seen by psychiatrists. Eight patients manifested parkinsonian signs. CONCLUSION: These clinical features bear a considerable resemblance to those described in FTDP-17.

  17. On Learning Natural-Science Categories That Violate the Family-Resemblance Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosofsky, Robert M; Sanders, Craig A; Gerdom, Alex; Douglas, Bruce J; McDaniel, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    The general view in psychological science is that natural categories obey a coherent, family-resemblance principle. In this investigation, we documented an example of an important exception to this principle: Results of a multidimensional-scaling study of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks (Experiment 1) suggested that the structure of these categories is disorganized and dispersed. This finding motivated us to explore what might be the optimal procedures for teaching dispersed categories, a goal that is likely critical to science education in general. Subjects in Experiment 2 learned to classify pictures of rocks into compact or dispersed high-level categories. One group learned the categories through focused high-level training, whereas a second group was required to simultaneously learn classifications at a subtype level. Although high-level training led to enhanced performance when the categories were compact, subtype training was better when the categories were dispersed. We provide an interpretation of the results in terms of an exemplar-memory model of category learning.

  18. Fungal-specific transcription factor AbPf2 activates pathogenicity in Alternaria brassicicola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yangrae; Ohm, Robin A. [US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, 2800 Mitchell Drive, Walnut Creek, CA, 94598, USA; Grigoriev, Igor V. [US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, 2800 Mitchell Drive, Walnut Creek, CA, 94598, USA; Srivastava, Akhil [Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 3190 Maile Way, St John 317, Honolulu, HI, 96822, USA

    2013-05-24

    Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen. To identify molecular determinants of pathogenicity, we created non-pathogenic mutants of a transcription factor-encoding gene, AbPf2. The frequency and timing of germination and appressorium formation on host plants were similar between the non-pathogenic abpf2 mutants and wild-type A. brassicicola. The mutants were also similar in vitro to wild-type A. brassicicola in terms of vegetative growth, conidium production, and responses to a phytoalexin, reactive oxygen species and osmolites. The hyphae of the mutants grew slowly but did not cause disease symptoms on the surface of host plants. Transcripts of the AbPf2 gene increased exponentially soon after wild-type conidia contacted their host plants . A small amount of AbPf2 protein, as monitored using GFP fusions, was present in young, mature conidia. The protein level decreased during saprophytic growth, but increased and was located primarily in fungal nuclei during pathogenesis. Levels of the proteins and transcripts sharply decreased following colonization of host tissues beyond the initial infection site. When expression of the transcription factor was induced in the wild-type during early pathogenesis, 106 fungal genes were also induced in the wild-type but not in the abpf2 mutants. Notably, 33 of the 106 genes encoded secreted proteins, including eight putative effector proteins. Plants inoculated with abpf2 mutants expressed higher levels of genes associated with photosynthesis, the pentose phosphate pathway and primary metabolism, but lower levels of defense-related genes. Our results suggest that AbPf2 is an important regulator of pathogenesis, but does not affect other cellular processes in A. brassicicola.

  19. Presentation and management of allergic fungal sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thahim, K.; Jawaid, M.A.; Marfani, S.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the presentation of allergic fungal sinusitis and describe the line of management in our setup. Culture and sensitivity / fungal stain proven 20 cases of allergic fungal sinusitis were selected for the study, irrespective of age and gender. Data including age, gender, socioeconomic status, signs, symptoms, laboratory findings (especially Immunoglobulin E and eosinophil count) and imaging studies (Computed Tomography and /or Magnetic Resonance Imaging) were noted for the study. Pre and postoperative medical treatment, surgery performed, follow-up; residual/recurrence disease and revised surgery performed were also recorded. In this series, allergic fungal sinusitis was a disease of younger age group with an average age of 20.75 years with male dominance (70%). Poor socioeconomic status (80%), allergic rhinitis (100%) and nasal polyposis (100%) were important associated factors. Nasal obstruction (100%), nasal discharge (90%), postnasal drip (90%) and unilateral nasal and paranasal sinuses involvement (60%) were the commonest presenting features. Aspergillus (60%) was the most common etiological agent. In all cases (100%), increased eosinophil count and IgE levels were present. Orbital (20%) and intracranial (10%) involvement were also seen. Surgical management was preferred in all cases. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery in 90% cases and lateral rhinotomy in 10% cases were performed. Recurrence / residual disease was seen in 20% cases. In this series, allergic fungal sinusitis was seen in immunocompetent, young males, belonging to poor socioeconomic status, suffering from allergic rhinitis and nasal polyposis, presenting with nasal obstruction, nasal discharge and postnasal drip. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery was the most important problem solving procedure while lateral rhinotomy was reserved for extensive disease. (author)

  20. Fungal endophytes which invade insect galls: insect pathogens, benign saprophytes, or fungal inquilines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dennis

    1995-08-01

    Fungi are frequently found within insect galls. However, the origin of these fungi, whether they are acting as pathogens, saprophytes invading already dead galls, or fungal inquilines which invade the gall but kill the gall maker by indirect means, is rarely investigated. A pathogenic role for these fungi is usually inferred but never tested. I chose the following leaf-galling-insect/host-plant pairs (1) a cynipid which forms two-chambered galls on the veins of Oregon white oak, (2) a cynipid which forms single-chambered galls on California coast live oak, and (3) an aphid which forms galls on narrowleaf cottonwood leaves. All pairs were reported to have fungi associated with dead insects inside the gall. These fungi were cultured and identified. For the two cynipids, all fungi found inside the galls were also present in the leaves as fungal endophytes. The cottonwood leaves examined did not harbor fungal endophytes. For the cynipid on Oregon white oak, the fungal endophyte grows from the leaf into the gall and infects all gall tissue but does not directly kill the gall maker. The insect dies as a result of the gall tissue dying from fungal infection. Therefore, the fungus acts as an inquiline. Approximately 12.5% of these galls die as a result of invasion by the fungal endophyte.

  1. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles of metals and metalloids by basidiomycetes. Preparation of gold nanoparticles by using purified fungal phenol oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetchinkina, Elena P; Loshchinina, Ekaterina A; Vodolazov, Ilya R; Kursky, Viktor F; Dykman, Lev A; Nikitina, Valentina E

    2017-02-01

    The work shows the ability of cultured Basidiomycetes of different taxonomic groups-Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Ganoderma lucidum, and Grifola frondosa-to recover gold, silver, selenium, and silicon, to elemental state with nanoparticles formation. It examines the effect of these metal and metalloid compounds on the parameters of growth and accumulation of biomass; the optimal cultivation conditions and concentrations of the studied ion-containing compounds for recovery of nanoparticles have been identified. Using the techniques of transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray phase analysis, the degrees of oxidation of the bioreduced elements, the ζ-potential of colloidal solutions uniformity, size, shape, and location of the nanoparticles in the culture fluid, as well as on the surface and the inside of filamentous hyphae have been determined. The study has found the part played by homogeneous chromatographically pure fungal phenol-oxidizing enzymes (laccases, tyrosinases, and Mn-peroxidases) in the recovery mechanism with formation of electrostatically stabilized colloidal solutions. A hypothetical mechanism of gold(III) reduction from HAuCl 4 to gold(0) by phenol oxidases with gold nanoparticles formation of different shapes and sizes has been introduced.

  2. Transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing MsrA1, a synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptide, exhibit resistance to fungal phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Anjana; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Yusuf, Mohd Aslam; Misra, Santosh; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2014-06-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) have shown potential against broad spectrum of phytopathogens. Synthetic versions with desirable properties have been modeled on these natural peptides. MsrA1 is a synthetic chimera of cecropin A and melittin CAPs with antimicrobial properties. We generated transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing the msrA1 gene aimed at conferring fungal resistance. Five independent transgenic lines were evaluated for resistance to Alternaria brassicae and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, two of the most devastating pathogens of B. juncea crops. In vitro assays showed inhibition by MsrA1 of Alternaria hyphae growth by 44-62 %. As assessed by the number and size of lesions and time taken for complete leaf necrosis, the Alternaria infection was delayed and restricted in the transgenic plants with the protection varying from 69 to 85 % in different transgenic lines. In case of S. sclerotiorum infection, the lesions were more severe and spread profusely in untransformed control compared with transgenic plants. The sclerotia formed in the stem of untransformed control plants were significantly more in number and larger in size than those present in the transgenic plants where disease protection of 56-71.5 % was obtained. We discuss the potential of engineering broad spectrum biotic stress tolerance by transgenic expression of CAPs in crop plants.

  3. A spindle pole antigen gene MoSPA2 is important for polar cell growth of vegetative hyphae and conidia, but is dispensable for pathogenicity in Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Xiao-Lin; Huang, Jin-Guang; Cheng, Zhi-Hua; Zhao, Wen-Sheng; Zhang, Yan; Peng, You-Liang

    2014-11-01

    Spa2 is an important component of the multiprotein complex polarisome, which is involved in the establishment, maintenance, termination of polarized cell growth and is important for defining tip growth of filamentous fungi. In this study, we isolated an insertional mutant of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae that formed smaller colony and conidia compared with the wild type. In the mutant, a spindle pole antigen gene MoSPA2 was disrupted by the integration of an exogenous plasmid. Targeted gene deletion and complementation assays demonstrated the gene disruption was responsible for the defects of the insertional mutant. Interestingly, the MoSpa2-GFP fusion protein was found to accumulate as a spot at hyphal tips, septa of hyphae and conidial tip cells where germ tubes are usually produced, but not in appressoria, infection hyphae or at the septa of conidia. Furthermore, the deletion mutants of MoSPA2 exhibited slower hyphal tip growth, more hyphal branches, and smaller size of conidial tip cells. However, MoSPA2 is not required for plant infection. These results indicate that MoSPA2 is required for vegetative hyphal growth and maintaining conidium morphology and that spotted accumulation of MoSpa2 is important for its functions during cell polar growth.

  4. Blastomyces dermatitidis septins CDC3, CDC10, and CDC12 impact the morphology of yeast and hyphae, but are not required for the phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Amber J; Gauthier, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis, the etiologic agent of blastomycosis, belongs to a group of thermally dimorphic fungi that change between mold (22°C) and yeast (37°C) in response to temperature. The contribution of structural proteins such as septins to this phase transition in these fungi remains poorly understood. Septins are GTPases that serve as a scaffold for proteins involved with cytokinesis, cell polarity, and cell morphology. In this study, we use a GFP sentinel RNA interference system to investigate the impact of CDC3, CDC10, CDC12, and ASPE on the morphology and phase transition of B. dermatitidis. Targeting CDC3, CDC10, and CDC12 by RNA interference resulted in yeast with aberrant morphology at 37°C with defects in cytokinesis. Downshifting the temperature to 22°C promoted the conversion to the mold phase, but did not abrogate the morphologic defects. CDC3, CDC10, and CDC12 knockdown strains grew as mold with curved, thickened hyphae. Knocking down ASPE transcript did not alter morphology of yeast at 37°C or mold at 22°C. Following an increase in temperature from 22°C to 37°C, all septin knockdown strains were able to revert to yeast. In conclusion, CDC3, CDC10, and CDC12 septin- encoding genes are required for proper morphology of yeast and hyphae, but are dispensable for the phase transition.

  5. Carbon dioxide is a powerful inducer of monokaryotic hyphae and spore development in Cryptococcus gattii and carbonic anhydrase activity is dispensable in this dimorphic transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ping; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Chaturvedi, Sudha

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcus gattii is unique among human pathogenic fungi with specialized ecological niche on trees. Since leaves concentrate CO2, we investigated the role of this gaseous molecule in C. gattii biology and virulence. We focused on the genetic analyses of β-carbonic anhydrase (β-CA) encoded by C. gattii CAN1 and CAN2 as later is critical for CO2 sensing in a closely related pathogen C. neoformans. High CO2 conditions induced robust development of monokaryotic hyphae and spores in C. gattii. Conversely, high CO2 completely repressed hyphae development in sexual mating. Both CAN1 and CAN2 were dispensable for CO2 induced morphogenetic transitions. However, C. gattii CAN2 was essential for growth in ambient air similar to its reported role in C. neoformans. Both can1 and can2 mutants retained full pathogenic potential in vitro and in vivo. These results provide insight into C. gattii adaptation for arboreal growth and production of infectious propagules by β-CA independent mechanism(s).

  6. The peptide NDP-MSH induces phenotype changes in the heart that resemble ischemic preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Anna; Lonati, Caterina; Sordi, Andrea; Leonardi, Patrizia; Carlin, Andrea; Gatti, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is a pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptide that exerts multiple protective effects on host cells. Previous investigations showed that treatment with alpha-MSH or synthetic melanocortin agonists reduces heart damage in reperfusion injury and transplantation. The aim of this preclinical research was to determine whether melanocortin treatment induces preconditioning-like cardioprotection. In particular, the plan was to assess whether melanocortin administration causes phenotype changes similar to those induced by repetitive ischemic events. The idea was conceived because both ischemic preconditioning and melanocortin signaling largely depend on cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. Rats received single i.v. injections of 750microg/kg of the alpha-MSH analogue Nle(4),DPhe(7)-alpha-MSH (NDP-MSH) or saline and were sacrificed at 0.5, 1, 3, or 5h. Western blot analysis showed that rat hearts expressed melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) protein. Treatment with NDP-MSH was associated with early and marked increase in interleukin 6 (IL-6) mRNA. This was followed by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). There were no changes in expression of other cytokines of the IL-6 family. Expression of IL-10, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha was likewise unaltered. In hearts of rats treated with NDP-MSH there was increased expression of the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77. The data indicate that NDP-MSH induces phenotype changes that closely resemble ischemic preconditioning and likely contribute to its established protection against reperfusion injury. In addition, the increased expression of Nur77 and SOCS3 could be part of a broader anti-inflammatory effect.

  7. Parent–offspring resemblance in colony-specific adult survival of cliff swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles R.; Roche, Erin A.; Brown, Mary Bomberger

    2015-01-01

    Survival is a key component of fitness. Species that occupy discrete breeding colonies with different characteristics are often exposed to varying costs and benefits associated with group size or environmental conditions, and survival is an integrative net measure of these effects. We investigated the extent to which survival probability of adult (≥1-year old) cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) occupying different colonies resembled that of their parental cohort and thus whether the natal colony had long-term effects on individuals. Individuals were cross-fostered between colonies soon after hatching and their presence as breeders monitored at colonies in the western Nebraska study area for the subsequent decade. Colony-specific adult survival probabilities of offspring born and reared in the same colony, and those cross-fostered away from their natal colony soon after birth, were positively and significantly related to subsequent adult survival of the parental cohort from the natal colony. This result held when controlling for the effect of natal colony size and the age composition of the parental cohort. In contrast, colony-specific adult survival of offspring cross-fostered to a site was unrelated to that of their foster parent cohort or to the cohort of non-fostered offspring with whom they were reared. Adult survival at a colony varied inversely with fecundity, as measured by mean brood size, providing evidence for a survival–fecundity trade-off in this species. The results suggest some heritable variation in adult survival, likely maintained by negative correlations between fitness components. The study provides additional evidence that colonies represent non-random collections of individuals.

  8. Reducing prefrontal gamma-aminobutyric acid activity induces cognitive, behavioral, and dopaminergic abnormalities that resemble schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Takeshi; Tse, Maric T; Floresco, Stan B

    2011-03-01

    Perturbations in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-related markers have been reported in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients. However, a preclinical assessment of how suppression of prefrontal cortex GABA activity may reflect behavioral and cognitive pathologies observed in schizophrenia is forthcoming. We assessed the effects of pharmacologic blockade of prefrontal cortex GABA(A) receptors in rats on executive functions and other behaviors related to schizophrenia, as well as neural activity of midbrain dopamine neurons. Blockade of prefrontal cortex GABA(A) receptors with bicuculline (12.5-50 ng) did not affect working memory accuracy but did increase response latencies, resembling speed of processing deficits observed in schizophrenia. Prefrontal cortex GABA(A) blockade did not impede simple discrimination or reversal learning but did impair set-shifting in a manner dependent on when these treatments were given. Reducing GABA activity before the set-shift impaired the ability to acquire a novel strategy, whereas treatment before the initial discrimination increased perseveration during the shift. Latent inhibition was unaffected by bicuculline infusions before the preexposure/conditioning phases, suggesting that reduced prefrontal cortex GABA activity does not impair "learned irrelevance." GABA(A) blockade increased locomotor activity and showed synergic effects with a subthreshold dose of amphetamine. Furthermore, reducing medial prefrontal cortex GABA activity selectively increased phasic burst firing of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons, without altering the their overall population activity. These results suggest that prefrontal cortex GABA hypofunction may be a key contributing factor to deficits in speed of processing, cognitive flexibility, and enhanced phasic dopamine activity observed in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Image and Global Resemblance in the Light of Hadith “Who So Imitates other People Becomes One of Them”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERDAR DEMİREL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world, people from different countries, cities and institutions unprecedentedly resemble each other in every aspect of life. Likewise, the deeds and imagery aspirations of Oriental and Occidental people also resemble. In such an atmosphere, the local cultures rooted in history become accessories and lose their historical significance and metaphysical aspects in the edifice of the society. This study aims to analyze Prophet Muhammad’s (s.a.w. warning, “Who so imitates other people becomes one of them”, its layers of meaning and its relationship with “image and global resemblence”.

  10. Fungal polyketide azaphilone pigments as future natural food colorants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Thrane, Ulf; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    The recent approval of fungal carotenoids as food colorants by the European Union has strengthened the prospects for fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide pigments. Fungal production of colorants has the main advantage of making the manufacturer independent of the seasonal supply...... functionality and to expand the color palette of contemporary natural food colorants.......The recent approval of fungal carotenoids as food colorants by the European Union has strengthened the prospects for fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide pigments. Fungal production of colorants has the main advantage of making the manufacturer independent of the seasonal supply...... of raw materials, thus minimizing batch-to-batch variations. Here, we review the potential of polyketide pigments produced from chemotaxonomically selected non-toxigenic fungal strains (e.g. Penicillium and Epicoccum spp.) to serve as food colorants. We argue that the production of polyketide azaphilone...

  11. Fungal atopy in adult cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Henry, M

    2012-02-03

    This study set out to estimate the prevalence of atopy to a variety of common ubiquitous fungi, including A. fumigatus, in cystic fibrosis (CF), and to evaluate the investigations by which the diagnosis was made. Particular attention was paid to the usefulness of skin testing and immunoassays in detecting which patients had simple fungal atopy, and which patients were at high risk of developing allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses. This cross-sectional study included 21 adult CF patients and 20 matched controls. Serum samples were taken for the measurement of total serum IgE and specific serum IgE to nine common fungi. Immediate hypersensitivity skin prick testing to each of the fungi was also performed. Simple fungal atopy was described in subjects fulfilling the following criteria: total serum IgE > 100 KU l(-1) with specific radioimmunoassay > or = grade 1 to at least one fungus and a positive skin prick test (SPT) > or = 3 mm to the same fungus. \\'High risk\\' for developing allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) was described in subjects fulfilling the following criteria: total serum IgE > 200 KU l(-1) with specific radioimmunoassay > or = grade 2 to at least one fungus and a positive skin prick test (SPT) > or = 6 mm to the same fungus. The adult CF group had a significantly higher total SPT score (P=0.005) and mean total serum IgE (P<0.05) than controls. Forty-three percent of CF patients fulfilled the criteria for fungal atopy to at least a single fungus. Over half this group had an atopic tendency to more than one fungus. Nineteen percent of the CF group were at least \\'high risk\\' of developing ABPM. Skin prick testing is a better marker of fungal atopy and a better predictor of those adult CF patients at higher risk of developing ABPM than specific radioimmunoassay serum testing. There is a high prevalence of fungal atopy in the adult CF population. Total serum IgE and skin prick testing are good predictors of fungal atopy and help predict those at

  12. Transplant tourism and invasive fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Al Salmi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deceased and live-related renal transplants (RTXs are approved procedures that are performed widely throughout the world. In certain regions, commercial RTX has become popular, driven by financial greed. Methods: This retrospective, descriptive study was performed at the Royal Hospital from 2013 to 2015. Data were collected from the national kidney transplant registry of Oman. All transplant cases retrieved were divided into two groups: live-related RTX performed in Oman and commercial-unrelated RTX performed abroad. These groups were then divided again into those with and without evidence of fungal infection, either in the wound or renal graft. Results: A total of 198 RTX patients were identified, of whom 162 (81.8% had undergone a commercial RTX that was done abroad. Invasive fungal infections (IFIs were diagnosed in 8% of patients who had undergone a commercial RTX; of these patients, 76.9% underwent a nephrectomy and 23.1% continued with a functioning graft. None of the patients with RTXs performed at the Royal Hospital contracted an IFI. The most common fungal isolates were Aspergillus species (including Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulans, and Aspergillus nigricans, followed by Zygomycetes. However, there was no evidence of fungal infection including Aspergillus outside the graft site. Computed tomography (CT findings showed infarction of the graft, renal artery thrombosis, aneurysmal dilatation of the external iliac artery, fungal ball, or just the presence of a perigraft collection. Of the total patients with IFIs, 23.1% died due to septic shock and 53.8% were alive and on hemodialysis. The remaining 23.1% who did not undergo nephrectomy demonstrated acceptable graft function. Conclusions: This is the largest single-center study on commercial RTX reporting the highest number of patients with IFI acquired over a relatively short period of time. Aspergillus spp were the main culprit fungi, with no

  13. Specific and Novel microRNAs Are Regulated as Response to Fungal Infection in Human Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Andreas; Czakai, Kristin; Leonhardt, Ines; Schäferhoff, Karin; Bonin, Michael; Guthke, Reinhard; Einsele, Hermann; Kurzai, Oliver; Löffler, Jürgen; Linde, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Within the last two decades, the incidence of invasive fungal infections has been significantly increased. They are characterized by high mortality rates and are often caused by Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. The increasing number of infections underlines the necessity for additional anti-fungal therapies, which require extended knowledge of gene regulations during fungal infection. MicroRNAs are regulators of important cellular processes, including the immune response. By analyzing their regulation and impact on target genes, novel therapeutic and diagnostic approaches may be developed. Here, we examine the role of microRNAs in human dendritic cells during fungal infection. Dendritic cells represent the bridge between the innate and the adaptive immune systems. Therefore, analysis of gene regulation of dendritic cells is of particular significance. By applying next-generation sequencing of small RNAs, we quantify microRNA expression in monocyte-derived dendritic cells after 6 and 12 h of infection with C. albicans and A. fumigatus as well as treatment with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We identified 26 microRNAs that are differentially regulated after infection by the fungi or LPS. Three and five of them are specific for fungal infections after 6 and 12 h, respectively. We further validated interactions of miR-132-5p and miR-212-5p with immunological relevant target genes, such as FKBP1B, KLF4, and SPN, on both RNA and protein level. Our results indicate that these microRNAs fine-tune the expression of immune-related target genes during fungal infection. Beyond that, we identified previously undiscovered microRNAs. We validated three novel microRNAs via qRT-PCR. A comparison with known microRNAs revealed possible relations with the miR-378 family and miR-1260a/b for two of them, while the third one features a unique sequence with no resemblance to known microRNAs. In summary, this study analyzes the effect of known microRNAs in dendritic cells during

  14. Fiber, food, fuel, and fungal symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehle, J L; Marx, D H

    1979-10-26

    Virtually all plants of economic importance form mycorrhizae. These absorbing organs of higher plants result from a symbiotic union of beneficial soil fungi and feeder roots. In forestry, the manipulation of fungal symbionts ecologically adapted to the planting site can increase survival and growth of forest trees, particularly on adverse sites. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae, which occur not only on many trees but also on most cultivated crops, are undoubtedly more important to world food crops. Imperatives for mycorrhizal research in forestry and agriculture are (i) the development of mass inoculum of mycorrhizal fungi, (ii) the interdisciplinary coordination with soil management, plant breeding, cultivation practices, and pest control to ensure maximum survival and development of fungal symbionts in the soil, and (iii) the institution of nursery and field tests to determine the circumstances in which mycorrhizae benefit plant growth in forestry and agri-ecosystems.

  15. Fungal enzymes in the attine ant symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    the more basal attine genera use substrates such as flowers, plant debris, small twigs, insect feces and insect carcasses. This diverse array of fungal substrates across the attine lineage implies that the symbiotic fungus needs different enzymes to break down the plant material that the ants provide...... or different efficiencies of enzyme function. Fungal enzymes that degrade plant cell walls may have functionally co-evolved with the ants in this scenario. We explore this hypothesis with direct measurements of enzyme activity in fungus gardens in 12 species across 8 genera spanning the entire phylogeny...... and diversity of life-styles within the attine clade. We find significant differences in enzyme activity between different genera and life-styles of the ants. How these findings relate to attine ant coevolution and crop optimization are discussed....

  16. Toxin- and cadmium-induced cell death events in tomato suspension cells resemble features of hypersensitive response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakimova, E.T.; Woltering, E.J.; Yordanova, Z.P.

    2007-01-01

    Elicitors of different origin (fumonisin B1, fungal toxin), camptothecin (alkaloid from Camptotheca acuminata), mastoparan (wasp venom) and the heavy metal (cadmium) were tested for their ability to induce programmed cell death (PCD) in a model system of tomato cell culture, line MsK8. By employing

  17. The fungal cultivar of leaf-cutter ants produces specific enzymes in response to different plant substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khadempour, Lily [Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison WI 53706 USA; Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison WI 53706 USA; Department of Energy Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison WI 53706 USA; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Baker, Erin S. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Nicora, Carrie D. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; White, Richard A. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Monroe, Matthew E. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Huang, Eric L. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Smith, Richard D. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Currie, Cameron R. [Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison WI 53706 USA; Department of Energy Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison WI 53706 USA

    2016-10-26

    Herbivores use symbiotic microbes to help gain access to energy and nutrients from plant material. Leaf-cutter ants are a paradigmatic example, having tremendous impact on their ecosystems as dominant generalist herbivores through cultivation of a fungus, Leucoagaricus gongylophorous. Here we examine how this mutualism could facilitate the flexible substrate incorporation of the ants by providing leaf-cutter ant subcolonies four substrate types: leaves, flowers, oats, and a mixture of all three. Through metaproteomic analysis of the fungus gardens, we were able to identify and quantify 1766 different fungal proteins, including 161 biomass-degrading enzymes. This analysis revealed that fungal protein profiles were significantly different between subcolonies fed different substrates with the highest abundance of cellulolytic enzymes observed in the leaf and flower treatments. When the fungus garden is provided with leaves and flowers, which contain the majority of their energy in recalcitrant material, it increases its production of proteins that break down cellulose: endoglucanases, exoglucanase and β-glucosidase. Further, the complete metaproteomes for the leaves and flowers treatments were very similar, the mixed treatment closely resembled the treatment with oats alone. This suggests that when provided a mixture of substrates, the fungus garden preferentially produces enzymes necessary for breakdown of simpler, more digestible substrates. This flexible, substrate-specific response of the fungal cultivar allows the leaf-cutter ants to derive energy from a wide range of substrates, which may contribute to their ability to be dominant generalist herbivores.

  18. Burden of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugnani, H C; Denning, D W; Rahim, R; Sadat, A; Belal, M; Mahbub, M S

    2017-06-01

    In Bangladesh there are several published papers on superficial mycoses. Deep mycoses are also recognized as an important emerging problem. Here, we estimate the annual incidence and prevalence of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh. Demographic data were obtained from world population reports and the data on TB and HIV extracted from the online publications on tuberculosis in Bangladesh and Asia Pacific research statistical data information resources AIDS Data HUB. All the published papers on fungal infections in Bangladesh were identified through extensive search of literature. We estimated the number of affected people from populations at risk and local epidemiological data. Bangladesh has a population of ∼162.6 million, 31% children and only 6% over the age of 60 years. The pulmonary TB caseload reported in 2014 was 119,520, and we estimate a prevalence of 30,178 people with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 80% attributable to TB. An anticipated 90,262 and 119,146 patients have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or severe asthma with fungal sensitization. Only 8,000 people are estimated to be HIV-infected, of whom 2900 are not on ART with a CD4 count Bangladesh. Candida bloodstream infection was estimated based on a 5 per 100,000 rate (8100 cases) and invasive aspergillosis based primarily on leukemia and COPD rates, at 5166 cases. Histoplasmosis was documented in 16 cases mostly with disseminated disease and presumed in 21 with HIV infection. This study constitutes the first attempt to estimate the burden of several types of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh.

  19. Burden of serious fungal infections in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanov, Ali; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    Ukraine has high rates of TB, AIDS and cancer. We estimated the burden of fungal disease from epidemiology papers and specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies. HIV/AIDS cases and deaths (2012) and tuberculosis statistics were obtained from the State Service of Ukraine, while chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cases were from M. Miravitlles et al., Thorax 64, 863-868 (2009). Annual estimates are 893,579 Ukrainian women get recurrent vaginal thrush (≥4× per year), 50,847 cases of oral candidiasis and 13,727 cases of oesophageal candidiasis in HIV, and 101 (1%) of 10,085 new AIDS cases develop cryptococcal meningitis, 6152 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia (13.5 cases per 100,000). Of the 29,265 cases of active respiratory TB in 2012, it is estimated that 2881 new cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) occurred and that the 5-year period prevalence is 7724 cases with a total CPA burden of 10,054 cases. Assuming adult asthma prevalence is ~2.9%, 28,447 patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) are likely and 37,491 with severe asthma with fungal sensitisation. We estimate 2278 cases and 376 postsurgical intra-abdominal Candida infections. Invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients is estimated at 303 patients annually; 930 cases in COPD patients. Ninety cases of mucormycosis (2 per 1,000,000) are estimated. In total, ~1,000,000 (2.2%) people in Ukraine develop serious fungal infections annually. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Fungal Anticancer Metabolites: Synthesis Towards Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Margherita; Artuso, Emma; Prandi, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Fungi are a well-known and valuable source of compounds of therapeutic relevance, in particular of novel anticancer compounds. Although seldom obtainable through isolation from the natural source, the total organic synthesis still remains one of the most efficient alternatives to resupply them. Furthermore, natural product total synthesis is a valuable tool not only for discovery of new complex biologically active compounds but also for the development of innovative methodologies in enantioselective organic synthesis. We undertook an in-depth literature searching by using chemical bibliographic databases (SciFinder, Reaxys) in order to have a comprehensive insight into the wide research field. The literature has been then screened, refining the obtained results by subject terms focused on both biological activity and innovative synthetic procedures. The literature on fungal metabolites has been recently reviewed and these publications have been used as a base from which we consider the synthetic feasibility of the most promising compounds, in terms of anticancer properties and drug development. In this paper, compounds are classified according to their chemical structure. This review summarizes the anticancer potential of fungal metabolites, highlighting the role of total synthesis outlining the feasibility of innovative synthetic procedures that facilitate the development of fungal metabolites into drugs that may become a real future perspective. To our knowledge, this review is the first effort to deal with the total synthesis of these active fungi metabolites and demonstrates that total chemical synthesis is a fruitful means of yielding fungal derivatives as aided by recent technological and innovative advancements. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Bacterial, Fungal, Parasitic, and Viral Myositis

    OpenAIRE

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.

    2008-01-01

    Infectious myositis may be caused by a broad range of bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral agents. Infectious myositis is overall uncommon given the relative resistance of the musculature to infection. For example, inciting events, including trauma, surgery, or the presence of foreign bodies or devitalized tissue, are often present in cases of bacterial myositis. Bacterial causes are categorized by clinical presentation, anatomic location, and causative organisms into the categories of pyo...

  2. Fungal Systematics and Evolution: FUSE 1

    OpenAIRE

    Crous, Pedro W; Schumacher, René K; Wingfield, Michael J; Lombard, Lorenzo; Giraldo, Alejandra; Christensen, Martha; Gardiennet, Alain; Nakashima, Chiharu; Pereira, Olinto L; Smith, Alexander J; Groenewald, Johannes Z

    2015-01-01

    Fungal Systematics and Evolution (FUSE) is introduced as a new series to expedite the publication of issues relating to the epitypification of formerly described species, report new sexual-asexual connections, the merging of sexual and asexual gen¬era following the end of dual nomenclature, and to describe species or note interesting observations regarding fungi. This first paper includes 18 new combinations, 13 new species, three new genera and one new family. All taxa are ascomycetes, excep...

  3. Invasive fungal infections in endogenous Cushing's syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffel, Rafael Selbach; Dora, José Miguel; Weinert, Letícia Schwerz; Aquino, Valério; Maia, Ana Luiza; Canani, Luis Henrique; Goldani, Luciano Z.

    2010-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome is a condition characterized by elevated cortisol levels that can result from either augmented endogenous production or exogenous administration of corticosteroids. The predisposition to fungal infections among patients with hypercortisolemia has been noted since Cushing's original description of the disease. We describe here a patient with endogenous Cushing's syndrome secondary to an adrenocortical carcinoma, who developed concomitant disseminated cryptococcosis and candidiasis in the course of his disease. PMID:24470886

  4. Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando O. Riera

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of fungal infections at any given time in Argentina is not known. Here we estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Argentina for the first time. Specific population statistics were searched from multiple sources, local literature was identified, and estimates made. Some additional data were sourced from the Ministry of Health, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA program, and national haematology and transplant societies. Argentina has a population of 43.8 million, with 25% of this total being children under 15 years. The predicted candidemia annual incidence is 2193 cases, with 50% occurring in the ICU. At a 6% prevalence rate, an estimated 593,695 women suffer from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Invasive aspergillosis is relatively common because of high smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD rates, with 268 cases in immunocompromised patients and another 1938 in the 168,000 COPD patients admitted to hospital. Asthma is also common, affecting 14% of adults, and so allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS are major problems. An estimated 432 cases of cryptococcal meningitis (CM—90% of them in AIDS patients—and 1177 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP occur each year. The estimated annual case number of disseminated histoplasmosis is 404 in AIDS patients, almost as frequent as CM. Paracoccidioidomycosis annual incidence is estimated at 219, and coccidioidomycosis at 16 cases. At least 881,023 people (>2.01% in Argentina are affected by a serious fungal disease annually, with considerable morbidity and mortality.

  5. A Study Of Fungal Colonization In Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rashid Husain

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors responsible for fungal colonization in newborns? Objective: To study the pattern of and predisposing fac­tors for the development of superficial candidiasis and fungal colonization in the newborns. Study Design: Prospective study. Setting: Neonatology unitof the Paediatrics department of a teaching hospital. Participants: Randomly selected pregnant mothers admit­ted to the maternity ward and the newborns delivered to them. Sample Size: 120 pregnant mothers and the newborns delivered. Study Variables: Candida, Site of colonization. Statistical Analysis: By tests of significance Results: Candida was isolated from 23 (19.16% infants on the first day increasing to 52 (43.33% infants on the sixth day. The most common site of colonization was oral cavity. Candida colonization was more common in prema­ture infants (p<0.05. Oral thrush was seen in 29 (24.17% infants during the study and a significant number of these infants showed colonization from the first day of life. Conclusions: Fungal colonization of the newborns due to Candida species is quite common, and in the first week of life predominantly occurred in the ora I cavity. Superficial clinical candidiasis, especially oral thrush is more common in those colonized on the first day of life.

  6. Fungal myositis in children: serial ultrasonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hee Jung; Choi, Jin Soo [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-08-01

    To evaluate serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children. Eleven lesions caused by fungal myositis and occurring in six children were included in this study. Eight lesions in five children were histopathologically proven and the other three were clinically diagnosed. Serial ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively evaluated in terms of size, location, margin, internal echotexture and adjacent cortical change occurring during the follow-up period ranging from five days to two months. Three patients (50%) had multiple lesions. The sites of involvment were the thigh (n=4), calf (n=3), chest wall (n=2), abdominal wall (n=1) and forearm (n=1). Initially, diffuse muscular swelling was revealed, with ill-defined hypoechoic lesions confined to the muscle layer (n=8). Follow-up examination of eight lesions over a period of 5-10 days showed that round central echogenic lesions were surrounded by previous slightly echogenic lesions (n=6, 75%). Long-term follow-up of five lesions over a two-month period revealed periosteal thickening in one case (20%), and the peristence of echogenic solid nodules in four (80%). Pathologic examination showed that the central lesions correlated with a fungus ball and the peripheral slightly echogenic lesions corresponded to hematoma and necrosis. Serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children revealed relatively constant features in each case. In particular, the findings of muscular necrosis and a fungus ball over a period of 5-14 days were thought to be characteristic.

  7. Fungal myositis in children: serial ultrasonographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hee Jung; Choi, Jin Soo

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children. Eleven lesions caused by fungal myositis and occurring in six children were included in this study. Eight lesions in five children were histopathologically proven and the other three were clinically diagnosed. Serial ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively evaluated in terms of size, location, margin, internal echotexture and adjacent cortical change occurring during the follow-up period ranging from five days to two months. Three patients (50%) had multiple lesions. The sites of involvment were the thigh (n=4), calf (n=3), chest wall (n=2), abdominal wall (n=1) and forearm (n=1). Initially, diffuse muscular swelling was revealed, with ill-defined hypoechoic lesions confined to the muscle layer (n=8). Follow-up examination of eight lesions over a period of 5-10 days showed that round central echogenic lesions were surrounded by previous slightly echogenic lesions (n=6, 75%). Long-term follow-up of five lesions over a two-month period revealed periosteal thickening in one case (20%), and the peristence of echogenic solid nodules in four (80%). Pathologic examination showed that the central lesions correlated with a fungus ball and the peripheral slightly echogenic lesions corresponded to hematoma and necrosis. Serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children revealed relatively constant features in each case. In particular, the findings of muscular necrosis and a fungus ball over a period of 5-14 days were thought to be characteristic

  8. Bacterial - Fungal Interactions: ecology, mechanisms and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveau, A; Bonito, G; Uehling, J; Paoletti, M; Becker, M; Bindschedler, S; Hacquard, S; Hervé, V; Labbé, J; Lastovetsky, O A; Mieszkin, S; Millet, L J; Vajna, B; Junier, P; Bonfante, P; Krom, B P; Olsson, S; Elsas, J D van; Wick, L Y

    2018-02-19

    Fungi and bacteria are found living together in a wide variety of environments. Their interactions are significant drivers of many ecosystem functions and are important for the health of plants and animals. A large number of fungal and bacterial families are engaged in complex interactions that lead to critical behavioural shifts of the microorganisms ranging from mutualism to pathogenicity. The importance of bacterial-fungal interactions (BFI) in environmental science, medicine and biotechnology has led to the emergence of a dynamic and multidisciplinary research field that combines highly diverse approaches including molecular biology, genomics, geochemistry, chemical and microbial ecology, biophysics and ecological modelling. In this review, we discuss most recent advances that underscore the roles of BFI across relevant habitats and ecosystems. A particular focus is placed on the understanding of BFI within complex microbial communities and in regards of the metaorganism concept. We also discuss recent discoveries that clarify the (molecular) mechanisms involved in bacterial-fungal relationships, and the contribution of new technologies to decipher generic principles of BFI in terms of physical associations and molecular dialogues. Finally, we discuss future directions for researches in order to catalyse a synergy within the BFI research area and to resolve outstanding questions.

  9. Risk of Fungal Infection to Dental Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Lopes Damasceno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi can cause various diseases, and some pathogenic fungi have been detected in the water of dental equipment. This environment offers suitable conditions for fungal biofilms to emerge, which can facilitate mycological contamination. This study verified whether the water employed in the dental units of two dental clinics at the University of Franca was contaminated with fungi. This study also evaluated the ability of the detected fungi to form biofilms. The high-revving engine contained the largest average amount of fungi, 14.93 ± 18.18 CFU/mL. The main fungal species verified in this equipment belonged to the genera Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., Candida spp., and Rhodotorula spp. Among the isolated filamentous fungi, only one fungus of the genus Fusarium spp. did not form biofilms. As for yeasts, all the Candida spp. isolates grew as biofilm, but none of the Rhodotorula spp. isolates demonstrated this ability. Given that professionals and patients are often exposed to water and aerosols generated by the dental procedure, the several fungal species detected herein represent a potential risk especially to immunocompromised patients undergoing dental treatment. Therefore, frequent microbiological monitoring of the water employed in dental equipment is crucial to reduce the presence of contaminants.

  10. Fungal Production and Manipulation of Plant Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Sandra; Radhakrishnan, Dhanya; Prasad, Kalika; Chini, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Living organisms are part of a highly interconnected web of interactions, characterised by species nurturing, competing, parasitizing and preying on one another. Plants have evolved cooperative as well as defensive strategies to interact with neighbour organisms. Among these, the plant-fungus associations are very diverse, ranging from pathogenic to mutualistic. Our current knowledge of plant-fungus interactions suggests a sophisticated coevolution to ensure dynamic plant responses to evolving fungal mutualistic/pathogenic strategies. The plant-fungus communication relies on a rich chemical language. To manipulate the plant defence mechanisms, fungi produce and secrete several classes of biomolecules, whose modeof- action is largely unknown. Upon perception of the fungi, plants produce phytohormones and a battery of secondary metabolites that serve as defence mechanism against invaders or to promote mutualistic associations. These mutualistic chemical signals can be co-opted by pathogenic fungi for their own benefit. Among the plant molecules regulating plant-fungus interaction, phytohormones play a critical role since they modulate various aspects of plant development, defences and stress responses. Intriguingly, fungi can also produce phytohormones, although the actual role of fungalproduced phytohormones in plant-fungus interactions is poorly understood. Here, we discuss the recent advances in fungal production of phytohormone, their putative role as endogenous fungal signals and how fungi manipulate plant hormone balance to their benefits. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. What's in a child's face? : effects of facial resemblance, love withdrawal, empathy and context on behavioral and neural responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heckendorf, E.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to increase our knowledge of individual differences in the neural processing and appraisal of children’s faces that differ in their degree of resemblance with the participant’s face. Chapter 2 focuses on participants’ neural responses to child faces that differ in

  12. Imaging manifestations of acquired elastopathy resembling pseudoxanthoma elasticum in patients with beta thalassaemia major and sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, Harish; Cheng, Ken; Lau, Ken; Harish, Radhika; Bowden, Donald K.

    2016-01-01

    Development of an acquired systemic elastopathy resembling pseudoxanthoma elasticum in patients with chronic haemoglobinopathies such as beta thalassaemia major and sickle cell disease is well documented. There is paucity of any comprehensive literature on the radiological manifestations of this entity. This pictorial review aims to describe and illustrate the multi system and multi modality imaging findings of this condition.

  13. Streptomyces exploration is triggered by fungal interactions and volatile signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie E; Ho, Louis; Rees, Christiaan A; Hill, Jane E; Nodwell, Justin R; Elliot, Marie A

    2017-01-03

    It has long been thought that the life cycle of Streptomyces bacteria encompasses three developmental stages: vegetative hyphae, aerial hyphae and spores. Here, we show interactions between Streptomyces and fungi trigger a previously unobserved mode of Streptomyces development. We term these Streptomyces cells 'explorers', for their ability to adopt a non-branching vegetative hyphal conformation and rapidly transverse solid surfaces. Fungi trigger Streptomyces exploratory growth in part by altering the composition of the growth medium, and Streptomyces explorer cells can communicate this exploratory behaviour to other physically separated streptomycetes using an airborne volatile organic compound (VOC). These results reveal that interkingdom interactions can trigger novel developmental behaviours in bacteria, here, causing Streptomyces to deviate from its classically-defined life cycle. Furthermore, this work provides evidence that VOCs can act as long-range communication signals capable of propagating microbial morphological switches.

  14. Examination of living fungal spores by scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, N.D.; Lord, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    Ascospores of Sordaria macrospora germinated and produced hyphae exhibiting normal growth and differentiation after examination by scanning electron microscopy and following numerous, different preparative protocols. Seventy-nine to ninety-nine percent of the ascospores retained normal viability after being observed in the fully frozen-hydrated, partially freeze-dried, and vacuum-dried states at accelerating voltages of 5 and 40 keV. Hyphae did not survive these treatments. From these observations it is concluded that ascospores of S. macrospora can remain in a state of suspended animation while being observed in the scanning electron microscope. The ascospores also survived, but with reduced viability: 6 h in glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde, 6 h in OsO4, or 2 h in glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde followed by 2 h in OsO 4 . However, the ascospores did not germinate after dehydration in ethanol. (author)

  15. Expression of cytokines in aqueous humor from fungal keratitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingnan; Liang, Qingfeng; Liu, Yang; Pan, Zhiqiang; Baudouin, Christophe; Labbé, Antoine; Lu, Qingxian

    2018-04-19

    Although a series of reports on corneal fungal infection have been published, studies on pathogenic mechanisms and inflammation-associated cytokines remain limited. In this study, aqueous humor samples from fungal keratitis patients were collected to examine cytokine patterns and cellular profile for the pathogenesis of fungal keratitis. The aqueous humor samples were collected from ten patients with advanced stage fungal keratitis. Eight aqueous humor samples from patients with keratoconus or corneal dystrophy were taken as control. Approximately 100 μl to 300 μl of aqueous humor in each case were obtained for examination. The aqueous humor samples were centrifuged and the cells were stained and examined under optical microscope. Bacterial and fungal cultures were performed on the aqueous humor and corneal buttons of all patients. Cytokines related to inflammation including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were examined using multiplex bead-based Luminex liquid protein array systems. Fungus infection was confirmed in these ten patients by smear stains and/or fungal cultures. Bacterial and fungal cultures revealed negative results in all aqueous humor specimens. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes were the predominant infiltrating cells in the aqueous humor of fungal keratitis. At the advanced stages of fungal keratitis, the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IFN-γ in the aqueous humor were significantly increased when compared with control (phumor was associated with fungal keratitis.

  16. Age and Gender Differences in Facial Attractiveness, but Not Emotion Resemblance, Contribute to Age and Gender Stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Palumbo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable research has shown effects of facial appearance on trait impressions and group stereotypes. We extended those findings in two studies that investigated the contribution of resemblance to emotion expressions and attractiveness to younger adults (YA and older adults (OA age and gender stereotypes on the dimensions of warmth and competence. Using connectionist modeling of facial metrics of 240 neutral younger and older faces, Study 1 found that, neutral expression older faces or female faces showed greater structural resemblance to happy expressions and less resemblance to angry expressions than did younger or male faces, respectively. In addition, neutral female faces showed greater resemblance to surprise expressions. In Study 2, YA and OA rated the faces of Study 1 for attractiveness and for 4 traits that we aggregated on the dimensions of competence (competent, healthy and warmth (trustworthy, not shrewd. We found that YA, but not OA, age stereotypes replicated previous research showing higher perceived warmth and lower perceived competence in older adults. In addition, previously documented gender stereotypes were moderated by face age for both YA and OA. The greater attractiveness of younger than older faces and female than male faces influenced age and gender stereotypes, including these deviations from prior research findings using category labels rather than faces. On the other hand, face age and face sex differences in emotion resemblance did not influence age or gender stereotypes, contrary to prediction. Our results provide a caveat to conclusions about age and gender stereotypes derived from responses to category labels, and they reveal the importance of assessing stereotypes with a methodology that is sensitive to influences of group differences in appearance that can exacerbate or mitigate stereotypes in more ecologically valid contexts. Although the gender differences in attractiveness in the present study may not have

  17. Age and Gender Differences in Facial Attractiveness, but Not Emotion Resemblance, Contribute to Age and Gender Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Rocco; Adams, Reginald B; Hess, Ursula; Kleck, Robert E; Zebrowitz, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Considerable research has shown effects of facial appearance on trait impressions and group stereotypes. We extended those findings in two studies that investigated the contribution of resemblance to emotion expressions and attractiveness to younger adults (YA) and older adults (OA) age and gender stereotypes on the dimensions of warmth and competence. Using connectionist modeling of facial metrics of 240 neutral younger and older faces, Study 1 found that, neutral expression older faces or female faces showed greater structural resemblance to happy expressions and less resemblance to angry expressions than did younger or male faces, respectively. In addition, neutral female faces showed greater resemblance to surprise expressions. In Study 2, YA and OA rated the faces of Study 1 for attractiveness and for 4 traits that we aggregated on the dimensions of competence (competent, healthy) and warmth (trustworthy, not shrewd). We found that YA, but not OA, age stereotypes replicated previous research showing higher perceived warmth and lower perceived competence in older adults. In addition, previously documented gender stereotypes were moderated by face age for both YA and OA. The greater attractiveness of younger than older faces and female than male faces influenced age and gender stereotypes, including these deviations from prior research findings using category labels rather than faces. On the other hand, face age and face sex differences in emotion resemblance did not influence age or gender stereotypes, contrary to prediction. Our results provide a caveat to conclusions about age and gender stereotypes derived from responses to category labels, and they reveal the importance of assessing stereotypes with a methodology that is sensitive to influences of group differences in appearance that can exacerbate or mitigate stereotypes in more ecologically valid contexts. Although the gender differences in attractiveness in the present study may not have generalizability

  18. Transplant tourism and invasive fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Salmi, I; Metry, A M; Al Ismaili, F; Hola, A; Al Riyami, M; Khamis, F; Al-Abri, S

    2018-04-01

    Deceased and live-related renal transplants (RTXs) are approved procedures that are performed widely throughout the world. In certain regions, commercial RTX has become popular, driven by financial greed. This retrospective, descriptive study was performed at the Royal Hospital from 2013 to 2015. Data were collected from the national kidney transplant registry of Oman. All transplant cases retrieved were divided into two groups: live-related RTX performed in Oman and commercial-unrelated RTX performed abroad. These groups were then divided again into those with and without evidence of fungal infection, either in the wound or renal graft. A total of 198 RTX patients were identified, of whom 162 (81.8%) had undergone a commercial RTX that was done abroad. Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) were diagnosed in 8% of patients who had undergone a commercial RTX; of these patients, 76.9% underwent a nephrectomy and 23.1% continued with a functioning graft. None of the patients with RTXs performed at the Royal Hospital contracted an IFI. The most common fungal isolates were Aspergillus species (including Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulans, and Aspergillus nigricans), followed by Zygomycetes. However, there was no evidence of fungal infection including Aspergillus outside the graft site. Computed tomography (CT) findings showed infarction of the graft, renal artery thrombosis, aneurysmal dilatation of the external iliac artery, fungal ball, or just the presence of a perigraft collection. Of the total patients with IFIs, 23.1% died due to septic shock and 53.8% were alive and on hemodialysis. The remaining 23.1% who did not undergo nephrectomy demonstrated acceptable graft function. This is the largest single-center study on commercial RTX reporting the highest number of patients with IFI acquired over a relatively short period of time. Aspergillus spp were the main culprit fungi, with no Candida spp being isolated. A high index of suspicion might

  19. Fungal Urinary Tract Infection in Burn Patients‎

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suad Yousuf Aldorkee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection is the most common hospital-acquired infection. Fungal species are unusual causes of urinary tract infection in healthy individuals, but common in the hospital setting or among patients with predisposing diseases and structural abnormalities of the kidney and collecting system. Burn patients are susceptible to nosocomial infections owing to the immunocompromising effects of burn injury, cutaneous and respiratory tract injury, prolonged intensive care unit stays and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Objective: The study population includes adult patients of both genders who presented with different percentages of body burns. Urine sample was collected from each patient at the time of admission and weekly thereafter for 6 weeks and sent for general urine examination and urine culture to test for the possibility of fungal growth. Those who found to develop fungal UTI by urine culture during their hospitalization and had no infection at the time of admission were selected as subjects for our study. Results: 28 (18.6% patients had positive fungal culture during their hospitalization, 11 of them were males and 17 were females, the most common age of presentation was 41-50 years and the mean age ± SD was (44.4 ± 10.7 years. The most common isolated fungi were Candida albicans (64.3%, followed by Candida glabrata (21.4% and Candida tropicalis (7.1%. The majority of patients developed infection within the 2nd and 3rd weeks of hospitalization, however, those who presented with total body surface area burned > 40% developed an earlier infection within the 1st week. Female gender, urethral catheterization and diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with higher risk of infection as the P values were 0.03, 0.005 and 0.004 respectively. Conclusion: Fungal urinary tract infection occurred in 18.6% of burn patients. The most common causative fungi are candida species. Advanced age, female gender, high percentage of

  20. Mycorrhizal-like interaction between gametophytes and young sporophytes of the fern Dryopteris muenchii (Filicales and its fungal endophyte

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    Irma Reyes-Jaramillo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of a Glomus-like fungus-host interaction in chlorophyllous gametophytes and young apogamic sporophytes of Dryopteris muenchii A.R. Sm. was studied from ferns cultivated in laboratory, using soil as substrate. An aseptate fungus colonized the gametophytes’ tissue through the rhizoids, developing vesicles. The fungus penetrated the young sporophytes primary roots by developing appressoria. It spread forming inter- and intra-cellular hyphae through the epidermis and the outermost cortical cell layers, where it formed vesicles, hyphal coils-like and arbuscules. The fungus hyphae never colonized the gametophyte-sporophyte cellular junction. The fungal structures observed on D. muenchii during this study, are rather similar to those reported for the plant host-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF interaction, where the AMF described belonged to Phylum Glomeromycota. Therefore, this study is a contribution to the scarce knowledgement of the association between AMF and chlorophyllous gametophytes and young apogamic sporophytes of ferns. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1101-1107. Epub 2008 September 30.Se describe la morfología de un hongo endófito afín al género Glomus, como colonizador de gametofitos clorofílicos y de esporofitos apogámicos jóvenes del helecho Dryopteris muenchii A.R. Sm.; el estudio se llevó a cabo con helechos cultivados en el laboratorio y utilizando tierra como substrato. El tejido del gametofito fue colonizado, a través de los rizoides, por un hongo miceliar aseptado, el cual formó vesículas. El hongo logró penetrar las raíces primarias de los esporofitos jóvenes desarrollando apresorios. El hongo se dispersó formando hifas inter- e intra-celulares a través de la epidermis y de la capa de células corticales más externas, donde produjo vesículas, estructuras similares a ovillos y arbúsculos. Las hifas del hongo nunca colonizaron las células de la unión entre el gametofito y el esporofito. Las

  1. Sensitization to fungal allergens: Resolved and unresolved issues

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    Yuma Fukutomi

    2015-10-01

    Despite its importance in the management of allergic diseases, precise recognition of species-specific IgE sensitization to fungal allergens is often challenging because the majority of fungal extracts exhibit broad cross-reactivity with taxonomically unrelated fungi. Recent progress in gene technology has contributed to the identification of specific and cross-reactive allergen components from different fungal sources. However, data demonstrating the clinical relevance of IgE reactivity to these allergen components are still insufficient.

  2. Autoreactive T Cells and Chronic Fungal Infection Drive Esophageal Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Willette-Brown, Jami; Song, Na-Young; Lomada, Dakshayani; Song, Yongmei; Xue, Liyan; Gray, Zane; Zhao, Zitong; Davis, Sean R.; Sun, Zhonghe; Zhang, Peilin; Wu, Xiaolin; Zhan, Qimin; Richie, Ellen R.; Hu, Yinling

    2018-01-01

    SUMMARY Humans with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), a T cell–driven autoimmune disease caused by impaired central tolerance, are susceptible to developing chronic fungal infection and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the relationship between autoreactive T cells and chronic fungal infection in ESCC development remains unclear. We find that kinase-dead Ikkα knockin mice develop phenotypes reminiscent of APECED, including impaired central tolerance, autoreactive T cells, chronic fungal infection, and ESCCs expressing specific human ESCC markers. Using this model, we investigated the potential link between ESCC and fungal infection. Autoreactive CD4 T cells permit fungal infection and incite tissue injury and inflammation. Antifungal treatment or depletion of autoreactive CD4 T cells rescues, whereas oral fungal administration promotes, ESCC development. Inhibition of inflammation or EGFR activity decreases fungal burden. Importantly, fungal infection is highly associated with ESCCs in non-autoimmune human patients. Therefore, autoreactive T cells and chronic fungal infection, fostered by inflammation and epithelial injury, promote ESCC development. PMID:28407484

  3. Natural occurrence of fungi and fungal metabolites in moldy tomatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, B.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2004-01-01

    Fresh tomatoes, homegrown and from supermarkets, with developing fungal lesions were collected. Each lesion was sampled, and the resulting fungal cultures were identified morphologically, and extracted for analyzes of secondary metabolites. The tomatoes were incubated at 25 degreesC for a week....... extracted, and analyzed for fungal metabolites. Extracts from pure cultures were compared with extracts from the moldy tomatoes and fungal metabolite standards in two HPLC systems with DAD and FLD detection. The results showed that Penicillium tularense, Stemphylium eturmiunum. and S. cf. lycopersici were...

  4. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of fungal secondary metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Zeinab G.; Kalansuriya, Pabasara; Capon, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a preliminary investigation of the use the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall constituent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a natural chemical cue to stimulate and alter the expression of fungal secondary metabolism. Integrated high-throughput micro-cultivation and micro-analysis methods determined that 6 of 40 (15%) of fungi tested responded to an optimal exposure to LPS (0.6 ng/mL) by activating, enhancing or accelerating secondary metabolite production. To explore the possible mechanisms behind this effect, we employed light and fluorescent microscopy in conjunction with a nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive fluorescent dye and an NO scavenger to provide evidence that LPS stimulation of fungal secondary metabolism coincided with LPS activation of NO. Several case studies demonstrated that LPS stimulation can be scaled from single microplate well (1.5 mL) to preparative (>400 mL) scale cultures. For example, LPS treatment of Penicillium sp. (ACM-4616) enhanced pseurotin A and activated pseurotin A1 and pseurotin A2 biosynthesis, whereas LPS treatment of Aspergillus sp. (CMB-M81F) substantially accelerated and enhanced the biosynthesis of shornephine A and a series of biosynthetically related ardeemins and activated production of neoasterriquinone. As an indication of broader potential, we provide evidence that cultures of Penicillium sp. (CMB-TF0411), Aspergillus niger (ACM-4993F), Rhizopus oryzae (ACM-165F) and Thanatephorus cucumeris (ACM-194F) were responsive to LPS stimulation, the latter two examples being particular noteworthy as neither are known to produce secondary metabolites. Our results encourage the view that LPS stimulation can be used as a valuable tool to expand the molecular discovery potential of fungal strains that either have been exhaustively studied by or are unresponsive to traditional culture methodology. PMID:25379339

  5. Complications of hematopoietic stem transplantation: Fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani, Ali S; Almaghrabi, Reem S

    2017-12-01

    Patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at increased risk of invasive fungal infections, especially during the early neutropenic phase and severe graft-versus-host disease. Mold-active prophylaxis should be limited to the highest risk groups. Empiric antifungal therapy for HSCT with persistent febrile neutropenia is associated with unacceptable response rates, unnecessary antifungal therapy, increased risk of toxicity, and inflated costs. Empiric therapy should not be a substitute for detailed work up to identify the cause of fever in such patients. The improved diagnostic performance of serum biomarkers such as galactomannan and β-D-glucan, as well as polymerase chain reaction assays has allowed the development of diagnostic-driven antifungal therapy strategies for high risk patients. Diagnostic-driven approaches have resulted in reduced unnecessary antifungal exposure, improved diagnosis of invasive fungal disease, and reduced costs without increased risk of mortality. The appropriateness of diagnostic-driven antifungal strategy for individual HSCT centers depends on the availability and turnaround times for diagnostics, multidisciplinary expertise, and the local epidemiology of invasive fungal infections. Echinocandins are the treatment of choice for invasive candidiasis in most HSCT recipients. Fluconazole may be used for the treatment of invasive candidiasis in hemodynamically stable patients with no prior azole exposure. The primary treatment of choice for invasive aspergillosis is voriconazole. Alternatives include isavuconazole and lipid formulations of amphotericin. Currently available evidence does not support routine primary combination antifungal therapy for invasive aspergillosis. However, combination salvage antifungal therapy may be considered in selected patients. Therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended for the majority of HSCT recipients on itraconazole, posaconazole, or voriconazole. Copyright © 2017

  6. Optic neuropathy due to allergic fungal rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji Tresa Cyriac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An uncommon case of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis presented to the ophthalmology outpatient department of our hospital with complaints of blurred vision in the right eye of a few days duration and vague complaints of pain around the eyes. The visual acuity on examination was grossly reduced in the right eye and normal in the left eye. Color vision was normal. Anterior segment examination including pupils was normal. Dilated fundus examination was normal except for temporal pallor in the right optic disc. Automated perimetry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan of brain and orbit were done. The imaging report showed a bilateral pansinusitis with pressure on the right optic nerve. Perimetry showed a superior field defect on the right side. ENT consultation and computed tomography (CT with contrast helped to diagnose this as a case of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. The patient was started on systemic steroids under the care of the ENT surgeon. After a few days, pre-operative assessment showed a gross improvement of visual acuity. Endoscopic sinus surgery was done to remove the polyps and thick mucus material. Histopathologic examination confirmed allergic fungal mucin. Days after surgery, the visual acuity improved further and repeat perimetry showed gross improvement in the visual field. Good history taking and a detailed ophthalmic examination, keeping in mind the probable causes of loss of vision of few days duration with no findings other than a decreased visual acuity and a suspicious disc, were key to the early diagnosis and investigation in this case. This helped in early referral and management of the case before permanent damage and irreversible visual loss occurred. The optic nerve is a cranial nerve which, once damaged permanently, will not regenerate. The amount of sinus involvement was extensive on both sides and invariably the left optic nerve would have been involved in a few days, if intervention was delayed.

  7. Fungal infections of the mucous membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2010-01-01

    A clinical review of three potentially severe fungal diseases, which are characterized in many cases by mucosal involvement, is presented. They are paracoccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, and mucormycosis. Mucosal involvement for paracoccidioidomycosis and rhinocerebral mucormycosis is frequent. Thus, oral involvement may provide early clue for diagnosis. In paracoccidioidomycosis, the mucosal lesion classically shows superficial ulcers with granular appearance and hemorrhagic points, usually on lips, palate, and jugal mucosa. In mucormycosis, necrosis of the palate followed for purulent discharge is a hallmark of rhinocerebral disease. Treatment with amphotericin B desoxycholate or the new second-generation triazoles is highly efficacious.

  8. Bacterial and fungal markers in tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szponar, B.; Pehrson, C.; Larsson, L.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that cigarette smoke contains bacterial and fungal components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol. In the present study we used gas chromatography–mass spectrometry to analyze tobacco as well as mainstream and second hand smoke for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) of 10 to 18 carbon chain lengths, used as LPS markers, and ergosterol, used as a marker of fungal biomass. The air concentrations of LPS were 0.0017 nmol/m 3 (N = 5) and 0.0007/m 3 (N = 6) in the smoking vs. non-smoking rooms (p = 0.0559) of the studied private houses, and 0.0231 nmol/m 3 (N = 5) vs. 0.0006 nmol/m 3 (N = 5) (p = 0.0173), respectively, at the worksite. The air concentrations of ergosterol were also significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than in rooms without smoking. A positive correlation was found between LPS and ergosterol in rooms with smoking but not in rooms without smoking. 3-OH C14:0 was the main 3-OH FA, followed by 3-OH C12:0, both in mainstream and second hand smoke and in phenol:water smoke extracts prepared in order to purify the LPS. The Limulus activity of the phenolic phase of tobacco was 3900 endotoxin units (EU)/cigarette; the corresponding amount of the smoke, collected on filters from 8 puffs, was 4 EU/cigarette. Tobacco smoking has been associated with a range of inflammatory airway conditions including COPD, asthma, bronchitis, alveolar hypersensitivity etc. Significant levels of LPS and ergosterol were identified in tobacco smoke and these observations support the hypothesis that microbial components of tobacco smoke contribute to inflammation and airway disease. -- Highlights: ► Air concentration of bacterial and fungal markers is significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than without smoking. ► Bacterial LPS correlates with fungal marker in rooms with ongoing smoking but not without smoking. ► LPS from mainstream smoke contains 3-hydroxy 14:0 and 12:0 fatty acids in similar proportion as

  9. Fungal Fourniers Gangrene in an Immunocompromised Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston Crowell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fournier's Gangrene is a rapidly progressive necrotizing fasciitis of the groin, perianal and perineal region that is often polymicrobial in nature, often averaging 3 species of bacteria per patient. The typical infection can be due to a host of microbes, including gram positive, gram negative and anaerobic species including. Many of the causative organisms are found in the normal microbial flora of the perineum. Therefore, Fourniers is an opportunistic infection most commonly affecting the immunosuppressed. The majority of Fournier's gangrene are bacterial; however there have been cases of fungal Fournier's gangrene reported in the literature.

  10. Bacterial and fungal markers in tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szponar, B., E-mail: szponar@iitd.pan.wroc.pl [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Rudolfa Weigla 12, 53-114 Wroclaw (Poland); Pehrson, C.; Larsson, L. [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that cigarette smoke contains bacterial and fungal components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol. In the present study we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze tobacco as well as mainstream and second hand smoke for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) of 10 to 18 carbon chain lengths, used as LPS markers, and ergosterol, used as a marker of fungal biomass. The air concentrations of LPS were 0.0017 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) and 0.0007/m{sup 3} (N = 6) in the smoking vs. non-smoking rooms (p = 0.0559) of the studied private houses, and 0.0231 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) vs. 0.0006 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) (p = 0.0173), respectively, at the worksite. The air concentrations of ergosterol were also significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than in rooms without smoking. A positive correlation was found between LPS and ergosterol in rooms with smoking but not in rooms without smoking. 3-OH C14:0 was the main 3-OH FA, followed by 3-OH C12:0, both in mainstream and second hand smoke and in phenol:water smoke extracts prepared in order to purify the LPS. The Limulus activity of the phenolic phase of tobacco was 3900 endotoxin units (EU)/cigarette; the corresponding amount of the smoke, collected on filters from 8 puffs, was 4 EU/cigarette. Tobacco smoking has been associated with a range of inflammatory airway conditions including COPD, asthma, bronchitis, alveolar hypersensitivity etc. Significant levels of LPS and ergosterol were identified in tobacco smoke and these observations support the hypothesis that microbial components of tobacco smoke contribute to inflammation and airway disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Air concentration of bacterial and fungal markers is significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bacterial LPS correlates with fungal marker in rooms with ongoing smoking but not without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS

  11. Household and familial resemblance in risk factors for type 2 diabetes and related cardiometabolic diseases in rural Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Bahendeka, Silver K.; Whyte, Susan R.

    2017-01-01

    prevention and screening, we investigated the resemblance of T2D risk factors at household level and by type of familial dyadic relationship in a rural Ugandan community. Methods: This cross-sectional household-based study included 437 individuals ≥13 years of age from 90 rural households in south......-western Uganda. Resemblance in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), anthropometry, blood pressure, fitness status and sitting time were analysed using a general mixed model with random effects (by household or dyad) to calculate household intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and dyadic regression coefficients...... (ICC=0.24), HbA1c (ICC=0.18) and systolic blood pressure (ICC=0.11). Regarding dyadic resemblance, the highest standardised regression coefficient was seen in fitness status for spouses (0.54, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.76), parent–offspring (0.41, 95% CI 0.28 0.54) and siblings (0.41, 95% CI 0.25 to 0...

  12. Fungal osteomyelitis with vertebral re-ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Guinn, Devon J; Serletis, Demitre; Kazemi, Noojan

    2016-01-01

    We present a rare case of thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis secondary to pulmonary Blastomyces dermatitides. A 27-year-old male presented with three months of chest pains and non-productive cough. Examination revealed diminished breath sounds on the right. CT/MR imaging confirmed a right-sided pre-/paravertebral soft tissue mass and destructive lytic lesions from T2 to T6. CT-guided needle biopsy confirmed granulomatous pulmonary Blastomycosis. Conservative management with antifungal therapy was initiated. Neurosurgical review confirmed no clinical or profound radiographic instability, and the patient was stabilized with TLSO bracing. Serial imaging 3 months later revealed near-resolution of the thoracic soft tissue mass, with vertebral re-ossification from T2 to T6. Fungal osteomyelitis presents a rare entity in the spectrum of spinal infections. In such cases, lytic spinal lesions are classically seen in association with a large paraspinous mass. Fungal infections of the spinal column may be treated conservatively, with surgical intervention reserved for progressive cases manifesting with neurological compromise and/or spinal column instability. Here, we found unexpected evidence for vertebral re-ossification across the affected thoracic levels (T2-6) in response to IV antibiotic therapy and conservative bracing, nearly 3 months later. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Fungal biomass production from coffee pulp juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon, R.; Calzada, F.; Herrera, R.; Rolz, C.

    1980-01-01

    Coffee pulp or skin represents about 40% of the weight of the fresh coffee fruit. It is currently a waste and its improper handling creates serious pollution problems for coffee producing countries. Mechanical pressing of the pulp will produce two fractions: coffee pulp juice (CPJ) and pressed pulp. Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium crustosum and Gliocladium deliquescens grew well in supplemented CPJ. At shake flask level the optimum initial C/N ratio was found to be in the range of 8 to 14. At this scale, biomass values of up to 50 g/l were obtained in 24 hours. Biomass production and total sugar consumption were not significantly different to all fungal species tested at the bench-scale level, even when the initial C/N ratio was varied. Best nitrogen consumption values were obtained when the initial C/N ratio was 12. Maximum specific growth rates occurred between 4-12 hours for all fungal species tested. (Refs. 8).

  14. Sexual Reproduction of Human Fungal Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitman, Joseph; Carter, Dee A.; Dyer, Paul S.; Soll, David R.

    2014-01-01

    We review here recent advances in our understanding of sexual reproduction in fungal pathogens that commonly infect humans, including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans/gattii, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Where appropriate or relevant, we introduce findings on other species associated with human infections. In particular, we focus on rapid advances involving genetic, genomic, and population genetic approaches that have reshaped our view of how fungal pathogens evolve. Rather than being asexual, mitotic, and largely clonal, as was thought to be prevalent as recently as a decade ago, we now appreciate that the vast majority of pathogenic fungi have retained extant sexual, or parasexual, cycles. In some examples, sexual and parasexual unions of pathogenic fungi involve closely related individuals, generating diversity in the population but with more restricted recombination than expected from fertile, sexual, outcrossing and recombining populations. In other cases, species and isolates participate in global outcrossing populations with the capacity for considerable levels of gene flow. These findings illustrate general principles of eukaryotic pathogen emergence with relevance for other fungi, parasitic eukaryotic pathogens, and both unicellular and multicellular eukaryotic organisms. PMID:25085958

  15. Burden of serious fungal infections in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo-León, D E; Armstrong-James, D; Denning, D W

    2015-10-01

    Serious fungal infections (SFIs) could be more frequent than are recognised. Estimates of the incidence and prevalence of SFIs are essential in order to identify public health problems. We estimated the rates of SFIs in Mexico, following a methodology similar to that used in prior studies. We obtained information about the general population and populations at risk. A systematic literature search was undertaken to identify epidemiological reports of SFIs in Mexico. When Mexican reports were unavailable, we based our estimates on international literature. The most prevalent SFIs in Mexico are recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (5999 per 100,000) followed by allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (60 per 100,000), chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (15.9 per 100,000), fungal keratitis (10.4 per 100,000), invasive candidiasis (8.6 per 100,000) and SFIs in HIV (8.2 per 100,000); coccidioidomycosis (7.6 per 100,000), IA (4.56 per 100,000). These correspond to 2,749,159 people affected in any year (2.45% of the population), probably >10,000 deaths and 7000 blind eyes. SFIs affect immunocompromised and healthy populations. Most are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Validation of these estimates with epidemiological studies is required. The burdens indicate that an urgent need to improve medical skills, surveillance, diagnosis, and management of SFIs exists. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Physicochemical Properties of Fungal Detoxified Cassava Mash and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physicochemical properties of fungal detoxified cassava mash and sensory characteristics of wheat-detoxified cassava composite doughnuts were investigated. Fungal isolates from soils collected at cassava processing sites were isolated, quantified and identified. Cassava mash from grated tuber was partially ...

  17. The Top 10 fungal pathogens in molecular plant pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dean, R.; Kan, van J.A.L.; Pretorius, Z.A.; Hammond-Kosack, K.E.; Pietro, Di A.; Spanu, P.D.; Rudd, J.J.; Dickman, M.; Kahmann, R.; Ellis, J.; Foster, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review was to survey all fungal pathologists with an association with the journal Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate which fungal pathogens they would place in a ‘Top 10’ based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated 495 votes from the international

  18. Chronic invasive fungal granulomatous rhino-sinusitis: a case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungal Rhino-Sinusitis (FRS) is a relatively uncommon entity. The chronic invasive granulomatous form of FRS (FGRS) is a slowly progressive form of fungal infection characterized by chronic granulomatous process with a time course of longer than 12 weeks. The aim of this report is to draw the attention of colleagues to ...

  19. Structure and biosynthesis of fungal alpha-glucans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grün, Christian Hugo

    2003-01-01

    The fungal cell wall is unique among eukaryotes and therefore it forms an ideal target for the development of novel antifungal drugs. Fungal cell morphology and integrity depend on a cell-surrounding wall, which is composed of glycoproteins and polysaccharides. Disrupting enzymes that are involved

  20. First genomic survey of human skin fungal diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal infections of the skin affect 29 million people in the United States. In the first study of human fungal skin diversity, National Institutes of Health researchers sequenced the DNA of fungi that thrive at different skin sites of healthy adults to d

  1. Studies on the fungal flora of Garri, processed cassava ( Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nsukka area of southeastern Nigeria, garri is usually displayed in the open market for sale which no doubt exposes the food stuff to dust particles from moving vehicles, wind and other sources. Thus, fungal spores from the air and soil environment could serve as major sources of fungal contamination of this product.

  2. Isolation and identification of fungal species from dried date palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 360 dried date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) fruits were collected from hawkers, shops and market places within Maiduguri metropolis for the detection of the presence of fungal species. Investigation was based on cultural, microscopically and biochemical tests. Of the 327 (90.83%) fungal isolates recovered on ...

  3. Production of Microbial Protease from Selected Soil Fungal Isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of Microbial Protease from Selected Soil Fungal Isolates. ... Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology ... and 500C. The optimal pH on the enzyme production was observed to be between pH 3.5 and 5.5 for the organisms. Keywords: Soil microorganism, fungal isolate, incubation period, microbial enzyme. Nig J. Biotech.

  4. New perspectives towards analising fungal communities in terrestrial environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalchuk, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    Fungi play key roles in numerous ecosystem functions, and recent advances in the study of fungal diversity and ecology have led to a greater appreciation of this group of microeukaryotes. The application of a variety of nucleic acid techniques to fungal classification and phylogeny has led to a

  5. Inositol Polyphosphate Kinases, Fungal Virulence and Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic fungi are a major cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Developing new treatments to combat invasive fungal disease is challenging given that fungal and mammalian host cells are eukaryotic, with similar organization and physiology. Even therapies targeting unique fungal cell features have limitations and drug resistance is emerging. New approaches to the development of antifungal drugs are therefore needed urgently. Cryptococcus neoformans, the commonest cause of fungal meningitis worldwide, is an accepted model for studying fungal pathogenicity and driving drug discovery. We recently characterized a phospholipase C (Plc1-dependent pathway in C. neoformans comprising of sequentially-acting inositol polyphosphate kinases (IPK, which are involved in synthesizing inositol polyphosphates (IP. We also showed that the pathway is essential for fungal cellular function and pathogenicity. The IP products of the pathway are structurally diverse, each consisting of an inositol ring, with phosphate (P and pyrophosphate (PP groups covalently attached at different positions. This review focuses on (1 the characterization of the Plc1/IPK pathway in C. neoformans; (2 the identification of PP-IP5 (IP7 as the most crucial IP species for fungal fitness and virulence in a mouse model of fungal infection; and (3 why IPK enzymes represent suitable candidates for drug development.

  6. Structure of fungal oxyluciferin, the product of the bioluminescence reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtov, K V; Osipova, Z M; Petushkov, V N; Rodionova, N S; Tsarkova, A S; Kotlobay, A A; Chepurnykh, T V; Gorokhovatsky, A Yu; Yampolsky, I V; Gitelson, J I

    2017-11-01

    The structure of fungal oxyluciferin was determined, the enzymatic bioluminescence reaction under substrate saturation conditions with discrete monitoring of formed products was conducted, and the structures of the end products of the reaction were established. On the basis of these studies, the scheme of oxyluciferin degradation to the end products was developed. The structure of fungal oxyluciferin was confirmed by counter synthesis.

  7. Acute fungal sinusitis in neutropenic patients of Namazi hospital/ Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Badiee

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fungal sinusitis is a well known disease in immunocompromised patients, but recently many reports have indicated an increased prevalence of fungal sinusitis in otherwise healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of invasive fungal sinusitis (IFS in neutropenic patients and to determine outcome factors that may affect their survival. Methods: A total of 142 patients who were undergoing chemotherapy were followed by clinical and radiological features suggestive of fungal sinusitis. Patients with fever, headache, facial swelling and radiological finding underwent endoscopic sinus surgery. The biopsy materials were studied by mycological and histopathological methods. Results: Eleven from 142 patients were identified to have IFS. The ethiologic agents were Aspergillus flavus (5 cases, Alternaria sp. (3 cases, Aspergillus fumigatus (2 cases and mucor (1 case. Eight of 11 cases died. Conclusions: Invasive fungal sinusitis causes a high rate of mortality among immunocompromised patients. Therefore, early diagnosis with aggressive medical and surgical intervention is critical for survival.

  8. The Interface between Fungal Biofilms and Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Kernien

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal biofilms are communities of adherent cells surrounded by an extracellular matrix. These biofilms are commonly found during infection caused by a variety of fungal pathogens. Clinically, biofilm infections can be extremely difficult to eradicate due to their resistance to antifungals and host defenses. Biofilm formation can protect fungal pathogens from many aspects of the innate immune system, including killing by neutrophils and monocytes. Altered immune recognition during this phase of growth is also evident by changes in the cytokine profiles of monocytes and macrophages exposed to biofilm. In this manuscript, we review the host response to fungal biofilms, focusing on how these structures are recognized by the innate immune system. Biofilms formed by Candida, Aspergillus, and Cryptococcus have received the most attention and are highlighted. We describe common themes involved in the resilience of fungal biofilms to host immunity and give examples of biofilm defenses that are pathogen-specific.

  9. Adaptations in bacterial and fungal communities to termite fungiculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otani, Saria

    in the bacterial and fungal communities. To do this, we used pyrosequencing, fluorescent in situ hybridisation, light and confocal microscopy, enzymatic assays, chemical extractions, in vitro assays, and feeding experiments in this thesis work to elucidate these predicted changes in fungus-growing termite...... in the proportion of fungal material provided to the cockroaches. However, gut microbiotas remained distinct from those of termites after Termitomyces-feeding, indicating that a fungal diet can play a role in structuring gut community composition, but at the same time exemplifies how original community compositions......, and possibly gut microenvironment constrain the magnitude of change. This thesis also characterises the fungus comb fungal communities (mycobiotas) in fungusgrowing termites, and shows that non-Termitomyces fungi were essentially absent in combs, and that Termitomyces fungal crops are maintained...

  10. Pyrosequencing assessment of rhizosphere fungal communities from a soybean field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Ueda, Yoshikatsu; Takase, Hisabumi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2014-10-01

    Soil fungal communities play essential roles in soil ecosystems, affecting plant growth and health. Rhizosphere bacterial communities have been shown to undergo dynamic changes during plant growth. This study utilized 454 pyrosequencing to analyze rhizosphere fungal communities during soybean growth. Members of the Ascomycota and Basiodiomycota dominated in all soils. There were no statistically significant changes at the phylum level among growth stages or between bulk and rhizosphere soils. In contrast, the relative abundance of small numbers of operational taxonomic units, 4 during growth and 28 between bulk and rhizosphere soils, differed significantly. Clustering analysis revealed that rhizosphere fungal communities were different from bulk fungal communities during growth stages of soybeans. Taken together, these results suggest that in contrast to rhizosphere bacterial communities, most constituents of rhizosphere fungal communities remained stable during soybean growth.

  11. The burden of serious fungal diseases in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimko, N; Kozlova, Y; Khostelidi, S; Shadrivova, O; Borzova, Y; Burygina, E; Vasilieva, N; Denning, D W

    2015-10-01

    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Russia is unknown. We estimated the burden of fungal infections in Russia according to the methodology of the LIFE program (www.LIFE-worldwide.org). The total number of patients with serious and chronic mycoses in Russia in 2011 was three million. Most of these patients (2,607,494) had superficial fungal infections (recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, oral and oesophageal candidiasis with HIV infection and tinea capitis). Invasive and chronic fungal infections (invasive candidiasis, invasive and chronic aspergillosis, cryptococcal meningitis, mucormycosis and Pneumocystis pneumonia) affected 69,331 patients. The total number of adults with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation was 406,082. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. From FRA to RFN, or How the Family Resemblance Approach Can Be Transformed for Science Curriculum Analysis on Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ebru; Erduran, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of Nature of Science (NOS) in the science curriculum has been advocated around the world for several decades. One way of defining NOS is related to the family resemblance approach (FRA). The family resemblance idea was originally described by Wittgenstein. Subsequently, philosophers and educators have applied Wittgenstein's idea to…

  13. Optical properties of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Adverdi; V-Hernandez, Alejandra; Rudamas, Carlos; Dreyer, Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    It was already reported by B. Dreyer at al. [1] that all fungal structures, both intra- and extra-radical fluoresced under blue light excitation regardless of their state (dead or alive). The source of the so called autofluorescence appears to be localized in the fungal cell wall. This supports the use of photoluminescence for the evaluation of AM colonization. However, the interpretation of these results is still in discussion [1-4]. In this work, arbuscular mycorrhizal spores were isolated from the rhizosphere of mango (Mangifera indica L.) plants by the method of wet sieving and decanting of Gerdemann and Nicolson [5] and studied by photoluminescence spectroscopy. Our experimental setup consists of an epifluorescence microscope (EM) coupled to a CCD-spectrometer through an arrangement of a home-made-telescope + fiber optic. This experimental setup allows the capture of images of the mycorrhizal structures (as usual in a standard epifluorescence microscope) combined with measurements of their corresponding emission bands. The preliminary results based on images obtained by standard EM do not clearly show that the emission is originated in the fungal cell walls as reported in Ref. 1. On the other hand, a very broad emission band in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum was observed in these spores by exciting at 450-490 nm and 300- 380 nm. We obtain a Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of around 200 nm for this emission band whichis centered at 515 nm. This broad band seems to be composed of two narrower bands peaked around 494 and 547 nm and with FWHM of 50 nm and 150 nm, respectively. The profile of the observed emission band is in good agreement with the bands reported in Ref. 1 for vesicles, arbuscules and spores measured using the λ-Scan of a confocal laser scanning microscope. However, our results for spores show that the maxima of the narrower bands are shifted to higher energies in comparison to the corresponding bands observed in Ref. 1

  14. Specific recognition of fungal pathogens by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knogge, W.; Gierlich, A.; Max-Planck-Institute for Plant Breeding,; Van't Slot, K.A.E.; Papavoine, T.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Induction of plant defence reactions and, hence, genotype-specific disease resistance results from the interaction of highly specific plant resistance (R) genes with matching pathogen avirulence (Avr) genes (gene-for-gene interactions). More than thirty R genes acting against different types of pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, nematodes) have been isolated from various plants species. However, with few exceptions it remains to be shown how their products recognise the complementary Avr gene products. To date, Avr genes and their products have been characterised from only three fungal species. These include the NIP1 gene from Rhynchosporium secalis, the causal agent of barley leaf scald. It encodes a small, secreted protein, NIP1, that triggers defence reactions exclusively in barley cultivars expressing the R gene Rrs1. NIP1 also non-specifically stimulates the H + -ATPase activity in barley plasma membranes, suggesting that the host recognition system targets a putative fungal virulence factor. Virulent fungal strains lack the gene or carry an allele encoding a non-functional product. Four NIP1 iso-forms have been characterised; NIP1-I and NIP1-II although both elicitor-active display different levels of activity, whereas the isoforms NIP1-III and NIP1-IV are inactive. After establishing a heterologous expression system, the single amino acids specifying NIP1-III and NIP1-IV were integrated into the NIP1-I sequence and yielded the inactive mutant proteins NIP1-III* and NIP1-IV*. The elicitor-inactive isoforms were also unable to stimulate the H + -ATPase, suggesting that both functions of NIP1 are mediated by a single plant receptor. The 3D structure of NIP1-I has been elucidated by 1 H- and 15 N-NMR spectroscopy. Binding studies using 125 I-NIP1-I revealed a single class of high-affinity binding sites on membranes from both Rrs1- and rrs1-cultivars, suggesting that NIP1-binding is not sufficient for defence triggering and that an

  15. Selection of Infective Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Isolates for Field Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pellegrino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi play a key role in host plant growth and health, nutrient and water uptake, plant community diversity and dynamics. AM fungi differ in their symbiotic performance, which is the result of the interaction of two fungal characters, infectivity and efficiency. Infectivity is the ability of a fungal isolate to establish rapidly an extensive mycorrhizal symbiosis and is correlated with pre-symbiotic steps of fungal life cycle, such as spore germination and hyphal growth. Here, different AM fungal isolates were tested, with the aim of selecting infective endophytes for field inoculation. Greenhouse and microcosm experiments were performed in order to assess the ability of 12 AM fungal isolates to produce spores, colonize host roots and to perform initial steps of symbiosis establishment, such as spore germination and hyphal growth. AM fungal spore production and root colonization were significantly different among AM fungal isolates. Spore and sporocarp densities ranged from 0.8 to 7.4 and from 0.6 to 2.0 per gram of soil, respectively, whereas root colonization ranged from 2.9 to 72.2%. Percentage of spore or sporocarp germination ranged from 5.8 to 53.3% and hyphal length from 4.7 to 79.8 mm. The ordination analysis (Redundancy Analysis, RDA showed that environmental factors explained about 60% of the whole variance and their effect on fungal infectivity variables was significant (P = 0.002. The biplot clearly showed that variables which might be used to detect infective AM fungal isolates were hyphal length and root colonization. Such analysis may allow the detection of the best parameters to select efficient AM fungal isolates to be used in agriculture.

  16. Fungal Volatiles Can Act as Carbon Sources and Semiochemicals to Mediate Interspecific Interactions Among Bark Beetle-Associated Fungal Symbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Cale

    Full Text Available Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae has killed millions of hectares of pine forests in western North America. Beetle success is dependent upon a community of symbiotic fungi comprised of Grosmannia clavigera, Ophiostoma montium, and Leptographium longiclavatum. Factors regulating the dynamics of this community during pine infection are largely unknown. However, fungal volatile organic compounds (FVOCs help shape fungal interactions in model and agricultural systems and thus may be important drivers of interactions among bark beetle-associated fungi. We investigated whether FVOCs can mediate interspecific interactions among mountain pine beetle's fungal symbionts by affecting fungal growth and reproduction. Headspace volatiles were collected and identified to determine species-specific volatile profiles. Interspecific effects of volatiles on fungal growth and conidia production were assessed by pairing physically-separated fungal cultures grown either on a carbon-poor or -rich substrate, inside a shared-headspace environment. Fungal VOC profiles differed by species and influenced the growth and/or conidia production of the other species. Further, our results showed that FVOCs can be used as carbon sources for fungi developing on carbon-poor substrates. This is the first report demonstrating that FVOCs can drive interactions among bark beetle fungal symbionts, and thus are important factors in beetle attack success.

  17. Naïve B cells reduce fungal dissemination in Cryptococcus neoformans infected Rag1-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufaud, Chad; Rivera, Johanna; Rohatgi, Soma; Pirofski, Liise-Anne

    2018-01-01

    IgM and B-1 cell deficient mice exhibit early C. neoformans dissemination from lungs to brain, but a definitive role for B cells in conferring resistance to C. neoformans dissemination has not been established. To address this question, we developed an intranasal (i.n.) C. neoformans infection model in B and T cell deficient Rag1 -/- mice and found they also exhibit earlier fungal dissemination and higher brain CFU than wild-type C57Bl/6 (wild-type) mice. To probe the effect of B cells on fungal dissemination, Rag1 -/- mice were given splenic (intravenously) or peritoneal (intraperitoneally) B cells from wild-type mice and infected i.n. with C. neoformans 7 d later. Mice that received B cells had lung histopathology resembling wild type mice 14 d post-infection, and B-1, not B-2 or T cells in their lungs, and serum and lung IgM and IgG 21 d post-infection. Lung CFU were comparable in wild-type, Rag1 -/-, and Rag1 -/- mice that received B cells 21 d post-infection, but brain CFU were significantly lower in mice that received B cells than Rag1 -/- mice that did not. To determine if natural antibody can promote immunity in our model, we measured alveolar macrophage phagocytosis of C. neoformans in Rag1 -/- mice treated with naive wild-type IgM-sufficient or sIgM -/- IgM-deficient sera before infection. Compared to IgM-deficient sera, IgM-sufficient sera significantly increased phagocytosis. Our data establish B cells are able to reduce early C. neoformans dissemination in mice and suggest natural IgM may be a key mediator of early antifungal immunity in the lungs.

  18. Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors for Spousal Resemblance in Obesity Status and Habitual Physical Activity in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Jen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses’ body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses’ resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses’ sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006–2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-scale resemblance indices (correlation and kappa coefficients in body mass index (BMI and HPA were estimated by couples’ socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We found that spousal difference in BMI was smaller for couples with a lower household income, for who were both unemployed, and for older spouses. Correlation coefficient between spouses’ BMI was 0.24, differing by race/ethnicity and family size. Kappa coefficient for weight status (obesity: BMI ≥ 30, overweight: 30 > BMI ≥ 25 was 0.11 and 0.35 for HPA. Never-working women’s husbands had lower odds of obesity than employed women’s husbands (OR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.53–0.89. Men’s unemployment status was associated with wives’ greater odds of obesity (OR = 1.31 (95% CI = 1.01–1.71. HPA was associated with men’s employment status and income level, but not with women’s. The population representative survey showed that spousal resemblance in weight status and HPA varied with socioeconomic and demographic factors.

  19. The Fungal Biome of the Oral Cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Jyotsna; Retuerto, Mauricio; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Organisms residing in the oral cavity (oral microbiota) contribute to health and disease, and influence diseases like gingivitis, periodontitis, and oral candidiasis (the most common oral complication of HIV-infection). These organisms are also associated with cancer and other systemic diseases including upper respiratory infections. There is limited knowledge regarding how oral microbes interact together and influence the host immune system. Characterizing the oral microbial community (oral microbiota) in health and disease represents a critical step in gaining insight into various members of this community. While most of the studies characterizing oral microbiota have focused on bacterial community, there are few encouraging studies characterizing the oral mycobiome (the fungal component of the oral microbiota). Our group recently characterized the oral mycobiome in health and disease focusing on HIV. In this chapter we will describe the methods used by our group for characterization of the oral mycobiome.

  20. Modelling Fungal Fermentations for Enzyme Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Mads Orla; Gernaey, Krist; Hansen, Morten S.

    We have developed a process model of fungal fed-batch fermentations for enzyme production. In these processes, oxygen transfer rate is limiting and controls the substrate feeding rate. The model has been shown to describe cultivations of both Aspergillus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei strains in 550......L stirred tank pilot plant reactors well. For each strain, 8 biological parameters are needed as well as a correlation of viscosity, as viscosity has a major influence on oxygen transfer. The parameters were measured averages of at least 9 batches for each strain. The model is successfully able...... to cover a wide range of process conditions (0.3-2 vvm of aeration, 0.2-10.0 kW/m3 of specific agitation power input, and 0.1-1.3 barg head space pressure). Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis have shown that the uncertainty of the model is mainly due to difficulties surrounding the estimation...