WorldWideScience

Sample records for reseeding edible crops

  1. Self-reseeding annual legumes for cover cropping in rainfed managed olive orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ângelo Rodrigues, M.; Ferreira, I. Q.; Freitas, S.L.; Pires, J.M.; Arrobas, M.P.

    2015-07-01

    Given the environmental impact of nitrogen (N)-fertilizer manufacture and use, the sustainable management of agro-systems should be sought by growing N-fixing legumes. In this work, eleven self-reseeding annual legumes were grown in pure stands as mulching cover crops in a rainfed olive orchard managed without grazing animals. Dry matter yield, N content in above-ground biomass, groundcover percentage and persistence of the sown species were assessed during four growing seasons. All covers provided enough soil protection over the year, with living plants during the autumn/winter period and a mulch of dead residues during the summer. The legumes overcame a false break observed in the third year recovering the dominance of the covers in the fourth growing season. This means that the seed bank established in previous seasons ensured the persistence of the sown legume even when a gap in seed production occurred. The early-maturing cultivars produced less biomass and fixed less N (approx. 50 kg N/ha/yr present in the above-ground biomass) than the late-maturing ones, but would compete less for water since the growing cycle finished earlier in the spring. They seem best suited to being grown in dry farmed olive orchards with low N demand in drought prone regions. (Author)

  2. Physiological limits to zinc biofortification of edible crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip John White

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that almost one third of the world’s population lack sufficient Zn for adequate nutrition. This can be alleviated by increasing dietary Zn intakes through Zn-biofortification of edible crops. Biofortification strategies include the application of Zn-fertilisers or the development of crop genotypes that acquire more Zn from the soil and accumulate it in edible portions. Zinc concentrations in roots, leaves and stems can be increased through the application of Zn-fertilisers. Root Zn concentrations of up to 500-5000 mg kg-1 DM, and leaf Zn concentrations of up to 100-700 mg kg-1 dry matter (DM, can be achieved without loss of yield when Zn-fertilisers are applied to the soil. It is possible that greater Zn concentrations in non-woody shoot tissues can be attained using foliar Zn-fertilisers. By contrast, Zn concentrations in fruits, seeds and tubers are severely limited by low Zn mobility in the phloem and Zn concentrations higher than 30-100 mg kg-1 DM are rarely observed. However, genetically modified plants with improved abilities translocate Zn in the phloem might be used to biofortify these phloem-fed tissues. In addition, genetically modified plants with increased tolerance to high tissue Zn concentrations could be used to increase Zn concentrations in all edible produce and, thereby, increase dietary Zn intakes.

  3. Transfer of antibiotics from wastewater or animal manure to soil and edible crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min; Chu, L M

    2017-12-01

    Antibiotics are added to agricultural fields worldwide through wastewater irrigation or manure application, resulting in antibiotic contamination and elevated environmental risks to terrestrial environments and humans. Most studies focused on antibiotic detection in different matrices or were conducted in a hydroponic environment. Little is known about the transfer of antibiotics from antibiotic-contaminated irrigation wastewater and animal manure to agricultural soil and edible crops. In this study, we evaluated the transfer of five different antibiotics (tetracycline, sulfamethazine, norfloxacin, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol) to different crops under two levels of antibiotic-contaminated wastewater irrigation and animal manure fertilization. The final distribution of tetracycline (TC), norfloxacin (NOR) and chloramphenicol (CAP) in the crop tissues under these four treatments were as follows: fruit > leaf/shoot > root, while an opposite order was found for sulfamethazine (SMZ) and erythromycin (ERY): root > leaf/shoot > fruit. The growth of crops could accelerate the dissipation of antibiotics by absorption from contaminated soil. A higher accumulation of antibiotics was observed in crop tissues under the wastewater treatment than under manure treatment, which was due to the continual irrigation that increased adsorption in soil and uptake by crops. The translocation of antibiotics in crops mainly depended on their physicochemical properties (e.g. log K ow ), crop species, and the concentrations of antibiotics applied to the soil. The levels of antibiotics ingested through the consumption of edible crops under the different treatments were much lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Accumulation of contaminants of emerging concern in food crops-part 1: Edible strawberries and lettuce grown in reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Katherine C; Blaine, Andrea C; Dickenson, Eric R V; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-10-01

    Contaminants of emerging concern present in domestic waste streams include a highly diverse group of potentially biologically active compounds that can be detected at trace levels in wastewater. Concerns about potential uptake into crops arise when reclaimed water is used in food crop production. The present study investigated how 9 contaminants of emerging concern in reclaimed water are taken up into edible portions of two food crops. Two flame retardant chemicals, tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) and several polar pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diphenhydramine, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim) accumulated in a linear, concentration-dependent manner in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) irrigated with reclaimed water, suggesting passive uptake of both neutral and ionizable chemical contaminants in lettuce. Furthermore, concentration-dependent accumulation of TCEP and TCPP from reclaimed water was also observed in strawberry fruits (Fragaria ananassa). Collectively, these data suggest that highly polar or charged contaminants can be taken up by crops from water bearing contaminants of emerging concern and can be accumulated in the edible portions. Using these data, however, estimates of human exposure to these contaminants from reclaimed water food crop accumulation suggest that exposure to the contaminants of emerging concern examined in the present study is likely substantially lower than current exposure guidelines. © 2015 SETAC.

  5. Uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids into edible crops via land applied biosolids: Field and greenhouse studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in biosolids destined for use in agriculture has raised concerns about their potential to enter the terrestrial food chain via bioaccumulation in edible plants. Uptake of PFAAs by greenhouse lettuce ( Lactuca sativa) and tomato (Lycope...

  6. Assessing the Success of Postfire Reseeding in Semiarid Rangelands Using Terra MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Weber, Keith T.; Scbnase, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Successful postfire reseeding efforts can aid rangeland ecosystem recovery by rapidly establishing a desired plant community and thereby reducing the likelihood of infestation by invasive plants. Although the success of postfire remediation is critical, few efforts have been made to leverage existing geospatial technologies to develop methodologies to assess reseeding success following a fire. In this study, Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data were used to improve the capacity to assess postfire reseeding rehabilitation efforts, with particular emphasis on the semiarid rangelands of Idaho. Analysis of MODIS data demonstrated a positive effect of reseeding on rangeland ecosystem recovery, as well as differences in vegetation between reseeded areas and burned areas where no reseeding had occurred (P,0.05). We conclude that MODIS provides useful data to assess the success of postfire reseeding.

  7. Development and characterization of 59 polymorphic cDNA-SSR markers for the edible oil crop Sesamum indicum (Pedaliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linhai; Zhang, Yanxin; Qi, Xiaoqiong; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Xiurong

    2012-10-01

    Polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers from transcript sequences (cDNA-simple sequence repeat [SSR]) were developed for the edible oil crop Sesamum indicum to facilitate the genetic study of this species. • We found 7702 SSR loci in the 60960 unigenes, and 1550 primer pairs were designed and synthesized. In total, 59 primer pairs showed polymorphism within 36 individuals; the number of alleles per locus ranged from two to four, and the expected and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.05 to 0.74 and 0 to 0.30, respectively. • These polymorphic markers will greatly facilitate studies of the genetic structure of S. indicum populations as well as the identification and conservation of the species.

  8. [SPREADING OF NCTC CLONE 929 CELLS AFTER RESEEDING].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Yu P; Negulyaev, Yu A; Tsupkina, N V

    2015-01-01

    The period (1 h after reseeding) of behaviour of mouse NCTC clone 929 cells to the conditions of artificial cultivation was studied. The time-lapse imaging followed the processing of the cells with ImageJ program was applied. To characterize the parametres cell status we used the cell area (projection of the cell on substrate) and Rp/Ra ratio introduced earlier as a spreading coefficient (Kuz'minykh, Petrov, 2004). After attaching a substratum, cells have a form of sphere (the phase "sphere") as the daughter cells after a mitosis. We revealed however that after this phase the reseeded cells do not start usual spreading and migration along substratum. They pass a phase of equally spreading in all directions and shaping their area as a circle (phase "circle"). This phase is absent of the daughter cells spreading after mitosis. We assume that the phase "circle" is a result of adaptation of the cells to reseedings at artificial cultivation. It is necessary for formation of a substrate composed of own extracellular matrix components (ECM) of the cells. Own ECM facilitates transition of the cells to their usual spreading and migration along substratum.

  9. The Effect of Plant Cultivar, Growth Media, Harvest Method and Post Harvest Treatment on the Microbiology of Edible Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummerick, Mary P.; Gates, Justin R.; Nguyen, Bao-Thang; Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    Systems for the growth of crops in closed environments are being developed and tested for potential use in space applications to provide a source of fresh food. Plant growth conditions, growth media composition and harvest methods can have an effect on the microbial population of the plant, and therefore should be considered along with the optimization of plant growth and harvest yields to ensure a safe and palatable food crop. This work examines the effect of plant cultivar, growth media, and harvest method on plant microbial populations. Twelve varieties of leafy greens and herbs were grown on a mixture of Fafard #2 and Arcillite in the pillow root containment system currently being considered for the VEGGIE plant growth unit developed by Orbitec. In addition, ,Sierra and Outredgeous lettuce varieties were grown in three different mixtures (Fafard #2, Ardllite, and Perlite/Vermiculite). The plants were analyzed for microbial density. Two harvest methods, "cut and come again" (CACA) and terminal harvest were also compared. In one set ofexpe'riments red leaf lettuce and mizuna were grown in pots in a Biomass Production System for education. Plants were harvested every two weeks by either method. Another set of experiments was performed using the rooting pillows to grow 5 varieties of leafy greens and cut harvesting at different intervals. Radishes were harvested and replanted at two-week intervals. Results indicate up to a 3 IOglO difference in microbial counts between some varieties of plants. Rooting medium resulted in an approximately 2 IOglO lower count in the lettuce grown in arscillite then those grown in the other mixtures. Harvest method and frequency had less impact on microbial counts only showing a significant increase in one variety of plant. Post harvest methods to decrease the bacterial counts on edible crops were investigated in these and other experiments. The effectiveness of PRO-SAN and UV-C radiation is compared.

  10. Perfluoroalkyl acid distribution in various plant compartments of edible crops grown in biosolids-amended soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from biosolids-amended soil has been identified as a potential pathway for PFAA entry into the terrestrial food chain. This study compared the uptake of PFAAs in greenhouse-grown radish (Raphanus sativus), celery (Apium graveolens var.d...

  11. [Effects of cutting and reseeding on the ground-dwelling arthropod community in Caragana intermedia forest in desert steppe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren-Tao; Chai, Yong-Qing; Yang, Xin-Guo; Song, Nai-Ping; Wang, Xin-Yun; Wang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Taking a 25-year-old Caragana intermedia forest in desert steppe as test object, an investigation was conducted on the ground-dwelling arthropod community in cutting and no-cutting stands with and without reseeding, aimed to understand the effects of cutting, reseeding and their interaction on the individual number and group richness of ground-dwelling arthropod in C. intermedia forest. There were significantly lower number and richness of ground-dwelling arthropod in the open spaces than under the shrubs in the no-cutting and no-reseeding stands. Cutting, reseeding and both of them could significantly increase the number and richness of ground-dwelling arthropod in the open spaces, but not under the shrubs, compared with no cutting or reseeding. Consequently, there were no significant differences in the distribution of ground-dwelling arthropod in the open spaces and under the shrubs in the cutting, reseeding, or cutting and reseeding stands. Further, there was a similar buffer effect between cutting and reseeding on the ground-dwelling arthropod. No significant differences were observed in the ground-dwelling arthropod distribution, between cutting stand and reseeding stand, between cutting stand and cutting and reseeding stand, and between reseeding stand and cutting and reseeding stand. It was suggested that cutting, reseeding, or both of them could significantly improve the ground-dwelling arthropod diversity especially in the open spaces, being beneficial for the restoration of degraded grassland ecosystem and the rational management on artificial C. intermedia forest in desert steppe.

  12. Insect pollination and self-incompatibility in edible and/or medicinal crops in southwestern China, a global hotspot of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zong-Xin; Wang, Hong; Bernhardt, Peter; Li, De-Zhu

    2014-10-01

    An increasing global demand for food, coupled with the widespread decline of pollinator diversity, remains an international concern in agriculture and genetic conservation. In particular, there are large gaps in the study of the pollination of economically important and traditionally grown species in China. Many plant species grown in China are both edible and used medicinally. The country retains extensive written records of agricultural and apicultural practices, facilitating contemporary studies of some important taxa. Here, we focus on Yunnan in southwestern China, a mega-biodiversity hotspot for medicinal/food plants. We used plant and insect taxa as model systems to understand the patterns and consequences of pollinator deficit to crops. We identified several gaps and limitations in research on the pollination ecology and breeding systems of domesticated taxa and their wild relatives in Yunnan and asked the following questions: (1) What is known about pollination systems of edible and medicinal plants in Yunnan? (2) What are the most important pollinators of Codonopsis subglobosa (Campanulaceae)? (3) How important are native pollinator species for maximizing yield in Chinese crops compared with the introduced Apis mellifera? We found that some crops that require cross-pollination now depend exclusively on hand pollination. Three domesticated crops are dependent primarily on the native but semidomesticated Apis cerana and the introduced A. mellifera. Other species of wild pollinators often play important roles for certain specialty crops (e.g., Vespa velutina pollinates Codonopsis subglobosa). We propose a more systematic and comprehensive approach to applied research in the future. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  13. Impact of Grassland Reseeding, Herbicide spraying and Ploughing on Diversity and Abundance of Soil Arthropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the interactive effect of reseeding, herbicide spraying and ploughing on soil fauna communities, we conducted a grassland reseeding experiment combined with pre-reseed management to examine how with the whole reseeding process affects soil faunal composition. Sampling occasions and exact treatments were as follows: 1 before chemical herbicide spray; 2 after spray but before ploughing; 3 after ploughing but before reseeding; and 4 after one year of recovery. Our results demonstrate that, Acari and Collembola were the two soil fauna taxa with the highest abundance and accounted for around 96% of the relative total abundance among the various managements. Herbicide application tended to increase soil invertebrate abundance. Conversely, subsequent ploughing significantly reduced soil invertebrate abundance and had an obvious negative effect on soil primary and secondary decomposers, which were mainly due to the variations of Acari (especially Oribatida and Coleoptera group abundance. Moreover, reseeding also reduced the individual number of the groups mentioned above, and favoured those predators with a larger body size and individual weight. After one year recovery, Collembola abundance recovered to the pre-treatment levels, while with Arthropod and Acari groups were still fluctuating.

  14. Impact of Grassland Reseeding, Herbicide Spraying and Ploughing on Diversity and Abundance of Soil Arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Junling; Norris, Stuart L.; Murray, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine the interactive effect of reseeding, herbicide spraying and ploughing on soil fauna communities, we conducted a grassland reseeding experiment combined with pre-reseed management to examine how with the whole reseeding process affects soil faunal composition. Sampling occasions and exact treatments were as follows: (1) before chemical herbicide spray; (2) after spray but before ploughing; (3) after ploughing but before reseeding; and (4) after 1 year of recovery. Our results demonstrate that, Acari and Collembola were the two soil fauna taxa with the highest abundance and accounted for around 96% of the relative total abundance among the various managements. Herbicide application tended to increase soil invertebrate abundance. Conversely, subsequent ploughing significantly reduced soil invertebrate abundance and had an obvious negative effect on soil primary and secondary decomposers, which were mainly due to the variations of Acari (especially Oribatida) and Coleoptera group abundance. Moreover, reseeding also reduced the individual number of the groups mentioned above, and favored those predators with a larger body size and individual weight. After 1 year recovery, Collembola abundance recovered to the pre-treatment levels, while with Arthropod and Acari groups were still fluctuating. PMID:27555863

  15. Early prediction of 90Sr and 137Cs content in edible parts of crops and selection of plants with high uptake ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenhu; Xu Shiming; Hou Lanxin; Shang Zhaorong

    1995-10-01

    The uptake characteristics to 90 Sr and 137 Cs of nine kinds of crops, including spring wheat, rice, soybean, vegetables etc., were studied from seedling to maturity. The change of 90 Sr content per unit of dry weight can be classified into two types--the 90 Sr content kept in the same level during the whole growing season and kept increasing with the growing period until it came to the maximum point at the time of maturity. 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the aerial part of plants were mainly distributed in leaves, but the amounts in seeds and fruits were less. The content of 90 Sr decreased but the content of 137 Cs increased from young to old leaves. So it could be concluded that early prediction of the radioactive content of edible parts according to the content of young leaves was possible. Selection of 169 species in 18 families of plants with high uptake ability of 90 Sr and 137 Cs, which grow in Qinshan region near a nuclear power plant and in Beijing region, is also reported. (8 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs.)

  16. Challenges in developing a reseeded, tissue-engineered aortic valve prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, Alexander; Raschke, Silja; Baier, Karina; Nehrenheim, Laura; Selig, Jessica Isabel; Schomaker, Markus; Lichtenberg, Artur; Meyer, Heiko; Akhyari, Payam

    2016-09-01

    Biological heart valve prostheses are characterized by a limited durability due to the degenerative processes after implantation. Tissue engineering may provide new approaches in the development of optimized valvular grafts. While re-endothelialization of decellularized heart valves has already been successfully implemented, interstitial repopulation still remains an unaccomplished objective although it is essential for valvular functionality and regeneration potential. The aim of this study was to compare different concepts for an improved in vitro interstitial repopulation of decellularized heart valves. A novel 3D heart valve model has been developed to investigate the cell behaviour of valvular interstitial cells (VIC) in their physiological environment and to evaluate the potential of in vitro repopulation of acellular heart valves. Ovine aortic heart valves were decellularized by detergent solutions and additionally treated with trypsin or laser perforation. Subsequently, the decellularized extracellular matrices (dECM) were reseeded with ovine VIC using reseeding devices to provide a repopulation of the matrix on a defined area under controlled conditions. After an initial attachment of the VIC, reseeded dECM were transferred into a transwell system to improve the nutrient supply inside the valvular matrix. Cell migration and expression of cell markers were analysed histologically. The results were compared with VIC cultivation in a biological scaffold. VIC did not migrate into the matrix of untreated dECM and reseeding in laser perforated dECM showed inconsistent results. However, trypsinization increased the susceptibility of the valvular cusps to VIC penetration and repopulation of superficial areas. Additionally, the cultivation of reseeded dECM in a transwell system significantly increased the total number of cells repopulating the valvular matrix and their mean migration distance, representing the best repopulation results. Immunohistological analysis

  17. Edible North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    2012-01-01

    -constitutive role in the formation of publics (Marres 2007) and the ways in which they are themselves reconfigured as ‘matters of concern’ (Latour 2003) in this process. I draw on digital cartographies and fieldwork carried out under the Carlsberg funded project Edible North: Mapping the ’New Nordic Food...

  18. Fire-mediated disruptive selection can explain the reseeder-resprouter dichotomy in Mediterranean-type vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altwegg, Res; De Klerk, Helen M; Midgley, Guy F

    2015-02-01

    Crown fire is a key selective pressure in Mediterranean-type plant communities. Adaptive responses to fire regimes involve trade-offs between investment for persistence (fire survival and resprouting) and reproduction (fire mortality, fast growth to reproductive maturity, and reseeding) as investments that enhance adult survival lower growth and reproductive rates. Southern hemisphere Mediterranean-type ecosystems are dominated by species with either endogenous regeneration from adult resprouting or fire-triggered seedling recruitment. Specifically, on nutrient-poor soils, these are either resprouting or reseeding life histories, with few intermediate forms, despite the fact that the transition between strategies is evolutionarily labile. How did this strong dichotomy evolve? We address this question by developing a stochastic demographic model to assess determinants of relative fitness of reseeders, resprouters and hypothetical intermediate forms. The model was parameterised using published demographic data from South African protea species and run over various relevant fire regime parameters facets. At intermediate fire return intervals, trade-offs between investment in growth versus fire resilience can cause fitness to peak at either of the extremes of the reseeder-resprouter continuum, especially when assuming realistic non-linear shapes for these trade-offs. Under these circumstances, the fitness landscape exhibits a saddle which could lead to disruptive selection. The fitness gradient between the peaks was shallow, which may explain why this life-history trait is phylogenetically labile. Resprouters had maximum fitness at shorter fire-return intervals than reseeders. The model suggests that a strong dichotomy in fire survival strategy depends on a non-linear trade-off between growth and fire persistence traits.

  19. Edible packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  20. The Edible Mushroom Book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Anna Del; Læssøe, Thomas

    A gourmet's guide to foraging and cooking mushrooms. It helps readers find out how to forage, prepare and cook mushrooms that are wild, fresh and free. It features photographs, which show edible mushrooms in their natural habitats....

  1. The Edible Mushroom Book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Anna Del; Læssøe, Thomas

    A gourmet's guide to foraging and cooking mushrooms. It helps readers find out how to forage, prepare and cook mushrooms that are wild, fresh and free. It features photographs, which show edible mushrooms in their natural habitats.......A gourmet's guide to foraging and cooking mushrooms. It helps readers find out how to forage, prepare and cook mushrooms that are wild, fresh and free. It features photographs, which show edible mushrooms in their natural habitats....

  2. Ethnobotanical study of traditional edible plants used by the Naxi people during droughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingling; Chai, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Yu; Geng, Yanfei; Wang, Yuahua

    2016-09-12

    Since 2009, millions of people have been forced to live under food shortage by the continuous drought in Southwestern China. The market was the primary source of aid grains, and fears that the market will be unable to provide sufficient food make safeguarding food security in the face of climate change crucial. Traditional adaptive strategies of pre-market indigenous people are a potential source of innovation. We studied three questions among the Naxi people: 1) What edible plants did they consume during droughts? 2) How did they produce enough food? 3) How did they consume these plants? This study investigates and documents traditional Naxi food knowledge to safeguard food security during drought and facilitate Chinese policy decisions. Ethnobotanical investigation was conducted through literature review, semi-structured interviews, collaborative fieldwork and group discussions in three Naxi villages. 89 informants (including 35 key informants) were surveyed from 2012 to 2013. Significant Index (SI) was adopted to evaluate each edible plant's food supply significance. Voucher specimens were collected for taxonomic identification. 1) In total, 141 edible plants (38 cultivated and 103 wild) were consumed-primarily landrace crops, supplementary edible plants and famine plants. 2) Naxi people produced sufficient food through widespread food production systems, strong landrace crop resilience, and diversity in wild edible plants. 3) Through a diverse diet and consuming almost all edible parts of the plant, the Naxi used edible plants fully to meet food and nutrition needs during drought. Edible plant diversity is a cornerstone of drought food security. Cultivated crops (especially landrace plants) and wild edible plants were both important. Naxi people protect edible plant diversity through ecological morality and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). National inventories of edible plant diversity and studies of the TEK of other Chinese indigenous peoples should be

  3. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarski, Maja; Klaus, Anita; Jakovljevic, Dragica; Todorovic, Nina; Vunduk, Jovana; Petrović, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Vrvic, Miroslav M; van Griensven, Leo

    2015-10-27

    Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  4. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kozarski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  5. Edible Polymers: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhas C. Shit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible polymers have established substantial deliberation in modern eons because of their benefits comprising use as edible materials over synthetic polymers. This could contribute to the reduction of environmental contamination. Edible polymers can practically diminish the complexity and thus improve the recyclability of materials, compared to the more traditional non-environmentally friendly materials and may be able to substitute such synthetic polymers. A synthetic hydrogel polymer unlocked a new possibility for development of films, coatings, extrudable pellets, and synthetic nanopolymers, particularly designed for medical, agricultural, and industrial fields. Edible polymers offer many advantages for delivering drugs and tissue engineering. Edible polymer technology helps food industries to make their products more attractive and safe to use. Novel edible materials have been derived from many natural sources that have conventionally been regarded as discarded materials. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive introduction to edible polymers by providing descriptions in terms of their origin, properties, and potential uses.

  6. Edible vaccines: Current status and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible vaccines hold great promise as a cost-effective, easy-to-administer, easy-to-store, fail-safe and socioculturally readily acceptable vaccine delivery system, especially for the poor developing countries. It involves introduction of selected desired genes into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. Introduced as a concept about a decade ago, it has become a reality today. A variety of delivery systems have been developed. Initially thought to be useful only for preventing infectious diseases, it has also found application in prevention of autoimmune diseases, birth control, cancer therapy, etc. Edible vaccines are currently being developed for a number of human and animal diseases. There is growing acceptance of transgenic crops in both industrial and developing countries. Resistance to genetically modified foods may affect the future of edible vaccines. They have passed the major hurdles in the path of an emerging vaccine technology. Various technical obstacles, regulatory and non-scientific challenges, though all seem surmountable, need to be overcome. This review attempts to discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality.

  7. Edible Polymers: Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Subhas C. Shit; Pathik M. Shah

    2014-01-01

    Edible polymers have established substantial deliberation in modern eons because of their benefits comprising use as edible materials over synthetic polymers. This could contribute to the reduction of environmental contamination. Edible polymers can practically diminish the complexity and thus improve the recyclability of materials, compared to the more traditional non-environmentally friendly materials and may be able to substitute such synthetic polymers. A synthetic hydrogel polymer unlock...

  8. Sustainable production of grain crops for biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain crops of the Gramineae are grown for their edible, starchy seeds. Their grain is used directly for human food, livestock feed, and as raw material for many industries, including biofuels. Using grain crops for non-food uses affects the amount of food available to the world. Grain-based biofuel...

  9. Improving pulse crop production in Southern Ethiopia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The challenge. Ethiopia suffers high levels of food insecurity, exacerbated by population growth, land degradation, and frequent droughts. Pulse crops — the edible seeds from crops such as chickpeas, lentils, and faba beans — are important to Ethiopian farmers because they provide an alternative source of protein,.

  10. Ecosystem Services from Edible Insects in Agricultural Systems: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Charlotte L R; Van Itterbeeck, Joost

    2017-02-17

    Many of the most nutritionally and economically important edible insects are those that are harvested from existing agricultural systems. Current strategies of agricultural intensification focus predominantly on increasing crop yields, with no or little consideration of the repercussions this may have for the additional harvest and ecology of accompanying food insects. Yet such insects provide many valuable ecosystem services, and their sustainable management could be crucial to ensuring future food security. This review considers the multiple ecosystem services provided by edible insects in existing agricultural systems worldwide. Directly and indirectly, edible insects contribute to all four categories of ecosystem services as outlined by the Millennium Ecosystem Services definition: provisioning, regulating, maintaining, and cultural services. They are also responsible for ecosystem disservices, most notably significant crop damage. We argue that it is crucial for decision-makers to evaluate the costs and benefits of the presence of food insects in agricultural systems. We recommend that a key priority for further research is the quantification of the economic and environmental contribution of services and disservices from edible insects in agricultural systems.

  11. Ecosystem Services from Edible Insects in Agricultural Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte L. R. Payne

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Many of the most nutritionally and economically important edible insects are those that are harvested from existing agricultural systems. Current strategies of agricultural intensification focus predominantly on increasing crop yields, with no or little consideration of the repercussions this may have for the additional harvest and ecology of accompanying food insects. Yet such insects provide many valuable ecosystem services, and their sustainable management could be crucial to ensuring future food security. This review considers the multiple ecosystem services provided by edible insects in existing agricultural systems worldwide. Directly and indirectly, edible insects contribute to all four categories of ecosystem services as outlined by the Millennium Ecosystem Services definition: provisioning, regulating, maintaining, and cultural services. They are also responsible for ecosystem disservices, most notably significant crop damage. We argue that it is crucial for decision-makers to evaluate the costs and benefits of the presence of food insects in agricultural systems. We recommend that a key priority for further research is the quantification of the economic and environmental contribution of services and disservices from edible insects in agricultural systems.

  12. Laser refractometry of edible films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchev, I.; Nikolova, K.; Sainov, Simeon C.

    2004-06-01

    Refraction index of edible films from polysaccharides (pectin, xanthan, carboxy-methyl-cellulose, polymixan) has been investigated using laser microrefractomeeter, constructed by the authors. Experimental data about the optical density and the thickness of the edible films have been obtained. The results from the investigation can be used in the development of new packing technologies for food products.

  13. Gathering an edible wild plant: food or medicine? A case study on wild edibles and functional foods in Granada, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Benítez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A study on wild edible resources has been performed in the western part of Granada Province (Spain using ethnobotanical methods. We document and analyze knowledge concerning wild edible plants and mushrooms and their folk medicinal uses in the study area. Several botanical features and use characteristics have been analyzed for the species included, with special attention to their medicinal uses, highlighting a large number of edible-medicinal species. Local importance of the medicinal uses for these resources has been confirmed. Up to 135 species are gathered from the wild in the study area, from which 46 can be considered folk functional foods. In addition, 45 crop plants with uncommon edible or medicinal uses are included, 29 of these being considered functional foods as well. Therefore, a total of 75 plant species are used as edible medicines which serve to treat 36 different conditions. The local concept of food and medicine regarding wild plant resources seems not to be well established. Studies on the pharmacological properties of these foods are needed in order to establish their real or potential benefits for the treated affections.

  14. Edible Astronomy Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2007-12-01

    Astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients are an effective way to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students - and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented. In this poster I describe edible demonstrations I have created to simulate the expansion of the universe (using big-bang chocolate chip cookies); differentiation during the formation of the Earth and planets (using chocolate or chocolate milk with marshmallows, cereal, candy pieces or nuts); and radioactivity/radioactive dating (using popcorn). Other possible demonstrations include: plate tectonics (crackers with peanut butter and jelly); convection (miso soup or hot chocolate); mud flows on Mars (melted chocolate poured over angel food cake); formation of the Galactic disk (pizza); formation of spiral arms (coffee with cream); the curvature of Space (Pringles); constellations patterns with chocolate chips and chocolate chip cookies; planet shaped cookies; star shaped cookies with different colored frostings; coffee or chocolate milk measurement of solar radiation; Oreo cookie lunar phases. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  15. Edible Acid-Base Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, Robert C.; Rybolt, Thomas R.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on the colors observed during titrations of 15 natural indicators obtained from common fruits and vegetables. These edible indicators can be used for a variety of teacher demonstrations or for simple student experiments. (JN)

  16. Metals in edible seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, C; Napoleone, G; Luis-González, G; Gutiérrez, A J; González-Weller, D; Hardisson, A; Revert, C

    2017-04-01

    The concentration levels of 20 metals were analyzed by ICP-OES in edible seaweed (Chondrus, Eisenia, Gelidium, Himanthalia, Laminaria, Palmaria, Porphyra, Undaria), from two origins (Asia vs EU) according to their cultivation practices (conventional vs organic). Red seaweed showed higher concentrations of trace and toxic elements. Porphyra may be used as a potential bioindicator for metals. Significant differences were found between the Asian vs European mean contents. The mean Cd level from the conventional cultivation (0.28 mg/kg) was two points higher than the organic cultivation (0.13 mg/kg). A daily consumption of seaweed (4 g/day) contributes to the dietary intake of metals, mainly Mg and Cr. The average intakes of Al, Cd and Pb were 0.064, 0.001 and 0.0003 mg/day, respectively. Based on obtained results, this study suggests that exposure to the toxic metals analyzed (Al, Cd and Pb) through seaweed consumption does not raise serious health concerns, but other toxic metals should be monitored. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Edible insects are the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huis, Arnold

    2016-08-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect species are eaten mainly in tropical regions. The role of edible insects in the livelihoods and nutrition of people in tropical countries is discussed, but this food source is threatened. In the Western world, there is an increasing interest in edible insects, and examples are given. Insects as feed, in particular as aquafeed, have a large potential. Edible insects have about the same protein content as conventional meat and more PUFA. They may also have some beneficial health effects. Edible insects need to be processed and turned into palatable dishes. Food safety may be affected by toxicity of insects, contamination with pathogens, spoilage during conservation and allergies. Consumer attitude is a major issue in the Western world and a number of strategies are proposed to encourage insect consumption. We discuss research pathways to make insects a viable sector in food and agriculture: an appropriate disciplinary focus, quantifying its importance, comparing its nutritional value to conventional protein sources, environmental benefits, safeguarding food safety, optimising farming, consumer acceptance and gastronomy.

  18. Edible insects in Sustainable Food Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton; Flore, Roberto; Vantomme, Paul

    Edible insects in Sustainable Food Systems comprehensively covers the basic principles of entomology and population dynamics; edible insects and culture; nutrition and health; gastronomy; insects as animal feed; factors influencing preferences and acceptability of insects; environmental impacts...

  19. Collection of edible wild fruits in Eastern Region of Ghana | Boateng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edible wild fruits were collected in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Interviews and group discussions were the methods used to know the locations and subsequent collecting of the fruits. Twelve accessions of fruits were collected of which most were from trees. Cash crop (cocoa) farms were the habitats for most fruit trees in ...

  20. The origins of edible brassicas

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Geoffrey Richard

    2017-01-01

    A summary of the horticultural types of Brassica oleracea (European vegetables) and B. rapa (Oriental vegetables) and the manner by which they both evolved from a common ancestor. This paper examines the evolution in cultivation of the two species which in parallel developed similar forms of edible plants.

  1. Edible insects are the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of

  2. WILD EDIBLE MUSHROOMS OF MEGHALAYA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Paran; Adhikary, R.K; Kalita, Pabitra; Bordoloi, Dalimi; Gogoi, P.; Singh, R.S.; Ghosh, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Different flesh mushrooms grow widely in Meghalaya. Altogether fie edible species were collected and identified which were found abundantly in forest and are known to be consumed by local people for time immemorial, The species identified are lentinus edodes (Berk) Sing., Boletus edulis Bull ex Fr., Clavaria cinerea (Fr.) Schroet, Clavaria aurea (F) Quet and cantharellus floccosus Juss. PMID:22556840

  3. Mercury content of edible mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woidich, H.; Pfannhauser, W.

    1975-05-01

    The mercury content of edible fungi is different. Relatively high burdened are Boletus and Agaricus campestris. A minimum of mercury is found in Russula, Agaricus bisporus and Cantharellus cibarius. The possibilities of mercury uptake and the potential cumulation mechanism is discussed. 8 references, 3 tables.

  4. Green revolution vaccines, edible vaccines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Diabetes. Key words: Edible vaccines, oral vaccines, antigen expression, food vaccines. INTRODUCTION. Vaccination involves the stimulation of the immune system to prepare it for the event of an invasion from a particular pathogen for which the immune system has been primed (Arntzen, 1997). The release of vaccine is.

  5. Crops Models for Varying Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry; Cavazzoni, James; Keas, Paul

    2001-01-01

    New variable environment Modified Energy Cascade (MEC) crop models were developed for all the Advanced Life Support (ALS) candidate crops and implemented in SIMULINK. The MEC models are based on the Volk, Bugbee, and Wheeler Energy Cascade (EC) model and are derived from more recent Top-Level Energy Cascade (TLEC) models. The MEC models simulate crop plant responses to day-to-day changes in photosynthetic photon flux, photoperiod, carbon dioxide level, temperature, and relative humidity. The original EC model allows changes in light energy but uses a less accurate linear approximation. The simulation outputs of the new MEC models for constant nominal environmental conditions are very similar to those of earlier EC models that use parameters produced by the TLEC models. There are a few differences. The new MEC models allow setting the time for seed emergence, have realistic exponential canopy growth, and have corrected harvest dates for potato and tomato. The new MEC models indicate that the maximum edible biomass per meter squared per day is produced at the maximum allowed carbon dioxide level, the nominal temperatures, and the maximum light input. Reducing the carbon dioxide level from the maximum to the minimum allowed in the model reduces crop production significantly. Increasing temperature decreases production more than it decreases the time to harvest, so productivity in edible biomass per meter squared per day is greater at nominal than maximum temperatures, The productivity in edible biomass per meter squared per day is greatest at the maximum light energy input allowed in the model, but the edible biomass produced per light energy input unit is lower than at nominal light levels. Reducing light levels increases light and power use efficiency. The MEC models suggest we can adjust the light energy day-to- day to accommodate power shortages or Lise excess power while monitoring and controlling edible biomass production.

  6. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... edible fat-forming acids. (a) Product. Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

  7. "Those edibles hit hard": Exploration of Twitter data on cannabis edibles in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Francois R; Daniulaityte, Raminta; Sheth, Amit; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Martins, Silvia S; Boyer, Edward W; Carlson, Robert G

    2016-07-01

    Several states in the U.S. have legalized cannabis for recreational or medical uses. In this context, cannabis edibles have drawn considerable attention after adverse effects were reported. This paper investigates Twitter users' perceptions concerning edibles and evaluates the association edibles-related tweeting activity and local cannabis legislation. Tweets were collected between May 1 and July 31, 2015, using Twitter API and filtered through the eDrugTrends/Twitris platform. A random sample of geolocated tweets was manually coded to evaluate Twitter users' perceptions regarding edibles. Raw state proportions of Twitter users mentioning edibles were ajusted relative to the total number of Twitter users per state. Differences in adjusted proportions of Twitter users mentioning edibles between states with different cannabis legislation status were assesed via a permutation test. We collected 100,182 tweets mentioning cannabis edibles with 26.9% (n=26,975) containing state-level geolocation. Adjusted percentages of geolocated Twitter users posting about edibles were significantly greater in states that allow recreational and/or medical use of cannabis. The differences were statistically significant. Overall, cannabis edibles were generally positively perceived among Twitter users despite some negative tweets expressing the unreliability of edible consumption linked to variability in effect intensity and duration. Our findings suggest that Twitter data analysis is an important tool for epidemiological monitoring of emerging drug use practices and trends. Results tend to indicate greater tweeting activity about cannabis edibles in states where medical THC and/or recreational use are legal. Although the majority of tweets conveyed positive attitudes about cannabis edibles, analysis of experiences expressed in negative tweets confirms the potential adverse effects of edibles and calls for educating edibles-naïve users, improving edibles labeling, and testing their THC

  8. Familiarizing Students with Some Edible and Poisonous Wild Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Barry S.; Pirone, Dominick J.

    1989-01-01

    Procedures for safely identifying, preparing and consuming edible plants in the outdoors are provided. Listed are edible plants, references, sources of recipes, nutrient content, and toxic plants. (CW)

  9. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as biopolymers to the edible film sorghum starch hydrophobicity characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Rr. Dewi Artanti; Setiawan, Aji; Anggraini, Puji D.

    2017-03-01

    The use of synthetic plastic should be limited because it causes the plastic waste that can not be decomposed quickly, triggering environmental problems. The solution of the plastic usage is the use of biodegradable plastic as packaging which is environmentally friendly. Synthesis of edible film can be done with a variety of components. The component mixture of starch and cellulose derivative products are one of the methods for making edible film. Sorghum is a species of cereal crops containing starch amounted to 80.42%, where the use of sorghum in Indonesia merely fodder. Therefore, sorghum is a potential material to be used as a source of starch synthesis edible film. This research aims to study the characteristics of edible starch films Sorghum and assess the effect of CMC (Carboxymethyl Cellulose) as additional materials on the characteristics of biopolymers edible film produced sorghum starch. This study is started with the production of sorghum starch, then the film synthesizing with addition of CMC (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% w/w starch), and finally the hydrophobicity characteristics test (water uptake test and water solubility test). The addition of CMC will decrease the percentage of water absorption to the film with lowest level of 65.8% in the degree of CMC in 25% (w/w starch). The addition of CMC also influences the water solubility of film, where in the degree of 25% CMC (w/w starch) the solubility of water was the lowest, which was 28.2% TSM.

  10. Edible insects in Sustainable Food Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton; Flore, Roberto; Vantomme, Paul

    Edible insects in Sustainable Food Systems comprehensively covers the basic principles of entomology and population dynamics; edible insects and culture; nutrition and health; gastronomy; insects as animal feed; factors influencing preferences and acceptability of insects; environmental impacts...... and conservation; considerations for insect farming and policy and legislation. The book contains practical information for researchers, NGOs and international organizations, decision-makers, entrepreneurs and students...

  11. 7 Edible Amphibian Species.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    85 ml of. 50% NaOH was added to the mixture and the liberated ammonia gas was bubbled into a ... Some of the anuran species identified as edible in previous market surveys were. Fig. 2. ... of Applied Ecology, vol. 2011. 19,. Plate 1. Dried edible anurans on display at Badagry and Oyingbo markets, southwestern Nigeria ...

  12. Green revolution vaccines, edible vaccines | Tripurani | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edible vaccines are sub-unit vaccines where the selected genes are introduced into the plants and the transgenic plant is then induced to manufacture the encoded protein. Edible vaccines are mucosal-targeted vaccines where stimulation of both systematic and mucosal immune network takes place. Foods under study ...

  13. Identification of low-Cd cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) after growing on Cd-contaminated soil: uptake and partitioning to the edible roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baifei; Xin, Junliang; Dai, Hongwen; Zhou, Wenjing; Peng, Lijing

    2015-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination in agricultural products presents a threat to humans when consumed. Sweet potato is the world's seventh most important food crop. The aims of this study were to screen for low-Cd sweet potato cultivars and clarify the mechanisms of low-Cd accumulation in edible roots. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the variation of Cd uptake and translocation among 30 sweet potato cultivars grown in contaminated soils with three different Cd concentrations. Cadmium concentrations in edible roots were significantly different among cultivars and were significantly affected by Cd treatment, and the interaction between cultivar and Cd treatment. High-Cd cultivars have higher ratios of edible root/shoot Cd concentration and edible root/feeder root Cd concentration than low-Cd cultivars; however, the ratio of shoot/feeder root Cd concentration seems unrelated to the ability of Cd accumulation in edible roots. Four sweet potato cultivars, Nan88 (No. 10), Xiang20 (No. 12), Ji78-066 (No. 15), and Ji73-427 (No. 16), were identified as low-Cd cultivars. Cadmium translocation from feeder roots to edible roots via the xylem, and from shoots to edible roots via the phloem, controls Cd accumulation in edible roots of sweet potato cultivars.

  14. POTENSI EDIBLE FILM ANTIMIKROBA SEBAGAI PENGAWET DAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maskiyah (Maskiyah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fresh meat are highly perishable due to their enriched nutrient composition which is easily contaminated by almost any microorganisms. The application of antimicrobial edible films is one of the effective method to extend the shelf life of fresh meat. This study aimed to get antimicrobial edible films formula that have the potential to preserve fresh meat. The study consisted of several steps: 1 research for making a fresh garlic extract, 2 extraction of gelatin from chicken feet, 3 formulation and manufacturing of antimicrobial edible films and 4 the application of edible films on fresh meat. Gelatin-based antimicrobial edible films was the best one that can be applied on fresh meat. Characteristics of the antimirobial edible film: color L 97.28; elongation: 20 mm; tensile strength <0.1 kgf; thickness 0.06 mm; WVTR 15.49 g/(mm.jam; Aw 0.526; moisture content: 22.73%, and has antimicrobial characteristic because of it’s inhibition ability to the growth of S. aureus and E. coli. (Key words: Antimicrobial, Edible film, Meat

  15. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: ackoike@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  16. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2011-01-01

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  17. Sesame ( Sesame indicum L .) Crop Production in Ethiopia: Trends ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sesame is one of the most important high value oil crops in Ethiopia contributing high foreign currency. Sesame oil is useful edible oil and has wide applications. Different ... The production is concentrated in South western and north western parts of Ethiopian. The three commonly used sesame commercial varieties in these ...

  18. Seasonal light interception, radiation use efficiency, growth and tuber production of the tuber crop Plectranthus edulis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taye, M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Plectranthus edulis (Vatke) Agnew (Lamiaceae) is an ancient Ethiopian crop that produces below-ground, edible tubers on stolons. It is grown from seed tuber pieces. There is thus far little quantitative information on dry matter production of this crop and parameters determining growth and yield.

  19. Minor lipophilic compounds in edible insects

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Sabolová; Anna Adámková; Lenka Kouřimská; Diana Chrpová; Jan Pánek

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary society is faced with the question how to ensure suffiecient nutrition (quantity and quality) for rapidly growing population. One solution can be consumption of edible insect, which can have very good nutritional value (dietary energy, protein, fatty acids, fibers, dietary minerals and vitamins composition). Some edible insects species, which contains a relatively large amount of fat, can have a potential to be a „good" (interesting, new) source of minor lipophilic compound...

  20. Alternative crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreasen, L.M.; Boon, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)

  1. CROPS Clever Robots for Crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontsema, J.; Hemming, J.; Pekkeriet, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    In the EU-funded CROPS project robots are developed for site-specific spraying and selective harvesting of fruit
    and fruit vegetables. The robots are being designed to harvest crops, such as greenhouse vegetables, apples,
    grapes and for canopy spraying in orchards and for precision target

  2. Seed germination in relation to the invasiveness in spiny amaranth and edible amaranth in Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ye

    Full Text Available Both spiny and edible amaranths (Amaranthus spinosus and A. tricolor are exotic annuals in China that produce numerous small seeds every year. Spiny amaranth has become a successful invader and a troublesome weed in Xishuangbanna, but edible amaranth has not, although it is widely grown as a vegetable there. As seed germination is one of the most important life-stages contributing to the ability of a plant to become invasive, we conducted experiments to compare the effects of high temperature and water stress on seed germination in two varieties each of spiny amaranth and edible amaranth. Overall, the seeds of both amaranth species exhibited adaptation to high temperature and water stress, including tolerance to ground temperatures of 70°C for air-dried seeds, which is consistent with their behavior in their native ranges in the tropics. As expected, the invasive spiny amaranth seeds exhibited higher tolerance to both continuous and daily periodic high-temperature treatment at 45°C, and to imbibition-desiccation treatment, compared to edible amaranth seeds. Unexpectedly, edible amaranth seeds exhibited higher germination at extreme temperatures (10°C, 15°C, and 40°C, and at lower water potential (below -0.6 MPa. It is likely that cultivation of edible amaranth has selected seed traits that include rapid germination and germination under stressful conditions, either of which, under natural conditions, may result in the death of most germinating edible amaranth seeds and prevent them from becoming invasive weeds in Xishuangbanna. This study suggests that rapid germination and high germination under stress conditions-excellent seed traits for crops and for many invasive species-might be a disadvantage under natural conditions if these traits are asynchronous with natural local conditions that support successful germination.

  3. Seed germination in relation to the invasiveness in spiny amaranth and edible amaranth in Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Juan; Wen, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Both spiny and edible amaranths (Amaranthus spinosus and A. tricolor) are exotic annuals in China that produce numerous small seeds every year. Spiny amaranth has become a successful invader and a troublesome weed in Xishuangbanna, but edible amaranth has not, although it is widely grown as a vegetable there. As seed germination is one of the most important life-stages contributing to the ability of a plant to become invasive, we conducted experiments to compare the effects of high temperature and water stress on seed germination in two varieties each of spiny amaranth and edible amaranth. Overall, the seeds of both amaranth species exhibited adaptation to high temperature and water stress, including tolerance to ground temperatures of 70°C for air-dried seeds, which is consistent with their behavior in their native ranges in the tropics. As expected, the invasive spiny amaranth seeds exhibited higher tolerance to both continuous and daily periodic high-temperature treatment at 45°C, and to imbibition-desiccation treatment, compared to edible amaranth seeds. Unexpectedly, edible amaranth seeds exhibited higher germination at extreme temperatures (10°C, 15°C, and 40°C), and at lower water potential (below -0.6 MPa). It is likely that cultivation of edible amaranth has selected seed traits that include rapid germination and germination under stressful conditions, either of which, under natural conditions, may result in the death of most germinating edible amaranth seeds and prevent them from becoming invasive weeds in Xishuangbanna. This study suggests that rapid germination and high germination under stress conditions-excellent seed traits for crops and for many invasive species-might be a disadvantage under natural conditions if these traits are asynchronous with natural local conditions that support successful germination.

  4. Investigation of Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) on Mechanical Properties of Cold Water Fish Gelatin Biodegradable Edible Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabari, Mahsa

    2017-05-27

    The tendency to use biocompatible packages, such as biodegradable films, is growing since they contain natural materials, are recyclable and do not cause environmental pollution. In this research, cold water fish gelatin and carboxymethyl cellulose were combined for use in edible films. Due to its unique properties, gelatin is widely used in creating gel, and in restructuring, stabilizing, emulsifying, and forming foam and film in food industries. This research for the first time modified and improved the mechanical properties of cold water fish gelatin films in combination with carboxymethyl cellulose. Cold water fish gelatin films along with carboxymethyl cellulose with concentrations of 0%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 50% were prepared using the casting method. The mechanical properties were tested by the American National Standard Method. Studying the absorption isotherm of the resulting composite films specified that the humidity of single-layer water decreased ( p food industry, as an edible coating for packaging food and agricultural crops.

  5. Antimicrobial volatile essential oils in edible films for food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter provides a comprehensive update of experimental use of antimicrobial volatile essential oils in edible film applications. It reviews the most recent advancement in edible film technology to promote food safety. A brief description of how these antimicrobial edible films are produ...

  6. Indigenous knowledge and utilization of edible mushrooms in parts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous knowledge on edible fungi in Ghana has mostly been limited to rural people. Edible mushrooms are collected from forest reserves, secondary forests and fields under fallow. However, with the current rate of bush burning and deforestation, collection of edible mushrooms from the wild is threatened. A survey was ...

  7. Documentation of inherited knowledge on wild edible fungi from Malyasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdullah, F.; Rusea, G.

    2009-01-01

    The gradual loss in traditional knowledge on wild edible fungi is a common phenomenon the world over, including Malaysia. A documentation of known edible fungi in Malaysia was executed, with the objective of salvaging traditional knowledge on the identification and edibility of these mushrooms,

  8. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or...

  9. Mycotoxins in edible tree nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, Russell J; Mahoney, Noreen; Kim, Jong H; Campbell, Bruce C

    2007-10-20

    Tree nuts (almonds, pistachios, and walnuts) are an exceptionally valuable crop, especially in California, with an aggregate value approaching $3.5 billion. Much of this economic value comes from overseas markets, with up to 60% of the crop being exported. The product can be contaminated with aflatoxins or ochratoxins, with the former being of special concern because of the strict regulatory levels (4 ppb total aflatoxins) applied by the European Community (EC). Natural, consumer-acceptable control methods are therefore required to conform to such limits. Research has shown that aflatoxin production is markedly decreased by the presence of natural antioxidants that occur in tree nuts, including hydrolysable tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids. In vitro testing of individual compounds showed that the antiaflatoxigenic effect correlated with the structure and concentration of such compounds in individual nut varieties and species. This lead to the hypothesis that aflatoxin biosynthesis is stimulated by oxidative stress on the fungus and that compounds capable of relieving oxidative stress should therefore suppress or eliminate aflatoxin biosynthesis. Oxidative stress induced in A. flavus by addition of tert-butyl hydroperoxide to the media stimulated peak aflatoxin production and maintained high levels over time. However, aflatoxin formation was significantly inhibited by incorporation into the media of the antioxidant, tannic acid. Measures to increase natural products with antioxidant properties in tree nuts may thereby reduce or eliminate the ability of A. flavus to biosynthesize aflatoxins, thus ensuring levels at or below regulatory limits and maintaining export markets for U.S. tree nuts.

  10. Production of Fully Homozygous Genotypes from Various Edible Alliums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. ALAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Allium is a very large genus containing over 700 distinct species including the various edible onions, garlics, chives, and leeks. About a dozen of the species are economically important as crops or garden vegetables where as many others are cultivated as ornamental plants. Allium breeding programs generally take very long time with low success due to problems such as long life cycle, sterility, polyploidy, high levels of heterozygosity. Development of inbreed lines is a very difficult process due to severe inbreeding depression. Doubled haploid (DH techniques can be utilized to obtain fully homozygous Allium materials. In Alliums, gynogenesis is the major technique used to produce haploid and DH plants from unfertilized female gamets with reduced chromosome number. We are in the process of developing gynogenesis induction protocols for several edible Allium species. We showed that gynogenic embryos can be obtained from a wide range of Allium materials. About half of the gynogenic embryos continue to grow and become plantlets. In general, gynogenic plantlets are green, but some of them show chlorophyll abnomalities. Results obtained from flow cytometric analysis of nuclei isolated from gynogenic materials indicate that majority of the gynogenic Allium materials are haploid and DH plants. DH onion lines developed in our program are generally vigorous plants with high levels of fecundity. The seeds obtained from DH onions show high germination. Plants of DH onion lines grow uniformly and produce bulbs very uniform in size, shape, color and quality features. These DH lines are excellent inbreds to be used as male parents in the production of F1 hybrid onion lines. Success obtained in DH onion materials indicates that a similar approach can be applied in the breeding programs of other important Alliums.

  11. Edible wild plant use in the Faroe Islands and Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Svanberg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the use of wild edible plants in the Faroe Islands and Iceland from the times of the first settlement of Norse people in the Viking age until today, with a special emphasis on the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Animal products have been an important source of nutrients for the islanders of northern Atlantic. Cultivation of cereals on the other hand has played a minor role, and had already been abandoned by late medieval times in Iceland and by the early 20th century on the Faroes. Crops such as potatoes, turnips and other roots were only grown in the small patches of cultivated soil. Wild plants have therefore been of some importance for the Faroese people and the Icelanders; in the last centuries especially for the rural poor and during times of recessions. The native Angelica archangelica L. was gathered in the wild and also cultivated in gardens for centuries. A few species have been part of the regular food staple. Some plants are still gathered and made into food products by small companies, especially in Iceland. In the Faroes, the economic aspect of edible wild plant taxa is mostly of historical interest, although a few products of A. archangelica are sometimes available. Two taxa have been exploited as regular food exclusively in Iceland: Cetraria islandica (L. Arch. and Elymus arenarius L. Icelanders have used C. islandica from the early settlement days and continue to do so today, E. arenarius became obsolete as a food plant a century ago.

  12. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or...

  13. Canaryseed Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Cogliatti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Canaryseed (Phalaris canariensis L. is a graminaceous crop species with production practices and cycle similar to those of other winter cereal crops such as spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and oat (Avena sativa L.. Currently its grains are used almost exclusively as feed for birds, alone or mixed with other grains like millet, sunflower seed, and flaxseed. Canaryseed is a genuine cereal with a unique composition that suggests its potential for food use. P. canariensis is cultivated in many areas of temperate climates. Currently, its production is concentrated in the southwestern provinces of Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba and on a smaller scale in Argentina, Thailand and Australia. Globally it is considered to be a minor crop with regional relevance, with a production about of 250000 tonnes per year, which restricts private investment and public research on its genetic and technological improvement. For this reason, the type of crop management that is applied to this species largely depends on innovations made in other similar crops. This work provides an updated summary of the available information on the species: its requirements, distribution, genetic resources, cultivation practices, potential uses, marketing and other topics of interest to researchers and producers.

  14. Role of edible film and coating additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible films and coatings have received increasing interest because films and coatings can carry a diversity of functional ingredients. Plasticizers, such as glycerol, acetylated monoglycerides, polyethylene glycol, and sucrose are often used to modify the mechanical properties of the film or coatin...

  15. Edible insects contributing to food security?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, van Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Because of growing demand for meat and declining availability of agricultural land, there is an urgent need to find alternative protein sources. Edible insects can be produced with less environmental impact than livestock. Insect meal can replace scarce fishmeal as feed ingredient, in particular

  16. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms ADEDAYO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: Proximate study was conducted on four edible mushrooms commonly found in farmlands in. West Yagba ... dead organic matters in the soil may last for years. The fruit .... Table 1: Nutritional and chemical analyses of mushroom samples (TSC total soluble carbohydrate, TTA titratable acid, ASH ash content,.

  17. Filler functionality in edible solid foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    We review the functionality of particulate ingredients in edible brittle foams, such as expanded starchy snacks. In food science and industry there is not a complete awareness of the full functionality of these filler ingredients, which can be fibers, proteins, starch granules and whole grains.

  18. Identification of Tanzanian saprophytic edible mushrooms by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, ten wild saprophytic edible mushrooms samples, collected from Tanzania natural forests and planted trees, and their two domesticated forms were characterized by in-vitro/in-vivo amplification and sequencing of ITS/LSU regions. Mushroom genomic DNA was extracted by ZR Fungal/Bacterial DNA MniPrep Kit.

  19. The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted.

  20. Electronic nose in edible insects area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Adámek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible insect is appraised by many cultures as delicious and nutritionally beneficial food. In western countries this commodity is not fully appreciated, and the worries about edible insect food safety prevail. Electronic noses can become a simple and cheap way of securing the health safety of food, and they can also become a tool for evaluating the quality of certain commodities. This research is a pilot project of using an electronic nose in edible insect culinary treatment, and this manuscript describes the phases of edible insect culinary treatment and methods of distinguishing mealworm (Tenebrio molitor and giant mealworm (Zophobas morio using simple electronic nose. These species were measured in the live stage, after killing with boiling water, after drying and after inserting into the chocolate.The sensing device was based on the Arduino Mega platform with the ability to store the recorded data on the SD memory card, and with the possibility to communicate via internet. Data analysis shows that even a simple, cheap and portable electronic nose can distinguish between the different steps of culinary treatment (native samples, dried samples, samples enriched with chocolate for cooking and selected species. Another benefit of the electronic nose could be its future introduction into the control mechanisms of food security systems (e.g. HACCP.

  1. “Those edibles hit hard”: Exploration of Twitter data on cannabis edibles in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Francois R.; Daniulaityte, Raminta; Sheth, Amit; Nahhas, Ramzi W.; Martins, Silvia S.; Boyer, Edward W.; Carlson, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Several states in the U.S. have legalized cannabis for recreational or medical uses. In this context, cannabis edibles have drawn considerable attention after adverse effects were reported. This paper investigates Twitter users’ perceptions concerning edibles and evaluates the association edibles-related tweeting activity and local cannabis legislation. Methods Tweets were collected between May 1 and July 31, 2015, using Twitter API and filtered through the eDrugTrends/Twitris platform. A random sample of geolocated tweets was manually coded to evaluate Twitter users’ perceptions regarding edibles. Raw state proportions of Twitter users mentioning edibles were ajusted relative to the total number of Twitter users per state. Differences in adjusted proportions of Twitter users mentioning edibles between states with different cannabis legislation status were assesed via a permutation test. Results We collected 100,182 tweets mentioning cannabis edibles with 26.9% (n=26,975) containing state-level geolocation. Adjusted percentages of geolocated Twitter users posting about edibles were significantly greater in states that allow recreational and/or medical use of cannabis. The differences were statistically significant. Overall, cannabis edibles were generally positively perceived among Twitter users despite some negative tweets expressing the unreliability of edible consumption linked to variability in effect intensity and duration. Conclusion Our findings suggest that Twitter data analysis is an important tool for epidemiological monitoring of emerging drug use practices and trends. Results tend to indicate greater tweeting activity about cannabis edibles in states where medical THC and/or recreational use are legal. Although the majority of tweets conveyed positive attitudes about cannabis edibles, analysis of experiences expressed in negative tweets confirms the potential adverse effects of edibles and calls for educating edibles-naïve users, improving

  2. Edible insects in China: Utilization and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Min; He, Zhao; Sun, Long; Wang, Cheng-Ye; Ding, Wei-Feng

    2018-04-01

    The use of edible insects has a long history in China, where they have been consumed for more than 2000 years. In general, the level of acceptance is high for the consumption of insects in China. Many studies on edible insects have been conducted in the last 20 years, and the scope of the research includes the culture of entomophagy and the identification, nutritional value, farming and breeding of edible insects, in addition to food production and safety. Currently, 324 species of insects from 11 orders are documented that are either edible or associated with entomophagy in China, which include the common edible species, some less commonly consumed species and some medicinal insects. However, only approximately 10 to 20 types of insects are regularly consumed. The nutritional values for 174 species are available in China, including edible, feed and medicinal species. Although the nutritional values vary among species, all the insects examined contain protein, fat, vitamins and minerals at levels that meet human nutritional requirements. Edible insects were, and continue to be, consumed by different ethnic groups in many parts of China. People directly consume insects or food products made from insects. The processing of products from insect protein powder, oil and chitin, and the development of healthcare foods has been studied in China. People also consume insects indirectly by eating livestock that were fed insects, which may be a more acceptable pathway to use insects in human diets. Although limited, the data on the food safety of insects indicate that insects are safe for food or feed. Incidences of allergic reactions after consuming silkworm pupae, cicadas and crickets have been reported in China. Insect farming is a unique breeding industry in rural China and is a source of income for local people. Insects are reared and bred for human food, medicine and animal feed using two approaches in China: the insects are either fully domesticated and reared

  3. Minor lipophilic compounds in edible insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sabolová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary society is faced with the question how to ensure suffiecient nutrition (quantity and quality for rapidly growing population. One solution can be consumption of edible insect, which can have very good nutritional value (dietary energy, protein, fatty acids, fibers, dietary minerals and vitamins composition. Some edible insects species, which contains a relatively large amount of fat, can have a potential to be a „good" (interesting, new source of minor lipophilic compounds such as sterols (cholesterol and phytosterols and tocopherols in our diet. For this reason, the objective of this work was to characterize the sterols and tocopherols composition of fat from larvae of edible insect Zophobas morio L. and Tenebrio mollitor L. Cholesterol and three phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were reliably identified and quantified after hot saponification and derivatization by GC-MS. Other steroid compounds, including 5,6-trans-cholecalciferol were identified only according to the NIST library. Cholesterol was the predominant sterol in all analysed samples. Both types of larvae also contained high amount of phytosterols. Different region of origin had a no significant impact on sterols composition, while the effect of beetle genus was crucial. Tocopherols were analysed by reverse phase HPLC coupled with amperometric detection. Tocopherols content in mealworm larvae was lower than content in edible oils, but important from the nutritional point of view. Change of tocopherols composition was not observed during the storage under different conditions. Larvae of edible insect can be a potential good dietary source of cholesterol, but also vitamin D3 isomers, phytosterols and tocopherols.  

  4. State and trends of oil crops production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tiankui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to present a full picture of current situation and future trends of Chinese oil crop production. The total oil crop production remained broadly constant during 2011–2014. The top three oil crops are soybean, peanut and rapeseed, together accounting for more than 70% of total oil crop production. The area under cultivation and the production of peanuts will keep steadily increasing because most Chinese like its pleasant roasted flavor. Because of their high content in polyunsaturated fatty acids and the natural minor functional components in their oils, more attention is being paid to sunflower seed and rice bran. The diminishing availability of arable land and concern over the security of edible oil supplies is driving both a change in cultivation structure of crops and improvements in the efficiency of oilseed production in China.

  5. Food for thought: edible gardens in New Zealand primary and secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, C; Richards, R; Reeder, A I; Gray, A R

    2015-04-01

    School gardens are a potentially important health promotion tool, allowing the growth and consumption of fruit and vegetables to be embedded within the students' educational experience. This study aimed to investigate the implementation of edible gardens in New Zealand (NZ) primary and secondary schools. A questionnaire mailed to principals from a randomly selected sample of 764 NZ schools included questions on whether or not the school had a garden and, if so, what produce was grown; how long the garden had been in place; how harvested crops were distributed; and curriculum integration. Among 491 responding schools (64.3% response rate), 52.9% currently had an edible garden - with most gardens started in the previous two years. Vegetables, herbs and tree fruit were commonly grown. Gardens were integrated into curriculum subjects, cooking lessons, recipes and messages promoting increased fruit and vegetable consumption. Edible gardens were common within NZ schools, though often relatively new, and were used for teaching in a variety of curriculum areas. SO WHAT?: Given the current popularity of school gardens, there are opportunities to deliver health promotion messages regarding consumption of fruit and vegetables, and for these to be reinforced by real life experience growing and preparing healthy food.

  6. TRADITIONAL USE OF THREE EDIBLE INSECTS IN COFFEE AGROECOSYSTEMS IN THE STATE OF VERACRUZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Escamilla Prado

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Coffee (Coffea arabica L. is one of the most economically, socioculturally and environmentally important crops in Veracruz. Shade-grown coffee plantations provide environmental services and play a key role in biodiversity conservation. In coffee farms in Veracruz insects are an abundant natural resource, and part of the use of this resource is the consumption of some edible insects in certain coffee regions. The objective of this study was to know the traditional use of three species of edible insects in the coffee agroecosystem of Veracruz. During the period 2007-2012, an ethnoentomological study was conducted in coffee regions from central Veracruz. The insect species identified were the ants chicatanas (Atta mexicana Smith and Atta cephalotes Latreille in the municipality of Huatusco, the larva gusano del jonote (Arsenura armida armida Cramer in the municipalities of Zongolica, Tequila and Tezonapa, and the larva gusanillo (Phassus triangularis H.E. in the municipalities of Córdoba, Ixhuatlán del Café, Tepatlaxco, Chocamán and Zongolica. The results showed the traditional knowledge held by coffee growers related to these edible species which are a valuable natural resource in their coffee plantations. Knowledge on agroecological relationships, collection, consumption and marketing was rescued. In conclusion, the insect species studied are used for local consumption and have great economic potential due to their high sell price during the harvest season.

  7. The Importance of Edible Landscape in the Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Çelik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century sustainable city requires the merging of urbanism with sustainable food systems. The challenges industrial food system separates people from their food sources. The design strategies for edible landscape are about re-inviting food back into the city and re-connecting people with their local/regional food system to promote a healthier lifestyle. Edible landscapes are a movement in transition and sprouting up as a response to the slow food movement and living a greener lifestyle. These urban agricultural landscapes are fast becoming iconic media darlings and are demonstrating that they are far more than growing vegetables and fruits on abandoned lots. Edible landscaping is the use of food plants as design features in a landscape. These plants are used both for aesthetic value as well as consumption. Edible landscapes encompass a variety of garden types and scales but do not include food items produced for sale. Edible landscaping is the practical integration of food plants within an ornamental or decorative setting. Using edibles in landscape design can enhance a garden by providing a unique ornamental component with additional health, aesthetic, and economic benefits. In this study; emergence of edible landscape, edible landscape design and maintenance, samples of edible landscape, productive plants, importance of edible landscaping for urban environments have been explained.

  8. Not just minor wild edible forest products: consumption of pteridophytes in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroyi, Alfred

    2014-12-22

    Gathering of wild edible plant resources by people in sub-Saharan Africa is discussed with reference to pteridophytes, which is an ancient plant group. Pteridophytes are crucial to food diversity and security in sub-Saharan Africa, although they are notably neglected as a result of inadequate research and agricultural development. Current research and agricultural development agenda still appear to focus on the popular and commonly used food crops, vegetables and fruits; ignoring minor and underutilized plant species such as pteridophytes which have shown significant potential as sources of macro and micro nutrients required to improve the diet of children and other vulnerable groups in sub-Saharan Africa. Documentation of edible pteridophytes is needed to reveal the importance of this plant group in the region and the associated indigenous knowledge about them; so that this knowledge can be preserved and utilized species used to combat dietary deficiencies as well as improve food security in the region. The aim of this study is to present an overview of food value of pteridophytes in sub-Saharan Africa using available literature and to highlight their potential in addressing dietary deficiencies in impoverished communities in the region. This study is based on review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, reports from national, regional and international organizations, theses, conference papers and other grey materials obtained from libraries and electronic search of Google Scholar, ISI Web of Science and Scopus. A total of 24 taxa belonging to 14 genera and 11 families are used in sub-Saharan Africa as fodder and human food. Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn is the most common edible pteridophyte in sub-Saharan Africa, used as human food in Angola, Cameroon, DRC, Gabon, Madagascar, Nigeria and South Africa, followed by Ophioglossum reticulatum L. (South Africa, Swaziland and Zanzibar), Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brongn. (Madagascar and

  9. Diseases caused by Ganoderma spp. on perennial crops in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Nasreen

    2005-01-01

    Ganoderma applanatum (Pres. Wallr) Pat. and G. lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) Karst attack species of Pinus, Dalbergia, Artocarpus, Morus, Cedrus, Melia, Quercus, Populus and other trees in Pakistan causing stem, butt and root rot diseases. A research institution to manage the diseases of perennial crops in general and of trees yielding edible oil in particular such as coconut and oil palm needs to be established in Pakistan.

  10. Edible Earth and Space Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.; Shupla, C.

    2014-07-01

    In this workshop we describe using Earth and Space Science demonstrations with edible ingredients to increase student interest. We show how to use chocolate, candy, cookies, popcorn, bagels, pastries, Pringles, marshmallows, whipped cream, and Starburst candy for activities such as: plate tectonics, the interior structure of the Earth and Mars, radioactivity/radioactive dating of rocks and stars, formation of the planets, lunar phases, convection, comets, black holes, curvature of space, dark energy, and the expansion of the Universe. In addition to creating an experience that will help students remember specific concepts, edible activities can be used as a formative assessment, providing students with the opportunity to create something that demonstrates their understanding of the model. The students often eat the demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool for all ages, and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  11. Diversity of edible mushrooms in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, K.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Iftikhar, F.

    2007-01-01

    Fifty six edible species of mushrooms are reported from Pakistan including four from Balochistan, three from Sindh, five from Punjab and 44 from NWFP and Azad Kashmir. Some of species being commercially exploited in the world are Agaricus bisporus, Auricularia spp. Coprinus comatus, Flammulina vellutipes, Lentinus edodes, Phellorina inquinans, Pleurotus ostreatus, Stropharia rugosoannulata, Volvariella volvacea. Because of over collection, urbanization and deforestation, some of species are threatened of extinction. (author)

  12. Understanding cultural significance, the edible mushrooms case

    OpenAIRE

    Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Caballero, Javier; Estrada-Torres, Arturo; Cifuentes, Joaqu?n

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Cultural significance is a keystone in quantitative ethnobiology, which offers the possibility to make inferences about traditional nomenclature systems, use, appropriation and valuing of natural resources. In the present work, using as model the traditional mycological knowledge of Zapotecs from Oaxaca, Mexico, we analyze the cultural significance of wild edible resources. Methods In 2003 we applied 95 questionnaires to a random sample of informants. With this data we int...

  13. Recycling of Na in advanced life support: strategies based on crop production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntur, S V; Mackowiak, C; Wheeler, R M

    1999-01-01

    Sodium is an essential dietary requirement in human nutrition, but seldom holds much importance as a nutritional element for crop plants. In Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems, recycling of gases, nutrients, and water loops is required to improve system closure. If plants are to play a significant role in recycling of human wastes, Na will need to accumulate in edible tissues for return to the crew diet. If crops fail to accumulate the incoming Na into edible tissues, Na could become a threat to the hydroponic food production system by increasing the nutrient solution salinity. Vegetable crops of Chenopodiaceae such as spinach, table beet, and chard may have a high potential to supply Na to the human diet, as Na can substitute for K to a large extent in metabolic processes of these crops. Various strategies are outlined that include both genetic and environmental management aspects to optimize the Na recovery from waste streams and their resupply through the human diet in ALS.

  14. Ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants of Kara and Kwego semi-pastoralist people in Lower Omo River Valley, Debub Omo Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Giday, Mirutse

    2010-08-17

    and consumed from 'Duka' (March) to 'Halet' (May) and from 'Meko' (August) to 'Tejo' (November). Sixteen (41%) of the plant parts were used as a substitute for cultivated vegetables during times of scarcity. The vegetables were chopped and boiled to make 'Belesha' (sauce) or as a relish to 'Adano' (porridge). The ripe fruits were gathered and consumed fresh and some were made into juices. The seeds and underground parts were only consumed in times of famine. Thirty-seven percent of the wild edible plants were used as medicine and 23.6% were used for other functions. The wild edible plants were used as supplements to the cultivated crops and as famine foods between harvesting seasons. But information on the nutritional values and possible toxic effects of most of the wild edible plants reported by Kara and Kwego, and others in different part of Ethiopia is not available. Therefore, the documented information on the wild edible plants may serve as baseline data for future studies on nutritional values and possible side effects, and to identify plants that may improve nutrition and increase dietary diversity. Some of these wild edible plants may have the potential to be valuable food sources (if cultivated) and could be part of a strategy in tackling food insecurity.

  15. Ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants of Kara and Kwego semi-pastoralist people in Lower Omo River Valley, Debub Omo Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teklehaymanot Tilahun

    2010-08-01

    wild edible plants were gathered and consumed from 'Duka' (March to 'Halet' (May and from 'Meko' (August to 'Tejo' (November. Sixteen (41% of the plant parts were used as a substitute for cultivated vegetables during times of scarcity. The vegetables were chopped and boiled to make 'Belesha' (sauce or as a relish to 'Adano' (porridge. The ripe fruits were gathered and consumed fresh and some were made into juices. The seeds and underground parts were only consumed in times of famine. Thirty-seven percent of the wild edible plants were used as medicine and 23.6% were used for other functions. Conclusions The wild edible plants were used as supplements to the cultivated crops and as famine foods between harvesting seasons. But information on the nutritional values and possible toxic effects of most of the wild edible plants reported by Kara and Kwego, and others in different part of Ethiopia is not available. Therefore, the documented information on the wild edible plants may serve as baseline data for future studies on nutritional values and possible side effects, and to identify plants that may improve nutrition and increase dietary diversity. Some of these wild edible plants may have the potential to be valuable food sources (if cultivated and could be part of a strategy in tackling food insecurity.

  16. Ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants of Kara and Kwego semi-pastoralist people in Lower Omo River Valley, Debub Omo Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    plants were gathered and consumed from 'Duka' (March) to 'Halet' (May) and from 'Meko' (August) to 'Tejo' (November). Sixteen (41%) of the plant parts were used as a substitute for cultivated vegetables during times of scarcity. The vegetables were chopped and boiled to make 'Belesha' (sauce) or as a relish to 'Adano' (porridge). The ripe fruits were gathered and consumed fresh and some were made into juices. The seeds and underground parts were only consumed in times of famine. Thirty-seven percent of the wild edible plants were used as medicine and 23.6% were used for other functions. Conclusions The wild edible plants were used as supplements to the cultivated crops and as famine foods between harvesting seasons. But information on the nutritional values and possible toxic effects of most of the wild edible plants reported by Kara and Kwego, and others in different part of Ethiopia is not available. Therefore, the documented information on the wild edible plants may serve as baseline data for future studies on nutritional values and possible side effects, and to identify plants that may improve nutrition and increase dietary diversity. Some of these wild edible plants may have the potential to be valuable food sources (if cultivated) and could be part of a strategy in tackling food insecurity. PMID:20712910

  17. Production of Pharmaceutical Proteins in Solanaceae Food Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio De Guzman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of increased safety and cost-effectiveness make vegetable crops appropriate systems for the production and delivery of pharmaceutical proteins. In particular, Solanaceae edible crops could be inexpensive biofactories for oral vaccines and other pharmaceutical proteins that can be ingested as minimally processed extracts or as partially purified products. The field of crop plant biotechnology is advancing rapidly due to novel developments in genetic and genomic tools being made available today for the scientific community. In this review, we briefly summarize data now available regarding genomic resources for the Solanaceae family. In addition, we describe novel strategies developed for the expression of foreign proteins in vegetable crops and the utilization of these techniques to manufacture pharmaceutical proteins.

  18. The Development of an Edible Peanut Protein Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, N.; Jones, G.; Aglan, H.; Lu, J.

    1998-01-01

    The peanut is one of the crops chosen for use in NASA's Advanced Life Support Program (ALS). The peanut is a source of both oil and protein. After oil is extracted from the peanut, a protein rich flour remains. An edible peanut protein film is one use for this flour. Two types of film are developed for this study, one set of film contains 10% fat while the other set contains no fat. For film without fat the defatting of the peanut by the Soxhlet method is the first step in the manufacturing process of the film. Secondly, the protein is precipitated at its isoelectric point (pH 4.5) and centrifuged to separate the protein from the non-protein. After freeze-drying the protein it is milled in a ceramic ball mill to decrease particle size and sifted through a series of sieves to determine particle size distribution. Those particles retained on the 100 mesh sieves are utilized for film formation. Larger particles are re-ground and sifted. Five grams of protein is mixed with 50 mL of distilled water, 70 mL of 80% ethanol, 15 mL of 6N ammonium hydroxide and a plasticizer. This mixture is heated for 30 minutes until the temperature reaches 70 C. The mixture is then poured onto a level Teflon coated glass surface. After allowing the film to form overnight under a ventilation hood, it is manually removed from the plate. The processes and methods adopted have created flexible films of uniform thickness that are free of air bubbles. Thickness of films made from defatted peanut protein and partially defatted peanut protein were 0.10 Lm and 0.13 Lm respectively. Films with natural peanut fat are approximately three times as flexible and almost four times as strong as the films made without fat. Further research will be performed to evaluate its mechanical properties. This paper will greatly contribute to food preservation and waste management. Potential applications of this film are edible/biodegradable containers, wrapping for food preservation (against water, oxygen and oil

  19. THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF EDIBLE PROTEIN FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Ogur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, edible films from isolated or concentrated protein sources and from proteins of two different fish species were produced. The texture properties, light transmission (LT and oxygen permeability (OP of producing films were determined. The CL film settled in the second range according to both tension test parameters, thus outclassing the other tested films. The WG film possessed the lowest LT, so making it more effective in protecting of food products from light than the other tested films. The SPI film with the lowest OP value can be used for the purpose of protecting of food products from harmful effects of oxidation.

  20. Proximate and mineral analysis of some wild edible mushrooms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    israelikk

    2012-04-12

    Apr 12, 2012 ... Key words: Edible mushroom, mineral composition, proximate analysis. ... than beef, pork and chicken that contain similar nutrients. .... legumes and meat. In earlier studies, Gruen and Wong. (1982) indicated that edible mushrooms were highly nutritional and compared favourably with meat, egg and milk.

  1. utilization of some non-edible oil for biodiesel production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogunjo Samuel

    greenhouse gas emissions [2]. Biodiesel is a non-conventional energy source produced from edible oil such as soya bean oil, corn oil, groundnut oil, palm oil, and sunflower oil and non-edible oil such as animal fat, waste vegetable oil, jatropha oil, algae oil, and castor oil. It is produced through transesterification process.

  2. Proximate and mineral composition of four edible mushroom species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    Key words: Edible mushrooms; food composition. INTRODUCTION. Mushrooms are saprophytes. ... riboflavin, biotin and thiamine (Chang and Buswell,. 1996). Ogundana and Fagade (1981) indicated that ... Four edible mushroom species were analyzed for food composition according to the Association of Official Analytical ...

  3. Analysis of Edible Mushroom Marketing in Three Villages in Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the marketing of edible mushroom in three villages (Alesi, Ekukunela and Ohon) in Central Cross River State, Nigeria. The marketing of edible mushroom in the state offers job opportunities for both skilled and unskilled rural population at farm gate and offers market employment opportunities for ...

  4. Parametric Analysis of Presession Exposure to Edible and Nonedible Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Jolene R.; Borrero, John C.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the effects of individually defined small, medium, and large periods of presession access to edible and nonedible reinforcers on response rates during sessions in which responding produced access to identical reinforcers. Any presession access to an edible reinforcer decreased response rates for 1 participant, and small and medium…

  5. Preparation of Edible Corn Starch Phosphate with Highly Reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare edible corn starch phosphate under optimized experimental conditions. Methods: Edible corn starch phosphate was prepared via the reaction of starch with active sodium tripolyphosphate. Reaction efficiency and viscosity were used as indices to optimize experimental conditions. Freeze-thaw stability ...

  6. Method for controlling bacterial blotch disease in edible mushroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler Rivas, C.; Wichers, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for controlling bacterial blotch disease in edible mushrooms, comprising of treating the mushrooms with one or more lipodepsipeptides. The lipodepsipeptides are for instance chosen from WLIP and viscosin. The invention further relates to the edible mushrooms

  7. Recent developments on umami ingredients of edible mushrooms: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umami is a pleasant savory taste which has been attributed mainly to the presence of MSG-like amino acids and flavor 5’- nucleotides and widely used in food industry. Edible mushrooms have a peculiar umami taste. The umami taste makes the edible mushrooms palatable and adaptable in most food prepara...

  8. Notes on some Edible wild plants found in the Kalahari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Keith

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited work done on edible, indigenous plants to date, mainly concerns seasonal species. To develop a more reliable guide on food-plant sources for survival conditions in the field, a study directed at a survey of non-seasonal plants is conducted in the Kalahari. Descriptions of six edible non-seasonal plants for the Kalahari are given.

  9. Consumers' salient beliefs regarding foods from edible insects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumers' salient beliefs regarding foods from edible insects in Kenya: a qualitative study using concepts from the theory of planned behaviour. ... Insects as food and consumption of foods from edible insects (FEI) are being promoted as one potential solution to the declining access to protein foods. However, one of the ...

  10. analysis of edible mushroom marketing in three villages in central

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH

    This study examined the marketing of edible mushroom in three villages (Alesi, Ekukunela and Ohon) in. Central Cross River State, Nigeria. The marketing of edible mushroom in the state offers job opportunities for both skilled and unskilled rural population at farm gate and offers market employment opportunities for ...

  11. Eating from the wild: diversity of wild edible plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la region, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Locally harvested wild edible plants (WEPs) provide food as well as cash income for indigenous people and are of great importance in ensuring global food security. Some also play a significant role in maintaining the productivity and stability of traditional agro-ecosystems. Shangri-la region of Yunnan Province, SW China, is regarded as a biodiversity hotspot. People living there have accumulated traditional knowledge about plants. However, with economic development, WEPs are threatened and the associated traditional knowledge is in danger of being lost. Therefore, ethnobotanical surveys were conducted throughout this area to investigate and document the wild edible plants traditionally used by local Tibetan people. Methods Twenty-nine villages were selected to carry out the field investigations. Information was collected using direct observation, semi-structured interviews, individual discussions, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, questionnaires and participatory rural appraisal (PRA). Results Information about 168 wild edible plant species in 116 genera of 62 families was recorded and specimens were collected. Most species were edible greens (80 species) or fruits (78). These WEPs are sources for local people, especially those living in remote rural areas, to obtain mineral elements and vitamins. More than half of the species (70%) have multiple use(s) besides food value. Some are crop wild relatives that could be used for crop improvement. Several also have potential values for further commercial exploitation. However, the utilization of WEPs and related knowledge are eroding rapidly, especially in the areas with convenient transportation and booming tourism. Conclusion Wild food plants species are abundant and diverse in Shangri-la region. They provide food and nutrients to local people and could also be a source of cash income. However, both WEPs and their associated indigenous knowledge are facing various threats. Thus

  12. Eating from the wild: diversity of wild edible plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la region, Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yan; Zhuo, Jingxian; Liu, Bo; Long, Chunlin

    2013-04-19

    Locally harvested wild edible plants (WEPs) provide food as well as cash income for indigenous people and are of great importance in ensuring global food security. Some also play a significant role in maintaining the productivity and stability of traditional agro-ecosystems. Shangri-la region of Yunnan Province, SW China, is regarded as a biodiversity hotspot. People living there have accumulated traditional knowledge about plants. However, with economic development, WEPs are threatened and the associated traditional knowledge is in danger of being lost. Therefore, ethnobotanical surveys were conducted throughout this area to investigate and document the wild edible plants traditionally used by local Tibetan people. Twenty-nine villages were selected to carry out the field investigations. Information was collected using direct observation, semi-structured interviews, individual discussions, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, questionnaires and participatory rural appraisal (PRA). Information about 168 wild edible plant species in 116 genera of 62 families was recorded and specimens were collected. Most species were edible greens (80 species) or fruits (78). These WEPs are sources for local people, especially those living in remote rural areas, to obtain mineral elements and vitamins. More than half of the species (70%) have multiple use(s) besides food value. Some are crop wild relatives that could be used for crop improvement. Several also have potential values for further commercial exploitation. However, the utilization of WEPs and related knowledge are eroding rapidly, especially in the areas with convenient transportation and booming tourism. Wild food plants species are abundant and diverse in Shangri-la region. They provide food and nutrients to local people and could also be a source of cash income. However, both WEPs and their associated indigenous knowledge are facing various threats. Thus, conservation and sustainable utilization of these

  13. Crop-insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van der S.

    1945-01-01

    Crop insurance was fairly new in the Netherlands but there was no legal objection or limitation to particular crops. If a crop were insured, it was important that the whole area of the crop were insured. Speculative insurance seemed preferable to mutual insurance.

    Crop insurance covered all risks

  14. Filler functionality in edible solid foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sman, R G M

    2016-05-01

    We review the functionality of particulate ingredients in edible brittle foams, such as expanded starchy snacks. In food science and industry there is not a complete awareness of the full functionality of these filler ingredients, which can be fibers, proteins, starch granules and whole grains. But, we show that much can be learned about that from the field of synthetic polymeric foams with (nano)fillers. For edible brittle foams the enhancement of mechanical strength by filler ingredients is less relevant compared to the additional functionalities such as 1) the promotion of bubble nucleation and 2) cell opening-which are much more relevant for the snack texture. The survey of particulate ingredients added to snack formulations shows that they cannot be viewed as inert fillers, because of their strong hygroscopic properties. Hence, these fillers will compete with starch for water, and that will modify the glass transition and boiling point, which are important factors for snack expansion. Filler properties can be modified via extrusion, but it is better if that processing step is decoupled from the subsequent processing steps as mixing and expansion. Several filler ingredients are also added because of their nutritional value, but can have adverse effect on snack expansion. These adverse effects can be reduced if the increase of nutritional value is decoupled from other filler functionality via compartmentalization using micropellets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Phospholipids of New Zealand Edible Brown Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyssotski, Mikhail; Lagutin, Kirill; MacKenzie, Andrew; Mitchell, Kevin; Scott, Dawn

    2017-07-01

    Edible brown algae have attracted interest as a source of beneficial allenic carotenoid fucoxanthin, and glyco- and phospholipids enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Unlike green algae, brown algae contain no or little phosphatidylserine, possessing an unusual aminophospholipid, phosphatidyl-O-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine], PHEG, instead. When our routinely used technique of 31 P-NMR analysis of phospholipids was applied to the samples of edible New Zealand brown algae, a number of signals corresponding to unidentified phosphorus-containing compounds were observed in total lipids. NI (negative ion) ESI QToF MS spectra confirmed the presence of more familiar phospholipids, and also suggested the presence of PHEG or its isomers. The structure of PHEG was confirmed by comparison with a synthetic standard. An unusual MS fragmentation pattern that was also observed prompted us to synthesise a number of possible candidates, and was found to follow that of phosphatidylhydroxyethyl methylcarbamate, likely an extraction artefact. An unexpected outcome was the finding of ceramidephosphoinositol that has not been reported previously as occurring in brown algae. An uncommon arsenic-containing phospholipid has also been observed and quantified, and its TLC behaviour studied, along with that of the newly synthesised lipids.

  16. Tasty THC: Promises and Challenges of Cannabis Edibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrus, Daniel G.; Capogrossi, Kristen L.; Cates, Sheryl C.; Gourdet, Camille K.; Peiper, Nicholas C.; Novak, Scott P.; Lefever, Timothy W.; Wiley, Jenny L.

    2016-01-01

    Food products containing cannabis extract (edibles) have emerged as a popular and lucrative facet of the legalized market for both recreational and medicinal cannabis. The many formulations of cannabis extracts used in edibles present a unique regulatory challenge for policy makers. Though edibles are often considered a safe, discreet, and effective means of attaining the therapeutic and/or intoxicating effects of cannabis without exposure to the potentially harmful risks of cannabis smoking, little research has evaluated how ingestion differs from other methods of cannabis administration in terms of therapeutic efficacy, subjective effects, and safety. The most prominent difference between ingestion and inhalation of cannabis extracts is the delayed onset of drug effect with ingestion. Consumers often do not understand this aspect of edible use and may consume a greater than intended amount of drug before the drug has taken effect, often resulting in profoundly adverse effects. Written for the educated layperson and for policy makers, this paper explores the current state of research regarding edibles, highlighting the promises and challenges that edibles present to both users and policy makers, and describes the approaches that four states in which recreational cannabis use is legal have taken regarding regulating edibles. PMID:28127591

  17. Calorimetry for Fast Authentication of Edible Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiuli, Marco; Bussolino, Gian Carlo; Ferrari, Carlo; Matteoli, Enrico; Righetti, Maria Cristina; Salvetti, Giuseppe; Tombari, Elpidio

    2009-06-01

    There are little data in the literature on how to authenticate edible oils through calorimetry techniques. However, oil melting curves can be used to represent correlations between calorimetric results and oil quality. A calorimetric method has been developed for studying the solid-liquid phase transitions of olive oil and seed oils, in which melting peak behavior is correlated to the type, quality, and composition of the oil. Good reproducible thermograms were obtained by defining precise protocols for use in testing, which take into account the specific characteristics of a particular oil. This approach does not replace classical analytical methods; nevertheless, it is believed that calorimetric tests could be a useful preliminary stage for quality testing. The calorimetric technique allows the detection of the adulterant (seed oils or refined olive oil), oil origin, and possible photo-oxidation degradation processes, before more complex and expensive procedures and analyses are applied.

  18. Edible lipids modification processes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Shamma, M Najeeb

    2017-01-02

    Lipid is the general name given to fats and oils, which are the basic components of cooking oils, shortening, ghee, margarine, and other edible fats. The chosen term depends on the physical state at ambient temperature; fats are solids and oils are liquids. The chemical properties of the lipids, including degree of saturation, fatty acid chain length, and acylglycerol molecule composition are the basic determinants of physical characteristics such as melting point, cloud point, solid fat content, and thermal behavior. This review will discuss the major lipid modification strategies, hydrogenation, and chemical and enzymatic interesterification, describing the catalysts used mechanisms, kinetics, and impacts on the health-related properties of the final products. Enzymatic interesterification will be emphasized as method that produces a final product with good taste, zero trans fatty acids, and a low number of calories, requires less contact with chemicals, and is cost efficient.

  19. Food Security and Staple Crops. Staple Food Around the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilian, Lizette

    2012-01-01

    Of more than 50,000 edible plant species in the world, only a few hundred contribute significantly to our food supplies. Almost all of the world’s food energy intake is satisfied by just a few crop plants. Rice, maize and wheat make up two-thirds of this already small group of foods. These three grains are the staple foods for more than four billion people both as a source of nutrition and income. A staple crop, by definition, dominates the major part of our diet and supplies a major proportion of our energy and nutrient needs. If staple crops are threatened by drought, pests or nutrient-poor soils, hunger and poverty can rise dramatically.

  20. Investigation of Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC on Mechanical Properties of Cold Water Fish Gelatin Biodegradable Edible Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Tabari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The tendency to use biocompatible packages, such as biodegradable films, is growing since they contain natural materials, are recyclable and do not cause environmental pollution. In this research, cold water fish gelatin and carboxymethyl cellulose were combined for use in edible films. Due to its unique properties, gelatin is widely used in creating gel, and in restructuring, stabilizing, emulsifying, and forming foam and film in food industries. This research for the first time modified and improved the mechanical properties of cold water fish gelatin films in combination with carboxymethyl cellulose. Cold water fish gelatin films along with carboxymethyl cellulose with concentrations of 0%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 50% were prepared using the casting method. The mechanical properties were tested by the American National Standard Method. Studying the absorption isotherm of the resulting composite films specified that the humidity of single-layer water decreased (p < 0.05 and caused a reduction in the equilibrium moisture of these films. In the mechanical testing of the composite films, the tensile strength and Young’s modulus significantly increased and the elongation percent significantly decreased with the increase in the concentration of carboxymethyl cellulose. Considering the biodegradability of the films and the improvement of their mechanical properties by carboxymethyl cellulose, this kind of packaging can be used in different industries, especially the food industry, as an edible coating for packaging food and agricultural crops.

  1. Biogas from ley crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalemo, M.; Edstroem, M.; Thyselius, L.; Brolin, L.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the cost of producing biogas from energy crops. Five process systems, sized 0.25-8 MW are studied. The cultivation of biogas-crops is made in three regions in Sweden. Also valued are the positive cultivation effects obtained when cereal dominated crop rotation is broken by biogas crops. 8 refs, 40 figs, 10 tabs

  2. African Crop Science Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Crop Science Journal, a quarterly publication, publishes original research papers dealing with all aspects of crop agronomy, production, genetics and breeding, germplasm, crop protection, post harvest systems and utilisation, agro-forestry, crop-animal interactions, information science, environmental science ...

  3. Wild edible plants: Nutritional and toxicological characteristics, retrieval strategies and importance for today's society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinela, José; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2017-12-01

    Wild edible plants (WEPs) are part of the cultural and genetic heritage of different regions of the world. In times of famine and scarcity, these sources of nutrients and health-promoting compounds have received high importance mainly in rural and suburban areas. Although currently underutilized, WEPs are still consumed traditionally by different communities and are gaining relevance in today's society. However, these foods lack recognition as significant contributors to the human diet in developed areas. This review describes the nutritional value of WEPs from the North-eastern region of Portugal and points out those containing potentially toxic compounds. Several retrieval strategies are presented with the aim of promoting the (re)use, production, commercialization and conservation of WEPs (wild harvested plants and crop wild relatives), and their importance for social, economic and agro-ecological development is highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Retrospect and prospects of edible oil and bio-diesel in Pakistan - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, S.B.; Majeed, S.; Ahmad, S.

    2010-01-01

    Globally resources of petro-fuels are diminishing at a rapid rate. Efforts are underway to develop sources of bio-fuels. Out of the known sources of bio-fuels, Jatropha is one of the most promising option. The purpose of this study was to evaluate primarily the regional and global experiences to assess the potential of Jatropha farming in Pakistan and to conduct a comparative economic analysis of alternate feasible options e.g. production of oilseeds, which are also being imported in large quantities. Temporal analysis (1950-09) for edible oil consumption, production and imports is made. Projections for edible oil are worked out up to 2030. As there have been large variations in yield of Jatropha reported by various studies conducted in India and other countries, therefore most reliable data have been selected for analysis to assess the prospects in Pakistan. Comparative economic analysis is made in terms of oil contents, number of crops per year, yield and gross returns of oilseed crops and Jatropha. Analysis shows that increase in production of edible oil over the time is negligible against the large increase in requirement resulted in higher production gap being filled through imports. Projections made for edible oils illustrated that production gap is going to be wider, which is currently 1.86 million tonnes (mt) and projected to be 3.4 mt by 2030. Jatropha seed production analysis of water-yield functions revealed that yield varies from 1.1 t ha/sup -1/ in drought or dry spells to 12.75 t ha/sup -1/ with full irrigation in favorable environments. Benefit-cost analysis shows that break-even point can be achieved in fourth year of plantation of Jatropha. The projected consumption in Pakistan for petro-fuel for 2025 is 35.1 mt, which is almost double of the current consumption. Thus, the target projections for replacement of petro-fuel with bio-diesel will be 3.51 mt for which 3.5 mha of land is required, as Jatropha has to be grown in marginal areas with

  5. Impact of cash cropping and perennial crops on food crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    than labor; E is exogenous income We assume households can sell parts or all of food crop, PCC and ... Farmers may also get informal credit from village money lenders based on their credit worthiness, which ..... exogenous at the time of making food crop planting decisions as the latter are annual and the former (PCC and ...

  6. Environmental manipulation for edible insect procurement: a historical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itterbeeck, Van J.; Huis, van A.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout history humans have manipulated their natural environment for an increased predictability and availability of plant and animal resources. Research on prehistoric diets increasingly includes small game, but edible insects receive minimal attention. Using the anthropological and

  7. Comparison of phenolic and volatile profiles of edible and toxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of phenolic and volatile profiles of edible and toxic forms of Detarium senegalense J. F. GMEL. N.D. Ndiaye, S Munier, Y Pelissier, F Boudard, C Mertz, M Lebrun, C Dhuique-mayer, M Dornier ...

  8. Improving Bioenergy Crops through Dynamic Metabolic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdeh Faraji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Enormous advances in genetics and metabolic engineering have made it possible, in principle, to create new plants and crops with improved yield through targeted molecular alterations. However, while the potential is beyond doubt, the actual implementation of envisioned new strains is often difficult, due to the diverse and complex nature of plants. Indeed, the intrinsic complexity of plants makes intuitive predictions difficult and often unreliable. The hope for overcoming this challenge is that methods of data mining and computational systems biology may become powerful enough that they could serve as beneficial tools for guiding future experimentation. In the first part of this article, we review the complexities of plants, as well as some of the mathematical and computational methods that have been used in the recent past to deepen our understanding of crops and their potential yield improvements. In the second part, we present a specific case study that indicates how robust models may be employed for crop improvements. This case study focuses on the biosynthesis of lignin in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum. Switchgrass is considered one of the most promising candidates for the second generation of bioenergy production, which does not use edible plant parts. Lignin is important in this context, because it impedes the use of cellulose in such inedible plant materials. The dynamic model offers a platform for investigating the pathway behavior in transgenic lines. In particular, it allows predictions of lignin content and composition in numerous genetic perturbation scenarios.

  9. Comparative analysis of diversity and utilization of edible plants in arid and semi-arid areas in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segnon, Alcade C; Achigan-Dako, Enoch G

    2014-12-23

    and development actions such as a thorough documentation of wild edible plants and their contribution to household diet, promotion of the ''bringing into cultivation" practices, strengthening of livestock-crop integration.

  10. Karakteristik Edible Film dari Pektin Hasil Ekstraksi Kulit Pisang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sudirman Akili

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Banana peel is a waste of banana processing industries which is obviously uneconomy and unfriendly to the environment. However, this material could be used as a source of important natural compounds, such as pectin. Owing to the fact that pectin has good gelling properties, it can be used to make edible film. The objectives of this research were to extract and characterize pectin from banana peel and to make edible film from the obtained pectin by using glycerol as plasticizer. Characterization of edible films were conducted in terms of color, thickness, elongation, tensile strength and water vapor transmission. The research used factorial completely randomized design. The results showed that yield of pectin made from ambon banana peel ripeness level one was 8.42% with the characteristics werewater content : 11.27% (<12%, ash content : 1.70%, low methoxil content : 4.15% (<7% and galacturonat content : 25.86% (65%. The addition of glycerol significantly increased elongation and decreased tensile strength of edible film. Based on edible film result, the recomended treatment is the addition with glycerol 20% as plasticizer of pectin based edible film.

  11. Determining Barriers to Use of Edible School Gardens in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Lucy; Spaulding, Aslihan D; Steffen, Richard; Kopsell, Dave; Nnakwe, Nweze

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to gather data regarding the awareness, perceived benefits, interest in, and barriers to establishment of edible school gardens in Illinois public schools. Setting/Design: This study used an online survey design. Participants included Illinois public elementary school principals and superintendents. Region and community population, current edible garden use, perception (Likert scale) of garden benefits, interest in establishment of a school edible garden, and barriers to establishment of a school edible garden were the variables of interest. Logit regression and Kruskal-Wallis with follow-up where p school principals and superintendents are aware of gardens and their potential benefits to students, but many barriers exist that make their use challenging. Funding, staff and volunteer support, and class time were identified as the major barriers. Region affected likelihood of garden use, and community population size also affected the odds of having an edible school garden. Data suggest that edible garden use would increase with provision of resources and organization of dedicated supporters.

  12. The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonskiy, Vadim; Polonskaya, Janna

    The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems V.I. Polonskiy, J.E. Polonskaya aKrasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Russia In the nearest future the space missions will be too long. In this case it is necessary to provide the crew by vitamins, antioxidants, and water-soluble dietary fibers. These compounds will be produced by higher plants. There was not enough attention at present to increasing content of micronutrients in edible parts of crops candidates for CELSS. We suggested to add the new crops to this list. 1. Barley -is the best crop for including to food crops (wheat, rice, soybean). Many of the health effects of barley are connected to dietary fibers beta-glucan of barley grains. Bar-ley is the only seed from cereals including wheat with content of all eight tocopherols (vitamin E, important antioxidant). Barley grains contain much greater amounts of phenolic compounds (potential antioxidant activities) than other cereal grains. Considerable focus is on supplement-ing wheat-based breads with barley to introduce the inherent nutritional advantages of barley flour, currently only 20We have selected and tested during 5 generations two high productive barley lines -1-K-O and 25-K-O. Our investigations (special breeding program for improving grain quality of barley) are in progress. 2. Volatile crops. Young leaves and shoots of these crops are edible and have a piquant taste. A lot of organic volatile compounds, oils, vitamins, antioxidants are in their biomass. These micronutrients are useful for good appetite and health of the crew. We have investigated 11 species: basil (Ocimum basilicum), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), sweet-Mary (Melissa officinalis), common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), catnip (Nepeta cataria), rue (Ruta graveolens), coriander (Coriandrum Ativum), sulfurwort (Levisticum officinale). These

  13. Understanding cultural significance, the edible mushrooms case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Caballero, Javier; Estrada-Torres, Arturo; Cifuentes, Joaquín

    2007-01-11

    Cultural significance is a keystone in quantitative ethnobiology, which offers the possibility to make inferences about traditional nomenclature systems, use, appropriation and valuing of natural resources. In the present work, using as model the traditional mycological knowledge of Zapotecs from Oaxaca, Mexico, we analyze the cultural significance of wild edible resources. In 2003 we applied 95 questionnaires to a random sample of informants. With this data we integrated the Edible Mushroom Cultural Significance Index. This index included eight variables: frequency of mention, perceived abundance, use frequency, taste, multifunctional food use, knowledge transmission, health and economy. Data were analyzed in an inductive perspective using ordination and grouping techniques to reveal the behavior of species in a cultural multivariate dimension. In each variable the species had different conducts. Cantharellus cibarius s.l. was the species with most frequency of mention. Pleurotus sp. had the highest perceived abundance. C. cibarius s.l. was the most frequently consumed species. Gomphus clavatus was the most palatable species and also ranked highest in the multifunctional food index. Cortinarius secc. Malacii sp. had the highest traditional importance. Only Tricholoma magnivelare was identified as a health enhancer. It also had the most economic importance. According to the compound index, C. cibarius s.l., the Amanita caesarea complex, Ramaria spp. and Neolentinus lepideus were the mushrooms with highest cultural significance. Multivariate analysis showed that interviewees identify three main groups of mushrooms: species with high traditional values, frequent consumption and known by the majority; species that are less known, infrequently consumed and without salient characteristics; and species with low traditional values, with high economic value and health enhancers. The compound index divided the cultural significance into several cultural domains and showed

  14. Understanding cultural significance, the edible mushrooms case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cifuentes Joaquín

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultural significance is a keystone in quantitative ethnobiology, which offers the possibility to make inferences about traditional nomenclature systems, use, appropriation and valuing of natural resources. In the present work, using as model the traditional mycological knowledge of Zapotecs from Oaxaca, Mexico, we analyze the cultural significance of wild edible resources. Methods In 2003 we applied 95 questionnaires to a random sample of informants. With this data we integrated the Edible Mushroom Cultural Significance Index. This index included eight variables: frequency of mention, perceived abundance, use frequency, taste, multifunctional food use, knowledge transmission, health and economy. Data were analyzed in an inductive perspective using ordination and grouping techniques to reveal the behavior of species in a cultural multivariate dimension. Results In each variable the species had different conducts. Cantharellus cibarius s.l. was the species with most frequency of mention. Pleurotus sp. had the highest perceived abundance. C. cibarius s.l. was the most frequently consumed species. Gomphus clavatus was the most palatable species and also ranked highest in the multifunctional food index. Cortinarius secc.Malacii sp. had the highest traditional importance. Only Tricholoma magnivelare was identified as a health enhancer. It also had the most economic importance. According to the compound index, C. cibarius s.l., the Amanita caesarea complex, Ramaria spp. and Neolentinus lepideus were the mushrooms with highest cultural significance. Multivariate analysis showed that interviewees identify three main groups of mushrooms: species with high traditional values, frequent consumption and known by the majority; species that are less known, infrequently consumed and without salient characteristics; and species with low traditional values, with high economic value and health enhancers. Conclusion The compound index divided

  15. Production and comparison of fuel properties, engine performance, and emission characteristics of biodiesel from various non-edible vegetable oils: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraful, A.M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Rizwanul Fattah, I.M.; Imtenan, S.; Shahir, S.A.; Mobarak, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Overview of current energy situation. • Overview of biology, distribution and chemistry of various non-edible oil resources. • Comparison of fuel properties of various biodiesels produced from various non-edible oils. • Comparison of engine performance and emission characteristics of reviewed biodiesels. - Abstract: Energy demand is increasing dramatically because of the fast industrial development, rising population, expanding urbanization, and economic growth in the world. To fulfill this energy demand, a large amount of fuel is widely used from different fossil resources. Burning of fossil fuels has caused serious detrimental environmental consequences. The application of biodiesel has shown a positive impact in resolving these issues. Edible vegetable oils are one of the potential feedstocks for biodiesel production. However, as the use of edible oils will jeopardize food supplies and biodiversity, non-edible vegetable oils, also known as second-generation feedstocks, are considered potential substitutes of edible food crops for biodiesel production. This paper introduces some species of non-edible vegetables whose oils are potential sources of biodiesel. These species are Pongamia pinnata (karanja), Calophyllum inophyllum (Polanga), Maduca indica (mahua), Hevea brasiliensis (rubber seed), Cotton seed, Simmondsia chinesnsis (Jojoba), Nicotianna tabacum (tobacco), Azadirachta indica (Neem), Linum usitatissimum (Linseed) and Jatropha curcas (Jatropha). Various aspects of non-edible feedstocks, such as biology, distribution, and chemistry, the biodiesel’s physicochemical properties, and its effect on engine performance and emission, are reviewed based on published articles. From the review, fuel properties are found to considerably vary depending on feedstocks. Analysis of the performance results revealed that most of the biodiesel generally give higher brake thermal efficiency and lower brake-specific fuel consumption. Emission results

  16. Sequential Crop Cultivation Experiment using CEEF for Human Habitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tako, Y.; Arai, R.; Nitta, K.; Shinohara, M.

    The Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) can be used as a test bed for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS), because technologies developed for the CEEF system facilitate self-sufficient material circulation. In the experiment conducted from August to December of 2001, rice and soybeans were cultivated sequentially in two chambers and a chamber, each having a cultivation bed area of 30 m 2 and floor area of 43 m 2, inside the Plantation Module with artificial lighting of the CEEF. Stable transplant or seeding and harvest of each crop were maintained during 28 days, after a 110-days preparatory cultivation. Flows of gas and liquid materials to and from the crops were analyzed during the stable cultivation period. Almost all equipments of the Gas Processing Subsystem of the Closed Plantation Experiment Facilities (CPEF) in the CEEF were operated during the period. Stable operation of the subsystem was confirmed during the period. Daily averages of carbohydrate, lipid, and protein contained in edible biomass from harvested rice and soybeans for the 28-days were 2.1, 1.2, and 2.2 of the necessary amount of each for a standard human activity. Stable uptake of CO2 by each crop was confirmed during the 28 -days. Amounts of CO2 taken up by each crop were consistent with produced biomass of both crops. Exchange ratios of CO2 and O2 were also consistent with nutritional compositions of both crops biomass.

  17. The Potential Fruit Crop of Cibodas Botanical Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suluh Normasiwi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As an institute for ex situ plant conservation of high mountains, Cibodas Botanical Garden (CBG, has more than 1652 species and 8140 specimens of plant collections. An inventory of potential fruit crop in CBG which will support the conservation program had never been done before. The aim of this activity is to determine its potential collections as fruit crop. Descriptive analysis was used to analyze all the data achieved from registration unit and catalogue of (CBG. The results showed that 422 numbers of collections from 31 family, 56 genus and 114 species have high potential as a fruit crop. Moreover, Cibodas Botanical Garden has 74% collection of indigenous fruit (included 85 species and 61% collection of underutilize fruit (included 68 species from the total number of fruit plant collections. Most of potential plant collections are able to be developed as an edible fruit crop in Indonesia in order to enhance local food security through diversification of fruit crop.How to CiteNormasiwi, S., & Surya, M. I. (2016. The Potential Fruit Crop of Cibodas Botanical Garden. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2, 206-213.

  18. Radio protectors from Thai edible plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thongphasuk, Jarunee; Thongphasuk, Piyanuch

    2005-11-01

    Antioxidants have been used as radioprotectors in cosmetics and radiation therapy to protect normal tissues in cancer patients. The objective of this study is to determine the activities of antioxidants in Thai edible plants (holy basil, sesame (white and black). durian (Chanee and Monthong), parsley, morning glory, guava, chilies, pepper, sweet pepper, ash pumpkin, pumpkin, tomato, peppermint, and sweet basil) by using I, I-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical and to determine their capability to inhibit radiation-induced hemolysis. Gamma rays (10 KGy) from cobalt-60 was used to induce hemolysis of human red blood cells, and ascorbic acid was used as standard antioxidant. The extracts from all samples showed antioxidant activities. However, only the extracts (0.1-1,000 μg/8 x 10 9 red blood cells) from parsley, guava, peppermint, and sweet basil could significantly inhibit (p<0.05) radiation-induced hemolysis. Although ascorbic acid is a strong antioxidant, its ability to inhibit radiation-induced hemolysis was lower than the extracts. This maybe due to its hydrophilic property which limits its ability to penetrate cell membrane

  19. Hepatocarcinogenesis by hydrazine mycotoxins of edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, B

    1979-01-01

    Two edible mushrooms are known to contain hydrazine analogs. The wild false morel Gyromitra esculenta contains up to 0.3% acetaldehyde methylformylhydrazone and N-methyl-N-formylhydrazine (MFH). The latter chemical, under certain conditions, also yields methylhydrazine. The commonly eaten, cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus contains up to 0.04% beta-N-[gamma-L(+)-glutamyl]-4-hydroxymethylphenylhydrazine and 4-hydroxymethylphenylhydrazine. MFH was administered in drinking water continuously for life to Swiss mice and Syrian (golden) hamsters. In both species the compound induced high incidences of benign and malignant hepatocellular neoplasms. Also, methylhydrazine given orally induced a significant incidence of malignant histiocytomas in the livers of hamsters. The N'-acetyl derivative of 4-hydroxymethylphenylhydrazine administered orally to mice gave rise to lung tumors and blood vessel tumors, mainly in the liver. Furthermore, these three compounds produced tumors in various other tissues. Histopathologically, the tumors were classified as benign hepatomas, liver cell carcinomas, angiomas and angiosarcomas of blood vessels, and adenomas and adenocarcinomas of lungs. From representative samples of these neoplasms detailed transmission electron microscopic investigations were also carried out. Since these hydrazine analogs induce tumors in animals and these mushrooms are consumed on a large scale by humans in various parts of the world, their hazardous nature should be considered.

  20. Bisphenol A in Edible Part of Seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repossi, Adele; Farabegoli, Federica; Gazzotti, Teresa; Zironi, Elisa; Pagliuca, Giampiero

    2016-04-19

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a man-made compound, mainly used as a monomer to produce polycarbonate (PC), epoxy resins, non-polymer additives to other plastics, which have many food related applications, such as food storage containers, tableware and internal coating of cans, as well as non-food applications such as electronic equipment, construction materials and medical devices. BPA exposure can occur when the residual monomer migrates into packaged food and beverages. Moreover, due to the ubiquitous presence of this compound, the general population can be exposed to environmental sources such as water, air and soil. Many studies have investigated the potential health hazards associated with BPA, which can elicit toxic and cancerogenic effects on humans. According to the European Food Safety Authority opinion, diet is considered to be the main source of exposure, especially canned food; moreover, among non-canned food, meat and fish products have the highest levels of BPA contamination. This review focuses on BPA contamination in seafood, analysing worldwide literature (from January 2010 to October 2015) on BPA contamination of edible parts. The authors try to identify differences between canned and non-canned seafood in literature, and gaps in the state of art. The data evaluated underline that all concentrations for both canned and non-canned seafood were below the specific migration limit set by the European Community Directive for BPA in food. Moreover, the canned seafood is more contaminated than the non-canned one.

  1. Bisphenol A in edible part of seafood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Repossi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a man-made compound, mainly used as a monomer to produce polycarbonate (PC, epoxy resins, non-polymer additives to other plastics, which have many food related applications, such as food storage containers, tableware and internal coating of cans, as well as non-food applications such as electronic equipment, construction materials and medical devices. BPA exposure can occur when the residual monomer migrates into packaged food and beverages. Moreover, due to the ubiquitous presence of this compound, the general population can be exposed to environmental sources such as water, air and soil. Many studies have investigated the potential health hazards associated with BPA, which can elicit toxic and cancerogenic effects on humans. According to the European Food Safety Authority opinion, diet is considered to be the main source of exposure, especially canned food; moreover, among non-canned food, meat and fish products have the highest levels of BPA contamination. This review focuses on BPA contamination in seafood, analysing worldwide literature (from January 2010 to October 2015 on BPA contamination of edible parts. The authors try to identify differences between canned and non-canned seafood in literature, and gaps in the state of art. The data evaluated underline that all concentrations for both canned and non-canned seafood were below the specific migration limit set by the European Community Directive for BPA in food. Moreover, the canned seafood is more contaminated than the non-canned one.

  2. Rainfed intensive crop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed.......This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed....

  3. "No High Like a Brownie High": A Content Analysis of Edible Marijuana Tweets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Zewdie, Kidist; Krauss, Melissa J; Sowles, Shaina J

    2017-01-01

    To investigate tweets about marijuana edibles for surveillance into the content of edibles-related tweets among individuals socially networking about this topic on Twitter. Cross-sectional analysis of tweets containing edible marijuana-related key words during 1 month. Twitter. Tweets sent during January 1 to 31, 2015. A random sample of 5000 tweets containing edibles-related key words was coded for sentiment (positive, negative, and neutral) by crowdsourced workers. Tweets normalizing or promoting edibles use were further analyzed, and demographic characteristics of the Twitter handles sending these tweets were inferred. Of the 5000 tweets, 4166 (83%) were about marijuana edibles, and of those 75% (3134 of 4166) normalized or encouraged edibles use. Nearly half (48%, 1509 of 3134) of the tweets normalizing edibles mentioned wanting or planning to consume, currently consuming, or recently consuming edibles, and 12% (378 of 3134) described the intense or long-lasting effects following use. Individuals whose tweets promoted/encouraged edibles use were more likely to be young (between 17 and 24 years old) and of a racial/ethnic minority (52% black; 12% Hispanic) when compared to the Twitter average. Tweets that normalize edibles use have the potential to increase their popularity. The prevalence of tweets about edibles' intense high could have implications for tailoring prevention messages that could be important for youth and young adult minorities who were inferred to be disproportionately socially networking about edibles on Twitter.

  4. Consumers' Perceptions of Edible Marijuana Products for Recreational Use: Likes, Dislikes, and Reasons for Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giombi, Kristen C; Kosa, Katherine M; Rains, Carrie; Cates, Sheryl C

    2018-03-21

    Edible marijuana products have become extremely popular in states that have legalized marijuana for recreational use. The goal of this research was to provide a better understanding of consumer perceptions of edible marijuana products, including why they prefer edibles relative to other forms of marijuana (e.g., smoking) and their concerns regarding the consumption of edibles. We conducted eight focus groups (four groups in Denver, Colorado, and four groups in Seattle, Washington) in February 2016 with 62 adult consumers of edibles. Focus group transcripts were coded in QSR NVivo 10.0 qualitative analysis software, and coding reports identified trends across participants. Most participants preferred edibles to smoking marijuana because there is no smell from smoke and no secondhand smoke. Other reasons participants like edibles included convenience, discreetness, longer-lasting highs, less intense highs, and edibles' ability to aid in relaxation and reduce anxiety more so than smoking marijuana. Concerns and dislikes about edibles included delayed effects, unexpected highs, the unpredictability of the high, and inconsistency of distribution of marijuana in the product. No participants in either location mentioned harmful health effects from consuming edibles as a concern. Conclusions/Importance: The present study was qualitative in nature and provides a good starting point for further research to quantify through surveys how consumers understand and use edibles. Such information will help guide policy makers and regulators as they establish regulations for edibles. Also, such research can help inform educational campaigns on proper use of edibles for recreational purposes.

  5. Sorghums as energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinsky, E. S.; Kresovich, S.

    1980-01-01

    The botanical, physiological, and agronomic characteristics of sorghum are described. Integration concepts to improve sorghum prospects are discussed as follows: multiple sweet sorghum crops each year, integration with sugarcane, integration with sugar beets, integration with starch crops, sweet stemmed grain sorghum, and integration with lignocellulosic crops. (MHR)

  6. Characterization of Carrageenan Edible films Plasticized with Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arham Rusli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Concentration of base materials and plasticizers used in the formulation of edible film was believed to affect physical characteristics of the film. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of base material (carrageenan and plasticiser (glycerol concentrations on the characteristics of edible films produced and to determine the best concentrations of these two components based on the physical characteristics of the films. The experiment was conducted using a completely randomized factorial design with triplicated. The treatments applied were the concentrations of carrageenan (1%, 2%, and 3% (w/v and glycerol (5%, 10%, and 15% (w/w. The results showed that carrageenan and glycerol concentrations used in the formulation of edible film affect the edible film characteristics. Film thickness and moisture content were significantly influenced by carrageenan and glycerol concentrations, while film elongation was only affected by carrageenan concentration. The best physical characteristic of the edible films was obtained when carrageenan and glycerol concentrations were 3% and 10% respectively.

  7. Edible films and coatings: Sources, properties and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuput Danijela Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to extend product shelf life while preserving the quality scientific attention focused to biopolymers research that are base for edible films and coatings production. Another major advantage of this kind of food packaging is their eco-friendly status because biopolymers do not cause environmental problems as packaging materials derived from non-renewable energy sources do. Objective of this work was to review recently studied edible films and coatings - their sources, properties and possible application. As sources for edible biopolymers were highlighted polysaccharides, proteins and lipids. The most characteristic subgroups from each large group of compounds were selected and described regarding possible physical and mechanical protection; migration, permeation, and barrier functions. The most important biopolymers characteristic is possibility to act as active substance carriers and to provide controlled release. In order to achieve active packaging functions emulsifiers, antioxidants and antimicrobial agents can also be incorporated into film-forming solutions in order to protect food products from oxidation and microbial spoilage, resulting in quality improvement and enhanced safety. The specific application where edible films and coatings have potential to replace some traditional polymer packaging are explained. It can be concluded that edible films and coatings must be chosen for food packaging purpose according to specific applications, the types of food products, and the major mechanisms of quality deterioration.

  8. Carolus Linnaeus and the Edible Dormouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Violani

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carolus Linnaeus was totally unacquainted with the Edible Dormouse Myoxus glis (L., a species not found in Sweden: while describing Mus Rattus in the 10th Edition of the "Systema Naturae" (1758, the Swedish naturalist confessed his ignorance concerning the "Glis" of the ancients and suggested that it might have been the marmot or the hamster. Thanks to written information received from his correspondent in Slovenia, Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, Linnaeus was able to include the new species Sciurus Glis in his 12th Edition of the "Systema Naturae" (1766, reporting almost verbatim a summary of Scopoli's description of the rodent. Scopoli's letter is still preserved in the Library of the Linnean Society of London. The Linnean type locality "Habitat in Europa australi" for the Edible Dormouse Myoxus glis glis must therefore be restricted to "Southern Carniola, Slovenia", contra "Germany" as stated, for instance, by Miller (1912, Toschi (1965, Corbet (1978 and Storch (1978. A new name is required for the continental European form, for which M. glis germanicus ssp. nov. is here proposed. Some information on the appreciation of Myoxus glis as a delicacy ("carnes avide eduntur" in Linnaeus' words conclude the paper. Riassunto Carlo Linneo ed il Ghiro - Dopo aver descritto Mus Rattus nella decima edizione del "Systema Naturae" (1758 il naturalista svedese Carlo Linneo confessava di non essere a conoscenza del "Glis" degli antichi autori e ne suggeriva l'identificazione con la Marmotta o con il Criceto comune; è infatti noto che Myoxus glis non è diffuso in Svezia. In base ad una lettera ricevuta dal suo corrispondente in Slovenia, Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, Linneo fu in grado di descrivere questa nuova specie come Sciurus Glis nella dodicesima edizione del "Systema

  9. Current Situation of Edible Snails in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider, K.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available From March 7, 1995 to April 16, 1995 du ring the rainy season the utilisation of edible snails was investigated in Indonesia. To assess the current situation, the focus was put to answer the following questions : - Is it feasible under the present circumstances to domesticate these snails with the aim to conserve the natural resources ? - Could any individual or private initiative be enhanced or utilized ? - Would local disadvantaged groups (traditional animal farmers, women oryouths be benefitted through domestication of these snails ? - Is there any existing private organisation or NGO, which already gathers and trades the snails or would be interested to do this in the future ? Snails gatherers, -dealers and -farmers were visited and interviewed on the following topics using standardised questionnaires : Spreading and ecology ways of marketing, consumption habits, breeding and rearing. Diotopes were also visited and investigated. Results Spreading and ecology : Achatina fulica, Pomacea canaliculata, Pila ampullacea and Bellamia javanica are eaten. The snails can be found ail overJava. Ways of marketing : The snails gathered in the biotope are either marketed directly or through various marketing paths. A. fulica is exported in large quantifies. The population is therefore endangered. Consumption habits : Snails are not eaten regularly. Snail meat is known to be healthy. The consumption depends on the consumer's ethnie background. Breeding and rearing experience : with simple breeding systems for A. fulica and P. canaliculata are seldom found. The breeding of P. canaliculata is forbidden in Indonesia. There is no interest in breeding P. ampullacea or B. javanica. The breeding of A. fulica can ben-efit disadvantaged groups financially and help to conserving the natural snail population.

  10. Determination of some trace elements in edible crops grown in Jebel Merra area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Abdelmoneim Adam

    2001-11-01

    This preliminary study was conducted in the area of Jebel Merra in South Darfour State, Western Sudan, With the aim of establishing a base-line data on trace element levels in foodstuffs cultivated in the region. 19 samples of vegetables, cereal grains, spices and fruits were collected from farms in Nyala, Derbat, Sunie and Gawa. With the exception of Nyala, the sampling farms were located on hill slopes using turus system as a means for water harvesting. Samples were analyzed for six trace elements, viz., Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co and Cr using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (Aas). Comparison of the results with similar data from different parts of Sudan and from some other countries reveals that the foodstuffs grown in this high latitude region are relatively deficient in their elemental content. This salient feature conforms with well-known fact that, the soil in high latitude regions depleted in nutritional plant elements due to the leaching caused by runoff water hence the corresponding concentrations in plants are quite low indicative of state of malnutrition. Categorically speaking, among the vegetables analyzed, okra has shown a high affinity in accumulating Fe (187.49 ppm), Mn (80.31ppm), Cu (7.43 ppm) and Zn (12.74 ppm) comparative to other species. On the other hand, opposite trend was observed with sorghum as the poorest one with respect to its ability in concentrating Fe (55.57 ppm), Mn (4.19 ppm), Zn (5.25 ppm) and Cu (1.26 ppm) relative to millet, Wheat, Lupins and broad beans. With regard to spices covered in this investigation, garlic contains the lowest concentrations of all the elements analyzed and agree well with those found in onion the poorest of all the vegetables. Concentrations obtained were 108.78 ppm (Fe), 3.6 ppm (Mn), 4.6 ppm (Zn), 1.73 ppm (Cu) and 0.1 ppm (Cr) and 0.16 ppm (Co). On individual basis, the highest concentration of Mn was measured in lupins at 143.18 ppm. Cr content in all spices was found to be less than 1 ppm, whereas for Co the same is true except in Guava, apple and fenugreek. In the light of these results we suggest the use of okra and lupins as indicator plants for trace elements uptake studies in climatic conditions similar to Sudan. (Author)

  11. Diversity of use and local knowledge of wild edible plant resources in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uprety, Yadav; Poudel, Ram C; Shrestha, Krishna K; Rajbhandary, Sangeeta; Tiwari, Narendra N; Shrestha, Uttam B; Asselin, Hugo

    2012-04-30

    Wild edible plants (WEP) provide staple and supplement foods, as well as cash income to local communities, thus favouring food security. However, WEP are largely ignored in land use planning and implementation, economic development, and biodiversity conservation. Moreover, WEP-related traditional knowledge is rapidly eroding. Therefore, we designed this study to fulfill a part of the knowledge gap by providing data on diversity, traditional knowledge, economic potential, and conservation value of WEP from Nepal. The information was collected through focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Percentage of general utility of the plants among the study communities was evaluated using the Chi-square (χ(2)) test of homogeneity. High priority species were identified after consultation with the local stakeholders followed by scoring based on defined criteria. Pairwise ranking was used to assess ethnoecological knowledge to identify the threats to WEP. We documented 81 species belonging to Angiosperms (74), Pteridophytes (5), and Fungi (2). Most of the species were used as fruits (44 species) followed by vegetables (36). Almost half of the species (47%) were also used for purposes other than food. From the species with market value (37% of the total), 10 were identified as high priority species. Pairwise ranking revealed that WEP are threatened mostly by habitat destruction, land-use change and over-harvesting. Some of these plants are crop wild relatives and could thus be used for crop improvement. Interestingly, our study also revealed that young people who spend most of the time in the forest as herdsmen are particularly knowledgeable of wild fruit plants. We provide empirical evidence from a relatively large area of Nepal about diversity and status of WEP, as well as methodological insights about the proper knowledge holders to consult. Regarding the unique and important knowledge they have on WEP, young people should be included when recruiting

  12. Diversity of use and local knowledge of wild edible plant resources in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Wild edible plants (WEP) provide staple and supplement foods, as well as cash income to local communities, thus favouring food security. However, WEP are largely ignored in land use planning and implementation, economic development, and biodiversity conservation. Moreover, WEP-related traditional knowledge is rapidly eroding. Therefore, we designed this study to fulfill a part of the knowledge gap by providing data on diversity, traditional knowledge, economic potential, and conservation value of WEP from Nepal. Methods The information was collected through focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Percentage of general utility of the plants among the study communities was evaluated using the Chi-square (χ2) test of homogeneity. High priority species were identified after consultation with the local stakeholders followed by scoring based on defined criteria. Pairwise ranking was used to assess ethnoecological knowledge to identify the threats to WEP. Results We documented 81 species belonging to Angiosperms (74), Pteridophytes (5), and Fungi (2). Most of the species were used as fruits (44 species) followed by vegetables (36). Almost half of the species (47%) were also used for purposes other than food. From the species with market value (37% of the total), 10 were identified as high priority species. Pairwise ranking revealed that WEP are threatened mostly by habitat destruction, land-use change and over-harvesting. Some of these plants are crop wild relatives and could thus be used for crop improvement. Interestingly, our study also revealed that young people who spend most of the time in the forest as herdsmen are particularly knowledgeable of wild fruit plants. Conclusion We provide empirical evidence from a relatively large area of Nepal about diversity and status of WEP, as well as methodological insights about the proper knowledge holders to consult. Regarding the unique and important knowledge they have on WEP, young people should be

  13. Diversity of use and local knowledge of wild edible plant resources in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uprety Yadav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wild edible plants (WEP provide staple and supplement foods, as well as cash income to local communities, thus favouring food security. However, WEP are largely ignored in land use planning and implementation, economic development, and biodiversity conservation. Moreover, WEP-related traditional knowledge is rapidly eroding. Therefore, we designed this study to fulfill a part of the knowledge gap by providing data on diversity, traditional knowledge, economic potential, and conservation value of WEP from Nepal. Methods The information was collected through focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Percentage of general utility of the plants among the study communities was evaluated using the Chi-square (χ2 test of homogeneity. High priority species were identified after consultation with the local stakeholders followed by scoring based on defined criteria. Pairwise ranking was used to assess ethnoecological knowledge to identify the threats to WEP. Results We documented 81 species belonging to Angiosperms (74, Pteridophytes (5, and Fungi (2. Most of the species were used as fruits (44 species followed by vegetables (36. Almost half of the species (47% were also used for purposes other than food. From the species with market value (37% of the total, 10 were identified as high priority species. Pairwise ranking revealed that WEP are threatened mostly by habitat destruction, land-use change and over-harvesting. Some of these plants are crop wild relatives and could thus be used for crop improvement. Interestingly, our study also revealed that young people who spend most of the time in the forest as herdsmen are particularly knowledgeable of wild fruit plants. Conclusion We provide empirical evidence from a relatively large area of Nepal about diversity and status of WEP, as well as methodological insights about the proper knowledge holders to consult. Regarding the unique and important knowledge they have on WEP

  14. Physical-Mechanical Properties And Microstructure Of Breadfruit Starch Edible Films With Various Plasticizer

    OpenAIRE

    Cut Fatimah Zuhra Marpongahtun

    2013-01-01

    Breadfruit contains starch can be used as raw material of edible film. Research on preparation of edible films using various types of plasticizer (xylitol, sorbitol and PEG 400) has been done. The edible films were evaluated of physical-mechanical properties and microstructure. The results of this study indicate that the addition of plasticizer effect on the physical and mechanical characteristics, the edible film thickness, tensile strength and water vapor transmission rate greater using PEG...

  15. Consumers' Attitudes towards Edible Wild Plants: A Case Study of Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Bixia; Qiu, Zhenmian

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the rural revitalizing strategy in FAO's Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHS) site in Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture of Japan, using a case study of edible wild plants. This study assessed the current and possible future utilization of edible wild plants as one important NTFP by clarifying the attitudes of consumers and exploring the challenges of harvesting edible wild plants. Traditional ecological knowledge associated with edible wild plants and ...

  16. Films and edible coatings containing antioxidants - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliana Sitonio Eça

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of natural antioxidants into films and edible coatings can modify their structure, improving their functionality and applicability in foods, such as in fresh-cut fruits. This paper reviews the more recent literature on the incorporation of antioxidants from several sources into films and edible coatings, for application in fruits and vegetables. The use of synthetic antioxidants in foods has been avoided due to their possible toxic effects. Instead, a wide range of natural antioxidants (such as essential oils and plant extracts, as well as pure compounds, like ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol have been incorporated into edible films and coatings to improve their bioactive properties. Films and coatings containing added antioxidants help to preserve or enhance the sensory properties of foods and add value to the food products by increasing their shelf life.

  17. Antioxidant capacity and mineral contents of edible wild Australian mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X; Suwandi, J; Fuller, J; Doronila, A; Ng, K

    2012-08-01

    Five selected edible wild Australian mushrooms, Morchella elata, Suillus luteus, Pleurotus eryngii, Cyttaria gunnii, and Flammulina velutipes, were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity and mineral contents. The antioxidant capacities of the methanolic extracts of the dried caps of the mushrooms were determined using a number of different chemical reactions in evaluating multi-mechanistic antioxidant activities. These included the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, and ferrous ion chelating activity. Mineral contents of the dried caps of the mushrooms were also determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The results indicated that these edible wild mushrooms have a high antioxidant capacity and all, except C. gunnii, have a high level of several essential micro-nutrients such as copper, magnesium, and zinc. It can be concluded that these edible wild mushrooms are good sources of nutritional antioxidants and a number of mineral elements.

  18. Growing root, tuber and nut crops hydroponically for CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, W. A.; Mortley, D. G.; Loretan, P. A.; Bonsi, C. K.; Morris, C. E.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1992-01-01

    Among the crops selected by NASA for growth in controlled ecological life-support systems are four that have subsurface edible parts: potatoes, sweet potatoes, sugar beets and peanuts. These crops can be produced in open and closed (recirculating), solid media and liquid, hydroponic systems. Fluorescent, fluorescent plus incandescent, and high-pressure sodium-plus-metal-halide lamps have proven to be effective light sources. Continuous light with 16-C and 28/22-C (day/night) temperatures produce highest yields for potato and sweet potato, respectively. Dry weight yields of up to 4685, 2541, 1151 and 207 g/sq m for potatoes, sweet potatoes, sugar beets and peanuts, respectively, are produced in controlled environment hydroponic systems.

  19. Transfer factors of radionuclides from Andsols to some selected crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki

    2007-01-01

    In order to obtain the applicable transfer factor for Japanese environment, we performed radiotracer experiments on the uptake of 137 Cs, 85 Sr, 54 Mn, 60 Co and 65 Zn by leaf vegetables (two cabbages, komatsuna, spinach and lettuce), root vegetables (radish and carrot) and other crops (wheat, soy bean sweet potato and tomato) using the Andosol (Kuroboku soil), the most common of Japanese arable soils. The ranges of TFs (on a dry weight basis) of 137 Cs, 85 Sr, 60 Co, 54 Mn and 65 Zn for edible parts of crops (leaf vegetables, root vegetables, wheat and soy bean) were 0.09 - 1.42, 0.24 - 3.7, 0.019 - 1.5, 0.31 - 12 and 0.68 - 14, respectively. TFs were, in most cases in the order Mn, Zn, Sr > Cs > Co. (author)

  20. Transfer of radionuclides to crop plants through roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shigeo; Sumiya, Misako; Ohmomo, Yoichiro

    1987-01-01

    In assessing the internal radiation dose to man from radionuclides released from nuclear facilities including ground disposal facilities, the soil-crop plants-man pathway is one of the important ones. The information on this pathway, however, is quite limited in Japan. This paper focuses on transfer of 54 Mn, 65 Zn and 60 Co from culture solution to crop plants, particularly to the edible parts of the plants. Rice plant (Oryza sativa cv. Koshihikari), spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.), soybean (Glycine max Merr.), and the other four kinds of crop plants were transplanted to culture solution in which 54 MnCl 2 , 65 ZnCl 2 or 60 CoCl 2 were contained, and their transfer rates in each organ of the plants were obtained. The differences in the distribution patterns among the crop plant species, among the nuclides and the effect of the stable isotope concentration in the solution on their distributions were discussed in this paper. And critical crop plants for 54 Mn, 65 Zn and 60 Co were also selected. (author)

  1. Calcium in edible insects and its use in human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Adámková

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is one of the most problematic substances in human nutrition. Nutrition in the present population is not optimal, because of insufficient consumption of milk and dairy products. Due to the expanding interest of specialists and the general public about entomophagy, as well as increase of the EU interest in this type of food, there is a need to consider the use of edible insects as an alternative source of nutrition. From the perspective of edible insects as a source of calcium, edible insects could be considered as a possible source of calcium for enriching the diet and also as a substitute for people with lactose intolerance and allergies to other categories of foods rich in calcium. Of the six analysed species of edible insect, Bombyx mori had the highest calcium content, almost comparable to semi-skimmed cow's milk. Gryllus assimillis can also be a rich source of calcium as well as other analysed species. The lowest content of calcium was detected in Zophobas morio. Common meat (chicken, beef, pork has lower calcium content comparing with all analysed species of edible insect (Apis mellifera, Bombyx mori, Gryllus assimillis, Locusta migratoria, Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas morio. Therefore, the selected species of edible insect could serve as an alternative source of calcium for people with lactose intolerance and allergies to soy. Phosphorus level in human body is closely related to calcium in the calcium-phosphate metabolism, therefore phosphorus level was detected in these samples too. Bombyx mori had the highest phosphorus content and the lowest content of phosphorus was measured in Zophobas morio samples.

  2. Deterioration of edible oils during food processing by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, F; Grondin, I; Shum Cheong Sing, A; Smadja, J

    2004-01-01

    During food emulsification and processing of sunflower oil (most used edible oil), a metallic and rancid odour has been detected only for insonated oil and foods. Some off-flavour compounds (hexanal and hept-2-enal) resulting from the sono-degradation of sunflower oil have been identified. A wide variety of analytical techniques (GC determination of fatty acids, UV spectroscopy, free fatty acids and GC/MS) were used to follow the quality of insonated sunflower oil and emulsion. Different edible oils (olive, sunflower, soybean, em leader ) show significant changes in their composition (chemical and flavour) due to ultrasound treatment.

  3. Heterogeneous base catalysts for edible palm and non-edible Jatropha-based biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwei Voon; Juan, Joon Ching; Binti Abdullah, Nurul Fitriyah; Nizah Mf, Rabiah; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin

    2014-01-01

    Transesterification catalyzed by solid base catalyst is a brilliant technology for the noble process featuring the fast reaction under mild reacting condition in biodiesel production. Heterogeneous base catalysts are generally more reactive than solid acid catalysts which require extreme operating condition for high conversion and biodiesel yield. In the present study, synthesis of biodiesel was studied by using edible (palm) or non-edible (Jatropha) feedstock catalyzed by heterogeneous base catalysts such as supported alkali metal (NaOH/Al2O3), alkaline-earth metal oxide (MgO, CaO and SrO) and mixed metal oxides catalysts (CaMgO and CaZnO). The chemical characteristic, textural properties, basicity profile and leaching test of synthesized catalysts were studied by using X-ray diffraction, BET measurement, TPD-CO2 and ICP-AES analysis, respectively. Transesterification activity of solid base catalysts showed that > 90% of palm biodiesel and > 80% of Jatropha biodiesel yield under 3 wt.% of catalyst, 3 h reaction time, methanol to oil ratio of 15:1 under 65°C. This indicated that other than physicochemical characteristic of catalysts; different types of natural oil greatly influence the catalytic reaction due to the presence of free fatty acids (FFAs). Among the solid base catalysts, calcium based mixed metal oxides catalysts with binary metal system (CaMgO and CaZnO) showed capability to maintain the transesterification activity for 3 continuous runs at ~ 80% yield. These catalysts render high durability characteristic in transesterification with low active metal leaching for several cycles.

  4. Impact of mine waste dumps on growth and biomass of economically important crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiyazhagan, Narayanan; Natarajan, Devarajan

    2012-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of magnesite and bauxite waste dumps on growth and biochemical parameters of some edible and economically important plants such as Vigna radiata, V. mungo, V. unguiculata, Eleusine coracana, Cajanus cajan, Pennisetum glaucum, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Oryza sativa, Sorghum bicolour, Sesamum indicum, Ricinus communis, Brassica juncea, Gossypium hirsutum and Jatropha curcas. The growth rate of all the crops was observed in the range of 75 to 100% in magnesite and 15 to 100% in bauxite mine soil. The moisture content of roots and shoots of all the crops were in the range of 24 to 77, 20 to 88% and 42 to 87, 59 to 88% respectively. The height of the crops was in the range of 2.6 to 48 cm in magnesite soil and 3 to 33 cm in bauxite soil. Thus the study shows that both mine soils reflects some physical and biomolecule impact on selected crops.

  5. Physical-Mechanical Properties And Microstructure Of Breadfruit Starch Edible Films With Various Plasticizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cut Fatimah Zuhra Marpongahtun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Breadfruit contains starch can be used as raw material of edible film. Research on preparation of edible films using various types of plasticizer (xylitol, sorbitol and PEG 400 has been done. The edible films were evaluated of physical-mechanical properties and microstructure. The results of this study indicate that the addition of plasticizer effect on the physical and mechanical characteristics, the edible film thickness, tensile strength and water vapor transmission rate greater using PEG 400 but percent elongation smaller than xylitol and sorbitol. Surface analysis of film was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM method.Keyword : Edible Film; Pati Sukun; Plasticizer; Silitol; Sorbitol ; PEG 400

  6. Development of edible films and coatings from alginates and carrageenans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli-Kafrani, Elham; Shekarchizadeh, Hajar; Masoudpour-Behabadi, Mahdieh

    2016-02-10

    The use of renewable resources, which can reduce waste disposal problems, is being explored to produce biopolymer films and coatings. Renewability, degradability, and edibility make such films particularly suitable for food and nonfood packaging applications. Edible films and coatings play an important role in the quality, safety, transportation, storage, and display of a wide range of fresh and processed foods. They can diminish main alteration by avoiding moisture losses and decreasing adverse chemical reaction rates. Also, they can prevent spoilage and microbial contamination of foods. Additionally, nanomaterials and food additives, such as flavors, antimicrobials, antioxidants, and colors, can be incorporated into edible films and coatings in order to extend their applications. Water-soluble hydrocolloids like polysaccharides usually impart better mechanical properties to edible films and coatings than do hydrophobic substances. They also are excellent barriers to oxygen and carbon dioxide. Recently, there has been much attention on carrageenan and alginate as sources of film-forming materials. Thus, this review highlights production and characteristics of these films. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Applications of edible films and coatings to processed foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible coatings have been successfully applied in processed foods such as meat, cereals, confectionaries, dried fruits, nuts and fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. These coatings are used to improve the quality and shelf-life of foods. Furthermore, different food ingredients, derived from ...

  8. Protective influence of Hibiscus sabdariffa , an edible medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was undertaken to examine the protective influence of the alcoholic leaf extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Linn) Malvaceae (an indigenous edible medicinal plant used in Ayurvedic and traditional Medicine in India, China and Thailand) on oxidative stress during ammonium chloride induced ...

  9. Heavy metals accumulation in edible part of vegetables irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metals accumulation in edible part of vegetables irrigated with untreated municipal wastewater in tropical savannah zone, Nigeria. HI Mustapha, OB Adeboye. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  10. Introduction: Edible Coatings and Films to Improve Food Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book gives a history of the development and uses of edible coatings, detailed chapters on coating caracteristics, determination of coating properties, methods for making coatings, and discription of coating film formers (polysaccharieds, lipids, resins, proteins). The book also disucsses coatin...

  11. Application of zein antimicrobial edible film incorporating Zataria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zein based edible film was developed and incorporated with Zataria multiflora boiss essential oil. Mechanical and microbiological characteristics of this biofilms were measured. Increasing concentration of antimicrobial agent in film reduced stretchability, tensile strength and elongation, however increased the thickness and ...

  12. A Preliminary Investigation Into the Use of Edible Fishery By ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey, to measure the quantity of edible fish waste (gills and guts) available per year, was conducted on Unguja Island, Zanzibar between December 2003 and February 2004. Seventeen samples from commercially important fish genera and species were collected from five landing sites ('dikos') in five districts of the ...

  13. Macro and Trace Element Accumulation in Edible Crabs and Frogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tissue accumulation of five macroelements (Na, Mg, K, Ca, Fe) and twelve trace elements (Vd, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Pb) were assessed in the organs of the edible frogs; Xenopus laevis and Rana esculentus, and whole body of the crab, Callinestes caught from Alaro Stream Floodplain (Ibadan, ...

  14. Anti-ulcerogenic efficacy and mechanisms of edible and natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a class of the most commonly used medicines and proven to be effective for certain disorders. Some people use NSAIDs on daily basis for preventive purpose. But a variety of severe side effects can be induced by NSAIDs. Studies have shown that edible ...

  15. Protocol for Enhanced in situ Bioremediation Using Emulsified Edible Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    are lauric , palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic. However, different oils contain different proportions of these fatty acids (Table 2.2). The...Designs ................................ 8 Table 2.1 Common Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids ...13 Table 2.2 Percent Fatty Acid Compositions for Major Edible Oils ................................................. 14 Table 2.3

  16. Nutritive potential of some 'edible' soils in Blantyre city, Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Pregnant women in Malawi consume soil, but the nutritive potential of these soils is uncertain. Methods We collected 'edible' Malawian soil samples from Ndirande, Mpingwe and Soche hills and bought an Indian soil sample from a shop in Limbe and tested them for iron, calcium, zinc, magnesium, lead, pH, ...

  17. Genomic Sequencing of Ranaviruses Isolated from Edible Frogs (Pelophylax esculentus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Subramaniam, Kuttichantran; Imnoi, Kamonchai

    2017-01-01

    Ranaviruses were isolated from wild edible frogs (Pelophylax esculentus) during epizootics in Denmark and Italy. Phylogenomic analyses revealed that these isolates are closely related and belong to a clade of ranaviruses that includes the Andrias davidianus ranavirus (ADRV), common midwife toad...

  18. extraction and physico chemical properties of some edible seed oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Six edible seed samples were obtained from Yankura market in Kano metropolis, Kano state. The samples were subjected to extraction for their oil contents. The percentage oil yield from the seeds were 40.60% for Moringa oleifera, 49.39% for cashew, 47.80% for sesame, 11.92% for bitter kola,. 38.30% for ...

  19. [Nutritional content, functional properties and conservation of edible flowers. Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Cortés, Estrella; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Jiménez-Aparicio, Antonio; Bautista-Bañios, Silvia

    2013-09-01

    The floriphagia that is the consumption of flowers as a food, is an old practice not widespread among consumers until some decades ago. Edible flowers contribute to increasing the appearance of food. They can provide biologically active substances including vitamin A, C, riboflavins, niacin, minerals such as calcium, phosphorous, iron and potassium that are eventually beneficial to consumers' health. This review includes some examples of edible flowers including roses, violets and nasturtium among others, uses and applications, sensorial characteristics and nutritional values that lead them to be considered as functional food: An important factor that affects the quality of edible flowers is the form in which they are preserved since it may affect their sensorial and nutritional characteristics. However, not all flowers can be eaten as food since there are some of them that can be toxic or even mortal. Finally, although the consumption of flowers is an ancient practice, there is little regulation in this regard. Of the review on edible flowers, it is concluded that there are still numerous aspects about them to evaluate such as nutritional and functional characteristics, conservation and regulation with the aim to extend its consumption.

  20. Evaluation of cardiovascular effects of edible fruits of Syzygium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of cardiovascular effects of edible fruits of Syzygium cumini Myrtaceae (L) skeels in rats. EA Herculano, C da Costa, AKBF Rodriques, JX Araújo-Júnior, EG Santana, PHB França, EA Gomes, MJ Salvador, FBP Moura, EAN Ribeiro ...

  1. Cytotoxic activity and apoptotic induction of some edible Thai local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate eight edible Thai local plant extracts (Camellia sinensis, Careya sphaerica, Cratoxylum formosum, Eleutherococcus trifoliatus, Ficus auriculata, Persicaria odorata, Schima wallichii, and Vaccinium sprengelii) against colon and liver cancer cell lines. Methods: The 80 % ethanol plant extracts were ...

  2. analysis of edible mushroom marketing in three villages in central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH

    annual respectively. This suggests that edible mushroom marketing business was lucrative. The concentration of sellers is low while entry is free. The markets are thus prefect competitive markets. The regression analysis, however, revealed that of all the marketing costs, transportation had the most significant impact on the ...

  3. Potentials of non-edible Abrus precatorius seed oil towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrus precatorius seed oil is not edible and possesses lethal toxicological properties; hence, alternative use as low cost feedstock for biodiesel production was investigated. The n-hexane extracted oil was characterized for its chemical and physical properties, and subsequently transesterified using 1% sodium hydroxide at ...

  4. Yield Of Edible Pleurotus Mushrooms Grown On Rice Straw With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the performance of different species of edible Pleurotus mushrooms grown on rice straw substrate with and without chicken manure supplementation. The Pleurotus species /varieties tested were P. flabellatus of Tanzania, India and Thailand origin, and P. sajor caju from Tanzania ...

  5. Cultivation of three types of indigenous wild edible mushrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The periods for spawn running, pinhead and fruit body formation, number of flushes, yield and biological efficiency of the three Tanzanian wild edible mushrooms, Coprinus cinereus, Pleurotus flabellatus and Volvariella volvocea, grown on composted sisal decortications residue were studied. Results revealed that the ...

  6. Local Perception and Proximate Analysis of some Edible Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that the selected edible wild plants were rich in essential nutrients and could serve as good sources of dietary supplements for growth and body maintenance. Further research is recommended especially in the propagation and domestication of the species to ensure sustained availability of the plants.

  7. Cultivation of three types of indigenous wild edible mushrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... industry, the basic biology of wild edible mushrooms coupled to indigenous substrate formulation and locally ...... was obtained in the first three flushes, with the fourth and fifth flushes producing 1 to 7%. .... human welfare in the 21st century: Non green revolution. Int. J. Med. Mushrooms 1: 1-7. Chen JT, Li ...

  8. Acceptability of Edible Mushroom as a Dietary Supplement in Oyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on the acceptability of edible mushroom as a dietary supplement. Virtually all the respondents (96.6 %) know what mushrooms are, but only half (55.2 %) consumes it. Less than half of the respondents (34.5 %) know the dietary components/benefits of mushroom. A greater majority of the respondents ...

  9. Local perception and proximate analysis of some edible forest plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    leontopetaloides had higher carbohydrate value (84.22± 0.03). The results showed that the selected edible wild plants were rich in essential nutrients and could serve as good sources of dietary supplements for growth and body maintenance. Further research is recommended especially in the propagation and ...

  10. The nutritional value of fourteen species of edible insects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventeen species of edible insects representing nine families from south western Nigeria were analyzed for nutrient composition. They include the orders of Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, and Isoptera. Analeptes trifasciata, Rhynchophorus phoenicis and Zonocerus variegatus has the highest crude ...

  11. The ESO Diffuse Interstellar Band Large Exploration Survey (EDIBLES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cami, J.; Cox, N. L.; Farhang, A.; Smoker, J.; Elyajouri, M.; Lallement, R.; Bacalla, X.; Bhatt, N. H.; Bron, E.; Cordiner, M. A.; de Koter, A..; Ehrenfreund, P.; Evans, C.; Foing, B. H.; Javadi, A.; Joblin, C.; Kaper, L.; Khosroshahi, H. G.; Laverick, M.; Le Petit, F..; Linnartz, H.; Marshall, C. C.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Mulas, G.; Roueff, E.; Royer, P.; Salama, F.; Sarre, P. J.; Smith, K. T.; Spaans, M.; van Loon, J. T..; Wade, G.

    2018-03-01

    The ESO Diffuse Interstellar Band Large Exploration Survey (EDIBLES) is a Large Programme that is collecting high-signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra with UVES of a large sample of O and B-type stars covering a large spectral range. The goal of the programme is to extract a unique sample of high-quality interstellar spectra from these data, representing different physical and chemical environments, and to characterise these environments in great detail. An important component of interstellar spectra is the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs), a set of hundreds of unidentified interstellar absorption lines. With the detailed line-of-sight information and the high-quality spectra, EDIBLES will derive strong constraints on the potential DIB carrier molecules. EDIBLES will thus guide the laboratory experiments necessary to identify these interstellar “mystery molecules”, and turn DIBs into powerful diagnostics of their environments in our Milky Way Galaxy and beyond. We present some preliminary results showing the unique capabilities of the EDIBLES programme.

  12. Intertidal population structure of the edible mollusc Turbo sarmaticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intertidal population structure of the large edible gastropod Turbo sarmaticus was examined at four sites along the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. One site was free from exploitation, two were subjected to low levels of exploitation and one was heavily exploited. Within the intertidal zone at all sites there was a ...

  13. Optimization of ISSR marker for African edible-seeded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We applied a molecular approach using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers on three African edible-seeded cucurbits (Citrullus lanatus L. Matsumura and Nakai, Cucumeropsis mannii L. Naudin and Cucumis melo var. agrestis L. Naudin). To obtain clear and reproducible bands on 1.5% agarose gels, we ...

  14. utilization of some non-edible oil for biodiesel production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogunjo Samuel

    Abstract: In this work, the production of biodiesel from four sources of non-edible oils, namely jatropha, animal fat, waste vegetable oil and castor oil was carried out. It was done using an acid esterification process followed by alkali transesterification in the laboratory. Subsequently the physicochemical properties for four ...

  15. The Edible Oil and Oilseeds Value Chain in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Mandefro (Fenta); S. Drost (Sarah); J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis report investigates the dynamics of a multi-stakeholder platform (named: Coordination Group, or CG) for stakeholders of the oilseeds and edible oil value chains in Ethiopia. The CG was initiated by the Dutch development organisation SNV in 2005 as part of a broader programme to

  16. Utilization of some non-edible oil for biodiesel production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the production of biodiesel from four sources of non-edible oils, namely jatropha, animal fat, waste vegetable oil and castor oil was carried out. It was done using an acid esterification process followed by alkali transesterification in the laboratory. Subsequently the physicochemical properties for four blends B100 ...

  17. Oxytetracycline residues in edible tissues of cattle slaughtered in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meat and other edible tissues from slaughtered cattle from Akure metropolitan abattoir from January to June 2007 were analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for oxytetracycline residue. The extraction was done using hydrochloric acid and acetonitrile for deproteinisation, while clean up was by ...

  18. Antihyperglycemic Activities of Leaves of Three Edible Fruit Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Ficus hispida L.f. (Moraceae), and Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. & L.M. Perry (Myrtaceae) are three common plants in Bangladesh, the fruits of which are edible. The leaves and fruits of A. carambola and F. hispida are used by folk medicinal practitioners for treatment of ...

  19. Distribution and abundance of the edible orchids of the southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... weeks in March 2002 in the Southern Regions of Tanzania (Iringa, Mbeya, Rukwa and Ruvuma) to study aspects of the extent of the distribution, diversity and density of edible orchids. Tools for identification included structured questionnaire, on-the-spot identification as well as using herbarium voucher samples and keys.

  20. Extraction and physico chemical properties of some edible seed oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six edible seed samples were obtained from Yankura market in Kano metropolis, Kano state. The samples were subjected to extraction for their oil contents. The percentage oil yield from the seeds were 40.60% for Moringa oleifera, 49.39% for cashew, 47.80% for sesame, 11.92% for bitter kola, 38.30% for melon and ...

  1. Structuring edible oil with lecithin and sorbitan tri-stearate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pernetti, M.; Malssen, van K.; Kalnin, D.J.E.; Flöter, E.

    2007-01-01

    The gelation of edible oil by a mixture of lecithin and sorbitan tri-stearate (STS) was studied. The two components individually in oil do not give structure at concentrations between 6% and 20% w/w: viscous, pourable solutions are obtained. A synergetic effect is observed with their mixture, at

  2. Edible oils from microalgae: insights in TAG accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, A.J.; Lamers, P.P.; Martens, D.E.; Draaisma, R.B.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising future source for sustainable edible oils. To make microalgal oil a cost-effective alternative for common vegetable oils, increasing TAG productivity and TAG content are of high importance. Fulfilling these targets requires proper understanding of lipid metabolism in

  3. HOW PROPERTIES OF EDIBLE OILS ARE IMPROVED BY ESSENTIAL OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONIA AMARIEI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present paper is to find out whether the addition of essential oils determines better oxidation stability and positive change of sensory and hedonic perception of edible oils. The oxidation stability of sunflower, corn and grape seed oils was analyzed in the presence of antioxidants in essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and basil (Ocimum basilicum during storage, under conditions of accelerated oxidative processes (4 days, at 60 °C. The total phenolic compounds of these essential oils were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The DPPH method was used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of basil, rosemary and thyme essential oils in comparison with known synthetic antioxidant L(+-ascorbic acid. The addition of essential oils to edible oils, the amounts proposed in analyses, determines a favorable influence on their oxidation stability as well as their taste. The influence of addition of essential oils on the taste of edible oils was studied in two products consumed mainly at breakfast, bread and spinach leaves. The results recommend the use of these plant extracts as additives in edible oils rather than synthetic antioxidants.

  4. DArT whole genome profiling provides insights on the evolution and taxonomy of edible Banana (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardos, J; Perrier, X; Doležel, J; Hřibová, E; Christelová, P; Van den Houwe, I; Kilian, A; Roux, N

    2016-12-01

    Dessert and cooking bananas are vegetatively propagated crops of great importance for both the subsistence and the livelihood of people in developing countries. A wide diversity of diploid and triploid cultivars including AA, AB, AS, AT, AAA, AAB, ABB, AAS and AAT genomic constitutions exists. Within each of this genome groups, cultivars are classified into subgroups that are reported to correspond to varieties clonally derived from each other after a single sexual event. The number of those founding events at the basis of the diversity of bananas is a matter of debate. We analysed a large panel of 575 accessions, 94 wild relatives and 481 cultivated accessions belonging to the section Musa with a set of 498 DArT markers previously developed. DArT appeared successful and accurate to describe Musa diversity and help in the resolution of cultivated banana genome constitution and taxonomy, and highlighted discrepancies in the acknowledged classification of some accessions. This study also argues for at least two centres of domestication corresponding to South-East Asia and New Guinea, respectively. Banana domestication in New Guinea probably followed different schemes that those previously reported where hybridization underpins the emergence of edible banana. In addition, our results suggest that not all wild ancestors of bananas are known, especially in M. acuminata subspecies. We also estimate the extent of the two consecutive bottlenecks in edible bananas by evaluating the number of sexual founding events underlying our sets of edible diploids and triploids, respectively. The attribution of clone identity to each sample of the sets allowed the detection of subgroups represented by several sets of clones. Although morphological characterization of some of the accessions is needed to correct potentially erroneous classifications, some of the subgroups seem polyclonal. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  5. Synthesis of biodiesel from edible and non-edible oils in supercritical alcohols and enzymatic synthesis in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivek Rathore; Giridhar Madras [Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-12-15

    Biodiesel is an attractive alternative fuel because it is environmentally friendly and can be synthesized from edible and non-edible oils. The synthesis of biodiesel from edible oils like palm oil and groundnut oil and from crude non-edible oils like Pongamia pinnata and Jatropha curcas was investigated in supercritical methanol and ethanol without using any catalyst from 200 to 400{sup o}C at 200 bar. The variables affecting the conversion during transesterification, such as molar ratio of alcohol to oil, temperature and time were investigated in supercritical methanol and ethanol. Biodiesel was also synthesized enzymatically with Novozym-435 lipase in presence of supercritical carbon dioxide. The effect of reaction variables such as temperature, molar ratio, enzyme loading and kinetics of the reaction was investigated for enzymatic synthesis in supercritical carbon dioxide. Very high conversions (>80%) were obtained within 10 min and nearly complete conversions were obtained at within 40 min for the synthesis of biodiesel in supercritical alcohols. However, conversions of only 60-70% were obtained in the enzymatic synthesis even after 8 h. 48 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Numerical simulation of cropping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Hutchinson, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Cropping is a cutting process whereby opposing aligned blades create a shearing failure by exerting opposing forces normal to the surfaces of a metal sheet or plate. Building on recent efforts to quantify cropping, this paper formulates a plane strain elastic-plastic model of a plate subject to s...

  7. Applied Crop Protection 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Nielsen, Bent Jørgen; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp

    Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. This publication contains results from crop protection trials which were carried out at the Department of Agroecology within the area of gricultural crops. Most of the results come from field trials, but results from greenhouse ...

  8. Protein edible films with emulsified maize oil as paprika carrier to improve color and rancidity in beef Bologna

    OpenAIRE

    Erick C. Tellez-Rangel; Ignacio Garcia-Martinez; Eva Rodriguez-Huezo; Alfonso Totosaus

    2017-01-01

    Edible films are a way to improve meat products shelf life. If edible films are formulated with proteins, oil can be emulsified by proteins, changing edible film properties. In this research protein edible films elaborated with milk protein concentrate or functional plasma proteins with or without emulsified oil were employed as carrier for functional ingredient, paprika, as antioxidant and to improve color in beef Bologna during vacuum packing storage at 4 °C. Edible films with emulsified oi...

  9. Crop resources. [18 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigler, D.S. (ed.)

    1977-01-01

    Eighteen papers originally presented as a symposium on Crop Resources at the 17th annual meeting of the Society for Economic Botany in Urbana, Illinois, June 13 to 17, 1976 comprise this book. The papers are: Potential Wealth in New Crops: Research and Development, L. H. Princen; Plant Introductions--A Source of New Crops, George A. White; Nonfood Uses for Commercial Vegetable Oil Crops, E. H. Pryde; New Industrial Potentials for Carbohydrates, F. H. Otey; The Current Importance of Plants as a Source of Drugs, Norman R. Farnsworth; Potentials for Development of Wild Plants as Row Crops for Use by Man, Arnold Krochmal and Connie Krochmal; Recent Evidence in Support of the Tropical Origin of New World Crops, C. Earle Smith, Jr.; Requirements for a Green Revolution, G. F. Sprague; How Green Can a Revolution Be, Jack R. Harlan; Increasing Cereal Yields: Evolution under Domestication, J. M. J. de Wet; Hevea Rubber: Past and Future, Ernest P. Imle; Horseradish--Problems and Research in Illinois, A. M. Rhodes; Dioscorea--The Pill Crop, Norman Applezweig; Plant Derivatives for Insect Control, Robert L. Metcalf; Evolutionary Dynamics of Sorghum Domestication, J. M. J. de Wet and Y. Shecter; The Origin and Future of Wheat, E. R. Sears; Current Thoughts on Origins, Present Status, and Future of Soybeans, T. Hymowitz and C. A. Newell; and The Origin of Corn--Studies of the Last Hundred Years, Garrison Wilkes. (MCW)

  10. Edible films from residual delipidated egg yolk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcet, Ismael; Sáez, Sara; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2017-11-01

    Commercial extraction with organic solvents of valuable lipids from egg yolk produces a highly denatured protein waste that should be valorized. In this work, the delipidated protein waste remaining after ethanol extraction was used to prepare edible films. This material was also treated with transglutaminase, obtaining films that have also been characterized. When compared with gelatin and caseinate edible films, the films made with egg yolk delipidated protein showed poorer mechanical properties, but improved light barrier properties, low water solubility and a high degree of transparency. It is particularly interesting that the presence of phosvitin in the egg yolk gives the films important ferrous chelating properties. When the egg yolk delipidated protein was treated with transglutaminase, the strength of the film was improved in comparison with films made with untreated protein. Finally, addition of thymol and natamycin in the preparation of these films is shown to be an interesting alternative, providing them with antibacterial and antifungal capacities.

  11. Anti-inflammatory properties of edible mushrooms: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyńska, Bożena; Grzywacz-Kisielewska, Agata; Kała, Katarzyna; Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna

    2018-03-15

    Mushrooms have been used extensively, owing to their nutritional and medicinal value, for thousands of years. Modern research confirms the therapeutic effect of traditionally used species. Inflammation is a natural response of the immune system to damaging factors, e.g. physical, chemical and pathogenic. Deficiencies of antioxidants, vitamins, and microelements, as well as physiological processes, such as aging, can affect the body's ability to resolve inflammation. Mushrooms are rich in anti-inflammatory components, such as polysaccharides, phenolic and indolic compounds, mycosteroids, fatty acids, carotenoids, vitamins, and biometals. Metabolites from mushrooms of the Basidiomycota taxon possess antioxidant, anticancer, and most significantly, anti-inflammatory properties. Recent reports indicate that edible mushroom extracts exhibit favourable therapeutic and health-promoting benefits, particularly in relation to diseases associated with inflammation. In all certainty, edible mushrooms can be referred to as a "superfood" and are recommended as a valuable constituent of the daily diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Anti-hyperglycemic effect of some edible plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Ramos, R; Flores-Saenz, J L; Alarcon-Aguilar, F J

    1995-08-11

    The anti-hyperglycemic effect of 12 edible plants was studied on 27 healthy rabbits, submitted weekly to subcutaneous glucose tolerance tests after gastric administration of water, tolbutamide or a traditional preparation of the plant. Tolbutamide, Cucurbita ficifolia, Phaseolus vulgaris, Opuntia streptacantha, Spinacea oleracea, Cucumis sativus and Cuminum cyminum decrease significantly the area under the glucose tolerance curve and the hyperglycemic peak. Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, Allium cepa and Allium sativum only decrease the hyperglycemic peak. The glycemic decreases caused by Psidium guajava, Brassica oleracea and Lactuca sativa var. romana were not significant (P > .05). The integration of a menu that includes the edible plants with hypoglycemic activity for the control and prevention of diabetes mellitus may be possible and recommendable.

  13. The decontamination effects of gamma irradiation on the edible gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Junjie; Shen, Weiqiao; Bao, Jinsong; Chen, Qinglong

    2000-01-01

    The decontamination effects of gamma irradiation on the edible gelatin were studied. The results indicated that the bacterium and mold in the gelatin decreased significantly with the dose of 5 kGy treatment. However, the content of crude protein, microelement, amino acid in the gelatin remained unchanged under the irradiation of 4 and 8 kGy. The viscosity of the gelatin decreased with the increase of the irradiation dose, but the gelatin with a dose of 5 kGy treatment still accorded with the standard of the second-order class. These results suggested that the optimum irradiation dose for edible gelatin for the purpose of decontamination was in the range 3-5 kGy. (author)

  14. Development of Aloe vera based edible coating for tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athmaselvi, K. A.; Sumitha, P.; Revathy, B.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of formulated Aloe vera based edible coating on mass loss, colour, firmness, pH, acidity, total soluble solid, ascorbic acid and lycopene on the coated tomato was investigated. The tomato in control showed a rapid deterioration with an estimated shelf life period of 19 days, based on the mass loss, colour changes, accelerated softening and ripening. On the contrary, the coating on tomatoes delayed the ripening and extended the shelf life up to 39 days. The physiological loss in weight was 7.6 and 15.1%, firmness was 36 and 46.2 N on 20th day for control and coated tomatoes, respectively. From the results, it was concluded that the use of Aloe vera based edible coating leads to increased tomato shelf-life.

  15. PENGARUH PLASTICIZER PADA KARAKTERISTIK EDIBLE FILM DARI PEKTIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kompiang Wirawan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available EFFECT OF PLASTICIzER ON THE PECTINIC EDIBLE FILM CHARACTERISTICS. The peel of Balinese Citrus contains high concentration of pectin which can be further processed to be edible films. The edible films can be utilized as a food coating which protects the food from any external mass transports such as humid, oxygen, and soluble material and can be served as a carrier to improve the mechanical-handing properties of the food. Edible films made of organic polymers tend to be brittle and thus addition of a plasticizer is required during the process. The work studies the effect of the type and the concentration of plasticizers on the tensile strength, the elongation of break, and the water vapor permeabilty of the edible film. Sorbitol and glycerol were used as plasticizers. Albedo from the citrus was hydrolized with hydrochloride acid 0.1 N to get pectinate substance. Pectin was then dissolved in water dan mixed with the plasticizers and CaCl2.2H2O solution. The concentrations of the plasticizers were 0, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 mL/mL of solution. The results showed that increasing the concentration of plasticizers will decrease the tensile strength, but increase the elongation and film permeability. Sorbitol-plasticized films are more brittle, however exhibited higher tensile strength and water vapor permeability than of glycerol-plasticized film. The results suggested that glycerol is better plasticizer than sorbitol.  Kulit jeruk bali banyak mengandung pektin yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan baku edible film. Edible film bisa digunakan untuk melapisi bahan makanan, melindungi makanan dari transfer massa eksternal seperti kelembaban, oksigen, dan zat terlarut, serta dapat digunakan sebagai carrier untuk meningkatkan penanganan mekanik produk makanan. Film yang terbuat dari bahan polimer organik ini cenderung rapuh sehingga diperlukan penambahan plasticizer. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh kadar dan jenis

  16. Trends in Medicinal Uses of Edible Wild Vertebrates in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of food medicines is a widespread practice worldwide. In Brazil, such use is often associated with wild animals, mostly focusing on vertebrate species. Here we assessed taxonomic and ecological trends in traditional uses of wild edible vertebrates in the country, through an extensive ethnobiological database analysis. Our results showed that at least 165 health conditions are reportedly treated by edible vertebrate species (n=204, mostly fishes and mammals. However, reptiles stand out presenting a higher plasticity in the treatment of multiple health conditions. Considering the 20 disease categories recorded, treatment prescriptions were similar within continental (i.e., terrestrial and freshwater and also within coastal and marine habitats, which may reflect locally related trends in occurrence and use of the medicinal fauna. The comprehension of the multiplicity and trends in the therapeutic uses of Brazilian vertebrates is of particular interest from a conservation perspective, as several threatened species were recorded.

  17. Cryptosporidium species from common edible bivalves in Manila Bay, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoso, Edison Jay A; Rivera, Windell L

    2017-06-15

    Manila Bay is one of the major propagation sites of edible bivalves in the Philippines. Studies have shown that bivalves might be contaminated with human pathogens like the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium, one of the major causes of gastroenteritis in the world. In this study, Cryptosporidium from four species of edible bivalves were isolated using a combination of sucrose flotation and immunomagnetic separation. Using direct fluorescent antibody test, Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 67 out of 144 samples collected. DNA sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene of the isolates detected C. parvum and C. hominis (major causes of human cryptosporidiosis) and C. meleagridis (causes infection in avian species). Analysis of the 60kDa glycoprotein gene further confirmed the genotypes of the Cryptosporidium isolates. This study is the first to provide baseline information on Cryptosporidium contamination of Manila Bay where bivalves are commonly cultured. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chitosan based edible films and coatings: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabee, Maher Z; Abdou, Entsar S

    2013-05-01

    Chitosan is a biodegradable biocompatible polymer derived from natural renewable resources with numerous applications in various fields, and one of which is the area of edible films and coatings. Chitosan has antibacterial and antifungal properties which qualify it for food protection, however, its weak mechanical properties, gas and water vapor permeability limit its uses. This review discusses the application of chitosan and its blends with other natural polymers such as starch and other ingredients for example essential oils, and clay in the field of edible films for food protection. The mechanical behavior and the gas and water vapor permeability of the films are also discussed. References dealing with the antimicrobial behavior of these films and their impact on food protection are explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The development of the edible cricket industry in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Roos, Nanna; Flore, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Since cricket farming was introduced in Thailand in 1997, domestic, regional and international interest in the edible cricket industry has increased. This study aims to identify emerging themes related the development of the edible cricket industry over the past decades. It also discusses...... additional themes in the development of the cricket industry in connection to the work of other scholars, as well as future considerations to maintain the positive impacts of the industry on rural economic development, entrepreneurship and employment. Eight types of actors in the cricket industry were...... considered in this study: cricket farmers; wholesale traders and market vendors; tourism agents; international organisa tions; chefs; private companies; researchers; and governmental representatives. The farming and sale of crickets is still a small-scale activity which is relatively profitable...

  20. Testing the validity of a Cd soil quality standard in representative Mediterranean agricultural soils under an accumulator crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recatala, L.; Sanchez, J.; Arbelo, C.; Sacristan, D.

    2010-01-01

    The validity of a quality standard for cadmium (Cd) in representative agricultural Mediterranean soils under an accumulator crop (Lactuca sativa L.) is evaluated in this work considering both its effect on the crop growth (biomass production) and the metal accumulation in the edible part of the plant. Four soils with different properties relevant to regulate the behaviour of heavy metals were selected from the Valencian Region, a representative area of the European Mediterranean Region. For all soils, the effective concentration of added Cd causing 50% inhibition (EC 50 ) on the biomass production was much higher than the minimum legal concentration used to declare soils as contaminated by cadmium, i.e. 100 times the baseline value for Cd, in Spain (Spanish Royal Decree 9/2005). As expected, Cd toxicity in the crop was higher in the soils having less carbonate content. On the other hand, for all soils, from the second dose on, which represents 10-times the baseline value for Cd, the metal content in crops exceeded the maximum level established for leaf crops by the European legislation (Regulation EC no. 466/2001). Soil salinity and coarse textures make the accumulation of Cd in the edible part of the plant easier. Therefore, the legal baseline soil cadmium content established by the Spanish legislation seems not valid neither from the point of view of the effect on the crop growth nor from the point of view of the metal accumulation in the edible part of the plant. In order to realistically declare contaminated soils by heavy metals, soil quality standards should be proposed taking into account the soil properties. Further research in other agricultural areas of the region would improve the basis for proposing adequate soil quality standards for heavy metals as highlighted by the European Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection.

  1. Testing the validity of a Cd soil quality standard in representative Mediterranean agricultural soils under an accumulator crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recatala, L., E-mail: luis.recatala@uv.es [Departamento de Planificacion Territorial, Centro de Investigaciones sobre Desertificacion-CIDE (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia-Generalitat Valenciana), Cami de la Marjal S/N, 46470 Albal (Valencia) (Spain); Sanchez, J. [Departamento de Planificacion Territorial, Centro de Investigaciones sobre Desertificacion-CIDE (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia-Generalitat Valenciana), Cami de la Marjal S/N, 46470 Albal (Valencia) (Spain); Arbelo, C. [Departamento de Edafologia y Geologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna (Tenerife), Islas Canarias (Spain); Sacristan, D. [Departamento de Planificacion Territorial, Centro de Investigaciones sobre Desertificacion-CIDE (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia-Generalitat Valenciana), Cami de la Marjal S/N, 46470 Albal (Valencia) (Spain)

    2010-12-01

    The validity of a quality standard for cadmium (Cd) in representative agricultural Mediterranean soils under an accumulator crop (Lactuca sativa L.) is evaluated in this work considering both its effect on the crop growth (biomass production) and the metal accumulation in the edible part of the plant. Four soils with different properties relevant to regulate the behaviour of heavy metals were selected from the Valencian Region, a representative area of the European Mediterranean Region. For all soils, the effective concentration of added Cd causing 50% inhibition (EC{sub 50}) on the biomass production was much higher than the minimum legal concentration used to declare soils as contaminated by cadmium, i.e. 100 times the baseline value for Cd, in Spain (Spanish Royal Decree 9/2005). As expected, Cd toxicity in the crop was higher in the soils having less carbonate content. On the other hand, for all soils, from the second dose on, which represents 10-times the baseline value for Cd, the metal content in crops exceeded the maximum level established for leaf crops by the European legislation (Regulation EC no. 466/2001). Soil salinity and coarse textures make the accumulation of Cd in the edible part of the plant easier. Therefore, the legal baseline soil cadmium content established by the Spanish legislation seems not valid neither from the point of view of the effect on the crop growth nor from the point of view of the metal accumulation in the edible part of the plant. In order to realistically declare contaminated soils by heavy metals, soil quality standards should be proposed taking into account the soil properties. Further research in other agricultural areas of the region would improve the basis for proposing adequate soil quality standards for heavy metals as highlighted by the European Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection.

  2. Characterization of Starch Edible Films with Different Essential Oils Addition

    OpenAIRE

    Šuput Danijela; Lazić Vera; Pezo Lato; Markov Siniša; Vaštag Žužana; Popović Ljiljana; Radulović Aleksandra; Ostojić Sanja; Zlatanović Snežana; Popović Senka

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated properties of starch-based edible films with oregano and black cumin essential oil addition. Essential oils addition positively affected film swelling (decreased due to essential oil addition), mechanical properties (tensile strength decreased while elongation at break increased), and water vapor barrier properties (decreased along with essential oils addition). Control film did not have any biological activity, which proves the need for essential oils addition in orde...

  3. The edible gelatin irradiation sterilization technology and quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Junjie; Shi Jianjun; Shen Weiqiao

    2000-01-01

    60 Co γ-ray irradiation sterilization technology was used in treating edible gelatin and the irradiation effects on viscosity, protein and amino acid were studied. The results demonstrated that the irradiation dose had negative correlation with viscosity, and there were no damage effects on the gelatin with 360 days storage under room temperature. According to D 10 Value, the suitable irradiation dose should be 3-5 kGy

  4. Chemical composition and mineral elements of edible insects (at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Chemical Composition and Mineral Elements of two edible insects' larvae and termite soldiers were assayed. Their ash content were between 1.01% and 7.50%. The legless larva (LS) had 28.52% fat, while the solider ant had 7.14% and the Legged larva (LG) had 1.50%. The white ant (SA) had 15.61% protein while ...

  5. Do edible oils reduce bacterial colonization of enamel in situ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannig, Christian; Kirsch, Jasmin; Al-Ahmad, Ali; Kensche, Anna; Hannig, Matthias; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    Edible oils are an empiric approach for the prevention of oral diseases. The present in situ study investigated the effect of edible oils on initial bacterial colonization of enamel surfaces. Initial biofilm formation was performed on enamel specimens mounted on maxillary splints and carried by eight subjects. After 1 min of pellicle formation, rinses with safflower oil, olive oil and linseed oil were performed for 10 min. Application of chlorhexidine for 1 min served as positive control. Afterwards, the slabs were carried for 8 h overnight. Samples carried for 8 h without any rinse served as negative controls. The amount of adherent bacteria was determined by DAPI staining (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) and live-dead staining (BacLight). Additionally, determination of colony forming units was performed after desorption of the bacteria. TEM evaluation was carried out after application of the rinses. The number of adherent bacteria on control samples was 6.1 ± 8.1 × 10(5)/cm(2) after 8 h (DAPI). Fluorescence microscopic data from DAPI staining and live-dead staining as well as from the determination of CFU revealed no significant effects of rinsing with oils on the amount of adherent bacteria compared to the non-rinsed control samples. However, with chlorhexidine a significant reduction in the number of bacteria by more than 85 % was achieved (DAPI, chlorhexidine: 8.2 ± 17.1 × 10(4)/cm(2)). The ratio of viable to dead bacteria was almost equal (1:1) irrespective of the rinse adopted as recorded with BacLight. TEM indicated accumulation of oil micelles at the pellicle's surface and modification of its ultrastructure. Rinses with edible oils have no significant impact on the initial pattern and amount of bacterial colonization on enamel over 8 h. Rinses with edible oils cannot be recommended for efficient reduction of oral biofilm formation.

  6. A comparative study on edible Agaricus mushrooms as functional foods

    OpenAIRE

    Glamočlija, Jasmina; Stojković, Dejan; Nikolić, Miloš; Ćirić, Ana; Reis, Filipa S.; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.; Soković, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus is a cultivated mushroom; A. bitorquis, A. campestris and A. macrosporus are edible mushrooms growing wild in nature. A chemical characterization was carried out with samples that originated in Serbia. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-quorum sensing properties of their methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. A. campestris had the lowest caloric value and total sugar content and showed the highest concentration in organic and phenolic acids, as also in tocopherols...

  7. NUTRITIONAL AND ANTINUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF SOME UNCONVENTIONAL WILD EDIBLE PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Veerabahu Ramasamy Mohan; Chinnamadasamy Kalidass

    2010-01-01

    The wild edible tubers, rhizome, corm, roots and stems were consumed by the tribal Valaiyans of Madurai district, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu were analysed for proximate and mineral composition, starch, vitamins, in vitro protein (IVPD), in vitro starch (IVSD) digestibility and certain antinutritional factors. The tubers of Kedrostis foetidissima and stem of Caralluma pauciflora contain higher contents of crude protein. The tubers of Decalepis hamiltonii and stems of Caralluma adscendens var at...

  8. Nicotine from edible Solanaceae and risk of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Susan Searles; Franklin, Gary M; Longstreth, W T; Swanson, Phillip D; Checkoway, Harvey

    2013-09-01

    To test whether risk of Parkinson disease (PD) is associated with consumption of nicotine-containing edibles from the same botanical family as tobacco, Solanaceae, including peppers, tomatoes, and potatoes. In a population-based study with 490 newly diagnosed idiopathic PD cases diagnosed during 1992-2008 at the University of Washington Neurology Clinic or Group Health Cooperative in western Washington State and 644 unrelated, neurologically normal controls, we examined whether PD was associated with self-reported typical frequency of consumption of peppers, tomatoes, tomato juice, and potatoes during adulthood, while adjusting for consumption of other vegetables, age, sex, race/ethnicity, tobacco use, and caffeine. PD was inversely associated with consumption of all edible Solanaceae combined (relative risk [RR] = 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.65-1.01 per time per day), but not consumption of all other vegetables combined (RR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.92-1.10). The trend strengthened when we weighted edible Solanaceae by nicotine concentration (ptrend = 0.004). An inverse association was also evident for peppers specifically (ptrend = 0.005). The potentially protective effect of edible Solanaceae largely occurred in men and women who had never used tobacco or who had smoked cigarettes < 10 years. Dietary nicotine or other constituents of tobacco and peppers may reduce PD risk. However, confirmation and extension of these findings are needed to strengthen causal inferences that could suggest possible dietary or pharmaceutical interventions for PD prevention. Copyright © 2013 American Neurological Association.

  9. Volatile organic components from fresh non-edible Basidiomycetes fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovano, Marisa; Garbarino, Juan A; Sánchez, Elizabeth; Young, Manuel E

    2009-12-01

    The compounds responsible for the characteristic odor of eight fresh non-edible Basidiomycetes fungi were evaluated. The volatile organic compounds from the fresh samples present in the headspace of a sealed vial were determined by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, using a PDMS/DVB fiber. A total of twenty-eight components were identified, the most frequent being 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone.

  10. 3D jet printer of edible gels for food creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serizawa, Ryo; Shitara, Mariko; Gong, Jin; Makino, Masato; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, aging is progressing in Japan. Elderly people can't swallow the food well. So, the need of soft food is increasing greatly with the aging of the population. There are so few satisfying foods for the elderly to enjoy a meal. An equipment of printing soft food gives the elderly a big dream and is promising. In this study, we aim at developing a 3D edible gel printer in order to make soft food for the elderly. We made a prototype of the 3D edible gel printer. The printer consists of syringe pump and dispenser. The syringe pump extrudes the solution. The dispenser allows to model threedimensional objects. We use agar solution as the ink to carry out the printing. Agar's gelation deeply depends on temperature. Therefore temperature control of the solution is important to mold optimal shapes because the physical crosslinking network of agar's solution is instable. We succeeded in making the gels and plate-shape gel using the 3D edible gel printer. Further more, in order to increase the gelation speed agar's solution, we changed the dispenser and the printing test is being done now. 4 kinds of soft food prepared from agar and gelatin were printed by the 3D edible gel printer. The compression tests of the printed soft food samples were done and their hardness is measured because the hardness is one of very important factors which influence the food texture greatly. In the future, the viscosity of the agar solution or other food ink should be adjusted to suitable for printing.

  11. Phytochemical characterization of wild edible Boletus sp. from Northeast Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Heleno, Sandrina A.; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Sousa, Maria João; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2010-01-01

    Our research has been focused on the documentation of nutritional composition and nutraceutical potential of wild mushrooms, making the information available for a better management and conservation of these species and related habitats. In the present work, the chemical composition and bioactivity of three wild edible Boletus sp. (Boletus aereus, Boletus edulis, Boletus reticulatus) from Northeast Portugal were evaluated, in order to valorise these species as sources of important...

  12. 137Cs content in edible mushrooms of the Transcarpathian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Parlag

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Edible mushrooms (Boletus edulis Bull.: Fr. and Leccinum scabrum (Bull.: Fr. S.F.Gray of Transcarpathian region were analyzed on content of 137Cs. Specific activity of 137Cs in collected mushrooms did not exceed 354 ± 53 Bq/kg (dry substance. Estimation of the contribution into internal exposure dose of population for the condi-tion of 1 kg of mushrooms consumption is carried out.

  13. Some Edible Mushrooms of Kop Mountain (Erzurum-Bayburt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Keleş

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted on macrofungi collected from Kop Mountain (Erzurum-Bayburt between the years of 2010 and 2011. The colorful photographs of macrofungi in the natural habitat were taken and their morphological and ecological features were determined and the information on macrofungi given by local people was recorded. According to the field and laboratory studies; 44 edible macrofungi taxa belonging to 14 families and 5 ordos located in Pezizomycetes and Agaricomycetes classes were identified.

  14. Bioactive compounds in edible flowers processed by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Amanda Cristina Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Edible flowers are increasingly being used in culinary preparations, being also recognized for their potential valuable effects in human health, which require new approaches to improve their conservation and safety. These highly perishable products should be grown without using any pesticide. Irradiation treatment might be the answer to these problems, ensuring food quality, increasing shelf-life and disinfestation of foods. Irradiation treatment might be the answer to these problems, to ensure food quality, to increase shelf-life and disinfestation of foods. Tropaeolum majus L. (nasturtium) and Viola tricolor L. (johnny-jump-up) flowers are widely used in culinary preparations, being also acknowledged for their antioxidant properties and high content of phenolics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation (doses of 0, 0.5, 0.8 and 1 kGy) on the antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, physical aspects and antiproliferative potential of edible flowers. Kaempferol-O-hexoside-O-hexoside was the most abundant compound in all samples of Tropaeolum majus flower while pelargonidin-3-O-sophoroside was the major anthocyanin. In general, irradiated samples gave higher antioxidant activity, probably due to their higher amounts of phenolic compounds, which were also favored by the 1.0 kGy dose, regardless of the source . The Viola tricolor samples displayed flavonols as the most abundant phenolic compounds, particularly those derived from quercetin. In general, gamma-irradiated samples, independently of the applied dose, showed higher amounts in phenolic compounds, which were also favored by the 1.0 kGy dose, regardless of the source. The antioxidant activity was also higher among irradiated samples. The two species of edible flowers have not provided the samples did not show potential antiproliferative and cytotoxicity. Accordingly, the applied irradiation treatments seemed to represent a feasible technology

  15. Edible flowers - antioxidant activity and impact on cell viability

    OpenAIRE

    Kuceková, Zdenka; Mlček, Jiří; Humpolíček, Petr; Rop, Otakar

    2013-01-01

    The phenolic compound composition, antioxidant activity and impact on cell viability of edible flower extracts of Allium schoenoprasum; Bellis perennis; Cichorium intybus; Rumex acetosa; Salvia pratensis; Sambucus nigra; Taraxacum officinale; Tragopogon pratensis; Trifolium repens and Viola arvensis was examined for the first time. Total phenolic content of the flowers of these plants fell between 11.72 and 42.74 mg of tannin equivalents/kg of dry matter. Antioxidant activity ranged from 35.5...

  16. ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF EDIBLE MUSHROOM EXTRACT ON CANDIDA ALBICANS GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccola Edneia A. de Souza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Five species of edible mushrooms, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pholiota nameko, Macrolepiota bonaerensis and Agaricus blazei, were tested for their potential to inhibit the in vitro growth of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Only L. edodes had a fungistatic effect on this human pathogen. The inhibitory compound was produced intra and extracellularly in submersed L. edodes culture, and was also present in fresh and dehydrated mushroom basidiocarps. The fungistatic compound was heat sensitive and lost activity after 72 hours.

  17. Cereal Crops Research Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Cereal Crops Research Unit is to 1) conduct basic research to identify and understand the biological processes affecting the growth, development...

  18. Rapid screening of toxic glycoalkaloids and micronutrients in edible nightshades (Solanum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yuan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available African indigenous vegetables (AIVs because of their nutrient density have the unique potential to reduce micronutrient deficiencies in sub-Saharan Africa, yet some may also contain anti-nutritive compounds. Vegetable nightshades from Solanum americanum, Solanum nigrum, Solanum scabrum and Solanum villosum are among the major AIVs used as a leafy vegetables and consumed regularly in many countries in sub-Sahara Africa. These under-recognized food crops have not been subjected to extensive studies for their nutritional and antinutritive factors. In this study, 15 entries of the vegetable nightshades were field-grown and the leaves which are the consumed product of commerce chemically profiled by LC/ESI-MS. Twenty-three flavones, eight saponins, and two glycoalkaloids along with a phenolic acid of chlorogenic acid were identified by MS and UV data. Anti-nutrient glycoalkaloids were quantified as total aglycones after acidic hydrolysis using MS detection and found to be within safe-consumption thresholds by comparison with the glycoalkaloid level in the globally consumed Solanum member eggplants. Edible nightshades were also found to be sources of β-carotene, vitamin E and total polyphenols and exhibited high antioxidant activity. Results of this study support that consumption of vegetable nightshades are safe from the presence of glycoalkaloids and thus, can contribute to the reduction of micronutrient deficiency in sub-Sahara Africa. Keywords: Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Carotene, Vitamin E, Antioxidant activity, Saponins, Solanum

  19. Intraspecific DNA methylation polymorphism in the non-edible oilseed plant castor bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan He

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the relationships of phenotypic and epigenetic variations might be a good way to dissect the genetic or molecular basis of phenotypic variation and plasticity in plants. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., an important non-edible oilseed crop, is a mono-species genus plant in the family Euphorbiaceae. Since it displays rich phenotypic variations with low genetic diversity, castor bean is a good model to investigate the molecular basis of phenotypic and epigenetic variations. Cytosine DNA methylation represents a major molecular mechanism of epigenetic occurrence. In this study, epigenetic diversity of sixty landrace accessions collected worldwide was investigated using the methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP technique. Results showed that the epigenetic diversity (based on the polymorphism of DNA methylated loci exhibited a medium variation (Ne = 1.395, He = 0.242, I = 0.366 at the population level though the variation was great, ranging from 3.80% to 34.31% among accessions. Both population structure analysis and the phylogenetic construction (using the neighbor-joining criteria revealed that the two main clades were identified, but they did not display a distinct geographic structure. After inspecting the location of polymorphic methylated loci on genome we identified that the polymorphic methylated loci occur widely in nuclear and organelle genomes. This study provides new data to understand phenotypic and epigenetic variations in castor bean.

  20. Estimating cadmium concentration in the edible part of Capsicum annuum using hyperspectral models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Wei, Hong; Zhou, Cui; Gu, Yanwen; Li, Rui; Chen, Hongchun; Ma, Wenchao

    2017-10-09

    Hyperspectral remote sensing can be applied to the rapid and nondestructive monitoring of heavy-metal pollution in crops. To realize the rapid and real-time detection of cadmium in the edible part (fruit) of Capsicum annuum, the leaf spectral reflectance of plants exposed to different levels of cadmium stress was measured using hyperspectral remote sensing during four growth stages. The spectral indices or bands sensitive to cadmium stress were determined by correlation analysis, and hyperspectral estimation models for predicting the cadmium content in the fruit of C. annuum during the mature growth stage were established. The models were cross validated by taking the sensitive spectral indices in the bud stage and the sensitive spectral bands in the flowering stage as the input variables. The results indicated that cadmium accumulated in the leaves and fruit of C. annuum and leaf cadmium content in the three early growth stages were correlated with the cadmium content of the pepper in the mature stage. Leaf spectral reflectance was sensitive to cadmium stress, and the first derivative of the original spectral reflectance was strongly correlated with leaf cadmium content during all growth stages. Among the established models, the multiple regression model based on the sensitive spectral bands in the flowering stage was optimal for predicting fruit cadmium content of the pepper. This model provides a promising method to ensure food safety during the early growth stage of the plant.

  1. Recent innovations in the area of edible films and coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maftoonazad, Neda; Badii, Fojan; Shahamirian, Maryam

    2013-12-01

    Edible films/coatings have been considered as one of the potential technologies that can be used to increase the storability of foods and to improve the existent packaging technology, helping to ensure the microbial safety and the preservation of food from the influence of external factors. Innovations constantly appear in food packaging, always aiming at creating a more efficient quality preservation system while improving foods' attractiveness and marketability. The utilization of renewable sources for packaging materials, such as hydrocolloids and lipids from biological origin, is one the main trends of the industry. These films should have acceptable sensory characteristics, appropriate barrier properties (CO2, O2, water, oil), microbial, biochemical and physicochemical stability, they should be safe, and produced by simple technology in low cost. Also they can act as effective carrier for antioxidant, flavor, color and nutritional or anti-microbial additives. Nowadays, a great discussion exists about the potential applications of edible films/coatings on food products. The general trend is to find the correct combination between the food product and the edible film/coating, which will ensure the success of the technology.

  2. Edible films and coatings in seafood preservation: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Samira; Hosseini, Seyed Vali; Regenstein, Joe M

    2018-02-01

    Seafood is highly perishable and has a short shelf-life. During storage many reactions occur leading to changes in quality such as endogenous chemical and enzymatic reactions. The safety and shelf-life are related to the presence of food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Despite improved manufacturing facilities and implementation of effective process control procedures such as the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system by seafood companies, the number of seafood-related foodborne illnesses has increased. Edible coatings can improve the quality of fresh and frozen products by retarding microbial growth, reducing lipid oxidation and moisture loss, and functioning as a carrier of food additives such as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents. Biodegradable edible coatings have various advantages over synthetic coatings such as being edible and generally being more environmentally friendly. This paper reviews the application of various types of natural bio-polymer and different active ingredients incorporated into the films and their effects on seafood quality attributes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nutritive potential of some 'edible' soils in Blantyre city, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakudzala, D D; Khonje, J J

    2011-06-01

    Pregnant women in Malawi consume soil, but the nutritive potential of these soils is uncertain. We collected 'edible' Malawian soil samples from Ndirande, Mpingwe and Soche hills and bought an Indian soil sample from a shop in Limbe and tested them for iron, calcium, zinc, magnesium, lead, pH, Bacillus and Clostridium, using standard methods of analyses. Based on an average daily consumption of fifty grammes of soil, Blantyre 'edible' soils can supply 0.006%, 0.2%, 7% and 74% whilst the Indian soil may supply 0.008%, 0.27%, 8.7%, and 65% of the WHO recommended minimum daily intakes of Magnesium, Calcium, Zinc and iron, respectively. However, both the Blantyre and Indian 'edible' soils also have some traces of lead (0.05 to 0.07 mg/g soil) and spores of Bacillus (4900 - 13475 colonies/gram) and Clostridium (5050 - 9050 colonies/gram), which may have undesirable health effects. Blantyre soils were similar but significantly different from the Indian soil which had higher calcium, magnesium, zinc and lead but lower iron. The soils have nutritive potential, but they also have harmful aspects. Recommendation Further multidisciplinary research should be conducted to assess the nutritive potential of soils from other areas in Malawi and to examine the health effects of lead and bacterial spores.

  4. Novel edible oil sources: Microwave heating and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin; Koubaa, Mohamed; Lopez-Cervantes, Jaime; Yousefabad, Seyed Hossein Asadi; Hosseini, Seyedeh Fatemeh; Karimi, Masoumeh; Motazedian, Azam; Asadifard, Samira

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of various microwave heating times (1, 3, 5, 10, and 15min) on the chemical properties of novel edible oil sources, including Mashhadi melon (Cucumis melo var. Iranians cv. Mashhadi), Iranian watermelon (Citrullus lanatus cv. Fire Fon), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. Styriaca), and yellow apple (Malus domestica cv. Golden Delicious) seed oils. The evaluated parameters were peroxide value (PV), conjugated diene (CD) and triene (CT) values, carbonyl value (CV), p-anisidine value (AnV), oil stability index (OSI), radical scavenging activity (RSA), total tocopherols, total phenolics, as well as chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Results showed that extended microwave heating involves decreased quality of the seed oils, mainly due to the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products. Microwave heating time also affects the total contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, phenolics and tocopherols, which clearly decrease by increasing the exposure time. The order of oxidative stability of the analyzed edible oils was pumpkin>Mashhadi melon>Iranian watermelon>yellow apple. The obtained results demonstrated the promising potential of these novel edible oils for different food applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutritional composition and safety aspects of edible insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpold, Birgit A; Schlüter, Oliver K

    2013-05-01

    Insects, a traditional food in many parts of the world, are highly nutritious and especially rich in proteins and thus represent a potential food and protein source. A compilation of 236 nutrient compositions in addition to amino acid spectra and fatty acid compositions as well as mineral and vitamin contents of various edible insects as derived from literature is given and the risks and benefits of entomophagy are discussed. Although the data were subject to a large variation, it could be concluded that many edible insects provide satisfactorily with energy and protein, meet amino acid requirements for humans, are high in MUFA and/or PUFA, and rich in several micronutrients such as copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorous, selenium, and zinc as well as riboflavin, pantothenic acid, biotin, and in some cases folic acid. Liabilities of entomophagy include the possible content of allergenic and toxic substances as well as antinutrients and the presence of pathogens. More data are required for a thorough assessment of the nutritional potential of edible insects and proper processing and decontamination methods have to be developed to ensure food safety. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Characterization of Starch Edible Films with Different Essential Oils Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuput Danijela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated properties of starch-based edible films with oregano and black cumin essential oil addition. Essential oils addition positively affected film swelling (decreased due to essential oil addition, mechanical properties (tensile strength decreased while elongation at break increased, and water vapor barrier properties (decreased along with essential oils addition. Control film did not have any biological activity, which proves the need for essential oils addition in order to obtain active packaging. Oregano oil was more effective in terms of biological activity. Endothermal peak, above 200°C, represents total thermal degradation of edible films. Diffraction pattern of control film showed significant destruction of A-type crystal structure. Addition of essential oils resulted in peak shape change: diffraction peaks became narrower. Principal Component Analysis has been used to assess the effect of essential oils addition on final starch-based edible films characteristics with the aim to reveal directions for the film characteristics improvement, since the next phase will be optimal film application for food packaging.

  7. Phytochemical Content, Health Benefits, and Toxicology of Common Edible Flowers: A Review (2000-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Baiyi; Li, Maiquan; Yin, Ran

    2016-07-29

    Edible flowers contain numerous phytochemicals which contribute to their health benefits, and consumption of edible flowers has increased significantly in recent years. While many researchers have been conducted, no literature review of the health benefits of common edible flowers and their phytochemicals has been compiled. This review aimed to present the findings of research conducted from 2000 to 2015 on the species, traditional application, phytochemicals, health benefits, and the toxicology of common edible flowers. It was found in 15 species of common edible flowers that four flavonols, three flavones, four flavanols, three anthocyanins, three phenolic acids and their derivatives were common phytochemicals and they contributed to the health benefits such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, and neuroprotective effect. Toxicology studies have been conducted to evaluate the safety of common edible flowers and provide information on their dosages and usages.

  8. Transgenics in crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Wu, Y. H.; McAvoy, R.; Duan, H.

    2001-01-01

    With rapid world population growth and declining availability of fresh water and arable land, a new technology is urgently needed to enhance agricultural productivity. Recent discoveries in the field of crop transgenics clearly demonstrate the great potential of this technology for increasing food production and improving food quality while preserving the environment for future generations. In this review, we briefly discuss some of the recent achievements in crop improvement that have been made using gene transfer technology.

  9. Effect of crop residue management and cropping system on pearl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retaining crop residues in the field and using legume-based crop rotations have been suggested as ways to simultaneously increase yields per unit area and replenish soil nutrients. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of two cropping systems and three crop residue management practices on grain ...

  10. Radioactivity in food crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  11. Radioactivity in food crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for 137 Cs, 40 K, 90 Sr, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for 241 Am, 7 Be, 60 Co, 55 Fe, 3 H, 131 I, 54 Mn, 95 Nb, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 228 Th, 232 Th, and 95 Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g -1 (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins

  12. Antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts from 12 Chinese edible flowers in vitro and in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Feng; Miao, Miao; Xia, Hui; Yang, Li-Gang; Wang, Shao-Kang; Sun, Gui-Ju

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The antioxidant function of edible flowers have attracted increasing interest. However, information is lacking on the impact of edible flowers on oxidative injury including hypoxia-re-oxygenation and hyperlipidemia. The antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts from 12 Chinese edible flowers were assessed in four different antioxidant models, including total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), scavenging hydroxyl radical capacity (SHRC) and scaveng...

  13. Disease Prevention: An Opportunity to Expand Edible Plant-Based Vaccines?

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Concha; Raúl Cañas; Johan Macuer; María José Torres; Andrés A. Herrada; Fabiola Jamett; Cristian Ibáñez

    2017-01-01

    The lethality of infectious diseases has decreased due to the implementation of crucial sanitary procedures such as vaccination. However, the resurgence of pathogenic diseases in different parts of the world has revealed the importance of identifying novel, rapid, and concrete solutions for control and prevention. Edible vaccines pose an interesting alternative that could overcome some of the constraints of traditional vaccines. The term ?edible vaccine? refers to the use of edible parts of a...

  14. How four U.S. states are regulating recreational marijuana edibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdet, Camille; Giombi, Kristen C; Kosa, Katherine; Wiley, Jenny; Cates, Sheryl

    2017-05-01

    Sales of edible marijuana products have been strong in Colorado and Washington State since the legalization of recreational marijuana. Initially, these states did not have comprehensive labelling or packaging requirements in place. In response to increases in marijuana-related emergency room visits and poison control centre calls, additional regulations were implemented. Currently, Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington each have passed into law various labelling and packaging requirements for edibles. This article presents the primary legal research findings of relevant statutes and regulations for edibles in Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington. These laws were identified by using Boolean terms and connectors searches in these states' legal databases in LexisNexis. Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington vary greatly in how they regulate labelling and packaging. Colorado, Oregon and Washington require a Universal Symbol to be affixed to edibles, but only Oregon and Washington require that the use of pesticides be disclosed on the label. Only Colorado and Oregon require that the packaging for edibles bear a Nutrition Facts Panel on the label. Δ 9 -Tetrahydracannabinol (THC) in a single serving or single edible product as Alaska and Oregon. All four states prohibit the manufacture or packaging of edibles that appeal to youth. State laws governing recreational marijuana edibles have evolved since the first recreational edible products were available for sale. Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington now require edible product labels to disclose a variety of product information, including risk factors associated with consumption. However, there still remain concerns about the regulatory gaps that exist in each of these states, inherent difficulties in enforcing laws around the labelling, packaging, and manufacturing of edibles, and the outstanding question of whether these edible laws are actually informing consumers and keeping the public safe. Copyright

  15. Impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 on nutrient content of important food crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietterich, Lee H.; Zanobetti, Antonella; Kloog, Itai; Huybers, Peter; Leakey, Andrew D. B.; Bloom, Arnold J.; Carlisle, Eli; Fernando, Nimesha; Fitzgerald, Glenn; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Holbrook, N. Michele; Nelson, Randall L.; Norton, Robert; Ottman, Michael J.; Raboy, Victor; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Sartor, Karla A.; Schwartz, Joel; Seneweera, Saman; Usui, Yasuhiro; Yoshinaga, Satoshi; Myers, Samuel S.

    2015-07-01

    One of the many ways that climate change may affect human health is by altering the nutrient content of food crops. However, previous attempts to study the effects of increased atmospheric CO2 on crop nutrition have been limited by small sample sizes and/or artificial growing conditions. Here we present data from a meta-analysis of the nutritional contents of the edible portions of 41 cultivars of six major crop species grown using free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) technology to expose crops to ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations in otherwise normal field cultivation conditions. This data, collected across three continents, represents over ten times more data on the nutrient content of crops grown in FACE experiments than was previously available. We expect it to be deeply useful to future studies, such as efforts to understand the impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 on crop macro- and micronutrient concentrations, or attempts to alleviate harmful effects of these changes for the billions of people who depend on these crops for essential nutrients.

  16. Impacts of elevated atmospheric CO₂ on nutrient content of important food crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietterich, Lee H; Zanobetti, Antonella; Kloog, Itai; Huybers, Peter; Leakey, Andrew D B; Bloom, Arnold J; Carlisle, Eli; Fernando, Nimesha; Fitzgerald, Glenn; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Holbrook, N Michele; Nelson, Randall L; Norton, Robert; Ottman, Michael J; Raboy, Victor; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Sartor, Karla A; Schwartz, Joel; Seneweera, Saman; Usui, Yasuhiro; Yoshinaga, Satoshi; Myers, Samuel S

    2015-01-01

    One of the many ways that climate change may affect human health is by altering the nutrient content of food crops. However, previous attempts to study the effects of increased atmospheric CO2 on crop nutrition have been limited by small sample sizes and/or artificial growing conditions. Here we present data from a meta-analysis of the nutritional contents of the edible portions of 41 cultivars of six major crop species grown using free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) technology to expose crops to ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations in otherwise normal field cultivation conditions. This data, collected across three continents, represents over ten times more data on the nutrient content of crops grown in FACE experiments than was previously available. We expect it to be deeply useful to future studies, such as efforts to understand the impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 on crop macro- and micronutrient concentrations, or attempts to alleviate harmful effects of these changes for the billions of people who depend on these crops for essential nutrients.

  17. Addressing crop interactions within cropping systems in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goglio, Pietro; Brankatschk, Gerhard; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2018-01-01

    objectives of this discussion article are as follows: (i) to discuss the characteristics of cropping systems which might affect the LCA methodology, (ii) to discuss the advantages and the disadvantages of the current available methods for the life-cycle assessment of cropping systems, and (iii) to offer...... management and emissions, and (3) functional unit issues. The LCA approaches presented are as follows: cropping system, allocation approaches, crop-by-crop approach, and combined approaches. The various approaches are described together with their advantages and disadvantages, applicability...... considers cropping system issues if they are related to multiproduct and nutrient cycling, while the crop-by-crop approach is highly affected by assumptions and considers cropping system issues only if they are related to the analyzed crop. Conclusions Each LCA approach presents advantages and disadvantages...

  18. Accumulation of soil-borne aluminium, iron, manganese and zinc in plants cultivated in the region of Moanda (Gabon) and nutritional characteristics of the edible parts harvested.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondo, Jean Aubin; Biyogo, Richard Menye; Eba, François; Prudent, Pascale; Fotio, Daniel; Ollui-Mboulou, Magloire; Omva-Zue, Joseph

    2013-08-15

    In central Africa, studies on the transfer of metals from soil to food crops, the composition of foods and the dietary intake of cultivated vegetables are scarce. In this study, aluminium (Al), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) transfer from naturally (pedogeochemically) contaminated soils into ten edible plants and human exposure to these metals via edible parts of the plants were investigated. The fertility of the soils studied was still satisfactory. Soil Al (33,029-40,031 mg kg(-1)), Fe (20,869 ± 1124 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (248.3 ± 37.9 mg kg(-1)) concentrations were consistent with those found in agricultural soils, but Mn concentrations were above those normally encountered in arable fields (10,000 mg kg(-1)). The results indicated a substantial accumulation of Fe in red roselle leaves and of Al, Mn and Zn in some leafy plants and okra (fruits). The present study highlights that adults consuming vegetables grown on naturally Mn-rich soils ingest significant amounts of Al, Mn and Zn. However, Zn amounts were below the recommended maximum tolerable levels for hazard risk. The study indicated that Al and Mn accumulation in food crops cultivated in the Moanda area of Gabon may represent a health hazard. However, the high levels of Zn in vegetables could be a pathway for Zn supplementation in human nutrition to reduce Zn deficiency in developing countries. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. The gathering and consumption of wild edible plants in Nhema communal area, Midlands Province, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroyi, Alfred

    2011-11-01

    The study documented 67 wild edible plant species belonging to 45 genera and 30 families. Anacardiaceae and Moraceae were the dominant botanical families with 6 species each. Of the reported food plants, 67.7% were fruits, 14.9% vegetables, and the remainder were edible roots, inner bark, seed kernel, juice, and gum. Of edible plants, 79.1% had multiple uses, which included medicinal and construction timber. Only 20.9% of the species were used exclusively for food. Wild edible plants are a significant contributor to the socioeconomic well-being of the local people as they contribute a recognizable source of income especially for women.

  20. Global gridded crop model evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Christoph; Elliott, Joshua; Chryssanthacopoulos, James; Arneth, Almut; Balkovic, Juraj; Ciais, Philippe; Deryng, Delphine; Folberth, Christian; Glotter, Michael; Hoek, Steven; Iizumi, Toshichika; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Jones, Curtis; Khabarov, Nikolay; Lawrence, Peter; Liu, Wenfeng; Olin, Stefan; Pugh, Thomas A.M.; Ray, Deepak K.; Reddy, Ashwan; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruane, Alex C.; Sakurai, Gen; Schmid, Erwin; Skalsky, Rastislav; Song, Carol X.; Wang, Xuhui; Wit, De Allard; Yang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Crop models are increasingly used to simulate crop yields at the global scale, but so far there is no general framework on how to assess model performance. Here we evaluate the simulation results of 14 global gridded crop modeling groups that have contributed historic crop yield simulations for

  1. Biotechnology: herbicide-resistant crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic, herbicide-resistant (HR) crops are planted on about 80% of the land covered by transgenic crops. More than 90% of HR crios are glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, the others being resistant to glufosinate. The wide-scale adoption of HR crops, largely for economic reasons, has been the mos...

  2. Grand challenges for crop science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop science is a highly integrative science using the disciplines of conventional plant breeding, transgenic crop improvement, plant physiology, and cropping system sciences to develop improved varieties of agronomic, turf, and forage crops to produce feed, food, fuel, and fiber for our world's gro...

  3. Energy from field crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubr, J.

    1990-04-15

    At the Research Station of Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen, Denmark, investigation concerning cultivation and exploitation of field crops for production of fuels was carried out during the period 1986-1989. High yielding crops, such as sugar beet - BETA VULGARIS, jerusalem artichoke - HELIANTHUS TUBEROSUS, rhubarb - RHEUM RHAPONTICUM, and comfrey - SYMPHYTUM ASPERUM, were grown experimentally in the field. Different cultivation methods for the crops were used and evaluated. Simultaneously with the field experiment, laboratory investigation was carried out to determine the energy potential of different products and by-products from the crops processes, such as alcoholic and methanogenic fermantation. Production expenses for the crops were determined, and cost of the fuels was estimated. The experimental results show that beet is a superior crop for the climatic conditions of Northern Europe. In the season 1986, yields exceeded 20 t TS/ha in the form of roots and tops, where achieved. A combined exploitation of beet roots and tops via alcoholic and methanogenic fermantation gave a gross energy corresponding to 80 hl OE/ha/yr. Using methanogenic fermentation exclusively, from ensiled beet roots and tops, gross energy yield corresponding to 85 hl IE/ha/yr, was achieved. The cost of energy in the form of alcohol from beet roots was estimated to be 5.17 DKK/1 OE (0.64 ECU/l OE). The cost of energy in the form of methane from ensiled beet tops, was estimated to be 2.68 DKK/l OE (0.33 ECU/l OE). At the present time, methane produced on the basis of ensiled beet roots and tops appears to be competitive with fossil fuels. Irrespective of the cost, however, the possibility of producing clean energy from field crops remains of interest for the future. (author) 27 refs.

  4. Progress in breeding for trace minerals in staple crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio, Glenn B

    2002-03-01

    Staples are not considered an important source of minerals in the diet. However, because of high staple consumption, any increase in mineral concentration might well have a significant effect on human nutrition and health. The nutritional quality of staple crops (rice, cassava, wheat, maize and beans) can be improved by breeding. Studies have shown the potential to exploit the genetic variation in seed concentration of iron and other minerals without the general negative effect on yield of adding new traits. The relationship between yield and mineral concentration may be positive, particularly in mineral-deficient soil. Initial evaluations have shown that some crop varieties have high Fe, Zn and carotene in their edible portions. The next step for conventional breeding will be to study the genetics of trace mineral inheritance to determine the best selection technique. Initial investigations of the genetics for high iron in rice have indicated a complex mode of inheritance, demonstrating additive and dominant gene and environmental effects. Breeding strategies have been developed based on these genetic findings. The use of biotechnological tools, such as molecular marker-assisted selection, will significantly increase the pace and prospects of success for breeding to improve the nutritional value of staple food crops.

  5. Transfer factors of radioiodine from volcanic-ash soil (Andosol) to crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban-Nai, Tadaaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Environmental and Toxicological Sciences Research Group

    2003-03-01

    In order to obtain soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) of radioiodine from volcanic-ash soil to agricultural crops, we carried out radiotracer experiments. The mean values of TFs (on a wet weight basis) of radioiodine from Andosol to edible parts of crops were as follows: water dropwort, 0.24; lettuce, 0.00098; onion, 0.0011; radish, 0.0044; turnip, 0.0013 and eggplant, 0.00010. The mean value of the TFs of radioiodine for edible parts of wheat (on a dry weight basis) was 0.00015. We also studied the distributions of iodine in crops. There was a tendency for the TFs of leaves to be higher than those of tubers, fruits and grains. A very high TF was found for water dropwort, because this plant was cultivated under a waterlogged condition, in which iodine desorbed from soil into soil solution with a drop in the Eh value. The data obtained in this study should be helpful to assess the long-lived {sup 129}I (half life: 1.57 x l0{sup 7} yr) pathway related to the fuel cycle. (author)

  6. Plant biotechnology: transgenic crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R; Jones, Huw D; Halford, Nigel G

    2008-01-01

    Transgenesis is an important adjunct to classical plant breeding, in that it allows the targeted manipulation of specific characters using genes from a range of sources. The current status of crop transformation is reviewed, including methods of gene transfer, the selection of transformed plants and control of transgene expression. The application of genetic modification technology to specific traits is then discussed, including input traits relating to crop production (herbicide tolerance and resistance to insects, pathogens and abiotic stresses) and output traits relating to the composition and quality of the harvested organs. The latter include improving the nutritional quality for consumers as well as the improvement of functional properties for food processing.

  7. Concentrations and health risks of lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury in rice and edible mushrooms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yong; Sun, Xinyang; Yang, Wenjian; Ma, Ning; Xin, Zhihong; Fu, Jin; Liu, Xiaochang; Liu, Meng; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Zhu, Xuefeng; Hu, Qiuhui

    2014-03-15

    In this study, four common heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) in rice and edible mushrooms of China were studied to evaluate contamination level and edible safety. Ninety two (92) rice samples were collected from the main rice growing regions in China, and 38 fresh and 21 dry edible mushroom samples were collected from typical markets in Nanjing City. The analyzed metal concentrations were significantly different between rice and edible mushroom samples (price samples respectively, were above maximum allowable concentration (MAC). In fresh edible mushroom, Pb and Hg contents in 2.6% samples were above MAC, respectively. However, only Hg content in 4.8% dry edible mushroom samples was above its MAC. Therefore, more than 95% rice and edible mushroom samples in our test had high edible safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cover crops support ecological intensification of arable cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Raphaël A.; Dorn, Brigitte; Jossi, Werner; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.

    2017-02-01

    A major challenge for agriculture is to enhance productivity with minimum impact on the environment. Several studies indicate that cover crops could replace anthropogenic inputs and enhance crop productivity. However, so far, it is unclear if cover crop effects vary between different cropping systems, and direct comparisons among major arable production systems are rare. Here we compared the short-term effects of various cover crops on crop yield, nitrogen uptake, and weed infestation in four arable production systems (conventional cropping with intensive tillage and no-tillage; organic cropping with intensive tillage and reduced tillage). We hypothesized that cover cropping effects increase with decreasing management intensity. Our study demonstrated that cover crop effects on crop yield were highest in the organic system with reduced tillage (+24%), intermediate in the organic system with tillage (+13%) and in the conventional system with no tillage (+8%) and lowest in the conventional system with tillage (+2%). Our results indicate that cover crops are essential to maintaining a certain yield level when soil tillage intensity is reduced (e.g. under conservation agriculture), or when production is converted to organic agriculture. Thus, the inclusion of cover crops provides additional opportunities to increase the yield of lower intensity production systems and contribute to ecological intensification.

  9. Preparation, properties and applications of wheat gluten edible films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. TANADA-PALMU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Edible films from wheat gluten were prepared with various amounts of glycerol as a plasticizer. Water vapor permeability, oxygen permeability, tensile strength and percentage elongation at break at different water activities ( aw were measured. Films with low amounts of glycerol had lower water vapor and oxygen permeabilities, higher tensile strength and lower elongation at break. Wheat gluten coatings reduced weight loss during two weeks of storage for cherry tomatoes and sharon fruits compared to uncoated controls. A bilayer film of wheat gluten and beeswax significantly lowered weight loss from coated cheese cubes compared to single layer coating of wheat gluten.;

  10. Effect of x-rays on edible vegetable oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agba, E.H.; Chile, S.T.; Sombo, T.

    2009-01-01

    X-irradiated and non-irradiated vegetable oil sample were investigated by assessing the effect of the radiation on peroxide and fatty acid values on Turkey oil, Groundnut oil and Soya bean oil samples. The result of the investigation showed a rise in peroxide value by 99% for Turkey oil, 61% for Groundnut oil and 52% for Soya bean oil, while the acid value increased by as much as 58% for Turkey oil, 21% for Groundnut oil and 50% for Soya bean oil. These results show that X-irradiation has an adverse effect on the quality of edible vegetable oils

  11. Cadmium, lead, arsenic and nickel in wild edible mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Pelkonen, Riina; Alfthan, Georg; Järvinen, Olli

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to study the geographical and temporal variation of Cd, Pb, As and Ni in wild edible mushrooms and to evaluate possible toxicological risks resulting from their consumption. The research focused on 12 mushroom species commonly collected in Finland. The samples were collected at common collection sites in Southern Finland between the years 1977 and 1999 and analysed using ICP-MS. The median dry weight concentrations ranged between 0.22-29.70 mg kg-1 d.w. for Cd, 0.36-6...

  12. PROPOSAL OF SANITARY MANAGEMENT OF EDIBLE ECHINODERMS IN SARDINIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Terrosu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus is an edible echinoderm very common in the Mediterranean sea. In the Sardinian gastronomic tradition it represents a product very used in some periods of the year, but in practice the sanitary controls by the competent authorities are very difficult. The Reg. (EC n. 853/2004 provides that, as regards as the control on production, echinoderms are assimilable to live bivalve molluscs, with the exception of the provisions on purification. In this work a proposal for the sanitary management of the phases of gathering, transport and selling of the sea urchins has been studied.

  13. Identification of molecular species of acylglycerols of Philippine wild edible mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild edible mushrooms are widely consumed in many countries. We successfully cultivated four edible, medicinal Philippine mushrooms in liquid culture. Recently, we identified the molecular species of acylglycerols in the lipid extract of mushroom G. lucidum NRRL66208. One hundred and three molecular...

  14. Effect of lactic acid bacteria on the textural properties of an edible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of different components and the addition of probiotic bacteria of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, Lactobacillus casei) on the physicochemical and textural characteristics of edible films using a response surface Box-Behnken design. The edible films were made of the following ...

  15. The Effects of Sex on Yield of Edible and Saleable Carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 30 castrated males) managed on range were analysed to determine the influence of sex on edible and saleable components. Edible proportion of live weight was obtained as all body components minus skin, lungs, heart, head, feet and gut fill, while saleable proportion of live weight was defined as all body components ...

  16. Ethno–botanical survey of edible wild fruits in Benguet, Cordillera administrative region, the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racquel Tan Chua-Barcelo

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Benguet province in the Cordillera region provides a diversity of edible wild fruits. The data gathered from the study signifies that collection, processing and utilization of edible wild fruits are still part of the daily activities of the people in Benguet.

  17. Place over traits? Purchasing edibles from medical marijuana dispensaries in Los Angeles, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepple, Nancy Jo; Freisthler, Bridget

    2017-10-01

    To examine discrete purchasing behaviors of marijuana-infused edibles from medical marijuana dispensaries with the aim to identify potential venue- and individual-level targets for prevention. Two-stage, venue-based sampling approach was used to randomly select patrons exiting 16 medical marijuana dispensaries in Los Angeles, California during Spring 2013. Hierarchical generalized linear modeling was used to examine the likelihood of purchasing edibles among 524 patrons reporting a discrete purchase regressed on characteristics of the sampled dispensaries and their patrons. At a venue level, patrons were more likely to purchase edibles from dispensaries located within Census tracts with higher median incomes or in close proximity to a higher number of dispensaries. At an individual level, patrons who identified as Black or Hispanic were associated with a lower likelihood of purchasing edibles when compared to patrons who identified as other non-White, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity. Place-based policies focused on regulating edible sales through dispensaries may be fruitful in influencing access to edibles. Additionally, social marketing campaigns may benefit from targeting both locations where edible purchases are more likely and populations who are more likely to purchase edibles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Beauty, bounty, and biodiversity: the story of California Indian’s relationship with edible native geophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Kat Anderson; Frank K.   Lake

    2016-01-01

    California supported a great diversity of plants with edible underground storage organs available to Indian tribes. Together, plant foods, fish and meat made up an indigenous diet that was well-rounded, diverse, and relatively secure. The edible underground parts possessed by these plants are classified as bulbs, corms, taproots, tubers and rhizomes, and when...

  19. Effect of lactic acid bacteria on the textural properties of an edible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rodrigo

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of different components and the addition of probiotic bacteria of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, Lactobacillus casei) on the physicochemical and textural characteristics of edible films using a response surface Box-Behnken design. The edible films were made of the ...

  20. Dietary values of wild and semi-wild edible plants in Southern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edible parts of target plants were collected with local participants, lyophilized and analyzed for proximate composition, amino acids, minerals and anti-nutritional factors. The wild edibles constituted good amounts of nutrients essential in human diet. Green leafy vegetables (GLVs) gave 1.5-5.8% ether extractives and total ...

  1. Edible macrofungi of Edremit Gulf (Balıkesir) in Turkey | Polat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungi were investigated morphologically in the laboratory, and then samples were dried in the oven to preserve them as herbarium samples. 10 edible fungi species belonging to nine families were identified. Six of them are consumed by local people and sold in local markets. Key words: Edible macrofungi, Edremit Bay, ...

  2. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or... olive oil shall be as follows: (a) A descriptive name for the product meeting the requirements of § 102...

  3. Effectiveness of edible coatings combined with mild heat shocks on microbial spoilage and sensory quality of fresh cut broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, María del R; Ponce, Alejandra; Ansorena, R; Roura, Sara I

    2011-08-01

    improve food appearance and integrity. It is one of the most effective methods to maintain food quality. On the other hand, heat treatments have been demonstrated to be effective as a nonchemical means of improving postharvest quality for a variety of horticultural products. The applications of mild heat shocks combined with edible coatings constitute an alternative for the natural preservation of crops for which the use of synthetic chemicals is objectionable. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Combinable protein crop production

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Isobel

    2008-01-01

    This research topic review aims to summarise research knowledge and observational experience of combinable protein crop production in organic farming systems for the UK. European research on peas, faba beans and lupins is included; considering their role in the rotation, nitrogen fixation, varieties, establishment, weed control, yields, problems experienced and intercropping with cereals.

  5. Biotechnology Towards Energy Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritopoulou, Theoni; Roka, Loukia; Alexopoulou, Efi; Christou, Myrsini; Rigas, Stamatis; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Milioni, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    New crops are gradually establishing along with cultivation systems to reduce reliance on depleting fossil fuel reserves and sustain better adaptation to climate change. These biological assets could be efficiently exploited as bioenergy feedstocks. Bioenergy crops are versatile renewable sources with the potential to alternatively contribute on a daily basis towards the coverage of modern society's energy demands. Biotechnology may facilitate the breeding of elite energy crop genotypes, better suited for bio-processing and subsequent use that will improve efficiency, further reduce costs, and enhance the environmental benefits of biofuels. Innovative molecular techniques may improve a broad range of important features including biomass yield, product quality and resistance to biotic factors like pests or microbial diseases or environmental cues such as drought, salinity, freezing injury or heat shock. The current review intends to assess the capacity of biotechnological applications to develop a beneficial bioenergy pipeline extending from feedstock development to sustainable biofuel production and provide examples of the current state of the art on future energy crops.

  6. Sustainable Agriculture: Cover Cropping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Megan

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture practices are increasingly being used by farmers to maintain soil quality, increase biodiversity, and promote production of food that is environmentally safe. There are several types of sustainable agriculture practices such as organic farming, crop rotation, and aquaculture. This lesson plan focuses on the sustainable…

  7. Transpiration and crop yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de C.T.

    1958-01-01

    Theoretical and practical aspects of the transpiration of crops in the field are discussed and he concludes that the relationship between transpiration and total dry matter production is much less affected by growing conditions than has been supposed. In semi-arid and arid regions, this relationship

  8. Organic crop breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Myers, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    This book provides readers with a thorough review of the latest efforts by crop breeders and geneticists to develop improved varieties for organic production. The book opens with chapters looking at breeding efforts that focus on specific valuable traits such as quality, pest and disease resistance

  9. Crop yields in intercropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract

    Intercropping, the cultivation of two or more crop species simultaneously in the same field, has been widely practiced by smallholder farmers in developing countries and is gaining increasing interest in developed countries. Intercropping can increase the yield per unit

  10. Indigenous knowledge of the edible weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius Hymenoptera: Formicidae from the Vientiane Plain, Lao PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itterbeeck, Van J.; Sivongxay, N.; Praxaysombath, B.; Huis, van A.

    2014-01-01

    Of major importance in realizing the potential of edible insects as a core element in improving food security, sustainable food production, and biodiversity conservation, are developments in sustainable exploitation of wild edible insect populations and in (semi-)cultivating and farming edible

  11. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to the... fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils and meets the following specifications: (1) Not less than...

  12. The Sustainable Harvesting of Edible Insects in South Africa, with Reference to Indigenous Knowledge, African Science, Western Science and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toms, Rob

    2007-01-01

    In our ongoing research on edible insects in the Limpopo Province of South Africa, we have found evidence of the unsustainable harvesting of edible insects and the food plants of certain insects. The decline in the edible insect industry, together with the need for food security provides a strong incentive to investigate possible causes of…

  13. Sociocultural and ecological factors influencing management of edible and non-edible plants: the case of Ixcatlán, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Rangel-Landa, Selene; Casas, Alejandro; García-Frapolli, Eduardo; Lira, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Background Identifying factors influencing plant management allows understanding how processes of domestication operate. Uncertain availability of resources is a main motivation for managing edible plants, but little is known about management motives of non-edible resources like medicinal and ceremonial plants. We hypothesized that uncertain availability of resources would be a general factor motivating their management, but other motives could operate simultaneously. Uncertainty and risk mig...

  14. KARAKTERISTIK EDIBLE FILM YANG DIPRODUKSI DARI KOMBINASI GELATIN KULIT KAKI AYAM DAN SOY PROTEIN ISOLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Hasdar

    2012-09-01

    SDS-PAGE dan menunjukkan sebagai molekul kolagen. Hasil analisis kandungan asam amino edible film menggunakan HPLC dihasilkan komposisi residu asam amino terbesar adalah glysin yaitu 29,42%, 37,88%, 38,32%, 39,28% dan 39,17% pada masing-masing perlakuan. Hal itu menggambarkan bahwa profil protein edible film dapat dipastikan sebagian besar berasal dari kolagen gelatin. Pengamatan dengan scaning electron microscope menunjukkan telah terbentuk cross linking antara molekul protein gelatin dan molekul soy protein isolate dan yang ditunjukan semakin berkurangnya retakan seiring dengan meningkatnya konsentrasi gelatin. Perbedaan kombinasi gelatin kulit kaki ayam dan soy protein isolate untuk membentuk edible film tidak memberikan pengaruh nyata pada kekuatan tarik (tensile strenght, dan kemuluran (elongation, namun berpengaruh nyata pada laju transmisi uap air (Water Vapour Transmision Rate. Kombinasi 95:5 protein gelatin kulit kaki ayam dan soy protein isolate menghasilkan edible film yang terbaik. (Kata kunci: Edible film, Gelatin kaki ayam, Soy protein isolate

  15. Edible antimicrobial films based on microencapsulated lemongrass oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos C, Rubén O; Alberti R, Francesca V; Matiacevich, Silvia B

    2016-01-01

    Edible films and coatings have been proposed as viable alternatives for the preservation of fresh food such as fruit, meat, fish and cheese. They can be designed to contain natural antioxidants, vitamins and antimicrobials in order to extend shelf life of the product keeping the natural sensorial properties. Essential oils have been targeted as potential active principles for edible films and coatings given their well-recognized antioxidant, antimicrobial and sensory properties. In the present work, lemongrass oil (LMO) microcapsules were prepared by the emulsification-separation method using sodium caseinate as wall material. Microcapsules had an average size of 22 μm and contained over 51 % oil in their nucleus. The release kinetics of the LMO components was studied for both, microcapsules and microcapsule containing films. Experimental data for the controlled release of LMO components showed good correlation with Peppas and Weibull models. The effect of the alginate matrix on the release parameters of the mathematical models could be detected by the modification of the b constant of the Weibull equation which changed from 0.167 for the microcapsules to 0.351 for the films. Films containing LMO at concentrations of 1250, 2500 and 5000 ppm were able to inhibit growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Listeria monocytogenes ISP 65-08 in liquid cultures. A possible future application of these films for shelf life extension of fresh food is discussed.

  16. Edible flowers as sources of phenolic compounds with bioactive potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Tânia C S P; Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Alves, Maria José; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2018-03-01

    The edible flowers are widely used, but there is still a lot to be done in relation to its bioactive potential and its correlation with the presence of phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was determined the individual phenolic profile in the hydromethanolic extracts and infusion preparations of four different flower samples (Dahlia mignon, Rosa damascena 'Alexandria' and R. gallica 'Francesa' draft in R. canina, Calendula officinalis L., and Centaurea cyanus L.) and their bioactive potential (antioxidant, antiproliferative, and antibacterial capacity). All the studied flowers presented different profiles regarding their phenolic composition and revealed biological potential. The bioactive potential of the studied flowers was moderate, the hydromethanolic extracts of rose petals showed the best results for antioxidant and antibacterial assays, while the antiproliferative properties were only present in some of the tested cell lines, for the hydromethanolic extracts, in which dahlia and rose showed the best results. These results demonstrate that edible flowers can be used as a source of phenolic compounds with bioactive potential, which can be applied in the food sector, as foods and as sources natural ingredients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antifatigue Functions and Mechanisms of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Geng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is the symptom of tiredness caused by physical and/or psychological stresses. As fatigue is becoming a serious problem in the modern society affecting human health, work efficiency, and quality of life, effective antifatigue remedies other than pharmacological drugs or therapies are highly needed. Mushrooms have been widely used as health foods, because of their various bioactive constituents such as polysaccharides, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. This paper reviews the major findings from previous studies on the antifatigue effects, the active components of mushrooms, and the possible mechanisms. Many studies have demonstrated the antifatigue effects of edible and medicinal mushrooms. These mushrooms probably mitigate human fatigue through effects on the functional systems, including the muscular, cardiovascular, hormone, and immune system. The bioactive constituents that contribute to the antifatigue effects of mushrooms may include polysaccharides, peptides, nucleosides, phenolic compounds, and triterpenoids. Further research is still needed to identify the active ingredients and to investigate their mechanism of action on the antifatigue effects. Since most previous studies have been carried out in animal models, more human trials should be performed to verify the antifatigue function of edible and medicinal mushrooms.

  18. Antifungal Edible Coatings for Fresh Citrus Fruit: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Palou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to their origin, major postharvest losses of citrus fruit are caused by weight loss, fungal diseases, physiological disorders, and quarantine pests. Cold storage and postharvest treatments with conventional chemical fungicides, synthetic waxes, or combinations of them are commonly used to minimize postharvest losses. However, the repeated application of these treatments has led to important problems such as health and environmental issues associated with fungicide residues or waxes containing ammoniacal compounds, or the proliferation of resistant pathogenic fungal strains. There is, therefore, an increasing need to find non-polluting alternatives to be used as part of integrated disease management (IDM programs for preservation of fresh citrus fruit. Among them, the development of novel natural edible films and coatings with antimicrobial properties is a technological challenge for the industry and a very active research field worldwide. Chitosan and other edible coatings formulated by adding antifungal agents to composite emulsions based on polysaccharides or proteins and lipids are reviewed in this article. The most important antifungal ingredients are selected for their ability to control major citrus postharvest diseases like green and blue molds, caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, and include low-toxicity or natural chemicals such as food additives, generally recognized as safe (GRAS compounds, plant extracts, or essential oils, and biological control agents such as some antagonistic strains of yeasts or bacteria.

  19. Nanosystems in Edible Coatings: A Novel Strategy for Food Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Zambrano-Zaragoza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, nanotechnology represents an important tool and an efficient option for extending the shelf life of foods. Reducing particle size to nanometric scale gives materials distinct and improved properties compared to larger systems. For food applications, this technology allows the incorporation of hydrophilic and lipophilic substances with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties that can be released during storage periods to increase the shelf life of diverse products, including whole and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, nuts, seeds, and cheese, among others. Edible coatings are usually prepared with natural polymers that are non-toxic, economical, and readily available. Nanosystems, in contrast, may also be prepared with biodegradable synthetic polymers, and liquid and solid lipids at room temperature. In this review, recent developments in the use of such nanosystems as nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanocomposites, and nanoemulsions, are discussed critically. The use of polymers as the support matrix for nanodispersions to form edible coatings for food preservation is also analyzed, but the central purpose of the article is to describe available information on nanosystems and their use in different food substrates to help formulators in their work.

  20. Environmental manipulation for edible insect procurement: a historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Itterbeeck Joost

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Throughout history humans have manipulated their natural environment for an increased predictability and availability of plant and animal resources. Research on prehistoric diets increasingly includes small game, but edible insects receive minimal attention. Using the anthropological and archaeological literature we show and hypothesize about the existence of such environmental manipulations related to the procurement of edible insects. As examples we use eggs of aquatic Hemiptera in Mexico which are semi-cultivated by water management and by providing egg laying sites; palm weevil larvae in the Amazon Basin, tropical Africa, and New Guinea of which the collection is facilitated by manipulating host tree distribution and abundance and which are semi-cultivated by deliberately cutting palm trees at a chosen time at a chosen location; and arboreal, foliage consuming caterpillars in sub-Saharan Africa for which the collection is facilitated by manipulating host tree distribution and abundance, shifting cultivation, fire regimes, host tree preservation, and manually introducing caterpillars to a designated area. These manipulations improve insect exploitation by increasing their predictability and availability, and most likely have an ancient origin.

  1. NUTRITIONAL AND ANTINUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF SOME UNCONVENTIONAL WILD EDIBLE PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerabahu Ramasamy Mohan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The wild edible tubers, rhizome, corm, roots and stems were consumed by the tribal Valaiyans of Madurai district, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu were analysed for proximate and mineral composition, starch, vitamins, in vitro protein (IVPD, in vitro starch (IVSD digestibility and certain antinutritional factors. The tubers of Kedrostis foetidissima and stem of Caralluma pauciflora contain higher contents of crude protein. The tubers of Decalepis hamiltonii and stems of Caralluma adscendens var attenuata and C. pauciflora contain higher contents of crude lipids. All the presently investigated wild edible plants appeared to have a higher level of iron content compared to Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA of NRC/NAS (1980 for infants, children and adults. The tubers of Cissus vitiginea, Dioscorea pentaphylla var. pentaphylla, D. oppositifolia var. oppositifolia, D. spicata, D. tomentosa, Kedrostis foetidissima, Parthenocissus neilgherriensis, in the corm of Colocasia esculenta, in the rhizome of Canna indica and in the root of Ipomoea staphylina were formed to contain more starch. The tubers of Cycas circinalis, Cyphostemma setosum, D. oppositifolia var. oppositifolia, Dioscorea pentaphylla var. pentaphylla, Kedrostis foetidissima, Parthenocissus neilgherriensis, and in the stem of Caralluma pauciflora were found to be higher niacin content. All the investigated samples in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD was found to be low. Antinutritional substances like total free phenolics, tannins, hydrogen cyanide, total oxalate, amylase and trypsin inhibitor activity were also investigated.

  2. Accumulation of radiocesium by Pleurotus citrinopileatus species of edible mushroom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, B.; Lahiri, S.; Nag, M.; Laskar, S.

    2007-01-01

    Pleurotus citrinopileatus, a species of edible mushrooms, is widely accepted food component, especially in Indian subcontinent. The accumulating susceptibility of this edible mushroom species towards long-lived radioisotopes of cesium was studied in controlled laboratory condition using the 134 Cs (T 1/2 = 2.06 y) radioisotope. It was observed that the experimental mushroom species accumulated 134 Cs and maximum accumulation took place in the cap portion. The pileus (cap)/stipes (stem) ratio of each 134 Cs accumulated mushroom sample was determined and found 2.22±0.74. The protein and fat fractions of the experimental mushroom species were extracted separately after accumulation of radiocesium and it was found that most of the radiocesium accumulation occurred in the protein fraction of the mushroom. The mushroom Pleurotus citrinopileatus which is white in color, turned completely black after radiocesium accumulation. The black mushroom so obtained was produced up to fourth generation by tissue culture method without using any radiocesium further. All the successors were found to be black indicating a permanent mutation of the mushroom species. (author)

  3. Proteomics of edible mushrooms: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obaidi, Jameel R

    2016-05-01

    Mushrooms are considered an important food for their traditionally famous nutritional and medicinal values, although much information about their potential at the molecular level is unfortunately unknown. Edible mushrooms include fungi that are either collected wild or cultivated. Many important species are difficult to cultivate but attempts have been made with varying degrees of success, with the results showing unsatisfactory economical cultivation methods. Recently, proteomic analysis has been developed as a powerful tool to study the protein content of fungi, particularly basidiomycetes. This mini-review article highlights the contribution of proteomics platforms to the study of edible mushrooms, focusing on the molecular mechanisms involved in developmental stages. This includes extracellular and cytoplasmic effector proteins that have potential or are involved in the synthesis of anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antibiotic, in blood pressure control, in the supply of vitamins and minerals, and in other responses to environmental changes. The contribution of different proteomics techniques including classical and more advanced techniques is also highlighted. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Stability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in prebiotic edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukoulis, Christos; Behboudi-Jobbehdar, Solmaz; Yonekura, Lina; Parmenter, Christopher; Fisk, Ian D

    2014-09-15

    The concept of prebiotic edible films as effective vehicles for encapsulating probiotic living cells is presented. Four soluble fibres (inulin, polydextrose, glucose-oligosaccharides and wheat dextrin) were selected as prebiotic co-components of gelatine based matrices plasticised with glycerol and used for the immobilisation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. The addition of prebiotics was associated with a more compact and uniform film structure, with no detectable interspaces or micropores; probiotic inclusion did not significantly change the structure of the films. Glucose-oligosaccharides and polydextrose significantly enhanced L. rhamnosus GG viability during air drying (by 300% and 75%, respectively), whilst a 33% and 80% reduction in viable counts was observed for inulin and wheat dextrin. Contrarily, inulin was the most effective at controlling the sub-lethal effects on L. rhamnosus GG during storage. However, in all cases the supplementation of edible films with prebiotics ameliorated the storage stability of L. rhamnosus GG. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Crop responses to climatic variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porter, John R.; Semenov, Mikhail A.

    2005-01-01

    The yield and quality of food crops is central to the well being of humans and is directly affected by climate and weather. Initial studies of climate change on crops focussed on effects of increased carbon dioxide (CO2) level and/or global mean temperature and/or rainfall and nutrition on crop...... production. However, crops can respond nonlinearly to changes in their growing conditions, exhibit threshold responses and are subject to combinations of stress factors that affect their growth, development and yield. Thus, climate variability and changes in the frequency of extreme events are important...... for yield, its stability and quality. In this context, threshold temperatures for crop processes are found not to differ greatly for different crops and are important to define for the major food crops, to assist climate modellers predict the occurrence of crop critical temperatures and their temporal...

  6. Edible coating composed of chitosan and Salvia fruticosa Mill. extract for the control of grey mould of table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanetis, Loukas; Exarchou, Vassiliki; Charalambous, Zinovia; Goulas, Vlasios

    2017-01-01

    Consumer concerns regarding high-quality produce, free of pesticide residues, direct research towards disease management strategies that minimise or even exclude the use of synthetic chemistries in crop production. The efficacy of a chitosan-based edible coating combined with the acetonic extract of Salvia fruticosa Mill. (ASF) was assessed against the grey mould of table grapes. HPLC-SPE-NMR and q-NMR analyses defined major constituents of ASF to be the flavonoids hispidulin, salvigenin and cirsimaritin and the diterpenes carnosic acid, carnosol and the 12-methoxycarnosic acid. The extract was found to be efficacious in reducing spore germination and mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea in vitro at 10 and 25 °C. However, the combination of the ASF with chitosan 1% (w/v; CHIT) significantly improved fungal inhibition. Similarly, in fruit inoculation trials at 10 °C, the efficacy of the combined application of the ASF at 500 mg L -1 with CHIT against grey mould was statistically equal to the synthetic fungicide thiabendazole, ranging from 98.4% to 92.7% at 12 and 21 days post-inoculation, respectively. Furthermore, chitosan coating alone and in combination with ASF decreased the rate of fruit weight loss during cold storage, while preserved soluble solids content and titratable acidity. Chitosan-based coatings did not affect quality attributes and the bioactive compounds in table grapes. The combined application of the ASF in the form of an edible coating with chitosan could effectively control B. cinerea without deteriorating quality and physico-chemical properties of grapes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Genetic perspectives on crop domestication

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Briana L.; Olsen, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    The process of crop domestication has long been a topic of active research for biologists, anthropologists and others. Genetic data have proved a powerful resource for drawing inferences on questions regarding the geographical origins of crops, the numbers of independent domestication events for a given crop species, the specific molecular changes underlying domestication traits, and the nature of artificial selection during domestication and subsequent crop improvement. We would argue that t...

  8. Governing the GM crop revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Paarlberg, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    Will developing countries adopt policies that promote the planting of genetically modified (GM) crops, or will they select policies that slow the spread of the GM crop revolution? The evidence so far is mixed. In some prominent countries such as China, policies are in place that encourage the independent development and planting of GM crops. Yet in a number of other equally prominent countries the planting of GM crops is not yet officially approved. The inclination of developing countries to ...

  9. CROPS : high tech agricultural robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontsema, J.; Hemming, J.; Pekkeriet, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the EU-funded CROPS (Clever Robots for Crops) project high tech robots are developed for site-specific spraying and selective harvesting of fruit and fruit vegetables. The harvesting robots are being designed to harvest high-value crops such as greenhouse vegetables, fruits in orchards and grapes

  10. Crop Sequence Calculator, v. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producers need to know how to sequence crops to develop sustainable dynamic cropping systems that take advantage of inherent internal resources, such as crop synergism, nutrient cycling, and soil water, and capitalize on external resources, such as weather, markets, and government programs. Version ...

  11. Salt resistant crop plants

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Stuart J.

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker- assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement.

  12. Halophytes as Bioenergy Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Sharma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrinking arable land due to soil salinization and, depleting fresh water resources pose serious worldwide constraints to crop productivity. A vision of using plant feedstock for biofuel production can only be realized if we can identify alternate species that can be grown on saline soils and therefore, would not compete for the resources required for conventional agriculture. Halophytes have remarkable ability to grow under high salinity conditions. They can be irrigated with seawater without compromising their biomass and seed yields making them good alternate candidates as bioenergy crops. Both oil produced from the seeds and the lignocellulosic biomass of halophytes can be utilized for biofuel production. Several researchers across the globe have recognized this potential and assessed several halophytes for their tolerance to salt, seed oil contents and composition of their lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we review current advances and highlight the key species of halophytes analyzed for this purpose. We have critically assessed the challenges and opportunities associated with using halophytes as bioenergy crops.

  13. Antimicrobial edible films and coatings for fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Chamorro, Silvia A; Palou, Lluís; Del Río, Miguel A; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2011-01-01

    The use of edible films and coatings is an environmentally friendly technology that offers substantial advantages for shelf-life increase of many food products including fruits and vegetables. The development of new natural edible films and coatings with the addition of antimicrobial compounds to preserve fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables is a technological challenge for the industry and a very active research field worldwide. Antimicrobial agents have been successfully added to edible composite films and coatings based on polysaccharides or proteins such as starch, cellulose derivatives, chitosan, alginate, fruit puree, whey protein isolated, soy protein, egg albumen, wheat gluten, or sodium caseinate. This paper reviews the development of edible films and coatings with antimicrobial activity, typically through the incorporation of antimicrobial food additives as ingredients, the effect of these edible films on the control of target microorganisms, the influence of antimicrobial agents on mechanical and barrier properties of stand-alone edible films, and the effect of the application of antimicrobial edible coatings on the quality of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.

  14. Oral Toxicity of Cold Plasma-Treated Edible Films for Food Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sung Hee; Suh, Hyung Joo; Hong, Ki Bae; Kim, Su Yeon; Min, Sea C

    2016-12-01

    No prior research has investigated whether the cold plasma treatment (CPT) resulted in the formation of toxic compounds. Therefore, this study carried out the experiment to check the safety of edible films treated with cold plasma by examining their acute and subacute oral toxicity in a rat model. Single-dose acute (5000 mg/kg body weight) and 14-d subacute (1000 mg/kg body weight/day) oral toxicity of cold plasma-treated edible films was assessed for male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rats administered 5000 mg/kg of edible film did not show the signs of acute toxicity or death after 14 d of observation. Similarly, no signs of acute toxicity or death were recorded during 14 d in rats administered 1000 mg/kg/day of edible film treated with cold plasma. Although changes in the levels of several blood components (hematocrit, hemoglobin, bilirubin, creatinine, and aspartate aminotransferase) of samples were observed, the changes compared to the control were considered to be toxicologically irrelevant as their levels were within normal physiological ranges. Macroscopic analysis showed there were no changes in color or texture of representative liver sections of SD rats following the oral administration of edible films with CPT (F-CP) or without CPT (F-NT). The results demonstrate that the cold plasma-treated edible film possessed very low toxicity, suggesting that CPT does not generate harmful by-products in the edible film. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Isolation and phenotypic characterization of Cronobacter from dried edible macrofungi samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yingwang; Li, Hui; Wu, Qingping; Chen, Mengshi; Lu, Yudong; Yan, Chunming

    2014-07-01

    Cronobacter is a group of food-borne pathogens including 10 species associated with severe infections in infant by consumption of contaminated powdered infant formula. The information about the prevalence of Cronobacter in dried edible macrofungi samples is also not available. In combination with PCR targeting gluB gene, the traditional ISO method was modified for determining the prevalence of Cronobacter in dried edible macrofungi samples. In addition, the antibiotics susceptibility test, biofilm formation, osmotic, and desiccation resistance of Cronobacter strains were also tested. Results indicated that 18 dried edible macrofungi samples (n = 60) were found to be positive for Cronobacter. All isolated Cronobacter strains were resistant to vancomycin and penicillin G, and sensitive to chloramphenicol, norfloxacin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and cephazolin. The abilities to form biofilm and survive when exposed to osmotic and dry stresses were different. This study contributes to a valid method for detection of Cronobacter and phenotypic characterization of Cronobacter, promoting the necessary measures for control and precaution of Cronobacter in dried edible macrofungi samples. In this study, the traditional ISO method was modified for detecting successfully Cronobacter in dried edible macrofungi samples. Severe contamination rate of Cronobacter (18/60, 30%) in dried edible macrofungi promotes risk analysis and assessment about Cronobacter. In addition, phenotypic characterization of Cronobacter is also helpful for understanding about control and precaution of Cronobacter in dried edible macrofungi samples. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Consumers' Attitudes towards Edible Wild Plants: A Case Study of Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bixia Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the rural revitalizing strategy in FAO's Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHS site in Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture of Japan, using a case study of edible wild plants. This study assessed the current and possible future utilization of edible wild plants as one important NTFP by clarifying the attitudes of consumers and exploring the challenges of harvesting edible wild plants. Traditional ecological knowledge associated with edible wild plants and the related attitudes of consumers towards wild plants was documented. A questionnaire survey found that a majority of the respondents held positive attitude towards edible wild plants as being healthy, safe food, part of traditional dietary culture. Increasing demand of edible wild plants from urban residents aroused conflicts with local residents’ interest given that around 86% of the forested hills are private in Noto Region. Non timber forest products (NTFP extraction can be seen as a tool for creating socioeconomic relationships that are dependent on healthy, biodiverse ecosystems. It was suggested that Japanese Agricultural Cooperatives (JA and Forestry Cooperatives (FCA could be involved with GIAHS process. As important traditional dietary and ecological system, edible wild plants should be a part of GIAHS project for rural revitalization.

  17. Diversity and use of wild and non-cultivated edible plants in the Western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Kamal Prasad; Poudel, Sushmita; Chaudhary, Ram Prasad; Chettri, Nakul; Chaudhary, Pashupati; Ning, Wu; Kotru, Rajan

    2018-01-29

    Local people in the Himalayan region use a wide range of wild and non-cultivated edible plants (WNEPs) for food, spice, medicinal, and cultural purposes. However, their availability, use, status and contribution to livelihood security are poorly documented, and they have been generally overlooked in recent agro-biodiversity conservation and management programmes. The study aimed to investigate WNEP diversity and current status in a part of the Kailash Sacred Landscape-a transboundary landscape shared by Nepal, India and PR China-in terms of collection, use, management and conservation initiatives. Multiple methodologies and tools were used for data collection. A series of participatory tools (45 key informant interviews, 10 focus group discussions, a crop diversity fair, direct observation of species through a transect walk and rapid market assessments) was followed by a household survey (195 respondents) and complemented by a literature review. The study recorded 99 WNEPs belonging to 59 families of which 96 were angiosperms, one gymnosperm and two pteridophytes. Species were used for food, spice, medicine, rituals and income generation. Thirty-five species had multiple uses, including these: 40 species were used for fruit and 31 for vegetables. WNEPs contribute significantly to daily food requirements, especially the vegetables. The use value of Dryopteris cochleata was found highest (0.98) among frequently used vegetable species. The values of informant consensus factor were found maximum for worms in the stomach (0.99) and minimum for skin disease treatment (0.67). Nearly 85% of households depended exclusively on WNEPs for at least more than a month per year. Results on the importance and use of different species, gender roles in WNEP activities and conservation approaches are presented. People living in the Kailash Sacred Landscape depend significantly on WNEPs, and this is especially critical in times of food shortage. The WNEPs have considerable potential as

  18. BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM CATCH CROPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, Søren U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2014-01-01

    Catch crop cultivation combined with its use for biogas production would increase renewable energy production in the form of methane, without interfering with the production of food and fodder crops. The low biomass yield of catch crops is the main limiting factor for using these crops as co......-substrate in manure-based biogas plants and the profit obtained from the sale of biogas barely compensates for the harvest costs. A new agricultural strategy to harvest catch crops together with the residual straw of the main crop was investigated to increase the biomass and thereby the methane yield per hectare...... biomass. Leaving the straw on the field until harvest of the catch crop in the autumn could benefit biogas production due to the organic matter degradation of the straw taking place on the field during the autumn months. This new agricultural strategy may be a good alternative to achieve economically...

  19. Crop yield response to climate change varies with cropping intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challinor, Andrew J; Parkes, Ben; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian

    2015-04-01

    Projections of the response of crop yield to climate change at different spatial scales are known to vary. However, understanding of the causes of systematic differences across scale is limited. Here, we hypothesize that heterogeneous cropping intensity is one source of scale dependency. Analysis of observed global data and regional crop modelling demonstrate that areas of high vs. low cropping intensity can have systematically different yields, in both observations and simulations. Analysis of global crop data suggests that heterogeneity in cropping intensity is a likely source of scale dependency for a number of crops across the globe. Further crop modelling and a meta-analysis of projected tropical maize yields are used to assess the implications for climate change assessments. The results show that scale dependency is a potential source of systematic bias. We conclude that spatially comprehensive assessments of climate impacts based on yield alone, without accounting for cropping intensity, are prone to systematic overestimation of climate impacts. The findings therefore suggest a need for greater attention to crop suitability and land use change when assessing the impacts of climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Cobweb, a serious pathology in mushroom crops: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Carrasco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cobweb is a fungal disease of commercially cultivated mushrooms. Several members of the ascomycete genus Cladobotryum sp. have been reported as causal agents. White button mushroom is the most frequently cited host, but a wide range of cultivated edible mushrooms suffer cobweb. The pathology causes production losses and reduces the crop surface available. The parasite produces a great number of harmful conidia that can be released easily and distributed throughout the mushroom farm to generate secondary points of infection. To prevent initial outbreaks, hygiene is of primary importance within the facilities dedicated to mushroom cultivation, while additional measures must be implemented to control and reduce cobweb if there is an outbreak, including chemical and biological methods. This review summarizes and discusses the knowledge available on the historic occurrence of cobweb and its impact on commercial mushroom crops worldwide. Causal agents, disease ecology, including the primary source of infection and the dispersal of harmful conidia are also reviewed. Finally, control treatments to prevent the disease from breaking out are discussed.

  1. Molecular and systems approaches towards drought-tolerant canola crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengmeng; Monroe, J Grey; Suhail, Yasir; Villiers, Florent; Mullen, Jack; Pater, Dianne; Hauser, Felix; Jeon, Byeong Wook; Bader, Joel S; Kwak, June M; Schroeder, Julian I; McKay, John K; Assmann, Sarah M

    2016-06-01

    1169 I. 1170 II. 1170 III. 1172 IV. 1176 V. 1181 VI. 1182 1183 References 1183 SUMMARY: Modern agriculture is facing multiple challenges including the necessity for a substantial increase in production to meet the needs of a burgeoning human population. Water shortage is a deleterious consequence of both population growth and climate change and is one of the most severe factors limiting global crop productivity. Brassica species, particularly canola varieties, are cultivated worldwide for edible oil, animal feed, and biodiesel, and suffer dramatic yield loss upon drought stress. The recent release of the Brassica napus genome supplies essential genetic information to facilitate identification of drought-related genes and provides new information for agricultural improvement in this species. Here we summarize current knowledge regarding drought responses of canola, including physiological and -omics effects of drought. We further discuss knowledge gained through translational biology based on discoveries in the closely related reference species Arabidopsis thaliana and through genetic strategies such as genome-wide association studies and analysis of natural variation. Knowledge of drought tolerance/resistance responses in canola together with research outcomes arising from new technologies and methodologies will inform novel strategies for improvement of drought tolerance and yield in this and other important crop species. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Uptake and accumulation of antimicrobials, triclocarban and triclosan, by food crops in a hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Shiny; Henderson, Shannon; Reinhold, Dawn

    2014-05-01

    Commonly used in personal care products, triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) are two chemicals with antimicrobial properties that have recently been recognized as environmental contaminants with the potential to adversely affect human health. The objective of the study described herein was to evaluate the potential of food crops to uptake TCC and TCS. Eleven food crops, grown in hydroponic nutrient media, were exposed to a mixture of 500 μg L(-1) TCC and TCS. After 4 weeks of exposure, roots accumulated 86-1,350 mg kg(-1) of antimicrobials and shoots had accumulated 0.33-5.35 mg kg(-1) of antimicrobials. Translocation from roots to shoots was less than 1.9 % for TCC and 3.7 % for TCS, with the greatest translocation for TCC observed for pepper, celery, and asparagus and for TCS observed for cabbage, broccoli, and asparagus. For edible tuber- or bulb-producing crops, the concentrations of both TCC and TCS were lower in the tubers than in the roots. Exposure calculations using national consumption data indicated that the average exposure to TCC and TCS from eating contaminated crops was substantially less than the exposure expected to cause adverse effects, but exceeded the predicted exposure from drinking water. Exposure to antimicrobials through food crops would be substantially reduced through limiting consumption of beets and onions.

  3. A comparative study on edible Agaricus mushrooms as functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glamočlija, Jasmina; Stojković, Dejan; Nikolić, Miloš; Ćirić, Ana; Reis, Filipa S; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2015-06-01

    Agaricus bisporus is a cultivated mushroom; A. bitorquis, A. campestris and A. macrosporus are edible mushrooms growing wild in nature. A chemical characterization was carried out with samples that originated in Serbia. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-quorum sensing properties of their methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. A. campestris had the lowest caloric value and total sugar content and showed the highest concentration in organic and phenolic acids, as also in tocopherols (mainly γ-tocopherol). In general, the methanolic extracts showed higher antioxidant, but lower antibacterial and antifungal potential than ethanolic ones. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of the ethanolic extracts demonstrated reduction of virulence factors, AQ inhibition zones, twitching and swimming motility. The biofilm forming capability of P. aeruginosa PAO1 was also reduced in a concentration-dependent manner at sub-MIC values. The extracts of the tested Agaricus species are a promising source of antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiquorum sensing compounds.

  4. Shear induced phase transitions induced in edible fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Welch, Sarah E.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Sirota, Eric B.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2003-03-01

    The food industry crystallizes fats under different conditions of temperature and shear to obtain products with desired crystalline phases. Milk fat, palm oil, cocoa butter and chocolate were crystallized from the melt in a temperature controlled Couette cell. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies were conducted to examine the role of shear on the phase transitions seen in edible fats. The shear forces on the crystals induced acceleration of the alpha to beta-prime phase transition with increasing shear rate in milk fat and palm oil. The increase was slow at low shear rates and became very strong above 360 s-1. In cocoa butter the acceleration between beta-prime-III and beta-V phase transition increased until a maximum of at 360 s-1, and then decreased, showing competition between enhanced heat transfer and viscous heat generation.

  5. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinovitser, Alex; Valchev, Dimitar G; Abbott, Derek

    2017-06-01

    Chemical degradation of edible oils has been studied using conventional spectroscopic methods spanning the spectrum from ultraviolet to mid-IR. However, the possibility of morphological changes of oil molecules that can be detected at terahertz frequencies is beginning to receive some attention. Furthermore, the rapidly decreasing cost of this technology and its capability for convenient, in situ measurement of material properties, raises the possibility of monitoring oil during cooking and processing at production facilities, and more generally within the food industry. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that oil undergoes chemical and physical changes when heated above the smoke point, which can be detected in the 0.05-2 THz spectral range, measured using the conventional terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The measurements demonstrate a null result in that there is no significant change in the spectra of terahertz optical parameters after heating above the smoke point for 5 min.

  6. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günç Ergönül, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

  7. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Günç Ergönül

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2. Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids.

  8. Chemical Composition and Bioactive Compounds of Some Wild Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda NAGY

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the consumption of mushrooms has significantly increased due to the scientific evidence of their ability to help the organism in the combat and prevention of several diseases (Kalac, 2009. Fruiting bodies of mushrooms are consumed as a delicacy for their texture and flavour, but also for their nutritional properties that makes them even more attractable (Heleno S. 2015. In this paper data were collected from several scientific studies with the aim to characterize the chemical composition and content of bioactive compounds of various mushrooms species: Agaricus bisporus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lactarius piperatus. The chemical composition of 5 wild edible studied mushrooms, including moisture, ash, total carbohydrates, total sugars, crude fat, crude protein and energy were determined according to AOAC procedures.

  9. A manifesto for the valorization of wild edible plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetta, Loretta; Visioli, Francesco; Cappelli, Giulia; Caruso, Emily; Martin, Gary; Nemeth, Eva; Bacchetta, Gianni; Bedini, Gianni; Wezel, Alexander; van Asseldonk, Tedje; van Raamsdonk, Leo; Mariani, Francesca; On Behalf Of The Eatwild Consortium

    2016-09-15

    Wild foods constitute an essential component of people's diets around the world, but despite their widespread use and their cultural importance, wild edible plants (WEPs) lack recognition as significant contributors to the human diet in developed countries. We stimulate national and international bodies dealing with food and agriculture, to increase their attention and investments on WEPs, leveraging the results of scientific investigation, enhancing the link between in situ conservation strategies and sustainable use of plant genetic diversity. WEPs should be reconsidered throughout their value chain, capturing their important socio-cultural, health, and economic benefits to indigenous and local communities and family farmers who are engaged in their production and wild-harvesting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comprehensive chlorophyll composition in the main edible seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kewei; Ríos, José Julián; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio; Roca, María

    2017-08-01

    Natural chlorophylls present in seaweeds have been studied regarding their biological activities and health benefit effects. However, detailed studies regarding characterization of the complete chlorophyll profile either qualitatively and quantitatively are scarce. This work deals with the comprehensive spectrometric study of the chlorophyll derivatives present in the five main coloured edible seaweeds. The novel complete MS 2 characterization of five chlorophyll derivatives: chlorophyll c 2 , chlorophyll c 1 , purpurin-18 a, pheophytin d and phytyl-purpurin-18 a has allowed to obtain fragmentation patterns associated with their different structural features. New chlorophyll derivatives have been identified and quantified by first time in red, green and brown seaweeds, including some oxidative structures. Quantitative data of the chlorophyll content comes to achieve significant information for food composition databases in bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of edible oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinovitser, Alex; Valchev, Dimitar G.; Abbott, Derek

    2017-06-01

    Chemical degradation of edible oils has been studied using conventional spectroscopic methods spanning the spectrum from ultraviolet to mid-IR. However, the possibility of morphological changes of oil molecules that can be detected at terahertz frequencies is beginning to receive some attention. Furthermore, the rapidly decreasing cost of this technology and its capability for convenient, in situ measurement of material properties, raises the possibility of monitoring oil during cooking and processing at production facilities, and more generally within the food industry. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that oil undergoes chemical and physical changes when heated above the smoke point, which can be detected in the 0.05-2 THz spectral range, measured using the conventional terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The measurements demonstrate a null result in that there is no significant change in the spectra of terahertz optical parameters after heating above the smoke point for 5 min.

  12. Seaweed Extracts as Edible Coatings for Minimally Processed Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Augusto

    2014-05-01

    The EC containing Codium tomentosum seaweed extract showed the better performance by minimizing physical and chemical changes in RTE apples, namely: minor changes of moisture, total soluble solids and firmness values. In relation to the browning index, after 20 days of storage, RTE apples coated with EC containing Codium tomentosum seaweed extract showed the lowest values, also the results of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase showed lower activity compared with the EC containing Fucus spirals, Bifurcaria bifurcate and Codium vermilara seaweed extracts, citric acid EC and the control. These results also allowed a pending patent application nº 107369 “Revestimento de origem marinha para aplicação em produtos minimamente processados ou de quarta gama” which is related with an edible coating with the incorporation of bioactive compounds from macroalgae for minimally processed products.

  13. Nutritional Evaluation of Oleogel Made from Micronutrient Rich Edible Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Moumita; Begg, Faruk; Bhattacharyya, Dipak K; Bandyopadhya, Nilratan; Ghosh, Mahua

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the nutritional properties of trans-free edible oleogels made from oil blends of rice bran and flaxseed in animal model. Oleogels were prepared by using mixture of palm stearin (PS) with cetyl laurate (CL) and palm stearin (PS) with cetyl caprylate (CC) as oleogelators. The oleogel samples were prepared with 15 weight % oleogelators (2:1 molar ratio of PS:CC or PS:CL) at 60°C with 1 hr constant stirring in blended oil. The prepared oleogel samples were subjected to DSC and XRD studies in order to evaluate their melting and crystal characteristics. Oleogel formed by using PS and CC showed the desired thermal characteristics. The peak melting temperature of the said sample was almost 44.5°C as determined by the DSC technique. The X-ray diffraction study clearly signified that the crystals were well developed. For nutritional evaluation, Male Wister rats were fed with prepared oleogel samples along with control diet for 4 weeks. Animals were divided into four groups. The control group was fed with normal stock diet containing blend of rice bran oil and flaxseed oil (4:1); one was fed with TFA rich vanaspati (TFA content is about 11.20%); experimental groups were fed with oleogel prepared by using PS:CC and oleogel prepared by using PS:CL respectively. Analysis of the blood lipid profile of the four groups was done. In vivo study established the cholesterol lowering properties of prepared oleogel samples which further enhanced the novelty of oleogel as healthy alternative of trans fat. The positive changes were more pronounced in case of rats fed with oleogel prepared with PS:CC as oleogelators. This study provides an elegant approach of producing trans-free edible quality oleogel with recognized cholesterol lowering property.

  14. Modified Starch-Chitosan Edible Films: Physicochemical and Mechanical Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monserrat Escamilla-García

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Starch and chitosan are widely used for preparation of edible films that are of great interest in food preservation. This work was aimed to analyze the relationship between structural and physical properties of edible films based on a mixture of chitosan and modified starches. In addition, films were tested for antimicrobial activity against Listeria innocua. Films were prepared by the casting method using chitosan (CT, waxy (WS, oxidized (OS and acetylated (AS corn starches and their mixtures. The CT-starches films showed improved barrier and mechanical properties as compared with those made from individual components, CT-OS film presented the lowest thickness (74 ± 7 µm, water content (11.53% ± 0.85%, w/w, solubility (26.77% ± 1.40%, w/v and water vapor permeability ((1.18 ± 0.48 × 10−9 g·s−1·m−1·Pa−1. This film showed low hardness (2.30 ± 0.19 MPa, low surface roughness (Rq = 3.20 ± 0.41 nm and was the most elastic (Young’s modulus = 0.11 ± 0.06 GPa. In addition, films made from CT-starches mixtures reduced CT antimicrobial activity against L. innocua, depending on the type of modified starch. This was attributed to interactions between acetyl groups of AS with the carbonyl and amino groups of CT, leaving CT with less positive charge. Interaction of the pyranose ring of OS with CT led to increased OH groups that upon interaction with amino groups, decreased the positive charge of CT, and this effect is responsible for the reduced antimicrobial activity. It was found that the type of starch modification influenced interactions with chitosan, leading to different films properties.

  15. The Kinome of Edible and Medicinal Fungus Wolfiporia cocos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wolfiporia cocos is an edible and medicinal fungus that grows in association with pine trees, and its dried sclerotium, known as Fuling in China, has been used as a traditional medicine in East Asian countries for centuries. Nearly 10% of the traditional Chinese medicinal preparations contain W. cocos. Currently, the commercial production of Fuling is limited because of the lack of pine-based substrate and paucity of knowledge about the sclerotial development of the fungus. Since protein kinase (PKs play significant roles in the regulation of growth, development, reproduction and environmental responses in filamentous fungi, the kinome of W. cocos was analyzed by identifying the PKs genes, studying transcript profiles and assigning PKs to orthologous groups. Of the 10 putative PKs, 11 encode atypical PKs, and 13, 10, 2, 22, and 11 could encoded PKs from the AGC, CAMK, CK, CMGC, STE and TLK Groups, respectively. The level of transcripts from PK genes associated with sclerotia formation in the mycelium and sclerotium stages were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Based on the functions of the orthologues in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (a sclerotia-formation fungus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the potential roles of these W. cocos PKs were assigned. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first identification and functional discussion of the kinome in the edible and medicinal fungus W. cocos. Our study systematically suggests potential roles of W. cocos PKs and provide comprehensive and novel insights into W. cocos sclerotial development and other economically important traits. Additionally, based on our result, genetic engineering can be employed for over expression or interference of some significant PKs genes to promote sclerotial growth and the accumulation of active compounds.

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Antioxidants in Edible Wild Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTEMIS P SIMOPOULOS

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Human beings evolved on a diet that was balanced in the omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, and was high in antioxidants. Edible wild plants provide alpha-linolenic acid (ALA and higher amounts of vitamin E and vitamin C than cultivated plants. In addition to the antioxidant vitamins, edible wild plants are rich in phenols and other compounds that increase their antioxidant capacity. It is therefore important to systematically analyze the total antioxidant capacity of wild plants and promote their commercialization in both developed and developing countries. The diets of Western countries have contained increasingly larger amounts of linoleic acid (LA, which has been promoted for its cholesterol-lowering effect. It is now recognized that dietary LA favors oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and increases platelet response to aggregation. In contrast, ALA intake is associated with inhibitory effects on the clotting activity of platelets, on their response to thrombin, and on the regulation of arachidonic acid (AA metabolism. In clinical studies, ALA contributed to lowering of blood pressure, and a prospective epidemiological study showed that ALA is inversely related to the risk of coronary heart disease in men. Dietary amounts of LA as well as the ratio of LA to ALA appear to be important for the metabolism of ALA to longer-chain omega-3 PUFAs. Relatively large reserves of LA in body fat, as are found in vegans or in the diet of omnivores in Western societies, would tend to slow down the formation of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from ALA. Therefore, the role of ALA in human nutrition becomes important in terms of long-term dietary intake. One advantage of the consumption of ALA over omega-3 fatty acids from fish is that the problem of insufficient vitamin E intake does not exist with high intake of ALA from plant sources.

  17. The Examination of Fatty Acid Taste with Edible Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebba, Sahbina; Abarintos, Ray A.; Kim, Dae G.; Tiyouh, Melissa; Stull, Judith C.; Movalia, Ankur; Smutzer, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether humans could detect long-chain fatty acids when these lipid molecules are delivered to the oral cavity by edible taste strips. For suprathreshold studies, up to 1.7 umoles of stearic acid or linoleic acid were incorporated into 0.03 mm thick, one-inch square taste strips. Normalized taste intensity values for stearic acid were in the barely detectable range, with values equal to, or slightly above control strips. One-third of test subjects described the taste quality as oily/fatty/waxy. Approximately 75% of test subjects could detect the presence of linoleic acid when this fatty acid was incorporated into dissolvable strips. Normalized taste intensity values for linoleic acid were in the weak to moderate range. The most commonly reported taste quality responses for linoleic acid were fatty/oily/waxy, or bitter. When nasal airflow was obstructed, the perceived taste intensity of linoleic acid decreased by approximately 40 percent. Taste intensity values and taste quality responses for linoleic acid were then compared among tasters and non-tasters of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP). Individuals who could detect the bitter taste of PROP reported higher taste intensity values for linoleic acid compared with PROP non-tasters. However, taste quality responses for linoleic acid were similar among both PROP tasters and PROP non-tasters. These results indicate that humans can detect long-chain fatty acids by both olfactory and non-olfactory pathways when these hydrophobic molecules are delivered to the oral cavity by means of edible taste strips. These studies further show that genetic variation in taste sensitivity to PROP affects chemosensory responses to the cis-unsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid in the oral cavity. PMID:22521910

  18. Microbiological Load of Edible Insects Found in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Caparros Megido

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crickets from European farms and smoked termites and caterpillars from a traditional Congolese market and to evaluate the efficiency of different processing methods (blanching for all species and freeze-drying and sterilization for European species in reducing microorganism counts. All untreated insect samples had a total aerobic count higher than the limit for fresh minced meat (6.7 log cfu/g. Nevertheless, a species-dependent blanching step has led to a reduction of the total aerobic count under this limit, except for one caterpillar species. Freeze-drying and sterilization treatments on European species were also effective in reducing the total aerobic count. Yeast and mold counts for untreated insects were above the Good Manufacturing Practice limits for raw meat, but all treatments attained a reduction of these microorganisms under this limit. These results confirmed that fresh insects, but also smoked insects from non-European trades, need a cooking step (at least composed of a first blanching step before consumption. Therefore, blanching timing for each studied insect species is proposed and discussed.

  19. Orchards for edible cities: cadmium and lead content in nuts, berries, pome and stone fruits harvested within the inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hoffen, Laura Pauline; Säumel, Ina

    2014-03-01

    Today's urban gardening focuses mainly on vegetable production and rarely includes fruit trees. Health effects of consuming urban crops are questioned due to high local pollution loads. Here, we determined cadmium and lead content in the edible parts of nuts, berries, pome, and stone fruits harvested from fruit trees and shrubs within inner city neighbourhoods of Berlin, Germany. We analysed how local settings at sampling sites shaped the trace metal content. We revealed significant differences in trace metal content depending on species, fruit type, local traffic, and parameters related to barriers between the sampling site and neighbouring roads. Higher overall traffic burden and proximity to roads increased whereas buildings or vegetation as barriers reduced trace metal content in the edible biomass. We demonstrate, that the consumption of non-vegetable fruits growing in inner city sites in Berlin does not pose a risk on human health as long as the fruits are thoroughly washed and it is provided that site pollutions and impacts are considered in garden concepts and guidelines. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. KAJIAN TEKNOLOFI EDIBLE COATING DARI PATI DAN APLIKASINYA UNTUK PENGEMAS PRIMER LEMPOK DURIAN [Technological Assessment of Starch Edible Coating and Its Application on Primary Packaging of Durian Sweets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Santoso1

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to determine the shelf life of edible coating packaged of durian lempok. The experimental method used in this study was Factorial Randomized Block Design consisting of three factors. These factors were tapioca starch, stearate acid, and CMC. The edible coating solution was applied in to durian lempok by using dip method. The result showed that edible coating packaged of durian lempok could increase the durian lempok shelf life by 67 percent than durian lempok without edible coating. The edible coating was capable of decreasing the durian lempok weight loss by magnitude of 36.38% during storage, decreasing the peroxide number by magnitude of 33.33%, decreasing the water content by magnitude of 7.54%, and suppressing the microbial growth by the amount of 31.20%, respectively. Visual change of non-coating lempok had occurred on the day of 19th, which was indicated by greyish-white colour change due to certain type of mold on lempok surface, while the similar change happened at day of 31th (T2A3C3 treatment.

  1. Transfer of {sup 99}Tc from soil to crops and its behavior in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagisawa, Kei [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki (Japan). Nakaminato Lab. Branch

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the transfer factors of technetium from soil to edible part of crops obtained by the author. Andosol (a typical Japanese soil) was mainly used in the experiments. Soil to plant transfer factors of Tc for leaf vegetables such as spinach and komatsuna (Brassica rapa L.) were considerably higher than those for edible parts of non-leaf vegetables (carrot, onion, sweet potato, tomato) and cereals (wheat, upland rice, paddy rice). In case of paddy rice, two types of soil (Andosol and Gray lowland soil) were used for the experiments. These transfer factors for hulled grains (brown rice) were much smaller than those for other crops obtained in our experiments. The transfer factors for brown rice obtaoned for Gray lowland soil were higher than those for Andosol. Since the values of transfer factors of Tc are highly dependent on the plant species, different transfer factor values should be established for plant groups categorized by the type of their edible parts, e.g. leaf vegetables, root vegetables, cereals etc. The low transfer factors observed in rice grain would be explained by the immobilization of Tc under reducing conditions in the flooded soil. The higher transfer factors observed in rice grain cultivated in Gray lowland soil than in Andosol can be explained by the higher Tc concentration in the soil solution of Gray lowland soil than that in Andosol. A preliminarily incubation experiment on the soluble technetium suggested that the soluble technetium observed in the soil solution of rice plant was associated with organic matter dessolved in the water. (author)

  2. in crop plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Antoni Rafalski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most important crop productivity traits, such as yield under normal and environmental stress conditions, are determined by a large number of genes, each with a small phenotypic effect. Genetic improvement of these traits through breeding or genetic engineering has been frustrating researchers in academia and industry. The reasons for this include the complexity of the traits, the difficulty of precise phenotyping and the lack of validated candidate genes. Different approaches to the discovery of the genetic architecture of such traits, such as Genetic Association Mapping and Genomic Selection and their engineering, are expected to yield benefits for farmers and consumers.

  3. Health risks of thallium in contaminated arable soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater from a sulfuric acid plant in western Guangdong province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlin; Chen, Yongheng; Liu, Juan; Wang, Jin; Li, Xiangping; Zhang, Yongbo; Liu, Yimin

    2013-04-01

    Thallium (Tl) contamination in soils poses a significant threat to human health due to the high toxicity of Tl and its ready assimilation by crops. Consumption of food crops contaminated with Tl is a major food chain route for human exposure. The health risks of Tl in contaminated food crops irrigated with wastewater from a sulfuric acid factory were investigated in this paper. Results indicate that long-term Tl-containing wastewater irrigation resulted in Tl contamination of arable soils and crops. The pollution load index values indicated that the arable soils were moderately enriched with Tl. Tl was highly accumulated in the crops. The content of Tl in the edible plant portions of crops ranged from 1.2 mg/kg to 104.8 mg/kg, exceeding the recommended permissible limits for food crops. The daily intake of metals (DIM) values of Tl for both adults and children via the consumption of the food crops except soya beans were higher than the reference oral dose (RfD) limit recommend by the United States environmental protection agency (US-EPA). Health risk index (HRI) values were generally higher than 1, indicating that health risks associated with Tl exposure are significant and assumed to be dangerous to the health of local villagers. Therefore, much attention should be paid to avoid consumption of these Tl-contaminated crops that can cause great potential risks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Development, characterization and potential applications of edible film from seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moey, Siah Watt; Abdullah, Aminah; Ahmad, Ishak

    2014-09-01

    A new patent pending process is proposed in this study to produce edible film directly from seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii). Seaweed together with other ingredients had been used to produce the film through casting technique. Physical and mechanical tests were performed on the edible film to examine the thickness, colour, transparency, solubility, tensile strength, elongation at break, water permeability rate, oxygen permeability rate and surface morphology. The produced film was transparent, stretchable, sealable and have basic properties for applications in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, toiletries and also agricultural industries. Edible film was successfully developed directly from dry seaweed instead of using alginate and carrageenan. The edible film processing method developed in this research was easier and cheaper compared with the method by using alginate and carrageenan.

  5. Preparation and characterization of antibacterial, eco-friendly edible nanocomposite films containing Salvia macrosiphon and nanoclay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davachi, Seyed Mohammad; Shekarabi, Azadeh Sadat

    2018-02-17

    Nowadays, food security is a vital issue and antimicrobial packaging could play an important role in this matter. In this regard, Salvia macrosiphon seed mucilage (SSM) and nanoclay, as new sources for the production of food-grade edible films were investigated. These edible films were prepared by incorporation of SSM with glycerol and different percentage of nanoclay. Upon addition of nanoclay up to 2% physical, mechanical and thermal properties were considerably improved and the composite films showed the lowest water vapor permeability (WVP), as well as highest elongation at break and tensile strength. The nanocomposite edible films also showed antibacterial activity due to the SSM nature. Addition of nanoclay, increased the hydrophobicity, which makes the films great alternatives for food packaging. This study revealed that these novel antimicrobial edible films could be a promising packaging option for a wide range of food products. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Evaluation of using edible coating and ripening on Dangke, a traditional cheese of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaka, R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dangke is a traditional soft cheese from Enrekang, South Sulawesi Indonesia which is produced through heat denaturation at 85°C and enzymatic coagulation using papaya latex. The quality, microstructure and storage life of the cheese are affected by several factors such as denaturation temperature, enzyme concentration, moulding pressure, coating, and ripening. The objective of this study was to evaluated of using edible coating and ripening on Dangke cheese. The experiment was conducting using factorial design with five replications. The experimental variables were the type of edible coating used (agar, CMC and bee wax and the length of ripening (10, 20 and 30 days. Parameter was measured hardness, microstructure, and sensory evaluation. The overall result indicated that the use of edible coating can extend the shelf life, increase hardness, and more compact microstructure. Sensory evaluation also indicated that the cheese coated with film forming edible materials had had white color, more milk like smell (smelly milk, and smoother texture.

  7. Edible seaweeds: an important source of food and income to indigenous Fijians

    OpenAIRE

    South, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    The increasing harvest of 7 edible seaweeds in Fiji and their importance to the economy of indigenous Fijians are discussed. Traditional methods in the collection, preparation and consumption of seaweeds by the Fijians are also presented.

  8. EFFECT OF PLASTICIZERS ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF EDIBLE FILM FROM JANENG STARCH – CHITOSAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narlis Juandi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the development of edible and biodegradable films has increased because it is every day more evident that non degradable are doing much damage to the environment. In this research, edible films were based on blends of janeng starch in different proportions, added of palm oil or glycerol, which were used as plasticizers. The objective was to study the effect of two different plasticizers, palm oil and glycerol of edible film from janeng starch–chitosan on the mechanical properties and FTIR spectra. Increasing concentration of glycerol as plasticizer resulted tend to increased tensile strength and elongation at break. The tensile strength and elongation at break values for palm oil is higher than glycerol as plasticizer at the same concentration. FTIR spectra show the process of making edible film from janeng starch–chitosan with palm oil or glycerol as plasticizers are physically mixing in the presence of hydrogen interactions between chains.

  9. Introduction of Alley Cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Parmadi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the efforts to preserve the sources of vegetarian, soil, and water is to rehabilitate the land and soil conservation. The aim of this rehabilitation is increasing and maintaining the produtivity of the land, so it can be preserved and used optimally. Therefore, it is necessary to a  develop a variety of good soil conservation, such as vegetative method and civil engineering. To find an appropriate technology, so it is necessary to develop some alternatives of soil conservation technique that are mainly implemented at dry land with its slope of more than 15% in the upstream area of discharge. One of the most suitable soil conservation technique today is Alley Cropping. Based on the research (trial and error in some areas, Alley Cropping could really provide a positive result in terms of erotion controlling and running off and maintain the land productivity. In addition, the technique is more easly operated and spends a cheaper cost than making a bench terrace.

  10. Space Data for Crop Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    CROPIX, Inc., formed in 1984 by Frank Lamb, president of the Eastern Oregon Farming Company, monitors primarily potato crops in a 20,000 square mile area of northern Oregon and central Washington. Potatoes are a high value specialty crop that can be more profitable to the farmer if he has advance knowledge of market conditions, knows when to harvest, and when to take it to market. By processing and collecting data collected by the NASA-developed Landsat Earth Resources survey satellites, Lamb is able to provide accurate information on crop acreage and conditions on a more timely basis than the routine estimates by the USDA. CROPIX uses Landsat data to make acreage estimates of crops, and to calculate a field-by-field vegetative index number. CROPIX then distributes to its customers a booklet containing color-coded maps, an inventory of crops, plus data and graphs on crop conditions and other valuable information.

  11. Genetic perspectives on crop domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Briana L; Olsen, Kenneth M

    2010-09-01

    The process of crop domestication has long been a topic of active research for biologists, anthropologists and others. Genetic data have proved a powerful resource for drawing inferences on questions regarding the geographical origins of crops, the numbers of independent domestication events for a given crop species, the specific molecular changes underlying domestication traits, and the nature of artificial selection during domestication and subsequent crop improvement. We would argue that these genetic inferences are fundamentally compatible with recent archaeological data that support a view of domestication as a geographically diffuse, gradual process. In this review, we summarize methodologies ranging from quantitative trait locus mapping to resequencing used in genetic analyses of crop evolution. We also highlight recent major insights regarding the timing and spatial patterning of crop domestication and the distinct genetic underpinnings of domestication, diversification and improvement traits. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antioxidant activity and polyphenol content in cultivated and wild edible fruits grown in Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo, Enrique; Britton, Gabrielle B.; Durant, Armando A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The present research was undertaken to determine the antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content of cultivated and wild edible fruits consumed in Panama. Materials and Methods: 39 cultivated and wild edible fruits antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content was assessed by using the DPPH and the Folin-Ciocalteu assays, respectively. Results and Discussion: The antioxidant composition of the fruits varied between 1083.33 and 16.22 mg TEAC/100 g fresh weight. On the othe...

  13. Amino acid composition evaluation of edible mushrooms (Pleurotus spp.) cultivated on banana leaves.

    OpenAIRE

    Ranzani, MRTD; Sturion, GL

    1998-01-01

    The protein quality of edible mushrooms besides being species/strain specific, could also vary with the growth substrate. The aim of this work was to determine the amino acid composition of the protein from edible mushrooms - Pleurotus sp. 'Florida'(L1), P. ostreatoroseus (L2) and P. sajor-caju (L3), cultivated on banana leaves (BL) single and, mixed with sugar cane bagasse (BLSCB). Total amino acids, cystine and tryptophan were evaluated; the chemical score index and PDCAAS - 'protein digest...

  14. Knowledge and use of wild edible plants in rural communities along Paraguay River, Pantanal, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bortolotto, Ieda Maria; Amorozo, Maria Christina de Mello; Neto, Germano Guarim; Oldeland, Jens; Damasceno-Junior, Geraldo Alves

    2015-01-01

    Background Wild plants are used as food for human populations where people still depend on natural resources to survive. This study aimed at identifying wild plants and edible uses known in four rural communities of the Pantanal-Brazil, estimating the use value and understanding how distance to the urban areas, gender, age and number of different environments available in the vicinity can influence the knowledge and use of these plants by local people. Methods Data on edible plants with known...

  15. Renealmia alpinia (Rottb.): Maas (Zingiberaceae): an edible plant from Sierra Norte de Puebla (México)

    OpenAIRE

    Macía, Manuel Juan

    2002-01-01

    The edible fruits of Renealmia alpinia are highly valued in the Sierra Norte de Puebla (Mexico) where they are managed at a household level. This plant is wild in the region, although a rare species. The aril of the fruit is the edible part. After harvesting, the aril is extracted fresh and processed for local consumption. Sometimes the fruits are commercialized in traditional markets. Only 19% of the total weight of the fruits is used for food.

  16. SALT TOLERANCE OF CROP PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdia, M. A; Shaddad, M. A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Several environmental factors adversely affect plant growth and development and final yield performance of a crop. Drought, salinity, nutrient imbalances (including mineral toxicities and deficiencies) and extremes of temperature are among the major environmental constraints to crop productivity worldwide. Development of crop plants with stress tolerance, however, requires, among others, knowledge of the physiological mechanisms and genetic controls of the contributing traits at different pla...

  17. Starch-based edible film with gum arabic for fruits coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Aqeela Salfarina; Lazim, Azwan Mat

    2015-09-01

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. The introduction of biodegradable materials such as edible film and coating which can be disposed directly into the soil, can be one possible solution to this problem. Edible coating is defined as a thin layer of edible material form as a film on the surface of the fruits and vegetables. This coating can affect the respiration and moisture loss. In this study, edible film and coating were used as fruit coating. The edible film were prepared with different ratios which is 2:2, 3:1, and 1:3 of starch and gum Arabic with 10% of glycerol and sorbitol as plasticiser. A study of practical application for the edible film and coating from starch with gum Arabic for fruit coating was conducted. Banana were coated with an aqueous solution of starch with gum Arabic and stored at ambient temperature (26 ± 1°C; 70 ± 10% RH). The results indicate that with the coating application, the fruits lost about 30% less weight than the uncoated fruits. The coating application was also effective in retaining the firmness of the banana and slow down the ripening process.

  18. Data Fusion of Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue for Detection of Mixed Edible-Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Men

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the problem of the waste of the edible-oil in the food processing, on the premise of food security, they often need to add new edible-oil to the old frying oil which had been used in food processing to control the cost of the production. Due to the fact that the different additive proportion of the oil has different material and different volatile gases, we use fusion technology based on the electronic nose and electronic tongue to detect the blending ratio of the old frying oil and the new edible-oil in this paper. Principal component analysis (PCA is used to distinguish the different proportion of the old frying oil and new edible-oil; on the other hand we use partial least squares (PLS to predict the blending ratio of the old frying oil and new edible-oil. Two conclusions were proposed: data fusion of electronic nose and electronic tongue can be used to detect the blending ratio of the old frying oil and new edible-oil; in contrast to single used electronic nose or single used electronic tongue, the detection effect has increased by using data fusion of electronic nose and electronic tongue.

  19. IMPROVEMENT OF SHELF LIFE QUALITY OF GREEN BELL PEPPERS USING EDIBLE COATING FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Ochoa-Reyes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Latin-America, there are countries with high production levels of green bell peppers, which requires of new strategies of conservation for their international trade. Traditional techniques of preservations do not guarantee to prolong the shelf life of these kinds of fruits, for this reason, in the present study, the Influence of different edible coating formulations on shelf-life quality of green bell peppers was studied. Three different biopolymers (pectin, arabic, and xanthan gums were evaluated in mixtures with candelilla wax as hydrophobic phase, jojoba oil as plasticizer and a crude extract of polyphenols as source of bioactive compounds. Green bell peppers were immersion-treated and then stored at room temperature. Response variables were: weight loss, color, appearance, pH, total soluble solids and firmness changes which were kinetically determined. All peppers treated with edible-coating showed a significant difference (Tukey, p≤0.05 in weight loss compared to control treatment (without edible coating, while a lower level of deterioration was observed in fruits treated with edible coating formulated with arabic gum, but appearance remained similar among fruits treated with different edible coatings. Use of mixtures of biopolymers, candelilla wax, jojoba oil and polyphenols to develop edible and functionalized coatings significantly extended shelf life of green bell pepper.

  20. Preliminary nitrite, nitrate and colour analysis of Malaysian edible bird’s nest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meei Chien Quek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The high nitrite content in edible bird’s nests is a major concern to the local swiftlet industry. It lowers the price of the edible bird’s nests and it brings severe health hazards to consumers and farmers. This research investigated the nitrite and nitrate contents of eight types of local edible bird’s nests by using ion chromatography system and evaluating its colour using the CIE system in L∗a∗b∗ parameters. The nitrite content obtained ranged from 5.7 μg/g for the house nests to 843.8 μg/g for the cave nests. The nitrate content for the house and cave nests was 98.2 μg/g and 36,999.4 μg/g, respectively. The cave nests with darker and redder colour had higher nitrite and nitrate contents than the brighter and more yellow house nests. This likely suggests that the nitrite and nitrate contents have correlations with edible bird’s nests colour. Correlations studies suggested that the nitrite content had high correlations with colour parameters, L∗a∗b∗ of edible bird’s nests at significant level of P < 0.10. These findings suggest that edible bird’s nests’ colour may be a useful indicator for measuring nitrite and nitrate contaminations.

  1. Effect of addition of semi refined carrageenan on mechanical characteristics of gum arabic edible film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyorini, D.; Nurcahyani, P. R.

    2016-04-01

    Currently the seaweed is processed flour and Semi Refined Carraagenan (SRC). However, total production is small, but both of these products have a high value and are used in a wide variety of products such as cosmetics, processed foods, medicines, and edible film. The aim of this study were (1) to determine the effect of SRC on mechanical characteristics of edible film, (2) to determine the best edible film which added by SRC with different concentration. The edible film added by SRC flour which divided into three concentrations of SRC. There are 1.5%; 3%; and 4.5% of SRC, then added 3% glycerol and 0.6% arabic gum. The mechanical properties of the film measured by a universal testing machine Orientec Co. Ltd., while the water vapor permeability measured by the gravimetric method dessicant modified. The experimental design used was completely randomized design with a further test of Duncan. The result show SRC concentration differences affect the elongation breaking point and tensile strength. But not significant effect on the thickness, yield strength and the modulus of elasticity. The best edible film is edible film with the addition of SRC 4.5%.

  2. Characteristic of ascorbic acid in crosslinked chitosan edible film as drug delivery system membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kistriyani Lilis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a polysaccharide compound in the form of a linear polysaccharide consisting of N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc and D-glucosamine (GlcN monomer, which is a derivative of deacetylization of chitin polymer. Chitin is one of common type of polysaccharide on earth after the excess cellulose from inveterbrata skeletons. Chitosan has anti-microbial properties. Based on this properties, chitosan is potentially used to be an edible film as drug delivery system membrane. Edible film was made by dissolving chitosan in 100 mL acetic acid 1%, then the plasticizer and crosslinker was added while heated at 60° C. It was molded and dried in oven at 50°C for 48 hours. Drug loading in the edible film could be controlled by remodeling membrane characteristics in the presence of crosslinker additions. The purpose of this study was to estimate the mass transfer coefficient (kCa of drug loading in various concentrations of ascorbic acid in the edible film. The characteristics of ascorbic acid in chitosan edible film could be seen from the number of drugs that could be loaded through the uv-vis spectrophotometric analysis. The higher concentration of ascorbic acid was added, the drug would be loaded more into edible film.

  3. [Efficiency evaluation of capsaicinoids to discriminate bio-waste oils from edible vegetable oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Lisha; Liu, Honghe; Kang, Li; Jiang, Jie; Liao, Shicheng; Liu, Guihua; Deng, Pingjian

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of capsaicinoids to discriminate bio-waste oil from edible vegetable oil. 14 raw vegetable oils, 24 fried waste oils, 34 kitchen-waste oils, 32 edible non-peanut vegetable oil, 32 edible peanuts oil, 16 edible oil add flavorand and 11 refined bio-waste oils were prepared and examined for capsaicinoids including capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and nonylic acid vanillylamide. The detection results of the above samples were statistically tested based on sample category to assessment identify the effectiveness of the bio-waste oils with capsaicinoids. As a indicator, capsaincin was possessed of high detection sensitivity and has the highest efficiency to discern kitchen-waste oils and refined bio-waste oils samples from edible non-peanut vegetable oil correctly. The accuracy rate of identification were 100% and 90.1% respectively. There is the background in peanut oil. CONCLUSION Capsaicin added in cooking process can be retained in the refining process and hardly be removed in the refining process. In the case of fully eliminating the background interference, capsaicinoids can effectively identify bio-waste oils and edible vegetable oil in combination.

  4. Plant Productivity and Characterization of Zeoponic Substrates after Three Successive Crops of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruener, J. E.; Ming, Douglas W.; Galindo, C., Jr.; Henderson, K. E.; Golden, D. C.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed a zeolite-based synthetic substrate, termed zeoponics. The zeoponic substrate (consisting of NH4(-) and K-exchanged clinoptilolite, synthetic apatite, and dolomite) provides all of the plant-essential nutrients through mineral dissolution and ion exchange, with only the addition of water. Previous studies have shown high productivity of wheat in zeoponic substrates; however, no experiments have been conducted on other crops. The objective of this study was to determine the productivity and nutrient uptake of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) grown in zeoponic substrates with three successive crops in the same substrate. Radish was chosen because of its sensitivities to NH4(+). Average fresh weights of edible roots were similar for radish grown in zeoponic substrates watered with deionized H2O (10.97 g/plant) and in potting mix control substrate irrigated with nutrient solution (10.92 g/plant). Average fresh weight production of edible roots for radish grown in same zeoponic substrate increased in yield over time with the lowest yield in the first crop (7.10 g/plant) and highest in the third crop (13.90 g/plant). The Ca plant tissue levels in radishes (1.8-2.9 wt. %) grown in zeoponic substrates are lower than the suggested sufficient range of 3.0-4.5 wt. % Ca; however, the Ca level is highest (2.9 wt. %) in radishes grown in the third crop in the same zeoponic substrates. The higher radish yield in the third crop was attributed to a reduction in an NH4(-) induced Ca deficiency that has been previously described for wheat grown in zeoponic substrates. The P levels in plant tissues of radish grown in the zeoponic substrates ranged from 0.94-1.15 wt. %; which is slightly higher than the sufficient levels of 0.3-0.7 wt. %. With the exception of Ca and P, other macronutrient and micronutrient levels in radish grown in zeoponic substrates were well within the recommended sufficient ranges. After three

  5. Evaluation of Aqua crop Model to Predict Crop Water Productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Noor Hidayat Adenan; Faiz Ahmad; Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Abdul Rahim Harun; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Water and nutrient are critical inputs for crop production, especially in meeting challenges from increasing fertilizer cost and irregular water availability associated with climate change. The Land and Water Division of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has developed Aqua Crop, an integrated application software to simulate the interactions between plant, water and soil. Field management and irrigation management are the factors that need to be considered since it affects the interactions. Four critical components are needed in the Aqua Crop model, viz. climate, crop, field management and soil conditions. In our case study, climate data from rice field in Utan Aji, Kangar, Perlis was applied to run a simulation by using AquaCrop model. The rice crop was also assessed against deficit irrigation schedules and we found that use of water at optimum level increased rice yield. Results derived from the use of the model corresponded conventional assessment. This model can be adopted to help farmers in Malaysia in planning crop and field management to increase the crop productivity, especially in areas where the water is limited. (author)

  6. 605 Salad crops: Root, bulb, and tuber Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root and tuber crops (potato, cassava, sweet potato, and yams) comprise 4 of the 10 major food staples of the world and serve as a major source of energy for the poor of developing nations. Minimal strain placed on agro ecosystems by root and tuber crops highlight their welcomed contribution to the ...

  7. Biosolarization in garlic crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabeiro, Concepcion; Andres, Manuela; Wic, Consuelo

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important limitations of garlic cultivation is the presence of various soil pathogens. Fusarium proliferatum and Sclerotinium cepivorum and nematode Ditilenchus dipsaci cause such problems that prevent the repetition of the crop in the same field for at least 5 -8 years or soil disinfection is necessary. Chemical disinfection treatments have an uncertain future, in the European Union are reviewing their use, due to the effect on the non-pathogenic soil fauna. This situation causes a itinerant cultivation to avoid the limitations imposed by soil diseases, thereby increasing production costs. The Santa Monica Cooperative (Albacete, Spain) requested advice on possible alternative techniques, solarization and biosolarization. For which a trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness on the riverside area of the municipality. This place has recently authorized irrigation, which would allow the repeated cultivation of garlic if the incidence of soil diseases and the consequent soil fatigue could be avoided. Additionally, this work will serve to promote the cultivation of organic garlic. Last, but not least, the biosolarization technique allows to use waste from wineries, oil mills and mushroom crops. (Bello et al. 2003). The essay should serve as demonstrative proof for farmers' cooperative members. The specific objective for this first year is to assess, the effect on the global soil biota, on the final garlic production and quality and the effect of biosolarization to control soil pathogens. The trial is set on a cooperative's plot previously cultivated with corn. 5 treatments were set, defined by different amounts of organic matter applied, 7.5, 5, 2.5 kg m -2, a solarized with no organic matter, and a control without any treatment. The plot has inground sprinkler for full coverage with four sprinkler lines demarcating the five bands of differential treatment, randomly arranged. Organic matter was incorporated the August 14, 2013, then thoroughly

  8. Efficiency of Edible Agriculture in Canada and the U.S. Over the Past Three and Four Decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienna Maxwell

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We examine technological progress in the US and Canada to answer the question: has the efficiency (e.g., the edible energy efficiency, or EEE for producing agricultural products in the US and Canada increased in recent decades? Specifically, we determined the energy efficiency of agriculture at the farm gate in recent decades by dividing the outputs (the total annual crop and animal output in energy units minus the feed used for animal production and the grain used for ethanol production by the energy inputs: all the energy used by the nation to produce food (the energy used to generate and apply the fertilizer, pesticides, seed and to operate machinery minus the energy inputs to produce grain for ethanol. Our data comes primarily from national and international agricultural censuses. Our study found that the energy efficiency of US agriculture has more than doubled from 0.8:1 in 1970 to 2.2:1 by 2000, then increased more slowly to 2.3:1 by 2009. The energy efficiency of the agricultural sector in Canada has not changed appreciably since 1980, and has varied about a mean of 2:1 from 1981 to 2009. Our study found that EEE improvements in the US could be attributable in part to advancements in crop production per hectare, and lower direct fuel consumption, but also a greater proportion of less energy-intensive corn and changes to the diet of livestock (e.g., increased use of meals and other by-products which have increased the availability of grain. Thus increases due to technological progress alone for the last several decades appear small, less than one percent a year.

  9. Transfer characteristics of cadmium and lead from soil to the edible parts of six vegetable species in southeastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guo; Su Miaoyu; Chen Yanhui; Lin Fenfang; Luo Dan; Gao Shufang

    2006-01-01

    The transfer characteristics of Cd and Pb from soils to the edible parts of six vegetable species were calculated from plant and corresponding surface soil samples collected from the fields in Fujian Province, southeastern China. The soil-to-plant transfer factors (TF) calculated from both total and DTPA-extractable Cd and Pb in the soils decreased with increasing total or DTPA-extractable Cd and Pb, indicating that the TF values of Cd and Pb depend on the soil metal content. For most plants studied, there was a significant relation between the TF values and the corresponding soil metal concentrations (total or DTPA-extractable) that was best described by an exponential equation (y = ax b ). We recommend that the representative TF value for a given crop-metal system should be estimated from the regression models between the transfer factors and the corresponding soil metal concentrations and at a given soil metal concentration. - Soil-to-plant transfer factors of Cd and Pb decreased with increasing soil contents of Cd and Pb

  10. Genetic Architecture of Dietary Fiber and Oligosaccharide Content in a Middle American Panel of Edible Dry Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Samira Mafi; Brick, Mark A; Echeverria, Dimas; Thompson, Henry J; Brick, Leslie A; Lee, Rian; Mamidi, Sujan; McClean, Phillip E

    2018-03-01

    Common bean ( L.) is the most consumed edible grain legume worldwide and contains a wide range of nutrients for human health including dietary fiber. Diets high in beans are associated with lower rates of chronic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, and the content of dietary fibers varies among different market classes of dry bean. In this study, we evaluated the dietary fiber content in a Middle American diversity panel (MDP) of common bean and evaluated the genetic architecture of the various dietary fiber components. The dietary fiber components included insoluble and soluble dietary fibers as well as the antinutritional raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs; raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose). All variables measured differed among market classes and entries. Colored bean seeds had higher levels of insoluble dietary fibers with the black market class showing also the highest raffinose and stachyose content. Cultivars and lines released since 1997 had higher insoluble dietary fibers and RFO content in race Durango. Higher levels of RFOs were also observed in cultivars with type II growth habit that was a recent breeding target in Durango race germplasm. Candidate genes for dietary fiber traits, especially homologs to two main genes in the RFO biosynthesis pathway, were identified. The knowledge of diversity of dietary fibers in the MDP accompanied with the identification of candidate genes could effectively improve dietary fiber components in common bean. Copyright © 2018 Crop Science Society of America.

  11. Cassava as an energy crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    of the Attieké cassava variety. Little competition with food crops is likely, as cassava most likely would replace cotton as primary cash crop, following the decline of cotton production since 2005 and hence food security concerns appear not to be an issue. Stated price levels to motivate an expansion of cassava...

  12. Transgenic Crops for Herbicide Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since their introduction in 1995, crops made resistant to the broad-spectrum herbicides glyphosate and glufosinate with transgenes are widely available and used in much of the world. As of 2008, over 80% of the transgenic crops grown world-wide have this transgenic trait. This technology has had m...

  13. Archives: African Crop Science Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 98 of 98 ... Archives: African Crop Science Journal. Journal Home > Archives: African Crop Science Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 51 - 98 of 98 ...

  14. Climate Impacts of Cover Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardozzi, D.; Wieder, W. R.; Bonan, G. B.; Morris, C. K.; Grandy, S.

    2016-12-01

    Cover crops are planted in agricultural rotation with the intention of protecting soil rather than harvest. Cover crops have numerous environmental benefits that include preventing soil erosion, increasing soil fertility, and providing weed and pest control- among others. In addition to localized environmental benefits, cover crops can have important regional or global biogeochemical impacts by increasing soil organic carbon, changing emissions of greenhouse trace gases like nitrous oxide and methane, and reducing hydrologic nitrogen losses. Cover crops may additionally affect climate by changing biogeophysical processes, like albedo and latent heat flux, though these potential changes have not yet been evaluated. Here we use the coupled Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) - Community Land Model (CLM4.5) to test how planting cover crops in the United States may change biogeophysical fluxes and climate. We present seasonal changes in albedo, heat fluxes, evaporative partitioning, radiation, and the resulting changes in temperature. Preliminary analyses show that during seasons when cover crops are planted, latent heat flux increases and albedo decreases, changing the evaporative fraction and surface temperatures. Understanding both the biogeophysical changes caused by planting cover crops in this study and the biogeochemical changes found in other studies will give a clearer picture of the overall impacts of cover crops on climate and atmospheric chemistry, informing how this land use strategy will impact climate in the future.

  15. Soil erosion: perennial crop plantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    Plantation agriculture is an important form of land-use in the tropics. Large areas of natural and regenerated forest have been cleared for growing oil palm, rubber, cocoa, coffee, and other perennial tree crops. These crops grown both on large scale plantations and by smallholders are important

  16. Potential photosynthesis of crop surfaces.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de C.T.

    1959-01-01

    A formula for calculating the potential photosynthesis of a closed crop surface is proposed, assuming that the leaves of the crop are not arranged in any definite direction. In the Netherlands, values for potential photosynthesis vary from 290 kg. CH2O/ha./day in June to 50 kg./ha./day in December.

  17. Genetic Engineering and Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Helen C.; Frost, S.

    1991-01-01

    With a spotlight upon current agricultural difficulties and environmental dilemmas, this paper considers both the extant and potential applications of genetic engineering with respect to crop production. The nonagricultural factors most likely to sway the impact of this emergent technology upon future crop production are illustrated. (JJK)

  18. Archives: African Crop Science Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 99 ... Archives: African Crop Science Journal. Journal Home > Archives: African Crop Science Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 50 of 99 ...

  19. Response of a Wild Edible Plant to Human Disturbance: Harvesting Can Enhance the Subsequent Yield of Bamboo Shoots

    OpenAIRE

    Katayama, Noboru; Kishida, Osamu; Sakai, Rei; Hayakashi, Shintaro; Miyoshi, Chikako; Ito, Kinya; Naniwa, Aiko; Yamaguchi, Aya; Wada, Katsunori; Kowata, Shiro; Koike, Yoshinobu; Tsubakimoto, Katsuhiro; Ohiwa, Kenichi; Sato, Hirokazu; Miyazaki, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Wild edible plants, ecological foodstuffs obtained from forest ecosystems, grow in natural fields, and their productivity depends on their response to harvesting by humans. Addressing exactly how wild edible plants respond to harvesting is critical because this knowledge will provide insights into how to obtain effective and sustainable ecosystem services from these plants. We focused on bamboo shoots of Sasa kurilensis, a popular wild edible plant in Japan. We examined the effects of harvest...

  20. Irrigation modeling with AquaCrop

    Science.gov (United States)

    AquaCrop is a crop water productivity model developed by the Land and Water Division of UN-FAO. It simulates yield response to water of herbaceous crops, and is suited to address conditions where water is a key limiting factor in crop production. AquaCrop attempts to balance accuracy, simplicity, an...

  1. Proximate composition of CELSS crops grown in NASA's Biomass Production Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.; Berry, W. L.

    1996-01-01

    Edible biomass from four crops of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), four crops of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), four crops of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), and three crops of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) grown in NASA's CELSS Biomass Production Chamber were analyzed for proximate composition. All plants were grown using recirculating nutrient (hydroponic) film culture with pH and electrical conductivity automatically controlled. Temperature and humidity were controlled to near optimal levels for each species and atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressures were maintained near 100 Pa during the light cycles. Soybean seed contained the highest percentage of protein and fat, potato tubers and wheat seed contained the highest levels of carbohydrate, and lettuce leaves contained the highest level of ash. Analyses showed values close to data published for field-grown plants with several exceptions: In comparison with field-grown plants, wheat seed had higher protein levels; soybean seed had higher ash and crude fiber levels; and potato tubers and lettuce leaves had higher protein and ash levels. The higher ash and protein levels may have been a result of the continuous supply of nutrients (e.g., potassium and nitrogen) to the plants by the recirculating hydroponic culture.

  2. Application of genomics-assisted breeding for generation of climate resilient crops: progress and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kole, Chittaranjan; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Henry, Robert; Edwards, David; Sharma, Rishu; Abberton, Michael; Batley, Jacqueline; Bentley, Alison; Blakeney, Michael; Bryant, John; Cai, Hongwei; Cakir, Mehmet; Cseke, Leland J; Cockram, James; de Oliveira, Antonio Costa; De Pace, Ciro; Dempewolf, Hannes; Ellison, Shelby; Gepts, Paul; Greenland, Andy; Hall, Anthony; Hori, Kiyosumi; Hughes, Stephen; Humphreys, Mike W; Iorizzo, Massimo; Ismail, Abdelbagi M; Marshall, Athole; Mayes, Sean; Nguyen, Henry T; Ogbonnaya, Francis C; Ortiz, Rodomiro; Paterson, Andrew H; Simon, Philipp W; Tohme, Joe; Tuberosa, Roberto; Valliyodan, Babu; Varshney, Rajeev K; Wullschleger, Stan D; Yano, Masahiro; Prasad, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Climate change affects agricultural productivity worldwide. Increased prices of food commodities are the initial indication of drastic edible yield loss, which is expected to increase further due to global warming. This situation has compelled plant scientists to develop climate change-resilient crops, which can withstand broad-spectrum stresses such as drought, heat, cold, salinity, flood, submergence and pests, thus helping to deliver increased productivity. Genomics appears to be a promising tool for deciphering the stress responsiveness of crop species with adaptation traits or in wild relatives toward identifying underlying genes, alleles or quantitative trait loci. Molecular breeding approaches have proven helpful in enhancing the stress adaptation of crop plants, and recent advances in high-throughput sequencing and phenotyping platforms have transformed molecular breeding to genomics-assisted breeding (GAB). In view of this, the present review elaborates the progress and prospects of GAB for improving climate change resilience in crops, which is likely to play an ever increasing role in the effort to ensure global food security.

  3. Application of genomics-assisted breeding for generation of climate resilient crops: Progress and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chittaranjan eKole

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate change affects agricultural productivity worldwide. Increased prices of food commodities are the initial indication of drastic edible yield loss, which is expected to surge further due to global warming. This situation has compelled plant scientists to develop climate change-resilient crops, which can withstand broad-spectrum stresses such as drought, heat, cold, salinity, flood and submergence, and pests along with increased productivity. Genomics appears to be a promising tool for deciphering the stress responsiveness of crop species with adaptation traits or in wild relatives towards identifying underlying genes, alleles or quantitative trait loci. Molecular breeding approaches have been proven helpful in enhancing the stress adaptation of crop plants, and recent advancement in next-generation sequencing along with high-throughput sequencing and phenotyping platforms have transformed molecular breeding to genomics-assisted breeding (GAB. In view of this, the present review elaborates the progress and prospects of GAB in improving climate change resilience in crop plants towards circumventing global food insecurity.

  4. Application of genomics-assisted breeding for generation of climate resilient crops: progress and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kole, Chittaranjan; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Henry, Robert; Edwards, David; Sharma, Rishu; Abberton, Michael; Batley, Jacqueline; Bentley, Alison; Blakeney, Michael; Bryant, John; Cai, Hongwei; Cakir, Mehmet; Cseke, Leland J.; Cockram, James; de Oliveira, Antonio Costa; De Pace, Ciro; Dempewolf, Hannes; Ellison, Shelby; Gepts, Paul; Greenland, Andy; Hall, Anthony; Hori, Kiyosumi; Hughes, Stephen; Humphreys, Mike W.; Iorizzo, Massimo; Ismail, Abdelbagi M.; Marshall, Athole; Mayes, Sean; Nguyen, Henry T.; Ogbonnaya, Francis C.; Ortiz, Rodomiro; Paterson, Andrew H.; Simon, Philipp W.; Tohme, Joe; Tuberosa, Roberto; Valliyodan, Babu; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Yano, Masahiro; Prasad, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Climate change affects agricultural productivity worldwide. Increased prices of food commodities are the initial indication of drastic edible yield loss, which is expected to increase further due to global warming. This situation has compelled plant scientists to develop climate change-resilient crops, which can withstand broad-spectrum stresses such as drought, heat, cold, salinity, flood, submergence and pests, thus helping to deliver increased productivity. Genomics appears to be a promising tool for deciphering the stress responsiveness of crop species with adaptation traits or in wild relatives toward identifying underlying genes, alleles or quantitative trait loci. Molecular breeding approaches have proven helpful in enhancing the stress adaptation of crop plants, and recent advances in high-throughput sequencing and phenotyping platforms have transformed molecular breeding to genomics-assisted breeding (GAB). In view of this, the present review elaborates the progress and prospects of GAB for improving climate change resilience in crops, which is likely to play an ever increasing role in the effort to ensure global food security. PMID:26322050

  5. Reseeding of mussels on denuded rocky shores: preliminary studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method is developed to establish clumps of mussels Perna perna in denuded areas on high-energy rocky shores on the south-east coast of South Africa. A total of 20 small (20–30 mm total length) mussels is placed under a 30 cm half-section of perforated PVC drainage pipe bolted to the rock surface. The pipe is left in ...

  6. The effect of reseeding methods on secondary succession during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Grassland biome is the most transformed biome in South Africa, with cultivation and other human impacts having the largest effect on pristine grasslands. Conversion of natural grassland to cropland agriculture destroys natural vegetation seed banks. When croplands on the South African Highveld are abandoned, ...

  7. Fungal inactivation by Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) essential oil added to amaranth, chitosan, or starch edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Sosa, Raúl; Hernández-Zamoran, Erika; López-Mendoza, Ingrid; Palou, Enrique; Jiménez Munguía, María Teresa; Nevárez-Moorillón, Guadalupe Virginia; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2010-04-01

    Edible films can incorporate antimicrobial agents to provide microbiological stability, since they can be used as carriers of a wide number of additives that can extend product shelf life and reduce the risk of pathogenic bacteria growth on food surfaces. Addition of antimicrobial agents to edible films offers advantages such as the use of low antimicrobial concentrations and low diffusion rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate inhibition of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. by selected concentrations of Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) essential oil added to amaranth, chitosan, or starch edible films. Oregano essential oil was characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Amaranth, chitosan, and starch edible films were formulated with essential oil concentrations of 0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1%, 2%, and 4%. Mold radial growth was evaluated inoculating spores in 2 ways: edible films were placed over inoculated agar, Film/Inoculum mode (F/I), or the edible films were first placed in the agar and then films were inoculated, Inoculum/Film mode (I/F). The modified Gompertz model adequately described growth curves. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in growth parameters between the 2 modes of inoculation. Antifungal effectiveness of edible films was starch > chitosan > amaranth. In starch edible films, both studied molds were inhibited with 0.50% of essential oil. Edible films added with Mexican oregano essential oil could improve the quality of foods by controlling surface growth of molds.

  8. Ethno-Edible Mushroom of Pleurotus sp., Clytocybe nebularis and Auricularia auricula in Ranupani Village, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehan Ramdani Haryati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper documented the knowledge about the wild edible fungal flora of Ranupani Village of East Java Indonesia that used by indigenous Tenggerese tribes. Study was conducted by using semi-structured interview and purposive sampling. Data were analyzed quantitatively descriptive. Index of Cultural Significance (ICS was used to evaluate the importance of non-wood forest’s yields for local people. Identification of edible mushrooms was based on Guidelines of Flora Diversity Data Collection. This study was focus on the three edible mushrooms which are eaten mostly by the villagers, i.e. Pleurotus sp., Clytocybe nebularis and Auricularia auricula. The result is the Ranupani residents’ perception of edible mushrooms and its potential as an alternative source of food based on local knowledge and local wisdom of Tenggerese. Pleurotus sp. has the highest preference and intensity to be consumed with 3,2 ICS. It means culturally, this edible mushroom were not too important but intensively used as a secondary food sources such as soup (added or sauted, chips (dried and fried. Ranupani Villagers always consumed edible mushrooms in rainy season. The ability of residents to distinguish edible mushrooms are equal to the searching ability to find edible mushroom substrate. The residents will recognized the substrate of edible mushrooms on dead trunks of Pasang Tree (Lithocarpus sundaicus, Danglu (Engelhardia spicata, Kemlandingan (Albizia Montana, Casuarina (Casuarina junghuhniana and acacia (Acacia decurens. Residents who do not have the ability to distinguish and searching were consumer, get the edible mushrooms by buying from the searcher or distributor in packs. The characteristics of an edible mushrooms are a discrete soft flesh of the fruit body, dark color, no ring on the stipe, the presence of insects (e.g. moths in the lamellae and the type of mushroom substrate. There were also assisted growths of wild mushrooms by the residents’ raw chop the

  9. Antimicrobial effects of edible gluten films incorporated with vanillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Aarabi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the antibacterial effect of vanillin on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using agar diffusion technique. For this reason, edible films were manufactured from wheat gluten containing 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 4% w/w. The inhibitory effect of the films was assessed based on the surface area of inhibition zone. According to the results, 0.5% of vanillin had no inhibitory effect neither on E. coli nor S. aureus. However, vanillin concentrations higher than 1% could have antibacterial effect on E. coli and S. aureus. Results revealed that with the increasing of vanillin concentration, the surface area of inhibition zone was increased. Moreover, the increasing of vanillin concentration could lead to an increase in the extensibility and elongation of the gluten film. Interpenetrating network cross-linking mechanisms might account for the Schiff base reaction between gluten and vanillin. Although significantly different inhibitory effect was observed between E. coli and S. aureus, the vanillin films were effective on both bacteria.

  10. Electrochemical writing on edible polysaccharide films for intelligent food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Si; Wang, Wenqi; Yan, Kun; Ding, Fuyuan; Shi, Xiaowen; Deng, Hongbing; Du, Yumin

    2018-04-15

    Polysaccharide films used as intelligent food packaging possess the advantages of renewability, safety and biodegradability. Printing on the polysaccharidic food packaging is challenging due to the high demand for edible-ink and the need for a suitable printing technique. In this work, we propose an electrochemical method for writing on polysaccharide film. Unlike conventional printing, this electrochemical writing process relies on the pH responsive color change of anthocyanin embedded in the chitosan/agarose hydrogel. By biasing a negative potential to a stainless wire (used as a pen) contacting the surface of the chitosan/agarose/ATH hydrogel, the locally generated pH change induced the color change of ATH and wrote programmed information on the hydrogel. We demonstrate the writing can be temporary in the hydrogel but stable when the hydrogel is dried. We further demonstrate that the written film is applicable for the detection of the spoilage of crucian fish. The reported electrochemical writing process provides a novel method for printing information on polysaccharide film and great potential for intelligent food packaging. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrophobic edible films made up of tomato cutin and pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrich, Anny; Moreira, Francys K V; Otoni, Caio G; Lorevice, Marcos V; Martins, Maria A; Mattoso, Luiz H C

    2017-05-15

    Cutin is the biopolyester that protects the extracellular layer of terrestrial plants against dehydration and environmental stresses. In this work, cutin was extracted from tomato processing waste and cast into edible films having pectin as a binding agent. The influences of cutin/pectin ratio (50/50 and 25/75), film-forming suspension pH, and casting method on phase dispersion, water resistance and affinity, and thermal and mechanical properties of films were investigated. Dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy revealed that cutin phase aggregation was reduced by simply increasing pH. The 50/50 films obtained by casting neutral-pH suspensions presented uniform cutin dispersion within the pectin matrix. Consequently, these films exhibited lower water uptake and solubility than their acidic counterparts. The cutin/pectin films developed here were shown to mimic tomato peel itself with respect to mechanical strength and thermal stability. Such behavior was found to be virtually independent of pH and casting method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Łuczaj

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the 19th century to the present day, within the present borders of Slovakia. Twenty-four sources (mainly ethnographic documenting the culinary use of wild plants were analysed. The use of 106 species (over 3% of the Slovak flora has been recorded. Nowadays most of them are no longer used, or used rarely, apart from a few species of wild fruits. The most frequently used plants include the fruits of Rubus idaeus, Fragaria spp., Rubus subgenus Rubus, Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, Fagus sylvatica, Corylus avellana, Prunus spinosa, Pyrus spp., Malus spp., Crataegus spp. and the leaves of Urtica dioica, Rumex acetosa, Chenopodiaceae species, Cardamine amara, Glechoma spp., Taraxacum spp. and Oxalis acetosella. The most commonly used wild food taxa are nearly identical to those used in Poland, and the same negative association of wild vegetables with famine exists in Slovakia, resulting in their near complete disappearance from the present-day diet.

  13. Pigment Production by the Edible Filamentous Fungus Neurospora Intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Gmoser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of pigments by edible filamentous fungi is gaining attention as a result of the increased interest in natural sources with added functionality in the food, feed, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and textile industries. The filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia, used for production of the Indonesian food “oncom”, is one potential source of pigments. The objective of the study was to evaluate the fungus’ pigment production. The joint effect from different factors (carbon and nitrogen source, ZnCl2, MgCl2 and MnCl2 on pigment production by N. intermedia is reported for the first time. The scale-up to 4.5 L bubble column bioreactors was also performed to investigate the effect of pH and aeration. Pigment production of the fungus was successfully manipulated by varying several factors. The results showed that the formation of pigments was strongly influenced by light, carbon, pH, the co-factor Zn2+ and first- to fourth-order interactions between factors. The highest pigmentation (1.19 ± 0.08 mg carotenoids/g dry weight biomass was achieved in a bubble column reactor. This study provides important insights into pigmentation of this biotechnologically important fungus and lays a foundation for future utilizations of N. intermedia for pigment production.

  14. Macromolecular Antioxidants and Dietary Fiber in Edible Seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Pintos, Nerea; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Vergara-Salinas, José Rodrigo; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2017-02-01

    Seaweeds are rich in different bioactive compounds with potential uses in drugs, cosmetics and the food industry. The objective of this study was to analyze macromolecular antioxidants or nonextractable polyphenols, in several edible seaweed species collected in Chile (Gracilaria chilensis, Callophyllis concepcionensis, Macrocystis pyrifera, Scytosyphon lomentaria, Ulva sp. and Enteromorpha compressa), including their 1st HPLC characterization. Macromolecular antioxidants are commonly ignored in studies of bioactive compounds. They are associated with insoluble dietary fiber and exhibit significant biological activity, with specific features that are different from those of both dietary fiber and extractable polyphenols. We also evaluated extractable polyphenols and dietary fiber, given their relationship with macromolecular antioxidants. Our results show that macromolecular antioxidants are a major polyphenol fraction (averaging 42% to total polyphenol content), with hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols being the main constituents. This fraction also showed remarkable antioxidant capacity, as determined by 2 complementary assays. The dietary fiber content was over 50% of dry weight, with some samples exhibiting the target proportionality between soluble and insoluble dietary fiber for adequate nutrition. Overall, our data show that seaweed could be an important source of commonly ignored macromolecular antioxidants. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Refrigeration and edible coatings in blackberry (Rubus spp.) conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dalany Menezes; Kwiatkowski, Angela; Rosa, Cassia Ines Lourenzi Franco; Clemente, Edmar

    2014-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the conservation of blackberry, cv. Tupy, stored under refrigeration and coated with different edible coatings. Four treatments were carried out: control T1 (uncoated), T2 (chitosan 1.5 %), T3 (cassava starch 2.5 %) and T4 (kefir grains in water 20 %), stored at temperatures of 0 and 10 °C; 1.0 % (m/v) sorbitol/glycerol was added as plasticizers. Chemical and physical-chemical evaluations (weight loss, firmness, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, SS/TA ratio and anthocyanins) were made, besides rot incidence. The results showed that cooling to 0 °C combined with T2 showed an effect in reducing the physiological loss of weight (4.41 %), in retaining fruit firmness (19.1 N) and presenting lower incidence of rot (6.19 %). Likewise, in physical and chemical parameters: SS did not alter significantly during the whole period of 18 days of storage.

  16. Summer dormancy in edible dormice ( Glis glis) without energetic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieber, Claudia; Ruf, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Average longevity in free-living edible dormice ( Glis glis) can reach 9 years, which is extremely high for a small rodent. This remarkable life span has been related to a peculiar life history strategy and the rarity of reproductive bouts in these seed eaters. Most females (96%) reproduce only once or twice in their lifetime, predominantly during years of mast seeding of, e.g., beech, but entire populations can skip reproduction in years of low seed availability. Surprisingly, in non-reproductive years, large fractions of populations apparently vanished and were never captured above ground. Therefore, we determined the duration of above-ground activity, and body temperature profiles in a subset of animals, of dormice under semi-natural conditions in outdoor enclosures. We found that non-reproductive dormice returned to dormancy in underground burrows throughout summer after active seasons as short as 10 months per year in dormancy. This exceeds dormancy duration of any other mammal under natural conditions. Summer dormancy was not caused by energy constraints, as it occurred in animals in good condition, fed ad libitum and without climatic stress. We suggest that almost year-round torpor has evolved as a strategy to escape birds of prey, the major predators of this arboreal mammal. This unique predator-avoidance strategy clearly helps in explaining the unusually high longevity of dormice.

  17. Usage of Edible Mushrooms in Various Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Süfer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using of edible mushrooms which are generally consumed in houses in dried form is based on mainly instant soup and sauce formulations. Recently, the cultivations of Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus species have become widespread. Utilization of these cultivated mushrooms in recipes would bring added value to related food products. For this purpose, Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus species farmed in Osmaniye Korkut Ata University Mushroom House were dried and then pulverized. Firstly, a snack was prepared with Agaricus bisporus powder. Agaricus bisporus powder was substituted for wheat flour at the rates of 5 %, 10 %, 20 % and 30 % and thus the potential of food product which had relatively lower carbohydrate and fat level and higher fiber content was investigated. In the second part of the study, either 5 %, 10 % of Agaricus bisporus powder or 5 %, 10 % of Pleurotus ostreatus powder were added into traditional Turkish meatball (beef mince, salt which was cooked in conventional oven, so meat flavor could be replaced by herbal flavor coming from mushroom. This property mat obey the purpose that, the created new product will be consumed fondly especially by children. Sensory and physical (colour and texture analysis were performed in both snack and meatball samples and the results were evaluated statistically.

  18. Phosphatidylcholine, an edible carrier for nanoencapsulation of unstable thiamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juveriya Fathima, Syeda; Fathima, Irum; Abhishek, Virat; Khanum, Farhath

    2016-04-15

    Lipid nanoparticles have been used for carrying different therapeutic agents because of the advantage in improved absorption, bioavailability, targeted deliveries and reduction in the quantity of drugs required. The aim of the study was to prepare and characterize nanoliposomes containing thiamine hydrochloride and study their physicochemical stability as this vitamin is highly unstable. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) was used as an edible encapsulant. The average size of nanoliposomes was found to be 150 nm and zeta potential was -34 mV. The encapsulation efficiency was 97%. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the size, spherical nature and smooth surface of the nanoliposomes. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) evidenced that the nanoliposomes were stable up to 300°C. The functional groups present were determined by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the presence of vitamin was confirmed in final formulation by biochemical analysis. The crystalline nature of thiamine was analyzed by X-ray diffraction studies. Storage studies indicated that the nanoliposomes were highly stable up to 3 months at different temperatures. Thus, phosphatidylcholine can be used as carrier vehicle of nutrients especially vitamins, as it can form stable nanoliposomes with 97% encapsulation efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. MYCOTOXINS CONTAMINATION IN EDIBLE LAND SNAIL AT GRAZING PADDOCK ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ime Ebenso

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins contamination of animal products is under reported. Juvenile edible land snails (Archachatina marginata were exposed as sentinels in bottomless metal drums for 1 week at abandoned, new and reference sites respectively at grazing paddock environment, to assess the presence of foodborne microbiological mycotoxins contamination during the dry season. Mycological analysis of A. marginata samples revealed high (p<0.05 contamination at all paddocks ranged from 1.2-1.3 x 105 cfu-g. Results revealed values that were found to be unacceptable by FAO/WHO standards. The presence of Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus and Penicillum expansum were noted as potential toxicogenic mycoflora. Snails were tolerant to all levels of contamination with no clinical signs of infection or mortality. This finding could serve as basis for assessing pre-slaughter microbial contamination of livestock farm/field environment in order to establish data with comparative epidemiological value, which could highlight early warning signals of food safety risk and cross-contamination of mycotoxins in the food chain.

  20. Levels of some trace elements in edible fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorhem, L. [National Food Administration, Uppsala (Sweden); Sundstroem, B. [National Food Administration, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    A number of common edible fungi were analysed for their contents of Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu, Mn and Se. The results indicate that the Cd level in the species Rozites caperata can be as high as several mg/kg fresh weight. In Lycoperdon perlatum and Macrolepiota procera the Pb level was found to be up to 2.5 mg/kg. The Ni level was at or below 0.1 mg/kg in all species, with the expection of Albartrellus ovinus, which had a mean concentration of 0.72 mg/kg. The level of Cr was highest in M.procera with a mean of 0.091 mg/kg. In a single sample of the species Agaricus augustus, the concentration of Co was found to be exceptionally high at 0.28 mg/kg. Zn and Cu levels were highest in L.perlatum and M.procera. Mn levels were fairly similar in the different species. The results of several surveys show that there can be large differences in the concentrations of the same metal (e.g. Pb) in the same species. The Se level was found to be very high in the species Boletus edulis, as has been shown by others. In the other species analysed the level of Se was low. (orig.)

  1. Element concentrations in wild edible mushrooms in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelkonen, R.; Alfthan, G.; Jaervinen, O.

    2008-06-15

    The aim of the study was to examine the element concentrations of common mushroom species and to evaluate the possible health risks resulting from the consumption of mushrooms. The concentration of Ag, Al, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Pt, Rb, Se, V and Zn was studied for ten commercially sold mushroom species and two other common edible species in southern Finland. The element concentrations were analysed using AAS for selenium, fluorometry for mercury and ICP-MS for the other 14 elements. The platinum concentration was lower than the detection limit for all mushrooms species (n = 191). The highest aluminium, calcium and vanadium concentration were found in Boletus species. The amounts of mushroom considered safe for consumption were mostly limited by rubidium. When excluding Rb, the maximum amounts of mushroom recommended for consumption were limited by the concentration of chromium in the case of nine of the 12 studied fungi species. Iron was a limiting element for the safe consumption of Suillus variegatus while Agaricus abruptibulbus and Boletus species were limited by silver. In the light of the results the ten commercially sold mushroom species are mainly considered safe to consume. Nevertheless, it is recommended to avoid the consumption of A. abruptibulbus and to consume Boletus species and Suillus variegatus in moderate amounts only. (orig.)

  2. Review of food composition data for edible insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Verena; Persijn, Diedelinde; Rittenschober, Doris; Charrondiere, U Ruth

    2016-02-15

    Edible insects are considered rich in protein and a variety of micronutrients, and are therefore seen as potential contributors to food security. However, the estimation of the insects' contribution to the nutrient intake is limited since data are absent in food composition tables and databases. Therefore, FAO/INFOODS collected and published analytical data from primary sources with sufficient quality in the Food Composition Database for Biodiversity (BioFoodComp). Data were compiled for 456 food entries on insects in different developmental stages. A total of 5734 data points were entered, most on minerals and trace elements (34.8%), proximates (24.5%), amino acids (15.3%) and (pro)vitamins (9.1%). Data analysis of Tenebrio molitor confirms its nutritive quality that can help to combat malnutrition. The collection of data will assist compilers to incorporate more insects into tables and databases, and to further improve nutrient intake estimations. Copyright © 2015 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of eleven edible plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boğa, Mehmet; Hacıbekiroğlu, Işıl; Kolak, Ufuk

    2011-03-01

    Consumers have become more interested in beneficial effects of vegetables, fruits, and tea to protect their health. The antioxidant potential and anticholinesterase activity of eleven edible plants were investigated. The dichloromethane, ethanol and water extracts prepared from celery [Apium graveolens L. (Umbelliferae)], Jerusalem artichoke [Helianthus tuberosus L. (Compositae)], spinach [Spinacia oleracea L. (Chenopodiaceae)], chard [Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla (Chenopodiaceae)], purslane [Portulaca oleracea L. (Portulacaceae)], ispit, or borage [Trachystemon orientale (L.) G. Don (Boraginaceae)], garden rocket [Eruca sativa Mill. (Brassicaceae)], red cabbage [Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra DC. (Cruciferae)], lime flower [Tilia tomentosa Moench (Tiliaceae)], cinnamon [Cinnamomum cassia Presl. (Lauraceae)], and rosehip [Rosa canina L. (Rosaceae)], were tested to determine their antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities by using CUPRAC (cupric reducing antioxidant capacity) and Ellman methods, respectively, for the first time. As a result, the dichloromethane, ethanol and water extracts of cinnamon showed the best antioxidant effect among the extracts of the tested plants. The ethanol extract of cinnamon exhibited 63.02% inhibition against acetylcholinesterase and 85.11% inhibition against butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) at 200 µg/mL concentration while the dichloromethane extract of garden rocket possessed the highest inhibition (91.27%) against BChE among all the tested extracts. This study indicated that the ethanol extract of cinnamon may be a new potential resource of natural antioxidant and anticholinesterase compounds.

  4. Preliminary sensory evaluation of edible flowers from wild Allium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antuono, L Filippo; Manco, Manuela Agata

    2013-11-01

    The use of edible flowers as an aesthetic and flavour component of specific dishes is gaining popularity, and their production is becoming an interesting niche market activity for growers. Allium is an important genus of flowering plants, also including traditional wild food species. The combination of tradition with the new uses of flowers is appealing, requiring, however, explorative acceptance assays for its exploitation. The flowers of the native Mediterranean species Allium neapolitanum, A. roseum and A. triquetrum were subject to hedonic visual, smell and flavour evaluation. Panellists also indicated specific flavour notes and their opinion about the more suitable uses. All the species were positively rated. A. roseum was preferred for all respects; A. triquetrum obtained the lowest visual rating, whereas A. neapolitanum had the lowest flavour rating. A spicy note was the main determinant of high flavour ratings. Dishes retaining the visual appearance of flowers were indicated as more suitable to combine with Allium flowers. This is the first attempt at sensory evaluation of Allium flowers. Nutritional and health promotion properties and toxicity risks do not represent major issues for these products, because of potentially low consumption levels. The main constraint for a wider use of Allium flowers is represented by the absence of a consolidated consumption habit and regular supply. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Wild growing mushrooms for the Edible City? Cadmium and lead content in edible mushrooms harvested within the urban agglomeration of Berlin, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlecht, Martin Thomas; Säumel, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Health effects by consuming urban garden products are discussed controversially due to high urban pollution loads. We sampled wild edible mushrooms of different habitats and commercial mushroom cultivars exposed to high traffic areas within Berlin, Germany. We determined the content of cadmium and lead in the fruiting bodies and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. EU standards for cultivated mushrooms were exceeded by 86% of the wild mushroom samples for lead and by 54% for cadmium but not by mushroom cultures. We revealed significant differences in trace metal content depending on species, trophic status, habitat and local traffic burden. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass of wild mushrooms, whereas cultivated mushrooms exposed to inner city high traffic areas had significantly lower trace metal contents. Based on these we discuss the consequences for the consumption of mushrooms originating from urban areas. - Highlights: • Popular edible mushrooms display large variations in Cd and Pb content. • Low accumulating species are Sparassis crispa, Boletus luridus, or Boletus badius. • High accumulating species are Agaricus ssp., Russula vesca, or Calvatia gigantea. • Cd and Pb content in wild growing edible mushrooms were mostly above EU limits for cultivated mushrooms. • Cd and Pb content in commercial mushrooms cultures were regularly below EU limits for cultivated mushrooms. - Commercial mushroom cultures can be integrated into ‘Edible City’ approaches, but majority of wild growing mushroom samples highly accumulate trace metals

  6. Ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants in Derashe and Kucha Districts, South Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebebew Fassil

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study discussed ethnobotany of and threats to wild edible plants in Derashe and Kucha Districts, South Ethiopia. Semi-structured interview, field observation, group discussion, market survey, and pair wise ranking were employed to gather ethnobotanical data. The information was collected from informants of three ethnic groups namely, Kusume, Derashe and Gamo people. The study documented 66 edible plant species belonging to 54 genera and 34 families. Of the reported edibles, 83.3% have more than one use categories. Food, medicine, construction/technology, and fuel wood had contributed 79% of the total uses. Of the recorded wild edible plant species, 78.8% were reported to be edible both in normal and food shortage times. Procurement and use of most edibles were found to be age and gender specific. However, species use under various use categories does not vary among the communities (X2 = 3.89, df = 6, α = 0.05 and 1-α = 12.6. The study showed that the majority (62.1% of the species were collected from wooded grassland/or bush land vegetation type. Pair wise ranking results indicated that agricultural expansion, over stocking/overgrazing, fuel wood collection, and uncontrolled fire setting as principal threats to wild edible plants in the study areas. The findings suggest that (i Public awareness and community based management need to be encouraged at all levels in order to overcome the threats; (ii further investigation into nutritional properties of all the species reported; and (iii Since the species are also nutraceutical, study on the pharmacological attributes would help to understand their medicinal applications. Furthermore, urgent collection of germplasm from areas under human pressure is recommended.

  7. Ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants in Derashe and Kucha Districts, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balemie, Kebu; Kebebew, Fassil

    2006-12-21

    The study discussed ethnobotany of and threats to wild edible plants in Derashe and Kucha Districts, South Ethiopia. Semi-structured interview, field observation, group discussion, market survey, and pair wise ranking were employed to gather ethnobotanical data. The information was collected from informants of three ethnic groups namely, Kusume, Derashe and Gamo people. The study documented 66 edible plant species belonging to 54 genera and 34 families. Of the reported edibles, 83.3% have more than one use categories. Food, medicine, construction/technology, and fuel wood had contributed 79% of the total uses. Of the recorded wild edible plant species, 78.8% were reported to be edible both in normal and food shortage times. Procurement and use of most edibles were found to be age and gender specific. However, species use under various use categories does not vary among the communities (Chi2 = 3.89, df = 6, alpha = 0.05 and 1-alpha = 12.6). The study showed that the majority (62.1%) of the species were collected from wooded grassland/or bush land vegetation type. Pair wise ranking results indicated that agricultural expansion, over stocking/overgrazing, fuel wood collection, and uncontrolled fire setting as principal threats to wild edible plants in the study areas. The findings suggest that (i) Public awareness and community based management need to be encouraged at all levels in order to overcome the threats; (ii) further investigation into nutritional properties of all the species reported; and (iii) Since the species are also nutraceutical, study on the pharmacological attributes would help to understand their medicinal applications. Furthermore, urgent collection of germplasm from areas under human pressure is recommended.

  8. Ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants in Derashe and Kucha Districts, South Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balemie, Kebu; Kebebew, Fassil

    2006-01-01

    The study discussed ethnobotany of and threats to wild edible plants in Derashe and Kucha Districts, South Ethiopia. Semi-structured interview, field observation, group discussion, market survey, and pair wise ranking were employed to gather ethnobotanical data. The information was collected from informants of three ethnic groups namely, Kusume, Derashe and Gamo people. The study documented 66 edible plant species belonging to 54 genera and 34 families. Of the reported edibles, 83.3% have more than one use categories. Food, medicine, construction/technology, and fuel wood had contributed 79% of the total uses. Of the recorded wild edible plant species, 78.8% were reported to be edible both in normal and food shortage times. Procurement and use of most edibles were found to be age and gender specific. However, species use under various use categories does not vary among the communities (X2 = 3.89, df = 6, α = 0.05 and 1-α = 12.6). The study showed that the majority (62.1%) of the species were collected from wooded grassland/or bush land vegetation type. Pair wise ranking results indicated that agricultural expansion, over stocking/overgrazing, fuel wood collection, and uncontrolled fire setting as principal threats to wild edible plants in the study areas. The findings suggest that (i) Public awareness and community based management need to be encouraged at all levels in order to overcome the threats; (ii) further investigation into nutritional properties of all the species reported; and (iii) Since the species are also nutraceutical, study on the pharmacological attributes would help to understand their medicinal applications. Furthermore, urgent collection of germplasm from areas under human pressure is recommended. PMID:17184523

  9. Sociocultural and ecological factors influencing management of edible and non-edible plants: the case of Ixcatlán, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Landa, Selene; Casas, Alejandro; García-Frapolli, Eduardo; Lira, Rafael

    2017-10-30

    Identifying factors influencing plant management allows understanding how processes of domestication operate. Uncertain availability of resources is a main motivation for managing edible plants, but little is known about management motives of non-edible resources like medicinal and ceremonial plants. We hypothesized that uncertain availability of resources would be a general factor motivating their management, but other motives could operate simultaneously. Uncertainty and risk might be less important motives in medicinal than in edible plants, while for ceremonial plants, symbolic and spiritual values would be more relevant. We inventoried edible, medicinal, and ceremonial plants in Ixcatlán, Oaxaca, Mexico, and conducted in-depth studies with 20 native and naturalized species per use type; we documented their cultural importance and abundance by interviewing 25 households and sampling vegetation in 33 sites. Consumption amounts and preferences were studied through surveys and free listings with 38 interviewees. Management intensity and risk indexes were calculated through PCA and their relation analyzed through regression analyses. Canonical methods allowed identifying the main sociocultural and ecological factors influencing management of plants per use type. Nearly 64, 63, and 55% of all ceremonial, edible, and medicinal wild plants recorded, respectively, are managed in order to maintain or increase their availability, embellishing environments, and because of ethical reasons and curiosity. Management intensity was higher in edible plants under human selection and associated with risk. Management of ceremonial and medicinal plants was not associated with indexes of risk or uncertainty in their availability. Other sociocultural and ecological factors influence management intensity, the most important being reciprocal relations and abundance perception. Plant management through practices and collectively regulated strategies is strongly related to control of

  10. 78 FR 13454 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 RIN 0563-AC35 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC) finalizes the Common Crop Insurance Regulations...

  11. 78 FR 55171 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ...-0001] RIN 0563-AC37 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance Provisions... Corporation (FCIC) finalizes the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance... changes to the Common Crop Insurance Regulations (7 CFR part 457), Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance...

  12. Plant senescence and crop productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Per L.; Culetic, Andrea; Boschian, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Senescence is a developmental process which in annual crop plants overlaps with the reproductive phase. Senescence might reduce crop yield when it is induced prematurely under adverse environmental conditions. This review covers the role of senescence for the productivity of crop plants. With the......Senescence is a developmental process which in annual crop plants overlaps with the reproductive phase. Senescence might reduce crop yield when it is induced prematurely under adverse environmental conditions. This review covers the role of senescence for the productivity of crop plants....... With the aim to enhance productivity, a number of functional stay-green cultivars have been selected by conventional breeding, in particular of sorghum and maize. In many cases, a positive correlation between leaf area duration and yield has been observed, although in a number of other cases, stay......-green cultivars do not display significant effects with regards to productivity. In several crops, the stay-green phenotype is observed to be associated with a higher drought resistance and a better performance under low nitrogen conditions. Among the approaches used to achieve stay-green phenotypes in transgenic...

  13. Crop productivities and radiation use efficiencies for bioregenerative life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Ruffe, L. M.; Sager, J. C.; Prince, R. P.; Knott, W. M.

    NASA’s Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) at Kennedy Space Center was decommissioned in 1998, but several crop tests were conducted that have not been reported in the open literature. These include several monoculture studies with wheat, soybean, potato, lettuce, and tomato. For all of these studies, either 10 or 20 m2 of plants were grown in an atmospherically closed chamber (113 m3 vol.) using a hydroponic nutrient film technique along with elevated CO2 (1000 or 1200 μmol mol-1). Canopy light (PAR) levels ranged from 17 to 85 mol m-2 d-1 depending on the species and photoperiod. Total biomass (DM) productivities reached 39.6 g m-2 d-1 for wheat, 27.2 g m-2 d-1 for potato, 19.6 g m-2 d-1 for tomato, 15.7 g m-2 d-1 for soybean, and 7.7 g m-2 d-1 for lettuce. Edible biomass (DM) productivities reached 18.4 g m-2 d-1 for potato, 11.3 g m-2 d-1 for wheat, 9.8 g m-2 d-1 for tomato, 7.1 g m-2 d-1 for lettuce, and 6.0 g m-2 d-1 for soybean. The corresponding radiation (light) use efficiencies for total biomass were 0.64 g mol-1 PAR for potato, 0.59 g DM mol-1 for wheat, 0.51 g mol-1 for tomato, 0.46 g mol-1 for lettuce, and 0.43 g mol-1 for soybean. Radiation use efficiencies for edible biomass were 0.44 g mol-1 for potato, 0.42 g mol-1 for lettuce, 0.25 g mol-1 for tomato, 0.17 g DM mol-1 for wheat, and 0.16 g mol-1 for soybean. By initially growing seedlings at a dense spacing and then transplanting them to the final production area could have saved about 12 d in each production cycle, and hence improved edible biomass productivities and radiation use efficiencies by 66% for lettuce (to 11.8 g m-2 d-1 and 0.70 g mol-1), 16% for tomato (to 11.4 g m-2 d-1and 0.29 g mol-1), 13% for soybean (to 6.9 g m-2 d-1 and 0.19 g mol-1), and 13% for potato (to 20.8 g m-2 d-1 and 0.50 g mol-1). Since wheat was grown at higher densities, transplanting seedlings would not have improved yields. Tests with wheat resulted in a relatively low harvest index of 29%, which may have been

  14. Recycling crop residues for use in recirculating hydroponic crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Garland, J. L.; Sager, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    As part of bioregenerative life support feasibility testing by NASA, crop residues are being used to resupply elemental nutrients to recirculating hydroponic crop production systems. Methods for recovering nutrients from crop residues have evolved from water soaking (leaching) to rapid aerobic bioreactor processing. Leaching residues recovered the majority of elements but it also recovered significant amounts of soluble organics. The high organic content of leachates was detrimental to plant growth. Aerobic bioreactor processing reduced the organic content ten-fold, which reduced or eliminated phytotoxic effects. Wheat and potato production studies were successful using effluents from reactors having with 8- to 1-day retention times. Aerobic bioreactor effluents supplied at least half of the crops elemental mass needs in these studies. Descriptions of leachate and effluent mineral content, biomass productivity, microbial activity, and nutrient budgets for potato and wheat are presented.

  15. "It Takes Longer, but When It Hits You It Hits You!": Videos About Marijuana Edibles on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Melissa J; Sowles, Shaina J; Stelzer-Monahan, Haley E; Bierut, Tatiana; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A

    2017-05-12

    Interest in marijuana edibles has increased as perceptions of harm from marijuana have decreased. Media and peer influences impact youth substance use, and YouTube is the most popular video-sharing website. No studies have examined the content and accessibility of YouTube videos related to marijuana edibles. To describe the messages conveyed to viewers in YouTube videos about edibles and determine their accessibility to youth. On June 12, 2015, we searched YouTube for videos about marijuana/cannabis/weed edibles. A total of 51 videos were coded for presence of an age restriction, purpose(s) of the videos, consumption of edibles during the video, effects, and safety concerns. Total views across all 51 videos were >9 million. Only 14% (7/51) were restricted to viewers over the age of 18 years. Over half (27/51, 53%) were informative videos, most (20/27, 74%) teaching how to make edibles, and 37% (19/51) were entertaining videos. Someone consumed an edible in 31% (16/51) of the videos, and the type of high was mentioned in 51% (26/51) of the videos, including delayed (18/26, 69%) or intense high (13/26, 50%). Fifty-five percent (28/51) mentioned delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol potency or dosage. Only 10 of these (36%) presented this information specifically as a warning to prevent adverse effects. Conclusions/Importance: Edibles-related videos are easily found on YouTube, often instructing how to bake your own edibles and lacking information needed for safe consumption, and most are not age-restricted. Videos showing how to make edibles or presenting edibles use in an entertaining way that could influence youth to initiate use.

  16. Release behavior and stability of encapsulated D-limonene from emulsion-based edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuzzo, Eva; Debeaufort, Frédéric; Sensidoni, Alessandro; Tat, Lara; Beney, Laurent; Hambleton, Alicia; Peressini, Donatella; Voilley, Andrée

    2012-12-12

    Edible films may act as carriers of active molecules, such as flavors. This possibility confers to them the status of active packaging. Two different film-forming biopolymers, gluten and ι-carrageenans, have been compared. D-Limonene was added to the two film formulations, and its release kinetics from emulsion-based edible films was assessed with HS-SPME. Results obtained for edible films were compared with D-limonene released from the fatty matrix called Grindsted Barrier System 2000 (GBS). Comparing ι-carrageenans with gluten-emulsified film, the latter showed more interesting encapsulating properties: in fact, D-limonene was retained by gluten film during the process needed for film preparation, and it was released gradually during analysis time. D-Limonene did not show great affinity to ι-carrageenans film, maybe due to high aroma compound hydrophobicity. Carvone release from the three different matrices was also measured to verify the effect of oxygen barrier performances of edible films to prevent D-limonene oxidation. Further investigations were carried out by FT-IR and liquid permeability measurements. Gluten film seemed to better protect D-limonene from oxidation. Gluten-based edible films represent an interesting opportunity as active packaging: they could retain and release aroma compounds gradually, showing different mechanical and nutritional properties from those of lipid-based ingredients.

  17. Optimization of Chitosan Drying Temperature on The Quality and Quantity of Edible Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahyuni Endah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible film is a thin layer (biodegradable used to coat food and can be eaten. In addition edible film serves as a vapor transfer inhibitor, inhibits gas exchange, prevents aroma loss, prevents fat transfer, improves physical characteristics, and as an additive carrier. Edible film made of cassava starch, glycerol and chitosan. Cassava starch is used as raw material because it contains 80% starch. Glycerol serves as a plasticizer and chitosan serves to form films and membranes well. The purpose of this research is to know the characteristic test of edible film by using ANOVA analysis, where the variable of drying of the oven is temperature (70°C, 80°C, 90°C and time for 3 hours and variables change chitosan (2 gr, 3 gr, 4 gr. The result of this research was obtained the most optimum for water content and water resistance in temperature variable 80 °C and chitosan 4 gr. The best edible films and bubbles on temperature variables are 80 °C and chitosan 4 gr.

  18. Determining the Time of Flight and Speed of Sound on Different types of Edible Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, N. A.; Hamid, S. B. Abd

    2017-11-01

    Edible oil is most often plant-based oils that have been extracted from various seeds. There are cases where the fully virgin edible oil was found to be a fraud. The adulterated edible oil indicates the intentional, fraudulent addition of extraneous, improper or cheaper ingredients puts into the oil or the dilution or removal of some valuable ingredient of the oil in order to increase profits. Hence, decrease the reliability of the Malaysian food product quality. This research was done by using the method of time of flight obtained using the Texas Instrument board, TDC1000-TDC7200 EVM connected to an ultrasonic transducer with 1 MHz frequency. The authors measured the time of flight and temperatures controlled from 20°C to 40°C of five vegetable oils (olive oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, coconut oil, and mustard oil). The value is observed and compared with other research from the literature review. From the study, time of flight values decreases exponentially while speed of sound value increases. This relationship will be useful in spectrum unfolding method to investigate the adulteration in different type of edible oil.This research outcome is to investigate the quality value of the different type of edible oil while eliminates the issues where the quality of Malaysian food product is not reliable.

  19. Antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts from 12 Chinese edible flowersin vitroandin vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Miao, Miao; Xia, Hui; Yang, Li-Gang; Wang, Shao-Kang; Sun, Gui-Ju

    2017-01-01

    The antioxidant function of edible flowers have attracted increasing interest. However, information is lacking on the impact of edible flowers on oxidative injury including hypoxia-re-oxygenation and hyperlipidemia. The antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts from 12 Chinese edible flowers were assessed in four different antioxidant models, including total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), scavenging hydroxyl radical capacity (SHRC) and scavenging superoxide anion radical capacity (SSARC). Subsequently, the potential antioxidant effects on rat cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (rCMEC) treated with hypoxia-re-oxygenation and hyperlipidemia rats induced by high-fat diet were also evaluated. The highest TAC, ORAC, SHRC and SSARC were Lonicera japonica Thunb., Rosa rugosa Thunb., Chrysanthemum indicum L. and Rosa rugosa Thunb., respectively. Most aqueous extracts of edible flowers exhibited good antioxidant effects on injury of rCMEC induced by hypoxia-re-oxygenation. In addition, the aqueous extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb., Carthamus tinctorius L., Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. could suppress the build-up of oxidative stress by increasing serum superoxide dismutase, glutathion peroxidase, and reducing malonaldehyde concentration in hyperlipidemia rats. These findings provided scientific support for screening edible flowers as natural antioxidants and preventative treatments for oxidative stress-related diseases.

  20. Disease Prevention: An Opportunity to Expand Edible Plant-Based Vaccines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Christopher; Cañas, Raúl; Macuer, Johan; Torres, María José; Herrada, Andrés A.; Jamett, Fabiola; Ibáñez, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    The lethality of infectious diseases has decreased due to the implementation of crucial sanitary procedures such as vaccination. However, the resurgence of pathogenic diseases in different parts of the world has revealed the importance of identifying novel, rapid, and concrete solutions for control and prevention. Edible vaccines pose an interesting alternative that could overcome some of the constraints of traditional vaccines. The term “edible vaccine” refers to the use of edible parts of a plant that has been genetically modified to produce specific components of a particular pathogen to generate protection against a disease. The aim of this review is to present and critically examine “edible vaccines” as an option for global immunization against pathogenic diseases and their outbreaks and to discuss the necessary steps for their production and control and the list of plants that may already be used as edible vaccines. Additionally, this review discusses the required standards and ethical regulations as well as the advantages and disadvantages associated with this powerful biotechnology tool. PMID:28556800

  1. Disease Prevention: An Opportunity to Expand Edible Plant-Based Vaccines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Concha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The lethality of infectious diseases has decreased due to the implementation of crucial sanitary procedures such as vaccination. However, the resurgence of pathogenic diseases in different parts of the world has revealed the importance of identifying novel, rapid, and concrete solutions for control and prevention. Edible vaccines pose an interesting alternative that could overcome some of the constraints of traditional vaccines. The term “edible vaccine” refers to the use of edible parts of a plant that has been genetically modified to produce specific components of a particular pathogen to generate protection against a disease. The aim of this review is to present and critically examine “edible vaccines” as an option for global immunization against pathogenic diseases and their outbreaks and to discuss the necessary steps for their production and control and the list of plants that may already be used as edible vaccines. Additionally, this review discusses the required standards and ethical regulations as well as the advantages and disadvantages associated with this powerful biotechnology tool.

  2. Study on the carry capacity of edible jellyfish fishery in Liaodong Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Kui; Bian, Yongning; Ma, Caihua; Chi, Xupeng; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yuyu

    2016-06-01

    Jellyfish fishing is a special type of fishery that mainly exists in some countries of East and Southeast Asia. China has the largest jellyfish fishery yield in the world with an annual harvest of around 300 thousand tons. Liaodong Bay is the most important jellyfish fishery ground in China. However, due to the high benefits of jellyfish fishery, which leads to illegal and out-of-season jellyfish fishing occurring each year in Liaodong Bay. Illegal jellyfish fishery in Liaodong Bay is a typical example of the tragedy of the commons. The key problem is that fishermen seek to an illegally initiate jellyfish fishing as early as possible. In this paper, basing on the data of edible jellyfish's biology and ecology, we mainly analyzed the history of jellyfish fishery in China, especially in Liaodong bay, and then we calculated the carry capacity of edible jellyfish in Liaodong Bay which is about 300 thousand tons one year. This number is equal to the recent annual yield of edible jellyfish in China. Furthermore, basing on the carry capacity and reasonable quotas price analysis, we set up a Jellyfish fishing quotas and deficit quotas buyback system which could be a suitable and effective solution for jellyfish fishery management and development in Liaodong Bay at the underlying roots. Although China is the first country with edible jellyfish aquaculture, the annual yield of jellyfish aquaculture is only one fifth of jellyfish fishing. So, there is a very bright developing prospect about edible jellyfish aquaculture in China.

  3. Optimization of Chitosan Drying Temperature on The Quality and Quantity of Edible Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri Wahyuni, Endah; Arifan, Fahmi

    2018-02-01

    Edible film is a thin layer (biodegradable) used to coat food and can be eaten. In addition edible film serves as a vapor transfer inhibitor, inhibits gas exchange, prevents aroma loss, prevents fat transfer, improves physical characteristics, and as an additive carrier. Edible film made of cassava starch, glycerol and chitosan. Cassava starch is used as raw material because it contains 80% starch. Glycerol serves as a plasticizer and chitosan serves to form films and membranes well. The purpose of this research is to know the characteristic test of edible film by using ANOVA analysis, where the variable of drying of the oven is temperature (70°C, 80°C, 90°C) and time for 3 hours and variables change chitosan (2 gr, 3 gr, 4 gr). The result of this research was obtained the most optimum for water content and water resistance in temperature variable 80 °C and chitosan 4 gr. The best edible films and bubbles on temperature variables are 80 °C and chitosan 4 gr.

  4. PERBAIKAN SIFAT MEKANIK DAN LAJU TRANSMISI UAP AIR EDIBLE FILM DARI PATI GANYONG TERMODIFIKASI DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN LILIN LEBAH DAN SURFAKTAN Improving the Mechanical and Water Vapour Transmission Rate Properties of Edible Film from Modified Ganyong Starc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Santoso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Edible film from ganyong starch without and with modification were incorporated by CMC and lecithin as surfactants. Edible film were characterized with respect to water vapor transmission rate and mechanical properties. Incorporation of CMC 2 % and lecithin 1 % as surfactants decreased water vapor transmission rate. Puncture strength decreased but still fulfill Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS 1975 min 50 gf.  Elongation of edible film increased and not fulfill JIS 1975 min 70 %.   Keywords: Carboxymethyl cellulose, lecithin, modification, starch, surfactants   ABSTRAK Edible film pati ganyong sebelum dan setelah dimodifikasi ditambahkan surfaktan CMC dan lesitin. Karakteristik edible film yang diamati adalah laju transmisi uap air dan sifat mekanik (kuat tekan dan persen pemanjangan. Penambahan CMC dengan konsentrasi 2 % dan lesitin 1 % menurunkan laju transmisi uap air edible film pati ganyong. Kuat tekan edible film pati ganyong mengalami penurunan, namun masih memenuhi standar JIS 1975 minimal 50gf. Nilai persen pemanjangan edible film pati ganyong meningkat tetapi belum memenuhi standar JIS 1975. Kata kunci: Carboxymethyl cellulose, lesitin, modifikasi, pati, surfaktan

  5. Cadmium, lead, arsenic and nickel in wild edible mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelkonen, R.; Alfthan, G.; Jaervinen, O.

    2006-07-01

    The aim of the study was to study the geographical and temporal variation of Cd, Pb, As and Ni in wild edible mushrooms and to evaluate possible toxicological risks resulting from their consumption. The research focused on 12 mushroom species commonly collected in Finland. The samples were collected at common collection sites in Southern Finland between the years 1977 and 1999 and analysed using ICP-MS. The median dry weight concentrations ranged between 0.22-29.70 mg kg d.w. for Cd, 0.36-6.05 mg kg d.w. for Pb, 0.14-5.11 mg kg d.w. for As and 0.41-9.08 mg kg d.w. for Ni. The highest concentrations of Cd, Pb and As were found in Agaricus abruptibulbus and the highest level of Ni in Albatrellus ovinus. The Pb concentrations in A. abruptibulbus and Cd levels in Lactarius species were found to be signifi cantly higher at polluted than at unpolluted sites. The Pb contents of A. ovinus, Boletus species, Cantharellus tubaeformis and Lactarius species as well as Cd levels of A. abruptibulbus and Leccinum species were signifi cantly higher for samples collected in 1977-1983 than for ones collected in 1992-1999. Decomposer species had generally higher concentrations of Cd, Pb and As than mycorrhizal fungi. Apart from the high element concentrations of A. abruptibulbus, the consumption of mushrooms was generally not considered to pose a toxicological risk in the light of the safety limits set by WHO. However, the Cd and Pb contents in A. abruptibulbus and Cd levels of Gyromitra esculenta and Boletus species exceeded the EU maximum permitted concentrations for cultivated mushrooms. (orig.)

  6. Heavy metal bioaccumulation by wild edible saprophytic and ectomycorrhizal mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Širić, Ivan; Humar, Miha; Kasap, Ante; Kos, Ivica; Mioč, Boro; Pohleven, Franc

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metals cause serious problems in the environment, and they can be accumulated in organisms, especially in the higher fungi. The concentration of Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, and Hg in 10 species of edible mushrooms in Medvednica Nature Park, Croatia was therefore determined. In addition, the similarity between the studied species was determined by cluster analysis based on concentrations of the aforementioned metals in the fruiting bodies. The contents of nickel, chromium, lead, cadmium, and mercury in the fruiting bodies of mushrooms were obtained by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The highest concentrations of Ni (3.62 mg kg(-1)), Cr (3.01 mg kg(-1)), and Cd (2.67 mg kg(-1)) were determined in Agaricus campestris. The highest concentration of Pb (1.67 mg kg(-1)) was determined in Macrolepiota procera, and the highest concentration of Hg (2.39 mg kg(-1)) was determined in Boletus edulis. The concentration of all heavy metals significantly differed (p mushrooms. Considering anatomical part of the fruiting body (cap-stipe), a considerably higher concentration of the analyzed elements was found in the cap for all mushroom species. According to calculated bioconcentration factors, all the examined species were found to be bioexclusors of Ni, Cr, and Pb and bioaccumulators of Cd and Hg. Cluster analysis performed on the basis of the accumulation of the studied metals revealed great phenotypic similarity of mushroom species belonging to the same genus and partial similarity of species of the same ecological affiliation.

  7. Determination of Heavy Metal Levels in Edible Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Edible salt is the most commonly used food additive worldwide. Therefore, any contamination of table salt could be a health hazard. Objectives The present study aimed to determine the levels of heavy metals in table and bakery refined salts. Materials and Methods Eighty-one table refined salt samples and the same number of bakery refined salt samples were purchased from retail market in the province of Hamadan, Iran. The levels of lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, mercury (Hg, copper (Cu, and iron (Fe were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy method. Results The levels (mean ± SD, μg/g of Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, Fe in table refined salt samples were 0.852 ± 0.277, 0.229 ± 0.012, 0.054 ± 0.040, 1.25 ± 0.245 and 0.689 ± 1.58, respectively. The results for the same metals in bakery refined salt samples were as follows (mean ± SD, μg/g: 22 ± 0.320 for Pb, 0.240 ± 0.018 for Cd, 0.058 ± 0.007 for Hg, 1.89 ± 0.218 for Cu, and 8.75 ± 2.10 for Fe. Heavy metal concentrations were generally higher in bakery refined salt. Conclusions The results obtained in the present study were compared with the literature and legal limits. All values for these metals in the table and bakery refined salts were lower than the permitted consumption level defined by Codex (2 µg/g of Pb, 0.5 µg/g of Cd, 0.1 µg/g of Hg, and 2 µg/g of Cu.

  8. Differences in internalization and growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 within the apoplast of edible plants, spinach and lettuce, compared with the model species Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kathryn M; Crozier, Louise; Marshall, Jacqueline; Merget, Bernhard; Holmes, Ashleigh; Holden, Nicola J

    2017-05-01

    Internalization of food-borne bacteria into edible parts of fresh produce plants represents a serious health risk. Therefore, internalization of verocytotoxigenic E. coli O157:H7 isolate Sakai was assessed in two species associated with outbreaks, spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and compared to the model species Nicotiana benthamiana. Internalization occurred in the leaves and roots of spinach and lettuce throughout a 10 day time-course. The plant species, tissue type and inoculum dose all impacted the outcome. A combination of low inoculum dose (~10 2 CFU) together with light microscopy imaging highlighted marked differences in the fate of endophytic E. coli O157:H7 Sakai. In the fresh produce species, bacterial growth was restricted but viable cells persisted over 20 days, whereas there was > 400-fold (~2.5 Log 10 ) increase in growth in N. benthamiana. Colony formation occurred adjacent to epidermal cells and mesophyll cells or close to vascular bundles of N. benthamiana and contained components of a biofilm matrix, including curli expression and elicitation, extracellular DNA and a limited presence of cellulose. Together the data show that internalization is a relevant issue in crop production and that crop species and tissue need to be considered as food safety risk parameters. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Ciguatoxin-like substances in edible fish on the eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentur, Yedidia; Spanier, Ehud

    2007-09-01

    The consumption of edible fish (e.g., Siganus spp) was assumed to have caused ciguatera poisoning at an atypical site, the eastern Mediterranean. This pilot study assesses the presence of ciguatoxin-like substances in edible fish on the eastern Mediterranean coast of Israel. Samples of Siganus rivulatus from polluted seawater (Haifa Bay), Siganus rivulatus from relatively clean seawater (Dor), and fish from the freshwater Sea of Galilee not inhabited by toxic algae were analyzed during summertime. Ciguatoxin-like substances were tested by a membrane immunobead assay that yields a color reaction (positive, weakly positive, negative). Significantly more large and small fish from Haifa Bay yielded positive color reactions compared to fish from Dor. Sea of Galilee fish gave no positive color reactions. Our results suggest the presence of ciguatoxin-like substances in edible fish of the eastern Mediterranean. Additional analyses are needed to determine whether these substances are ciguatoxins or related polyethers.

  10. Extracts of Edible Plants Inhibit Pancreatic Lipase, Cholesterol Esterase and Cholesterol Micellization, and Bind Bile Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julnaryn Intrawangso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of edible plants with more effective ability to inhibit fat digestion and absorption has recently been explored for possible treatment of hyperlipidaemia. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of nine edible plants on the inhibition of pancreatic lipase and pancreatic cholesterol esterase activities, as well as the inhibition of cholesterol micelle formation, and bile acid binding. Our findings have shown strong pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity and the inhibition of cholesterol micellization by mulberry leaf extract. Safflower extract was the most potent inhibitor of pancreatic cholesterol esterase. In addition, cat’s whiskers and safflower extracts had a potent bile acid binding activity. It is suggested that a daily intake of these edible plants may delay postprandial hypertriacylglycerolaemia and hypercholesterolaemia, and therefore may be applied for the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidaemia.

  11. Side-stream products of edible oil refining as feedstocks in biodiesel production

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    Cvetković Bojan S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, a diesel fuel alternative, is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats by the transesterification reaction of triacylglycerols and lower aliphatic alcohols. Beside number advantages related to fossil fuels, the main barrier to biodiesel wider commercial use is the high price of edible oils. Recently, the special attention was given to side-stream products of edible oil refining as low-cost triacylglycerol sources for biodiesel production because of their positive economic and ecological effects. In this paper, the different procedures for biodiesel production from side-stream refining products such as soapstock, spent bleaching earth and deodorizer distillate were analyzed. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the possibilities for reusing the by-products of edible oil refinement in the biodiesel production.

  12. Influence of Codium tomentosum Extract in the Properties of Alginate and Chitosan Edible Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Augusto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The growing search for natural alternatives to synthetic food packaging materials and additives has increased, and seaweed extracts’ bioactivity has made them suitable candidates for incorporation in novel edible films. This study aims to investigate the effect of Codium tomentosum seaweed extract (SE incorporation in alginate and chitosan edible films. Alginate- and chitosan-based films with and without the incorporation of 0.5% SE were characterized according to their physical, optical, mechanical, and thermal properties. Seaweed extract incorporation in chitosan films resulted in an increase of film solubility (50%, elasticity (18%, and decrease of puncture strength (27% and energy at break (39%. In alginate films, the extract incorporation significantly decreased film solubility (6%, water vapour permeability (46%, and elasticity (24%, and had no effect on thermal properties. Depending on the type of application, the addition of SE in edible films can bring advantages for food conservation.

  13. Crop diversity for yield increase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyun Li

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional farming practices suggest that cultivation of a mixture of crop species in the same field through temporal and spatial management may be advantageous in boosting yields and preventing disease, but evidence from large-scale field testing is limited. Increasing crop diversity through intercropping addresses the problem of increasing land utilization and crop productivity. In collaboration with farmers and extension personnel, we tested intercropping of tobacco, maize, sugarcane, potato, wheat and broad bean--either by relay cropping or by mixing crop species based on differences in their heights, and practiced these patterns on 15,302 hectares in ten counties in Yunnan Province, China. The results of observation plots within these areas showed that some combinations increased crop yields for the same season between 33.2 and 84.7% and reached a land equivalent ratio (LER of between 1.31 and 1.84. This approach can be easily applied in developing countries, which is crucial in face of dwindling arable land and increasing food demand.

  14. Novel approach to inhibit the growth of Aspergilus flavus and aflatoxin production by essential oil edible film

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of edible films as carriers of natural antimicrobials constitutes an approach for external protection of almonds. The films can reduce surface microbial populations and enhance oxygen-barrier in stored almonds. The first phase of this project is to screen for edible films which can inhibit t...

  15. Extension of Shelf Life and Control of Human Pathogens in Produce by Antimicrobial Edible Films and Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides general information about edible films and coatings, and their use with fruits and vegetables to control human pathogens. It reviews potential antimicrobial phytochemicals used in edible films and coatings, and summarizes methods for measuring the antimicrobial activity and ph...

  16. Extending the shelf life of edible flowers with controlled release of 1-methylcyclopropene and modified atmosphere packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible flowers have great sensory appeal, but their extremely short shelf life limits their commercial usage. Postharvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment is used to counter ethylene activity and delay senescence in fresh produce; however its potential application in edible flowers has not bee...

  17. Physical and antibacterial properties of Açaí edible films formulated with thyme essential oil and apple skin polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açaí edible films incorporated with apple skin polyphenols (ASP), thyme essential oil (TEO) or their mixture were developed as antimicrobial active packaging for food preservation. Antimicrobial activity of açaí edible films against Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated. The effects of both antimicro...

  18. Behaviour of radionuclides in soils and their uptake by crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frissel, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The uptake of radionuclides from the soil depends, besides the physiological properties of a plant, for an important part of the adsorptive properties of the soil. If the soil cannot supply water and nutrients to the vegetation, there is no vegetation. But it are exactly the adsorptive properties of a soil which cause the accumulation of many pollutants in a soil. Soils and sediments tend to accumulate all pollutants which may have produced by man or dug up in mines. This is also true for radionuclides. The uptake of radionuclides by vegetation is usually described by so called transfer factors. In fact a transfer factor is not at all a dynamic parameter, it just describes the ratio between the concentration of a radionuclide in -the edible part of- the vegetation and the concentration in the soil. The spread of values of transfer factors is so large that it is impossible to define a 'sufficiently conservative' value that can be used in assessment studies at all times. Such a value should be that high that in most cases it should lead to an over estimate of the radiation dose by a factor of many orders of magnitude. It should invoke precautions which will be almost never justified. In this publication emphasis is on: behaviour of Cs and Sr in soil, on its uptake by food crops and on counter measures which can be applied in case of an accident. (J.P.N.)

  19. Karakteristik Edible Film dari Pati Kentang (Solanum Tuberosum L. dengan Penambahan Gliserol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjamsiah Sjamsiah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Edible film is a thin layer that serve as the packaging or upholstery as well as food that can be eaten with a product. It is packaged and can be degraded by nature. Potato starch can be used as raw material in manufacturing edible film, in which the addition of glycerol is needed as a plasticizer that function to improve the elasticity of the edible film. The goal of the research is to know the influence of glycerol concentration variation against the characteristics of edible film of starch potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. the parameters examined in this study i.e the physical test that includes a test of strong thickness, tensile test and present enlargement, test the solubility and organoleptic. To help figure out the data obtained in the real effect or not, is done using the SPSS Analysis Variant 1 direction or one-way ANOVA. Characteristics of edible film from potato starch with addition of glycerol with a concentration of 20%, 30% and 40% (v/v to the value of the thickness of consecutive 0,058 mm, 0,062 mm and 0,071mm. The value of the tensile strengh i.e 0,75 N/mm2, 0,69 N/mm2 and 0,35 N/mm2. The value obtained by elongation percent 4,96%, 9,04% and 9,51% where as the value of solubility is obtained that is 19%, 21,4% and 34,6%. Application of edible films from potato starch as the packaging on candy jelly can be acceptedas alternative packaging material for food.

  20. U.S. cannabis legalization and use of vaping and edible products among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodovsky, Jacob T; Lee, Dustin C; Crosier, Benjamin S; Gabrielli, Joy L; Sargent, James D; Budney, Alan J

    2017-08-01

    Alternative methods for consuming cannabis (e.g., vaping and edibles) have become more popular in the wake of U.S. cannabis legalization. Specific provisions of legal cannabis laws (LCL) (e.g., dispensary regulations) may impact the likelihood that youth will use alternative methods and the age at which they first try the method - potentially magnifying or mitigating the developmental harms of cannabis use. This study examined associations between LCL provisions and how youth consume cannabis. An online cannabis use survey was distributed using Facebook advertising, and data were collected from 2630 cannabis-using youth (ages 14-18). U.S. states were coded for LCL status and various LCL provisions. Regression analyses tested associations among lifetime use and age of onset of cannabis vaping and edibles and LCL provisions. Longer LCL duration (OR vaping : 2.82, 95% CI: 2.24, 3.55; OR edibles : 3.82, 95% CI: 2.96, 4.94), and higher dispensary density (OR vaping : 2.68, 95% CI: 2.12, 3.38; OR edibles : 3.31, 95% CI: 2.56, 4.26), were related to higher likelihood of trying vaping and edibles. Permitting home cultivation was related to higher likelihood (OR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.50, 2.48) and younger age of onset (β: -0.30, 95% CI: -0.45, -0.15) of edibles. Specific provisions of LCL appear to impact the likelihood, and age at which, youth use alternative methods to consume cannabis. These methods may carry differential risks for initiation and escalation of cannabis use. Understanding associations between LCL provisions and methods of administration can inform the design of effective cannabis regulatory strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. PEMBUATAN DAN KAJIAN SIFAT-SIFAT FISIKOKIMIA, MEKANIKAL, DAN FUNGSIONAL EDIBLE FILM DARI KITOSAN UDANG WINDU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Sofia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop bioplastic as primary packaging or edible film of chitosan biopolymer derived from tiger prawn shells (Penaeus monodon, and to perform physicochemical and mechanical characteristics. An evaluation of the physicochemical properties of plastic films made from chitosan, by modifying the order of the different treatment processes, namely: a DPMA (deproteination, demineralization, deacetylation, b DMKA (demineralization, decoloration, and deacetylation has conducted. The results of scanning FT-IR of the product shows that chitosan has identical spectrum compare of standard compound. Chitosan product from tiger prawn shells was the used as raw material for the manufacture of bioplastics. Experiments variable on the manufacture of edible film is a study of the effect of the use of different plasticizers (glycerol and sorbitol and carboxylmethylcelullose (CMC additives to the physicochemical, mechanical characteristics, and edible film functional. The results showed that all the edible film produced has a clear coat with a thickness between 0.05 to 0.3 mm. Meanwhile, the film density is highest at the DPMA + chitosan edible film sorbitol + CMC with a value of 1.7300 g/cm3. The use of plasticizer sorbitol provides great tensile strength but not too elastic, compared to the glycerol, while an increase in the average CMC can increase tensile strength and %Elongation. The use of different plasticizers and additives CMC does not significantly affect its functional properties, where the value of WVTR (water vapor transmission rate is relatively the same on both types of edible films, ranging from 3.2409 to 4.8858 g /hr.m2.

  2. Biodegradable packaging and edible coating for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Galgano

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on biodegradable packaging and edible coatings applied to fresh-cut fruits and vegetables and their effects on the product quality. Practical applications are mainly limited to the use of biodegradable materials that, however, do not allow full control of the product moisture loss. Better results can be achieved by the combined use of biodegradable packagings with edible coatings and recent research has shown that enrichment with silver montmorillonite nanoparticles may be a promising technique. However, the actual utilization of these materials is still limited, due to the high costs of the raw materials and the limited production.

  3. Radical scavenging potential and DNA damage protection of wild edible mushrooms of Kashmir Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowsheen Shameem

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The edible mushrooms Verpa bohemica and Morchella esculenta are locally used for dietary and antioxidant in tribal areas of Kashmir Himalaya. In the present study, sequences of solvents on the basis of their polarity were used for the extraction from selected mushrooms. The comprehensive antioxidant activity of all edible mushroom extracts was evaluated by seven different methods. V. bohemica exhibited significant inhibitory activity of radicals among all the mushrooms while Morchella extracts protected the DNA damage from OH· radicals. This study provides us the substantiation for the use of these mushrooms as antioxidants besides being already eaten as food.

  4. Natural gums of plant origin as edible coatings for food industry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anuradha; Tyagi, Shvetambri; Gupta, Rajinder K; Tyagi, Yogesh K

    2017-12-01

    Natural plant-based gums and their derivatives are widely utilized in food industries, however, their applications as edible coatings to extend fresh fruits and vegetable shelf-life has been explored recently. These natural polymeric polysaccharides have many advantages as compared to synthetic polymers, because they are biodegradable, nontoxic, economical and easily available in the environment. Natural gums can also be semi synthetically modified to produce derivatives, which can easily compete with the synthetic preservatives available on the food market. In this review, the recent developments in the use of natural gums and their derivatives as edible coatings have been explored and discussed.

  5. Scientific opinion on the evaluation of substances as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    Shipping of edible fats and oils into Europe is permitted in bulk tanks, provided that the previous cargo is included in a positive list. The European Commission requested EFSA to evaluate the acceptability as previous cargoes for fats and oils the substances calcium lignosulphonate, methyl acetate......, ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) and ammonium sulphate. The evaluation was based on the same criteria as those used for the evaluation of the substances currently on the list in the Annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils. Methyl acetate and ETBE meet...

  6. The research of using Co-60 γ ray to sterilize different mediums for edible fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guozhu, Li; Zhenqian, Guan; Hengshou, Zhao

    1993-10-01

    The present experiment has been carried out by using different dosage of Co—60 γ ray for radiation sterilization of five kinds of cultural materials of edible fungus, The results indicated that sterilization dosage of sawdust is 22 kGy. that of cotton—seed shell and the rest are 26 kGy. We conclude that using Co-60 γ ray to sterilize the cultura 1 materials of edible fungus is a secure and saving labor and energy new method which could sterilize thoroughly.

  7. Alternatives to crop residues for soil amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.

  8. African Crop Science Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Crop Science Journal, a quarterly publication, publishes original research papers dealing with all aspects of crop agronomy, production, genetics and breeding, germplasm, crop protection, post harvest systems and utilisation, agro-forestry, crop-animal interactions, ... Scientific Editor: Michael Paul Nampala

  9. Structural analysis of raw and commercial farm edible bird nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, P E; Wong, S F; Lim, P K; Mak, J W

    2014-03-01

    Edible bird nests (EBNs) are consumed worldwide for various health benefits. EBNs are nests built from the saliva of swiftlets of Aerodramus species. The global market for EBNs is on the rise, especially from Hong Kong and mainland China. In the past, EBNs were harvested mainly from natural caves; however in the recent years, there has been a rapid growth of swiftlet farming. Little is known about the actual composition of EBNs except for protein, carbohydrate, ash and lipid contents, amino acids, vitamins and macro/ micronutrients. Besides the biochemical components of EBNs, are there any other structures that are associated with EBNs? This paper reports on the structural analysis of raw unprocessed farm and processed commercial EBNs. The raw EBNs were purchased from swiftlet farms in five locations in Peninsula Malaysia: Kuala Sanglang (Perlis; 6° 16' 0"N, 100° 12' 0"E), Pantai Remis (Perak; 4º 27' 0" N, 100º 38' 0" E), Kluang (Johor; 02º 012 303N 103º 192 583E), Kajang (Selangor; 2º 59' 0"N, 101º 47' 0"E) and Kota Bharu (Kelantan; 6º 8' 0"N, 102º 15' 0"E). The commercial nests were purchased from five different Chinese traditional medicinal shops (Companies A-E). A portion of each EBN was randomly broken into small fragments, attached to carbon tape and coated with gold and palladium particles for examination and photography under a scanning electron microscope. Structural analysis revealed the presence of mites, fungi, bacteria and feather strands on both the raw and commercial nests. Mite eggshells and faecal pellets, and body parts of other arthropods were seen only in the raw nests. The commercial nests had a variety of unidentified structures and substances coated on the nests' surfaces that were not found on the raw nests. The presence of these contaminants may jeopardise the quality of EBNs and pose health risks to consumers. Further identification of the mites and their allergens, fungi and bacteria are on-going and will be reported separately.

  10. KARAKTERISASI KOMPOSIT FILM EDIBLE PEKTIN DAGING BUAH PALA (Myristica fragrans Houtt DAN TAPIOKA [Characterization of Edible Film Composite Made of Pectin from Nutmeg Mesocarp and Tapioca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payung Layuk 1

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to investigate the properties of pectin derived from mesocarp of nutmeg (Mysristica fragrans Houtt and edible film made from the pectin and added tapioca. Pectin was extracted from mesocarp of nutmeg using 0.5% of EDTA at pH 1.5-2, and temperature at 90°C for 1 hour. The first group of edible film was prepared using 1% (w/v of pectin, 1.6% CaCl2, 1% glycerol and various concentration of tapioca (0-2%, w/v. Second group of edible film was prepared using 1% of pectin, 1.6 % CaCl2, 1% glycerol and 2% tapioca and various concentration of palmitic acid (0-0,08 w/v. Physical, mechanical and barrier properties of the films were examined and its capability to reduce weight loss of small pieces of apples during storage was also measured.The result showed that yield of isolated pectin was 20.73% (w/w having methoxyl content 11.43%, and polygalacturonic acid of 79.47%. Proximate analysis showed that protein, ash and water content in the isolated pectin were 7.86, 3.03 and 7.60%, respectively. Characteristics of first group of film showed that the higher concentration of tapioca added resulted in the higher of tensile strength and thickness. Data of the second groups of films showed that addition of palmitic acid up to 0,08% has no effects on tensile strength, thickness, elongation and water vapour transmission rate (WVTR of films. Small piece of apples coated or wrapped with edible film (1% pectin – 1,6% CaCl2-2% tapioca-1% glycerol and 0.04% palmitic acid had lower weight loss and better colour than those of control during storage.

  11. 77 FR 3400 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Peach Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 [Docket No. FCIC-11-0011] RIN 0563-AC34 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Peach Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC) proposes to amend the Common Crop...

  12. 76 FR 32067 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Extra Long Staple Cotton Crop Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... Staple Cotton Crop Insurance Provisions to remove all references to the Daily Spot Cotton Quotation and... Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 RIN 0563-AC27 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Extra Long Staple Cotton Crop... Cotton Crop Insurance Provisions consistent with the Upland Cotton Crop Insurance Provisions. The...

  13. 77 FR 22467 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ...-0006] RIN 0563-AC32 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop... Insurance Corporation (FCIC) finalizes the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar... Common Crop Insurance Regulations (7 CFR part 457), Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions...

  14. 75 FR 52218 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Apple Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... their apple production to the public as fresh apples, without undergoing any change in its basic form... Crop Insurance Regulations; Apple Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation... Crop Insurance Regulations, Apple Crop Insurance Provisions. The intended effect of this action is to...

  15. Use of novel DNA fingerprinting techniques for the detection and characterization of genetic variation in vegetatively propagated crops. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    Vegetative propagated crops, such as banana and platain, sweet potato, yam, sugarcane and cassava, represent important sources of food in the developing countries. Although some of these crops may produce seeds, they must for practical purposes be propagated vegetatively. As normal plant breeding strategies based on genetic hybridization are of limited value or not applicable to such crops, it is necessary to assess the genetic diversity already existing in these crops and to design breeding strategies accordingly. If the existing genetic variation is shown to be too narrow for breeding purposes, one promising possibility for the introduction of genetic variability is the use of mutations induced by radiation or chemical mutagens. This CRP focused on: the detection of genetic diversity induced by mutagenic treatment or in vitro culture; the development of crop-specific markers; and increasing co-operation between molecular biologists in advanced laboratories and plant breeders and molecular biologists in the developing countries. The success of this CRP is evidenced by the introduction and application of new molecular methods by laboratories in developing countries, specially for the analysis of local crop genetic diversity. These exciting preliminary results show the potential for applications in crop improvement but much work remains to be done. Many of the vegetatively propagated species are ''orphan crops'', under-investigated on the international level. The development of new uses of transgenesis for the development of edible vaccines should not be overlooked. The challenge that remains is in the application of these new tools for practical end-user oriented improvements in vegetatively propagated crops. The present publication summarizes the third and final Research Co-ordination Meeting on the Use of Novel DNA Fingerprinting Techniques for the Detection and Characterization of Genetic Variation in Vegetatively Propagated Crops

  16. Automated phenotyping of permanent crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeek, K. Thomas; Steddom, Karl; Zamudio, Joseph; Pant, Paras; Mullenbach, Tyler

    2017-05-01

    AGERpoint is defining a new technology space for the growers' industry by introducing novel applications for sensor technology and data analysis to growers of permanent crops. Serving data to a state-of-the-art analytics engine from a cutting edge sensor platform, a new paradigm in precision agriculture is being developed that allows growers to understand the unique needs of each tree, bush or vine in their operation. Autonomous aerial and terrestrial vehicles equipped with multiple varieties of remote sensing technologies give AGERpoint the ability to measure key morphological and spectral features of permanent crops. This work demonstrates how such phenotypic measurements combined with machine learning algorithms can be used to determine the variety of crops (e.g., almond and pecan trees). This phenotypic and varietal information represents the first step in enabling growers with the ability to tailor their management practices to individual plants and maximize their economic productivity.

  17. Physical and antibacterial properties of edible films formulated with apple skin polyphenolics

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Fruit and vegetables skins have polyphenolic compounds, terpenes, phenols and plant essential oil extracts with antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. These components are GRAS. Edible films made from fruits or vegetables containing apple skin polyphenolics have the potential to be used commercia...

  18. Whey protein isolate edible films with essential oils incorporated to improve the microbial quality of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pan, Idoya; Mendoza, Mauricio; Maté, Juan I

    2013-09-01

    Whey protein isolate edible films with oregano or clove essential oils (EOs) incorporated as natural antimicrobials have been developed, with the aim of enhancing the microbial quality of poultry. The effectiveness of the films was determined against both the whole and selected microbiota developed during different periods of cold storage on the surface of skinless chicken breast. Tests were conducted by using both turbidimetric and agar disc diffusion methods. The antimicrobial edible films developed showed high effectiveness against the main spoilers developed on the surface of skinless chicken breasts cold-stored for 8 days. The films based on oregano EO showed greater effectiveness than those based on clove EO. Still, clove EO could be part of an effective antimicrobial edible film. Enterobacteriaceae was the most susceptible to the effect of the films when lower concentrations of EO were incorporated. The largest inhibition surfaces obtained were provoked by films with the highest concentration of oregano EO incorporated against lactic acid bacteria. The antimicrobial edible films developed in this study inhibited the growth of the microbial populations that developed through storage of the chicken breast and caused its spoilage. The results of this research have direct application in the food industry to enhance the control of the development of spoilers such as Pseudomonas spp. or lactic acid bacteria. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Antimicrobial volatile essential oils in edible films and pouches for produce safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant-derived essential oils (EOs) and oil compounds, with relatively high vapor pressure, have been evaluated at their liquid and gas phases for their ability to protect food against pathogenic bacteria. The evaluation of antimicrobial effectiveness of EOs in edible films can be done by different m...

  20. Antimicrobial edible apple films inactivate antibiotic resistant and susceptible Campylobacter jejuni strains on chicken breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial diarrheal illness worldwide. Many strains are now becoming multi-drug resistant. To help overcome this problem, apple-based edible films containing carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde were evaluated for their effectiveness against antibiotic resistant...

  1. Transglutaminase crosslinked pectin- and chitosan-based edible films: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Raffaele; Mariniello, Loredana; Di Pierro, Prospero; Sorrentino, Angela; Giosafatto, Concetta Valeria L

    2011-03-01

    The production of biodegradable and edible films with desired mechanical characteristics and gas barrier properties represents one of the most advanced challenges in the field of food wrapping and coating. New edible films can serve not only to provide food with physical protection but also to reduce loss of their moisture, to restrict absorption of oxygen, to lessen migration of lipids, to improve their mechanical handling features, and as materials, to apply in direct contact with internal food to realize a multilayer food packaging. Polymers derived from natural products, like carbohydrates and proteins, offer the greatest opportunities as component of edible films since their biodegradability and environmental compatibility are assured and they can also supplement the nutritional value of specific foods. However, excessive water solubility and poor water vapor barrier properties, and often poor mechanical resistance, have their application limited until the present time. Numerous studies have been carried out to improve their properties by preparing composite and multi-component films or by physically and chemically crosslinking their natural components. In the present review we summarize the main results obtained by crosslinking with the enzyme transglutaminase different proteins contained in multi-component pectin- and chitosan-based edible films, having the aim to create environmentally-friendly "bioplastics" with mechanical and permeability properties similar to the ones exhibited by plastics of petrochemical origin.

  2. Physical, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Characteristics of Carboxymethyl Cellulose Edible Film Cooperated with Clove Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Khaksar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC is one of the most common cellulose derivatives. It has many applications such as edible films and coating. Antioxidant and antimicrobial of essential oils and their direct or indirect usage in foods have been investigated. This study focuses on the physical, chemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial characteristics of CMC edible film incorporated with clove essential oils (CEO. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, CMC edible films with or without clove essential oil were prepared by casting method and many characteristics such as thickness, water vapor permeability (WVP, tensile strength, elongation at break, optical characteristics, microstructure, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the films were assessed. Results: Tensile strength values were higher when compared with those of control film (pure CMC film, especially in 1% EO concentration. Elongation at break value in 1% EO was higher than control film, but by increasing of EO portion, it decreased. Antioxidant properties and total phenolic compounds as expected increased in higher concentration of EO. Antimicrobial properties of the films showed that films incorporated with EO are effective against selected pathogen bacteria, especially in the higher concentration of EO. Some variations in the structure of various films were shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Additions of EO into CMC film disrupted condense structure of film and produced a heterogeneous structure. Conclusion: As antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of CEO retain when it used in CMC edible film, it could be beneficial in food packaging to retard of deterioration.

  3. Antibacterial hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose edible films containing nanoemulsions of Thymus daenensis essential oil for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, Roya; Aliahmadi, Atousa; Rafati, Hasan

    2017-11-01

    Edible films containing essential oils (EO) as natural antibacterial agents are promising systems for food preservation. In this work, nanoemulsions of Thymus daenensis EO (wild; F1 and cultivated; F2) were loaded in hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) films and the effect of different parameters (polymer, plasticizer, and EO concentration) on the film properties were analyzed and optimized. Prepared HPMC films were characterized in terms of EO loading, morphology, mechanical properties, and the antibacterial activity. The results of SEM showed uniform incorporation of nanoemulsions into the edible film. Investigation of the mechanical properties of two edible films revealed a plasticizing effect of T. daenensis EO on the films. Also, edible films had noticeable antimicrobial activity against selected microorganisms, i.e. 47.0±2.5mm and 22.6±0.5mm zone of inhibition against S. aureus for films containing F1 and F2, respectively. Incorporation of nanoemulsions into the HPMC films can be used for active food preservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Vitamin A-related potential of wild edible plants in a school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored the potential of promoting edible wild plants as source of vitamin A in a resource-limited rural, South African middle-school (grades 7-9) garden, using a mixed method approach of four parallel sub-studies in the rainy season of 2007. Gardening practices in the surrounding community were determined ...

  5. Edible wild plants of Southern Africa : Data on the nutrient contents of over 300 species

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wehmeyer, AS

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available are not easily bruised; tubers, corms, bulbs and roots present no problems. The underground edible parts must be cleaned thoroughly with a brush under tap water, to remove all traces of sand and soil, and finally washed with distilled water. It is a good...

  6. Effect of Edible Coatings from Aloe vera gel on Citrus sinensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extension of the shelf life of orange fruits continues to be a challenge in Nigeria. The search for safe, healthy and environmental friendly treatments has led to increased interest in research into edible and biodegradable films and coatings. In this work, the use of Aloe vera gel as a coating to extend the shelf-life of orange ...

  7. Fucoxanthin and Its Metabolites in Edible Brown Algae Cultivated in Deep Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanami Mori

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Three metabolites of fucoxanthin were isolated from a brown alga, Scytosiphon lomentaria, and the structure of a new compound was determined by NMR. The content of fucoxanthin, a biologically active carotenoid, in four edible brown algae, cultivated in deep seawater, was studied.

  8. The Effect of Xanthan Gum and Flaxseed Mucilage as Edible Coatings in Cheddar Cheese during Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Soleimani-Rambod

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to investigate the possibility of using xanthan gum and flaxseed mucilage as edible coatings for Cheddar cheese during ripening for 90 days. Five samples of Cheddar cheese blocks were coated with different coating materials in triplicate as follows: Coated with polyvinyl acetate as control (C, coated with 0.5% xanthan gum (XG, coated with 0.75% flaxseed mucilage (FM1, coated with 1% flaxseed mucilage (FM2, and coated with 1.25% flaxseed mucilage (FM3. All samples were kept at 8 ± 2 °C in a cold room for 90 days. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the moisture content of the samples decreased and the protein content increased during the ripening period (P < 0.01. The pH, acidity, fat in dry matter, and TCA-SN/TN of samples were significantly affected by xanthan gum and flaxseed mucilage treatment (P < 0.01. The free fatty acid composition of samples was significantly affected by edible coatings. Edible coatings affected the growth of non-starter lactic acid bacteria and the total mesophilic aerobic bacteria in a non-significant manner (P > 0.01. The growth of starter bacteria was significantly altered under the effect of edible coating materials (P < 0.05. Tyrosine and tryptophan contents as an index of proteolysis, lipolysis, and sensory evaluation of samples were not significantly different.

  9. The edible cocktail: the effect of sugar and alcohol impregnation on the crunchiness of fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.; Peters, M.M.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum impregnation is seen as a valuable technique for flavor pairing in the catering industry. One of the applications of this technique is the creation of edible cocktails by impregnating of fruits with liquors, leading to an interplay of different flavors. However, the effect of the impregnation

  10. Maintaining Quality of Edible Flowers with Controlled Release of 1-Methylcyclopropene and Modified Atmosphere Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postharvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment is used to counter ethylene activity and delay senescence in many fresh produce commodities. This study investigated the effect of 1-MCP treatment with modified atmosphere (MA) packaging on quality maintenance of edible flowers. Freshly harvested ca...

  11. Effect of plant essential oils on Ralstonia solanacearum race 4 causing bacterial wilt of edible ginger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), lemongrass (C. citratus) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) oils were investigated for their effects on Ralstonia solanacearum race 4, and their potential use as bio-fumigants for treating pathogen- infested edible ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) fields. Three conce...

  12. Fucoxanthin and Its Metabolites in Edible Brown Algae Cultivated in Deep Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kanami; Ooi, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masanori; Oka, Naohiro; Hamada, Hideyuki; Tamura, Mitsumasa; Kusumi, Takenori

    2004-01-01

    Three metabolites of fucoxanthin were isolated from a brown alga, Scytosiphon lomentaria, and the structure of a new compound was determined by NMR. The content of fucoxanthin, a biologically active carotenoid, in four edible brown algae, cultivated in deep seawater, was studied.

  13. Effects of Crude Oil and Oil Products on Growth of Some Edible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vegetative growth response of three local edible mushrooms: Pleurotus pulmonarius (Pp), Pleurotus tuber-regium (Pt) and Lentinus squarrosulus (Ls) on different concentrations of Crude oil (COIL), Automotive Gasoline Oil (AGO), Fresh Engine Oil (ENGOIL) and Spent Engine Oil (SENGOIL) was investigated. The result ...

  14. Edible Connections: A Model To Facilitate Citizen Dialogue and Build Community Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Joan S.; Abel, Jennifer L.; Maretzki, Audrey N.

    2001-01-01

    Edible Connections brings together the media, the public, and food system stakeholders to increase awareness and understanding of the local food system, strengthen connections among stakeholders, and address food system problems identified by a given community. Extension educators have successfully used it to educate about food access, hunger,…

  15. determination of the level of some elements in edible oils sold in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    The human body uses oils and fats in the diet as an energy source, as a structural component and to make ... use of these metals as hydrogenation catalyst (Mendil et ... palm oil. The recommended daily intake of copper in adult is 1.5-3.0 mg (Onianwa et al, 2001). The average copper content of edible oil samples in the ...

  16. Evaluation of some edible leaves as potential feed ingredients in aquatic animal nutrition and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Emmanuel Olusola

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential benefits of ten edible leaves (Manihot esculents, cassava leaf; Colocasia esculenta, cocoyam leaf; Talinum triagulare, water leaf; Telfairia occidentalis, fluted pumpkin leaf; Carica papaya, pawpaw leaf; Amaranthus chlorostachys, green leaf; Moringa oleifare, drumstick leaf; Vernonia amygdalina, bitter leaf; Ipomoea batatas, sweet potato leaf and Basella alba, Malabar spinach ‘Amunututu’ to aquatic animal nutrition and health were studied along with proximate, mineral and phytochemical compositions. Results show that theses edible leaves were a good source of protein and the highest crude protein was obtained in C. papaya (32.6% while the lowest in C. esculenta (14.7%. The highest and lowest total ash was found in T. triagulare (34.6% and C. papaya (11% respectively. The result showed that the edible leaves are rich in wide variety of secondary metabolites of phytochemical constituents such as tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides oxalates and phytate which can act against different diseases. Results suggest that inclusion of edible leaves may be nutritionally beneficial and this could promote growth, immune system and enhance disease resistance properties and subsequently very potential to reduce the cost of highly priced supplementary feeds.

  17. Edible gardens in early childhood education settings in Aotearoa, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, A; Richards, R; Collins, C; Reeder, A I; Gray, A

    2013-12-01

    This paper aims to explore the presence and role of edible gardens in Aotearoa/New Zealand Early Childhood Education Services (ECES). Participant ECES providers were identified from the Ministry of Education database of Early Childhood Education Services (March 2009). These include Education and Care and Casual Education and Care, Kindergarten, Home-based Education and Care services, Playcentres, Te Kōhanga Reo. A structured, self-administered questionnaire was sent to the Principal or Head Teacher of the service. Of the 211 ECES that responded (55% response rate), 71% had edible gardens, incorporating vegetables, berry fruit, tree fruit, edible flowers and nut trees. Garden activities were linked with teaching across all strands of the New Zealand early childhood curriculum. In addition, 34% provided guidance on using garden produce and 30% linked the garden with messages on fruit and vegetable consumption. Most gardens were established recently (past 2 years) and relied on financial and non-financial support from parents, teachers and community organisations. Barriers included a lack of funding, space, time and staff support. Study findings suggest that gardens are already being used as a versatile teaching tool in many ECES settings. Most gardens are new, with a need to support the sustainability and workforce development among teachers and parents in order to be able to maintain these resources for future generations. SO WHAT?: Given the inherent links between gardening and healthy food and exercise, there seem to be extensive opportunities for health promotion aligned with the edible garden movement.

  18. Enzyme-Assisted Discovery of Antioxidant Peptides from Edible Marine Invertebrates: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Tsun-Thai; Law, Yew-Chye; Wong, Fai-Chu; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2017-02-16

    Marine invertebrates, such as oysters, mussels, clams, scallop, jellyfishes, squids, prawns, sea cucumbers and sea squirts, are consumed as foods. These edible marine invertebrates are sources of potent bioactive peptides. The last two decades have seen a surge of interest in the discovery of antioxidant peptides from edible marine invertebrates. Enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient strategy commonly used for releasing antioxidant peptides from food proteins. A growing number of antioxidant peptide sequences have been identified from the enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Antioxidant peptides have potential applications in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. In this review, we first give a brief overview of the current state of progress of antioxidant peptide research, with special attention to marine antioxidant peptides. We then focus on 22 investigations which identified 32 antioxidant peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Strategies adopted by various research groups in the purification and identification of the antioxidant peptides will be summarized. Structural characteristic of the peptide sequences in relation to their antioxidant activities will be reviewed. Potential applications of the peptide sequences and future research prospects will also be discussed.

  19. Physicochemical and microstructural properties of a novel edible film synthesized from Balangu seed mucilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Varkani, Atina; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Askari, Gholamreza

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of a novel edible film from Balangu seed mucilage (BSM) as a new carbohydrate source. Optimal formulation of the proposed edible film was found through fabricating several distinct films with different concentrations of BSM and glycerol. The effect of these formulation variables on the physical, mechanical, thermal, barrier, and microstructural properties of the manufactured films was then investigated. Optimal formulation of the BSM edible film was then determined based on the measured mechanical and barrier characteristics. These characteristics were found to deteriorate with an excessive use of glycerol which caused non-homogeneity of the films as observed through scanning electron micrographs. In-depth analysis of the optimal BSM film properties was performed through investigating its oxygen permeability, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and water sorption isotherm. The superior mechanical and barrier characteristics of the obtained optimal BSM edible film make it a potential candidate for packaging that aim at an extended shelf-life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of edible films and coatings to extend the shelf life of food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maftoonazad, Neda; Badii, Fojan

    2009-06-01

    The increased consumer demand for high quality, extended shelf life, ready to eat foods has initiated the development of several innovative techniques to keep their natural and fresh appearance as long as possible and at the same time render them safe. Packaging has been an important element in these preservation concepts for providing the appropriate (mechanical and functional) protection to the commodity. Since synthetic packaging materials contribute to the environmental pollution, edible coatings and packages have been proposed to replace or complement conventional packaging. Biodegradable and edible films and coatings are made from naturally occurring polymers and functional ingredients, and formed on the surface of food products. Edible films and coating have long been known to protect perishable food products from deterioration and reduce quality loss. These films should have acceptable sensory characteristics, appropriate barrier properties (CO(2), O(2), water, oil), microbial, biochemical and physicochemical stability, they should be safe, and be produced by simple technology in low cost. Also they can act as effective carrier for antioxidant, flavor, color, nutritional or anti-microbial additives. Patents on edible films and food products are also discussed in this article.

  1. Lipid technology: Property prediction and process design/analysis in the edible oil and biodiesel industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Díaz Tovar, Carlos Axel; Gani, Rafiqul; Sarup, Bent

    2011-01-01

    In this work some of the property related issues in lipid processing technology employed in edible oil and biodiesel production are highlighted. This includes the identification of the most representative chemical species (acylglycerides, free fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, carotenes, and fatty...

  2. Optimization of liquid culture conditions of Philippine wild edible mushrooms as potential source of bioactive lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    With remarkable bioactivities and delightful taste, mushrooms have been a commercial nutraceutical around the world. Mushrooms are cultivated on solid materials. Here we report the successful cultivation of four Philippine edible mushrooms in liquid medium. This work highlights the optimal liquid cu...

  3. Knowledge and utilization of edible mushrooms by local populations of the rain forest of South Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van J.F.W.; Onguene, N.A.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2003-01-01

    Indigenous knowledge of edible fungi and their utilization by local populations were investigated in southern Cameroon from 1996 to 1999. Some 100 participants from the major ethnic groups, comprising Bantu farmers and Bagyeli (Pygmy) hunter-gatherers, were interviewed. Mushroom usage by 30

  4. Study of heavy metal concentrations in wild edible mushrooms in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Borui; Huang, Qing; Cai, Huajie; Guo, Xiang; Wang, Tingting; Gui, Mingying

    2015-12-01

    Contamination with heavy metals in several species of edible mushrooms from the Yunnan Province in China was determined. Samples were collected from 16 locations in the Yunnan Province, and the contamination levels of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the concentrations of essential elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn) in the mushrooms were at typical levels. The concentrations of potentially toxic metals (As, Pb and Cd) were higher than the national standard values of China (1.0 mg/kg for As, 0.2 mg/kg for Cd, and 2.0 mg/kg for Pb) in most cases. Bio-concentration factors suggested that it was easier for As and Cd to be accumulated in mushrooms than Pb, and a Health Risk Index assessment also suggested that As and Cd are greater risks to health than Pb. In conclusion, heavy metal pollution in wild edible mushrooms is a serious problem in the Yunnan Province. Among the toxic metals, As and Cd in the edible mushrooms in the area are the main sources of risk, as they may cause severe health problems. The local government needs to take measures in the form of concrete policies to protect the wild edible mushroom resources in the Yunnan Province. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular Identification and Characterization of the Edible and Medicinal Morchellaceae Germplasm Collection of "Mulch Morels"

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondřej, V.; Havránek, P.; Kitner, M.; Němcová, Pavla

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2011), s. 369-375 ISSN 1521-9437 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : morels * edible and medicinal fungi * ITS and AFLP analyses Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.895, year: 2011

  6. Comparative study on properties of edible films based on pinhao (Araucaria angustifolia) starch and flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to develop and compare the properties of edible films based on pinhao starch and pinhao flour. Seven formulations were developed by casting methodology: 5% pinhao starch with 0, 1, 1.5, and 2% glycerol, and 5% pinhao flour with 1, 1.5, and 2% glycerol. The films were evalua...

  7. Responses of plasma lipids to edible mushroom diets in albino rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potentials of two tropical edible mushrooms: Pleurtotus tuber-regium and Termitomycetes clypeatus in altering the plasma levels of some lipids in male albino rats fed high fat diets were investigated. Rats were randomly assigned to diet containing 20% fat, P. tuber-regium diet and T. clypeatus diet. Total body weight ...

  8. Edible Wild Plants from Neighborhood to Wilderness: A Catalyst for Experiential Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallas, John

    Wild foods are ubiquitous motivational tools for teaching botany, environmental education, cultural foodways, and survival. Edible wild plants are wild plants endowed with one or more parts that can be used for food if gathered at the appropriate stage of growth and properly prepared. The components of this definition are discussed with…

  9. Content of nutrient and antinutrient in edible flowers of wild plants in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Angela; López-García, Semeí; Basurto-Peña, Francisco

    2007-09-01

    Nutrient and antinutritional/toxic factors present in some edible flowers consumed in Mexico were determined. The edible flowers were: Agave salmiana, Aloe vera, Arbutus xalapensis, Cucurbita pepo (cultivated), Erythrina americana, Erythrina caribaea, Euphorbia radians benth and Yucca filifera. The nutrient content in the flowers studied is similar to that of the edible leaves and flowers studied mainly in Africa. The moisture content of the flowers varied from 860 to 932 g kg(-1). Crude protein (CP) was between 113 to 275 g kg(-1) DM, crude fiber, 104 to 177 g kg(-1) DM and the nitrogen free extract, between 425 to 667 g kg(-1) DM. The highest chemical score (CS) was found in E. americana and A. salmiana; in five samples the limiting amino acid was lysine, and in three of them it was tryptophan. Trypsin inhibitors and hemaglutinnins had a very low concentration. Alkaloids were present in both the Erythrina species and the saponins in A. salmiana and Y. filifera. Cyanogenic glucosides were not found in the studied flowers. The traditional process of preparing these specific flowers before consumption is by cooking them and discarding the broth; in this way the toxic substances are diminished or eliminated. These edible flowers from wild plants consumed in local areas of the country play an important role in the diet of the people at least during the short time of the season where they are blooming.

  10. Evaluation of edible ginger and turmeric cultivars for root-knot nematode resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible ginger and turmeric roots are important agricultural commodities for the State of Hawaii. Bacterial wilt, Ralstonia solanacearum, and root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. are major factors hindering optimum production. An evaluation of tolerance and resistance to M. incognita was undertake...

  11. Screening edible ginger and turmeric cultivars for resistance to root-knot nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-two edible ginger and turmeric cultivars were screened for resistance or tolerance to Meloidogyne incognita. Plants were raised in 66 L grow bags in greenhouses in Hawaii according to established practices for producing bacterial wilt-free ginger. Three months after planting, each grow bag ...

  12. The world in a box? Food security, edible insects, and "One World, One Health" collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yates-Doerr, E.

    2015-01-01

    Scientists in the Netherlands are cultivating edible insects to address concerns of international food security. Committed to the One World, One Health (OWOH) movement, their research aims to create a safe and effective global solution to the conjoined problems of climate change and an increasing

  13. Assessment of Preference for Edible and Leisure Items in Individuals with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Javier Virues; Iwata, Brian A.; Nogales-Gonzalez, Celia; Frades, Belen

    2012-01-01

    We conducted 2 studies on reinforcer preference in patients with dementia. Results of preference assessments yielded differential selections by 14 participants. Unlike prior studies with individuals with intellectual disabilities, all participants showed a noticeable preference for leisure items over edible items. Results of a subsequent analysis…

  14. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants of Iğdır Province (East Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernaz Altundağ Çakır

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Iğdır Province is situated in the Eastern Anatolian Region of Turkey. Wild edible plants and their utilization methods have not been previously documented there. This study was conducted during an ethnobotanical survey of Iğdır Province from 2007 to 2012, in the period from May to October, when plants were in their flowering and fruiting periods. There were 210 interviews carried out in 78 villages. This study provides information about 154 wild plant taxa belonging to 27 families that have been used as foodstuffs, spices, or hot drinks. Seventeen wild edible plants were recorded for the first time during this study. Eight endemic species were reported as used for their edibility, and new local names for plants were also recorded. The cultural importance index was calculated for each taxon. The most culturally important species are Mentha longifolia, Falcaria vulgaris, Polygonum aviculare, Rosa canina, Crataegus azarolus, Capsella bursa-pastoris, and Malus sylvestris. This study presents the richest heritage in terms of the diversity of wild edible plants ever recorded in Turkey.

  15. New product trial, use of edibles, and unexpected highs among marijuana and hashish users in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jane A; Davis, Kevin C; Duke, Jennifer C; Nonnemaker, James M; Bradfield, Brian R; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the relationships between trial of new marijuana or hashish products and unexpected highs, and use of edible products and unexpected highs. We conducted an online survey of 634 adult, past-year marijuana users in Colorado. We used logistic regression models to examine the relationship between new product trial or edible use and unexpected highs. In the first year that recreational marijuana was legal in Colorado, 71.4% of respondents tried a new marijuana or hashish product, and 53.6% used an edible product. Trial of new products was associated with greater odds of experiencing an unexpected high after controlling for age, gender, education, mental health status, current marijuana or hashish use, and mean amount of marijuana or hashish consumed in the past month (OR=2.13, pmarijuana or hashish products, or use edible marijuana or hashish products, are at greater risk for an unexpected high. It is possible that some negative outcomes associated with marijuana use and unexpected highs may be averted through a better understanding of how to use product packaging to communicate with consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cyanide profiles of some Nigerian edible mushrooms in the raw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slices of eight species of Nigerian edible mushrooms, namely, Volvorella vulvacaea, Marasmius spp., Coprinus comatus, Pleurotus squarulotus, Pleurotus ostreatus, Schizophyllum commune, Rigidiporus lignosus and Ganaderma oregonense were analysed for free and bound (glycosidic) cyanide in the raw state as well as ...

  17. Study on the Diversity and Use of Wild Edible Plants in Bullen District Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariku Berihun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to document the use and conservation of wild edible plants in Bullen district, northwestern Ethiopia. Data was collected through semistructured interview and focus group discussions. The collected data was analyzed through direct matrix ranking, pairwise ranking, and priority ranking methods. In this study, a total of 77 wild edible plant species were identified. Of these plants, trees account for 35.5% followed by shrubs (31.1%. Fruits were the most harvested parts (59.7% followed by leaves (12.9%, roots and tubers (3.8%, and rhizomes (2.5%. These plants are consumed either raw (57.1% and/or cooked (17%; most are collected by women (62.5% and children (20.8%, but the participation of men is stumpy (4.2%. According to pairwise ranking analysis, fruits of Vitex doniana and the leaves of Portulaca quadrifida are the most preferred plant species because of their sweet taste. However, some of the plants have side effects causing abdominal pain, diarrhea, and constipation. Although religion and cultural norms and values play an important role in the conservation of wild edible plants, population pressure and its associated impacts contributed much to the disappearance of these plants. Thus, community participation is the suggested solution for the conservation and sustainable use of the wild edible plants in the study area.

  18. Modification of (Dioscorea alata l starch with propylene oxide to make edible film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miksusanti Miksusanti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The research about modification uwi starch (Dioscorea alata L by using propylene oxide has been done. Concentration of propylene oxide were 6%(v/w, 8%(v/w, and 10%(v/w. The amilograf parameter after modification were characteristic breakdown viscosity 43 BU and setback viscosity 975 BU. The modification starch has edible properties according to FDA (food and drug administration which have degree of modification < 7%, degree of substitution < 0,1 and propylene oxide concentration < 10%(v/w. The best propylene oxide in making of edible film was 8 %( v/w. The starch control can be made into edible film with thickness 0,136 mm, tensile strength 20,4605 MPa and elongation 22%. Modification starch of uwi can be made into edible film with thickness 0,146 mm, tensile strength 25, 3521 Mpa, elongation 30% and water vapor transmission 7, 2651 g/m2/24 hours. FTIR characterization of uwi starch showed the occurrence of hydroxypropylation. The peak spectrum at 2900 cm-1 showed bonding of C-H from methyl group, which is characteristic for modification starch with hydroxypropyl. Characterization with scanning electron microscopy showed that modification of uwi starch has turned the granule of starch to be fully swallon.

  19. Business opportunities and food safety of the Myanmar edible oil sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Biersteker, J.; Hagedoorn, L.F.; Louisse, J.

    2014-01-01

    This report analyses the business opportunities of the oilseed and edible oil sector in Myanmar as well as the food safety control system. Myanmar is a significant producer of oilseed specialities. It is world’s largest producer of sesame seeds, ranks on the sixth position for groundnut production

  20. Small-scale edible oil milling operations: Alternative business models for Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sertse, Y.; Ruijter de Wildt, de M.J.M.; Dijkxhoorn, Y.; Danse, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    The Ethiopian government is aiming to achieve self-sufficiency in edible oil by 2015. The aim of this research was to develop sustainable business models for millers, increase their competitiveness, and enhance food safety and security in Ethiopia within the changing policy context.