WorldWideScience

Sample records for reseaux perinatals poitou-charentes

  1. [Potential role of winter rape weeds in the extension of broomrape in Poitou-Charentes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibot-Leclerc, Stéphanie; Brault, Marianne; Pinochet, Xavier; Sallé, Georges

    2003-07-01

    In the Poitou-Charentes district, among the 82 species of winter rape weeds identified, 22 displayed a strong affinity for this crop (Brassica napus L.). In fields, 50% of these weeds were parasitized by Orobanche ramosa, playing the role of host plants. Greenhouse co-cultures (weed/Orobanche ramosa) showed that weeds non-parasitized in fields could be attacked by broomrape, developing a more or less complete cycle. In vitro co-cultures (weed/Orobanche ramosa) revealed that root exudates of non-parasitized weeds, in fields or in greenhouse co-cultures, could induce Orobanche ramosa seed germination, but not attachment. These weeds could play the role of false hosts.

  2. Management of Graves' disease during pregnancy in the Poitou-Charentes Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, Claire; Sarreau, Mélie; Bernardin, Marc; Delcourt, Anne-Christine; Muller, Anne; Lefort, Guy; Pernollet, Patrice; Marechaud, Richard

    2016-10-01

    Graves' disease (GD) during pregnancy involves risks for the mother, foetus and neonate. To compile an inventory of the clinical practices regarding the management of GD during pregnancy in the Poitou-Charentes region of France. This was a retrospective, multicentre study covering the period 2005 to 2012. Ninety-five pregnancies were reviewed: 14 GD diagnosed during pregnancy, 24 GD already treated with synthetic antithyroid drugs (SAT) prior to pregnancy, 25 GD in remission before pregnancy and 32 GD who had undergone thyroidectomy prior to pregnancy. In patients under SAT and/or with TSH receptor antibody levels (TRAb)>3N at the 2nd (T2) and/or 3rd trimester (T3) of pregnancy, a foetal thyroid ultrasound (FTU) was performed in 18/32 cases and neonatal thyroid screening (NTS) in 14/20 cases. One case of foetal hyperthyroidism, two of neonatal hyperthyroidism and three of foetal hypothyroidism (including one neonatal hypothyroidism) were observed. Propylthiouracil was the preferred treatment prescribed, whatever the trimester. A congenital malformation was observed in 4/19 foetuses exposed to carbimazole during the 1st trimester (T1). In operated patients, TSH levels were>2.5mIU/L during T1 in 23/32 cases, while TRAb were not assayed during pregnancy in 12/32 cases. The management of GD during pregnancy could be improved by adjusting SAT therapy during its course, titrating levothyroxine prior to conception and in early pregnancy in thyroidectomised patients, and a more targeted use of FTU during T2 and T3 and of neonatal thyroid screening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. [Do general practitioners in Geneva (Switzerland) and Poitou-Charentes (France) have different approach to the management of addictions?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoli, Romain; Haller, Dagmar M; Ingrand, Pierre; Binder, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Addiction care is mostly provided by general practitioners (GPs) but the extent of their involvement is variable. Is this related to different training or practice contexts or to awareness campaigns? To study GPs' views and behaviours in relation to addiction patients in different practice and training contexts and different levels of exposure to awareness campaigns. Cross-sectional postal survey involving 526 GPs from the canton of Geneva, Switzerland, sensitized by specific addiction care campaigns, compared to 628 GPs from two rural Departments of Poitou-Charentes, France, not exposed to this type of awareness campaign. The response rate was 46% in Switzerland and 41% in France. The 243 responding GPs in Geneva saw as many patients with tobacco, alcohol, cannabis or opiate addiction as the 256 GPs in Poitou-Charentes. They shared similar views concerning their roles in relation to these addictions. Compared to Swiss GPs, a significantly higher number of French GPs provided first-line care for tobacco addiction. In both countries, care for addiction to other substances was mostly provided in collaboration with a specialist (>75% of cases). GPs in Geneva attributed greater importance to screening and recording of substance use. They were also more involved in training and in providing brief advice and expressed interest in the network. Awareness campaigns in Geneva could explain these differences. Sensitization of GPs to these issues may contribute to modifying certain professional attitudes, regardless of the context.

  4. Tuberculosis perinatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Sáenz-Gómez

    2015-01-01

    Conclusiones: La infección perinatal debe sospecharse en niños con sepsis o neumonía sin respuesta a antibióticos. En este caso, el antecedente de la madre con tuberculosis orientó al diagnóstico.

  5. Percolation dans des reseaux realistes de nanostructures de carbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneau, Louis-Philippe

    versatility in the choice of network components that can be simulated. The tools we have developed, grouped together in the RPH-HPN software Reseaux percolatifs hybrides - Hybrid Percolation Networks, construct random networks, detect contact between the tubes, translate the systems to equivalent electrical circuits and calculate global properties. An infinity of networks can have the same basic characteristics (size, diameter, etc.) and therefore the properties of a particular random network are not necessarily representative of the average properties of all networks. To obtain those general properties, we simulate a large number of random networks with the same basic characteristics and the average of the quantities is determined. The network constituent elements can be spheres, rods or snakes. The use of such geometries for network elements makes contact detection simple and quick, and more faithfully reproduce the form of carbon nanotubes. We closely monitor the geometrical and electrical properties of these elements through stochastic distributions of our choice. We can choose the length, diameter, orientation, chirality, tortuosity and impenetrable nature of the elements in order to properly reproduce real networks characteristics. We have considered statistical distribution functions that are rectangular, Gaussian, and Lorentzian, but all other distributions that can be expressed mathematically can also be envisioned. During the creation of a particular network, we generate the elements one by one. Each of their properties is sampled from a preselected distribution. Efficient algorithms used in various fields were adapted to our needs to manage the detection of contacts, clusters and percolation. In addition, we model more realistic contact between rigid nanotubes using an original method used to create the network that does not require a relaxation phase. Finally, we use Kirchhoff's laws to solve the equivalent electrical circuit conventionally. First, we evaluated

  6. Perinatal and Childhood Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology, risk factors, outcome and prognosis of perinatal and childhood stroke were reviewed at a workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke in Bethesda, MD, on Sept 18 and 19, 2000.

  7. Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-26

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Steve Nesheim discusses perinatal HIV transmission, including the importance of preventing HIV among women, preconception care, and timely HIV testing of the mother. Dr. Nesheim also introduces the revised curriculum Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission intended for faculty of OB/GYN and pediatric residents and nurse midwifery students.  Created: 11/26/2012 by Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 11/26/2012.

  8. Pregnancy & perinatal transmission update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denison, R

    1998-09-01

    According to a June 1998 report from UNAIDS, the majority of children infected with HIV acquired it from their mothers during or near birth. One way to prevent perinatal transmission of HIV is to increase prevention efforts for women. Other ways to prevent perinatal transmission include using AZT treatment, avoiding breastfeeding, and choosing a C-section delivery instead of a vaginal delivery. One important study, called the Thai study, promoted a shorter course of AZT therapy that was less expensive, more accessible, and still prevented transmission in many cases. Several reasons are cited for why some women continue breastfeeding, despite the increased risk of transmitting HIV to their babies. An important factor in preventing perinatal transmission is the overall health of the mother, and her ability to maintain her health and treatment regimen while caring for a newborn.

  9. Ethics in Perinatal Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-16

    Mar 16, 2016 ... ORIGINAL. Niger J Paediatr 2016; 43 (3): 221 –228. Adinma JIB. Ethics in Perinatal Medicine .... subscribes to the resolution of issues on the basis of their merit rather than on a resort to universal rules. Virtue ... developed as a consensus resolution of the various bio- ethical orientations together with the ...

  10. Perinatal psychiatric episodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Maegbaek, M L; Johannsen, B M

    2016-01-01

    and childbirth, which suggests differences in the underlying etiology. We further speculate varying treatment incidence and prevalence in pregnancy vs postpartum may indicate that the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 peripartum specifier not adequately describes at-risk periods......Perinatal psychiatric episodes comprise various disorders and symptom severity, which are diagnosed and treated in multiple treatment settings. To date, no studies have quantified the incidence and prevalence of perinatal psychiatric episodes treated in primary and secondary care, which we aimed...... psychiatric facilities, 2.5 births were followed by an episode treated at outpatient psychiatric facility and 12 births by GP-provided pharmacological treatment. We interpret our results the following way: treated severe and moderate psychiatric disorders have different risk patterns in relation to pregnancy...

  11. Perinatal risk factors for strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype.......Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype....

  12. How an extended perinatal audit may improve perinatal policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehaene, Isabelle; Roelens, Kristien; Page, Geert

    2014-09-29

    Abstract Objective: A perinatal audit has the intention of quality of care improvement based on analysis of perinatal death, with our without analysis of maternal morbidity and/or mortality. Additional analysis of cases of intrapartum asphyxia could provide more insight into ways to improve quality of perinatal care. Methods: Analysis of cases of perinatal death and asphyxia in Jan Yperman Hospital, Ieper, Belgium, in 2012. Results: Three perinatal deaths occurred, none were preventable. Nineteen cases of proven metabolic acidosis have been identified. Three cases are considered possibly preventable, four cases are considered preventable. In three (possibly) preventable cases, foetal monitoring was absent during the active second stage of labour. In two preventable cases, intervention following a significant ST event in the second stage of labour was delayed. In one case intervention was delayed in the first stage of labour, while in another, indicated operative delivery in the second stage was not conducted. Conclusions: Integrating intrapartum asphyxia in the perinatal audit gives an opportunity to identify and eliminate weak points in the perinatal care chain, thereby optimizing quality of care. Lessons learned from our internal audit are the value of foetal monitoring and adequate action on significant ST events during second stage of labour.

  13. Perinatal outcomes of idiopathic polyhydramnios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Salih; Kanmaz, Ahkam Göksel; Kahraman, Korhan; Kurtay, Gülay

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the perinatal outcomes of cases with idiopathic polyhydramnios. Study Design Retrospective analysis of 160 singleton pregnancies that were under routine surveillance at the department of obstetrics from 2008 to 2010 was performed to assess perinatal outcomes. Finally, 59 cases were included as idiopathic polyhydramnios, and 101 cases were included as controls. Preterm delivery (4000 g), 1- and 5-min APGAR scores polyhydramnios group compared with the control group. Conclusion Although perinatal outcomes are conflicting in literature, idiopathic polyhydramnios warrants close surveillance especially near term. PMID:24265884

  14. Perinatal health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, A M

    1993-01-01

    In developing countries, child mortality declined during the 1980s, but neonatal mortality did not improve. Ministries of Health do not consider reduction of early neonatal mortality to be a priority. Underreporting of perinatal deaths is common (e.g., at least 40% of perinatal deaths). Researchers sometimes categorize perinatal deaths as other causes of infant mortality. Many people believe too technological or costly interventions are needed to reduce perinatal mortality, but simple, low-cost principles of newborn care do exist: keep the newborn warm, feed often, avoid infection, and keep the newborn close to the mother. A study in Zimbabwe shows that asphyxia, a preventable condition, occurred in 76% of cases. Prenatal care; education; improved treatment of syphilis, hypertension, diabetes, and amniotic fluid infection; closer monitoring of the fetal condition during labor; and proper management of abnormal labor would reduce perinatal deaths. Premature infants are at greater risk of death than are intrauterine growth retarded infants. Research is needed to learn more about the epidemiology, causes,, and sequelae of asphyxia as well as the most cost-effective interventions. 38% of newborns at a hospital in Kathmandu had mild or moderate hypoglycemia, 44% of whom experienced at least 3 hypoglycemic episodes in the first 2 days. Known hypoglycemic risk factors are low birth weight and hypothermia. Possible hypoglycemic risk factors are prelactal feeds and a delay in beginning breast feeding. Effective perinatal health care in developing countries requires a tired system of referral and a motivated community health worker trained to manage safe delivery and newborn care. Unfriendly staff and user charges are obstacles to primary perinatal health care, however. UNICEF's Baby Friendly Hospital initiative aims to stop distribution of free infant formula in maternity wards and to improve perinatal care.

  15. [Training for nurse coordinators in nursing homes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jean-René

    2016-01-01

    For the last three years, the Poitou-Charentes regional health agency has organised and funded training for nurse coordinators in nursing homes. The training programme, created in partnership with the Poitiers healthcare manager training institute, enables professionals with multiple responsibilities and missions, who deserve greater recognition, to acquire the necessary skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. The Dutch Perinatal Audit Project : a feasibility study for nationwide perinatal audit in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Reu, Paul; Van Diem, Mariet; Eskes, Martine; Oosterbaan, Herman; Smits, Luc; Merkus, Hans; Nijhuis, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the feasibility of nationwide perinatal mortality audits in the Netherlands. Study design. Over a one-year period, data for all cases of perinatal mortality were collected. Six perinatal audit panels of professionals within perinatal care investigated and classified causes

  17. [Perinatal sources of stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorska-Jasiulewicz, Magdalena Maria; Witkowska-Zimny, Małgorzata

    2015-03-08

    Recently, stem cell biology has become an interesting topic. Several varieties of human stem cells have been isolated and identified in vivo and in vitro. Successful application of hematopoietic stem cells in hematology has led to the search for other sources of stem cells and expanding the scale of their application. Perinatal stem cells are a versatile cell population, and they are interesting for both scientific and practical objectives. Stem cells from perinatal tissue may be particularly useful in the clinic for autologous transplantation for fetuses and newborns, and after banking in later stages of life, as well as for in utero transplantation in the case of genetic disorders. In this review paper we focus on the extraction and therapeutic potential of stem cells derived from perinatal tissues such as the placenta, the amnion, amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood and Wharton's jelly.

  18. Les reseaux de politique publique comme facteur d'influence du choix des instruments de politique energetique canadienne a des fins environnementales de 1993 a nos jours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathy El Dessouky, Naglaa

    Au cours de la derniere decennie, les modes de la gouvernance ont pris place dans un contexte totalement different de celui qu'ils avaient auparavant. Les gouvernements modernes se rendent compte qu'ils perdent de plus en plus leur capacite a elaborer et a gerer les changements d'une maniere autonome. Ainsi, les fonctions et les activites traditionnellement accomplies exclusivement par le gouvernement engagent de nos jours une gamme d'acteurs etatiques et non etatiques. A l'encontre du concept traditionnel de l'Etat controleur, la gouvernance contemporaine est ainsi devenue moins une question d'offre de service et davantage une gestion indirecte des reseaux de politique publique. Dans cette entreprise, les gouvernements contemporains, cherchant plus d'information, de soutien et de legitimite en matiere de formulation des decisions, ont besoin d'etablir des relations avec les divers groupes d'interet qui, a leur tour, voulaient plus de promotion et de protection en faveur de leurs interets a travers leur implication au processus de l'elaboration et de la mise en oeuvre des politiques publiques. Ainsi, l'approche des reseaux de politique publique represente aujourd'hui un courant considerable au sein du champ d'analyse des politiques publiques. Toutefois, les preoccupations des chercheurs pour cette approche, dans le domaine des politiques energetiques a des fins environnementales, semblent recentes, et les etudes realisees sont encore trop peu nombreuses. Au Canada, au debut des annees 1990, le gouvernement ainsi que plusieurs groupes d'interets, des differents secteurs energetique, industriel et environnemental, ont commence a intensifier leurs efforts pour s'attaquer au probleme du changement climatique d'origine energetique, genere surtout par le secteur de l'industrie. Au cours de la derniere decennie, la question touchant plutot le sujet du developpement energetique durable represente le plus important domaine des politiques publiques ayant surgi recemment dans

  19. MRI of perinatal brain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Mary; Allsop, Joanna [Imperial College, Robert Steiner MR Unit, Perinatal Imaging, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Martinez Biarge, Miriam [La Paz University Hospital, Dept of Neonatology, Madrid (Spain); Counsell, Serena [Imperial College, Robert Steiner MR Unit, Neonatal Medicine, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Cowan, Frances [Imperial College, Dept of Paediatrics, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    MRI is invaluable in assessing the neonatal brain following suspected perinatal injury. Good quality imaging requires adaptations to both the hardware and the sequences used for adults or older children. The perinatal and postnatal details often predict the pattern of lesions sustained and should be available to aid interpretation of the imaging findings. Perinatal lesions, the pattern of which can predict neurodevelopmental outcome, are at their most obvious on conventional imaging between 1 and 2 weeks from birth. Very early imaging during the first week may be useful to make management decisions in ventilated neonates but brain abnormalities may still be subtle using conventional sequences. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is very useful for the early identification of ischaemic tissue in the neonatal brain but may underestimate the final extent of injury, particularly basal ganglia and thalamic lesions. MR imaging is an excellent predictor of outcome following perinatal brain injury and can therefore be used as a biomarker in interventional trials designed to reduce injury and improve neurodevelopmental outcome. (orig.)

  20. Perinatal Outcome in Idiopathic Polyhydramnios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallar, Meenakshi; Anam Ul Haq; Nandal, Rajesh

    2015-10-01

    To study perinatal outcome in idiopathic polyhydramnios. Case-control study was conducted in 500 pregnant women with idiopathic polyhydramnios (study group) and 500 normal pregnant women (control group) attending the outpatient department of SHKM Medical College, Haryana. Perinatal outcomes were recorded in both the groups. Out of 500 cases with idiopathic polyhydramnios, maximum cases were diagnosed between 28 and 36 weeks of pregnancy (84.6 %), and maximum presented with mild polyhydramnios (82 %). In the study and control groups, there were no statistically significant differences in preeclampsia and gestational hypertension (p = 0.445 and p = 0.230). In the study and control groups, 74.6 and 79.6 % women, respectively, had normal vaginal delivery (p = 0.250). The study group recorded much higher number of preterm deliveries than the control group (54 %) (p = 0.000). In the study group, 51.8 % women had maternal complications, while in the control group, 13.6 % women had obstetrical complications. The study group recorded higher perinatal mortality (10.4 %) than the control group. Idiopathic polyhydramnios is associated with higher perinatal morbidity and mortality than normal pregnancy.

  1. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO PERINATAL MORTALITY : OPTIMIZING OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the various causes of perinatal deaths and adopt strategies to improve perinatal outcome at a referral teaching hospital in North Kerala. METHODS: A prospective observational study conducted at Institute of Maternal and Child Health, Government Medical College, Kozhikode. All perinatal deaths during the period January 2013 to December 2014 were analysed and from this factors responsible for perinatal deaths were identified. RESULTS: Out of total 30,042 deliveries , there were 966 perinatal deaths during the study period. 566 were still births and 400 early neonatal deaths. The perinatal mortality rate was 31.1 per 1000 live births. Perinatal asphyxia was the major cause of perinatal mortality. The important factors contributing to perinatal asphyxia were prematurity (39%, abruptio placenta (19% and MSAF ( 12%. Among the antenatal factors, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy leading to iatrogenic elective preterm delivery were the most important. CONCLUSION: Perinatal asphyxia due to prematurity and low birth weight emerged as the most important cause of perinatal mortality in this study and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were the most important antenatal complication leading to prematurity

  2. Perinatal taurine exposure affects adult oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerdweeraphon, Wichaporn; Wyss, James Michael; Boonmars, Thidarut; Roysommuti, Sanya

    2013-07-15

    Perinatal exposure to taurine (a β-amino acid) can alter adult physiological functions, including arterial pressure, hormonal and renal functions. Whereas perinatal taurine supplementation appears to have only minor effects on adult physiology, perinatal taurine depletion is associated with multiple adverse health effects, especially in animals postnatally exposed to other insults. New studies indicate that the mechanism for many of the physiological effects of taurine is related to the antioxidant activity of taurine. Thus the perinatal taurine depletion leads to oxidative stress in adult animals. It is likely that perinatal taurine depletion increases oxidative stress throughout life and that the early life taurine depletion leads to perinatal, epigenetic programming that impacts adult physiological function.

  3. Determinants of perinatal mortality in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawole, Adeniran O; Shah, Archana; Tongo, Olukemi; Dara, Kabir; El-Ladan, Aliyu M; Umezulike, Augustine C; Alu, Frank E; Eniayewun, Ademuyiwa B; Fabanwo, Adetokunbo O; Adewunmi, Adeniyi A; Adegbola, Omololu; Adebayo, Amos A; Obaitan, Felix O; Onala, Olanrewaju E; Usman, Yalwa; Sullayman, Abdulkareem O; Kailani, Sikiratu; Sa'id, Mohammed

    2011-07-01

    To determine risk factors for perinatal mortality among hospital-based deliveries in Nigeria. The WHO Global Maternal and Perinatal Health Survey was implemented in Nigeria as a first step in establishing a global system for monitoring maternal and perinatal health. Twenty-one health facilities with more than 1000 deliveries annually were selected by a stratified multistage cluster sampling strategy. Information was recorded on all women who delivered and their neonates within a 3-month period. Overall, there were 9208 deliveries, comprising 8526 live births, 369 fresh stillbirths, 282 macerated stillbirths, 70 early neonatal deaths, and 721 perinatal deaths. The stillbirth and perinatal mortality rates were, respectively, 71 and 78 per 1000 deliveries; the early neonatal death rate was 8 per 1000 live births. Approximately 10% of all newborns weighed less than 2500 g, and 12.3% were born at less than 37 weeks of gestation. Predictors of perinatal mortality were mother's age, lack of prenatal care, unbooked status, prematurity, and birth asphyxia. The perinatal mortality rate remains unacceptably high in Nigeria. Fresh stillbirth accounted for most perinatal deaths. Interventions to improve the utilization and quality of prenatal care, in addition to the quality of intrapartum care, would considerably reduce perinatal death. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Ethical issues in perinatal genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2011-04-01

    Ethics is an essential dimension of perinatal genetics. This article introduces perinatologists to the ethical principles of beneficence and respect for autonomy and uses these ethical principles to articulate the ethical concept of the fetus as a patient. Together these constitute an ethical framework that we apply to risk assessment, in response to which women may be divided into four groups: prenatal genetic counseling, and the responsible management of pregnancies complicated by genetic anomalies of the fetus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Value of the perinatal autopsy : Critique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, SJ; Erwich, JJHM; Khong, TY

    2002-01-01

    In consenting to a perinatal autopsy, the primary motive of parents may be to find the exact cause of death. A critical review on the value of perinatal autopsies was performed to see whether parents could be counseled regarding their main motive. A literature search was performed in MEDLINE,

  6. Maternal Weight Gain Biosocial Characteristics And Perinatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two perinatal deaths occurred, with a perinatal mortality rate of 9.52/ 1000.Their mother's weight gains were not attributable to the deaths. Conclusion The study has shown that parity and social class significantly affect maternal weight gain in pregnancy. Even though the mean weight gain in this study was 8.58 ± 3.61kg, ...

  7. Perinatal safety: from concept to nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyndon, Audrey; Kennedy, Holly Powell

    2010-01-01

    Communication and teamwork problems are leading causes of documented preventable adverse outcomes in perinatal care. An essential component of perinatal safety is the organizational culture in which clinicians work. Clinicians' individual and collective authority to question the plan of care and take action to change the direction of a clinical situation in the patient's best interest can be viewed as their "agency for safety." However, collective agency for safety and commitment to support nurses in their role of advocacy is missing in many perinatal care settings. This article draws from Organizational Accident Theory, High Reliability Theory, and Symbolic Interactionism to describe the nurse's role in maintaining safety during labor and birth in acute care settings and suggests actions for supporting the perinatal nurse at individual, group, and systems levels to achieve maximum safety in perinatal care.

  8. Mortality in mothers after perinatal loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtjørn, D; Wu, C; Schendel, D

    2016-01-01

    included in the cohort at time of their first delivery from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2008 and followed until 31 December 2009 or death, whichever came first. METHODS: The association between perinatal loss and total and cause-specific mortality in mothers was estimated with hazard ratios (HR) and 95...... a perinatal loss. During follow-up, 8883 mothers (1.06%) died. There was an increased overall mortality for mothers who experienced a perinatal loss adjusted for maternal age and educational level, hazard ratio (HR) 1.83 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.55-2.17]. The strongest association was seen in mortality...... from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) with an HR of 2.29 (95% CI 1.48-3.52) adjusted for CVD at time of delivery. We found no association between a perinatal loss and mortality from traumatic causes. CONCLUSIONS: Mothers who experience a perinatal loss have an increased mortality, especially from CVD....

  9. Perinatal Safety: From Concept to Nursing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Holly Powell

    2010-01-01

    Communication and teamwork problems are leading causes of documented preventable adverse outcomes in perinatal care. An essential component of perinatal safety is the organizational culture in which clinicians work. Clinicians’ individual and collective authority to question the plan of care and take action to change the direction of a clinical situation in the patient’s best interest can be viewed as their “agency for safety.” However, collective agency for safety and commitment to support nurses in their advocacy role is missing in many perinatal care settings. This paper draws from Organizational Accident Theory, High Reliability Theory, and Symbolic Interactionism to describe the nurse’s role in maintaining safety during labor and birth in acute care settings, and suggests actions for supporting the perinatal nurse at individual, group, and systems levels to achieve maximum safety in perinatal care. PMID:20147827

  10. Trends in perinatal health after assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Gissler, M.; Skjaerven, R.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTIONS Has the perinatal outcome of children conceived after assisted reproductive technology (ART) improved over time? SUMMARY ANSWER The perinatal outcomes in children born after ART have improved over the last 20 years, mainly due to the reduction of multiple births. WHAT IS KNOWN...... with ART outcome and health data from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. PARTICIPANTS, SETTING AND METHODS We analysed the perinatal outcome of 62 379 ART singletons and 29 758 ART twins, born from 1988 to 2007 in four Nordic countries. The ART singletons were compared with a control group of 362 215...... spontaneously conceived singletons. Twins conceived after ART were compared with all spontaneously conceived twins (n = 122 763) born in the Nordic countries during the study period. The rates of several adverse perinatal outcomes were stratified into the time periods: 1988–1992; 1993–1997; 1998–2002 and 2003...

  11. Prevention of perinatal loss: towards personalized medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Medvedev M.V.; Davydova Iu.V.

    2016-01-01

    The literature review on the prevention of preterm labor is carried out. Preterm labor is the actual problem of modern obstetrics due to the impact on maternal and child health. It is affects the level of perinatal morbidity, disability and infant mortality. Preterm labor occupies a dominant position in the structure of perinatal losses. Introduction of the prophylactic modern technologies of the preterm labor using micronized progesterone containing preparations allows clearly reduce their f...

  12. Perinatal Safety: From Concept to Nursing Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Lyndon, Audrey; Kennedy, Holly Powell

    2010-01-01

    Communication and teamwork problems are leading causes of documented preventable adverse outcomes in perinatal care. An essential component of perinatal safety is the organizational culture in which clinicians work. Clinicians’ individual and collective authority to question the plan of care and take action to change the direction of a clinical situation in the patient’s best interest can be viewed as their “agency for safety.” However, collective agency for safety and commitment to support n...

  13. Factores de Accesibilidad Relacionados con Muerte Perinatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma del Socorro Catalán Álvarez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Objetivo Describir diferencias de factores relacionados con accesibilidad a servicios de salud, entre un grupo de mujeres que tuvieron parto en instituciones prestadoras de servicios de salud de Bucaramanga, cuyos productos sufrieron muerte perinatal y otro grupo con productos vivos, procedentes de Lebrija Santander año 2004. Materiales y métodos: estudio de caso descriptivo, retrospectivo. De 15 muerte perinatal reportadas, sólo 7 cumplían criterios de inclusión. Por cada muerte perinatal, se seleccionaron por conveniencia, 3 madres con niños vivos. Las variables estudiadas, mediante frecuencia absoluta y relativa, fueron: Características de la madre, del niño, Oportunidad, Percepción de atención, Funcionalidad, Costos. Resultados: 6 muerte perinatal previsibles, 1 no previsible. 3 pertenecían al régimen subsidiado, 1 al contributivo, 3 no aseguradas. Se observó, falta de oportunidad para remisión de madres e intervención del parto. Mujeres con 3 ó más controles, presentaron mayor frecuencia relativa de muerte perinatal. También se observó insatisfacción en la percepción de atención, en 3 aspectos estudiados, en 3 niveles de atención. Discusión y Conclusiones: Implementar políticas encaminadas a mejorar la oportunidad de atención materna-perinatal, facilitando acceso oportuno para prestación de servicios de salud. Controles prenatales enfocados en búsqueda de factores relacionados con muerte perinatal. Fortalecer Sistemas de Vigilancia Epidemiológica y Centro Regulador de Urgencias. (Rev Cuid 2010;1(1:26-34.Palabras clave: Mortalidad perinatal, Accesibilidad, Servicios de Salud. (Fuente DeCs, BIREME.

  14. Genetic and perinatal effects of abused substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brande, M.C.; Zimmerman, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the effects of several abused drugs, including opiates, cannabinoids, alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, with special emphasis on the actions of these substances at the molecular and cellular levels. The first half deals with genetic effects, including molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, pharmacogenetics, cytogenetics, and genetic toxicity. The second half focuses on perinatal effects and covers: drug abuse during pregnancy; biochemical aspects of marihuana on male reproduction; and long-term behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of perinatal alcohol exposure.

  15. Recurrent perinatal loss: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, K; Robertson, P A

    1999-01-01

    To date, investigators have not demonstrated a clear relationship between a parent's history of prior perinatal losses and intensity of grief response following a subsequent perinatal loss. Examining this relationship for low-income, African-American parents is important because they are a vulnerable population due to the high incidence of perinatal mortality in Blacks and their other life stressors that can impact on grief response and caring needs. The purpose of this case study was to examine the impact of recurrent perinatal loss on a low-income African-American parent. The research design for this study was case report, using interview data collected from a mother who had recently experienced her fourth perinatal loss, which occurred at twenty-five weeks of gestation. Transcripts from two open-ended interviews were analyzed. The theoretical framework used to guide analysis of this case study was Lazarus and Folkman's stress and coping theory. Results demonstrated that the prior perinatal losses did not appear as critical components of the way the mother responded to her most recent loss. Instead, perception of the care she received from healthcare providers and how that care related to her experiences with her one living child who was born at the same gestational age was an important determinant in how she responded to her loss. The results of this case study demonstrate the importance assessing a person's perception of their experience and those factors which contribute to the way they respond.

  16. Perinatal Risk Factors and Later Social, Thought, and Attention Problems after Perinatal Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary J. Harbert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Survivors of perinatal stroke may be at risk for behavioral problems. Perinatal risk factors that might increase the likelihood of later behavior problems have not been identified. The goal of this study was to explore whether perinatal factors might contribute to behavior problems after perinatal stroke. Methods. 79 children with unilateral perinatal stroke were studied. Perinatal factors included gender, gestational age, neonatal seizures, instrumented delivery, fetal distress, acute birth problems, birth weight, and time of diagnosis. Subjects with evidence of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy were excluded. Parents completed the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL (Achenbach 1985. The CBCL yields T-scores in several symptom scales. We focused on Social, Thought, and Attention Problems scates. Results. Gestational age and the presence of uteroplacental insufficiency were associated with significant differences on the Thought Problems scale; Attention Problems scores approached significance for these variables. Fetal distress, neonatal seizures, or neonatal diagnosis was associated with 25–30% incidence of clinically significant T-scores on Social, Thought, and Attention Problems scales. Conclusions. Several perinatal factors were associated with a high incidence of social, thought, and behavior problems in children with perinatal stroke. These findings may be useful in anticipatory guidance to parents and physicians caring for these children.

  17. Maternal nutrition and perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Mary K

    2010-01-01

    Diet and patterns of eating during pregnancy can affect perinatal outcomes through direct physiologic effects or by stressing the fetus in ways that permanently affect phenotype. Supplements are not a magic nutritional remedy, and evidence of profound benefit for most supplements remains inconclusive. However, research supports calcium supplements to decrease preeclampsia. Following a low glycemic, Mediterranean-type diet appears to improve ovulatory infertility, decrease preterm birth, and decrease the risk of gestational diabetes. Although women in the United States have adequate levels of most nutrients, subpopulations are low in vitamin D, folate, and iodine. Vitamin D has increasingly been shown to be important not only for bone health, but also for glucose regulation, immune function, and good uterine contractility in labor. To ensure adequate vitamin and micronutrient intake, especially of folate before conception, all reproductive age women should take a multivitamin daily. In pregnancy, health care providers need to assess women's diets, give them weight gain recommendations based on their body mass index measurement, and advise them to eat a Mediterranean diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids (ingested as low-mercury risk fatty fish or supplements), ingest adequate calcium, and achieve adequate vitamin D levels through sun exposure or supplements. Health care providers should continue to spend time on nutrition assessment and counseling. Copyright © 2010 American College of Nurse-Midwives. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Congenital and perinatal cytomegalovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Soo Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is currently the most common agent of congenital infection and the leading infectious cause of brain damage and hearing loss in children. Symptomatic congenital CMV infections usually result from maternal primary infection during early pregnancy. One half of symptomatic infants have cytomegalic inclusion disease (CID, which is characterized by involvement of multiple organs, in particular, the reticuloendothelial and central nervous system (CNS. Moreover, such involvement may or may not include ocular and auditory damage. Approximately 90% of infants with congenital infection are asymptomatic at birth. Preterm infants with perinatal CMV infection can have symptomatic diseases such as pneumonia, hepatitis, and thrombocytopenia. Microcephaly and abnormal neuroradiologic imaging are associated with a poor prognosis. Hearing loss may occur in both symptomatic and asymptomatic infants with congenital infection and may progress through childhood. Congenital infection is defined by the isolation of CMV from infants within the first 3 weeks of life. Ganciclovir therapy can be considered for infants with symptomatic congenital CMV infection involving the CNS. Pregnant women of seronegative state should be counseled on the importance of good hand washing and other control measures to prevent CMV infection. Heat treatment of infected breast milk at 72?#608;for 5 seconds can eliminate CMV completely.

  19. PLACENTAL SIZE AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagamani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : The human placenta, a transient organ or pregnancy provides information about fetal well - being and pregnancy outcome . AIMS: To study the placental ultrasound characters in relation to perinatal outcomes . SETTINGS: Tertiary care hospital in southern India . METHODS AND MATERIAL S: The study sample comprised 500 consecutive women who presented to the Depart ment of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the King George Hospital who met the inclusion criteria. Ultrasonographic study was performed using a transabdominal 3.5 MHz volume transducer. Post natally the weight of the baby and of the placenta was recorded. Perina tal outcome was assessed by birth weight, APGAR score and the need for admission in neonatal intensive care unit. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : Pearson’s correlation analysis and Chi square test was used. Statistical significance was considered at a p value <0.05 . RESULTS: The mean placental thickness was 3.10 cm; 76% (n:380 had normal thickness. Mean placental diameter was 21.306 cm, and its weight varied from 310 women 62% (n:310. Correlation of placental thickness (normal and abnormal, with birth weight, the difference was significant ( <0.001. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound forms a readily available, fairly safe, effective non - invasive method to identify and prevent fetal malnutrition in a cost - effective way.

  20. Perinatal mortality in Rh alloimmunized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Camano, Luiz; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Chinen, Paulo Alexandre; Torloni, Maria Regina; Cordioli, Eduardo; Araújo Junior, Edward

    2007-06-01

    Evaluate and compare the perinatal mortality of Rh-negative pregnancies managed at São Paulo Federal University during a 9-year period, using either amniocentesis or middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity. Descriptive observational study involving 291 consecutive Rh-negative pregnancies managed between January 1995 and January 2004. The perinatal mortality of 99 alloimmunized patients was compared with 192 Rh-negative unimmunized patients (control group). The perinatal mortality of patients managed with amniocenteses was compared to those managed with Doppler studies. There were 74 patients managed with amniocenteses and 25 managed with Doppler studies. Perinatal mortality was significantly higher in the 99 Rh-negative isoimmunized patients than in the 192 unimmunized patients (12.1% versus 1%, p=0.0001) and did not differ according to the management protocol used (amniocentesis 13.5% versus cerebral Doppler 8.0%, p=0.725). Mean gestational age and mean weight at birth in pregnancies managed with amniocenteses (35.7 weeks and 2586 g) did not differ significantly from those managed with Doppler (36.3 weeks and 2647 g). Perinatal mortality in Rh-negative alloimmunized patients remains high and does not differ whether pregnancies are managed through amniocentesis or cerebral Doppler evaluation.

  1. Perinatal Practices & Traditions Among Asian Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Deepika

    2016-01-01

    As the population in the United States grows more diverse, nurses caring for childbearing women must be aware of the many cultural traditions and customs unique to their patients. This knowledge and insight supports women and their families with the appropriate care, information, and resources. A supportive relationship builds trust, offers guidance, and allows for the new family to integrate information from nurses and other healthcare providers with the practice of certain perinatal cultural traditions. The Asian Indian culture is rich in tradition, specifically during the perinatal period. To support the cultural beliefs and practices of Asian Indian women during this time, nurses need to be aware of and consider multiple factors. Many women are navigating the new role of motherhood while making sense of and incorporating important cultural rituals. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of perinatal cultural practices and traditions specific to the Asian Indian culture that perinatal nurses may observe in the clinical setting. Cultural traditions and practices specific to the pregnancy and postpartum period are described together with symbolism and implications for nursing practice. It is important to note that information regarding perinatal customs is provided in an effort to promote culturally sensitive nursing care and may not pertain to all Asian Indian women living in the United States.

  2. Perinatal mortality and socio-spatial inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Francisca Martins

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the social inequalities in the distribution of perinatal mortality in Belo Horizonte. MATERIAL AND METHODS: the perinatal deaths of residents in Belo Horizonte in the period 2003 to 2007 were studied on the basis of the Information Systems on Mortality and Newborns. The space analysis and the Health Vulnerability Index were used to identify existing inequalities in the sanitary districts regarding coverage and risk, determined by the Odds Ratio and a value p<0.05. The multivariate analysis was used to describe a model for perinatal mortality. RESULTS: there was a proved variation in the numbers of perinatal mortality per one thousand total births in the sanitary districts (12.5 to 19.4, coverage areas (5.3 to 49.4 and areas of risk (13.2 to 20.7. The mortality rate diminished as the maternal schooling increased. The death rates deriving from asphyxia/hypoxia and non-specified fetal death grew with the increase of risk in the area. CONCLUSION: it was verified that the perinatal deaths are distributed in a differentiated form in relation to the space and the social vulnerabilities. The confrontation of this complex problem requires the establishment of intersecting partnerships.

  3. Perinatal death audits in a peri-urban hospital in Kampala, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The perinatal mortality of 70 deaths per 1,000 total births in Uganda is unacceptably high. Perinatal death audits are important for improvement of perinatal care and reduction of perinatal morality. We integrated perinatal death audits in routine care, and describe its effect on perinatal mortality rate at Nsambya ...

  4. Mortalidad perinatal y duelo materno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Laverde Rubio

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Two groups of women whose children died during the perinatal period (28 weeks of gestation to 28 days after birth were studied from the medical-psychological point of view. The first group was formed by 20 patients who reacted to the loss of the child with a prolonged process of grief. The second group was formed by 20 patients (comparison group who elaborated the loss by means of an uncomplicated grief process. The general hypothesis that guided this investigation is the following: the link established between the mother and her real Child, in case the latter should die, makes elaboration of grief easier: on the other hand the insufficient link or lack of it with the real child increases the relation of the mother and her imaginary child, increases the relation with her imaginary child so that if that child dies the narcissistic-type internal, mother-baby relationship tends to complicate the mourning by distorting it and making it last longer. "Real child" refers to the child as an external object and "imaginary child" is the experienced representation of the child or internal object. This general hypothesis was sub-divided into five simple hypothesis, for operative aims. These variables are: visual contact, tactile contact between mother and child. Information about the baby's condition, mother's active participation in searching for a name for the child and her attendance to funerary rites. Results confirmed the basic hypothesis, on establishing that the indicating or facilitating variables of the link showed a significant difference from the statistical point of view between the two groups. Some practical suggestions are made for the personnel of maternity and perinatology services so as to propitiate and facilitate contact between the mother and her child, which at its turn activates the establishment of an emotional link and the elaboration of mourning of the loss of the baby in case he/she should perish.

  5. Methadone and perinatal outcomes: a prospective cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cleary, Brian J

    2012-08-01

      Methadone use in pregnancy has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). This study aimed to examine perinatal outcomes and NAS in relation to (i) concomitant drug use and (ii) methadone dose.

  6. Perinatal Health Statistics as the Basis for Perinatal Quality Assessment in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urelija Rodin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Perinatal mortality indicators are considered the most important measures of perinatal outcome. The indicators reliability depends on births and deaths reporting and recording. Many publications focus on perinatal deaths underreporting and misclassification, disabling proper international comparisons. Objective. Description of perinatal health care quality assessment key indicators in Croatia. Methods. Retrospective review of reports from all maternities from 2001 to 2014. Results. According to reporting criteria for birth weight ≥500 g, perinatal mortality (PNM was reduced by 31%, fetal mortality (FM by 32%, and early neonatal mortality (ENM by 29%. According to reporting criteria for ≥1000 g, PNM was reduced by 43%, FM by 36%, and ENM by 54%. PNM in ≥22 weeks’ (wks gestational age (GA was reduced by 28%, FM by 30%, and ENM by 26%. The proportion of FM at 32–36 wks GA and at term was the highest between all GA subgroups, as opposed to ENM with the highest proportion in 22–27 wks GA. Through the period, the maternal mortality ratio varied from 2.4 to 14.3/100,000 live births. The process indicators have been increased in number by more than half since 2001, the caesarean deliveries from 11.9% in 2001 to 19.6% in 2014. Conclusions. The comprehensive perinatal health monitoring represents the basis for the perinatal quality assessment.

  7. An urban perinatal health programme of strategies to improve perinatal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denktaş, S; Bonsel, G J; Van der Weg, E J; Voorham, A J J; Torij, H W; De Graaf, J P; Wildschut, H I J; Peters, I A; Birnie, E; Steegers, E A P

    2012-11-01

    Promotion of a healthy pregnancy is a top priority of the health care policy in many European countries. Perinatal mortality is an important indicator of the success of this policy. Recently, it was shown that the Netherlands has relatively high perinatal death rates when compared to other European countries. This is in particular true for large cities where perinatal mortality rates are 20-50% higher than elsewhere. Consequently in the Netherlands, there is heated debate on how to tackle these problems. Without the introduction of measures throughout the entire perinatal health care chain, pregnancy outcomes are difficult to improve. With the support of health care professionals, the City of Rotterdam and the Erasmus University Medical Centre have taken the initiative to develop an urban perinatal health programme called 'Ready for a Baby'. The main objective of this municipal 10-year programme is to improve perinatal health and to reduce perinatal mortality in all districts to at least the current national average of l0 per 1000. Key elements are the understanding of the mechanisms of the large health differences between women living in deprived and non-deprived urban areas. Risk guided care, orientation towards shared-care and improvement of collaborations between health care professionals shapes the interventions that are being developed. Major attention is given to the development of methods to improve risk-selection before and during pregnancy and methods to reach low-educated and immigrant groups.

  8. Socioeconomic differences in perinatal health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Danish Medical Birth Register has been used extensively in conjunction with other national registers to examine different aspects of socioeconomic differences in perinatal health outcomes. Here, we review some recent findings. RESEARCH TOPICS: Socioeconomic differences were...... observed in stillbirth, preterm birth, birthweight, congenital anomalies, and infant death. The patterns varied according to the health outcome and measure of socioeconomic position, but also according to the time period and the country under study. Our review also shows how many different strategies have...... been used to examine the influence of socioeconomic factors on perinatal health. CONCLUSION: Danish register data is an invaluable source of information on socioeconomic differences in perinatal health. Danish registers continue to provide excellent opportunities for research and surveillance...

  9. Perinatal Chicken Pox (Varicella Zoster Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Annagur

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox is due to infection with the varicella zoster virus (VZV, a human alphaherpervirus found worldwide. Classically, the cinical disease is a febrile illness with a pruritic vesicular rash. Maternal chickenpox between 5 days before delivery to 2 days after delivery (perinatal varicella can cause severe and even fatal illness in the newborn. A 7-day old girl baby presented on day 4 of postnatal with the complaints of widespread vesicular rash and non-suckling. Mother of the baby also had a similar eruption four day prior to delivery, which was clinically characteristic of varicella. Considering history and clinical presentation, a diagnosis of perinatal chickenpox was considered and the baby was treated with acyclovir which she responded and recovered. Herein, the clinical feasures and treatment of chickenpox infection in the perinatal period have been emphasized with this case report. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 311-314

  10. Perinatal death associated with umbilical cord prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehir, Mark P; Hartigan, Lucia; Mahony, Rhona

    2017-07-26

    Umbilical cord prolapse occurs when the cord prolapses ahead of or alongside the presenting part. It is an acute obstetric emergency with potential catastrophic effects. We set out to assess incidence of cord prolapse, as well as rates and characteristics of perinatal death associated with the condition. This was a retrospective cohort study. All recorded cases of cord prolapse were included, and rates of perinatal death and encephalopathy, as well as intrapartum and maternal characteristics were examined. There were 156,130 deliveries at the hospital over the 20-year study period. Three hundred and seven cases of cord prolapse were identified (1.9/1000 deliveries). There was a decrease in the incidence of cord prolapse over the course of the study. The rate peaked in 1999 at 3.9/1000 and was just 0.8/1000 of all deliveries in 2007. The majority of cases (216/307, 70%) occurred in multiparas; however, nulliparous parturients were more likely to have a perinatal death [12% (11/91) vs. 4.6% (10/216)]. The rate of perinatal death in cases of cord prolapse was 6.8% (21/307). Over half of perinatal deaths (11/21) occurred in infants of mothers who presented with ruptured membranes, seven of these infants were already dead on reaching hospital. There was just one case of neonatal encephalopathy associated with cord prolapse, giving an incidence of 0.32%. Cord prolapse carries a significant risk of perinatal death, approximately 7%. The corresponding rate of encephalopathy is low. A significant number of deaths were diagnosed on presentation to hospital and were not deemed preventable.

  11. Design and evaluation of a regional perinatal audit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderliesten, Marianne E.; Stronks, Karien; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Smit, Bert J.; van Campen, Maarten M. J.; van Lith, Jan M. M.; Bleker, Otto P.

    Objective: To describe the experiences of a regional audit of perinatal deaths, including the experiences of the audit members, to discuss similarities and differences with other, existing perinatal audits and to summarize the implications for future implementation. Study design: Perinatal audit

  12. Verbal autopsy in establishing cause of perinatal death | Iriya | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Perinatal mortality is a sensitive indicator of health status of a community and is also highly amenable to intervention. The causes of perinatal deaths in developing countries are often difficult to establish. Verbal autopsy has been used in several countries for children and adults, but seldom for perinatal cause.

  13. Perinatal Mortality Trends in Ethiopia | Berhan | Ethiopian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Although the magnitude of perinatal mortality in Ethiopia was among the highest in Sub Saharan Africa, there was no systematic review done to assess the trend and causes of perinatal death. The objective of this review was to assess the trend of perinatal mortality rate (PMR) and the causes attributed to ...

  14. Risk Factors For Perinatal Mortality In Arua Regional Referral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background In low-income countries, the majority of neonatal deaths occur during the perinatal period. The fourth millennium development goal of reducing child mortality cannot therefore be met without substantial reduction in perinatal deaths. Objective To investigate the risk factors for perinatal mortality in Arua regional ...

  15. Perinatal Mortality Among Twins In Lagos University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Perinatal mortality rate is reported to be higher in twins than in singletons. More than two ... Objective: To determine the current perinatal mortality rate and risk factors that influence perinatal mortality among twins in Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Materials and ... Med. Vol.12(1-4) 2002: 21-25 ...

  16. Prevention of perinatal loss: towards personalized medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medvedev M.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature review on the prevention of preterm labor is carried out. Preterm labor is the actual problem of modern obstetrics due to the impact on maternal and child health. It is affects the level of perinatal morbidity, disability and infant mortality. Preterm labor occupies a dominant position in the structure of perinatal losses. Introduction of the prophylactic modern technologies of the preterm labor using micronized progesterone containing preparations allows clearly reduce their frequency in a number of clinics that use the destination progesterone protocol for ultrasound cervical length less than 25 mm, as well as in women with preterm labor in history.

  17. A natimortalidade como indicador de saúde perinatal Stillbirth as a perinatal health indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Roberto Soares De Lorenzi

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Os autores realizaram uma revisão bibliográfica do tema natimortalidade, abordando seus aspectos conceituais e epidemiológicos, destacando principalmente a sua relevância com indicador de saúde perinatal.The authors carried out a literature review of the subject "stillbirth", with special emphasis on its conceptual and epidemiological features, aimed at highlighting its importance as a perinatal health indicator.

  18. Lifetime costs of perinatal anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Annette; Knapp, Martin; Parsonage, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Anxiety and depression are common among women during pregnancy and the year after birth. The consequences, both for the women themselves and for their children, can be considerable and last for many years. This study focuses on the economic consequences, aiming to estimate the total costs and health-related quality of life losses over the lifetime of mothers and their children. A pathway or decision modelling approach was employed, based on data from previous studies. Systematic and pragmatic literature reviews were conducted to identify evidence of impacts of perinatal anxiety and depression on mothers and their children. The present value of total lifetime costs of perinatal depression (anxiety) was £75,728 (£34,811) per woman with condition. If prevalence estimates were applied the respective cost of perinatal anxiety and depression combined was about £8500 per woman giving birth; for the United Kingdom, the aggregated costs were £6.6 billion. The majority of the costs related to adverse impacts on children and almost a fifth were borne by the public sector. The method was exploratory in nature, based on a diverse range of literature and encountered important data gaps. Findings suggest the need to allocate more resources to support women with perinatal mental illness. More research is required to understand the type of interventions that can reduce long-term negative effects for both mothers and offspring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Perinatal death investigations : What is current practice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, J. W.; Sebire, N. J.; Bouman, K.; Korteweg, F. J.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; Gordijn, S. J.

    Perinatal death (PD) is a devastating obstetric complication. Determination of cause of death helps in understanding why and how it occurs, and it is an indispensable aid to parents wanting to understand why their baby died and to determine the recurrence risk and management in subsequent pregnancy.

  20. Radiography Following Perinatal Death: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Oe.E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom). Radiology Dept.

    2006-02-15

    Radiography of the perinatally dead infant provides detailed information about the skeleton and is valuable as an adjunct to autopsy. This article reviews the potential benefits and discusses the pitfalls in assessment of growth stage. Reference charts for individual bone lengths and secondary ossification centers are presented.

  1. Determinants of perinatal mortality in Marondera district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Labor complications, belonging to apostolic sect, having a home delivery, maternal HIV infection, low birth weight and antenatal care booking were independently associated with perinatal mortality. Health worker training in emergency management of obstetric and neonatal care was initiated. Marondera District ...

  2. Customised birthweight standards accurately predict perinatal morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueras, Francesc; Figueras, Josep; Meler, Eva; Eixarch, Elisenda; Coll, Oriol; Gratacos, Eduard; Gardosi, Jason; Carbonell, Xavier

    2007-07-01

    Fetal growth restriction is associated with adverse perinatal outcome but is often not recognised antenatally, and low birthweight centiles based on population norms are used as a proxy instead. This study compared the association between neonatal morbidity and fetal growth status at birth as determined by customised birthweight centiles and currently used centiles based on population standards. Retrospective cohort study. Referral hospital, Barcelona, Spain. A cohort of 13 661 non-malformed singleton deliveries. Both population-based and customised standards for birth weight were applied to the study cohort. Customised weight centiles were calculated by adjusting for maternal height, booking weight, parity, ethnic origin, gestational age at delivery and fetal sex. Newborn morbidity and perinatal death. The association between smallness for gestational age (SGA) and perinatal morbidity was stronger when birthweight limits were customised, and resulted in an additional 4.1% (n=565) neonates being classified as SGA. Compared with non-SGA neonates, this newly identified group had an increased risk of perinatal mortality (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.6 to 6.2), neurological morbidity (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.7 to 6.1) and non-neurological morbidity (OR 8; 95% CI 4.8 to 13.6). Customised standards improve the prediction of adverse neonatal outcome. The association between SGA and adverse outcome is independent of the gestational age at delivery.

  3. Teenage Pregnancy and Perinatal Outcomes: Experience from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Teenage pregnancy is known as a risk factor for preterm birth, low birth weight and perinatal deaths, thus considered public health problem. In South Africa, most teenage pregnancy is found within the context of unstable relationship and unplanned or unwanted pregnancies. A high rate of teenage pregnancy is ...

  4. Parental Grief Response to Perinatal Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anne Clarke; Borgers, Sherry B.

    1989-01-01

    Examined grief responses of parents suffering perinatal loss and explored effects of gender, type of loss, time since loss, number of losses, and subsequent pregnancy on grief response. Responses to Grief Experience Inventory from 176 such parents revealed subjects suffering grief. Grief response was affected by subjects' perception that loss was…

  5. Genetic Risk Factors for Perinatal Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at the University of California at San Francisco performed a population-based case-control study of births at Kaiser Permanente Northern California to explore the effect of genetic polymorphisms on the risk of perinatal arterial ischemic stroke (PAIS.

  6. Perinatal care in six eastern Caribbean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, E R

    1985-01-01

    In December, 1981, the Government of the Netherlands conducted evaluation studies of perinatal health care in the 6 Caribbean countries of Antigua, the Bahamas, Barbados, Dominica, Saint Lucia, and St. Vincnet. In recent years, the governments of the 6 countries expressed their concerns about the need to improve perinatal health care and about the limited funds, health facilities, and health manpower available for meeting this need. Data for the studies were collected during visits to the 6 countries and consisted of availble vital statistics and hospital records collected by local physicians and chief nurses. Since 70%-95% of the deliveries in these countries occurred in hospitals, hospital data were used to assess the level of perinatal mortality. Perinatal death rates for the 6 countries ranged from 29/1000 live births to 38/1000 live births. When stillbirths and neonatal death rates were examined separately, there was considerable variation between countries. Stillbirth rates ranged from 23.4-13.6/1000 live births and neonatal death rates ranged from 9.9-22.5/1000 live births. These differences probably reflected classification problems rather than actual differences. Although there was considerable variation in per capita income levels in the 6 countries (US$380-US$2620) these differences did not appear to be associated with differences in perinatal death rates. Average birth weights for the 6 countries ranged from 3000 gm to 3150 gm, and the average for all 6 countries combined was 3100 gm. The incidence of low birth weights (2500 gm or less) ranged from 5.9% in Dominica to 11% in Barbados. The major causes of perinatal death were complications resulting from anoxia or hypoxia, prematurity complications, and neonatal infections. Infants who survive these conditions frequently develop handicaps. Average breastfeeding duration ranged from 1 month in the Bahamas to 7 months in St. Vincent. Bottle feeding is common and generally begins early. Mistaken beliefs

  7. Efficacy of light therapy for perinatal depression: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowley Shannon K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Perinatal depression is an important public health problem affecting 10% to 20% of childbearing women. Perinatal depression is associated with significant morbidity, and has enormous consequences for the wellbeing of the mother and child. During the perinatal period, treatment of depression, which could affect the mother and child during pregnancy and lactation, poses a complex problem for both mother and clinician. Bright light therapy may be an attractive treatment for perinatal depression because it is low cost, home-based, and has a much lower side effect profile than pharmacotherapy. The antidepressant effects of bright light are well established, and there are several rationales for expecting that bright light might also be efficacious for perinatal depression. This review describes these rationales, summarizes the available evidence on the efficacy of bright light therapy for perinatal depression, and discusses future directions for investigation of bright light therapy as a treatment for perinatal depression.

  8. Consanguinity and associated perinatal outcomes, including stillbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapurubandara, Supuni; Melov, Sarah; Shalou, Evangeline; Alahakoon, Indika

    2016-12-01

    Consanguinity defined as the sexual union between two related individuals has been previously an infrequent practice in Australia, but recently there has been migration from countries with widespread practice of consanguinity. There is limited and conflicting evidence in the literature that suggests consanguinity to be associated with adverse obstetric outcomes. To assess the effect of consanguinity on perinatal outcomes. A retrospective analysis of singleton births over a ten-year period at an Australian tertiary hospital. The data were extracted from the hospital obstetric database and analysed for an association between consanguinity and perinatal outcomes, including stillbirth. Main outcome measures were stillbirth, threatened premature labour, fetal congenital abnormality, perinatal mortality and neonatal outcomes. There were 46 399 singleton births recorded over the ten-year study period, and 44 004 had consanguinity data available. The overall consanguinity rate was 5.5% (n = 2565), which remained consistent over the study period at our institution. Consanguinity was associated with higher rate of threatened premature labour (5.6% vs 4.7%, P = 0.003), fetal congenital abnormality (4.2% vs 3.1%, P = 0.004), perinatal mortality (2.4% vs 1.0%, P Consanguinity was an independent risk factor for stillbirth with a relative risk of 2.88 (P consanguineous relationships are at higher risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, including stillbirth. Given the 5% prevalence of consanguinity in our obstetric population, these findings have significant implications for preconception counselling, obstetric care and health resource allocation. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  9. Clock drawing in children with perinatal stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefian, Omid; Ballantyne, Angela O; Doo, Alex; Trauner, Doris A

    2015-06-01

    Children with perinatal stroke may show evidence of contralateral spatial neglect. The goal of this study was to determine whether the Clock Drawing Test commonly used in adults to identify neglect would be effective in detecting neglect in children with perinatal stroke. Thirty-eight individuals (age range 6-21 years) with left hemisphere or right hemisphere perinatal onset unilateral lesions and 179 age-matched controls were given a free-drawn Clock Drawing Test in a cross-sectional design. An adapted scoring system that evaluated right- and left-sided errors separately was developed as part of the investigation. Children with right hemisphere lesions made a greater number of errors on both the right and left sides of the clock drawings in all age subgroups (6-8 years, 9-14 years, and 15-21 years) compared with controls. Children with right hemisphere lesions showed greater left and right errors in the younger groups compared with controls, with significantly poorer performance on the left at 6-8 years, suggestive of contralateral neglect. However, by ages 15-21 years, the right hemisphere lesion subjects no longer differed from controls. Clock drawing can identify spatial neglect in children with early hemispheric damage. However, brain development is a dynamic process, and as children age, spatial neglect may no longer be evident. These findings demonstrate the limitations of predicting long-term outcome after perinatal stroke from early neurocognitive data. Children with perinatal stroke may require different neural pathways to accomplish specific skills or to overcome deficits, but ultimately they may have "typical" outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cytomegalovirus myelitis in perinatally acquired HIV.

    OpenAIRE

    Güngör, T; Funk, M; Linde, R; Jacobi, G; Horn, M; Kreuz, W

    1993-01-01

    A 7 year old child perinatally infected with HIV who died from progressive muscular paralysis and central nervous respiratory failure is described. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis with a special intravenous CMV hyper-immunoglobulin had been successfully conducted for more than four years. Macroscopic and microscopic immunohistochemical examination of the spinal cord revealed a diffuse CMV infiltration of the entire myelon. CMV infected cells were identified as astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ...

  11. Diabetes and perinatal mortality in twin pregnancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Cheng Luo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes in pregnancy has been associated with a paradoxically reduced risk of neonatal death in twin pregnancies. Risk "shift" may be a concern in that the reduction in neonatal deaths may be due to an increase in fetal deaths (stillbirths. This study aimed to clarify the impact of diabetes on the risk of perinatal death (neonatal death plus stillbirth in twin pregnancies. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of twin births using the largest available dataset on twin births (the U.S. matched multiple birth data 1995-2000; 19,676 neonates from diabetic pregnancies, 541,481 from non-diabetic pregnancies. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (aHR of perinatal death accounting for twin cluster-level dependence. RESULTS: Comparing diabetic versus non-diabetic twin pregnancies, overall perinatal mortality rate was counterintuitively lower [2.1% versus 3.3%, aHR 0.70 (95% confidence intervals 0.63-0.78]. Individually, both stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates were lower in diabetic pregnancies, but we identified significant differences by gestational age and birth weight. Diabetes was associated with a survival benefit in pregnancies completed before 32 weeks [aHR 0.55 (0.48-0.63] or with birth weight =2500 g [aHR 2.20 (1.55-3.13]. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes in pregnancy appears to be "protective" against perinatal death in twin pregnancies ending in very preterm or very low birth weight births. Prospective studies are required to clarify whether these patterns of risk are real, or they are artifacts of unmeasured confounders. Additional data correlating these outcomes with the types of diabetes in pregnancy are also needed to distinguish the effects of pre-gestational vs. gestational diabetes.

  12. Umbilical coiling index & the perinatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaru, Dakshayini; Thusoo, Meghna

    2012-02-01

    To correlate the perinatal outcome by noting the umbilical coiling index. The umbilical cords of the babies born to 100 women, who delivered either vaginally or by lower segment cesarean section, were examined and umbilical coiling index was calculated. There was significant correlation (p value 0.003) between the hypercoiled cords (UCI >90th percentile) and intrauterine growth restriction of the babies. Apgar score at 1 min UCI UCI UCI >10th percentile is associated with intra uterine growth restriction.

  13. Perinatal death of triplet pregnancies by chorionicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Haruna; Ishii, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Ryo; Hayashi, Shusaku; Mitsuda, Nobuaki

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perinatal risk of death by chorionicity at >22 weeks of gestation of triplet pregnancies. In a retrospective cohort study, the perinatal data were collected from triplet pregnancies in Japanese perinatal care centers between 1999 and 2009. We included maternal characteristics and examined the following factors: prenatal interventions, pregnancy outcome, and neonatal outcome. The association between fetal or neonatal death of triplets and chorionicity was evaluated by logistic regression analysis. After the exclusion of 253 cases, the study group comprised 701 cases: 507 trichorionic triamniotic (TT) triplet pregnancies, 144 diamniotic triamniotic (DT) triplet pregnancies, and 50 monochorionic triamniotic (MT) triplet pregnancies. The mortality rate (fetal death at >22 weeks of gestation; neonatal death) in triplets was 2.6% and included 2.1% of TT triplet pregnancies, 3.2% of DT triplet pregnancies, and 5.3% of MT triplet pregnancies. No significant risk of death was identified in DT triplet pregnancies; however, MT triplet pregnancies had a 2.6-fold greater risk (adjusted odds ratio, 2.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-5.76; P = .019) compared with TT triplet pregnancies. Prophylactic cervical cerclage did not reduce the perinatal mortality rate at >22 weeks of gestation in triplets. The risk of death for MT triplet pregnancies is significantly higher than that of TT triplet pregnancies; however, the risk of death for DT triplet pregnancies is not. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Obstetric and perinatal outcome of teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwal, A

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents are at higher risk during childbirth than women between 20 to 25 years. Adolescent childbearing initiates a syndrome of failure: failure to complete one's education; failure in limiting family size; failure to establish a vocation and become independent. This study was done to find out the obstetric and perinatal outcome of teenage pregnancy along with factors contributing to teenage pregnancy. A prospective, cross sectional study was carried out in College of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital (CMSTH), Bharatpur during the period for two years from September 2008 to August 2010. Pregnant girls ≤19 years admitted to labour ward were taken for the study. Cases planned for abortion and MTP were also taken. One hundred cases of pregnant teenagers were admitted in CMSTH during a period of two years. Incidence was 6.85%. In our study, most of the teenagers were unbooked, from low socioeconomic status and with no or inadequate education. They had little knowledge about contraception and less number of teenagers used temporary means of contraception. Because of our social custom of early marriage, most of the teenage mothers were married. All these factors were correlated with teenage pregnancy in present study. This study failed to show any statistically significant difference in the incidence of anaemia, LBW babies, preterm delivery, hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, mode of delivery in different ages of teenage mothers. However, there was significant difference in the incidence of perinatal death in different ages of teenage mothers indicating that perinatal deaths were more in younger teenagers.

  15. BLOOD BIOMARKERS FOR EVALUATION OF PERINATAL ENCEPHALOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Marshall Graham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in identification of brain injury after trauma shows many possible blood biomarkers that may help identify the fetus and neonate with encephalopathy. Traumatic brain injury shares many common features with perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Trauma has a hypoxic component, and one of the 1st physiologic consequences of moderate-severe traumatic brain injury is apnea. Trauma and hypoxia-ischemia initiate an excitotoxic cascade and free radical injury followed by the inflammatory cascade, producing injury in neurons, glial cells and white matter. Increased excitatory amino acids, lipid peroxidation products and alteration in microRNAs and inflammatory markers are common to both traumatic brain injury and perinatal encephalopathy. The blood-brain barrier is disrupted in both leading to egress of substances normally only found in the central nervous system. Brain exosomes may represent ideal biomarker containers, as RNA and protein transported within the vesicles are protected from enzymatic degradation. Evaluation of fetal or neonatal brain derived exosomes that cross the blood-brain barrier and circulate peripherally has been referred to as the liquid brain biopsy. A multiplex of serum biomarkers could improve upon the current imprecise methods of identifying fetal and neonatal brain injury such as fetal heart rate abnormalities, meconium, cord gases at delivery, and Apgar scores. Quantitative biomarker measurements of perinatal brain injury and recovery could lead to operative delivery only in the presence of significant fetal risk, triage to appropriate therapy after birth and measure the effectiveness of treatment.

  16. Perinatal and maternal complications related to postterm delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes G; Olsen, Jorn

    2003-01-01

    to analyze data. RESULTS: The risk of perinatal and obstetric complications was high in postterm delivery compared with term delivery (adjusted odds ratios between 1.2 and 3.1). The risk of perinatal death was 1.33 (1.05-1.68). CONCLUSION: Postterm delivery was associated with significantly increased risks...... of perinatal and maternal complications in Denmark in the period from 1978 to 1993....

  17. Factores psicológicos implicados en el Duelo Perinatal Psychological factors involved in perinatal grief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernández-Alcántara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Justificación: El duelo perinatal, hasta hace poco escasamente reconocido, está adquiriendo un estatuto propio. Esto es debido sus características singulares e idiosincrásicas. Objetivo: Con esta revisión se pretende señalar y analizar las diferentes variables que interactúan en el duelo perinatal. Metodología: Se utilizaron las bases de SCOPUS, Medline y Web of Science, obteniéndose un total de 146 referencias, de las cuales se seleccionaron 48. Resultados: El análisis se agrupa en cuatro categorías: las reacciones a la pérdida, la diferencia entre hombres y mujeres, las intervenciones más adecuadas por parte del personal sanitario, así como los principales problemas que presenta la práctica para ellos. Conclusión: Se realiza un análisis crítico de la situación del duelo perinatal y se plantea el desarrollo de nuevas líneas de investigación que puedan mejorar la práctica clínica y dar pie a futuras investigaciones.Justification: Perinatal grief hasn't been recognized in the past, but now it's acquiring an appropriate statute. Objective: With this review, it is expected to point out and analyze the diverse variables that interact in perinatal grief. Methodology: For the articles selection process, data bases from SCOPUS, Medline and Web of Science were consulted. After the process, 48 references (from a total of 146 were obtained. Results: The analysis was grouped in four categories: the initial reactions to the loss, the difference between men and women, the most suitable interventions by sanitary staff, and the main problems which are present in their practise. Conclusion: A critical analysis about the situation of perinatal grief is made and the development of new ways of research.

  18. [Infants of diabetic mothers (IDM). II -- Fibronectin and perinatal morbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Carballo, G; Codoceo Alquila, R; Fernández Cano, G; Hawkins Carranza, F; Grande Aragón, C; Velasco Hernando, A; Gracia Bouthelier, R

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine fibronectin levels in umbilical cord blood of infants of diabetic mothers (IDM) and evaluate a possible correlation with perinatal pathology. A prospective study of 58 IDM (33 males and 25 females) and 58 control newborns (NB) (33 males and 25 females) was carried out. There were no differences in fibronectin levels between the two groups nor between the sexes. Perinatal morbidity was higher in the IDM group, but there was no correlation between fibronectin levels and the presence of perinatal pathology. Fibronectin levels are not useful in the perinatal evaluation of infants of diabetic mothers.

  19. Polyhydramnios and adverse perinatal outcome - what is the actual cutoff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlev, A; Sheiner, E; Friger, M; Hershkovitz, R

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between amniotic fluid index (AFI) and adverse perinatal outcome, and whether a critical cutoff can be defined. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. Included were patients who were admitted to the ultrasound unit of the tertiary medical center between the years 1988 and 2010. Parturients were classified into five groups according to their AFI:  20 and adverse perinatal outcomes remained. A significant linear association exists between AFI > 20 and perinatal complications such as perinatal mortality, low Apgar scores and preterm labor. Hence, the critical cutoff for polyhydramnios should be re-evaluated.

  20. Substandard factors in perinatal care in The Netherlands: a regional audit of perinatal deaths.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolleswinkel-van den Bosch, J.H.; Vredevoogd, C.B.; Borkent-Polet, M.; Eyck, J. van; Fetter, W.P.F.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Rosink, I.H.; Treffers, P.E.; Wierenga, H.; Amelink, M.; Richardus, J.H.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Mackenbach, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To determine: 1) whether substandard factors were present in cases of perinatal death, and to what extent another course of action might have resulted in a better outcome, and 2) whether there were differences in the frequency of substandard factors by level of care, particularly between

  1. Inflammatory mediators in perinatal asphyxia and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthou, M; Fotopoulos, S; Mouchtouri, A; Lipsou, N; Zika, I; Sarafidou, J

    2002-01-01

    To determine serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in asphyxiated neonates and compare these inflammatory factors with those found in neonates with perinatal infection. 88 neonates were studied, of whom 36 were asphyxiated, 18 were infected and the remaining 34 were controls. Peripheral blood samples were obtained on the 1st, 3rd and 5th postnatal days. Cytokines IL-6 and IL-1beta as well as sICAM-1 serum levels did not differ between asphyxiated and infected neonates; however, at most time periods, their values were significantly higher than controls. TNF-alpha was similar in the three groups of neonates. CRP serum values were significantly higher in the infected neonates than in the asphyxiated or control subjects. Among the 54 asphyxiated and infected neonates, 15 were considered as severe cases and 39 as mild. The severe cases, at most time periods, had significantly higher IL-6, IL-1beta and sICAM-1 levels compared with the mild ones. Through receiver operating characteristic curves the cut-off points, sensitivities, and specificities for distinguishing neonates at risk or at high risk for brain damage were established. Similar increases in serum levels of IL-6, IL-1beta and sICAM-1 were found in perinatally asphyxiated and infected neonates. As these increases correlated with the severity of the perinatal insults, neonates at high risk for brain damage might be detected.

  2. Undiagnosed xiphopagus twins: a perinatal malady

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowri Dorairajan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Conjoined twins are a very rare entity. It is associated with poor survival rate in the presence of vital organ sharing. The entity can be diagnosed as early as the first trimester. A conjoined twin diagnosed late in labor is a malady with high perinatal mortality and maternal morbidity. We present one such case of xiphopagus twins. The management of a case diagnosed late in labor can be very challenging. Such obstetric challenges can be avoided by a meticulous early scan with a high index of suspicion, especially in the absence of separating membrane while scanning multiple pregnancies.

  3. Perinatal transmission of human papilomavirus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombaldi, Renato L; Serafini, Eduardo P; Mandelli, Jovana; Zimmermann, Edineia; Losquiavo, Kamille P

    2009-06-21

    The purpose was to study the perinatal transmission of human papillomavirus DNA (HPV-DNA) in 63 mother-newborn pairs, besides looking at the epidemiological factors involved in the viral DNA transmission. The following sampling methods were used: (1) in the pregnant woman, when was recruited, in cervix and clinical lesions of the vagina, vulva and perineal region; (2) in the newborn, (a) buccal, axillary and inguinal regions; (b) nasopharyngeal aspirate, and (c) cord blood; (3) in the children, buccal was repeated in the 4th week and 6th and 12th month of life. HPV-DNA was identified using two methodologies: multiplex PCR (PGMY09 and MY11 primers) and nested-PCR (genotypes 6/11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 42, 52 and 58). Perinatal transmission was considered when concordance was found in type-specific HPV between mother/newborn or mother/child. HPV-DNA genital was detected in 49 pregnant women submitted to delivery. Eleven newborns (22.4%, n = 11/49) were HPV-DNA positive. In 8 cases (16.3%, n = 8/49) there was type specific HPV concordance between mother/newborn samples. At the end of the first month of life three children (6.1%, n = 3/49) became HPV-DNA positive, while two remained positive from birth. In 3 cases (100%, n = 3/3) there was type specific HPV concordance between mother/newborn samples. In the 6th month, a child (2%, n = 1/49) had become HPV-DNA positive between the 1st and 6th month of life, and there was type specific HPV concordance of mother/newborn samples. All the HPV-DNA positive children (22.4%, n = 11/49) at birth and at the end first month of life (6.1%, n = 3/49) became HPV-DNA negative at the age of 6 months. The HPV-DNA positive child (2%, n = 1/49) from 1st to the 6th month of life became HPV-DNA negative between the 6th and 12th month of life and one child had anogenital warts. In the twelfth month all (100%, n = 49/49) the children studied were HPV-DNA negative. A positive and significant correlation was observed between perinatal transmission

  4. Perinatal transmission of human papilomavirus DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafini Eduardo P

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose was to study the perinatal transmission of human papillomavirus DNA (HPV-DNA in 63 mother-newborn pairs, besides looking at the epidemiological factors involved in the viral DNA transmission. The following sampling methods were used: (1 in the pregnant woman, when was recruited, in cervix and clinical lesions of the vagina, vulva and perineal region; (2 in the newborn, (a buccal, axillary and inguinal regions; (b nasopharyngeal aspirate, and (c cord blood; (3 in the children, buccal was repeated in the 4th week and 6th and 12th month of life. HPV-DNA was identified using two methodologies: multiplex PCR (PGMY09 and MY11 primers and nested-PCR (genotypes 6/11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 42, 52 and 58. Perinatal transmission was considered when concordance was found in type-specific HPV between mother/newborn or mother/child. HPV-DNA genital was detected in 49 pregnant women submitted to delivery. Eleven newborns (22.4%, n = 11/49 were HPV-DNA positive. In 8 cases (16.3%, n = 8/49 there was type specific HPV concordance between mother/newborn samples. At the end of the first month of life three children (6.1%, n = 3/49 became HPV-DNA positive, while two remained positive from birth. In 3 cases (100%, n = 3/3 there was type specific HPV concordance between mother/newborn samples. In the 6th month, a child (2%, n = 1/49 had become HPV-DNA positive between the 1st and 6th month of life, and there was type specific HPV concordance of mother/newborn samples. All the HPV-DNA positive children (22.4%, n = 11/49 at birth and at the end first month of life (6.1%, n = 3/49 became HPV-DNA negative at the age of 6 months. The HPV-DNA positive child (2%, n = 1/49 from 1st to the 6th month of life became HPV-DNA negative between the 6th and 12th month of life and one child had anogenital warts. In the twelfth month all (100%, n = 49/49 the children studied were HPV-DNA negative. A positive and significant correlation was observed between perinatal

  5. Duelo por muerte perinatal, un duelo desautorizado

    OpenAIRE

    Martos López, Isabel María; Sánchez Guisado, María del Mar; Guedes Arbelo, Chaxiraxi

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: el duelo perinatal tiene unas características que lo diferencian de duelos de otros tipos: la proximidad entre el nacimiento y la muerte, la juventud de los progenitores para los que supone su primer contacto con la muerte y lo inesperado del suceso. Objetivos: conocer y profundizar en las características del duelo p...

  6. [Interprofessional collaboration in perinatality: an obstetrical goal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epiney, M; Vial, Y

    2009-10-21

    In the field of perinatality, development of prenatal diagnosis and neonatal management have been impressive. But these were also associated with the emergence of the increasingly important emotional dimension for parents and professionals. Obstetricians dealing with the difficult breaking of bad news, the uncertainties of prenatal diagnosis and the complex somatic, psychological and social follow-up have to work in a multidisciplinary approach. The securing role of a coherent teamwork is recognised by parents as well as health care providers This article discusses interprofessional relationship as an obstetrical goal and give some landmarks in order to improve the management and the collaboration with parents.

  7. Risk factors and prognostic models for perinatal asphyxia at term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensing, S.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis will focus on the risk factors and prognostic models for adverse perinatal outcome at term, with a special focus on perinatal asphyxia and obstetric interventions during labor to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes. For the majority of the studies in this thesis we were allowed to use data

  8. The value of incorporating avoidable factors into perinatal audits-

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To assess whether incorporating a system of identifying, classifying and grading avoidable factors into a perinatal audit can be useful in identifying problem areas. Design. Descriptive study. Setting. Black urban population, Pretoria, South Africa. Subjects. All perinatal deaths of infants weighing more than 1 000 g ...

  9. Cardiotocography and perinatal outcome in women with and without ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is little evidence linking meconium stained liquor to poor perinatal outcome and clear amniotic fluid is frequently considered a reassuring sign during labour. Objective: To determine whether there are any differences in cardiotocography (CTG) tracings and perinatal outcomes in women with meconium ...

  10. Prospective audit of perinatal mortality among inborn babies in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-05-05

    May 5, 2010 ... Background: The perinatal mortality rate remains an important indicator of maternal care and maternal health and nutrition, and also reflects the quality of obstetric and pediatric care available. The causes of most of the perinatal deaths are preventable, thus making it important to identify the risk factors in ...

  11. Perinatal mortality at Frontier Hospital, Queenstown - a 6-year audit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To determine the perinatal mortality rate (PNMR), the neonatal mortality rate (NNMR), the major obstetric and neonatal causes of death, the occurrence of avoidable factors in perinatal deaths, and syphilis serology at the time of delivery at Frontier Hospital, Queenstown. Design. The study was an audit of ...

  12. Maternal and perinatal mortality figures in 249 South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To detennine maternal and perinatal mortalrty ratios in a large number of South African hospitals and assess the differences in mortality figures among the main ethnic groups. Design. Questionnaire survey involving confidential reports on maternal and perinatal deaths submitted over the 5-year period 1988 ...

  13. Perinatal mortality audit at Jimma hospital, South- Western Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective review of perinatal deaths that occurred during 1990-1999 at Jimma hospital, a teaching hospital in South-Western Ethiopia was conducted with the objective of determining the overall perinatal mortality rate and trend, identifying major causes and suggest possible preventive strategies. Record books of the ...

  14. Outcomes of neonates with perinatal asphyxia at a tertiary academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over 9 million children die each year during the perinatal and neonatal periods, and nearly all of these deaths occur in developing countries.[1]. Perinatal asphyxia is a serious clinical problem globally. Every year approximately 4 million babies are born asphyxiated; this results in 1 million deaths and an equal number of.

  15. The value of incorporating avoidable factors into perinatal audits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To assess whether incorporating a system of identifying, classifying and grading avoidable factors into a perinatal audit can be useful in identifying problem areas. Design. Descriptive study. Setting. Black urban population, Pretoria, South Africa. Subjects. All perinatal deaths of infants weighing more than 1 000 g ...

  16. Modifying CBT for Perinatal Depression: What Do Women Want?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahen, Heather; Fedock, Gina; Henshaw, Erin; Himle, Joseph A.; Forman, Jane; Flynn, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    The evidence for the efficacy of CBT for depression during the perinatal period is mixed. This was a qualitative study that aimed to understand the perinatal-specific needs of depressed women in an effort to inform treatment modifications that may increase the relevance and acceptability of CBT during this period. Stratified purposeful sampling…

  17. Perinatal mortality in University of Nigeria Teaching Hospitan (UNTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of this number, 5942 were live births, 434 were still births while 411 were early neonatal deaths. 74 babies were dropped from the study (1.16%), due to insufficient information and mutilation of some parts of the records. The total perinatal deaths was 845 giving a perinatal mortality rate (PMR) of 133.94/1000, a high ...

  18. Perinatal Outcome of Macrosomic Births in Port Harcourt | Ojule ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Macrosomic babies are at increased risk of adverse perinatal outcome and therefore constitute a high risk group of neonates and the incidence appears to be rising. The objective was to determine the incidence of fetal macrosomia, and the perinatal outcome of macrosomic babies, compare with matched term, ...

  19. Does perinatal asphyxia contribute to neurological dysfunction in preterm infants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Iersel, Patricia A. M.; Bakker, Saskia C. M.; Jonker, Arnold J. H.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Background: Children born preterm are known to be at risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. The role of perinatal asphyxia in this increased risk is still a matter of debate. Aim: To analyze the contribution of perinatal asphyxia in a population of preterm infants admitted to a secondary paediatric

  20. Influence of Perinatal Risk Factors on Premature Labor Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agamurad A. Orazmuradov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, for the first time, the problem of premature labor (PL is considered from the standpoint of the concept of perinatal obstetric risk. The obtained results show that the optimal choice of the mode of delivery must be based on gestational age and perinatal risk (PR factors with calculation of their intrapartum gain (IG.

  1. Maternal and perinatal outcome of patients with severe pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    Maternal and perinatal outcome of patients with severe pre-eclampsia in a tertiary health centre in south-western Nigeria: a cohort study. *Lamina M A, Akinsanya A F and Ogunsowo KM. Original Article. ABSTRACT. Objective: To determine the effect of introducing MgSO on the maternal and perinatal outcomes of. 4.

  2. Perinatal outcomes in 375 children born after oocyte donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchau, Sara S; Loft, Anne; Larsen, Elisabeth C

    2013-01-01

    To describe perinatal outcomes in children born after oocyte donation (OD) compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and spontaneous conception (SC).......To describe perinatal outcomes in children born after oocyte donation (OD) compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and spontaneous conception (SC)....

  3. Perinatal asphyxia in a specialist hospital in Port Harcourt, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perinatal asphyxia in a specialist hospital in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. BA West, PI Opara. Abstract. Objectives: To find the prevalence, and identify risk factors and outcome in neonates who were admitted into the Braithewaite Memorial Specialist Hospital (BMSH) for perinatal asphyxia. Method: This was a descriptive cross ...

  4. Maternal and fetal risk factors affecting perinatal mortality in early and late fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Oya; Selçuk, Selçuk; Kumru, Pınar; Asoğlu, Mehmet Reşit; Mahmutoğlu, Didar; Boza, Barış; Türkyılmaz, Gürcan; Bütün, Zafer; Arısoy, Resul; Tandoğan, Bülent

    2015-12-01

    To determine the factors which affect the perinatal deaths in early and late fetal growth restriction (FGR) fetuses using threshold of estimated fetal weight (EFW) 34 weeks. Factors which affect the perinatal deaths were analyzed descriptively in early and late FGR. The perinatal mortality was calculated by adding the number of stillbirths and neonatal deaths. The study included 86 early and 185 late FGR fetuses, 31 resulted in perinatal deaths, 28 perinatal deaths were in early FGR, and three perinatal deaths were in late FGR. Perinatal deaths occurred more commonly in early FGR fetuses with an EFW perinatal death in early FGR. All three perinatal deaths in late FGR occurred in fetuses with EFW perinatal death was found significantly higher in increased vascular impedance of UtAs whatever the umbilical artery Doppler. Only EFW perinatal death in late FGR in comparison with early FGR. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Potentially avoidable perinatal deaths in Denmark and Sweden 1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Borch-Christensen, H; Larsen, S

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 1950 the perinatal mortality has been significantly higher in Denmark than in Sweden. In 1991 the rate in Denmark was 8.0/1000 deliveries compared to 6.5/1000 in Sweden. An international audit was designed to investigate whether the perinatal death rates in the two countries...... infants (0.00195 and 0.00145) and intrapartum deaths of non-malformed infants (0.00042 and 0.00019) was significantly higher in Denmark than in Sweden. CONCLUSION: Application of the Nordic-Baltic Perinatal Death Classification on perinatal deaths in Denmark and Sweden in 1991 raises the questions...... as to why the rate of perinatal death of malformed infants is higher in Denmark than in Sweden and whether intrapartum care in Denmark could be improved....

  6. Term and postterm twin gestations. Placental cause of perinatal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleker, O P; Oosting, H

    1997-11-01

    To compare perinatal mortality in twins and singletons and to study the influence of fetal sex, placentation and maternal parity on perinatal mortality in term and postterm twin gestations. The subjects of the study were 1,511 twin pairs and 3,022 singletons. All were born at a gestational age of 27 weeks or more in two clinics in Amsterdam between 1931 and 1975. Perinatal mortality was lower in twins than in singletons until 37-38 weeks and higher afterwards. In twins, perinatal mortality was higher in boys than in girls, in monochorial than in dichorial twins, and in primiparae than in multiparae, especially in the last trimester. The development of the twin placenta may set limits in term and postterm twin gestations and may be responsible, to some extent, for the increase in perinatal mortality.

  7. Potentially avoidable perinatal deaths in Denmark and Sweden 1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Borch-Christensen, H; Larsen, S

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 1950 the perinatal mortality has been significantly higher in Denmark than in Sweden. In 1991 the rate in Denmark was 8.0/1000 deliveries compared to 6.5/1000 in Sweden. An international audit was designed to investigate whether the perinatal death rates in the two countries...... to some extent could reflect differences in the quality of care, indicated by the numbers of perinatal deaths in categories of potentially avoidable deaths. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical records of 97% of all perinatal deaths in 1991 in the two countries were analyzed. A new classification focusing...... on potential avoidability from a health services perspective was elaborated at a Nordic-Baltic workshop, using the variables: time of death in relation to admission and delivery, fetal malformation, gestational age, growth-retardation and Apgar score at 5 min. RESULTS: Rates of perinatal deaths of malformed...

  8. Maternal vitamin D levels and the risk of perinatal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, India; Flatley, Christopher; Kumar, Sailesh

    2017-07-01

    To determine the association between maternal vitamin D levels and perinatal death. A retrospective cross-sectional study of all non-anomalous, singleton births (≥24 weeks) with perinatal death compared to a matched control group. Only pregnancies with a recorded vitamin D level at booking (8-19 weeks gestation) were included for analysis. Maternal vitamin D levels were categorized into normal, deficient and insufficient cohorts and variables compared between the three groups. There were 31 perinatal deaths which were compared to 111 controls. Median vitamin D levels were lower in the perinatal death cohort compared to the control group (55 nmol/L versus 64 nmol/L, p = 0.43). There was no significant increase in deaths between the normal and deficient (p = 0.33) or insufficient (p = 0.09) groups. Low maternal vitamin D levels at booking were not associated with an increased risk of perinatal demise.

  9. Current concepts in perinatal mineral metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, Yasuhisa; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The serum levels of calcium (Ca) and phosphate are maintained higher in the fetus than in the pregnant mother, especially in late gestation, to meet the demands of fetal bone development. In order to maintain this fetal stage-specific mineral homeostasis, the placenta plays a critical role through active transcellular mineral transport. Although the molecular mechanism of transplacental Ca transport has been well studied, little is known about the transport mechanism of phosphate and magnesium. Maternal mineral homeostasis is also altered during pregnancy to supply minerals to the fetus. In the lactating mother, osteocytic osteolysis is suggested to be involved in the supply of minerals to the baby. The levels of some calcitropic and phosphotropic (Ca- and phosphate-regulating, respectively) hormones in the fetus are also different from those in the adult. The PTH level in the fetus is lower than that in the mother and nonpregnant adult. It is suggested, however, that low fetal PTH plays an important role in fetal mineral metabolism. The concentration of PTHrP in the fetus is much higher than that of PTH and plays a critical role in perinatal Ca homeostasis. Uncovering the molecular mechanisms for fetal stage-specific mineral metabolism will lead to better management of perinatal patients with mineral abnormalities. PMID:26865750

  10. Perinatal mortality in Indonesia: an unfinished agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riawati Jahja

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal mortality is a profound issue in maternal and child health due to its close relation with the maternal condition. There exist Millennium Development Goals (MDGs which are to be achieved by 2015. These are coupled with a continuing need for comprehensively monitoring and identifying factors associated with perinatal mortality, which is a primary concern for developing countries inclusive of Indonesia. Previous and on-going health programs could have brought about strategic interventions but as different attributes can emerge due to epidemiological transition, and given the fact that associated factors may remain persistent, forward thinking strategies in public health are forever in need of renewal.     Results from our research show that educational variables, poor awareness towards proper antenatal care visits and weak services at the front-line of healthcare delivery (community outreach worsen the condition of childbearing women, raising the question of biological risk factors in line with socio-economic variables.

  11. Implementing a perinatal substance abuse screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallman, Carol M; Smith, Pat Bohling; Moore, Karen

    2011-08-01

    Newborns exposed to illicit drugs or alcohol in utero can face physical, social, and emotional obstacles. Outcomes for children with fetal alcohol syndrome disorders are well documented in the literature. Data exist on the effects of maternal illicit drug use. Identifying perinatal substance abuse can increase positive outcomes for newborns and create the opportunity for mothers to access assistance through referrals to community resources.This article provides insight on how hospitals can implement an effective screening tool through patient surveying and testing, nurse education, and collaboration with community agencies in a multidisciplinary advisory committee setting.This discussed method of universal perinatal screening results in increased positive screens and increased referrals for care and support. Emphasis is placed on universal screening and testing methods. Nurses are trained in motivational interview techniques that convey empathy, listening, and objectivity. Community agencies partner with hospital staff through onsite meetings with families that determine the best discharge plan for the newborn. The multidisciplinary advisory committee meets continually to discuss future enhancements.

  12. Perinatal testicular torsion and medicolegal considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoni, F; Troili, G M; Pelosi, M; Ricci, S

    2014-06-01

    Perinatal testicular torsion (PTT) is a very complex condition because of rarity of presentation and diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. In presence of perinatal testicular torsion, the involvement of contralateral testis can be present also in absence of other indications which suggest the bilateral involvement; therefore, occurrences supported by literature do not exclude the use of surgery to avoid the risk of omitted or delayed diagnosis. The data on possible recovery of these testicles are not satisfactory, and treatment consists of an observational approach ("wait-and-see") or an interventional approach. The hypothesis of randomized clinical trials seems impracticable because of rarity of disease. The authors present a case of PTT, analyzing injuries due to clinical and surgical management of these patients, according to medicolegal profile. The delayed diagnosis and the choice of an incorrect therapeutic approach can compromise the position of healthcare professionals, defective in terms of skill, prudence and diligence. Endocrine insufficiency is an unfortunate event. The analysis of literature seems to support, because of high risk, a surgical approach aimed not only at resolution of unilateral pathology or prevention of a relapse, but also at prevention of contralateral testicular torsion.

  13. Perinatal death investigations: What is current practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijkamp, J W; Sebire, N J; Bouman, K; Korteweg, F J; Erwich, J J H M; Gordijn, S J

    2017-06-01

    Perinatal death (PD) is a devastating obstetric complication. Determination of cause of death helps in understanding why and how it occurs, and it is an indispensable aid to parents wanting to understand why their baby died and to determine the recurrence risk and management in subsequent pregnancy. Consequently, a perinatal death requires adequate diagnostic investigation. An important first step in the analysis of PD is to identify the case circumstances, including relevant details regarding maternal history, obstetric history and current pregnancy (complications are evaluated and recorded). In the next step, placental examination is suggested in all cases, together with molecular cytogenetic evaluation and fetal autopsy. Investigation for fetal-maternal hemorrhage by Kleihauer is also recommended as standard. In cases where parents do not consent to autopsy, alternative approaches such as minimally invasive postmortem examination, postmortem magnetic resonance imaging, and fetal photographs are good alternatives. After all investigations have been performed it is important to combine findings from the clinical review and investigations together, to identify the most probable cause of death and counsel the parents regarding their loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Etiology and perinatal outcome of polyhydramnios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, M; Voetsch, J; Koidl, C; Schest, E; Haeusler, M; Lang, U; Klaritsch, P

    2014-08-01

    To determine causes of polyhydramnios and the respective perinatal outcome. We retrospectively analyzed cases with polyhydramnios at the Medical University Graz, Austria from 2003 - 2011. Inclusion criteria were single deepest pocket ≥ 8  cm, amniotic fluid index ≥ 25  cm, each of the latter parameters > 95th percentile or subjective impression. Etiologies, including TORCH infection, diabetes and congenital malformations, as well as perinatal outcome were evaluated. Out of 860 singleton pregnancies with polyhydramnios, 2.9 % had positive TORCH serology, 8.5 % had congenital anomalies, 19.8 % had maternal diabetes, and 68.8 % were idiopathic. The most common fetal anomalies were cardiac defects (32.9 %). Elective caesarean sections were more common in the groups with malformations and maternal diabetes. Low birth weight combined with severe polyhydramnios or maternal diabetes was associated with malformations. Diagnosis of polyhydramnios should prompt glucose-tolerance testing, detailed sonography including fetal echocardiography, and TORCH serology. Especially pregnancies with polyhydramnios and small fetuses as well as those with maternal diabetes should be carefully evaluated for malformations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Umbilical cord coiling index and perinatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Nivedita S; Kulkarni, Sunanda R; Lohitashwa, Renu

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the perinatal outcome with the abnormal umbilical cord coiling index. This prospective study was carried out in the department of OBG at Adichunchangiri Institute of Medical Sciences, B.G.Nagara, Mandya, Karnataka, India from January 2008 to August 2010. 200 patients who were in active labour with term gestations, irrespective of their parities, who had singleton pregnancies with live babies who were either delivered by vaginal or LSCS were included in the study. Umbilical cord coiling index was calculated and it was correlated with various perinatal parameters like birth weight, meconium stained liquor, Apgar score, ponderal index and foetal growth restriction. Chi square and Fisher exact tests were used to find the significance of study parameters. There was a significant correlation between the hypercoiled cords (UCI >90(th) percentile) and IUGR of the babies (p value of UCI which was UCI which was > 90(th) percentile was associated with IUGR and low ponderal indices. Hypocoiled cords or UCI which was <10th percentile was associated with meconium staining, Apgar score at 1 min of <4 and at 5 min of <7, more LSCS rates and more NICU admissions.

  16. Mortalidade perinatal em São Paulo, Brasil Perinatal mortality in S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Laurenti

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi analisada a mortalidade perinatal em São Paulo num período de dois anos. Partiu o estudo da totalidade dos atestados de nascidos mortos e de uma amostra de óbitos de menores de sete dias, para a qual a metodologia foi a de entrevistas domiciliares e junto aos médicos e hospitais que tenham prestado assistência às crianças falecidas. O coeficiente de mortalidade perinatal encontrado foi igual a 42,04 por mil nascidos vivos. Esse valor apresenta-se bastante elevado quando comparado ao de áreas desenvolvidas. Foi verificado que ele poderia ser diminuído com a simples redução dos coeficientes específicos por algumas causas evitáveis a nível de pré-natal (sífilis congênita, doenças próprias ou associadas à gravidez, do parto (distócias, traumatismos obstétricos e anóxia, ou da atenção ao recém-nascido (causas infecciosas, do aparelho respiratório, hemorragias e certas anóxias. O coeficiente de mortalidade perinatal segundo a idade da mãe mostrou que o risco varia com a idade, apresentando-se maior nas mulheres de 40 a 49 anos.Perinatal mortality in S. Paulo, over a period of two years, was analysed. The study took in all death certificates of the stillborn and a sample of children under a week of age. For the latter the methodology used was by interviewing phisicians and hospitals that cared for the deceased. The perinatal mortality rate was 42,05 per thousand live births. This value is really high when compared with those of developed areas. Nevertheless it can be reduced once the specific rates for some of the avoidable diseases be reduced by proper pre-natal care (congenital syphilis, illness pertaining to or associated with pregnancy. This can also be done by improving care at delivery (Distocias, obstetrical traumatism and anoxia and towards the newlyborn (infeccious diseases, respiratory diseases, haemorrages and anoxia. The perinatal mortality rate varies with the age of the mother, the risk being largest in

  17. Perinatal arterial ischemic stroke: presentation, risk factors, evaluation, and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Laura L; Rivkin, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Perinatal arterial ischemic stroke is as common as large vessel arterial ischemic stroke in adults and leads to significant morbidity. Perinatal arterial ischemic stroke is the most common identifiable cause of cerebral palsy and can lead to cognitive and behavioral difficulties that are amortized over a lifetime. The literature on perinatal arterial ischemic stroke was reviewed and analyzed. Risk factors for perinatal arterial ischemic stroke include those that are maternal, neonatal, and placental. The most common clinical signs at presentation are seizures and hemiparesis. Evaluation should begin with thorough history acquisition and physical examination followed by magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, with consideration of magnetic resonance angiography of the head and neck, echocardiogram, and thrombophilia evaluation. Treatment beginning early to include physical, speech, and occupational therapies including constraint-induced movement therapy and close cognitive and developmental follow-up may be beneficial. Future treatments may include transcranial magnetic stimulation, hypothermia, and erythropoietin. Perinatal arterial ischemic stroke comprises a group of arterial ischemic injuries that can occur in the prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal periods in term and preterm infants with different types of perinatal arterial ischemic stroke having different clinical presentations, risk factors, and long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Perinatal market penetration rate. A tool to evaluate regional perinatal programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, W F; McGill, L

    1987-01-01

    Very small babies born in tertiary centers fare better than outborn babies referred for tertiary care after birth. Viewing the 1001-1500 gm regional cohort of fetuses as a potential "market" for center delivery, and measuring a center's penetration into this market, quantitates how well a center draws to itself these small, high-risk fetuses for delivery. An Illinois center's annual penetration rate into its regional market for the years 1973-1983 is presented and significant increases are found. The penetration rates of nine Illinois perinatal centers are calculated and wide discrepancies are found. Defining a high-risk regional cohort as a market stresses a perinatal center's obligation to its region. The penetration rate into a defined market measures how well a center fulfills this obligation.

  19. Workup for Perinatal Stroke Does Not Predict Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Laura L; Beaute, Jeanette; Kapur, Kush; Danehy, Amy R; Bernson-Leung, Miya E; Malkin, Hayley; Rivkin, Michael J; Trenor, Cameron C

    2017-08-01

    Perinatal stroke, including neonatal and presumed perinatal presentation, represents the age in childhood in which stroke occurs most frequently. The roles of thrombophilia, arteriopathy, and cardiac anomalies in perinatal ischemic stroke are currently unclear. We took a uniform approach to perinatal ischemic stroke evaluation to study these risk factors and their association with recurrent stroke. We reviewed records of perinatal stroke patients evaluated from August 2008 to February 2016 at a single referral center. Demographics, echocardiography, arterial imaging, and thrombophilia testing were collected. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher exact test. Across 215 cases, the median follow-up was 3.17 years (1.49, 6.46). Females comprised 42.8% of cases. Age of presentation was neonatal (110, 51.2%) or presumed perinatal (105, 48.8%). The median age at diagnosis was 2.9 days (interquartile range, 2.0-9.9) for neonatal stroke and 12.9 months (interquartile range, 8.7-32.8) for presumed perinatal stroke. Strokes were classified as arterial (149, 69.3%), venous (60, 27.9%), both (4, 1.9%), or uncertain (2, 0.9%) by consensus imaging review. Of the 215 cases, there were 6 (2.8%) recurrent ischemic cerebrovascular events. Abnormal thrombophilia testing was not associated with recurrent stroke, except for a single patient with combined antithrombin deficiency and protein C deficiency. After excluding venous events, 155 patients were evaluated for arteriopathy and cardioembolic risk factors; neither was associated with recurrent stroke. Positive family history of thrombosis was not predictive of abnormal thrombophilia testing. Thrombophilia, arteriopathy, or cardioembolic risk factors were not predictive of recurrent events after perinatal stroke. Thrombophilia evaluation in perinatal stroke should only rarely be considered. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Detecting the severity of perinatal anxiety with the Perinatal Anxiety Screening Scale (PASS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Susanne; Byrne, Shannon L; Dedman, Kellie; Hagan, Rosemary; Coo, Soledad; Oxnam, Elizabeth; Doherty, Dorota; Cunningham, Nadia; Page, Andrew C

    2015-11-01

    The Perinatal Anxiety Screening Scale (PASS; Somerville et al., 2014) reliably identifies perinatal women at risk of problematic anxiety when a clinical cut-off score of 26 is used. This study aimed to identify a severity continuum of anxiety symptoms with the PASS to enhance screening, treatment and research for perinatal anxiety. Antenatal and postnatal women (n=410) recruited from the antenatal clinics and mental health services at an obstetric hospital completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), the Spielberg State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI), and the PASS. The women referred to mental health services were assessed to determine anxiety diagnoses via a diagnostic interview conducted by an experienced mental health professional from the Department of Psychological Medicine - King Edward Memorial Hospital. Three normative groups for the PASS, namely minimal anxiety, mild-moderate anxiety, and severe anxiety, were identified based on the severity of anxiety indicated on the standardised scales and anxiety diagnoses. Two cut-off points for the normative groups were calculated using the Jacobson-Truax method (Jacobson and Truax, 1991) resulting in three severity ranges: 'minimal anxiety'; 'mild-moderate anxiety'; and 'severe anxiety'. The most frequent diagnoses in the study sample were adjustment disorder, mixed anxiety and depression, generalised anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. This may limit the generalisability of the severity range results to other anxiety diagnoses including obsessive compulsive disorder and specific phobia. Severity ranges for the PASS add value to having a clinically validated cut-off score in the detection and monitoring of problematic perinatal anxiety. The PASS can now be used to identify risk of an anxiety disorder and the severity ranges can indicate developing risk for early referrals for further assessments

  1. Information Architecture for Perinatal Registration in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossen, William T F; Arns-Schiere, Anne Marieke

    In the Netherlands, the perinatal registry has undergone significant changes in the past decades. The purpose of this article is to describe the current health care information architecture for the national perinatal registry, including how the national data set is arranged and how electronic messages are used to submit data. We provide implications for women's health care providers based on the creation and implementation of the Dutch perinatal registry system. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Perinatal mortality at pre-Columbian Teotihuacan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, R

    1986-04-01

    The skeletal population of 166 individuals from a low-status apartment compound of the pre-Columbian city of Teotihuacan contained 52 perinatal individuals. The most perilous time of the lifespan was around birth, as revealed by life table analysis. Femur length was not increasing during the last month of gestation, and individuals were probably shorter somatically at birth than modern standards or historic-period Arikara skeletal controls. The possibility of intrauterine growth retardation is investigated through paleo-pathological indicators of prenatal growth arrest. The evidence of prenatal stress and the high rate of mortality at birth seem to indicate that this New World preindustrial urban population faced similar health and nutritional stresses as Old World preindustrial cities.

  3. [Management of preeclampsia in a perinatal network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, N; Branger, B

    2010-04-01

    At community level, the perinatal management can be summarized as follows: - A patient with a previous history of PE, with a currently uneventful pregnancy, may be followed-up at community level by a midwife or her GP, on the condition that she underwent a preliminary OG consultation, preferably pre-conceptually, producing a series of written recommendations for this patient's follow-up. - In case of moderately severe PE, investigations are to be carried out by the OG on an in-patient basis and a tight follow-up organized. (convention or written protocol). - In case of severe PE, immediate admission is compulsory. The birthplace is to be chosen according to gestational age, criteria for maternal and foetal distress and the anticipated need for post-natal intensive care admission. This must be concluded by a post-partum consultation with the OG. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Current trends in Irish perinatal mortality.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mahony, R

    2010-06-01

    This was a retrospective review of normally formed perinatal deaths among 176,620 births at the National Maternity Hospital (1984-2007). Prelabor stillbirths were categorised by presumed cause of death including unexplained, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), placental abruption, red cell alloimmunisation (RCA) and deaths related to prematurity. Peripartum deaths included intrapartum and first week neonatal deaths. The post-mortem rate, initially almost 100%, fell to 60%. Data were analysed using the Mantel-Haenszel chi square test for trends. In the study period there was a significant reduction in the PNM, largely because of a fall in death related to prematurity, term peripartum death, death at 42 weeks or greater, placental abruption, death related to IUGR and RCA (P < 0.01). Overall the unexplained still birth rate was unchanged throughout the study period (p = 0.8) despite a highly significant (p < 0.001) increase in obstetric intervention particularly induction of labor and caesarean section.

  5. Instrucción familiar perinatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Hoyos Dolly Magnolia

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Durante los últimos años ha habido una serie de descubrimientos científicos en el campo de la medicina y la educación que nos han permitido contar con recursos tendientes a garantizar que la mujer llegue a la edad fértil en óptimas condiciones. Con el objeto de evitar riesgos se procura excelente atención prenatal y en el parto. La atención prenatal que se proporciona al niño lo lleva a crecer, sano, alegre, creativo, autónomo, flexible, seguro de sí mismo, y la atención médica obstétrica adecuada hace que la morbimortalidad perinatal disminuya.


  6. [Application of Epigenetics in Perinatal Nursing Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Hsueh-Fen; Kao, Chien-Huei; Gau, Meei-Ling

    2017-04-01

    Epigenetics is a field of biomedicine that expanded tremendously during the 1980s. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression independent of underlying DNA (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid) sequence, which not only affect this generation but will be passed to subsequent generations. Although conception is the critical moment for making decisions regarding gene mapping and fetal health, studies have shown that perinatal nursing care practices also affect the genetic remodeling processes and the subsequent health of the mother and her offspring. To optimize maternal-infant and the offspring health, it is important to ensure that the new mother get adequate nutrition, reduce stress levels, adopt gentle birth practices, facilitate exclusive breastfeeding, and avoid contacting toxic substances.

  7. Impact of risk factors for perinatal events in Japan: Introduction of a newly created perinatal event score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yoshio; Sasaki, Kemal; Kakinuma, Kaoru; Kakinuma, Toshiyuki; Tagawa, Miki; Imai, Ken; Nonaka, Hiroaki; Ohwada, Michitaka; Satoh, Shoji

    2017-05-01

    A cohort study was performed to clarify the influence of risk factors on perinatal events (obstetric complications and/or perinatal deaths). This cohort study reviewed 395 785 births from 2011 to 2013. Women with singleton pregnancies delivered after 22 weeks of gestation were included. The OR were determined on multivariate analysis. The perinatal event score (PES) for risk factors, which is the product of the OR of risk factors for obstetric complications, OR of risk factors for perinatal death, and OR of obstetric complications for perinatal death, was introduced to clarify the impact of each risk combination. There were 20 risk factors such as maternal age and medical complications relating to the 11 obstetric complications, including pregnancy-induced hypertension and preterm labor. As a result, 77 combinations of risk factors and obstetric complications were found to be significant. Six obstetric complications such as preterm labor and cervical insufficiency were found to be related to perinatal death. Two factors were found to be directly related to perinatal death: age >40 years old (OR, 1.24; 95%CI: 1.11-1.39) and essential hypertension (OR, 1.56; 95%CI: 1.19-2.05). As a result, PES ranged from 1.07 (primipara for premature rupture of membrane) to 40.1 (essential hypertension for placental abruption), and high PES (≥8) was identified in 21 combinations of risk factors and obstetric complications. This newly created score for perinatal events, PES, can be used as an indicator of the impact of risk factors on perinatal events. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Sleep and perinatal mood disorders: a critical review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ross, Lori E; Murray, Brian J; Steiner, Meir

    2005-01-01

    .... In this article we review what is known about changes in sleep physiology and behaviour during the perinatal period, with a focus on the relations between sleep and postpartum "blues," depression...

  9. Hemodynamic and metabolic correlates of perinatal white matter injury severity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riddle, Art; Maire, Jennifer; Cai, Victor; Nguyen, Thuan; Gong, Xi; Hansen, Kelly; Grafe, Marjorie R; Hohimer, A Roger; Back, Stephen A

    2013-01-01

    Although the spectrum of perinatal white matter injury (WMI) in preterm infants is shifting from cystic encephalomalacia to milder forms of WMI, the factors that contribute to this changing spectrum are unclear...

  10. Management of renal dysfunction following term perinatal hypoxia-ischaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweetman, Deirdre U

    2013-03-01

    Acute kidney injury frequently develops following the term perinatal hypoxia-ischaemia. Quantifying the degree of acute kidney injury is difficult, however, as the methods currently in use are suboptimal. Acute kidney injury management is largely supportive with little evidence basis for many interventions. This review discusses management strategies and novel biomarkers that may improve diagnosis and management of renal injury following perinatal hypoxia-ischaemia.

  11. Survival in the perinatal period: a prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, B M; Guilkey, D K; Schwartz, J B; Flieger, W

    1993-07-01

    A prospective study of 3080 Filipino mothers and non-twin births in 33 communities is used to study the determinants of mortality in week 1 postpartum. The results show significant nonlinear birth weight effects and the importance of environmental contamination, particularly for infants born by traditional methods at home, and several other intermediate and underlying determinants of perinatal mortality. The pathways through which important sociodemographic factors affect perinatal mortality are also presented.

  12. Predictors of caregiver depression and family functioning after perinatal stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Bemister, Taryn B; Brooks, Brian L.; Dyck, Richard H.; Kirton, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Background Perinatal stroke is a leading cause of cerebral palsy and lifelong neurological morbidity. Studies on perinatal stroke outcomes are increasing, although examinations of its broader impact on parents and families have been limited. A recent study found that parents of children with moderate and severe outcomes have increased risk for psychosocial concerns, including depressive symptoms and poor family functioning. Other parents adapt remarkably well, but how this occurs is unknown. ...

  13. Sleep and perinatal mood disorders: a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Lori E; Murray, Brian J.; Steiner, Meir

    2005-01-01

    Pregnancy and the postpartum period are recognized as times of vulnerability to mood disorders, including postpartum depression and psychosis. Recently, changes in sleep physiology and sleep deprivation have been proposed as having roles in perinatal psychiatric disorders. In this article we review what is known about changes in sleep physiology and behaviour during the perinatal period, with a focus on the relations between sleep and postpartum “blues,” depression and psychosis and on sleep-...

  14. Towards improving perinatal maternal mental health in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Niemi, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Major depression is increasing world-wide, and is the third leading cause of the global disease burden. In Vietnam, perinatal depression is underdiagnosed and under-treated, leading to severe consequences for the pregnant mother, her child and surroundings. AIMS: The overall aim was to improve knowledge about perinatal depression to contribute to evidence based development of prevention and treatment strategies in Vietnam. The specific aims were: To generate a report of the mental health prio...

  15. Spatial patterns of preventable perinatal mortality in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Rita de Cássia de Sousa; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Braga, José Uéleres; Natividade, Márcio Santos da

    2017-08-17

    To identify the spatial distribution patterns and areas of higher risk of preventable perinatal mortality in the city of Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil. We carried out a spatial aggregated study in 2007, considering the weighting areas (census tracts contiguous sets) of Salvador, of which the center and north present low life conditions. Data were obtained from national vital statistics systems and the 2010 Census. Addresses of live births and stillbirths were geocoded by weighting area. The spatial distribution of the perinatal mortality rate was analyzed from thematic maps. Spatial dependence was evaluated by the Global and Local Geary's and Moran's Indexes. Crude and smoothed perinatal mortality rates were high in areas situated to the north, west, and in center of Salvador. The smoothed rates in weighting areas ranged from 4.9/1,000 to 22.3/1,000 births. Of all perinatal deaths, 92.1% could have been prevented. We identified spatial dependence for preventable perinatal mortality for care in pregnancy, with neighboring areas with high risk in the north of the city. The preventability potential of perinatal mortality was high in Salvador, in 2007. The spatial distribution pattern with higher rates in disadvantaged areas of the city suggests the existence of social inequalities in health. The characteristics of the process of urban development of Salvador, which has inadequate prenatal care, possibly influenced the magnitude and spatial distribution pattern of this mortality.

  16. Perinatal pathology: practice suggestions for limited-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Drucilla J

    2013-06-01

    The practice of perinatal pathology in much of the world suffers, as do all subspecialties of anatomic pathology, from inadequate resources (equipment, consumables, and both professional and technical personnel), from lack of education (not only of the pathologist but also of the clinicians responsible for sending the specimens, and the technicians processing the specimens), and from lack of appropriate government sector support. Perinatal pathology has significant public health-related utility and should be championing its service by providing maternal and fetal/infant mortality and morbidity data to governmental health ministries. It is with this pathologic data that informed decisions can be made on health-related courses of action and allocation of resources. These perinatal pathology data are needed to develop appropriate public health initiatives, specifically toward achieving the Millennium Developmental Goals as the best way to effectively decrease infant and maternal deaths and to determine causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity. The following overview will focus on the utility of perinatal pathology specifically as related to its public health function and will suggest methods to improve its service in resource-poor settings. This article is offered not as a critique of the current practice that most pathologists find themselves working in globally, but to provide suggestions for improving perinatal pathology services, which could be implemented with the limited available resources and manpower most pathology departments currently have. In addition, we offer suggestions for graded improvements ("ramping up") over time.

  17. The implementation of unit-based perinatal mortality audit in perinatal cooperation units in the northern region of the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Diem Mariet Th

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal (mortality audit can be considered to be a way to improve the careprocess for all pregnant women and their newborns by creating an opportunity to learn from unwanted events in the care process. In unit-based perinatal audit, the caregivers involved in cases that result in mortality are usually part of the audit group. This makes such an audit a delicate matter. Methods The purpose of this study was to implement unit-based perinatal mortality audit in all 15 perinatal cooperation units in the northern region of the Netherlands between September 2007 and March 2010. These units consist of hospital-based and independent community-based perinatal caregivers. The implementation strategy encompassed an information plan, an organization plan, and a training plan. The main outcomes are the number of participating perinatal cooperation units at the end of the project, the identified substandard factors (SSF, the actions to improve care, and the opinions of the participants. Results The perinatal mortality audit was implemented in all 15 perinatal cooperation units. 677 different caregivers analyzed 112 cases of perinatal mortality and identified 163 substandard factors. In 31% of cases the guidelines were not followed and in 23% care was not according to normal practice. In 28% of cases, the documentation was not in order, while in 13% of cases the communication between caregivers was insufficient. 442 actions to improve care were reported for ‘external cooperation’ (15%, ‘internal cooperation’ (17%, ‘practice organization’ (26%, ‘training and education’ (10%, and ‘medical performance’ (27%. Valued aspects of the audit meetings were: the multidisciplinary character (13%, the collective and non-judgmental search for substandard factors (21%, the perception of safety (13%, the motivation to reflect on one’s own professional performance (5%, and the inherent postgraduate education (10%. Conclusion

  18. Perinatal regionalization: a geospatial view of perinatal critical care, United States, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Mary D; Davis, Nicole L; Goodman, David A; Callaghan, William M; Barfield, Wanda D

    2017-02-01

    Perinatal services exist today as a dyad of maternal and neonatal care. When perinatal care is fragmented or unavailable, excess morbidity and mortality may occur in pregnant women and newborns. The objective of the study was to describe spatial relationships between women of reproductive age, individual perinatal subspecialists (maternal-fetal medicine and neonatology), and obstetric and neonatal critical care facilities in the United States to identify gaps in health care access. We used geographic visualization and conducted surface interpolation, nearest neighbor, and proximity analyses. Source data included 2010 US Census, October 2013 National Provider Index, 2012 American Hospital Association, 2012 National Center for Health Statistics Natality File, and the 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics directory. In October 2013, there were 2.5 neonatologists for every maternal-fetal medicine specialist in the United States. In 2012 there were 1.4 level III or higher neonatal intensive care units for every level III obstetric unit (hereafter, obstetric critical care unit). Nationally, 87% of women of reproductive age live within 50 miles of both an obstetric critical care unit and a neonatal intensive care unit. However, 18% of obstetric critical care units had no neonatal intensive care unit, and 20% of neonatal intensive care units had no obstetric critical care unit within a 10 mile radius. Additionally, 26% of obstetric critical care units had no maternal-fetal medicine specialist practicing within 10 miles of the facility, and 4% of neonatal intensive care units had no neonatologist practicing within 10 miles. Gaps in access and discordance between the availability of level III or higher obstetric and neonatal care may affect the delivery of risk-appropriate care for high-risk maternal fetal dyads. Further study is needed to understand the importance of these gaps and discordance on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Litigation in Perinatal Care: The Deposition Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisa A

    Litigation in perinatal nursing represents a disproportionate share of indemnity payouts and results in excessive psychological stress. Testimony at deposition or trial can be challenging for clinicians; little is taught in training or postgraduate education regarding litigation. Nurses, midwives, and physicians can effectively navigate the deposition process and prepare for trial testimony by understanding the plaintiff's goals, recognizing the role of documentation, and becoming familiar with various plaintiff's strategies including reptile theory. Knowledge of psychological concepts such as confirmation bias and cognitive dissonance may assist clinicians in responding to plaintiff's lines of questioning. Deposition preparation is crucial to the defense and requires active participation on the part of clinicians; it may include mock deposition or use of simulation laboratories. Common mistakes in deposition may be avoided with foresight and anticipatory planning by clinicians working closely with risk managers and defense attorneys. This article provides an overview of the deposition process, including the plaintiff's goals and common approaches, as well as the role of documentation and common errors of deponents.

  20. Perinatal outcomes in isolated single umbilical artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Amanda L; Barroilhet, Lisa; Wolfe, Honor M

    2010-04-01

    We sought to determine the rate of adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnancies diagnosed with an isolated single umbilical artery (SUA). We performed a retrospective review comparing 68 pregnancies with an isolated SUA to 68 pregnancies with a three-vessel cord (3VC). Pregnancies with structural or karyotypic anomalies were excluded. Gestational age at delivery, birth weight, SGA rate, ponderal index, and rates of admission to the neonatal intensive care unit were compared between groups. Student T test and chi-square analysis were performed. Neonates with isolated SUA had a significantly smaller birth weight than those with a 3VC (3279 +/- 404 g versus 3423 +/- 374 g, P = 0.0168). There was no significant difference in rates of SGA (17.6% versus 8.8%, P = 0.06). Ponderal index was significantly less in those with SUA compared with 3VC (24.2 +/- 1.1 g/cm(3) versus 26.1 +/- 1.3 g/cm(3), P = 0.001). SUA neonates had a significantly longer length of neonatal intensive care unit stay than 3VC neonates (1.25 +/- 2.2 days versus 0.48 +/- 1.25 days, P < 0.023). Fetuses with a prenatal diagnosis of isolated umbilical artery have a significantly lower ponderal index compared with fetuses with a 3VC. Pregnancies with isolated SUA should undergo serial assessments for fetal growth. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  1. Paradoxical centrally increased diffusivity in perinatal arterial ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stence, Nicholas V.; Mirsky, David M.; Deoni, Sean C.L. [University of Colorado Anschutz School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Children' s Hospital Colorado, Department of Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Armstrong-Wells, Jennifer [University of Colorado Anschutz School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (Neurology) and OB/GYN, Aurora, CO (United States); University of Colorado Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Restricted diffusion on acute MRI is the diagnostic standard for perinatal arterial ischemic stroke. In a subset of children with perinatal arterial ischemic stroke, primarily those with large infarct volumes, we noted a core of centrally increased diffusivity with a periphery of restricted diffusion. Given the paradoxical diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) appearance observed in some children with perinatal arterial ischemic stroke, we sought to determine its significance and hypothesized that: (1) centrally increased diffusivity is associated with larger infarcts in perinatal arterial ischemic stroke and (2) this tissue is irreversibly injured (infarcted). We reviewed all perinatal arterial ischemic stroke cases in a prospective cohort study from Aug. 1, 2000, to Jan. 1, 2012. Infarct volumes were measured by drawing regions of interest around the periphery of the area of restricted diffusion on DWI. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare means between groups. Of 25 eligible cases, centrally increased diffusivity was seen in 4 (16%). Cases with centrally increased diffusivity had larger average infarct volumes (mean 117,182 mm{sup 3} vs. 36,995 mm{sup 3}; P = 0.008), higher average apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the infarct core (1,679 x 10{sup -6} mm{sup 2}/s vs. 611 x 10{sup -6} mm{sup 2}/s, P < 0.0001), and higher ADC ratio (1.2 vs. 0.5, P < 0.0001). At last clinical follow-up, children with perinatal arterial ischemic stroke and centrally increased diffusivity were more often treated for ongoing seizures (75% vs. 0%; P < 0.001) than those without. Centrally increased diffusivity was associated with larger stroke volume and the involved tissue was confirmed to be infarcted on follow-up imaging. Radiologists should be aware of this unusual appearance of perinatal arterial ischemic stroke in order to avoid underestimating infarct volume or making an incorrect early diagnosis. (orig.)

  2. Improvement of perinatal outcome in diabetic pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, A; Szabo, I

    2001-01-01

    Obstetrical and perinatal outcomes in newborns of diabetic pregnant women depend on metabolic control and fetal surveillance during pregnancy. The effects of fetal surveillance on perinatal mortality and morbidity was analyzed in diabetic pregnant women with appropriate glucose control in our regional center for diabetes and pregnancy. 480 deliveries complicated by frank or gestational diabetes occurred in our Department in the period of 1988-1999. Perinatal mortality and morbidity, prevalence of premature deliveries, methods of fetal surveillance, options for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) profilaxis, cesarean section rate, timing of delivery and its indications and occurrence of malformations have been analyzed. It was found that malformation rate and perinatal mortality may be reduced to even lower level than that of in healthy pregnant women by appropriate glucose control and by using the latest methods of intrauterine fetal surveillance including cardiotocography (non stress test and oxytocin challenge test), doppler fetal artery velocimetry and fetal pulse oximetry. Timing of delivery was needed in 35% of the cases with IDDM and 15% of gestational diabetes due to chronic placental insufficiency. If labour induction was needed before the 38 weeks, amniocentesis was performed to test fetal lung maturity. Direct fetal glucocorticoid administration was used to enhance fetal lung maturation in 14 cases. C-section rate was slightly higher than that of in non diabetic pregnant women. Our perinatal morbidity data (macrosomia, hyperbilirubinemia, hypoglycemia, injuries, infections) are comparable with the data from the literature. Although perinatal mortality with the help of thorough fetal surveillance is even better in diabetic pregnant women than in non diabetic patients, future eye should be focused on factors affecting perinatal morbidity, because it is still higher than in newborns of healthy mothers.

  3. Kinesthetic deficits after perinatal stroke: robotic measurement in hemiparetic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczynski, Andrea M; Semrau, Jennifer A; Kirton, Adam; Dukelow, Sean P

    2017-02-15

    While sensory dysfunction is common in children with hemiparetic cerebral palsy (CP) secondary to perinatal stroke, it is an understudied contributor to disability with limited objective measurement tools. Robotic technology offers the potential to objectively measure complex sensorimotor function but has been understudied in perinatal stroke. The present study aimed to quantify kinesthetic deficits in hemiparetic children with perinatal stroke and determine their association with clinical function. Case-control study. Participants were 6-19 years of age. Stroke participants had MRI confirmed unilateral perinatal arterial ischemic stroke or periventricular venous infarction, and symptomatic hemiparetic cerebral palsy. Participants completed a robotic assessment of upper extremity kinesthesia using a robotic exoskeleton (KINARM). Four kinesthetic parameters (response latency, initial direction error, peak speed ratio, and path length ratio) and their variabilities were measured with and without vision. Robotic outcomes were compared across stroke groups and controls and to clinical measures of sensorimotor function. Forty-three stroke participants (23 arterial, 20 venous, median age 12 years, 42% female) were compared to 106 healthy controls. Stroke cases displayed significantly impaired kinesthesia that remained when vision was restored. Kinesthesia was more impaired in arterial versus venous lesions and correlated with clinical measures. Robotic assessment of kinesthesia is feasible in children with perinatal stroke. Kinesthetic impairment is common and associated with stroke type. Failure to correct with vision suggests sensory network dysfunction.

  4. Perinatal mental health: Fathers - the (mostly) forgotten parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Olivia; Nguyen, Tram; Thomas, Naomi; Thomson-Salo, Frances; Handrinos, Dennis; Judd, Fiona

    2016-12-01

    The importance of parental mental health as a determinant of infant and child outcomes is increasingly acknowledged. Yet, there is limited information regarding paternal mental health during the perinatal period. The aim of this review is to summarize existing clinical research regarding paternal mental health in the perinatal period in various contexts, and its possible impact on infant development. An electronic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE and PubMed databases. Key texts were used to cross-check for any further articles of interest. Men are at increased risk of mental health problems during the transition to fatherhood, as well as during the perinatal period. Paternal mental health during the perinatal period has been shown to impact on their child's emotional and behavioral development. However, research addressing the needs of fathers with mental illness and the impact of their illness on their infant and family has been limited. A paradigm shift is required, from a focus on women following childbirth and women with pre-existing psychiatric disorders, to a broader family perspective with the focus firmly on parent-infant relationships. This paradigm shift needs to involve greater research into the fathering role and paternal mental illness during the perinatal period, including further studies into risk factors, impact on the family system, and the most appropriate form of intervention and service provision. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Partial HELLP Syndrome: maternal and perinatal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelcio Francisco Abbade

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: HELLP syndrome is a severe complication of pregnancy characterized by hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count. Some pregnant women develop just one or two of the characteristics of this syndrome, which is termed Partial HELLP Syndrome (PHS. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the repercussions on maternal and perinatal outcomes among women that developed PHS and to compare these women with those whose gestational hypertension or preeclampsia did not show alterations for HELLP syndrome in laboratory tests. DESIGN: Observational, retrospective and analytical study. SETTING: Maternity Department of Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. SAMPLE: Pregnant or post-delivery women who had a blood pressure elevation that was first detected after mid-pregnancy, with or without proteinuria, between January 1990 and December 1995. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Analysis was made of maternal age, race, parity, hypertension classification, gestational age at the PHS diagnosis, alterations in laboratory tests for HELLP syndrome, time elapsed to discharge from hospital, maternal complications, mode of delivery, incidence of preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, stillborn and neonatal death. RESULTS: Three hundred and eighteen women were selected; forty-one women (12.9% had PHS and 277 of them (87.1% did not develop any of the alterations of the HELLP syndrome diagnosis. Preeclampsia was a more frequent type of hypertension in the PHS group than in the hypertension group. None of the women with isolated chronic hypertension developed PHS. The rate of cesarean delivery, eclampsia, and preterm delivery was significantly greater in the PHS group than in the hypertension group. CONCLUSION: We observed that aggressive procedures had been adopted for patients with PHS. These resulted in immediate interruption of pregnancy, with elevated cesarean

  6. Perinatal pharmacokinetics of azithromycin for cesarean prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Amelia L; Acosta, Edward P; Larson, Kajal B; Kerstner-Wood, Corenna D; Tita, Alan T; Biggio, Joseph R

    2015-06-01

    Postpartum infections are polymicrobial and typically include Ureaplasma, an intracellular microbe that is treated by macrolides such as azithromycin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perinatal pharmacokinetics of azithromycin after a single preincision dose before cesarean delivery. Thirty women who underwent scheduled cesarean delivery were assigned randomly to receive 500 mg of intravenous azithromycin that was initiated 15, 30, or 60 minutes before incision and infused over 1 hour. Serial maternal plasma samples were drawn from the end of infusion up to 8 hours after the infusion. Samples of amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood, placenta, myometrium, and adipose tissue were collected intraoperatively. Breast milk samples were collected 12-48 hours after the infusion in 8 women who were breastfeeding. Azithromycin was quantified with high performance liquid chromatography separation coupled with tandem mass spectrometry detection. Plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated with the use of noncompartmental analysis and compartmental modeling and simulations. The maximum maternal plasma concentration was reached within 1 hour and exceeded the in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of 250 ng/mL of Ureaplasma spp in all 30 patients. The concentrations were sustained with a half-life of 6.7 hours. The median concentration of azithromycin in adipose tissue was 102 ng/g, which was below the MIC50. The median concentration in myometrium was 402 ng/g, which exceeded the MIC50. Azithromycin was detectable in both the umbilical cord plasma and amniotic fluid after the single preoperative dose. Azithromycin concentrations in breast milk were high and were sustained up to 48 hours after the single dose. Simulations demonstrated accumulation in breast milk after multiple doses. A single dose of azithromycin achieves effective plasma and tissue concentrations and is transported rapidly across the placenta. The tissue concentrations that are achieved

  7. Behavioral effects of perinatal opioid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Anna; Tímár, Júlia; Zelena, Dóra

    2014-05-28

    Opioids are among the world's oldest known drugs used mostly for pain relief, but recreational use is also widespread. A particularly important problem is opioid exposure in females, as their offspring can also be affected. Adverse intrauterine and postnatal environments can affect offspring development and may lead to various disabilities later in life. It is clear that repetitive painful experiences, such as randomly occurring invasive procedures during neonatal intensive care, can permanently alter neuronal and synaptic organization and therefore later behavior. At the same time, analgesic drugs can also be harmful, inducing neuronal apoptosis or withdrawal symptoms in the neonate and behavioral alterations in adulthood. Hence, risk-benefit ratios should be taken into consideration when pain relief is required during pregnancy or in neonates. Recreational use of opioids can also alter many aspects of life. Intrauterine opioid exposure has many toxic effects, inducing poor pregnancy outcomes due to underdevelopment, but it is believed that later negative consequences are more related to environmental factors such as a chaotic lifestyle and inadequate prenatal care. One of the crucial components is maternal care, which changes profoundly in addicted mothers. In substance-dependent mothers, pre- and postnatal care has special importance, and controlled treatment with a synthetic opioid (e.g., methadone) could be beneficial. We aimed to summarize and compare human and rodent data, as it is important to close the gap between scientific knowledge and societal policies. Special emphasis is given to gender differences in the sensitivity of offspring to perinatal opioid exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Perinatal development and adult blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ashton

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence supports the concept of fetal programming in cardiovascular disease in man, which asserts that an insult experienced in utero exerts a long-term influence on cardiovascular function, leading to disease in adulthood. However, this hypothesis is not universally accepted, hence animal models may be of value in determining potential physiological mechanisms which could explain how fetal undernutrition results in cardiovascular disease in later life. This review describes two major animal models of cardiovascular programming, the in utero protein-restricted rat and the cross-fostered spontaneously hypertensive rat. In the former model, moderate maternal protein restriction during pregnancy induces an increase in offspring blood pressure of 20-30 mmHg. This hypertensive effect is mediated, in part, by fetal exposure to excess maternal glucocorticoids as a result of a deficiency in placental 11-ß hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2. Furthermore, nephrogenesis is impaired in this model which, coupled with increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system, could also contribute to the greater blood pressure displayed by these animals. The second model discussed is the cross-fostered spontaneously hypertensive rat. Spontaneously hypertensive rats develop severe hypertension without external intervention; however, their adult blood pressure may be lowered by 20-30 mmHg by cross-fostering pups to a normotensive dam within the first two weeks of lactation. The mechanisms responsible for this antihypertensive effect are less clear, but may also involve altered renal function and down-regulation of the renin-angiotensin system. These two models clearly show that adult blood pressure is influenced by exposure to one of a number of stimuli during critical stages of perinatal development.

  9. Stillbirth: The other half of perinatal mortality

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, JFA

    2012-01-01

    Stillbirth is fetal death after 20 weeks gestation1. There are a number of definitions and classifications. WHO defines a stillbirth as a baby BW ≥500g, ≥22 weeks gestation who died before or during birth. However for international comparisons it recommends that reporting be restricted to those with BW>1000g and gestation ≥28 weeks. In Ireland stillbirths must be registered, the definition being BW≥500g or having reached a gestational age ≥ 24 weeks. Stillbirth affects 1 in 160 pregnancies2 and numerically it equals the number of infant deaths in the first year of life. At the beginning of the third trimester of pregnancy the baby weighs 1 Kg and the risk of stillbirth is 1- 2%. The possibility of a stillbirth increases with maturity throughout the third trimester and is 3 times greater at 40 weeks than at earlier gestational ages3. This is relevant for the 5-10% of pregnancies that continue ≥42 weeks. If managed expectantly one in 400 post-term pregnancies will end in a stillbirth. Since 2003 the stillbirth rate has remained static in the US at 3.0 stillbirths per 1000 births. Prior to 2003 the stillbirth rate had declined 1.4% annually while the infant mortality rate fell twice as fast at 2.8%. Globally there are 2.6 million stillbirths annually. In Ireland the stillbirth rate is 3.3 per 1000 births which equates to 230 deaths per year. Despite its frequent occurrence stillbirth has been a relatively neglected component of perinatal medicine. Because a definitive cause cannot be identified in many cases, counselling is very difficult. This lack of scientific causation data has resulted in professional fatalism towards the stillbirth problem.

  10. Idiopathic Polyhydramnios: Severity and Perinatal Morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Samantha L; Beamon, Carmen J; Chescheir, Nancy C; Stamilio, David

    2016-06-01

    Objective To estimate the association between the severity of idiopathic polyhydramnios and adverse outcomes. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of deliveries at one hospital from 2000 to 2012 with an amniotic fluid index (AFI) measurement ≥24 + 0 weeks' gestation. Pregnancies complicated by diabetes, multiples, or fetal anomalies were excluded. Exposure was the degree of polyhydramnios: normal (AFI 5-24 cm), mild (≥ 24-30 cm), and moderate-severe (> 30 cm). Primary outcomes were perinatal mortality, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, and postpartum hemorrhage. Results There were 10,536 pregnancies: 10,188 with a normal AFI, 274 mild (78.74%), and 74 moderate-severe polyhydramnios (21.26%). Adverse outcomes were increased with idiopathic polyhydramnios: NICU admission (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.77-4.99), postpartum hemorrhage (AOR 15.81, 95% CI 7.82-31.96), macrosomia (AOR 3.41, 95% CI 2.61-4.47), low 5-minute Apgar score (AOR 2.60, 95% CI 1.57-4.30), and cesarean (AOR 2.16, 95% CI 1.74-2.69). There were increasing odds of macrosomia (mild: AOR 3.19, 95% CI 2.36-4.32; moderate-severe: AOR 4.44, 95% CI 2.53-7.79) and low 5-minute Apgar score (mild: AOR 2.24, 95% CI 1.23-4.08; moderate-severe: AOR 3.93, 95% CI 1.62-9.55) with increasing severity of polyhydramnios. Conclusion Idiopathic polyhydramnios is independently associated with increased risks of morbidity. There appears to be a dose-response relationship for neonatal macrosomia and low 5-minute Apgar score risks. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Perinatal Outcomes in Advanced Age Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Yılmaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of advanced maternal age on pregnancy outcomes Methods: A retrospective analysis of 951 birth registry records of Zeynep Kamil Hospital, were analyzed between Janu­ary 2003 and December 2007. Study group was made up of women ≥40 years old and control group was made up of women younger than 40 years. Results: Mean maternal age was 41.48 years in the study group and 26.41 years in the control group. Mean gesta­tional age at the time of delivery is 37.73 weeks in study group and 38.10 weeks in the control group. There was no statistical difference in terms of preterm delivery, multiple pregnancy, fetal anomaly, IUGR, superimpose preeclampsia oligohidramnios, presentation anomaly and placenta previa rates between the study and control groups. Incidence of preeclampsia (p=0.041, Chronic hypertension (p=0.001, GDM (p= 0.003,is found to be higher in study group. Cesar­ean birth rate is higher (p<0.05 and hospitalization time is longer in study group (p=0.001. 1st minute and 5th minute APGAR scores of the study group (6.99±2, 8.27±2 was lower than the 1st minute and 5th Minutes APGAR scores of the control group (7.38±1.6, 8.58±1.7. Neonatal intensive care unit administration rate is seen also higher in study group (p<0.01. Conclusion: Advanced maternal age was related to increased pregnancy complications and poor perinatal outcome. Preeclampsia, GDM, chronic hypertension is seen more common in advanced age pregnancies. Neonatal intensive care administration is higher and APGAR scores are lower; cesarean delivery was performed more common, and hospitaliza­tion time was longer in advanced age pregnancies. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7 (2: 157-162

  12. The Tulip classification of perinatal mortality : introduction and multidisciplinary inter-rater agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteweg, FJ; Gordijn, SJ; Timmer, A; Erwich, JJHM; Bouman, K; Ravise, JM; Heringa, MP; Holm, JP

    To introduce the pathophysiological Tulip classification system for underlying cause and mechanism of perinatal mortality based on clinical and pathological findings for the purpose of counselling and prevention. Descriptive. Tertiary referral teaching hospital. Perinatally related deaths. A

  13. Perinatal outcomes and congenital heart defect prognosis in 53313 non-selected perinatal infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Donghua; Wang, Hua; Liu, Zhiyu; Fang, Junqun; Yang, Tubao; Zhou, Shujin; Wang, Aihua; Qin, Jiabi; Xiong, Lili

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate perinatal outcomes and congenital heart defect (CHD) prognosis in a non-selected population. The population-based surveillance data used in this assessment of CHDs were based on birth defect surveillance data collected from 2010-2012 in Liuyang City, China. Infants living with CHDs were followed up for 5 years to determine their prognosis. Prevalence, prenatal diagnosis, perinatal outcomes, and total and type-specific prognosis data were assessed using SPSS 18.0. In total, 190 CHD cases were identified among the 53313 included perinatal infants (PIs), indicating a CHD prevalence of 35.64 per 10000 PIs in this non-selected population. The five most frequently identified types of CHDs were ventricular septal defects (VSDs, 38.95%), atrial septal defects (ASDs, 15.79%), cardiomegaly (7.89%), tetralogy of Fallot (TOF, 5.79%), and atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs, 5.26%). Of the 190 CHD cases, 110 (57.89%) were diagnosed prenatally, 30 (15.79%) were diagnosed with associated malformations, and 69 (36.32%) resulted in termination of pregnancy (TOP). Moreover, 15 (7.89%) PIs died within 7 days after delivery, and 42 (22.10%) died within 1 year. In contrast, 79 (41.58%) were still alive after 5 years. When TOP cases were included, the 5-year survival rate of PIs with prenatally detected CHDs was lower than that of PIs with postnatally detected CHDs (25.45% vs. 63.75%). The CHD subtype associated with the highest rate of infant (less than 1 year old) mortality was transposition of the great arteries (100%). The subtypes associated with higher 5-year survival rates were patent ductus arteriosus (80%), ASD (63.33%), VSD (52.70%) and AVSD (50%). The rates of prenatal CHD detection and TOP were high in this study population, and the 5-year survival rate of PIs with CHDs was low. The government should strengthen efforts to educate pediatricians regarding this issue and provide financial assistance to improve the prognosis of infants living with CHDs, especially

  14. Prevention of perinatal death and adverse perinatal outcome using low-dose aspirin: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, S; Nicolaides, K H; Demers, S; Villa, P; Bujold, E

    2013-05-01

    To compare early vs late administration of low-dose aspirin on the risk of perinatal death and adverse perinatal outcome. Databases were searched for keywords related to aspirin and pregnancy. Only randomized controlled trials that evaluated the prophylactic use of low-dose aspirin (50-150 mg/day) during pregnancy were included. The primary outcome combined fetal and neonatal death. Pooled relative risks (RR) with their 95% CIs were compared according to gestational age at initiation of low-dose aspirin (≤ 16 vs > 16 weeks of gestation). Out of 8377 citations, 42 studies (27 222 women) were included. Inclusion criteria were risk factors for pre-eclampsia, including: nulliparity, multiple pregnancy, chronic hypertension, cardiovascular or endocrine disease, prior gestational hypertension or fetal growth restriction, and/or abnormal uterine artery Doppler. When compared with controls, low-dose aspirin started at ≤ 16 weeks' gestation compared with low-dose aspirin started at >16 weeks' gestation was associated with a greater reduction of perinatal death (RR = 0.41 (95% CI, 0.19-0.92) vs 0.93 (95% CI, 0.73-1.19), P = 0.02), pre-eclampsia (RR = 0.47 (95% CI, 0.36-0.62) vs 0.78 (95% CI, 0.61-0.99), P perinatal death and other adverse perinatal outcomes than when initiated at >16 weeks. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Statistical process control charts in perinatal mortality surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Restrepo, Nora E; Correa-Morales, Juan C

    2009-01-01

    Applying statistical process control (SPC) charts in perinatal mortality surveillance (as an epidemiological indicator). The control charts were prepared using 51,840 births; 286 cases were produced from these births. All information came from SUSALUD between January 2004 and December 2007. Two control charts are presented; the first one's central line was considered to be the proportion of cases + 3 SD and the second one used the logits from the percentages of cases. Two control charts were prepared for monitoring perinatal mortality. The first considered the percentage of cases per month and an average of five cases per one thousand births was obtained (p=0.005). The logits were used for the second chart. Having SPC charts available for monitoring and analysing perinatal mortality will allow changes in service quality to be quickly detected and let aspects regarding the quality of the service being provided for mothers and the newborn to be evaluated. Specific interventions can also be programmed.

  16. Management of renal dysfunction following term perinatal hypoxia-ischaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetman, Deirdre U; Riordan, Michael; Molloy, Eleanor J

    2013-03-01

    Acute kidney injury frequently develops following the term perinatal hypoxia-ischaemia. Quantifying the degree of acute kidney injury is difficult, however, as the methods currently in use are suboptimal. Acute kidney injury management is largely supportive with little evidence basis for many interventions. This review discusses management strategies and novel biomarkers that may improve diagnosis and management of renal injury following perinatal hypoxia-ischaemia. Following perinatal hypoxia-ischaemia, acute kidney injury is common. Management of neonatal acute kidney injury is largely supportive. Novel acute kidney injury biomarkers may play a role in optimizing new categorical definitions of renal injury. Studies are needed to investigate the impact of neonatal acute kidney injury on long-term outcome. ©2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica ©2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  17. Characteristics that perinatal nurse managers desire in new nurse hires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, Emily; Hensel, Desiree

    2012-04-01

    Nursing leaders have proposed that nurses must have the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) competencies to work in complex health care systems. Using the QSEN framework, this study explored what characteristics perinatal nurse managers desired most in new nurses. This study used a survey design and a convenience sample of perinatal nurse managers working in Indiana hospitals (N = 46). Managers were more likely to hire nurses with experience, positive references, and excellent attendance. Of the QSEN competencies, managers looked most for teamwork and collaboration, followed by safety and patient-centered care. In addition to the traditional qualities desired in new nurses, the QSEN competencies are gaining importance among perinatal managers. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Mobile phone intervention reduces perinatal mortality in Zanzibar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Stine; Rasch, Vibeke; Hemed, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    care facilities in six districts were randomized to either mobile phone intervention or standard care. The intervention consisted of a mobile phone text message and voucher component. Secondary outcome measures included stillbirth, perinatal mortality, and death of a child within 42 days after birth...... clusters, 36 per 1000 births. The intervention was associated with a significant reduction in perinatal mortality with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.50 (95% CI 0.27-0.93). Other secondary outcomes showed an insignificant reduction in stillbirth (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.34-1.24) and an insignificant reduction in death......, evidence for its role in health care is sparse. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the association between a mobile phone intervention and perinatal mortality in a resource-limited setting. METHODS: This study was a pragmatic, cluster-randomized, controlled trial with primary health care facilities...

  19. Debriefing to help perinatal nurses cope with a maternal loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    The death of a mother in a perinatal unit is a devastating event for the family and for the perinatal staff. An unexpected maternal death may be considered a critical incident, requiring leadership to reflect on the emotional well-being of all the staff who were involved in the patient's care. In order to assist staff in coping with the impact of a maternal loss, the organization and leadership team can apply the principles of debriefing, during which an expert in crisis intervention works to help the group recognize both healthy and unhealthy coping skills, and follows up with affected individuals who require ongoing help. This article presents a review of different techniques of debriefing, applies debriefing to maternal loss, and provides a review of coping skills for nurses. The leadership team's support is essential to promoting healthy coping and emotional healing when a tragedy occurs on the perinatal unit.

  20. Perinatal Programming of Asthma: The Role of Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan B. Azad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal programming, a dominant theory for the origins of cardiovascular disease, proposes that environmental stimuli influence developmental pathways during critical periods of prenatal and postnatal development, inducing permanent changes in metabolism. In this paper, we present evidence for the perinatal programming of asthma via the intestinal microbiome. While epigenetic mechanisms continue to provide new explanations for the programming hypothesis of asthma development, it is increasingly apparent that the intestinal microbiota plays an independent and potentially interactive role. Commensal gut bacteria are essential to immune system development, and exposures disrupting the infant gut microbiota have been linked to asthma. This paper summarizes the recent findings that implicate caesarean delivery, breastfeeding, perinatal stress, probiotics, and antibiotics as modifiers of infant gut microbiota in the development of asthma.

  1. Nursing diagnosis of grieving: content validity in perinatal loss situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloma-Castro, Olga; Romero-Sánchez, José Manuel; Paramio-Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Pastor-Montero, Sonia María; Castro-Yuste, Cristina; Frandsen, Anna J; Albar-Marín, María Jesús; Bas-Sarmiento, Pilar; Moreno-Corral, Luis Javier

    2014-06-01

    To validate the content of the NANDA-I nursing diagnosis of grieving in situations of perinatal loss. Using the Fehring's model, 208 Spanish experts were asked to assess the adequacy of the defining characteristics and other manifestations identified in the literature for cases of perinatal loss. The content validity index was 0.867. Twelve of the 18 defining characteristics were validated, seven as major and five as minor. From the manifestations proposed, "empty inside" was considered as major. The nursing diagnosis of grieving fits in content to the cases of perinatal loss according to experts. The results have provided evidence to support the use of the diagnosis in care plans for said clinical situation. © 2013 NANDA International.

  2. Pathology of perinatal brain damage: background and oxidative stress markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonni, Gabriele; Leoncini, Silvia; Signorini, Cinzia; Ciccoli, Lucia; De Felice, Claudio

    2014-07-01

    To review historical scientific background and new perspective on the pathology of perinatal brain damage. The relationship between birth asphyxia and subsequent cerebral palsy has been extensively investigated. The role of new and promising clinical markers of oxidative stress (OS) is presented. Electronic search of PubMed-Medline/EMBASE database has been performed. Laboratory and clinical data involving case series from the research group are reported. The neuropathology of birth asphyxia and subsequent perinatal brain damage as well as the role of electronic fetal monitoring are reported following a review of the medical literature. This review focuses on OS mechanisms underlying the neonatal brain damage and provides different perspective on the most reliable OS markers during the perinatal period. In particular, prior research work on neurodevelopmental diseases, such as Rett syndrome, suggests the measurement of oxidized fatty acid molecules (i.e., F4-Neuroprostanes and F2-Dihomo-Isoprostanes) closely related to brain white and gray matter oxidative damage.

  3. Emotional distress and prenatal attachment in pregnancy after perinatal loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Deborah Smith

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the association of previous perinatal loss with parents' levels of depressive symptoms, pregnancy-specific anxiety, and prenatal attachment in a subsequent pregnancy, and to determine whether higher levels of depressive symptoms and pregnancy-specific anxiety were associated with prenatal attachment. A three-group comparative design was used to collect cross-sectional survey data. The sample consisted of 103 couples who were in the second trimester of pregnancy: 40 couples who had a perinatal loss in a previous pregnancy, 33 couples were pregnant for the first time, and 30 couples had a history of prior successful pregnancies. Structured questionnaires via in-person or telephone interviews were used to measure depressive symptoms, pregnancy-specific anxiety, and prenatal attachment. Couples with a history of perinatal loss had higher levels of depressive symptoms and pregnancy-specific anxiety than did couples with past successful pregnancies and no losses; mothers had higher levels of symptoms than did fathers in all groups, Couples with and without a history of perinatal loss did not differ in their level of prenatal attachment in the current pregnancy. These findings do not support the theory that depressive symptoms and pregnancy-specific anxiety affect subsequent parent-infant attachment in a pregnancy after perinatal loss. However, they do provide insight into the continuing influence of parents' previous loss experience on their depressive symptoms and pregnancy-specific anxiety in subsequent pregnancies. Families should be assessed to examine the potential long-term influence of emotional distress as a result of prior perinatal loss.

  4. Birthweight and perinatal mortality: paradoxes, social class, and sibling dependencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melve, Kari Klungsøyr; Skjaerven, Rolv

    2003-08-01

    Birthweight distributions among second-born infants depend on the birthweights of older siblings, with implications for weight-specific perinatal mortality. We wanted to study whether these relations were explained by socioeconomic levels, and to study time trends in a situation with decreasing perinatal mortality rates. Births in the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry from 1967 to 1998 were linked to their mothers through their national identification numbers. The study population was 546 688 mothers with at least two singletons weighing >/==" BORDER="0">500 g at birth. Weight-specific perinatal mortality for second-born siblings in families with first-born siblings in either the highest or the lowest birthweight quartile was analysed. Maternal education and cohabitation status were used as measures of socioeconomic level. For all 500-g categories below 3500 g, mortality rates were significantly higher among second-born infants with an older sibling in the highest rather than the lowest weight quartile. This pattern was the same across three educational levels. The exclusion of preterm births did not change the effect pattern. A comparison of perinatal mortality among second siblings in terms of relative birthweight (z-scores) showed a reversal of the relative risks, although these were only significantly different from unity for the smallest infants. Conclusion The crossover in weight-specific perinatal mortality for second siblings by weight of first sibling is largely independent of socioeconomic level, and is not weakened by the decreasing perinatal mortality rates in the population over time. Family data should be taken into consideration when evaluating the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome relating to weight.

  5. National perinatal audit, a feasible initiative for the Netherlands!? A validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Diem, Mariet; De Reu, Paul; Eskes, Martine; Brouwers, Hens; Holleboom, Cas; Slagter-Roukema, Tineke; Merkus, Hans

    Objective. To explore the feasibility of a national perinatal audit organization. Design. Validation study. Setting. Three regions in the Netherlands. Population. 228 cases of perinatal mortality. Methods. Narratives of perinatal mortality cases were assessed by a panel of representatives of all

  6. Perinatal Mortality in Southern Nigeria; less than half a decade to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Perinatal mortality is one of the essential indicators of the health status of a country and by extension its state of development. Reduction in perinatal mortality rate is an important aspect of the MDGs. Objectives: To determine the perinatal mortality rate (PMR) in 2 tertiary institutions in Southern Nigeria and the ...

  7. Perinatal Mortality at the Close of the 20th Century in Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    16.2/1000) early neonatal deaths. Autopsy was performed on 115 of the 573 deaths resulting in a perinatal autopsy rate of 20.1 percent. The overall perinatal mortality rate was 84.8/1000 while the perinatal mortality rate for singletons was ...

  8. Perinatal death audits in a peri-urban hospital in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakibuuka, V K; Okong, P; Waiswa, P; Byaruhanga, R N

    2012-12-01

    The perinatal mortality of 70 deaths per 1,000 total births in Uganda is unacceptably high. Perinatal death audits are important for improvement of perinatal care and reduction of perinatal morality. We integrated perinatal death audits in routine care, and describe its effect on perinatal mortality rate at Nsambya Hospital. This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted from March - November 2008. An interdisciplinary hospital team conducted weekly perinatal death reviews. Each case was summarized and discussed, identifying gaps and cause of death. Local solutions were implemented according to the gaps identified from the audit process. Of the 350 perinatal deaths which occurred, 120 perinatal deaths were audited. 34.2% were macerated still births, 31.7% fresh still births and 34.2% early neonatal deaths. Avoidable factors included: poor neonatal resuscitation skills, incorrect use of the partographs and delay in performing caesarean sections. Activities implemented included: three skills sessions of neonatal resuscitation, introduction of Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for babies with respiratory distress, updates on use of partographs. Perinatal mortality rate was 47.9 deaths per 1000 total births in 2008 after introduction of the audits compared to 52.8 per 1,000 total births in 2007. Conducting routine perinatal audits is feasible and contributes to reduction of facility perinatal mortality rate.

  9. Mortalidade perinatal e evitabilidade: revisão da literatura Perinatal mortality and evitability: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Lansky

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, realizou-se uma revisão da literatura sobre mortalidade perinatal com maior enfoque na evitabilidade desses óbitos. Foram pesquisadas, sobretudo, publicações da década de 90 nas bases Medline e Lilacs (América Latina e Caribe. Discutiram-se as dificuldades para a realização de estudos nesta área, ainda em número restrito no Brasil, em decorrência do grande subregistro de óbitos fetais e da má qualidade da informação nas declarações de óbitos. Foram apresentadas as principais propostas de classificação dos óbitos perinatais baseadas em enfoque de evitabilidade, com destaque para a classificação de Wigglesworth. Nesta abordagem, os óbitos perinatais foram relacionados a momentos específicos da assistência, sendo evidenciadas as possibilidades de sua prevenção. Recomenda-se o enfoque de evitabilidade para a abordagem da mortalidade perinatal no Brasil, dado que as taxas são ainda elevadas, a maioria dos óbitos é considerada evitável e poderia ser prevenida com a melhoria da assistência pré-natal, ao parto e ao recém-nascido, não apenas quanto à sua resolubilidade clínica, mas também à organização da assistência em sistemas hierarquizados e regionalizados, assegurando o acesso da gestante e do recém-nascido em tempo oportuno a serviços de qualidade.This is a literature review onperinatal mortality focusing its evitability. A Medline and Lilacs (Latin-America and Caribbean search was conducted for the 90s. There are few research studies on this subject in Brazil due to the great number of underreported fetal deaths and the low quality information provided in death certificates. Different proposals for perinatal death classification are presented. Most are based on grouping the underlying causes of deaths in a functional system in order to facilitate the analysis. In the Wigglesworth classification system, one of the most recommended methods, deaths are related to the different stages of care

  10. Recent advances in understanding maternal perinatal mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robakis, Thalia; Jernick, Eugenia; Williams, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    The study of perinatal mental health (mental health during pregnancy and postpartum) is a complex field of study that is of major importance both for the mental and physical health of new mothers and for the neurobehavioral development and long-term functioning of the children they bear. In this review, we cover the most recent additions to this rapidly evolving field. Notable advances include further illumination of the epidemiological patterns and clinical manifestations of perinatal mood disruption; new efficacy data on treatment and prevention; clarifications of the respective contributions of maternal mental illness and psychotropic medication to outcomes of pregnancy, birth, and child development; and updated expert guidelines for screening.

  11. Obstetric interventions and perinatal asphyxia in growth retarded term infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Lindmark, G

    1997-01-01

    -fold (6-8%) for growth retarded infants both in SGA infants in general and infants with asymmetric body proportions. The immediate perinatal outcome, however, was favorable with Apgar below 8 at 5 min in only 2% irrespective of the type of growth retardation, in spite of the fact that less than 25......% of the SGA pregnancies and 10% of those with asymmetric fetal growth had been eligible for close antenatal fetal monitoring. CONCLUSION: With a moderate increase in interventions at delivery, perinatal outcome was highly favorable for term infants with a weight for gestational age, weight for length...

  12. Learning and Memory in Children and Adolescents With Perinatal HIV Infection and Perinatal HIV Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Sharon L; Chernoff, Miriam C; Malee, Kathleen; Sirois, Patricia A; Williams, Paige L; Figueroa, Veronica; Woods, Steven P

    2016-06-01

    Learning and memory in youth with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) are poorly understood, despite their importance for academic, healthcare and daily functioning. PHIV (n = 173) and perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (PHEU, n = 85) participants (aged 9-19 years) in a substudy of the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study completed age-standardized tests of verbal and visual learning and delayed memory. Linear regression models implemented via generalized estimating equations were used to compare memory measures in PHEU participants versus PHIV youth with and without Centers for Disease Control and Prevention class C diagnosis (PHIV-C, n = 45 and PHIV-non-C, n = 128, respectively), adjusting for sociodemographic covariates. Participants (mean age = 14.10 years) were 54% female, 75% Black and 18% Hispanic. Although unadjusted analyses showed significantly lower visual recognition memory and verbal delayed recall for PHIV-C compared with PHEU participants and lower verbal learning for PHIV-C and non-C groups compared with PHEU, differences persisted only for visual recognition memory after adjusting for sociodemographic covariates. For PHIV youth, current CD4% learning, and older age at peak viral load was associated with poorer verbal delayed recall and design memory. Youth with PHIV, particularly those with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention class C diagnosis, showed poorer performance on some measures of learning and memory compared with PHEU. Although group differences in verbal memory were largely attributable to sociodemographic characteristics, associations of class C diagnosis with poorer visual recognition memory and of current CD4% with poorer verbal learning suggest subtle effects of HIV on learning and memory in youth with PHIV.

  13. Neutralizing antibody and perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. New York City Perinatal HIV Transmission Collaborative Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengel, R L; Kennedy, M S; Steketee, R W; Thea, D M; Abrams, E J; Lambert, G; McDougal, J S

    1998-04-10

    The major immunologic determinants for perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remain largely unknown. The presence of maternal neutralizing antibodies has been proposed as an explanation for why the majority of infants born to untreated HIV-1-infected women do not become infected. Using maternal and infant specimens collected as part of a longitudinal cohort study of perinatal transmission in New York City between 1991 and 1995, we successfully obtained primary viral isolates from 10 of 20 perinatally nontransmitting (NTR) women, 14 of 20 perinatally transmitting (TR) women, and 13 of 13 of their HIV-1-infected infants. Neutralizing antibody titers were then determined using a titer reduction assay. TR and NTR women did not differ in their ability to neutralize autologous virus or laboratory strains LAI and MN. Infant viruses were not less sensitive to neutralization by maternal sera than autologous viruses. Similarly, TR and NTR isolates were neutralized equally well using a reference serum with broad neutralizing ability. Finally, a heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA) was used to analyze the degree of viral homology within 13 TR maternal-infant pairs. In eight pairs, maternal and infant isolates were highly homologous. In five pairs, lesser degrees of homology were observed, consistent with perinatal transmission of a minor species. However, these isolates were no more or less resistant to maternal sera than were homologous isolates. Thus we found no association between the presence of neutralizing antibody in maternal sera as measured by a titer reduction neutralization (inactivation) assay and perinatal transmission of HIV-1.

  14. [Allergy to kiwi: an unrecognized allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doré, P; Breuil, K; Meurice, J C; Véron, O; Underner, M; Patte, F

    1990-01-01

    We reported 4 cases of an uncommon hypersensitivity: hypersensitivity to kiwi fruit. The clinical reactions, essentially buccal, occurred few minutes after ingestion of the fruit. The Radio Allergo Sorbent Test were positive in the 4 cases. The skin tests, with fresh extracts of kiwi, made in 3 cases were dramatically positive, while they are negative in controls patients. The kiwi fruit initially comes from China, but is now produced in France, and especially in Poitou-Charente. It contains a proteolytic enzyme call Actinidin with physical and chemical properties similar to those of Papain, who can perhaps explain this hypersensitivity.

  15. Concevoir des systèmes de cultures innovants favorables aux abeilles

    OpenAIRE

    DECOURTYE, Axel; Gayrard, Mélanie; Chabert, Ariane; Requier, Fabrice; ROLLIN, Orianne; Odoux, Jean Francois; henry, Mickaël; Allier, Fabrice; Cerrutti, Nicolas; Chaigne, Gaëtan; Petrequin, Pierrick; Plantureux, Sylvain,; Gaujour, Etienne; Emonet, Emeric; Bockstaller, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We identified nearly 200 species of bees in the workshop area of Val de Sèvre in Poitou-Charentes. Wild bees collect their diet from wild plants present in the prairies, the edges of roads and fields. Between flowering rapeseed and sunflowers, bees focus on rare flower surfaces. Pollen resources are not sufficiently abundant to maintain the size of populations at their peak and the sustainability of the apiculture activities. In the cereal plain, the honey bee and beekeeping depend today on t...

  16. 15 local climate-energy plans: regions and districts, local leaders of the struggle against climate change; 15 plans climat - energie territoriaux regions et departements, animateurs territoriaux de la lutte contre le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This report presents some general information, the sectors addressed by the Climate - Energy Plan, the approaches adopted, the plan elaboration process (organisation, participation and governance, diagnosis and challenges identification, communication actions), the actions and their follow-up, the success factors and the improvement opportunities of the Climate-energy Plans elaborated and adopted by different French regions (Alsace, Aquitaine, Basse-Normandie, Champagne-Ardenne, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie, Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Poitou-Charentes) and districts (Alpes Maritimes, Bas-Rhin, Eure, Seine-Maritime)

  17. Where are the radioactive wastes in France? Brochure no 6; Ou sont les dechets radioactifs en France? Brochure no 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is one of the 6 regional brochures which make the geographical inventory of radioactive wastes in France. For each region, a table lists the recorded sites and a regional map localizes those having a detailed descriptive file. These files mention the most important waste owners (medical, research, nuclear and military industries), the type of waste and the type of management. The polluted sites are also mentioned, even if they are already decontaminated. The volume no 6 concerns the Aquitaine, Limousin, Midi-Pyrenees and Poitou-Charentes regions. (J.S.)

  18. Comparaison de populations de carpe commune (Cyprinus carpio à taille commerciale : intérêt d'une approche globale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEREIRA V.

    1999-07-01

    Une discrimination géographique des populations est possible mais elle repose sur une approche globale intégrant l'ensemble des paramètres. Les différences semblent essentiellement liées aux conditions environnementales et permettent de distinguer les lots issus des régions où l'élevage est plus intensif et traditionnellement centré sur la carpe (Dombes, Forez, Lorraine et les lots correspondant à un élevage plus extensif et davantage orienté vers le marché du repeuplement (Allier, Brenne, Poitou-Charentes.

  19. Perinatal death and neurological damage as a sequential chain of poor outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Koutarou; Sameshima, Hiroshi; Kodama, Yuki; Furukawa, Seishi; Kaneko, Masatoki; Ikenoue, Tsuyomu

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the risk factors of perinatal death and neurological damage. Perinatal death and neurological damage were retrospectively investigated using a population-based study of 108 024 deliveries from 1998 to 2007. Main factors studied were asphyxia, growth restriction and preterm delivery perinatal deaths (4.3/1000) and 220 neurological damages (2.0/1000). Preterm delivery accounted for 50% of perinatal deaths and neurological damage, whereas it constituted 2.6% of total births. Multiple regression analyses showed that prematurity death, neonatal death and neurological damage. Prematurity perinatal death to neurological damage.

  20. Perinatal outcomes in pregnant women presenting with preterm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Worldwide, the incidence of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is between 1% and 4% of all pregnancies. Objectives. The primary objectives of this study were to describe and compare the perinatal outcomes of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women presenting with PPROM to a regional ...

  1. Comparison of perinatal and obstetrics outcomes among early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Adolescent pregnancies are known to be associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes. The objectives were to calculate the incidences of the obstetric and perinatal complications at the time of delivery of early adolescent and late adolescent mothers and then compare the same with adult pregnant ...

  2. Fetal Macrosomia: Risk Factors, Maternal, and Perinatal Outcome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perinatal Outcome. Mohammadbeigi A, Farhadifar F1, Soufi zadeh N1, Mohammadsalehi N2, Rezaiee M1, Aghaei M3. Department of Public Health, School of Health, 3Hazrate Masoumeh Hospital, Qom University of Medical Sciences and. Health Services, Qom, 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Kurdistan ...

  3. Perinatal problems and psychiatric comorbidity among children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Elizabeth B; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    Among two large, independent samples of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we examined associations between specific (maternal gestational smoking and drug use, early labor, low birth weight, and infant breathing problems at birth) and cumulative prenatal and perinatal risk factors and psychiatric comorbidity during childhood. Data from the (a) Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD, a randomized clinical trial with 579 children aged 7 to 9.9 years with combined-type ADHD, and the (b) Berkeley Girls ADHD Longitudinal Sample, a naturalistic study of 140 girls with ADHD (93 combined-type and 47 inattentive-type) who were first seen when they were 6 to 12 years old, were analyzed separately. In each sample, perinatal risk factors were assessed retrospectively by maternal report, and current childhood psychiatric comorbidity was assessed using maternal report on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Consistent findings across these two studies show that infant breathing problems, early labor, and total perinatal problems predicted childhood comorbid depression but not comorbid anxiety or externalizing disorders. These associations remained significant, in both samples, with control of family socioeconomic status (SES) and maternal symptoms of ADHD and depression. Results attenuated slightly with control of the number of child comorbidities plus SES and maternal symptoms. Accumulating evidence suggests that perinatal risk factors are important precursors of childhood psychiatric comorbidity and that the association between these risk factors and detrimental psychiatric outcomes cannot be explained by maternal psychiatric symptoms or SES during childhood.

  4. The impact of the Perinatal Education Programme on cognitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine whether the Maternal Care and Newborn Care manuals from the Perinatal Education Programme significantly improves the cognitive knowledge of midwives. Design. Assessment of cognitive knowledge by means of multiple-choice testing. These tests were conducted before and after each of the 30 ...

  5. Perinatal death in ethnic minorities in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Enk, A.; Buitendijk, S. E.; van der Pal, K. M.; van Enk, W. J.; Schulpen, T. W.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate differences in perinatal death rate and associated obstetric risk factors between ethnic groups in the Netherlands. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study based on the 1990-1993 birth cohorts in the National Obstetric Registry. SUBJECTS: 569,743 births of which 85,527 were for

  6. Reasons for Persistently High Maternal and Perinatal Mortalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia has already achieved the one health center for 25,000 population plan. CONCLUSION: In Ethiopia, the physicians and hospitals to population ratios were extremely low, which have probably contributed to the high maternal and perinatal mortality in the last three decades. KEYWORDS: Ethiopia, hospitals, maternal ...

  7. Scaling Up Care for Perinatal Depression for Improved Maternal and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project will help generate knowledge on the training methods that can equip midwives with skills to deliver care for perinatal depression. ... Women in the developing world continue to face obstacles that limit their ability to establish careers and become leaders in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and ...

  8. The impact of the Perinatal Education Programme on cognitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    l Care. tal care. ngenital fr Med. The impact of the Perinatal. Education Programme on cognitive knowledge in midwives. D. L. Woods, G. B. Theron. Objective. To determine ... Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Cape Town. D. L. Woods, M.D., ... patient-based approach is used together with a question-.

  9. Effect of the maternal care manual from the perinatal education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To assess changes in the quality of antenatal and intrapartum care rendered by midwives following intervention with the Maternal Care Manual from the Perinatal Education Programme (PEP). Design. A prospective controlled study. Setting. A study town and two control towns in the Eastern Cape. Subjects.

  10. Perinatal systemic gene delivery using adeno-associated viral vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajvinder eKarda

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative monogenic diseases can also affect a broad range of tissues and organs throughout the body. An effective treatment would require a systemic approach. The intravenous administration of novel therapies is ideal but is hampered by the inability of such drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier and precludes efficacy in the central nervous system. A number of these early lethal intractable diseases also present devastating irreversible pathology at birth or soon after. Therefore, any therapy would ideally be administered during the perinatal period to prevent, stop or ameliorate disease progression. The concept of perinatal gene therapy has moved a step further towards being a feasible approach to treating such disorders. This has primarily been driven by the recent discoveries that particular serotypes of adeno-associated virus (AAV gene delivery vectors have the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier following intravenous administration. Furthermore, this has been safely demonstrated in perinatal mice and non-human primates. This review focuses on the progress made in using AAV to achieve systemic transduction and what this means for developing perinatal gene therapy for early lethal neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors associated with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Hadjkacem

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: The present survey confirms the high prevalence of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors in children with ASD and suggests the intervention of some of these factors (acute fetal distress and difficult labor, among others, as determinant variables for the genesis of ASD.

  12. Perinatal Outcome of Obvious Congenital Malformation as seen at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15.8, per 1000 total births, while the contribution of such malformations to perinatal mortality was 11.9 per cent. Gastrointestinal, central nervous and musculo-skeletal system malforma- tions were the commonest seen With individual incidences of 3.9, 3.5 and 2.1 per 1000 total births, respectively. Unclassified congenital ...

  13. Perinatal mortality in a rural community | Ewah | East African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the peri-natal mortality rate (PMR), still birth rate (SBR) and early neonatal death rate (ENDR) in Igueben Local Government Area (LGA) of Edo State. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Igueben LGA is a rural governmental unit in mid-western Nigeria. Subjects: All women of ...

  14. Perinatal mortality in Bavaria, Germany, after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosche, B. [Institute for Radiation Hygiene, Federal Office for Radiation Protection, D-85762 Oberschleissheim (Germany); Irl, C. [Institute for Radiation Hygiene, Federal Office for Radiation Protection, D-85762 Oberschleissheim (Germany); Schoetzau, A. [Institute for Radiation Hygiene, Federal Office for Radiation Protection, D-85762 Oberschleissheim (Germany); Santen, E. van [Institute for Radiation Hygiene, Federal Office for Radiation Protection, D-85762 Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    As has been shown by the authors of a paper recently published in this journal, a deviation from a long-term trend in perinatal mortality within the former Federal Republic of Germany occurred in 1987, i.e. 1 year following the Chernobyl disaster. It is the aim of this study to make a comparison between the areas of the state Bavaria, Germany, with different fallout levels as well as between the observed and expected numbers of perinatal deaths relating to these areas. The expected numbers of perinatal deaths, defined as external standard, were derived from the remainder of the former FRG. Testing an a priori formulated hypothesis revealed no differences in the temporal development of perinatal mortality between the areas with different fallout levels and subsequent exposures. Including May 1986 into the analysis revealed a significant increase during the first 3 months after the accident, which is due to an excess in May alone. Since no elevated radiation risks for the last days in utero are known, the additional Chernobyl radiation exposure is not plausible as a causative agent. Further analyses on stillbirths showed an increase in Southern Bavaria during the first 2 years following the accident. Later on, the rates were comparable to the expected values again. (orig.). With 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. The potential for preventing the delivery and perinatal mortality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the potentiaJ for preventing the delivery and perinatal mortality of low-birth-weight (LBW) babies in a black urban population. Design. Cross-sectionaJ descriptive study. Setting. All women delivering babies weighing less than 2 500 g at Kalafong Hospital in a 6-month period (December 1991 - May ...

  16. Maternal and perinatal outcome of eclampsia in a tertiary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal outcome was measured in terms of complications and maternal death. Foetal outcome was assessed in terms of low birth weight, pre-term births, low apgar score, and perinatal deaths. Results: There were 57 cases of Eclampsia out of a total of 6,262 deliveries within the study period, giving a prevalence of 0.91%.

  17. Determinants of Perinatal Mortality in Twins at Ibadan | Olayemi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Twinning being a very important high-risk condition in our environment requires detailed study. There are several studies reviewing factors in twin perinatal mortality in our environment but there is a need to ascertain the relative contributions of each of these factors. Objectives: To assess the relative contributions of ...

  18. Maternal HIV seropositivity and perinatal/neonatal outcome at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %) and neonatal death of 3/66 (4.5%). Conclusion: High HIV seropositive prevalence rate, high rate of loss to follow up (abscondment), high positive rate in young mothers with adverse perinatal/neonatal outcome call for cost effective measures ...

  19. Perinatal mortality in the Cape Province, 1989 - 1991

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-05-05

    May 5, 1995 ... Objective. To determine the number of deliveries, the low- birth-weight rate and the perinatal mortality rate at provincial and province-aided hospitals and clinics in each planning region of the Cape Province. Design. A record of the number of deliveries, low-birth- weight infants, stillbirths and early neonataJ ...

  20. Reasons for Persistently High Maternal and Perinatal Mortalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: The major causes of maternal and perinatal deaths are mostly pregnancy related. However, there are several predisposing factors for the increased risk of pregnancy related complications and deaths in developing countries. The objective of this review was to grossly estimate the effect of selected ...

  1. Perinatal lethal type II osteogenesis imperfecta: a case report | Ayadi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a new case of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type II which is a perinatal lethal form. First trimester ultrasound didn't identified abnormalities. Second trimester ultrasound showed incurved limbs, narrow chest, with hypomineralization and multiple fractures of ribs and long bones. Parents refused pregnancy ...

  2. Assessing the knowledge of perinatal mental illness among student midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Louise

    2015-11-01

    The experience of perinatal mental illness (mental illness occurring around the time of pregnancy) currently affect 1 in 10 women and can have adverse effects on the mother and her child (Massie and Szajnberg, 2002; O'Connor et al., 2002). The care and effective management of women experiencing perinatal mental illness is therefore an important issue for health care staff, managers, psychiatrists, commissioners and campaigners. Midwives play a significant part in caring for women throughout their pregnancies, during labour and up to the first month after birth. Midwives are in a unique position to assess a woman's well-being and to offer appropriate support. However, previous research has revealed that midwives often have poor understanding and knowledge of perinatal mental health issues and require improved training (Ross-Davie et al, 2006; McCann and Clark, 2010). This research project aims to systematically assess student midwives awareness of perinatal mental illness. The findings of this study will inform curriculum development for graduate and post-graduate midwifery students therefore improving the care and support women with mental illness receive from antenatal services. The findings from this study will also be used for the formation of an educational web-based programme for student and qualified midwives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pregnancy and Perinatal Outcomes Associated with Acinetobacter baumannii Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai He

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective - To determine perinatal and pregnancy outcomes of Acinetobacter baumannii infection using clinicopathologic material from pregnant women, neonates, and perinatal postmortem examinations with positive cultures. Study Design - This is a retrospective record review with placental and postmortem examination. Results - During a 5-year period, 40 positive cultures were found. Three pregnancies with positive cultures close in the peripartum period were all associated with adverse outcomes including spontaneous abortion, preterm labor, and one full-term birth with histological chorioamnionitis. Two positive cultures were found in preterm neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit. Two of three cases of perinatal death grew pure cultures from blood and/or fetal tissue with placental or fetal examination demonstrating evidence of infection/inflammation with fetal inflammatory response. Conclusion - This is the first case series report of A. baumannii-positive cultures in maternal, fetal, and neonatal specimen, with histopathologic evidence of infection. The results suggest a significant role of A. baumannii infection in adverse pregnancy and perinatal outcomes.

  4. Ethics in Perinatal Medicine | Adinma | Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The current trend in perinatal medicine addresses the challenge posed to newborn survival by newborn prematurity and other morbidities requiring neonatal newborn intensive care. These ethical concerns span through the spectrum of education, clinical practice and research, domicile in obstetrics and ...

  5. Maternal and perinatal complications in triplet compared with twin pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Santema (Job); P. Bourdrez (Petra); H.C.S. Wallenburg (Henk)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To compare maternal and perinatal complications in triplet and twin pregnancies. Study design: Case-controlled study in the setting of a University Hospital. Each pregnancy of a consecutive series of 40 triplet pregnancies of 20 weeks or more was matched for parity and

  6. Maternal malaria and perinatal HIV transmission, western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayisi, John G.; van Eijk, Anna M.; Newman, Robert D.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Shi, Ya Ping; Yang, Chunfu; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Otieno, Juliana A.; Misore, Ambrose O.; Kager, Piet A.; Lal, Renu B.; Steketee, Richard W.; Nahlen, Bernard L.

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether maternal placental malaria is associated with an increased risk for perinatal mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT), we studied HIV-positive women in western Kenya. We enrolled 512 mother-infant pairs; 128 (25.0%) women had placental malaria, and 102 (19.9%) infants acquired

  7. Maternal and fetal determinants of perinatal transmission of HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To ascertain the major determinants of perinatal transmission of HIV among HIV positive women attending ANC and delivery at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri. Patients and methods: A prospective case control study of 52 HIV positive pregnant women who were attending ANC and ...

  8. The Use of Art Therapy Following Perinatal Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speert, Ellen

    1992-01-01

    Sees art therapy as well-suited to needs of grieving women. Presents information on perinatal death and usefulness of group art therapy as intervention within framework of new psychology of women. Client art expressions illustrate how women have used art therapy to work through their grief and move toward deeper sense of personal empowerment and…

  9. Birth weight percentile and the risk of term perinatal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraitis, Alexandros A; Wood, Angela M; Fleming, Michael; Smith, Gordon C S

    2014-08-01

    To estimate the association between birth weight percentile and the risk of perinatal death at term in relation to the cause of death. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all term singleton births in delivery units in Scotland between 1992 and 2008 (n=784,576), excluding perinatal deaths ascribed to congenital anomaly. There were 1,700 perinatal deaths in the cohort, which were not the result of congenital anomaly (21.7/10,000 women at term). We observed a reversed J-shaped association between birth weight percentile and the risk of antepartum stillbirth in all women, but the associations significantly differed (Pperinatal death (ie, intrapartum stillbirth or neonatal death), but there was no interaction with smoking. The highest risk was for birth weight greater than the 97th percentile (2.3, 1.6-3.3), but there were also associations with third or less percentile (2.1, 1.4-3.1), 4th-10th (1.8, 1.4-2.4), and 11th-20th (1.5, 1.2-2.0). Analysis of the attributable fraction indicated that approximately one in three antepartum stillbirths and one in six delivery-related deaths at term could be related to birth weight percentile outside the range 21st-97th percentile. Effective detection of variation in fetal size at term has potential as a screening test for the risk of perinatal death. II.

  10. [Paternal grief and nursing care in perinatal deaths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Ting; Chen, Fu-Hsuan

    2013-12-01

    Perinatal death distresses all family members. Paternal perceptions of perinatal death should be better understood in order to help the expectant father maintain long-term health and quality of life and minimize the potential negative effects of paternal grieving and stress on family and marital relations. Male and female grieving behaviors have been shown to differ significantly. Taiwan society typically expects males to be strong and support the family while avoiding the overt expression or revelation of personal feelings such as grief, regret, and anger. Although fathers may be reluctant to express a need for care, care personnel may facilitate care through such activities as understanding of a perinatal-death father's feelings, providing related messages about the event to facilitate good decisions, helping him support his spouse, helping him adopt appropriate behaviors and attitudes toward the fetus, and treating him as a grieving father rather than a medical event. This article reviews the literature to explore paternal perceptions and reactions toward perinatal death in order to recognize nursing needs and principles of grieving fathers within the Taiwan cultural context. Further study in this area is recommended.

  11. perinatal mortality in university of nigeria teaching hospital (unth)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    94/1 000, a high PMR when compared with similar centers in and .... 5942 402 32 68.08 411 64.47 845 133.94. Means. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice. Mar. 2007 Vol. 10(1). Perinatal mortality. Dr. G.N.Adimora & Dr. 1.0. Odetunde 20 ...

  12. Effect of prolonged birth spacing on maternal and perinatal outcome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The commonest reason adduced for prolonged birth spacing is failed contraception (56%), followed by secondary infertility (24%) and to a lesser extent re-marriage, improved income and sheer desire. Conclusion: There was no significant difference in maternal and perinatal outcome in pregnancy between women with ...

  13. Radiographic and prenatal ultrasound features of perinatal lethal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (22 mm) at 27 weeks and polyhydramnios, platyspondyly and a small thoracic cavity at 36 weeks' gestation. Radiographic and prenatal ultrasound features of perinatal lethal hypophosphatasia – differentia- tion from osteogenesis imperfecta type II. S Wiebe, MD, FRCPC. Department of Medical Imaging, Royal University ...

  14. The Challenge of Improving Perinatal Care in settings with Limited ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to observe and analyze midwifery care routine related to asphyxia and hypothermia during the perinatal period and to investigate the effect of an in-service education program. A direct non-participant pre-and post intervention observation study of midwifery a performance during childbirth was ...

  15. Perinatal mortality with particular reference to the Singapore situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K L

    1984-04-01

    Perinatal mortality rates have been gradually declining in all countries. The initial decline mainly resulted from improvements in the late foetal mortality rates. Later with improvements in neonatal care, early neonatal mortality rates also improved. The developed countries have consistently shown better results than the developing countries, an indication of the higher standard of living, general health as well as the delivery of health care in these countries. In the Singapore situation, a rapid improvement in perinatal mortality was initially observed due to improvements in the late foetal mortality, followed later by reduction in the early neonatal mortality due to upgrading of neonatal intensive care. The perinatal mortality rate is lowest in the Chinese compared to the Indians and Malays, most likely due to the dietary practices of the three ethnic groups in Singapore; while the Chinese encourage extra nutrition in the pregnant female, the Malays and Indians tend to practise dietary restriction during this period. The improved nutrition of the pregnant mother is a factor in improving the perinatal mortality.

  16. Employment in pregnancy: prevalence, maternal characteristics, perinatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J F; Dauncey, M; Newcombe, R; Garcia, J; Elbourne, D

    1984-05-26

    Data from the Cardiff Births Survey was used to examine the relation between the nature of employment and perinatal outcome. The proportion of all expectant mothers who work during pregnancy increased from 38.7% in 1965/69 to 43.9% in 1975/79 (p less than 0.001). The percentage of working primiparas, however, remained unchanged at approximately 80%, whereas the percentage of working multiparas rose from 15.1% to 22.1%. The non-employed primiparas were more likely than the employed primiparas to be at the extremes of maternal age, to have a history of medical problems and previous abortions, and to attend less often for antenatal care. Perinatal outcome (measured in terms of perinatal mortality, birthweight, and length of gestation) was significantly better among the employed mothers. Non-employed mothers in social classes I and II seemed to be a particularly high risk group. Exclusion of mothers with an adverse obstetric or medical history considerably reduced the differences in perinatal outcome between the two groups. The findings suggest that healthy women without an adverse obstetric or medical history can safely continue in employment during pregnancy.

  17. Umbilical cord prolapse and perinatal outcome in a tertiary institution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cord prolapse is one of the obstetric emergencies in labour, posing a life threatening suituation for the foetus. With a live foetus, timely delivery at detection of the prolapse reduces the high perinatal morbidity and mortality. Generally, the management of this condition seems to pose a persisting challenge. To determine the ...

  18. Risk factors and perinatal outcome of umbilical cord prolapse in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-07-01

    Aim: The goal of this study was to identify risk factors associated with umbilical cord prolapse and to document the perinatal outcome of cases of cord prolapse. Materials and Methods: During the period of the study (from July 1, 2001 and June 30, 2007), forty-six cases of umbilical cord prolapse were identified from the labor ...

  19. Endocrine adaptations in the foal over the perinatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowden, A L; Forhead, A J; Ousey, J C

    2012-02-01

    In adapting to life ex utero, the foal encounters a number of physiological challenges. It has to assume the nutritional, respiratory and excretory functions of the placenta and activate full regulatory control over its own internal environment for the first time. To achieve this, there must be structural and functional changes to a wide range of tissues including several endocrine glands. In most species, including the horse, these maturational changes begin in late gestation and continue into the first few days of neonatal life. Consequently, during this perinatal period, there are major changes in the sensitivity and/or set point of key endocrine axes, which alter the circulating hormone concentrations in the foal. In turn, these endocrine changes are responsible for many of the other physiological adaptations essential for neonatal survival. The perinatal alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are particularly important in these processes, although the sympatho-adrenal medullary axis and endocrine pancreas also have key roles in ensuring homeostasis during the multiple novel stimuli experienced at birth. Abnormalities in the perinatal endocrine profile caused by adverse conditions before or after birth may, therefore, lead to maladaptation or aid survival of the newborn foal depending on the specific circumstances. This review examines the perinatal changes in endocrinology in normal and compromised foals and the role of these endocrine changes in the physiological adaptations to extrauterine life with particular emphasis on the HPA axis, adreno-medullary catecholamines and the endocrine pancreas.

  20. Maternal and perinatal outcome of patients with severe pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the effect of introducing MgSO4 on the maternal and perinatal outcomes of severe pre-eclampsia in Sagamu, south-western Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of all cases of severe pre-eclampsia managed at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital (OOUTH), Sagamu, Nigeria ...

  1. The potential for preventing the delivery and perinatal mortality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the potentiaJ for preventing the delivery and perinatal mortality of low-birth-weight (LBW) babies in a black urban population. Design. Cross-sectionaJ descriptive study. Setting. All women delivering babies weighing less than. 2 500 g at Kalafong Hospital in a 6-month period. (December 1991 - May ...

  2. Perinatal Asphyxia: A Review from a Metabolomics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fattuoni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal asphyxia is defined as an oxygen deprivation that occurs around the time of birth, and may be caused by several perinatal events. This medical condition affects some four million neonates worldwide per year, causing the death of one million subjects. In most cases, infants successfully recover from hypoxia episodes; however, some patients may develop HIE, leading to permanent neurological conditions or impairment of different organs and systems. Given its multifactor dependency, the timing, severity and outcome of this disease, mainly assessed through Sarnat staging, are of difficult evaluation. Moreover, although the latest newborn resuscitation guideline suggests the use of a 21% oxygen concentration or room air, such an approach is still under debate. Therefore, the pathological mechanism is still not clear and a golden standard treatment has yet to be defined. In this context, metabolomics, a new discipline that has described important perinatal issues over the last years, proved to be a useful tool for the monitoring, the assessment, and the identification of potential biomarkers associated with asphyxia events. This review covers metabolomics research on perinatal asphyxia condition, examining in detail the studies reported both on animal and human models.

  3. Are we winning? Improving perinatal outcomes at a deeply rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Are we winning? Improving perinatal outcomes at a deeply rural district hospital in South Africa. CB Gaunt. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAMJ.3699 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  4. Perinatal Complications of Twin Deliveries at Jimma University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twin pregnancy carries higher foetal and neonatal complications. This situation is worse in Sub-Saharan Africa due to lack of well-equipped facilities. Studies on twin pregnancy and its perinatal complications are limited in Ethiopia. Thus, this study aimed to fill this gap. A hospital-based cohort study was conducted in Jimma ...

  5. The perinatal autopsy : Pertinent issues in multicultural Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, Sanne J.; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Khong, T. Yee

    Western Europe is in a demographic transition with increasing multicultural societies. Health professionals have to understand the background, religious and cultural aspects of parents to counsel them regarding an autopsy in the event of a perinatal loss. Autopsy rates have declined over the past

  6. Association Between Isolated Single Umbilical Artery and Perinatal Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yajuan; Ren, Lidan; Zhai, Shanshan; Luo, Xiaohua; Hong, Teng; Liu, Rui; Ran, Limin; Zhang, Yingying

    2016-04-30

    BACKGROUND To evaluate the association between the isolated single umbilical artery (iSUA) and perinatal outcomes, including pregnancy outcomes and perinatal complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS We performed a meta-analysis of 15 eligible studies regarding the relationship between the iSUA and perinatal outcomes, including gestational age at delivery, nuchal cord, placental weight, small for gestational age (SGA), oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios, pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), preeclampsia, and perinatal mortality. The overall odds ratios (OR) or standardized mean difference (SMD) were calculated. RESULTS The occurrence of nuchal cord was not found to be different between an iSUA and a three-vessel cord (TVC) fetus. For perinatal complications, the SGA, oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios, GDM, and perinatal mortality showed dramatic difference between women with an iSUA and women with a TVC fetus, which implied that the presence of iSUA significantly increased the risk of perinatal complications. For other perinatal complications, such as PIH and preeclampsia, no significant association was detected. CONCLUSIONS Our meta-analysis suggests that the presence of iSUA would increase the risk of perinatal complications such as SGA, oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios, GDM, and perinatal mortality. Therefore, pregnant women with an iSUA fetus have poorer perinatal outcomes and more attention should be given to the management of their pregnancy compared to women with a TVC fetus.

  7. Stress in fathers in the perinatal period: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Lloyd Frank; Leahy-Warren, Patricia; FitzGerald, Serena; Savage, Eileen

    2017-12-01

    despite the evidence that fatherhood has a long-term positive and protective effect on men's health, there is also evidence that fatherhood in the perinatal period can be complex and demanding. Due to the potential increase in stressors in the perinatal period, there is reason to hypothesise that it is a time of increased stress for fathers. However, it is not clear how significant a problem stress is for fathers during this stage of life. This is in part, due to the fact that the available research has not been systematically reviewed. the purpose of this systematic review was to critically appraise the empirical evidence that examined stress in fathers in the perinatal period. systematic review. a systematic review protocol was developed and registered with PROSPERO (Reference number: CRD42016035821). The review was guided by the PRISMA reporting process. Electronic databases Medline, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collections were searched to identify studies that met the inclusion criteria. Studies that researched fathers in the perinatal period were included if stress was the principal focus of the research, if stress was in the title and/or aim of the study or if stress was an outcome or dependent variable. Data were extracted and presented in narrative form including tables and figures. eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The findings indicate that fathers experience stress in the perinatal period, particularly at the time of birth. Stress levels were found to increase from the antenatal period to the time of birth, with a decrease in stress levels from the time of birth to the later postnatal period. There are a number of factors that contribute to stress in fathers in the perinatal period and these included negative feelings about the pregnancy, role restrictions related to becoming a father, fear of childbirth and feelings of incompetence related to infant care. The review found that

  8. Eating disorders and trauma history in women with perinatal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Zerwas, Stephanie; Leserman, Jane; Holle, Ann Von; Regis, Taylor; Bulik, Cynthia

    2011-06-01

    Although the prevalence of perinatal depression (depression occurring during pregnancy and postpartum) is 10%, little is known about psychiatric comorbidity in these women. We examined the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders (ED) and trauma history in women with perinatal depression. A research questionnaire was administered to 158 consecutive patients seen in a perinatal psychiatry clinic during pregnancy (n=99) or postpartum (n=59). Measures included Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID) IV-based questions for lifetime eating psychopathology and assessments of comorbid psychiatric illness including the State/Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and Trauma Inventory. In this cohort, 37.1% reported a putative lifetime ED history; 10.1% reported anorexia nervosa (AN), 10.1% reported bulimia nervosa (BN), 10.1% reported ED not otherwise specified-purging subtype (EDNOS-P), and 7.0% reported binge eating disorder (BED). Women with BN reported more severe depression (EPDS score, 19.1, standard deviation [SD 4.3], p=0.02; PHQ-severity 14.5, SD 7.4, p=0.02) than the referent group of women with perinatal depression and no ED history (EPDS 13.3, SD=6.1; PHQ 9.0, SD=6.2). Women with AN were more likely to report sexual trauma history than the referent group (62.5% vs. 29.3%, pdepression and histories of physical and sexual trauma. Screening for histories of eating psychopathology is important in women with perinatal depression.

  9. Prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors associated with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjkacem, Imen; Ayadi, Héla; Turki, Mariem; Yaich, Sourour; Khemekhem, Khaoula; Walha, Adel; Cherif, Leila; Moalla, Yousr; Ghribi, Farhat

    To identify prenatal, perinatal and postnatal risk factors in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by comparing them to their siblings without autistic disorders. The present study is cross sectional and comparative. It was conducted over a period of three months (July-September 2014). It included 101 children: 50 ASD's children diagnosed according to DSM-5 criteria and 51 unaffected siblings. The severity of ASD was assessed by the CARS. Our study revealed a higher prevalence of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors in children with ASD in comparison with unaffected siblings. It showed also a significant association between perinatal and postnatal factors and ASD (respectively p=0.03 and p=0.042). In this group, perinatal factors were mainly as type of suffering acute fetal (26% of cases), long duration of delivery and prematurity (18% of cases for each factor), while postnatal factors were represented principally by respiratory infections (24%). As for parental factors, no correlation was found between advanced age of parents at the moment of the conception and ASD. Likewise, no correlation was observed between the severity of ASD and different factors. After logistic regression, the risk factors retained for autism in the final model were: male gender, prenatal urinary tract infection, acute fetal distress, difficult labor and respiratory infection. The present survey confirms the high prevalence of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors in children with ASD and suggests the intervention of some of these factors (acute fetal distress and difficult labor, among others), as determinant variables for the genesis of ASD. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors associated with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Hadjkacem

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To identify prenatal, perinatal and postnatal risk factors in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD by comparing them to their siblings without autistic disorders. Method: The present study is cross sectional and comparative. It was conducted over a period of three months (July-September 2014. It included 101 children: 50 ASD's children diagnosed according to DSM-5 criteria and 51 unaffected siblings. The severity of ASD was assessed by the CARS. Results: Our study revealed a higher prevalence of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors in children with ASD in comparison with unaffected siblings. It showed also a significant association between perinatal and postnatal factors and ASD (respectively p = 0.03 and p = 0.042. In this group, perinatal factors were mainly as type of suffering acute fetal (26% of cases, long duration of delivery and prematurity (18% of cases for each factor, while postnatal factors were represented principally by respiratory infections (24%. As for parental factors, no correlation was found between advanced age of parents at the moment of the conception and ASD. Likewise, no correlation was observed between the severity of ASD and different factors. After logistic regression, the risk factors retained for autism in the final model were: male gender, prenatal urinary tract infection, acute fetal distress, difficult labor and respiratory infection. Conclusions: The present survey confirms the high prevalence of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors in children with ASD and suggests the intervention of some of these factors (acute fetal distress and difficult labor, among others, as determinant variables for the genesis of ASD.

  11. Support for mothers, fathers and families after perinatal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Laura; Wilson, Trish; Cacciatore, Joanne; Flenady, Vicki

    2013-06-19

    Provision of an empathetic, sensitive, caring environment and strategies to support mothers, fathers and their families experiencing perinatal death are now an accepted part of maternity services in many countries. Interventions such as psychological support or counselling, or both, have been suggested to improve outcomes for parents and families after perinatal death. To assess the effect of any form of intervention (i.e. medical, nursing, midwifery, social work, psychology, counselling or community-based) on parents and families who experience perinatal death. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (28 January 2013) and article bibliographies. Randomised trials of any form of support aimed at encouraging acceptance of loss, bereavement counselling, or specialised psychotherapy or counselling for mothers, fathers and families experiencing perinatal death. Two review authors independently assessed eligibility of trials. No trials were included. Primary healthcare interventions and a strong family and social support network are invaluable to parents and families around the time a baby dies. However, due to the lack of high-quality randomised trials conducted in this area, the true benefits of currently existing interventions aimed at providing support for mothers, fathers and families experiencing perinatal death is unclear. Further, the currently available evidence around the potential detrimental effects of some interventions (e.g. seeing and holding a deceased baby) remains inconclusive at this point in time. However, some well-designed descriptive studies have shown that, under the right circumstances and guided by compassionate, sensitive, experienced staff, parents' experiences of seeing and holding their deceased baby is often very positive. The sensitive nature of this topic and small sample sizes, make it difficult to develop rigorous clinical trials. Hence, other research designs may further inform practice in this area

  12. Mozambican midwives' views on barriers to quality perinatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Karen Odberg; Johansson, Eva; Pelembe, Maria de Fatima M; Dgedge, Clemencia; Christensson, Kyllike

    2006-02-01

    Our purpose in this study was to explore the midwives' perception of factors obstructing or facilitating their ability to provide quality perinatal care at a central labor ward in Maputo. In-depth interviews were undertaken with 16 midwives and were analyzed according to grounded theory technique. Barriers to provision of quality perinatal care were identified as follows: (i) the unsupportive environment, (ii) nonempowering and limited interaction with women in labor, (iii) a sense of professional inadequacy and inferiority, and (iv) nonappliance of best caring practices. A model based on the midwives' reflections on barriers to quality perinatal care and responses to these were developed. Actions aimed at overcoming the barriers were improvising and identifying areas in need of change. Identified evading actions were holding others accountable and yielding to dysfunction and structural control. In order to improve perinatal care, the midwives need to see themselves as change agents and not as victims of external and internal causal relationships over which they have no influence. It is moreover essential that the midwives chose actions aiming at overcoming barriers to quality perinatal care instead of choosing evading actions, which might jeopardize the health of the unborn and newborn infant. We suggest that local as well as national education programs need to correspond with existing reality, even if they provide knowledge that surpasses the present possibilities in practice. Quality of intrapartum and the immediate newborn care requires a supportive environment, however, which in the context of this study presented such serious obstacles that they need to be addressed on the national level. Structural and administrative changes are difficult to target as these depend on national organization of maternal health care (MHC) services and national health expenditures.

  13. [Perinatal hospital mortality: its relationship with prenatal care quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Barradas, María del Rocío; Méndez Machado, Gustavo Francisco; Guevara Arenas, Javier; Caballero Leal, Luis Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Our aim was to analyze infant mortality at the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) North Veracruz, Mexico, Delegation from the perspective of prenatal care quality. We performed a retrospective case-control study and included all cases of perinatal mortality at the IMSS at North Veracruz from July 1 to December 31, 2003. There were two controls per case matched by gender and date of birth. Prenatal care quality was evaluated by a specifically developed questionnaire. A total of 53 cases were used for the final analysis. Maternal age was similar between cases and controls (p = 0.814). There were fewer prenatal appointments (p = 0.0001), fewer test performed [blood test (p = 0.0001) and urine test (p = 0.004)], higher obstetric risk (p = 0.004), and fewer obstetric ultrasound imaging studies developed (p = 0.022) in cases of perinatal mortality vs. controls. Main variables related with perinatal mortality were the following: absent of blood test (odds ratio [OR] 4.7, 95% confidence interval [Cl 95%] 2.2-9.9, p = 0.0001); urine test (OR 4.4, CI 95% 1.5-12.6, p = 0.004), and obstetric ultrasound studies (OR 2.3, Cl 95%, 1.1-4.8, p = 0.022), and having fewer than five prenatal appointments (OR 2.2, Cl 95% 1.1-4.4, p = 0.018). There is evidence of inadequate prenatal care quality in cases of hospital perinatal mortality in Veracruz. Absence of obstetric ultrasound imaging studies and blood tests during prenatal care increases the risk of perinatal mortality 2-4 times.

  14. Executive Functioning in Children and Adolescents With Perinatal HIV Infection and Perinatal HIV Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Sharon L; Chernoff, Miriam C; Malee, Kathleen M; Sirois, Patricia A; Woods, Steven P; Williams, Paige L; Yildirim, Cenk; Delis, Dean; Kammerer, Betsy

    2016-12-01

    Executive functions (EFs) are critical for management of life activities, but few studies have evaluated EFs in children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV), who are at risk for problems in academics, behavior, and medication adherence. We compared EFs in youth with PHIV and in perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (PHEU) youth. Four Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) subtests were administered to 173 youth with PHIV and 85 PHEU youth, aged 9 to Executive Functioning Study. Youth with PHIV, with or without history of a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Class C (AIDS-defining) condition (PHIV/C [n = 45] and PHIV/non-C [n = 128], respectively), were compared with each other and with PHEU youth. Among youth with PHIV, associations with measures of current and past disease severity were evaluated using adjusted linear regression models. The PHIV/C group (mean age, 15.5 years), compared with the PHIV/non-C and PHEU groups (mean ages, 14.5 and 12.9 years, respectively), were significantly slower on the Inhibition and Color Naming/Reading Combined conditions of the Color-Word Interference subtest and made more errors on Inhibition; differences between the PHIV/C and PHEU groups persisted in adjusted models. No differences in adjusted means for fluency or problem-solving were found. The PHIV/non-C and PHEU groups did not differ on any measure. Associations of specific EF measures with HIV RNA viral load, CD4-positive T-lymphocyte percentage, and age at greatest disease severity were observed. Youth with PHIV and previous AIDS-defining conditions performed more poorly on some EF measures. Relationships of EF development with the degree and timing of disease severity require further study. Implications for long-term outcomes and interventions are important avenues for follow-up. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  15. Perinatal Depression Algorithm: A Home Visitor Step-by-Step Guide for Advanced Management of Perinatal Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszewski, Audrey; Wichman, Christina L.; Doering, Jennifer J.; Maletta, Kristyn; Hammel, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood professionals do many things to support young families. This is true now more than ever, as researchers continue to discover the long-term benefits of early, healthy, nurturing relationships. This article provides an overview of the development of an advanced practice perinatal depression algorithm created as a step-by-step guide…

  16. Suicide in perinatal and non-perinatal women in contact with psychiatric services: 15 year findings from a UK national inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifeh, Hind; Hunt, Isabelle M; Appleby, Louis; Howard, Louise M

    2016-03-01

    Suicide in pregnant and postnatal women is an important cause of maternal death, but evidence to guide suicide prevention in this group is scarce. We aimed to compare the trend, nature, and correlates of suicide in perinatal and non-perinatal women in contact with psychiatric services. We used 1997-2012 data from the UK National Confidential Inquiry into Suicides and Homicides by People with Mental Illness, which includes all suicides by people (age ≥10 years) who had been in contact with psychiatric services in the previous year. The study sample comprised all women who died by suicide in pregnancy or the first postnatal year (perinatal suicides), and all women in the same age range who died by suicide outside this period (non-perinatal suicides). We compared suicides among perinatal and non-perinatal women with logistic regression of multiply imputed data. The study sample included 4785 women aged 16-50 years who died by suicide, of whom 98 (2%) died in the perinatal period. Of the 1485 women aged 20-35 years, 74 (4%) women died in the perinatal period. Over the course of the study, we recorded a modest downward trend in the mean number of women dying by suicide in the non-perinatal period (-2·07 per year [SD 0·96]; p=0·026), but not the perinatal period (-0·07 per year [0·37]; p=0·58). Compared with non-perinatal women, women who died by suicide in the perinatal period were more likely to have a diagnosis of depression (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2·19 [95% CI 1·43-3·34]; psuicide within versus outside the perinatal period were also more likely to be younger (crude OR -6·39 [95% CI -8·15 to -4·62]; pillness duration (2·93 [1·88-4·56]; psuicides in the perinatal period were more likely to occur in those with a depression diagnosis and no active treatment at the time of death. Assertive follow-up and treatment of perinatal women in contact with psychiatric services are needed to address suicide risk in this group. Healthcare Quality Improvement

  17. Introduction of a qualitative perinatal audit at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Angela N

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal death is a devastating experience for the mother and of concern in clinical practice. Regular perinatal audit may identify suboptimal care related to perinatal deaths and thus appropriate measures for its reduction. The aim of this study was to perform a qualitative perinatal audit of intrapartum and early neonatal deaths and propose means of reducing the perinatal mortality rate (PMR. Methods From 1st August, 2007 to 31st December, 2007 we conducted an audit of perinatal deaths (n = 133 with birth weight 1500 g or more at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH. The audit was done by three obstetricians, two external and one internal auditors. Each auditor independently evaluated the cases narratives. Suboptimal factors were identified in the antepartum, intrapartum and early neonatal period and classified into three levels of delay (community, infrastructure and health care. The contribution of each suboptimal factor to adverse perinatal outcome was identified and the case graded according to possible avoidability. Degree of agreement between auditors was assessed by the kappa coefficient. Results The PMR was 92 per 1000 total births. Suboptimal factors were identified in 80% of audited cases and half of suboptimal factors were found to be the likely cause of adverse perinatal outcome and were preventable. Poor foetal heart monitoring during labour was indirectly associated with over 40% of perinatal death. There was a poor to fair agreement between external and internal auditors. Conclusion There are significant areas of care that need improvement. Poor monitoring during labour was a major cause of avoidable perinatal mortality. This type of audit was a good starting point for quality assurance at MNH. Regular perinatal audits to identify avoidable causes of perinatal deaths with feed back to the staff may be a useful strategy to reduce perinatal mortality.

  18. The analysis of perinatal morbidity and mortality in conditions of perinatal center and the ways of its decrease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Нана Мерабівна Пасієшвілі

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of research. The analysis of perinatal morbidity and mortality in the condition of one perinatal center of Ukraine and optimization of the possible ways of its decrease.Methods of research. There was analyze the work of Kharkiv regional center in 2011–2015 years taking into account the rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality and factors that have influence on it. There were studied the next parameters: the number of newborns, its apportionment on the weight category, survival, general morbidity, mortality structure of the full-term and premature children. Statistical processing of the received results was carried out using Statistica 6.0 program.Results of research. The frequency of normal delivery in perinatal center is in average 58,9 %. The rates of neonatal mortality decreased– 4,11 ‰ (in 2011 year – 8,23 ‰ and early neonatal one – 3,34 ‰ (in 2011 year – 6,44 ‰. The survival of newborns with extremely low body weight (500- 999 g in first 0-168 hours was 62,50 %; with body weight 1000 – 1499 g – 82,35 %; with body weight at delivery 1500-2499 g was 98,17 %, survival of newborns with body weight > 2500 g in the first 0-6 days was 99,75 % .The morbidity structure of full-term children still almost unchangeable during the last 5 years: asphyxia, congenital defects of development, arrest of foetus growth, cerebral ischemia, intrauterine infection, birth trauma. The morbidity structure of premature ones: respiratory disorder syndrome, intrauterine infection; asphyxia, congenital defects of development, arrest of foetus growth.Among the mortality causes the main ones were congenial defects of development (prevailed in full-term children and intrauterine infection (on the first place in premature children. The perinatal mortality rate in 2015 year was 18,22 %о, in 2011year – 26,65 %о . The maternal foetus infection is the very frequent cause of stillbirth and pre-term birth and as the result the birth of small

  19. Obstetric interventions and perinatal asphyxia in growth retarded term infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Lindmark, G

    1997-01-01

    neonatal outcome at term have been studied in relation to different types of fetal growth retardation, including sub-groups with low ponderal index or low amount of subcutaneous fat. RESULTS: The need for obstetric intervention indicated by suspected fetal asphyxia before or during labor was increased 3......BACKGROUND: The monitoring of fetal growth during pregnancy is usually justified because of the increased perinatal risk of these babies. METHODS: In 1552 infants from the Scandinavian Small for Gestational Age Study the need for obstetric interventions, risk of fetal asphyxia and immediate......-fold (6-8%) for growth retarded infants both in SGA infants in general and infants with asymmetric body proportions. The immediate perinatal outcome, however, was favorable with Apgar below 8 at 5 min in only 2% irrespective of the type of growth retardation, in spite of the fact that less than 25...

  20. Pregnancy and perinatal outcome in women with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillar, Nir; Levy, Amalia; Holcberg, Gershon; Sheiner, Eyal

    2010-01-01

    To investigate pregnancy outcome for patients with treated hyperthyroidism. A population-based study was performed comparing all singleton pregnancies of women with and women without hyperthyroidism at the Soroka University Medical Center, Be'er-Sheva, Israel, between January 1988 and January 2007. Stratified analysis, using a multiple logistic regression model, was performed to control for confounders. During the study period, there were 185636 singleton deliveries in the medical center. Of these, 189 (0.1%) were from women with hyperthyroidism. Using multivariate analysis with backward elimination, the following risk factors were significantly associated with hyperthyroidism: placental abruption; cesarean delivery; and advanced maternal age. No significant differences regarding perinatal outcome were noted between the groups. Women with hyperthyroidism had significantly higher rates of cesarean delivery than did women without hyperthyroidism (20.1% vs 13.1%; Phyperthyroidism was not associated with adverse perinatal outcome. However, hyperthyroidism was found to be an independent risk factor for cesarean delivery.

  1. Doing, being, and becoming: a family's journey through perinatal loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forhan, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Occupational therapists are encouraged to reflect on doing, being, and becoming not only as it relates to the development of their profession but also in their own lives (Wilcock 1999). This article is a description of that process for me and my family in our journey through perinatal loss. This autoethnography uses a personally situated account of perinatal death. This article is a form of self-narrative that places me and my family in social context through the lens of an occupational therapist. This article aims to convey the meanings attached to the experience of grief and loss in the context of participation in everyday occupations. By sharing a perspective on the lived experience and connecting it to the literature on grief and occupation, readers will be able to decide if the connection holds as valid from a theoretical and clinical perspective.

  2. Early antiretroviral therapy reduces HIV DNA following perinatal HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Caroline; Pace, Matthew; Kaye, Steve; Hopkins, Emily; Jones, Mathew; Robinson, Nicola; Mant, Christine; Cason, John; Fidler, Sarah; Frater, John

    2017-08-24

    : The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the size of the HIV reservoir has implications for virological remission in adults, but is not well characterized in perinatally acquired infection. In a prospective observational study of 20 children with perinatally acquired infection and sustained viral suppression on ART for more than 5 years, proviral DNA was significantly higher in deferred (>4 years) versus early (first year of life) ART recipients (P = 0.0062), and correlated with age of initiation (P = 0.13; r = 0.57). No difference was seen in cell-associated viral RNA (P = 0.36). Identifying paediatric populations with smaller reservoirs may inform strategies with potential to induce ART-free remission.

  3. Embracing oligodendrocyte diversity in the context of perinatal injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Newville

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence is fueling a new appreciation of oligodendrocyte diversity that is overturning the traditional view that oligodendrocytes are a homogenous cell population. Oligodendrocytes of distinct origins, maturational stages, and regional locations may differ in their functional capacity or susceptibility to injury. One of the most unique qualities of the oligodendrocyte is its ability to produce myelin. Myelin abnormalities have been ascribed to a remarkable array of perinatal brain injuries, with concomitant oligodendrocyte dysregulation. Within this review, we discuss new insights into the diversity of the oligodendrocyte lineage and highlight their relevance in paradigms of perinatal brain injury. Future therapeutic development will be informed by comprehensive knowledge of oligodendrocyte pathophysiology that considers the particular facets of heterogeneity that this lineage exhibits.

  4. Perinatal correlates of delayed childbearing in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusanya, B O; Solanke, O A

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate women with delayed childbearing after 35 years and the perinatal profile of their surviving offspring in a low-income country. A matched case-control study of advanced maternal age (AMA) parturients above 35 years was compared to younger mothers (20-35 years) in an inner-city maternity hospital in southwest Nigeria using conditional logistic regression analysis. A total of 513 were enlisted as cases matched with 1,539 controls. AMA was associated with marital status, occupation, parity, antenatal care and elective cesarean delivery but significantly less likely to be associated with human-immunodeficiency-virus infection and cephalopelvic disproportion. After adjusting for these maternal factors, AMA was not associated with any adverse perinatal outcomes. Delayed childbearing after 35 years was generally not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes in this setting and may be indicative of an appreciable awareness of the potential pregnancy risks resulting in higher uptake of obstetric services by AMA mothers.

  5. Perinatal cocaine exposure inhibits the development of the male SDN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maecker, H L

    1993-12-17

    The sexually dimorphic nucleus of the hypothalamus (SDN) is involved in sexual differentiation of the rat brain. Perinatal cocaine exposure was found to significantly reduce the volume of the male rat SDN (P SDN. Pregnant dams and their pups were exposed to either saline, 7.5, 15, or 30 mg/kg of cocaine from gestational day 15 through postnatal day 10. Litter size, pup weight, male-female sex ratio, and gross birth defects were unaffected, but maternal weight gain was significantly reduced in cocaine-treated dams. These findings imply that males perinatally exposed to cocaine during their critical period of SDN differentiation may exhibit compromised coital capabilities as well as impaired gonadotropin regulation.

  6. The spectrum of perinatal group B streptococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Carol J

    2013-08-28

    The progressive unfolding, over four decades, of an understanding of group B Streptococcus (GBS) and its global disease burden support the rationale for maternal immunization as a key strategy to prevent GBS perinatal infections. This review highlights, in historical context, the recognition of GBS as a human pathogen, definition of epidemiologic features of disease, pathogenesis, outcomes, impact of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, development of glycoconjugate vaccines and appreciation of the global scope of GBS perinatal disease. These cumulative advances in the GBS field coupled with an increasing acceptance of immunization during pregnancy suggest the timing is optimal for introduction of a glycoconjugate GBS vaccine for use in pregnant women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Unexpected Perinatal Loss versus Sids-a Common Neuropathologic Entity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matturri, Luigi; Mauri, Maria; Elena Ferrero, Maria; Lavezzi, Anna Maria

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the involvement of alterations of the central autonomic nervous system, particularly of the brainstem and cerebellum, in a wide set of victims of sudden and unexplained perinatal and infant death. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of 63 stillbirths, 28 neonatal deaths and 140 suspected SIDS. The victims were subjected to in-depth anatomopathological examination following appropriate guidelines. The protocol included, in particular, the histological evaluation on serial sections of the cardiorespiratory autonomic nervous system. Results: A diagnosis of “unexplained death” was established for 217 of the 231 victims (59 stillbirths, 28 newborns and 130 SIDS). In a very high percentage of these deaths (84%) we observed one or more anomalies of the nuclei and/or structures of the brainstem and cerebellum related to vital functions. Conclusion: Unexpected perinatal loss should not be regarded as a separate entity from SIDS, given the common neuropathological substrates. PMID:19018308

  8. Perinatal Depression and Patterns of Attachment: A Critical Risk Factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Meuti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aims to verify if the presence and severity of perinatal depression are related to any particular pattern of attachment. Methods. The study started with a screening of a sample of 453 women in their third trimester of pregnancy, who were administered a survey data form, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and the Experience in Close Relationship (ECR. A clinical group of subjects with perinatal depression (PND, 89 subjects was selected and compared with a control group (C, regarding psychopathological variables and attachment patterns. Results. The ECR showed a prevalence of “Fearful-Avoidant” attachment style in PND group (29.2% versus 1.1%, p<0.001; additionally, the EPDS average score increases with the increasing of ECR dimensions (Avoidance and Anxiety. Conclusion. The severity of depression increases proportionally to attachment disorganization; therefore, we consider attachment as both an important risk factor as well as a focus for early psychotherapeutic intervention.

  9. Perinatal exposure to music protects spatial memory against callosal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagdei, Anca; Balteş, Felicia Rodica; Avram, Julia; Miu, Andrei C

    2010-02-01

    Several studies have indicated that the exposure of rodents to music modulates brain development and neuroplasticity, by mechanisms that involve facilitated hippocampal neurogenesis, neurotrophin synthesis and glutamatergic signaling. This study focused on the potential protection that the perinatal exposure to music, between postnatal days 2 and 32, could offer against functional deficits induced by neonatal callosotomy in rats. The spontaneous alternation and marble-burying behaviors were longitudinally measured in callosotomized and control rats that had been exposed to music or not. The results indicated that the neonatal callosotomy-induced spontaneous alternation deficits that became apparent only after postnatal day 45, about the time when the rat corpus callosum reaches its maximal levels of myelination. The perinatal exposure to music efficiently protected the spontaneous alternation performance against the deficits induced by callosotomy. The present findings may offer important insights into music-induced neuroplasticity, relevant to brain development and neurorehabilitation. Copyright 2009 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Perinatal outcomes in singleton pregnancies with a single umbilical artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveiro-Fuentes, Mariña; Carrillo-Badillo, María Paz; Malde-Conde, Javier; Gallo-Vallejo, Jose Luis; Puertas-Prieto, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    To analyze perinatal outcomes in singleton pregnancies with a single umbilical artery (SUA) as an isolated finding with no other underlying disorders. This retrospective observational study compared a group of pregnancies with SUA (n = 127) and a group with a normal 3-vessel umbilical cord (n = 27 752). The study variables comprised maternal and obstetric characteristics and perinatal outcomes. The frequency of SUA was 0.45%. Pregnancies with SUA ended more frequently with cesarean delivery, and had a higher risk that the indication for cesarean delivery was non-reassuring fetal heart rate (NRFHR). Neonates in the SUA group had a lower weight for gestational age, and a higher risk of low umbilical cord blood pH. Obstetricians should monitor fetal growth closely in pregnancies with SUA, and be alert to NRFHR during labor and delivery.

  11. Perinatal taurine exposure affects adult arterial pressure control

    OpenAIRE

    Roysommuti, Sanya; Wyss, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Taurine is an abundant free amino acid found in mammalian cells that contributes to many physiologic functions from that of a simple cell osmolyte to a programmer of adult health and disease. Taurine’s contribution extends from conception throughout life, but its most critical exposure period is during perinatal life. In adults, taurine supplementation prevents or alleviates cardiovascular disease and related complications. In contrast, low taurine consumption coincides with increased risk of...

  12. Gestational, perinatal and family findings of patients with Patau syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.; Sarmento, Melina Vaz; Polli, Janaina Borges; Groff, Daniela de Paoli; Petry, Patrícia; Mattos, Vinícius Freitas de; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M.; Trevisan, Patrícia; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe gestational, perinatal and family findings of patients with Patau syndrome (PS). METHODS: The study enrolled patients with PS consecutively evaluated during 38 years in a Clinical Genetics Service of a pediatric referral hospital in Southern Brazil. The clinical data and the results of cytogenetic analysis were collected from the medical records. For statistical analysis, the two-tailed Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test with Yates' correction were used, b...

  13. 'High-risk' pregnancy after perinatal loss: understanding the label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Heather A; Goldberg, Lisa S

    2011-08-01

    to explore women's experience of living with a 'high-risk' pregnancy following a perinatal loss. a feminist phenomenological methodology provided the framework for the research study. the experience of 'high-risk' pregnancy following perinatal loss of seven women receiving care at a tertiary health centre in Atlantic Canada was explored by way of conversational interviews and reflective journaling. four themes emerged through thematic analysis and researcher interpretation: (1) understanding the meaning in the label of 'high-risk' pregnancy, (2) relational engagement with the unborn infant, (3) insight and acceptance of the influence of previous loss, and (4) essentiality of information. Taken together, these four themes represent the storied text embedded in the research study. The focus of attention in this article is based solely on the first theme, understanding the meaning in the label of 'high-risk' pregnancy, in so far as this fosters an ability to attend to the interpretive text in the methodological manner appropriate to phenomenological inquiry. although previous research indicates that the label of 'high-risk' in pregnancy is often associated with increased anxiety and fear, findings from this study suggest that a 'high-risk' pregnancy following perinatal loss results in women embracing the 'high-risk' label. By recognising the possibility that women experiencing 'high-risk' pregnancy following perinatal loss may perceive the label of 'high-risk' pregnancy in a positive way, nurses, midwives and other health-care providers may begin to alter their practices when caring for these women in current health-care environments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PRE- AND PERINATAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE CANINE CLAW

    OpenAIRE

    Süsskind-Schwendi, Marietta Freiin von

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of the PRE- AND PERINATAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE CANINE CLAW presented in this study was based on 19 canine specimens ranging from a crown rump length (CRL) of 44 mm to 220 mm, and on four neonate puppies aged up to one week. For comparison of the developing claw structures with those of the mature claw, four claws of adult dogs were included into the scope of the study. Besides macro- and mesoscopic examination, routine light microscopical staining and histochemical techniques ...

  15. Cardiotocography in a perinatal armamentarium: boon or bane?

    OpenAIRE

    Ambily Anu Xavier; Deeksha Pandey; Luvdeep Dogra; Leslie Edward Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Background: As electronic foetal monitoring (EFM) is becoming commoner in obstetric armamentarium, so are caesarean deliveries. Present study was conducted with an aim to find out correlation between cardiotocography (CTG) findings, intraoperative findings, and perinatal outcome in subjects who underwent emergency caesarean deliveries. We also intended to estimate the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of CTG in diagnosing foetal distress. Methods: A total of 271 women ...

  16. PERINATAL DEVELOPMENT OF PIG’S DIGESTIVE TRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Krstanović; Matija Domaćinović; Mirela Pavić; Misalv Đidara; Marcela Šperanda

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal development of the digestive system of piglets is a complex process characterized by numerous changes in the structural and functional level caused by the action of various factors. As the main organ in which digestion and absorption take place, the small intestine is most affected by these changes. During parturition the digestive system is colonized by numerous microorganisms which further stimulate the structural and immune development acting as a part of the protective barrier l...

  17. Blood pressure follows the kidney: Perinatal influences on hereditary hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Koeners, Maarten P; Braam, Branko; Joles, Jaap A

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data strongly suggest that cardiovascular diseases can originate from an aberrant environment during fetal development, a phenomenon referred to as perinatal programming. This review will focus on the role of the kidneys in determining blood pressure, and how (re)programming the renal development can persistently ameliorate hereditary hypertension. By combining physiologic and genomic studies we have discovered some candidate pathways suited for (re)programmin...

  18. The Effect of Childbirth Self-Efficacy on Perinatal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilden, Ellen L.; Caughey, Aaron B.; Lee, Christopher S.; Emeis, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To synthesize and critique the quantitative literature on measuring childbirth self-efficacy and the effect of childbirth self-efficacy on perinatal outcomes. Data Sources Eligible studies were identified through searching MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Study Selection Published research using a tool explicitly intended to measure childbirth self-efficacy and also examining outcomes within the perinatal period were included. All manuscripts were in English and published in peer-reviewed journals. Data Extraction First author, country, year of publication, reference and definition of childbirth self-efficacy, measurement of childbirth self-efficacy, sample recruitment and retention, sample characteristics, study design, interventions (with experimental and quasi-experimental studies), and perinatal outcomes were extracted and summarized. Data Synthesis Of 619 publications, 23 studies published between 1983 and 2015 met inclusion criteria and were critiqued and synthesized in this review. Conclusions There is overall consistency in how childbirth self-efficacy is defined and measured among studies, facilitating comparison and synthesis. Our findings suggest that increased childbirth self-efficacy is associated with a wide variety of improved perinatal outcomes. Moreover, there is evidence that childbirth self-efficacy is a psychosocial factor that can be modified through various efficacy-enhancing interventions. Future researchers will be able to build knowledge in this area through: (a) utilization of experimental and quasi-experimental design; (b) recruitment and retention of more diverse samples; (c) explicit reporting of definitions of terms (e.g. ‘high risk’); (d) investigation of interventions that increase childbirth self-efficacy during pregnancy; and, (e) investigation regarding how childbirth self-efficacy enhancing interventions might lead to decreased active labor pain and suffering. Exploratory research should

  19. Perinatal Education and Support Program: Baystate’s New Beginnings

    OpenAIRE

    Congden, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    Parent education traditionally focuses on childbirth, whereas the perinatal period gets little attention despite parents’ reports of feeling unprepared. Lack of education surrounding newborn behavior leads to decreased maternal confidence and ineffective responsiveness to infant cues for feeding, crying, and sleep. This can cause overfeeding, lowered breastfeeding success, and contributes to parental stress which can impact maternal–infant bonding. Lack of postpartum maternal support adds to ...

  20. Severe myocardial injury and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation following perinatal asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Benson Ham

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal asphyxia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborn and is associated with myocardial injury in a significant proportion of cases. Biomarkers, echocardiography, and rhythm disturbances are sensitive indicators of myocardial ischemia and may predict mortality. We present a case of severe myocardial dysfunction immediately after delivery managed with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO and discuss the role of cardiac biomarkers, echocardiography, electrocardiography, and ECMO in the asphyxiated newborn.

  1. Perinatal asphyxia: CNS development and deficits with delayed onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eHerrera-Marschitz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal asphyxia constitutes a prototype of obstetric complications occurring when pulmonary oxygenation is delayed or interrupted. The primary insult relates to the duration of the period lacking oxygenation, leading to death if not re-established. Re-oxygenation leads to a secondary insult, related to a cascade of biochemical events required for restoring proper function. Perinatal asphyxia interferes with neonatal development, resulting in long-term deficits associated to mental and neurological diseases with delayed clinical onset, by mechanisms not yet clarified.In the experimental scenario, the effects observed long after perinatal asphyxia have been explained by over expression of sentinel proteins, such as poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1, competing for NAD+ during re-oxygenation, leading to the idea that sentinel protein inhibition constitutes a suitable therapeutic strategy. Asphyxia induces transcriptional activation of pro-inflammatory factors, in tandem with PARP-1 overactivation, and pharmacologically induced PARP-1 inhibition also down-regulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide has been proposed as a suitable PARP-1 inhibitor. Its effect has been studied in an experimental model of global hypoxia in rats. In that model, the insult is induced by immersing rat foetuses into a water bath for various periods of time. Following asphyxia, the pups are delivered, treated, and nursed by surrogate dams, pending further experiments. Nicotinamide rapidly distributes into the brain following systemic administration, reaching steady state concentrations sufficient to inhibit PARP-1 activity for several hours, preventing several of the long-term consequences of perinatal asphyxia, supporting the idea that it constitutes a lead for exploring compounds with similar or better pharmacological profiles.

  2. Perinatal asphyxia: CNS development and deficits with delayed onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Marschitz, Mario; Neira-Pena, Tanya; Rojas-Mancilla, Edgardo; Espina-Marchant, Pablo; Esmar, Daniela; Perez, Ronald; Muñoz, Valentina; Gutierrez-Hernandez, Manuel; Rivera, Benjamin; Simola, Nicola; Bustamante, Diego; Morales, Paola; Gebicke-Haerter, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia constitutes a prototype of obstetric complications occurring when pulmonary oxygenation is delayed or interrupted. The primary insult relates to the duration of the period lacking oxygenation, leading to death if not re-established. Re-oxygenation leads to a secondary insult, related to a cascade of biochemical events required for restoring proper function. Perinatal asphyxia interferes with neonatal development, resulting in long-term deficits associated to mental and neurological diseases with delayed clinical onset, by mechanisms not yet clarified. In the experimental scenario, the effects observed long after perinatal asphyxia have been explained by overexpression of sentinel proteins, such as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), competing for NAD(+) during re-oxygenation, leading to the idea that sentinel protein inhibition constitutes a suitable therapeutic strategy. Asphyxia induces transcriptional activation of pro-inflammatory factors, in tandem with PARP-1 overactivation, and pharmacologically induced PARP-1 inhibition also down-regulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide has been proposed as a suitable PARP-1 inhibitor. Its effect has been studied in an experimental model of global hypoxia in rats. In that model, the insult is induced by immersing rat fetus into a water bath for various periods of time. Following asphyxia, the pups are delivered, treated, and nursed by surrogate dams, pending further experiments. Nicotinamide rapidly distributes into the brain following systemic administration, reaching steady state concentrations sufficient to inhibit PARP-1 activity for several hours, preventing several of the long-term consequences of perinatal asphyxia, supporting the idea that nicotinamide constitutes a lead for exploring compounds with similar or better pharmacological profiles.

  3. Perinatal hypothyroidism increases play behaviors in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Spencer G; Northcutt, Katharine V

    2017-11-21

    Thyroid hormones play an instrumental role in the development of the central nervous system. During early development, the fetus is dependent on maternal thyroid hormone production due to the dysfunction of its own thyroid gland. Thus, maternal thyroid dysfunction has been shown to elicit significant abnormalities in neural development, neurochemistry, and behavior in offspring. Previous reports have suggested that human maternal hypothyroidism may increase the chances of having children with autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. However, very few studies have evaluated social behaviors in animal models of perinatal hypothyroidism. To evaluate the possibility that hypothyroidism during development influences the expression one of the most commonly observed non-reproductive social behaviors, juvenile play, we used the validated rat model of perinatal hypothyroidism by methimazole administration (MMI; 0.025% in drinking water) from GD12-PD23. Control animals had regular drinking water. During adolescence (PD33-35), we tested subjects for juvenile play behavior by introducing them to a same-sex, unfamiliar (since weaning) littermate for 30min. Play behaviors and other behaviors (sleep, social contact, locomotion) were then scored. MMI-treated subjects played more than twice as much as control animals, and the increase in some behaviors was particularly dramatic in males. Locomotor and other affiliative social behaviors were unaffected. These data suggest that perinatal hypothyroidism may alter the organization of the neural networks regulating play behaviors, but not other social behaviors. Moreover, this implicates perinatal hypothyroidism as a potential etiological factor in the development of neurobehavioral disorders, particularly those characterized by heightened social interactions and impulsivity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Clinical characteristics and perinatal outcome of fetal hydrops

    OpenAIRE

    Yeom, Wonkyung; Paik, E Sun; An, Jung-Joo; Oh, Soo-young; Choi, Suk-Joo; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of fetal hydrops and to find the antenatal ultrasound findings predictive of adverse perinatal outcome. Methods This is a retrospective study of 42 women with fetal hydrops who delivered in a tertiary-referral center from 2005 to 2013. Fetal hydrops was defined as the presence of fluid collection in ?2 body cavities: ascites, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and skin edema. Predictor variables recorded included: maternal characteris...

  5. Perinatal factors, growth and development, and osteosarcoma risk

    OpenAIRE

    Troisi, R; Masters, M N; Joshipura, K; Douglass, C; Cole, B.F.; Hoover, R.N.

    2006-01-01

    Osteosarcoma incidence patterns suggest an aetiologic role for perinatal factors, and growth and development. Osteosarcoma patients (n=158) and controls with benign orthopaedic conditions (n=141) under age 40 were recruited from US orthopaedic surgery departments. Exposures were ascertained by interview, birth, and growth records. Age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Current height and age- and sex-specific height percentiles were not associ...

  6. Perinatal Loss: The Effect on Attachment in Subsequent Pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    association between early separation and subsequent development of failure to thrive and battered -child syndrome cases. The results of these studies may...infant bonding when intensive care nursery nurses observed and reported a trend in the number of failure to thrive and battered children; who had...had a previous perinatal loss and those who have had a positive outcome. V. Operational Definitions: 1) Multiqravida- A woman who has been pregnant

  7. Contralesional Corticomotor Neurophysiology in Hemiparetic Children With Perinatal Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewdie, Ephrem; Damji, Omar; Ciechanski, Patrick; Seeger, Trevor; Kirton, Adam

    2017-03-01

    Perinatal stroke causes most hemiparetic cerebral palsy. Ipsilateral connections from nonlesioned hemisphere to affected hand are common. The nonlesioned primary motor cortex (M1) determines function and is a potential therapeutic target but its neurophysiology is poorly understood. We aimed to characterize the neurophysiological properties of the nonlesioned M1 in children with perinatal stroke and their relationship to clinical function. Fifty-two participants with hemiparetic cerebral palsy and magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed perinatal stroke and 40 controls aged 8 to 18 years completed the same transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocol. Single-pulse TMS to nonlesioned M1 determined rest and active motor thresholds (RMT/AMT), motor-evoked potential (MEP) latencies, and stimulus recruitment curves (SRC: 100%-150% RMT). Paired-pulse TMS evaluated short-latency intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF). Ipsilateral (IP) participants (ipsilateral MEP ≥0.05 mV in ≥5/20 trials) were compared with contralateral MEP only, nonipsilateral (NI) participants. Assisting Hand and Melbourne assessments quantified clinical function. Twenty-five IP were compared with 13 NI (n = 38, median age 12 years, 66% male). IP had lower motor function. SRC to unaffected hand were comparable between IP and NI while IP had smaller ipsilateral SRC. Ipsilateral MEP latencies were prolonged (23.5 ± 1.8 vs 22.2 ± 1.5 ms contra, P < .001). Contralateral SICI was different between IP (-42%) and NI (-20%). Ipsilateral SICI was reduced (-20%). Contralateral ICF was comparable between groups (+43%) and ipsilaterally (+43%). Measures correlated between contralateral and ipsilateral sides. Neurophysiology of nonlesioned M1 and its relationship to motor function is measureable in children with perinatal stroke. Correlation of excitability and intracortical circuitry measures between contralateral and ipsilateral sides suggests common control mechanisms.

  8. Ethical issues for nurses providing perinatal care in community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M L

    2000-09-01

    Ethical issues in perinatal nursing are complex in that two patients--mother and fetus--are considered. This work considers six areas of potential ethical conflict: conflict between the mother and fetus, informed consent, confidentiality, cultural conflicts, conflicts associated with managed care, and conflicts in childbirth education. Ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, and justice are included. Strategies for resolving ethical conflicts in community practice settings are suggested.

  9. The Door's Perinatal Program for Pregnant and Parenting Teens

    OpenAIRE

    Dewart, Tracey; Zaengle, Donna

    2000-01-01

    The perinatal program for urban youth at The Door, located in New York City, provides accessible, comprehensive, high-quality prenatal services to pregnant teens. Through a holistic, family-centered, youth-development approach, the program seeks to counteract the adverse medical risks and psychosocial consequences of early childbirth and child rearing in order to improve the immediate and long-term futures of the mother and her new family. The Door's services are presented, along with a descr...

  10. Perinatal taurine exposure affects adult arterial pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roysommuti, Sanya; Wyss, J Michael

    2014-01-01

    Taurine is an abundant, free amino acid found in mammalian cells that contributes to many physiologic functions from that of a simple cell osmolyte to a programmer of adult health and disease. Taurine's contribution extends from conception throughout life, but its most critical exposure period is during perinatal life. In adults, taurine supplementation prevents or alleviates cardiovascular disease and related complications. In contrast, low taurine consumption coincides with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity and type II diabetes. This review focuses on the effects that altered perinatal taurine exposure has on long-term mechanisms that control adult arterial blood pressure and could thereby contribute to arterial hypertension through its ability to program these cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms very early in life. The modifications of these mechanisms can last a lifetime and transfer to the next generation, suggesting that epigenetic mechanisms underlie the changes. The ability of perinatal taurine exposure to influence arterial pressure control mechanisms and hypertension in adult life appears to involve the regulation of growth and development, the central and autonomic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin system, glucose-insulin interaction and changes to heart, blood vessels and kidney function.

  11. Perinatal nutrition: How to take care of the gut microbiota?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaskun García-Mantrana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal and postnatal nutritional environments can result in long-lasting and/or permanent consequences that may increase the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood. The impact of perinatal nutrition on infant microbiome development has been increasingly gaining interest, however scarce information can be found about nutrition on maternal microbiome. The infant microbiome plays an essential role in human health and its assembly is determined by maternal offspring exchanges of microbiota. Microbial colonization runs in parallel with the immune system maturation and has a decisive role in intestinal physiology and regulation. This process is adversely affected by several practices, including caesarean section, antibiotics, and infant formula, which have been related to a higher risk of non-communicable diseases. Limited research has been performed to assess whether nutritional status and diet lead to changes in the maternal microbiota and thus affect the infant microbial colonization process during the critical frame of life. Early microbial colonization has a decisive role on human health, and alterations in this process have been lately associated with specific diseases in the future. The aims of this review are, firstly, to update nutritional recommendations for the perinatal period and, secondly, to analyse the influence of both maternal microbiome and nutrition on infant gut microbiota development.

  12. Parkin-mediated mitophagy directs perinatal cardiac metabolic maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Guohua; Song, Moshi; Csordas, Gyorgy; Kelly, Daniel P.; Matkovich, Scot J.; Dorn, Gerald W.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the cardiac metabolic milieu during the perinatal period redirect mitochondrial substrate preference from carbohydrates to fatty acids. Mechanisms responsible for this mitochondrial plasticity are unknown. Here we found that PINK1-Mfn2-Parkin mediated mitophagy directs this metabolic transformation in mice. A mitofusin (Mfn) 2 mutant lacking PINK1 phosphorylation sites necessary for Parkin binding (Mfn2 AA) inhibited mitochondrial Parkin translocation, suppressing mitophagy without impairing mitochondrial fusion. Cardiac Parkin deletion or expression of Mfn2 AA from birth, but not after weaning, prevented postnatal mitochondrial maturation essential to survival. Five week old Mfn2 AA hearts retained a fetal mitochondrial transcriptional signature without normal increases in fatty acid metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis genes. Myocardial fatty acylcarnitine levels and cardiomyocyte respiration induced by palmitoylcarnitine were concordantly depressed. Thus, instead of transcriptional reprogramming, fetal cardiomyocyte mitochondria undergo perinatal Parkin-mediated mitophagy and replacement by mature adult mitochondria. Mitophagic mitochondrial removal underlies developmental cardiomyocyte mitochondrial plasticity and metabolic transitioning of perinatal hearts. PMID:26785495

  13. Incarceration and perinatal smoking: a missed public health opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Dora M; Parker, Donna R; Viner-Brown, Samara; Clarke, Jennifer G

    2015-07-01

    Incarceration is simultaneously a public health opportunity and a public health concern. We examined the association between maternal/partner incarceration in the year prior to birth and perinatal smoking. We pooled 2006-2010 data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System. Controlling for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status and other stressors, we assessed prevalence and heaviness of perinatal smoking. Women who reported incarceration of themselves or their partners in the year prior to delivery were more likely to smoke during the last trimester of pregnancy (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.51 (95% CI 1.36 to 1.67)), and they were more likely to smoke more than 10 cigarettes a day compared to smokers who did not report incarceration (AOR 1.35 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.65)). Patterns were similar for the 3 months prior to pregnancy and postbirth smoking. Incarceration of a parent in the 12 months before birth is associated with increased risk of fetal and newborn exposure to smoking. The criminal justice system can be utilised by public health practitioners to target perinatal smoking reduction interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. The challenges of success: adolescents with perinatal HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne M Mofenson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The great success in the prevention and treatment of pediatric HIV in high resource countries, and now in low resource countries, has changed the face of the HIV epidemic in children from one of near certain mortality to that of a chronic disease. However, these successes pose new challenges as perinatally HIV-infected youth survive into adulthood. Increased survival of HIV-infected children is associated with challenges in maintaining adherence to what is likely life-long therapy, and in selecting successive antiretroviral drug regimens, given the limited availability of pediatric formulations, limitations in pharmacokinetic and safety data of drugs in children, and the development of extensive drug resistance in multi-drug-experienced children. Pediatric HIV care must now focus on morbidity related to long-term HIV infection and its treatment. Survival into adulthood of perinatally HIV-infected youth in high resource countries provides important lessons about how the epidemic will change with increasing access to antiretroviral therapy for children in low resource countries. This series of papers will focus on issues related to management of perinatally infected youth and young adults.

  15. Impact of sex on perinatal mortality and morbidity in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Emma Elsmén; Källén, Karin; Maršál, Karel; Norman, Mikael; Hellström-Westas, Lena

    2014-03-01

    Twin studies offer opportunities to investigate mechanisms underlying sex-associated differences in perinatal outcomes. The objective of the study was to investigate sex-related differences in perinatal complications. A cohort of 16,045 twin pregnancies - 32,090 twins - was explored for obstetric complications, perinatal and infant mortality, and neonatal morbidities. Twin pregnancies with a female fetus had an increased risk for preeclampsia, but otherwise there were no pregnancy complications associated with fetal sex. After birth, female-female twins had lower early neonatal and infant mortality, and lower risk for respiratory morbidities than male-male twins at all gestational ages. In unlike-sexed twin pairs, very preterm males had higher respiratory morbidity than females and, females were at higher risk for being growth restricted. Male-male twins have higher respiratory morbidity and neonatal mortality than female-female twins. In unliked-sexed twin pairs, the males seem to be protected by having a female co-twin.

  16. Infertility and Perinatal Loss: When the Bough Breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Amritha; Byatt, Nancy

    2016-03-01

    Infertility and perinatal loss are common, and associated with lower quality of life, marital discord, complicated grief, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Young women, who lack social supports, have experienced recurrent pregnancy loss or a history of trauma and / or preexisting psychiatric illness are at a higher risk of experiencing psychiatric illnesses or symptoms after a perinatal loss or during infertility. It is especially important to detect, assess, and treat depression, anxiety, or other psychiatric symptoms because infertility or perinatal loss may be caused or perpetuated by such symptoms. Screening, psychoeducation, provision of resources and referrals, and an opportunity to discuss their loss and plan for future pregnancies can facilitate addressing mental health concerns that arise. Women at risk of or who are currently experiencing psychiatric symptoms should receive a comprehensive treatment plan that includes the following: (1) proactive clinical monitoring, (2) evidence-based approaches to psychotherapy, and (3) discussion of risks, benefits, and alternatives of medication treatment during preconception and pregnancy.

  17. Infertility and Perinatal Loss: When the Bough Breaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byatt, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Infertility and perinatal loss are common, and associated with lower quality of life, marital discord, complicated grief, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Young women, who lack social supports, have experienced recurrent pregnancy loss or a history of trauma and / or preexisting psychiatric illness are at a higher risk of experiencing psychiatric illnesses or symptoms after a perinatal loss or during infertility. It is especially important to detect, assess, and treat depression, anxiety, or other psychiatric symptoms because infertility or perinatal loss may be caused or perpetuated by such symptoms. Screening, psychoeducation, provision of resources and referrals, and an opportunity to discuss their loss and plan for future pregnancies can facilitate addressing mental health concerns that arise. Women at risk of or who are currently experiencing psychiatric symptoms should receive a comprehensive treatment plan that includes the following: (1) proactive clinical monitoring, (2) evidence-based approaches to psychotherapy, and (3) discussion of risks, benefits, and alternatives of medication treatment during preconception and pregnancy. PMID:26847216

  18. Tuberkulosis Perinatal Bermanifestasi sebagai Tuberkulosis Milier dan Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heda Melinda D. Nataprawira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal tuberculosis (TB is rarely reported, because the clinical manifestations are not specific and there is a problem in its laboratory and radiology examination which caused undiagnosed. Perinatal TB is the preferred description that encompasses TB acquired either intra uterine, during or post delivery in early newborn period. A-3- month old baby was transferred to Pediatric Emergency Hasan Sadikin Hospital because of prolong fever and unable to breastfeed. There was no problem with delivery. Lethargic, fever, tachypnea, and hepatosphlenomegali were found on physical examination. Ziehl Neelsen smear of gastric lavage yielded positive acid fast bacilli. Tuberculine test was non reactive, chest x-ray showed a miliary pattern, and cerebral spinal fluid analysis gave tuberculous meningitis interpretation. By active finding, his father and grandfather were detected as a source of TB transmission. In additon to oral antituberculosis regimen, antibiotics and prednison were also given. Septic shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation were occurred during his illness and the baby died. Staphylococcus haemolyticus was identified from blood culture. In conclusion, although there were no problems during labor, active investigation of perinatal TB possibility is required on the family with a source of TB. Caution on TB in pregnant women is necessary at developing country with high rates of TB.

  19. Perinatal outcomes in uncomplicated late preterm pregnancies with borderline oligohydramnios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Erdem; Madendag, Yusuf; Tayyar, Ahter Tanay; Sahin, Mefkure Eraslan; Col Madendag, Ilknur; Acmaz, Gokhan; Unsal, Deniz; Senol, Vesile

    2017-08-16

    The purpose of this study is to determine the adverse perinatal outcomes in uncomplicated late preterm pregnancies with borderline oligohydramnios. A total of 430 pregnant women with an uncomplicated singleton pregnancy at a gestational age of 34 + 0-36 + 6 weeks were included. Borderline oligohydramnios was defined as an amniotic fluid index (AFI) of 5.1-8 cm, which was measured using the four-quadrant technique. Adverse perinatal outcomes were compared between the borderline and normal AFI groups. Approximately 107 of the 430 pregnant women were borderline AFI, and 323 were normal AFI. The demographic and obstetric characteristics were similar in both groups. Delivery borderline AFI group (p = .040). In addition, fetal renal artery pulsatility index pulsatility index (PI) was significantly lower in the borderline AFI group than in the normal AFI group (p = .014). Our results indicated that borderline AFI was not a risk for adverse perinatal outcomes in uncomplicated, late preterm pregnancies.

  20. Improved parental attitudes and beliefs through stepwise perinatal vaccination education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Aya; Saitoh, Akihiko; Sato, Isamu; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Kamiya, Hajime; Nagata, Satoko

    2017-11-02

    This study examined the effects of providing vaccination education during the perinatal period on Japanese parents' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about childhood vaccination. A cluster-randomized controlled-trial method was used on a sample of 160 pregnant women recruited from 9 obstetrical sites in Niigata, Japan. The treatment group received a stepwise interactive education intervention, while the control group received a general vaccination leaflet. Changes in parental attitudes toward and beliefs about infant vaccination were assessed on the child's one-month and 6-month birthdays using paper questionnaires. Of the initial 188 participants, 160 (90.4%) completed the final post-survey questionnaire. Scores on injunctive social norms (a morally neutral perception of the behavior of the majority) and descriptive social norms (a moral perception of what individuals should do) significantly increased in the treatment group (p = .02 and p = .01, respectively). There was a significant difference between the 2 groups over time in terms of perceived benefit (efficacy of available preventive actions) (p = .03), but no significant differences in perceived severity (seriousness of a disease outcome), perceived susceptibility (likelihood of getting a disease), perceived benefits, perceived behavioral control, or descriptive social norms between the groups at any time point or in the patterns of change over time (p > .31). Thus, stepwise perinatal vaccination education was found to positively influence maternal attitudes and beliefs about infant vaccination. This study suggests the importance of vaccination education during the perinatal period.

  1. Perinatal data collection: current practice in the Australian nursing and midwifery healthcare context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craswell, Alison; Moxham, Lorna; Broadbent, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The collection of perinatal data within Queensland, Australia, has traditionally been achieved via a paper form completed by midwives after each birth. Recently, with an increase in the use of e-health systems in healthcare, perinatal data collection has migrated to an online system. It is suggested that this move from paper to an ehealth platform has resulted in improvement to error rates, completion levels, timeliness of data transfer from healthcare institutions to the perinatal data collection and subsequent publication of data items. Worldwide, perinatal data are collected utilising a variety of methods, but essentially data are used for similar purposes: to monitor outcome patterns within obstetrics and midwifery. This paper discusses current practice in relation to perinatal data collection worldwide and within Australia, with a specific focus on Queensland, highlights relevant issues for midwives, and points to the need for further research into the efficient use of an e-health platform for perinatal data collection.

  2. Factors associated with and causes of perinatal mortality in northeastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Christentze; Minja, Daniel; Oesterholt, Mayke

    2012-01-01

    , including preeclampsia, small-for-gestational age, preterm delivery, anemia, and health-seeking behavior. Fetal growth was monitored using ultrasound. Finally, the specific causes of the perinatal deaths were evaluated. Main outcome measure. Perinatal mortality. Results. Forty-six deaths occurred. Key....../26) were attributed to preeclampsia and 23% (6/26) to small-for-gestational age. Of these, 54% (14/26) were preterm. Conclusions. Preeclampsia, small-for-gestational age and preterm delivery were key risk factors and causes of perinatal mortality in this area of Tanzania. Maternal anemia was also strongly...... associated with perinatal mortality. Furthermore, asphyxia accounted for a large proportion of the perinatal deaths. Interventions should target the prevention and handling of these conditions in order to reduce perinatal mortality....

  3. A parsimonious explanation for intersecting perinatal mortality curves: understanding the effect of plurality and of parity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauve Reg

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth weight- and gestational age-specific perinatal mortality curves intersect when compared across categories of maternal smoking, plurality, race and other factors. No simple explanation exists for this paradoxical observation. Methods We used data on all live births, stillbirths and infant deaths in Canada (1991–1997 to compare perinatal mortality rates among singleton and twin births, and among singleton births to nulliparous and parous women. Birth weight- and gestational age-specific perinatal mortality rates were first calculated by dividing the number of perinatal deaths at any given birth weight or gestational age by the number of total births at that birth weight or gestational age (conventional calculation. Gestational age-specific perinatal mortality rates were also calculated using the number of fetuses at risk of perinatal death at any given gestational age. Results Conventional perinatal mortality rates among twin births were lower than those among singletons at lower birth weights and earlier gestation ages, while the reverse was true at higher birth weights and later gestational ages. When perinatal mortality rates were based on fetuses at risk, however, twin births had consistently higher mortality rates than singletons at all gestational ages. A similar pattern emerged in contrasts of gestational age-specific perinatal mortality among singleton births to nulliparous and parous women. Increases in gestational age-specific rates of growth-restriction with advancing gestational age presaged rising rates of gestational age-specific perinatal mortality in both contrasts. Conclusions The proper conceptualization of perinatal risk eliminates the mortality crossover paradox and provides new insights into perinatal health issues.

  4. Parent and family impact of raising a child with perinatal stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Bemister, Taryn B; Brooks, Brian L.; Dyck, Richard H.; Kirton, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Background Perinatal stroke is a leading cause of early brain injury, cerebral palsy, and lifelong neurological morbidity. No study to date has examined the impact of raising a child with perinatal stroke on parents and families. However, a large breadth of research suggests that parents, especially mothers, may be at increased risk for psychological concerns. The primary aim of this study was to examine the impact of raising a child with perinatal stroke on mothers’ wellbeing. A secondary ai...

  5. WHEN THE DEATH VISIT THE MATERNITY: PSYCHOLOGICAL ATTENTION DURING THE PERINATAL LOSS

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Erica Nascimento de; Arrais, Alessandra da Rocha; Iaconelli, Vera; Muza, Julia Costa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This study was based on qualitative methodology in order to know the meaning of perinatal loss to the bereaved families and assess the psychological intervention in situations of perinatal grief. Five families participated in this study who experienced perinatal deaths, a maternity of Brasilia. The psychological record of the psychology of maternity and post-assessment interview death were used as instruments. From the analysis of Bardin (1977), which emerged five categories, namely...

  6. The City MISS: development of a scale to measure stigma of perinatal mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    D. Moore; Ayers, S; Drey, N.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to develop and validate a scale to measure perceived stigma for perinatal mental illness in women. \\ud \\ud Background: Stigma is one of the most frequently cited barriers to seeking treatment and many women with perinatal mental illness fail to get the treatment they need. However, there is no psychometric scale that measures how women may experience the unique aspects of perinatal mental illness stigma.\\ud \\ud Method: A draft scale of 30 items was developed from a...

  7. Globalization and perinatal medicine--how do we respond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurjak, Asim; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Stanojevic, Milan

    2010-04-01

    Globalization is both inevitable and usually desirable and contains advantageous and disadvantageous issues. It is a source of both hope and of apprehension and is an accelerating process in flow of information, technology, goods and services, and production means. Globalization has a complex influence on perinatal health. The bonds that link perinatologists together transcend geographic, political, religious, and lingual differences, resulting in a globalization that optimizes perinatal care. In this review, we will discuss some of the global problems facing modern perinatologists. Close to 1.5 billion people in the world, live in extreme poverty, a situation which is particularly stark in the developing world, where 80% of them live. Poor people have little or no access to qualified health services and education, and do not participate in the decisions critical to their day-to-day lives. Poverty cannot be defined solely in terms of lack of income. A person, a family, even a nation is not deemed poor only because of low economic resources. Little or no access to health services, lack of access to safe water and adequate nutrition, illiteracy or low educational level, and a distorted perception of rights and needs are also essential components of poverty. Expression of poverty in perinatal health care in developing countries are high maternal death and morbidity rates, huge perinatal and childhood losses, and high birth rates. There are good reasons to define it as a global tragedy in our time. Although the mankind has come quite far because the development of civilization and more advances in the health care were made during the past 100 years than in all previous human history, some inhabitants of our planet are not able to experience it. According to some data, every 3 s a newborn dies, and every minute a pregnant woman dies in the globalized world. All together over 10 million deaths every year, which indicates that health security is not strong enough. It is

  8. Improvement in perinatal care for extremely premature infants in Denmark from 1994 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselager, Asbjørn Børch; Børch, Klaus; Pryds, Ole Axel

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Major advances in perinatal care over the latest decades have increased the survival rate of extremely premature infants. Centralisation of perinatal care was implemented in Denmark from 1995. This study evaluates the effect of organisational changes of perinatal care on survival...... gestational age and administration of surfactant. CONCLUSIONS: Centralisation of treatment of extremely premature infants has been implemented because more children are being born at highly specialised perinatal centres. Care improved as more infants received evidence-based treatment. IVH 3-4 rates declined...

  9. Perinatal Mortality in a Northwestern Nigerian City: A Wake up Call

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Mohammed Bello; Mokuolu, Olugbenga Ayodeji

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Nigeria, of the over 900,000 children under the age of 5 years that die every year, perinatal mortality is responsible for a little over 20%. Previous reports are largely from the southern part of the country. This is the first report of perinatal data from the northwest of Nigeria. Methods: A case control study of perinatal deaths in the three major public hospitals in Katsina metropolis was carried out to determine the pattern of perinatal deaths in the metropolis. Data were collected over a 6 week period on maternal socio-demographic, antenatal, and delivery variables. Data were similarly obtained on neonatal profile and morbidities. Results: There were 143 perinatal deaths (94 stillbirths and 49 early neonatal deaths) out of 1104 live and stillbirths during the study period. The perinatal mortality rate was thus 130 per 1000 births with a stillbirth rate of 85 per 1000 births and an early neonatal mortality rate of 49 per 1000 live births. Stillbirths during the intrapartum period were twice as frequent as macerated stillbirths (2:1). Maternal factors significantly associated with perinatal deaths included chorioamnionitis, ruptured uterus, multiple gestation, medically induced delivery, prolonged labor, unbooked pregnancies, antepartum hemorrhage, and prolonged rupture of membranes. Antepartum hemorrhage was the strongest determinant of perinatal death. Significant neonatal determinants were multiple gestation, severe birth asphyxia, apnea, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Apnea was the strongest neonatal determinant. The majority (83.2%) of perinatal deaths were due to severe perinatal asphyxia (SPA) (54.5%), normally formed macerated stillbirths (20.3%), and immaturity (8.4%). Conclusion: In conclusion, Perinatal Mortality in Katsina metropolis in northwest Nigeria is unacceptably high as we approach the timeline for the millennium development goals. Antepartum hemorrhage and SPA are major determinants. PMID:25340044

  10. Perinatal exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and infant growth and body mass index at seven years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iszatt, N.; Stigum, H; Govarts, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Background Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Experimental studies suggest perinatal exposure to EDCs results in later obesity. However, the few epidemiological investigations on dioxins are inconclusive. We investigated perinatal exposure to dioxins and ...

  11. Asfotase Alfa Treatment Improves Survival for Perinatal and Infantile Hypophosphatasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockman-Greenberg, Cheryl; Ozono, Keiichi; Riese, Richard; Moseley, Scott; Melian, Agustin; Thompson, David D.; Bishop, Nicholas; Hofmann, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Context: Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is an inborn error of metabolism that, in its most severe perinatal and infantile forms, results in 50–100% mortality, typically from respiratory complications. Objectives: Our objective was to better understand the effect of treatment with asfotase alfa, a first-in-class enzyme replacement therapy, on mortality in neonates and infants with severe HPP. Design/Setting: Data from patients with the perinatal and infantile forms of HPP in two ongoing, multicenter, multinational, open-label, phase 2 interventional studies of asfotase alfa treatment were compared with data from similar patients from a retrospective natural history study. Patients: Thirty-seven treated patients (median treatment duration, 2.7 years) and 48 historical controls of similar chronological age and HPP characteristics. Interventions: Treated patients received asfotase alfa as sc injections either 1 mg/kg six times per week or 2 mg/kg thrice weekly. Main Outcome Measures: Survival, skeletal health quantified radiographically on treatment, and ventilatory status were the main outcome measures for this study. Results: Asfotase alfa was associated with improved survival in treated patients vs historical controls: 95% vs 42% at age 1 year and 84% vs 27% at age 5 years, respectively (P < .0001, Kaplan-Meier log-rank test). Whereas 5% (1/20) of the historical controls who required ventilatory assistance survived, 76% (16/21) of the ventilated and treated patients survived, among whom 75% (12/16) were weaned from ventilatory support. This better respiratory outcome accompanied radiographic improvements in skeletal mineralization and health. Conclusions: Asfotase alfa mineralizes the HPP skeleton, including the ribs, and improves respiratory function and survival in life-threatening perinatal and infantile HPP. PMID:26529632

  12. PELAYANAN KESEHATAN PERINATAL DI DAERAH PEDESAAN UJUNG BERUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Alisjahbana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey on perinatal care in a rural area at Ujung Berung district, located 15—20 km outside Bandung, West Java was conducted. Three villages with a population of 40,787 were selected. Health services were provided by one health post and several family planning posts. In this study 1303 pregnant women were followed throughout the 28 weeks of pregnancy until the infant is 28 days of age. Among the 1303 pregnant women 5.7% had received tetanus toxoid immunization. Perinatal mortality rate (PMR was 43.6 per thousand and incidence of low birth weight was 14.3 percent. Only 12.8% pregnant women were using some kind of contraception before the last pregnancy. The PMR decreased in spite of the low percentage users. The main causes of death during perinatal period vece asphyxia neonatorum and infections. The incidence of tetanus neonatorum during neonatal period was 17 per thousand live births. An evaluation of health service activities showed 47.5% of these pregnant women had antenatal care. Care during delivery and early postnatal period was carried out by TBAs. No significant difference was found between the PMR of trained and untrained TBAs. Another aspect of health service activities is referral to the health centre or hospital. A total of 3.8 percent infants were referred because of neo­natal problems; among these, refusal was 12.5% due to the totalistic attitude of the parents in the village. The results showed that coverage of pregnant women and their infants by safe health care services is very low. This may be due to lack of facilities and health personnel, and probably also due to the confidence of village people for traditional health care providers. Thus, education and training as well as supervision of traditional health care providers and their integration into the formal health care structure is of extreme importance.  

  13. Context Modulates Outcome of Perinatal Glucocorticoid Action in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Ronald ede Kloet

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Prematurely born infants may be at risk, because of inadequate maturation of tissues. If there are signs of preterm birth, it has become common practice therefore to treat either antenatally the mother or postnatally the infant with glucocorticoids to accelerate tissue development, particularly of the lung. However, this life-saving early glucocorticoid treatment was found to increase the risk of adverse outcome in later life. In one animal study the authors reported a 25% shorter lifespan of rats treated as newborns with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone, but sofar this finding has not been replicated. After a brief clinical introduction, we discuss studies in rodents designed to examine how perinatal glucocorticoid action affects the developing brain. It appears that the perinatal action of the glucocorticoid depends on the context and the timing as well as the type of administered steroid. The type of steroid is important because the endogenous glucocorticoids cortisol and corticosterone bind to two distinct receptor populations, i.e. mineralocorticoid (MR and glucocorticoid receptors (GR, while synthetic glucocorticoids predominantly bind to the GR. In addition, if given antenatally hydrocortisone is inactivated in the placenta by 11β-HSD type 2, and dexamethasone is not. With respect to timing, the outcome of glucocorticoid effects is different in early vs late phases of brain development. The context refers to the environmental input that can affect the susceptibility to glucocorticoid action in the newborn rodent brain; early handling of pups and maternal care obliterate effects of postnatal dexamethasone treatment. Context also refers to coping with environmental conditions in later life, for which the individual may have been programmed epigenetically by early life experience. This knowledge of determinants affecting the outcome of perinatal glucocorticoid exposure may have clinical implications for the treatment of

  14. Context modulates outcome of perinatal glucocorticoid action in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, E Ronald; Claessens, Sanne E F; Kentrop, Jiska

    2014-01-01

    Prematurely born infants may be at risk, because of inadequate maturation of tissues. If there are signs of preterm birth, it has become common practice therefore to treat either antenatally the mother or postnatally the infant with glucocorticoids to accelerate tissue development, particularly of the lung. However, this life-saving early glucocorticoid treatment was found to increase the risk of adverse outcome in later life. In one animal study, the authors reported a 25% shorter lifespan of rats treated as newborns with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone, but so far this finding has not been replicated. After a brief clinical introduction, we discuss studies in rodents designed to examine how perinatal glucocorticoid action affects the developing brain. It appears that the perinatal action of the glucocorticoid depends on the context and the timing as well as the type of administered steroid. The type of steroid is important because the endogenous glucocorticoids cortisol and corticosterone bind to two distinct receptor populations, i.e., mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors (GR), while synthetic glucocorticoids predominantly bind to the GR. In addition, if given antenatally hydrocortisone is inactivated in the placenta by 11β-HSD type 2, and dexamethasone is not. With respect to timing, the outcome of glucocorticoid effects is different in early vs. late phases of brain development. The context refers to the environmental input that can affect the susceptibility to glucocorticoid action in the newborn rodent brain; early handling of pups and maternal care obliterate effects of post-natal dexamethasone treatment. Context also refers to coping with environmental conditions in later life, for which the individual may have been programed epigenetically by early-life experience. This knowledge of determinants affecting the outcome of perinatal glucocorticoid exposure may have clinical implications for the treatment of prematurely born infants.

  15. Antibiotic prophylaxis for premature rupture of membranes and perinatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barišić, Tatjana; Mandić, Vjekoslav; Tomić, Vajdana; Zovko, Ana; Novaković, Gorjana

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the perinatal outcomes of newborns after premature rupture of membranes (PROM) at the term according to the timing of initial antibiotic administration. This is a retrospective, cohort study investigating perinatal outcomes of newborns in pregnant women with PROM at the term who were treated with ampicillin within or after 6 h from the PROM. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test for continuous variables test and chi-square or for categorical data. The study involved 144 pregnant women with PROM and their newborns, a lower number received antibiotics after birth were in the group who received antibiotics within 6 h of PROM (26.4% versus 73.6%), the mediane values of C-reactive protein were lower (3.0 ± 2.9 mg/l versus 6.1 ± 7.3 mg/l; p < 0.001), their newborns remained shorter in hospital after birth (4.13 versus 4.94; p =0.023) and time between PROM and delivery was shorter (p < 0.001). In group who received prophylactic antibiotics after 6 h of the PROM had significantly higher frequency of infection in newborns (45.3% versus 15.4%), and higher number of chorioamnionitis (9.72% versus 3,47%) compared to group who received antibiotics within 6h. Timely usage of antibiotic prophylaxis and shorter time between PROM and delivery improve perinatal outcomes.

  16. Influence of polyhydramnios on perinatal outcome in pregestational diabetic pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, N; Wong, S F; Thomae, M; Gardener, G; McIntyre, D H

    2010-09-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the perinatal outcomes of pregnancy with pregestational diabetes mellitus complicated by polyhydramnios. This was a retrospective study of singleton pregnancies, with an antepartum diagnosis of polyhydramnios, seen at the maternal fetal medicine department of Mater Mothers' Hospital, a tertiary-level facility. All pregnancies in women with pregestational diabetes with a singleton pregnancy beyond 24 weeks of gestation, from 1996 to 2006, were reviewed (n = 314), and pregnancies complicated by polyhydramnios were identified (n = 59). Pregnancy outcomes of women whose pregnancy was complicated with polyhydramnios were compared to those without this complication. The incidence of polyhydramnios in the study population was 18.8%. Women with polyhydramnios had increased hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels throughout the pregnancy, and the difference was significant during the prepregnancy period and in the third trimester (P = 0.003 and P = 0.025, respectively). Significantly more mothers in the polyhydramnios group delivered preterm (54.2% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.004), the majority of which were iatrogenic preterm deliveries (44.1%). More pregnancies with polyhydramnios were delivered by Cesarean section (83.0% vs. 62%; P = 0.006), with the majority being performed electively in both groups (79.6% and 70.3%, respectively). Regardless, there were no significant differences in perinatal mortality rates, congenital abnormality rates, the incidences of low Apgar score, acidemia, hypoglycemia requiring intravenous therapy, phototherapy and ventilatory needs between the babies of the two groups. Pregestational diabetic pregnancy with polyhydramnios is associated with poor diabetic control. Despite this, there is no significant increase in adverse perinatal outcome in these pregnancies, apart from a higher iatrogenic preterm birth rate. (c) 2010 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Tackling perinatal loss, a participatory action research approach: research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Montero, Sonia María; Romero-Sánchez, José Manuel; Paramio-Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Hueso-Montoro, César; Paloma-Castro, Olga; Lillo-Crespo, Manuel; Castro-Yuste, Cristina; Toledano-Losa, Ana Cristina; Carnicer-Fuentes, Concepción; Ortegón-Gallego, José Alejo; Frandsen, Anna J

    2012-11-01

      The aim of this study was to promote changes to improve the care provided to parents who have experienced a perinatal loss through participatory action research.   The birth of a child is a joyful event for most families, however, unfortunately some pregnancies end in loss. Perinatal loss creates a heavy emotional impact not only on parents but also on health professionals, where in most cases there is an evident lack of skills, strategies and resources to cope with these kinds of situations.   Participatory action research is the methodology proposed to achieve the purpose of this study.   Participatory action research consists of five stages: outreach and awareness, induction, interaction, implementation and systematization. The working group will include professionals from the Mother and Child Unit for patients at a tertiary level public hospital in Spain. The duration of the study will be 3 years since the approval of the protocol in January 2011. The qualitative techniques used will include group dynamics such as the SWOT analysis the nominal group technique, focus groups and brainstorming, among others that will be recorded and transcribed, generating reports throughout the evolution of the group sessions and about the consensus reached. Content analysis will be conducted on the field diaries kept by the participants and researchers. This project has been funded by the Andalusian Regional Ministry of Health.   Participatory action research is a methodological strategy that allows changes in clinical practice to conduct a comprehensive transformative action in the care process for perinatal loss. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. La vivencia de la pérdida perinatal desde la perspectiva de los profesionales de la salud

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia María Pastor Montero; José Manuel Romero Sánchez; César Hueso Montoro; Manuel Lillo Crespo; Ana Gema Vacas Jaén; María Belén Rodríguez Tirado

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to know the experience of health professionals in situations of perinatal death and grief and to describe their action strategies in the management of perinatal loss. A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach was carried out through interviews conducted with 19 professionals. Three thematic categories were identified: Healthcare practice, feelings aroused by perinatal loss and meaning and beliefs about perinatal loss and grief. The results revealed that...

  19. Multiple endocrine disrupting effects in rats perinatally exposed to butylparaben

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Svingen, Terje

    2016-01-01

    ) expression was reduced in prepubertal, but not adult animals exposed to butylparaben. In adult testes, Nr5a1 expression was reduced at all doses, indicating persistent disruption of steroidogenesis. Prostate histology was altered at prepuberty and adult prostate weights were reduced in the high dose group....... Thus, butylparaben exerted endocrine disrupting effects on both male and female offspring. The observed adverse developmental effect on sperm count at the lowest dose is highly relevant to risk assessment, as this is the lowest observed adverse effect level in a study on perinatal exposure...

  20. Breastfeeding and risk of schizophrenia in the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Reinisch, J M

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study whether early weaning from breastfeeding may be associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. METHOD: The current sample comprises 6841 individuals from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort of whom 1671 (24%) had been breastfed for 2 weeks or less (early weaning...... odds ratio 1.73 with 95% CI: 1.13-2.67). CONCLUSION: No or breastfeeding was associated with elevated risk of schizophrenia. The hypothesis of some protective effect of breastfeeding against the risk of later schizophrenia is supported by our data....

  1. Role transitions for new clinical leaders in perinatal practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robin L; Reiser, Diana J

    2004-01-01

    New clinical leaders are transitioning to their roles in a demanding and short-staffed profession where change is constant and finances are uncertain. For successful role transition in the specialty of perinatal nursing, both new leaders and their mentors must understand the attributes of potential leaders, the role of mentoring, and the need for clearly articulated expectations. This article discusses these processes in the context of the considerable skill set required for leadership in nursing today. The similarities and differences between the roles of manager and leader are discussed.

  2. Hipoxia perinatal y su impacto en el neurodesarrollo

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Flores-Compadre; Felipe Cruz; Gabriela Orozco1; Alicia Vélez

    2013-01-01

    Durante el periodo perinatal el cerebro puede quedar privado de oxígeno por dos mecanismos importantes: la hipoxemia y la isquemia. El primero consiste en una disminución de la concentración de oxígeno en sangre y el segundo en la cantidad de sangre que riega al cerebro. Clínicamente se le conoce como encefalo- patía hipoxia-isquémica al síndrome caracterizado por la suspensión o grave disminución del intercambio gaseoso a nivel de la placenta o de los pulmones, que resulta en hipoxemia, hipe...

  3. The future of pediatric and perinatal postmortem imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorincour, Guillaume [Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Marseille - Aix-Marseille University, Pediatric and Prenatal Imaging Department, La Timone Children Hospital, Marseille, Marseille Cedex 5 (France); CERIMED, Aix-Marseille University, Experimental and Interventional Imaging Laboratory, Marseille (France); Sarda-Quarello, Laure [La Timone Hospital, Department of Fetopathology, Marseille (France); Laurent, Pierre-Eloi [CERIMED, Aix-Marseille University, Experimental and Interventional Imaging Laboratory, Marseille (France); Brough, Alison; Rutty, Guy N. [University of Leicester, East Midlands Forensic Pathology Unit, Leicester (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    The field and applications of postmortem imaging are exponentially growing. Its potential to identify the cause of death in trauma and ballistic cases is now properly documented, as well as its use in drug mule identification. In pediatric and perinatal practice, large significant series are less available, except for MRI and central nervous system analysis where scientific evidence is now robust. In this review, after a short historical review and analysis of current problems and challenges, we will try to depict the way we see the future of this subspecialty of postmortem cross-sectional imaging, including all specific situations: terminations of pregnancy, intrauterine death, sudden unexpected infant death and identification issues. (orig.)

  4. Perinatal lethal type II osteogenesis imperfecta: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, Imene Dahmane; Hamida, Emira Ben; Rebeh, Rania Ben; Chaouachi, Sihem; Marrakchi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    We report a new case of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type II which is a perinatal lethal form. First trimester ultrasound didn't identified abnormalities. Second trimester ultrasound showed incurved limbs, narrow chest, with hypomineralization and multiple fractures of ribs and long bones. Parents refused pregnancy termination; they felt that the diagnosis was late. At birth, the newborn presented immediate respiratory distress. Postnatal examination and bone radiography confirmed the diagnosis of OI type IIA. Death occurred on day 25 of life related to respiratory failure.

  5. Ultrasonographic evaluation of fetal hydrocephalus: association with perinatal mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Hortêncio, Ana Paula Brito; Landim, Emanuel Rocha; Nogueira, Marcelo Bezerra; Feitosa, Francisco Edson de Lucena; Alencar Júnior, Carlos Augusto

    2001-01-01

    Objetivo: avaliar os parâmetros ultra-sonográficos associados ao incremento da mortalidade perinatal em casos de hidrocefalia fetal. Métodos: foram avaliados 45 casos de hidrocefalia acompanhados entre janeiro/1996 e dezembro/1999. A hidrocefalia foi diagnosticada quando a relação entre a mensuração dos ventrículos laterais e os hemisférios cerebrais correspondentes foi superior a 0,35 ou quando a medida do átrio dos ventrículos laterais foi superior a 10 mm. Em todos os exames definiu-se o t...

  6. Duelo perinatal: Un secreto dentro de un misterio.

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Pía López García de Amindabieta

    2011-01-01

    La muerte del feto durante el embarazo, en el parto o pocos días después del nacimiento constituye un tema delicado, condicionado por numerosos factores. Esta pérdida puede desencadenar reacciones de duelo en los progenitores y situaciones de difícil manejo para los profesionales sanitarios. Son duelos que reciben escasa consideración y que pueden complicarse dando lugar a trastornos psiquiátricos. Es necesario conocer el significado de la pérdida perinatal desde la perspectiva de los progeni...

  7. Mortalidad perinatal en el Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Diaz Ledesma

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Conocer la tasa de mortalidad perinatal en el Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins y sus características. Materiales y Métodos: El estudio comprendió la revisión de todas las historias clínicas de gestantes portadoras de óbito fetal (mayor de 28 semanas de gestación o mayor de 1000gramos, de recién nacidos que fallecieron dentro de los primeros 7 días de vida y de sus madres durante el año 2000. Resultados: La tasa de mortalidad perinatal fue de 10.5 por mil nacidos vivos. La edad promedio materna fue de 31.6 años, + 5.9 y un rango entre 14 y 44 años. El 30.1% de partos correspondió a nulíparas, el 61.6% a multíparas y el 8.3% a gran multíparas. El promedio de visitas al control prenatal fue de 4.8 + 2.7. El 53.4% de las madres tuvo algún antecedente relacionado a mala historia obstétrica, siendo los más frecuentes historia de aborto previo (27.4%, cesárea anterior (13.7% y pre eclampsia (12.3%. Las causas asociadas a mortalidad perinatal fueron madres con pre eclampsia severa (38.4% y hemorragia en el tercer trimestre (15.1% y fetos con malformaciones congénitas severas (27.4%. La vía de parto fue abdominal en 68.5% y vaginal en 31.5%. Se tuvo 83.6% de gestaciones únicas y 16.4% de gestaciones múltiples. El peso de los productos fue 1985.2 + 945.8 gramos. El 61.6% de muertes perinatales correspondieron a prematuros. Conclusiones:La tasa de mortalidad neonatal en el HNERM durante el año 2000 fue de 10.5 por mil nacidos vivos y los factores relacionados a mortalidad perinatal fueron pre-eclampsia severa, malformaciones congénitas severas y hemorragias del tercer trimestre. ( Rev Med Hered 2003; 14: 117-121.

  8. [Perinatal HIV transmission prophylaxis in the Liege region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, Y; Hoyoux, C; Dresse, M F

    1998-08-01

    In Liège, since February 1994, Protocole ACTG 076 has been followed for prevention of perinatal transmission of VIH. The pregnant women are treated by AZT during pregnancy and delivery. The newborn is also treated during 6 weeks. Following this treatment strategy, vertical transmission rate of VIH has dropped from 25.6% to 8.7%. The PCR is particulary promising for the early detection of infection in newborn, but definitive conclusion about infective status of the newborn can't be done during the first week of life. The potential role of intrapartum transmission is now under evaluation in the hope to establish the safest mode of delivery.

  9. The perinatal autopsy: pertinent issues in multicultural Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordijn, Sanne J; Erwich, Jan Jaap H M; Khong, T Yee

    2007-05-01

    Western Europe is in a demographic transition with increasing multicultural societies. Health professionals have to understand the background, religious and cultural aspects of parents to counsel them regarding an autopsy in the event of a perinatal loss. Autopsy rates have declined over the past decades, the major limiting factor being the granting of permission for an autopsy, possibly because of adverse publicity or reluctance of doctors to obtain consent. Autopsy has proved its value in revealing unsuspected findings. The public can be convinced of this utility by means of good information notwithstanding their religious or cultural background.

  10. Masas retroperitoneales en el período perinatal Retroperitoneal masses in the perinatal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelda María Castagnaro Rosini

    2011-03-01

    to illustrate the imaging findings based on our experience. Material and Methods: Retrospective study about the etiology of retroperitoneal masses in newborns based on x-ray analysis, ultrasound and clinical findings of 487 infants who underwent abdominal ultrasound between January 2008 and December 2009. A total of 47 newborns with a diagnosis of retroperitoneal mass were selected. Patients with prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of intraabdominal retroperitoneal mass and those with palpable abdominal mass on their physical examination in the neonatal period were included in this sample. Infants with gastrointestinal and intraperitoneal abdominal pathology were excluded. Results: Of all the study patients (n= 47, 42 had renal masses (89%, and 5 retroperitoneal extrarenal masses (11%. Among the former, the prevalent diseases were hydronephrosis in 36 cases (76%, and multicystic renal dysplasia in 4 (9%. Moreover, there was only 1 case of congenital mesoblastic nephroma, and 1 case of autosomal recessive polycystic disease. Among the latter, there were 3 infants with adrenal hemorrhage (6%, and 2 with neuroblastoma (4%. Conclusion: The incidence of perinatal retroperitoneal masses in the studied population was 9.65%, in agreement with the literature. It highlights the importance of prenatal US to define the obstetric behavior and the coordination between pre- and postnatal ultrasound in order to achieve the best diagnostic approach. In our casuistic, a diagnosis was reached through US in 94% of the cases. CT plays a crucial role in both defining the surgical procedure in congenital mesoblastic nephroma and staging neuroblastomas.

  11. Perinatal outcome of preterm cesarean section in a resource-limited ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The relationship between perinatal outcome and anesthetic technique for preterm cesarean sections has not been explored in South Eastern, Nigeria. Objective: The objective of the following study is to evaluate perinatal outcome in preterm cesarean sections conducted under general anesthesia (GA) and ...

  12. Analysis of Perinatal Mortality at a Teaching Hospital in Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Labour related deaths were more common in multiple pregnancies. The majority of the perinatal deaths should be essentially avoidable through improved quality of intrapartum care. Establishment of perinatal audit at MNH can help identify key actions for improved care. African Journal of Reproductive Health Vol.

  13. Assessment of perinatal outcome after sustained tocolysis in early labour (APOSTEL-II trial).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, C.M.; Scheepers, H.C.J.; Bloemenkamp, K.W.; Bolte, A.; Cornette, J.; Derks, J.B.; Duvekot, H.J.; Eyck, J. van; Kok, J.H.; Kwee, A.; Merien, A.; Opmeer, B.C.; Pampus, M.G. van; Papatsonis, D.N.; Porath, M.M.; Post, J.A. van der; Scherjon, S.A.; Sollie, K.M.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Vijgen, S.M.; Willekes, C.; Mol, B.W.; Lotgering, F.K.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm labour is the main cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in the Western world. At present, there is evidence that tocolysis for 48 hours is useful in women with threatened preterm labour at least before 32 weeks. This allows transfer of the patient to a perinatal centre, and

  14. Perinatal management and long-term cardiac outcome in fetal arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahurij, N.D.; Blom, N.A.; Lopriore, E.; Aziz, M.I.; Nagel, H.T.; Rozendaal, L.; Vandenbussche, F.P.H.A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: cardiac arrhythmias are commonly observed in the fetus, however, may have major consequences for fetal development and post natal life. AIMS: to evaluate the perinatal management and cardiac outcome of fetuses with tachy- or bradyarrhythmia. STUDY DESIGN: perinatal management, outcome

  15. Perinatal management and long-term cardiac outcome in fetal arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahurij, Nathan D.; Blom, Nico A.; Lopriore, Enrico; Aziz, Mohammad I.; Nagel, Helene T.; Rozendaal, Lieke; Vandenbussche, Frank P. H. A.

    2011-01-01

    cardiac arrhythmias are commonly observed in the fetus, however, may have major consequences for fetal development and post natal life. to evaluate the perinatal management and cardiac outcome of fetuses with tachy- or bradyarrhythmia. perinatal management, outcome and long-term cardiac follow-up

  16. Congenital heart defects in europe: prevalence and perinatal mortality, 2000 to 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolk, Helen; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester

    2011-01-01

    This study determines the prevalence of Congenital Heart Defects (CHD), diagnosed prenatally or in infancy, and fetal and perinatal mortality associated with CHD in Europe.......This study determines the prevalence of Congenital Heart Defects (CHD), diagnosed prenatally or in infancy, and fetal and perinatal mortality associated with CHD in Europe....

  17. MINOR NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION AFTER THE ONSET OF PUBERTY - ASSOCIATION WITH PERINATAL EVENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SOORANILUNSING, RJ; HADDERSALGRA, M; HUISJES, HJ; TOUWEN, BCL

    In order to study the hypotheses that puberty is related to a decrease of minor neurological dysfunction (MND) and that persisting MND is associated with perinatal factors, two groups (174 normal, 172 MND) of the Groningen Perinatal Project were followed from 12 to 14 years. At 14 years almost all

  18. Perinatal outcome of preterm cesarean section in a resource‑limited ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-02

    Jan 2, 2014 ... Objective: The objective of the following study is to evaluate perinatal outcome in preterm cesarean sections conducted under general ... Comparison of perinatal outcome with anaesthetic techniques in preterm caesarean section. 614 ... Following. 3 min of pre‑oxygenation, rapid sequence induction was.

  19. Perinatal mortality: clinical value of postmortem magnetic resonance imaging compared with autopsy in routine obstetric practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderliesten, Marianne E.; Peringa, Jan; van der Hulst, Victor P. M.; Blaauwgeers, Hans L. G.; van Lith, Jan M. M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective To compare postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with autopsy in perinatal deaths. To determine the acceptance and feasibility of postmortem perinatal MRI. Design Cohort study. Setting Large teaching hospital. Population Fetuses and neonates from 16 weeks gestational age until 28

  20. A multilayered approach for the analysis of perinatal mortality using different classification systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, Sanne J.; Korteweg, Fleurisca J.; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Holm, Jozien P.; van Diem, Mariet Th.; Bergman, Klasien A.; Timmer, Albertus

    Many classification systems for perinatal mortality are available, all with their own strengths and weaknesses: none of them has been universally accepted. We present a systematic multilayered approach for the analysis of perinatal mortality based on information related to the moment of death, the

  1. Social inequality in fetal and perinatal mortality in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tina; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review the epidemiological literature from the past 27 years on social inequality in fetal and perinatal mortality in the Nordic countries in order to examine whether social inequalities in fetal and perinatal mortality exist, and whether there are differences between...

  2. Characteristics of a global classification system for perinatal deaths : a Delphi consensus study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszek, Aleena M.; Reinebrant, Hanna E.; Leisher, Susannah Hopkins; Allanson, Emma; Coory, Michael; Erwich, Jan Jaap; Froen, J. Frederik; Gardosi, Jason; Gordijn, Sanne; Gulmezoglu, Metin; Heazell, Alexander E. P.; Korteweg, Fleurisca J.; McClure, Elizabeth; Pattinson, Robert; Silver, Robert M.; Smith, Gordon; Teoh, Zheyi; Tuncalp, Ozge; Flenady, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the global burden of perinatal deaths, there is currently no single, globally-acceptable classification system for perinatal deaths. Instead, multiple, disparate systems are in use world-wide. This inconsistency hinders accurate estimates of causes of death and impedes effective

  3. Cerebral injury in perinatally HIV-infected children compared to matched healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Sophie; Caan, Matthan W. A.; Mutsaerts, Henk-Jan; Scherpbier, Henriette J.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Reiss, Peter; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to evaluate the neurologic state of perinatally HIV-infected children on combination antiretroviral therapy and to attain a better insight into the pathogenesis of their persistent neurologic and cognitive deficits. We included perinatally HIV-infected children between 8 and

  4. Perinatal outcome in singletons after modified natural cycle IVF and standard IVF with ovarian stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelinck, Marie-José; Keizer, Marjan H.; Hoek, Annemieke; Simons, Arnold H. M.; Schelling, Karin; Middelburg, Karin; Heineman, Maas Jan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Singletons born after IVF treatment are at risk for adverse pregnancy outcome, the cause of which is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of ovarian stimulation on perinatal outcome. Study design: In this single-centre retrospective study, perinatal

  5. Perinatal outcome in singletons after modified natural cycle IVF and standard IVF with ovarian stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelinck, Marie-Jose; Keizer, Marjan H.; Hoek, Annemieke; Simons, Arnold H. M.; Schelling, Karin; Middelburg, Karin; Heineman, Maas Jan

    Objective: Singletons born after IVF treatment are at risk for adverse pregnancy outcome, the cause of which is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of ovarian stimulation on perinatal outcome. Study design: In this single-centre retrospective study, perinatal

  6. Social equity in perinatal survival: a case-control study at hospitals in Kigali, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musafili, Aimable; Essén, Birgitta; Baribwira, Cyprien; Selling, Katarina Ekholm; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2015-12-01

    Rwanda has invested heavily in improving maternal and child health, but knowledge is limited regarding social equity in perinatal survival. We analysed whether perinatal mortality risks differed between social groups in hospitals in the country's capital. A case-control study was carried out on singleton births aged at least 22 weeks of gestation and born in district or tertiary referral hospitals in Kigali from July 2013 to May 2014. Perinatal deaths were recorded as they occurred, with the next two surviving neonates born in the same hospital selected as controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine social determinants of perinatal death after adjustments for potential confounders. We analysed 234 perinatal deaths and 468 controls. Rural residence was linked to an increased risk of perinatal death (OR = 3.31, 95% CI 1.43-7.61), but maternal education or household asset score levels were not. Having no health insurance (OR = 2.11, 95% CI 0.91-4.89) was associated with an increased risk of perinatal death, compared to having community health insurance. Living in a rural area and having no health insurance were associated with an increased risk of perinatal mortality rates in the Rwandan capital, but maternal education and household assets were not. ©2015 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  7. The impact of perinatal death on obstetrics nurses: a longitudinal and cross-sectional examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Palgi, Yuval; Walker, Reut; Many, Ariel; Hamam-Raz, Yaira

    2014-01-01

    Mental health and well-being among obstetrics nurses after perinatal death are understudied. Beyond the normal strain imposed on obstetric nurses, exposure to perinatal death may add significant stress. Two studies were conducted on obstetrics nurses. In study 1, obstetrics nurses were measured longitudinally, at baseline (with no recent history of exposure to perinatal death in the past 3 months), and 3 months after (2 months after two consecutive events of perinatal death have occurred 1 month after baseline). In study 2, a cross-sectional study was conducted comparing obstetrics nurses with a history of perinatal death (nurses from study 1) to obstetrics nurses with no history of exposure to perinatal death in the past 6 months. The results of study 1 showed that obstetrics nurses showed a higher level of psychiatric symptoms [posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive, and psychosomatic symptoms] at time 2 (after exposure to perinatal death) in comparison to time 1. The results of study 2 showed a higher level of psychiatric symptoms (PTSD, depressive, and psychosomatic symptoms) in the exposed group in comparison to the non-exposed group. The effect of exposure to perinatal death is severe and needs to be addressed by developing intervention and preparation programs to help obstetric nurses cope with this critical incident.

  8. Perinatal Loss at Term: The Role of Uteroplacental and Fetal Doppler Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Caitriona; Binder, Julia; Thilaganathan, Baskaran; Morales-Roselló, José; Khalil, Asma

    2017-04-24

    To examine the association of uterine artery (UtA) Doppler indices and cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) on perinatal outcome at term. This retrospective cohort study conducted in a single tertiary referral centre included all singleton pregnancies undergoing ultrasound assessment in the third trimester, which subsequently delivered at term. Fetal biometry and Dopplers including the umbilical artery (UA), middle cerebral artery (MCA) and uterine artery were recorded. Data was corrected for gestational age and CPR was calculated as a ratio between the MCA pulsatility index (PI) and UA PI. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine for independent predictors of adverse perinatal outcome. The study included 7013 pregnancies; 12 were complicated by perinatal death. When compared to pregnancies resulting in live birth, pregnancies complicated by perinatal death had significantly more small for gestational age (SGA) infants (27.3% vs 5%, p = 0.001) and a higher incidence of low CPR (16.7% vs 4.5%, p = 0.041). A subgroup analysis comparing 1527 low risk pregnancies demonstrated that the UtA PI MoM, CPR perinatal death at term (all p perinatal death in the low risk cohort. High uterine artery PI at term is independently associated with increased risk of adverse perinatal outcome regardless of fetal size. These results suggest that perinatal mortality at term is related, not only to EFW and fetal redistribution (CPR), but also to indices of uterine perfusion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of maternal HIV status on perinatal outcome at Mowbray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    8 SAJOG • January 2012, Vol. 18, No. 1 perinatal outcome in the HIV-positive group were not stratified by. CD4 count. Table II shows the stillbirth, early neonatal death and perinatal mortality rates in HIV-positive and negative women for the combined population of MMH and the three MOUs. There were 300 stillbirths in ...

  10. Head circumference and height abnormalities in autism revisited: the role of pre- and perinatal risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieken, M.; Visser, J.C.; Oosterling, I.J.; Steijn, D.J. van; Bons, D.M.A.; Draaisma, J.M.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Buitelaar, J.K.; Donders, R.; Rommelse, N.N.

    2013-01-01

    Pre/perinatal risk factors and body growth abnormalities have been studied frequently as early risk markers in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet their interrelatedness in ASD has received very little research attention. This is surprising, given that pre/perinatal risk factors can have a

  11. A nationwide population analysis of antenatal and perinatal complications among nurses and nonmedical working women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Che Huang

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Our nationwide population-based study revealed increased risks of antenatal and perinatal complications among nurses compared with those among nonmedical working women. The large-scale observation of the increased antenatal and perinatal complications draws attention to the health issues faced by nursing personnel who represent one of the most important workforces in the healthcare system.

  12. Assessment of perinatal outcome after sustained tocolysis in early labour (APOSTEL-II trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Carolien; Scheepers, Liesbeth H. C. J.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; Bolte, Annemiek; Cornette, Jerome; Derks, Jan B.; Duvekot, Hans J. J.; van Eyck, Jim; Kok, Joke H.; Kwee, Anneke; Merien, Ashley; Opmeer, Brent C.; van Pampus, Marielle G.; Papatsonis, Dimitri N. M.; Porath, Martina M.; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Scherjon, Sicco A.; Sollie, Krystyne; Spaanderman, Marc E. A.; Vijgen, Sylvia M. C.; Willekes, Christine; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Lotgering, Fred K.; van, Eyck J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Preterm labour is the main cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in the Western world. At present, there is evidence that tocolysis for 48 hours is useful in women with threatened preterm labour at least before 32 weeks. This allows transfer of the patient to a perinatal centre, and

  13. Perinatal Outcome in Patients With Pre-Eclampsia in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of pre-eclampsia and examine its influence on perinatal outcome among Nigerian women. Methods: Among 3780 deliveries over a two-and-half year period, 212 singleton infants were born after preeclamptic pregnancies. We compared the perinatal outcome with those of 636 control ...

  14. Perinatal risk factors for bronchial hyperresponsiveness and atopy after a follow-up of 20 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, JM; Boezen, HM; Postma, DS; Schouten, JP; van Aalderen, WMC; Boersma, ER

    Background: Perinatal risk factors are associated with lung function and respiratory symptoms in adult life. Whether the same holds for distinctive asthma features, such as bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BUR) and atopy, has scarcely been studied. Objective: We sought to identify the perinatal risk

  15. Perinatal risk factors for bronchial hyperresponsiveness and atopy after a follow-up of 20 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, Judith M.; Boezen, H. Marike; Postma, Dirkje S.; Schouten, Jan P.; van Aalderen, Wim M. C.; Boersma, E. Rudy

    2004-01-01

    Background: Perinatal risk factors are associated with lung function and respiratory symptoms in adult life. Whether the same holds for distinctive asthma features, such as bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BUR) and atopy, has scarcely been studied. Objective: We sought to identify the perinatal risk

  16. Perinatal suicide in Ontario, Canada: a 15-year population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriadis, Sophie; Wilton, Andrew S; Kurdyak, Paul A; Rhodes, Anne E; VonderPorten, Emily H; Levitt, Anthony; Cheung, Amy; Vigod, Simone N

    2017-08-28

    Death by suicide during the perinatal period has been understudied in Canada. We examined the epidemiology of and health service use related to suicides during pregnancy and the first postpartum year. In this retrospective, population-based cohort study, we linked health administrative databases with coroner death records (1994-2008) for Ontario, Canada. We compared sociodemographic characteristics, clinical features and health service use in the 30 days and 1 year before death between women who died by suicide perinatally, women who died by suicide outside of the perinatal period and living perinatal women. The perinatal suicide rate was 2.58 per 100 000 live births, with suicide accounting for 51 (5.3%) of 966 perinatal deaths. Most suicides occurred during the final quarter of the first postpartum year, with highest rates in rural and remote regions. Perinatal women were more likely to die from hanging (33.3% [17/51]) or jumping or falling (19.6% [10/51]) than women who died by suicide non-perinatally (p = 0.04). Only 39.2% (20/51) had mental health contact within the 30 days before death, similar to the rate among those who died by suicide non-perinatally (47.7% [762/1597]; odds ratio [OR] 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40-1.25). Compared with living perinatal women matched by pregnancy or postpartum status at date of suicide, perinatal women who died by suicide had similar likelihood of non-mental health primary care and obstetric care before the index date but had a lower likelihood of pediatric contact (64.5% [20/31] v. 88.4% [137/155] at 30 days; OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.10-0.58). The perinatal suicide rate for Ontario during the period 1994-2008 was comparable to international estimates and represents a substantial component of Canadian perinatal mortality. Given that deaths by suicide occur throughout the perinatal period, all health care providers must be collectively vigilant in assessing risk. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  17. Perinatal suicide in Ontario, Canada: a 15-year population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriadis, Sophie; Wilton, Andrew S.; Kurdyak, Paul A.; Rhodes, Anne E.; VonderPorten, Emily H.; Levitt, Anthony; Cheung, Amy; Vigod, Simone N.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Death by suicide during the perinatal period has been understudied in Canada. We examined the epidemiology of and health service use related to suicides during pregnancy and the first postpartum year. METHODS: In this retrospective, population-based cohort study, we linked health administrative databases with coroner death records (1994–2008) for Ontario, Canada. We compared sociodemographic characteristics, clinical features and health service use in the 30 days and 1 year before death between women who died by suicide perinatally, women who died by suicide outside of the perinatal period and living perinatal women. RESULTS: The perinatal suicide rate was 2.58 per 100 000 live births, with suicide accounting for 51 (5.3%) of 966 perinatal deaths. Most suicides occurred during the final quarter of the first postpartum year, with highest rates in rural and remote regions. Perinatal women were more likely to die from hanging (33.3% [17/51]) or jumping or falling (19.6% [10/51]) than women who died by suicide non-perinatally (p = 0.04). Only 39.2% (20/51) had mental health contact within the 30 days before death, similar to the rate among those who died by suicide non-perinatally (47.7% [762/1597]; odds ratio [OR] 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40–1.25). Compared with living perinatal women matched by pregnancy or postpartum status at date of suicide, perinatal women who died by suicide had similar likelihood of non–mental health primary care and obstetric care before the index date but had a lower likelihood of pediatric contact (64.5% [20/31] v. 88.4% [137/155] at 30 days; OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.10–0.58). INTERPRETATION: The perinatal suicide rate for Ontario during the period 1994–2008 was comparable to international estimates and represents a substantial component of Canadian perinatal mortality. Given that deaths by suicide occur throughout the perinatal period, all health care providers must be collectively vigilant in assessing risk. PMID

  18. Long-term health-related and economic consequences of short-term outcomes in evaluation of perinatal interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teune, Margreet J.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Opmeer, Brent C.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: : Many perinatal interventions are performed to improve long-term neonatal outcome. To evaluate the long-term effect of a perinatal intervention follow-up of the child after discharge from the hospital is necessary because serious sequelae from perinatal complications

  19. [Tertiary obstetric care: the aims of the planning decree on perinatal care of 2001 have not yet been achieved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eyck, J. van; Bloemenkamp, K.W.; Bolte, A.C.; Duvekot, J.J.; Heringa, M.P.; Lotgering, F.K.; Oei, S.G.; Offermans, J.P.L.G.; Schaap, A.H.; Sollie-Szarynska, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the actual situation in tertiary perinatal care in the Netherlands with the objectives laid down in the 2001 decree on perinatal care by the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport. DESIGN: Descriptive, retrospective. METHOD: Data on tertiary perinatal care, the transfer or

  20. Optimising the International Classification of Diseases to identify the maternal condition in the case of perinatal death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allanson, E. R.; Tuncalp, Oe.; Gardosi, J.; Pattinson, R. C.; Francis, A.; Vogel, J. P.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; Flenady, V. J.; Froen, J. F.; Neilson, J.; Quach, A.; Chou, D.; Mathai, M.; Say, L.; Guelmezoglu, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The WHO application of the tenth edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) to deaths during the perinatal period (ICD Perinatal Mortality, ICD-PM) captures the essential characteristics of the mother-baby dyad that contribute to perinatal deaths. We compare the

  1. [Regionalised perinatal care in cases of cervical incompetence and imminent premature birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S; Misselwitz, B

    2011-08-01

    Premature birth due to cervical incompetence is a major obstacle of perinatal medicine. While measures of prevention have been investigated, the mother should be transferred to a perinatal centre when delivery prematurity, IUGR,and maternal disease was performed to evaluate the relation of prolongation of gestation to the level of care. Admissions with imminent premature birth due to cervical incompetence were identified in 6 892 cases. Overall prolongation until birth was 9.6 days. When the cervical incompetence was premature newborns the organisation of perinatal care should aim at intrauterine transfer to a specialised perinatal unit.A precondition is a health system with an adequate structure of perinatal centres within 30 k min the case of obstetrical emergencies

  2. A prospective study of twinning and perinatal mortality in urban Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Lund, Najaaraq; Jepsen, Frida Staarup

    2012-01-01

    non-significant. Sixty-five percent (245/375) of the mothers who delivered at the hospital were unaware of their twin pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Twins had a very high perinatal mortality, three-fold higher than singletons. A birth weight perinatal death......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Despite twinning being common in Africa, few prospective twin studies have been conducted. We studied twinning rate, perinatal mortality and the clinical characteristics of newborn twins in urban Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: The study was conducted at the Bandim Health Project (BHP...... twinning rate of 18/1000. The monozygotic rate was 3.4/1000. Perinatal mortality among twins vs. singletons was 218/1000 vs. 80/1000 (RR = 2.71, 95% CI: 1.93-3.80). Among the 13783 hospital births 388 were twin births (28/1000). The hospital perinatal twin mortality was 237/1000.Birth weight

  3. The relationship between the nursing environment and delivering culturally sensitive perinatal hospice care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixer, Sandra J; Lindley, Lisa; Wallace, Heather; Fornehed, Mary Lou; Wool, Charlotte

    2015-09-01

    Wide variations exist among perinatal hospices, and barriers to perinatal palliative care exist at the healthcare level. Research in the area of culturally sensitive perinatal palliative care has been scarce, a gap which this study addresses. To evaluate the relationship between the nurse work environment and the delivery of culturally sensitive perinatal hospice care. This retrospective, correlational study used data from the National Home and Hospice Care Survey, which includes a nationally representative sample of hospice care providers. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the relationship between the delivery of culturally sensitive care and the nurse work environment. Accreditation, teaching status, and baccalaureate-prepared registered nurse staff had an impact on the provision of culturally sensitive perinatal care Conclusions: The hospice and nursing unit environments, specifically in regards to education and technology, may be important contributors to the delivery of culturally sensitive care.

  4. Term perinatal mortality audit in the Netherlands 2010–2012: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, Martine; Waelput, Adja J M; Erwich, Jan Jaap H M; Brouwers, Hens A A; Ravelli, Anita C J; Achterberg, Peter W; Merkus, Hans (J) M W M; Bruinse, Hein W

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the implementation and first results of a term perinatal internal audit by a standardised method. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting All 90 Dutch hospitals with obstetric/paediatric departments linked to community practices of midwives, general practitioners in their attachment areas, organised in perinatal cooperation groups (PCG). Population The population consisted of 943 registered term perinatal deaths occurring in 2010–2012 with detailed information, including 707 cases with completed audit results. Main outcome measures Participation in the audit, perinatal death classification, identification of substandard factors (SSF), SSF in relation to death, conclusive recommendations for quality improvement in perinatal care and antepartum risk selection at the start of labour. Results After the introduction of the perinatal audit in 2010, all PCGs participated. They organised 645 audit sessions, with an average of 31 healthcare professionals per session. Of all 1102 term perinatal deaths (2.3/1000) data were registered for 86% (943) and standardised anonymised audit results for 64% (707). In 53% of the cases at least one SSF was identified. Non-compliance to guidelines (35%) and deviation from usual professional care (41%) were the most frequent SSF. There was a (very) probable relation between the SSF and perinatal death for 8% of all cases. This declined over the years: from 10% (n=23) in 2010 to 5% (n=10) in 2012 (p=0.060). Simultaneously term perinatal mortality decreased from 2.3 to 2.0/1000 births (pperinatal audit is implemented nationwide in all obstetrical units in the Netherlands in a short time period. It is possible that the audit contributed to the decrease in term perinatal mortality. PMID:25763794

  5. Term perinatal mortality audit in the Netherlands 2010-2012: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, Martine; Waelput, Adja J M; Erwich, Jan Jaap H M; Brouwers, Hens A A; Ravelli, Anita C J; Achterberg, Peter W; Merkus, Hans J M W M; Bruinse, Hein W

    2014-10-14

    To assess the implementation and first results of a term perinatal internal audit by a standardised method. Population-based cohort study. All 90 Dutch hospitals with obstetric/paediatric departments linked to community practices of midwives, general practitioners in their attachment areas, organised in perinatal cooperation groups (PCG). The population consisted of 943 registered term perinatal deaths occurring in 2010-2012 with detailed information, including 707 cases with completed audit results. Participation in the audit, perinatal death classification, identification of substandard factors (SSF), SSF in relation to death, conclusive recommendations for quality improvement in perinatal care and antepartum risk selection at the start of labour. After the introduction of the perinatal audit in 2010, all PCGs participated. They organised 645 audit sessions, with an average of 31 healthcare professionals per session. Of all 1102 term perinatal deaths (2.3/1000) data were registered for 86% (943) and standardised anonymised audit results for 64% (707). In 53% of the cases at least one SSF was identified. Non-compliance to guidelines (35%) and deviation from usual professional care (41%) were the most frequent SSF. There was a (very) probable relation between the SSF and perinatal death for 8% of all cases. This declined over the years: from 10% (n=23) in 2010 to 5% (n=10) in 2012 (p=0.060). Simultaneously term perinatal mortality decreased from 2.3 to 2.0/1000 births (pperinatal audit is implemented nationwide in all obstetrical units in the Netherlands in a short time period. It is possible that the audit contributed to the decrease in term perinatal mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Bone health in children and adolescents with perinatal HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George K Siberry

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The long-term impact on bone health of lifelong HIV infection and prolonged ART in growing and developing children is not yet known. Measures of bone health in youth must be interpreted in the context of expected developmental and physiologic changes in bone mass, size, density and strength that occur from fetal through adult life. Low bone mineral density (BMD appears to be common in perinatally HIV-infected youth, especially outside of high-income settings, but data are limited and interpretation complicated by the need for better pediatric norms. The potential negative effects of tenofovir on BMD and bone mass accrual are of particular concern as this drug may be used more widely in younger children. Emphasizing good nutrition, calcium and vitamin D sufficiency, weight-bearing exercise and avoidance of alcohol and smoking are effective and available approaches to maintain and improve bone health in all settings. More data are needed to inform therapies and monitoring for HIV-infected youth with proven bone fragility. While very limited data suggest lack of marked increase in fracture risk for youth with perinatal HIV infection, the looming concern for these children is that they may fail to attain their expected peak bone mass in early adulthood which could increase their risk for fractures and osteoporosis later in adulthood.

  7. Neurochemical Alterations in Sudden Unexplained Perinatal Deaths—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazeer Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden unexpected perinatal collapse is a major trauma for the parents of victims. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS is unexpected and mysterious death of an apparently healthy neonate from birth till 1 year of age without any known causes, even after thorough postmortem investigations. However, the incidence of sudden intrauterine unexplained death syndrome (SIUDS is seven times higher as compared with SIDS. This observation is approximated 40–80%. Stillbirth is defined as death of a fetus after 20th week of gestation or just before delivery at full term without a known reason. Pakistan has the highest burden of stillbirth in the world. This basis of SIDS, SIUDS, and stillbirths eludes specialists. The purpose of this study is to investigate factors behind failure in control of these unexplained deaths and how research may go ahead with improved prospects. Animal models and physiological data demonstrate that sleep, arousal, and cardiorespiratory malfunctioning are abnormal mechanisms in SIUDS risk factors or in newborn children who subsequently die from SIDS. This review focuses on insights in neuropathology and mechanisms of SIDS and SIUDS in terms of different receptors involved in this major perinatal demise. Several studies conducted in the past decade have confirmed neuropathological and neurochemical anomalies related to serotonin transporter, substance P, acetylcholine α7 nicotine receptors, etc., in sudden unexplained fetal and infant deaths. There is need to focus more on research in this area to unveil the major curtain to neuroprotection by underlying mechanisms leading to such deaths.

  8. Perinatal outcome of prenatally diagnosed congenital talipes equinovarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rowena; Stone, Stephanie; Alzouebi, Aisha; Hamoda, Haitham; Kumar, Sailesh

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perinatal outcome of prenatally diagnosed congenital talipes equinovarus. This was a retrospective observational study of all cases of prenatally diagnosed congenital talipes equinovarus referred to a major tertiary fetal medicine unit. Cases were identified from the fetal medicine and obstetric databases and pregnancy details and delivery outcome data obtained. Details of termination of pregnancy, number of patients undergoing karyotyping as well as details of prenatal classification of severity were recorded. A total of 174 cases were identified. Of these, outcome data was available for 88.5% (154/174) of the pregnancies. Eighty three (47.7%) of cases were isolated and 91 cases (52.3%) were associated with additional abnormalities. There was a significant difference in birth weights between the two cohorts. Bilateral abnormality tended to be more severe. A high caesarean section rate was noted overall and a high preterm delivery rate seen in the isolated group. This study is important because it provides contemporary data that can be used to counsel women prenatally. In particular, the raised risk of preterm delivery and caesarean section as well as the increased severity of the condition when both feet are affected should be discussed. The poor perinatal outcome when additional anomalies are present and the increased risk of aneuploidy are also important factors. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Children and young people with perinatal HIV in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Jesper; Kirk, Ole; Lundgren, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Accurate ascertainment of the number of children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is important to plan paediatric and adolescent health services. In Europe, the first generation of perinatally HIV-infected survivors are transferring to adult care and their health needs are unknown. We...... undertook an online survey of HIV cohort studies participating in the EuroCoord Network of Excellence to ascertain the number of perinatally HIV-infected (pHIV) patients included, to compare it with those published by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the World Health...... Organization (WHO) and to assess the ability of countries to follow up pHIV patients after transfer to adult care. At the end of 2013, 16 countries in EuroCoord reported 8,229 pHIV patients in follow-up in cohorts, compared with 5,160 cumulative diagnoses reported by the ECDC in the same area. Follow-up of pHIV...

  10. Gestational, perinatal and family findings of patients with Patau syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fabiano M. Rosa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe gestational, perinatal and family findings of patients with Patau syndrome (PS. METHODS: The study enrolled patients with PS consecutively evaluated during 38 years in a Clinical Genetics Service of a pediatric referral hospital in Southern Brazil. The clinical data and the results of cytogenetic analysis were collected from the medical records. For statistical analysis, the two-tailed Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test with Yates' correction were used, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: The sample was composed of 27 patients, 63% were male, with a median age of nine days at the first evaluation. Full trisomy of chromosome 13 was the main cytogenetic finding (74%. Only six patients were submitted to obstetric ultrasound and none had prenatal diagnosis of PS. The patients' demographic characteristics, compared to born alive infants in the same Brazilian state showed a higher frequency of: mothers with 35 years old or more (37.5%; multiparous mothers (92.6%; vaginal delivery (77%; preterm birth (34.6%; birth weight <2500g (33.3%, and Apgar scores <7 in the 1st (75% and in the 5th minute (42.9%. About half of them (53% died during the first month of life. CONCLUSIONS: The understanding of the PS patients' gestational, perinatal and family findings has important implications, especially on the decision about the actions to be taken in relation to the management of these patients.

  11. History of perinatal loss and maternal-fetal attachment behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, Pegah; Simbar, Masumeh; Shams, Jamal; Ramezani-Tehrani, Fahimeh; Nasiri, Navideh

    2013-09-01

    Maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) is an important requirement for optimal maternal-infant adaptation. Current studies showed conflicting findings about whether a history of perinatal loss (fetal/neonatal death) affects maternal attachment in pregnancy. "Does a history of perinatal loss affect maternal-fetal attachment behaviors?" One hundred women with and without a history of PL were recruited using a convenience method of sampling, from prenatal care services affiliated to Shahid Behesti University of Medical Sciences. Data collected by questionnaires from a convenience sample of multiparous women in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy with no surviving children were compared with data from a selected cohort of primigravid women. The two groups of women were matched for health and literacy. The data collected included demographic characteristics and responses to 24 questions in five groups of behaviors on the Persian version of Cranly's Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale. Data were analyzed by SPSS 13 and using t, ANOVA, Chi square, Pearson correlation and Mann-Whitney tests. Finding showed that total score of MFA for women with a history of PL (68.95±9.20%) is not significantly different from this score for women without such a history (71.22±11.75%; pattachment behaviors related to "differentiation of self from fetus" in a subsequent pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Adrenal hemorrhage in perinatal period--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakanj, Zora; Tuckar, Neven

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of adrenal hemorrhage in perinatal period is 0.2-0.5%. Prenatal diagnosis is rare. In most cases, hemorrhage is found during extensive diagnostic workup in a life-threatened or seriously sick newborn. We present a case of a female neonate born at term with suspected cystic intraabdominal mass already in the 32nd week of gestation. After delivery abdominal sonography was done and found an inhomogeneous formation above the upper pole of the right kidney. On magnetic resonance imaging (MR) this formation was described as an expansive lesion in the lodge of the right adrenal gland, measuring 3.8 x 2.8 x 3.5 cm, which corresponded to the bleeding from the adrenal gland. Extensive differential diagnostic evaluation excluded other diseases, especially malignant. From the birth during the perinatal period the child had no clinical manifestation. Regular ultrasound monitoring showed the resolution of the described formation, until its complete disappearance at the age of two months.

  13. The Impact of Teenage Pregnancy on Maternal and Perinatal Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitra Ramachandra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To study the impact of teenage pregnancy on maternal and perinatal outcome. This is a randomized prospective clinical study carried out in the Obstetrics and Gynaecology department, BGS Global Medical College, over a period of one year from January 2015 to December 2015. In study group (Group A included a total of 200 primigravid teenage mothers(age <20 years and the control group included 200 primigavid adult mothers (20- 30years of age . The maternal status, labour progress, delivery characteristics and neonatal outcomes were reviewed and analysed. Proportion of mothers in the study group who delivered vaginally was 61.5% compared to 80.5% in the control group. Instrumental delivery rate, emergency LSCS and elective LSCS rates were higher in the study group (teenage pregnancy compared to the control group. (9.5% Vs 5%, 17% Vs 9.5%, 12% Vs 5% respectively. Anaemia, Premature Rupture of Membranes, Oligohydraminos, Post partum Haemorrhage was found to be higher among teenage mothers when compared to adult mothers. PIH, polyhydraminos were found to be higher in control group than in the study group. In regard to adverse perinatal outcomes, higher risks of intra uterine growth restriction, preterm births, stillbirths, low APGAR scores, NICU admission were higher were higher in the study group compared to the control group. In this study, we found that women with teenage pregnancies were at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes in regard to maternal, foetal and neonatal complications as compared with adult control mothers.

  14. Midwives' perceptions and experiences of engaging fathers in perinatal services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominov, Holly; Giallo, Rebecca; Pilkington, Pamela D; Whelan, Thomas A

    2017-08-01

    The active engagement of fathers in maternity care is associated with long-term benefits for the father, their partner, and their child. Midwives are ideally placed to engage fathers, but few studies have explored midwives' experiences of working with men. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe midwives' perceptions and experiences of engaging fathers in perinatal services. A multi-method approach was utilised. Registered midwives (N=106) providing perinatal services to families in Australia participated in an online survey. Of these, 13 also participated in semi-structured telephone interviews. Descriptive analyses summarised the online survey data. The interview data were coded using semantic thematic analysis. Survey results indicated that midwives unanimously agreed that engaging fathers is part of their role and acknowledged the importance of receiving education to develop knowledge and skills about fathers. Analysis of the telephone interviews led to the identification of a range of strategies, facilitators and barriers to engaging fathers in midwifery services. Some of these were related to characteristics of midwives, factors related specifically to fathers, and several external factors relating to organisational policies. Findings from this study could inform maternity health care policies, as well the development of resources, education and ongoing professional training for midwives to promote father-inclusive practice. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Features of Some Hormonal Parameters in Patients with Perinatal Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aussi Marvan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of mixed urogenital infections during pregnancy leads to violations in mother’s body: changes of homeostasis, depression of the immune response, induction of the autoimmune processes resulting in reduced resistance to infectious agents and enhancement of pathological effects on the fetus, which greatly increases the risk of adjustment disorders in a newborn. The objective of this study was to investigate some indicators of homeostasis in patients with a history of perinatal losses.184 pregnant women with perinatal losses at the age of 19–34 years were under observation. Study group consisted of 110 pregnant women examined and treated according to the developed scheme, comparison group — of 74 pregnant women examined and treated according to a standard scheme. Control group made up 30 apparently healthy pregnant women. The study of hormonal status was carried out by determining estriol, progesterone, cortisol, placental lactogen using radioimmunoassay method by means of commercial kits ESA-IRE-Soring (France as per proposed instructions. The results of the study allowed us to make the conclusion that at the initial forms of fetoplacental insufficiency, values of the enzymes activity may be prognostic markers of its violation. Adverse background due to infection affects the adequate production of hormones and enzymes.

  16. Gestational, perinatal and family findings of patients with Patau syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M; Sarmento, Melina Vaz; Polli, Janaina Borges; Groff, Daniela de Paoli; Petry, Patrícia; Mattos, Vinícius Freitas de; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M; Trevisan, Patrícia; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G

    2013-12-01

    To describe gestational, perinatal and family findings of patients with Patau syndrome (PS). The study enrolled patients with PS consecutively evaluated during 38 years in a Clinical Genetics Service of a pediatric referral hospital in Southern Brazil. The clinical data and the results of cytogenetic analysis were collected from the medical records. For statistical analysis, the two-tailed Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test with Yates' correction were used, being significant p<0.05. The sample was composed of 27 patients, 63% were male, with a median age of nine days at the first evaluation. Full trisomy of chromosome 13 was the main cytogenetic finding (74%). Only six patients were submitted to obstetric ultrasound and none had prenatal diagnosis of PS. The patients' demographic characteristics, compared to born alive infants in the same Brazilian state showed a higher frequency of: mothers with 35 years old or more (37.5%); multiparous mothers (92.6%); vaginal delivery (77%); preterm birth (34.6%); birth weight <2500g (33.3%), and Apgar scores <7 in the 1st (75%) and in the 5th minute (42.9%). About half of them (53%) died during the first month of life. The understanding of the PS patients' gestational, perinatal and family findings has important implications, especially on the decision about the actions to be taken in relation to the management of these patients.

  17. PERINATAL TUBERCULOSIS WITH MILLIARY PATTERN IN INFANT AGED 28 DAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Savitri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal  tuberculosis  (TB was a very  rare  case.  Its  clinical manifestations  could mimic bacterialinfection. The clinical course was often fulminant and characterized by dissemination and meningitis.Its mortality was very high, could achieve 100% in untreated patient. We reported a case of infant aged28  days  admitted with  breathlessness,  fever,  and  poor  feeding.  Physical  examination  showedbreathlessness, pale, lethargy, and hepatomegaly. Chest radiograph showed a feature of milliary patternwith fine tubercles in both lung, supported with positive result on gastric aspirates for acid fast bacilli3 days respectively. Gastric aspirate culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis showed positive result.Patient then diagnosed with perinatal TB with milliary pattern. This condition was accompanied withsevere sepsis and meningitis. Four TB regimens (isoniazid, rifampisin, pirazinamide, and ethambutol,corticosteroid, antibiotics were given. The patient was eventually died after receiving TB therapy for 13days. [MEDICINA 2014;45:208-212].

  18. Methadone and perinatal outcomes: a retrospective cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cleary, Brian J

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among methadone maintenance treatment, perinatal outcomes, and neonatal abstinence syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of 61,030 singleton births at a large maternity hospital from 2000-2007. RESULTS: There were 618 (1%) women on methadone at delivery. Methadone-exposed women were more likely to be younger, to book late for antenatal care, and to be smokers. Methadone exposure was associated with an increased risk of very preterm birth <32 weeks of gestation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40-4.34), being small for gestational age <10th percentile (aOR, 3.27; 95% CI, 2.49-4.28), admission to the neonatal unit (aOR, 9.14; 95% CI, 7.21-11.57), and diagnosis of a major congenital anomaly (aOR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.10-3.43). There was a dose-response relationship between methadone and neonatal abstinence syndrome. CONCLUSION: Methadone exposure is associated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, even when known adverse sociodemographic factors have been accounted for. Methadone dose at delivery is 1 of the determinants of neonatal abstinence syndrome.

  19. Perinatal Lamb Model of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Ackermann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most frequent cause of bronchiolitis in infants and children worldwide. Many animal models are used to study RSV, but most studies investigate disease in adult animals which does not address the unique physiology and immunology that makes infants more susceptible. The perinatal (preterm and term lamb is a useful model of infant RSV disease as lambs have similar pulmonary structure including airway branching, Clara and type II cells, submucosal glands and Duox/lactoperoxidase (LPO oxidative system, and prenatal alveologenesis. Lambs can be born preterm (90% gestation and survive for experimentation although both preterm and term lambs are susceptible to ovine, bovine and human strains of RSV and develop clinical symptoms including fever, tachypnea, and malaise as well as mild to moderate gross and histologic lesions including bronchiolitis with epithelial injury, neutrophil infiltration and syncytial cell formation. RSV disease in preterm lambs is more severe than in term lambs; disease is progressively less in adults and age-dependent susceptibility is a feature similar to humans. Innate and adaptive immune responses by perinatal lambs closely parallel those of infants. The model is used to test therapeutic regimens, risk factors such as maternal ethanol consumption, and formalin inactivated RSV vaccines.

  20. Recent advances of genomic testing in perinatal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, David G; Yatsenko, Svetlana A; Surti, Urvashi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2015-02-01

    Rapid progress in genomic medicine in recent years has made it possible to diagnose subtle genetic abnormalities in a clinical setting on routine basis. This has allowed for detailed genotype-phenotype correlations and the identification of the genetic basis of many congenital anomalies. In addition to the availability of chromosomal microarray analysis, exome and whole-genome sequencing on pre- and postnatal samples of cell-free DNA has revolutionized the field of prenatal diagnosis. Incorporation of these technologies in perinatal pathology is bound to play a major role in coming years. In this communication, we briefly present the current experience with use of classical chromosome analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and microarray testing, development of whole-genome analysis by next-generation sequencing technology, offer a detailed review of the history and current status of non-invasive prenatal testing using cell-free DNA, and discuss the advents of these new genomic technologies in perinatal medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Perinatal grief and support spans the generations: parents' and grandparents' evaluations of an intergenerational perinatal bereavement program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roose, Rosmarie E; Blanford, Cathy R

    2011-01-01

    As perinatal loss, miscarriage, still birth, or neonatal death may result in signs and symptoms of grief in the entire family, perinatal bereavement programs (PBPs) should consider offering intergenerational services. The purpose of this program evaluation was to identify and evaluate siblings' and grandparents' utilization of a hospital-based PBP's intergenerational support services and education offerings with regard to the entire family's coping with the loss. Written program evaluation surveys of parents and grandparents, with an opportunity for free response, along with parent phone follow-up, were utilized to evaluate whether a variety of inpatient/outpatient services for parents, siblings, and grandparents were useful to the entire family. Parents indicated that when siblings and grandparents were included in the PBP's services and education offerings, utilization of the services was useful to the entire family. Furthermore, grandparents also found the utilization of the PBP's intergenerational services to be useful in their own and their child's coping with the loss. This program evaluation affirms the usefulness of the offering of intergenerational inpatient and outpatient services by PBPs for entire families.

  2. Longitudinal Evaluation of Language Impairment in Youth With Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Youth With Perinatal HIV Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Sean M.; Yao, Tzy-Jyun; Russell, Jonathan S.; Rice, Mabel L.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Siberry, George K.; Frederick, Toni; Purswani, Murli; Williams, Paige L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Language impairment (LI) risk is increased for perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus-infected (PHIV) and perinatally exposed to HIV but uninfected (PHEU) youth. This study evaluates the persistence of LI in these groups. Methods The Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals was repeated on participants of the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study Adolescent Master Protocol 18 months postbaseline. Regression models identified factors associated with change in standardized score (SC) and the resolution or development of LI. Results Of 319 participants, 112 had LI at baseline. Upon re-evaluation, SCs were highly stable and changes were similar in PHIV (n = 212) and PHEU (n = 107) participants. Those with family history of language delays had a 2.39 point lower mean increase in SCs than those without, after controlling for demographic and socioeconomic factors and baseline LI status. Among PHIV participants, CD4 count language delays was a risk factor for persistence of problems. Measures of successful HIV treatment predicted more favorable outcomes among PHIV youth. PMID:27856674

  3. [Assessment of three-level selective perinatal care based on the analysis of early perinatal death rates and cesarean sections in Poland in 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troszyński, Michał; Niemiec, Tomasz; Wilczyńska, Anna

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the following work was to assess three-level selective perinatal care in Polish voivodeships in 2008 on the basis of the following parameters: birth rates as well as perinatal death rates, divided into three classes of neonatal weights, in hospitals on each of the three levels. The goal of selective perinatal care is, among other things, to diagnose threats to the mother and/or fetus and direct women with high-risk pregnancies to higher level obstetrics and neonatology clinics and units. The structure of a regional three-level perinatal care, as well as the rules and procedures governing the process of redirecting patients to different levels of perinatal care have been defined in great detail. Perinatal death rates analysis has been carried out on the basis of data received from Voivodeship Public Health Centers in sixteen voivodeships in Poland in 2008. The main document constituted MZ-29 form section X, modified by the authors and subdivided into levels of perinatal care. All data contained in the form have been verified: the numbers concerning birth and death rates as well as perinatal deaths and birth weight subgroups from given voivodeship hospitals. Statistic analysis was limited to the presentation of result tables and graphs within voivodeships. Birth rates and perinatal death rates revealed that in the course of ten years the level of perinatal care, introduced gradually in Poland between the years 1997-1999, resulted in its improvement. Perinatal death rates decreased in the course of ten years from 9.5% in 1999 to 6.45% in 2008, i.e. by 0.3% annually. On the first level, the rate of neonates with very low birth weight, 500-999g, decreased by 5.5% and was 21.1% in 2008 and 36.6% in 1999, whereas on the third level, the birth rate in the same group (500-999g) increased by 12.7% and was 47.7% in 2008 and 35.5% in 1999. There is a growing and alarming tendency to perform cesarean sections. The increase amounted up to 1.2% annually (18.2% in 19999

  4. A systematic review of psychological treatments for clinical anxiety during the perinatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughnan, Siobhan A; Wallace, Matthew; Joubert, Amy E; Haskelberg, Hila; Andrews, Gavin; Newby, Jill M

    2018-01-24

    Maternal anxiety is common during the perinatal period, and despite the negative outcomes of anxiety on the mother and infant, its treatment has received limited attention. This paper describes the first review of psychological interventions for clinical anxiety during the perinatal period. A systematic search was carried out of six electronic databases. Five studies which evaluated psychological interventions for clinical anxiety in perinatal women were identified. Of the five studies included, four were open trials and one was a randomised controlled trial. Three studies evaluated group-based interventions; one study evaluated an online-delivered intervention; and one study a combined pharmacologic-psychological intervention. All participants demonstrated significant reductions in anxiety symptom severity from pre- to post-treatment. However, this review was limited to published literature evaluating treatments for clinical anxiety in perinatal women, which may have excluded important intervention studies and prevention programs, and unpublished literature. This review identifies an area of research that needs urgent attention, as very few studies have evaluated psychological treatments for perinatal anxiety. The studies included in this review demonstrate that symptoms of anxiety during the perinatal period appear to improve during treatment. Future research is needed to establish the efficacy of perinatal anxiety interventions in randomised controlled trials, whether reductions persist long term and whether benefits extend to other outcomes for the mother, infant and family.

  5. Psychological and social consequences among mothers suffering from perinatal loss: perspective from a low income country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammed

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, perinatal death is known to cause major emotional and social effects on mothers. However, little is known about these effects in low income countries which bear the brunt of perinatal mortality burden. This paper reports the impact of perinatal death on psychological status and social consequences among mothers in a rural area of Bangladesh. Methods A total of 476 women including 122 women with perinatal deaths were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS-B at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum, and followed up for negative social consequences at 6 months postpartum. Trained female interviewers carried out structured interviews at women's home. Results Overall 43% (95% CI: 33.7-51.8% of women with a perinatal loss at 6 weeks postpartum were depressed compared to 17% (95% CI: 13.7-21.9% with healthy babies (p = Conclusions This study highlights the greatly increased vulnerability of women with perinatal death to experience negative psychological and social consequences. There is an urgent need to develop appropriate mental health care services for mothers with perinatal deaths in Bangladesh, including interventions to develop positive family support.

  6. Characteristics of a global classification system for perinatal deaths: a Delphi consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcieszek, Aleena M; Reinebrant, Hanna E; Leisher, Susannah Hopkins; Allanson, Emma; Coory, Michael; Erwich, Jan Jaap; Frøen, J Frederik; Gardosi, Jason; Gordijn, Sanne; Gulmezoglu, Metin; Heazell, Alexander E P; Korteweg, Fleurisca J; McClure, Elizabeth; Pattinson, Robert; Silver, Robert M; Smith, Gordon; Teoh, Zheyi; Tunçalp, Özge; Flenady, Vicki

    2016-08-15

    Despite the global burden of perinatal deaths, there is currently no single, globally-acceptable classification system for perinatal deaths. Instead, multiple, disparate systems are in use world-wide. This inconsistency hinders accurate estimates of causes of death and impedes effective prevention strategies. The World Health Organisation (WHO) is developing a globally-acceptable classification approach for perinatal deaths. To inform this work, we sought to establish a consensus on the important characteristics of such a system. A group of international experts in the classification of perinatal deaths were identified and invited to join an expert panel to develop a list of important characteristics of a quality global classification system for perinatal death. A Delphi consensus methodology was used to reach agreement. Three rounds of consultation were undertaken using a purpose built on-line survey. Round one sought suggested characteristics for subsequent scoring and selection in rounds two and three. The panel of experts agreed on a total of 17 important characteristics for a globally-acceptable perinatal death classification system. Of these, 10 relate to the structural design of the system and 7 relate to the functional aspects and use of the system. This study serves as formative work towards the development of a globally-acceptable approach for the classification of the causes of perinatal deaths. The list of functional and structural characteristics identified should be taken into consideration when designing and developing such a system.

  7. The changing pattern of perinatal mortality and causes of death in central Anatolian region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecevit, Ayse; Oguz, Suna Serife; Tarcan, Aylin; Yazici, Canan; Dilmen, Ugur

    2012-09-01

    In this study, the perinatal mortality is presented in 2009 compared to 1998. Changing patterns of the perinatal mortality rate (PNMR), the stillbirth rate (SBR), early neonatal mortality rate (ENMR) and the causes of the perinatal mortality in Zekai Tahir Burak Women's Health Education and Research Hospital (ZTBH) were described. This is the largest maternity hospital of Ankara in the central Anatolian region of Turkey. The total deliveries were 22,777 and 18,567 in 1998 and 2009, respectively. PNMR was 27.7 per 1000, and SBR was 23.7 per 1000 total births. ENMR was 4 per 1000 in 1998. PNMR is 20.7 per 1000, and SBR was 16.3 per 1000 and ENMR was 4.6 per 1000 total births in 2009. It is important to know the causes of mortality. In this study, the causes of perinatal deaths were classified according to the Wigglesworth classification. Antepartum stillbirth (62.3%) was the most frequent cause in 1998. Perinatal asphyxia is the majority (46.6%) of the perinatal deaths in 2009. This study shows that even prenatal care is getting better, obstetric care as well as close follow-up throughout the intrapartum period and diminishing the preterm delivery rate is also important for preventing and reducing perinatal mortality.

  8. Prospective study of perinatal outcome in pregnancies with primary antiphospholipid syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćetković Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Pregnancies complicated with antiphospholipd syndrome are associated with the increased perinatal mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to assess perinatal outcome in pregnancies with primary antiphospholipd syndrome. Methods. This prospective study evaluated perinatal outcome in 25 pregnant women with antiphospholipid syndrome. After establishing vital pregnancy all the patients were treated with low-molecularweight heparin and aspirin. The perinatal outcome was measured by rates of miscarriages, preterm deliveries, live births and neonatal complications. Results. Of the 25 pregnancies, 20 (80% resulted in live birth, 3 (12% in spontaneous abortion and 2 (8% were stillbirths. The mean gestational age at delivery was 37.2 ± 1.0 weeks, mean neonatal birth weight was 2,930.4 ± 428.0 g. Prematurity occurs in 4 (20% live births, and there were 4 (20% intrauterine growth restriction with mean birth weight 2,060 ± 210.6 g. Neonatal complications were present in 6 (30% newborns. Adverse perinatal outcome was significantly associated with anticardiolipin IgG antibodies (p < 0.01 and development of hypertension during pregnancy (p < 0.01. Conclusion. Despite a high incidence of adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnancies with primary antiphospholipid syndrome, early treatment with aspirin and low-molecular-weight heparin, combined with meticulous fetomaternal monitoring could be associated with a relatively high probability of favorable perinatal outcome.

  9. Integrated Approach to Reduce Perinatal Adverse Events: Standardized Processes, Interdisciplinary Teamwork Training, and Performance Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, William; Begun, James W; Meredith, Les; Miller, Kristi K; Connolly, Kathy; Price, Rebecca; Muri, Janet H; McCullough, Mac; Davis, Stanley

    2016-12-01

    To improve safety practices and reduce adverse events in perinatal units of acute care hospitals. Primary data collected from perinatal units of 14 hospitals participating in the intervention between 2008 and 2012. Baseline secondary data collected from the same hospitals between 2006 and 2007. A prospective study involving 342,754 deliveries was conducted using a quality improvement collaborative that supported three primary interventions. Primary measures include adoption of three standardized care processes and four measures of outcomes. Chart audits were conducted to measure the implementation of standardized care processes. Outcome measures were collected and validated by the National Perinatal Information Center. The hospital perinatal units increased use of all three care processes, raising consolidated overall use from 38 to 81 percent between 2008 and 2012. The harms measured by the Adverse Outcome Index decreased 14 percent, and a run chart analysis revealed two special causes associated with the interventions. This study demonstrates the ability of hospital perinatal staff to implement efforts to reduce perinatal harm using a quality improvement collaborative. Findings help inform the relationship between the use of standardized care processes, teamwork training, and improved perinatal outcomes, and suggest that a multiplicity of integrated strategies, rather than a single intervention, may be essential to achieve high reliability. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  10. Acceptance and commitment therapy for perinatal mood and anxiety disorders: development of an inpatient group intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacquisti, Alexa; Cohen, Matthew J; Schiller, Crystal Edler

    2017-06-10

    Perinatal mood and anxiety disorders are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for childbearing women. Current treatments, such as cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy, have demonstrated modest success in addressing perinatal psychiatric symptoms; however, additional treatment options are needed to address the limitations of current approaches, particularly for women experiencing moderate to severe perinatal mental illness during pregnancy or postpartum. We discuss the use of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) as a promising treatment approach that may be uniquely suited for perinatal women due to its emphasis of values, mindfulness, and acceptance; these psychological constructs notably address the significant psychiatric and behavioral health condition comorbidity, somatic symptoms, and stigma associated with perinatal mood and anxiety disorders. In addition, we describe the development of a four-session ACT-based group intervention at the Perinatal Psychiatry Inpatient Unit at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Sessions focus on core ACT processes of acceptance, cognitive defusion, present-moment awareness, value identification, and goal setting, and we describe how each of these processes is relevant to the perinatal population. Implications for future clinical applications and research investigations are discussed.

  11. [Proteinuria in hypertensive syndrome of pregnancy: maternal and perinatal outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Tarcísio Mota; Martins, Marília Glória; Viana, Eder; Mesquita, Maria Rita Sousa; Camano, Luiz; Sass, Nelson

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the role of proteinuria on pregnancy outcome in hypertensive syndrome with singleon pregnancies. Transversal study with retrospective data of 334 pregnancies complicated by hypertensive syndromes who were delivered in the Department of Obstetrics of UNIFESP/EPM from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2002. The patients were divided into four groups: (I) without proteinuria (n-203); (II) with proteinuria of 0.3 to 1.0g (n-39); (III) 1.0 to 2.0g (n-45); and (IV) 2.0g or more. Without proteinuria there was one case of placental abruption. The presence of proteinuria predicted adverse maternal outcome with increase of complications proportional to his elevation; among them, HELLP syndrome was the most frequent with 30.5% (40/131) followed by eclampsia with 3.8% (5/131), DPP 3.1% (4/131) and renal insufficiency with 0.7% (1/131). It was confirmed one maternal death in that group, when Maternal Mortality of 763/100.000nv was added up. As to the perinatal effects there was not increase of adverse effects without proteinuria. In the presence of proteinuria and its levels was observed the worst perinatal outcome with the elevation of the following indicatives: increase prematurely (62.2% vs 11.5%), newborn with weight < 2500g (6.5% vs 1.5%), newborn with Apgar < 7 in the 5th minute (30.4% vs 3.5%), concepts with growing restriction of intrauterine (41.9% vs 6.5%), newborn interned in the neonatal undid, (59.8% vs 15.5%) stillborn (14.4% vs 1.4%), neonatal deaths (6.1% vs 0.98%). The Perinatal Mortality was greater with proteinúria (175 vs 19,7) and, when = 2.0g (297.8 vs 19.6). The presence of proteinuria in the hipertensives syndromes during gestation and the elevation of their levels increase the risks of maternal complications, especially HELLP syndromes and eclampsia. Besides, it was observed a significative incidence of premature birth, newborn with Apgar < 7, weight < 2500g, IUGR, stillborn and neonatal deaths.

  12. Género, salud materna y la paradoja perinatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Grilo DINIZ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos 20 años mejoraron prácticamente todos los indicadores de salud materna en el Brasil, así como hubo un amplio acceso a los servicios de salud. Gender, maternal health and the perinatal paradox1 Gênero, saúde materna e o paradoxo perinatal Género, salud materna y la paradoja perinatal REFLEXÕES SOBRE HUMANIZAÇÃO E A REALIDADE DOS SERVIÇOS REFLECTIONS ON HUMANIZATION AND THE REALITY OF HEALTH SERVICES REFLEXIONES SOBRE LA HUMANIZACIÓN Y LA REALIDAD DE LOS SERVICIOS 50 // Rev Tempus Actas Saúde Col Paradoxalmente, no existe ninguna evidencia de mejora de la mortalidad materna. El objetivo de este texto es ofrecer elementos para comprender esta paradoja, a través de la evaluación de los modelos típicos de asistencia al parto, en el Sistema Único de Salud (SUS y en el sector privado. Analizaremos las propuestas de cambio para una asistencia basada en evidencias sobre la seguridad de estos modelos, su relación con los derechos de las mujeres, y con los conflictos de interés y resistencias al cambio de los modelos. Examinamos los presupuestos de género que modulan la asistencia y los sesgos de género en la investigación en este campo, que se expresan en la sobrevalorización de los beneficios de la tecnología, y en la subvalorización o en la negación de los desconfortos y efectos adversos de las intervenciones. Creencias de la cultura sexual no raramente son consideradas como explicaciones ‘científicas’ sobre el cuerpo, la parturición y la sexualidad, y se reflejan en la imposición de sufrimientos y riesgos innecesarios, en las intervenciones dañinas a la integridad genital, y en la negación del derecho a acompañantes. Este ‘pesimismo del parto’ es instrumento para favorecer, por comparación, el modelo de la cesárea de rutina. Por fin, discutimos como el uso de la categoría género puede contribuir para promover derechos y cambios institucionales, como en el caso de los acompañantes en el parto.

  13. Post-traumatic stress disorder in the perinatal period: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignato, Julie; Georges, Jane M; Bush, Ruth A; Connelly, Cynthia D

    2017-12-01

    To report an analysis of the concept of perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder. Prevalence of perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder is rising in the USA, with 9% of the U.S. perinatal population diagnosed with the disorder and an additional 18% being at risk for the condition. Left untreated, adverse maternal-child outcomes result in increased morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Concept analysis via Walker and Avant's approach. The databases Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Medline, Academic Search Premier and PsychINFO were searched for articles, written in English, published between 2006-2015, containing the terms perinatal and post-traumatic stress disorder. Perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder owns unique attributes, antecedents and outcomes when compared to post-traumatic stress disorder in other contexts, and may be defined as a disorder arising after a traumatic experience, diagnosed any time from conception to 6 months postpartum, lasting longer than 1 month, leading to specific negative maternal symptoms and poor maternal-infant outcomes. Attributes include a diagnostic time frame (conception to 6 months postpartum), harmful prior or current trauma and specific diagnostic symptomatology defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition. Antecedents were identified as trauma (perinatal complications and abuse), postpartum depression and previous psychiatric history. Consequences comprised adverse maternal-infant outcomes. Further research on perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder antecedents, attributes and outcomes in ethnically diverse populations may provide clinicians a more comprehensive framework for identifying and treating perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder. Nurses are encouraged to increase their awareness of perinatal post-traumatic stress disorder for early assessment and intervention, and prevention of adverse maternal-infant outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley

  14. Validation of local review for the identification of contributory factors and potentially avoidable perinatal deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Vicki L; Farquhar, Cynthia M; Sadler, Lynn C

    2016-06-01

    Reporting on perinatal mortality commenced 2006 in New Zealand through the Perinatal and Maternal Mortality Review Committee (PMMRC). Following review of international models, a process was developed for use in local review to identify contributory factors and potentially avoidable perinatal deaths. Local review of 720 perinatal deaths in 2009 found contributory factors in 24% of deaths and 14% to be potentially avoidable. To validate the process of local review for identification of contributory factors and potentially avoidable perinatal deaths. Records of 48 perinatal deaths were reviewed by an independent multidisciplinary panel using the same methodology as local review to determine agreement between local and independent review for identification of contributory factors and potentially avoidable perinatal death. Independent review found contributory factors in 54% of deaths compared to 40% by local review. Independent review identified eight deaths and local review identified one death with contributory factors not identified by the other review. Kappa statistic for agreement for identifying contributory factors was substantial [0.63 (0.42, 0.84)]. Independent review found 42% of deaths potentially avoidable compared to 23% by local review. Independent review identified 10 deaths and local review identified one death not identified by the other review. Kappa statistic for agreement for identifying potentially avoidable deaths was moderate [0.50 (0.26, 0.73)]. This study provides validation of local review for identification of contributory factors in perinatal death. The higher proportion of potentially avoidable perinatal deaths identified by independent review compared to local review requires further exploration. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. Recurrence of perinatal death in Northern Tanzania: a registry based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahande, Michael J; Daltveit, Anne K; Mmbaga, Blandina T; Obure, Joseph; Masenga, Gileard; Manongi, Rachel; Lie, Rolv T

    2013-08-29

    Perinatal mortality is known to be high in Sub-Saharan Africa. Some women may carry a particularly high risk which would be reflected in a high recurrence risk. We aim to estimate the recurrence risk of perinatal death using data from a hospital in Northern Tanzania. We constructed a cohort study using data from the hospital based KCMC Medical Birth Registry. Women who delivered a singleton for the first time at the hospital between 2000 and 2008 were followed in the registry for subsequent deliveries up to 2010 and 3,909 women were identified with at least one more delivery within the follow-up period. Recurrence risk of perinatal death was estimated in multivariate models analysis while adjusting for confounders and accounting for correlation between births from the same mother. The recurrence risk of perinatal death for women who had lost a previous baby was 9.1%. This amounted to a relative risk of 3.2 (95% CI: 2.2 - 4.7) compared to the much lower risk of 2.8% for women who had had a surviving baby. Recurrence contributed 21.2% (31/146) of perinatal deaths in subsequent pregnancies. Preeclampsia, placental abruption, placenta previa, induced labor, preterm delivery and low birth weight in a previous delivery with a surviving baby were also associated with increased perinatal mortality in the next pregnancy. Some women in Tanzanian who suffer a perinatal loss in one pregnancy are at a particularly high risk of also losing the baby of a subsequent pregnancy. Strategies of perinatal death prevention that target pregnant women who are particularly vulnerable or already have experienced a perinatal loss should be considered in future research.

  16. Partner relationship, social support and perinatal distress among pregnant Icelandic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, Sigridur Sia; Thome, Marga; Steingrimsdottir, Thora; Lydsdottir, Linda Bara; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Olafsdottir, Halldora; Swahnberg, Katarina

    2017-02-01

    It is inferred that perinatal distress has adverse effects on the prospective mother and the health of the foetus/infant. More knowledge is needed to identify which symptoms of perinatal distress should be assessed during pregnancy and to shed light on the impact of women's satisfaction with their partner relationship on perinatal distress. The current study aimed to generate knowledge about the association of the partner relationship and social support when women are dealing with perinatal distress expressed by symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. A structured interview was conducted with 562 Icelandic women who were screened three times during pregnancy with the Edinburgh Depression Scale and the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale. Of these, 360 had symptoms of distress and 202 belonged to a non-distress group. The women answered the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. The study had a multicentre prospective design allowing for exploration of association with perinatal distress. Women who were dissatisfied in their partner relationship were four times more likely to experience perinatal distress. Women with perinatal distress scored highest on the DASS Stress Subscale and the second highest scores were found on the Anxiety Subscale. Satisfaction in partner relationship is related to perinatal distress and needs to be assessed when health care professionals take care of distressed pregnant women, her partner and her family. Assessment of stress and anxiety should be included in the evaluation of perinatal distress, along with symptoms of depression. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Regional perinatal mortality differences in the Netherlands; care is the question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, Miranda; Eskes, Martine; Reitsma, Johannes B; Erwich, Jan Jaap HM; Brouwers, Hens AA; Rijninks-van Driel, Greta C; Bonsel, Gouke J; Ravelli, Anita CJ

    2009-01-01

    Background Perinatal mortality is an important indicator of health. European comparisons of perinatal mortality show an unfavourable position for the Netherlands. Our objective was to study regional variation in perinatal mortality within the Netherlands and to identify possible explanatory factors for the found differences. Methods Our study population comprised of all singleton births (904,003) derived from the Netherlands Perinatal Registry for the period 2000–2004. Perinatal mortality including stillbirth from 22+0 weeks gestation and early neonatal death (0–6 days) was our main outcome measure. Differences in perinatal mortality were calculated between 4 distinct geographical regions North-East-South-West. We tried to explain regional differences by adjustment for the demographic factors maternal age, parity and ethnicity and by socio-economic status and urbanisation degree using logistic modelling. In addition, regional differences in mode of delivery and risk selection were analysed as health care factors. Finally, perinatal mortality was analysed among five distinct clinical risk groups based on the mediating risk factors gestational age and congenital anomalies. Results Overall perinatal mortality was 10.1 per 1,000 total births over the period 2000–2004. Perinatal mortality was elevated in the northern region (11.2 per 1,000 total births). Perinatal mortality in the eastern, western and southern region was 10.2, 10.1 and 9.6 per 1,000 total births respectively. Adjustment for demographic factors increased the perinatal mortality risk in the northern region (odds ratio 1.20, 95% CI 1.12–1.28, compared to reference western region), subsequent adjustment for socio-economic status and urbanisation explained a small part of the elevated risk (odds ratio 1.11, 95% CI 1.03–1.20). Risk group analysis showed that regional differences were absent among very preterm births (22+0 – 25+6 weeks gestation) and most prominent among births from 32+0 gestation

  18. Regional perinatal mortality differences in the Netherlands; care is the question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijninks-van Driel Greta C

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal mortality is an important indicator of health. European comparisons of perinatal mortality show an unfavourable position for the Netherlands. Our objective was to study regional variation in perinatal mortality within the Netherlands and to identify possible explanatory factors for the found differences. Methods Our study population comprised of all singleton births (904,003 derived from the Netherlands Perinatal Registry for the period 2000–2004. Perinatal mortality including stillbirth from 22+0 weeks gestation and early neonatal death (0–6 days was our main outcome measure. Differences in perinatal mortality were calculated between 4 distinct geographical regions North-East-South-West. We tried to explain regional differences by adjustment for the demographic factors maternal age, parity and ethnicity and by socio-economic status and urbanisation degree using logistic modelling. In addition, regional differences in mode of delivery and risk selection were analysed as health care factors. Finally, perinatal mortality was analysed among five distinct clinical risk groups based on the mediating risk factors gestational age and congenital anomalies. Results Overall perinatal mortality was 10.1 per 1,000 total births over the period 2000–2004. Perinatal mortality was elevated in the northern region (11.2 per 1,000 total births. Perinatal mortality in the eastern, western and southern region was 10.2, 10.1 and 9.6 per 1,000 total births respectively. Adjustment for demographic factors increased the perinatal mortality risk in the northern region (odds ratio 1.20, 95% CI 1.12–1.28, compared to reference western region, subsequent adjustment for socio-economic status and urbanisation explained a small part of the elevated risk (odds ratio 1.11, 95% CI 1.03–1.20. Risk group analysis showed that regional differences were absent among very preterm births (22+0 – 25+6 weeks gestation and most prominent among

  19. Poor survival of offspring from female rats previously exposed to perinatal propylthiouracil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1984-08-01

    Pregnant rats were fed 0.02% propythiouracil (PTU) in their drinking water during the last 4 days of pregnancy and the first 16 days of lactation. The survival of pups from rats previously exposed to perinatal propylthiouracil was tabulated. Results indicate that 73% of the pups from peri-PTU dams were dead two days after birth. Perinatal hypothyroidism in rats has been associated with persistent abnormalities, even though the animals may appear normal. These experiments do not clarify whether perinatal hypothyroidism or a non-thyroid effect of PTU caused the peri-PTU rats to have subnormal survival of pups.

  20. QUALITY OF PERINATAL CARE IN SLOVENIA 2003–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Premru-Sršen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this analysis was to find whether the quality indicators of perinatal care in Slovenia change. Methods: We used the same quality indicators which are used in the European project Europeristat1 to compare the quality of perinatal care among the countries of the European Union. We used two 5-year periods, from 1998 to 2002 (reference period and from 2003 to 2008 (observed period. Data for perinatal quality were collected from the National Perinatal Information System of the Republic of Slovenia.2 Statistical significance was tested using the Pearson’s chi-square test. Results: Between 1998 and 2002, there were 87.679 labours ending in the delivery of 88.678 new- borns, and between 2003 and 2008, there were 90.662 labours ending in the delivery of 91.736 babies. In the observed period (2003 do 2008 mothers had statistically significantly higher educational level, a higher percentage came to their first pregnancy examination before the 12th week of gestation (84.0 % vs. 75.3 %, a higher percentage conceived after assisted reproductive techniques (2.0 % vs. 1.7 %, and the incidence of multiple pregnancies was higher (1.7 % vs. 1.6 %. Significantly lower were the percentages of labours without medical interventions (34.7 % vs. 41.9 % and of spontaneous onset of labour (74.0 % vs. 92.6 %. The percentages of induced labours and of elective cesarean sections increased dramatically (20.1 % vs. 6.6 % and 6.0 % vs. 0.9 %. The increase in the overall percentage of cesarean sections (14.8 % vs. 11.0 % is mainly due to increased incidence of elective cesarean sections, but the percentage of operative termination of vaginal labour increased as well (3.1 % vs. 2.6 %. The incidence of episiotomies was lower (48.7 % vs. 51.0 % and so was the incidence of 2nd degree perineal lacerations (4.5 % vs. 5.4 %, while the incidence of 3rd–4th degree lacerations was higher (0.3 % vs. 0.2 %. Transfusion was required in a lower percentage (0

  1. In Vitro fertilization and adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan-Pyke, Chantae S; Senapati, Suneeta; Mainigi, Monica A; Barnhart, Kurt T

    2017-10-01

    Most IVF-conceived children are healthy, but IVF has also been associated with adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes as well as congenital anomalies. There is also literature suggesting an association between IVF and neurodevelopmental disorders as well as potentially long-term metabolic outcomes. The main driver for adverse outcomes is the higher risk of multiple gestations in IVF, but as the field moves toward single embryo transfer, the rate of multiple gestations is decreasing. Studies have shown that singleton IVF pregnancies still have a higher incidence of adverse outcomes compared to unassisted singleton pregnancies. Infertility itself may be an independent risk factor. Animal models suggest that epigenetic changes in genes involved in growth and development are altered in IVF during the hormonal stimulation and embryo culture. Further animal research and prospective human data are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which IVF may contribute to adverse outcomes and to decrease risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Obesity Trends and Perinatal Outcomes in Black and White Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Donna R.; Marshall, Nicole E.; Kunovich, Robert M.; Caughey, Aaron B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to explore the trends in prepregnancy BMI for Black and White teenagers over time and the association between elevated BMI and outcomes based on race. Study Design This was a retrospective cohort study of singleton infants (n=38,158) born to Black (34%) and White teenagers (teenagers with elevated prepregnancy BMI increased significantly from 17% to 26%. White and Black overweight and obese teenagers were more likely to have pregnancy-related hypertension than normal weight teenagers while postpartum hemorrhage was only increased in obese Black teenagers and infant complications only in overweight and obese White teenagers. Conclusion As the percent of elevated prepregnancy BMI has increased in White teenagers, specific risks for poor maternal and perinatal outcomes in the overweight and obese teenagers varies by race. PMID:23174388

  3. Obesity trends and perinatal outcomes in black and white teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Donna R; Marshall, Nicole E; Kunovich, Robert M; Caughey, Aaron B

    2012-12-01

    Our objective was to explore the trends in prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) for black and white teenagers over time and the association between elevated BMI and outcomes based on race. This was a retrospective cohort study of singleton infants (n = 38,158) born to black (34%) and white (66%) teenagers (teenagers with elevated prepregnancy BMI increased significantly from 17-26%. White and black overweight and obese teenagers were more likely to have pregnancy-related hypertension than normal-weight teenagers; postpartum hemorrhage was increased only in obese black teenagers, and infant complications were increased only in overweight and obese white teenagers. Because the percentage of elevated prepregnancy BMI has increased in white teenagers, specific risks for poor maternal and perinatal outcomes in the overweight and obese teenagers varies by race. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Perinatal programming of metabolic dysfunction and obesity-induced inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvorsen, Camilla; Hellgren, Lars; Pedersen, Susanne Brix

    and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the children, which passes obesity and metabolic dysfunction on from generation to generation. Several studies try to elucidate causative effects of maternal metabolic markers on the metabolic imprinting in the children; however diet induced obesity is also...... associated with chronic low grade inflammation. Nobody have yet investigated the role of this inflammatory phenotype, but here we demonst rate that obesity induced inflammation is reversed during pregnancy in mice, and is therefore less likely to affect the fetal programming of metabolic dysfunction. Instead......, we suggest that an early elevated lipid exposure caused by a maternal high fat feeding might be more important for long term metabolic imprinting in the offspring. Therefore, we study the effect of maternal high fat/high sucrose diet during gestation, lactation or both to elucidate if perinatal...

  5. Perinatal complications and schizophrenia: involvement of the immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisha Anne Jenkins

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that, at least in part, events occurring within the intrauterine or perinatal environment at critical times of brain development underlies emergence of the psychosis observed during adulthood, and brain pathologies that are hypothesised to be from birth. All potential risks stimulate activation of the immune system, and are suggested to act in parallel with an underlying genetic liability, such that an imperfect regulation of the genome mediates these prenatal or early postnatal environmental effects. Epidemiologically based animal models looking at environment and with genes have provided us with a wealth of knowledge in the understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and give us the best possibility for interventions and treatments for schizophrenia.

  6. Breastfeeding and risk of schizophrenia in the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Reinisch, J M

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study whether early weaning from breastfeeding may be associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. METHOD: The current sample comprises 6841 individuals from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort of whom 1671 (24%) had been breastfed for 2 weeks or less (early weaning......) and 5170 (76%) had been breastfed longer. Maternal schizophrenia, parental social status, single mother status and gender were included as covariates in a multiple regression analysis of the effect of early weaning on the risk of hospitalization with schizophrenia. RESULTS: The sample comprised 93 cases...... of schizophrenia (1.4%). Maternal schizophrenia was the strongest risk factor and a significant association between single mother status and elevated offspring risk of schizophrenia was also observed. Early weaning was significantly related to later schizophrenia in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses (adjusted...

  7. Perinatal tumours: the contribution of radiology to management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, Veronica; Ryan, Stephanie; Twomey, Eilish [Children' s University Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin (Ireland)

    2008-06-15

    A formal classification does not exist and they are probably best classified by their location. Overall the most common neoplasms are - Extracranial teratoma - Neuroblastoma - Soft-tissue tumours - Brain tumours - Leukaemia - Renal tumours - Liver tumours - Retinoblastoma. The prognosis is generally poor, although there are some exceptions such as congenital neuroblastoma and hepatoblastoma. These tumours have a tendency to regress and have a benign clinical course despite a clear malignant histological picture. Other tumours, though histologically benign, may be fatal because of their size and location. Large benign masses may cause airway or cardiovascular compromise and death. Others may cause significant mass effect preventing normal organ development. As normal embryonic cells have a high mitotic rate it is not surprising that perinatal tumours may have a rapid growth rate and become enormous in size. (orig.)

  8. Normal perinatal and paediatric postmortem magnetic resonance imaging appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen J. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Barber, Joy L. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M. [Cardiorespiratory Division, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Department of Histopathology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    As postmortem imaging becomes more widely used following perinatal and paediatric deaths, the correct interpretation of images becomes imperative, particularly given the increased use of postmortem magnetic resonance imaging. Many pathological processes may have similar appearances in life and following death. A thorough knowledge of normal postmortem changes is therefore required within postmortem magnetic resonance imaging to ensure that these are not mistakenly interpreted as significant pathology. Similarly, some changes that are interpreted as pathological if they occur during life may be artefacts on postmortem magnetic resonance imaging that are of limited significance. This review serves to illustrate briefly those postmortem magnetic resonance imaging changes as part of the normal changes after death in fetuses and children, and highlight imaging findings that may confuse or mislead an observer to identifying pathology where none is present. (orig.)

  9. Maternal and perinatal outcomes of extreme obesity in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Joan M G; Murphy, Phil; Burrage, Lorraine; Hutchens, Donna

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of extreme obesity (pre-pregnancy BMI ≥ 50.0 kg/m2) in pregnancy on maternal and perinatal outcomes. We conducted a population-based cohort study using the Newfoundland and Labrador Perinatal Database to compare obstetric outcomes in women with extreme obesity and those with a normal BMI (pre-pregnancy BMI 18.50 to 24.99 kg/m2). We included women with singleton gestations who gave birth between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2011. Maternal outcomes of interest included gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, Caesarean section, shoulder dystocia, length of hospital stay, maternal ICU admission, postpartum hemorrhage, and death. Perinatal outcomes included birth weight, preterm birth, Apgar score, neonatal metabolic abnormality, NICU admission, stillbirth, and neonatal death. A composite morbidity outcome was developed including at least one of Caesarean section, gestational hypertension, birth weight ≥ 4000 g, birth weight maternal age, parity, smoking, partner status, and gestational age) were performed, and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. A total of 5788 women were included in the study: 71 with extreme obesity and 5717 with a normal BMI. Extremely obese women were more likely to have gestational hypertension (19.7% vs. 4.8%) (aOR 1.56; 95% CI 1.33 to 1.82), gestational diabetes (21.1% vs. 1.5%) (aOR 2.04; 95% CI 1.74 to 2.38), shoulder dystocia (7.1% vs. 1.4%) (aOR 1.51; 95% CI 1.05 to 2.19), Caesarean section (60.6% vs. 25.0%) (aOR 1.46; 95% CI 1.29 to 1.65), length of hospital stay more than five days (excluding Caesarean section) (14.3% vs. 4.7%) (aOR 1.42; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.89), birth weight ≥ 4000 g (38.0% vs. 11.9%) (aOR 1.58; 95% CI 1.38 to 1.80), birth weight ≥ 4500 g (16.9% vs. 2.1%) (aOR 1.87; 95% CI 1.57 to 2.23), neonatal metabolic abnormality (8.5% vs. 2.0%) (aOR 1.50; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.86), NICU admission (16.9% vs. 7.8%) (aOR 1.28; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.52), stillbirth (1

  10. Perinatal mortality and residential proximity to an industrial park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarov, Batia; Bentov, Yaakov; Kordysh, Ella; Karakis, Isabella; Bolotin, Arkady; Hershkovitz, Reli; Belmaker, Ilana

    2008-01-01

    The authors' objective was to determine whether residential proximity to an industrial park (IP) is associated with increased perinatal mortality (PM). This semiecological study included 63,850 delivered births with 840 cases of PM (1995-2000). The authors categorized the study populations by ethnicity (ie, Bedouin and Jewish) and type of locality. Residential distance from the IP served as a surrogate indicator of exposure. Among Bedouin newborns, proximity to the IP was associated with increased PM rates (relative risk = 1.45; 95% confidence interval = 1.22-1.72). The excess in PM was not related to maternal or newborn physical characteristics that the authors observed. The risk of PM and its components in the Jewish localities was not associated with IP proximity. The association between residential proximity to the IP and excess in PM among only Bedouin newborns may be related to vulnerability caused by the nomadic nature of the society.

  11. Faith, Trust and the Perinatal Healthcare Maze in Urban India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Raman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available How women access and utilise health services through pregnancy, childbirth and infancy needs to be understood if we are to improve the delivery of and access to appropriate healthcare. Drawing on ethnographic observations of clinic encounters and in-depth interviews with women in Bangalore, South India, this paper reports on the complexities of negotiating healthcare throughout the perinatal continuum in urban India. Key themes identified include faith and trust in health services, confusion over right to healthcare; and the contested nature of choice for women. What is revealed is a socially restrictive framework that results in choices that seem arbitrary, irrational and self-defeating; poor women being particularly vulnerable. Given the current policy support for public-private-partnerships in reproductive healthcare delivery in India, both public and private health services need to move substantially to achieve true partnership and provide care that is respectful and valued by women and children in urban India.

  12. Prospective memory in youth with perinatally-acquired HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lynnette L; Chernoff, Miriam C; Nichols, Sharon L; Williams, Paige L; Garvie, Patricia A; Yildirim, Cenk; McCauley, Stephen R; Woods, Steven Paul

    2017-08-07

    Youth with perinatal HIV infection (PHIV) are at increased risk for neurocognitive impairment (NCI). Prospective memory (PM) is a complex neurocognitive function that has been shown to be impaired in adults with HIV disease and independently associated with poorer daily living skills, including medication nonadherence. The current study sought to determine the presence and extent of PM deficits in youth with PHIV. Participants included 173 youth with PHIV and 85 youth perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (PHEU), mean age 14.1 years, 75% black, 18% Hispanic. Among youth with PHIV, 26% had a past AIDS-defining condition (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], Class C), 74% did not (non-C). Adjusted generalized estimating equation models were used to compare groups (PHIV/C, PHIV/non-C, and PHEU) on the Naturalistic Event-Based Prospective Memory Test (NEPT) and the Prospective Memory Assessment for Children & Youth (PROMACY). Secondarily, subgroups defined by HIV serostatus and global NCI were compared (PHIV/NCI, PHIV/non-NCI, PHEU). PHIV/C had significantly lower NEPT scores than PHEU, with decreases of 40% in mean scores, but did not differ from PHIV/non-C. PHIV/NCI had 11-32% lower PROMACY scores and 33% lower NEPT scores compared to PHIV/non-NCI (all p < .05); significantly, lower scores for PHIV/NCI versus PHEU also were observed for PROMACY and NEPT indices. Findings suggest a subset of youth with PHIV (those with a prior AIDS-defining diagnosis) is vulnerable to PM deficits. The extent to which PM deficits interfere with development and maintenance of independent living and health-related behaviors during transition to adulthood requires further study.

  13. Some aspects of perinatal and maternal mortality in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosova, H; Qirko, R; Habibaj, J; Hájek, Z

    2012-06-01

    Evaluation of antenatal care, perinatal mortality, neonatal mortality, maternal mortality, number of births, the incidence of low birth weight infants in Albania. Retrospective study. Queen Geraldine University Hospital of Tirana, Albania. The population of this country is estimated to be approximately 3,2 million and comprises very young people. Twenty five percent of the population is under 15 years of age and 46% is under 25 years [2]. The fertility rate in 2009 was 1.6 children per woman of childbearing age. The urban population accounts for 45% and the rural population for the remaining 55% of the total population [2]. The health care system is spread across nearly the entire territory and is classified as primary (villages and small towns), secondary (several cities) and tertiary (in the capital, University Hospital). Primary health care is provided at 2327 health care units. The chief activity of the family doctors and general practitioners working in such units are focused on providing health care for mother and children. Ten percent of the annual births are delivered at the Maternity Hospital of Tirana (tertiary care) which has 300 beds and another 40 beds particularly for premature infants. More than 50% of the high risk pregnancies from other districts are referred to the Maternity Hospital of Tirana. The annual live births in Albania was in (2010) 33,856. The total perinatal mortality rate is 10,9 per 1000 live births. The total neonatal mortality rate in 2010 was 9.7 per 1000 live births. The early postnatal mortality rate was 6.1 per 1000 births. Number of maternal deaths for 100, 000 live births was 6.0 in 2010.

  14. An outcome evaluation of a perinatal education programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfeous Rundare

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The World Health Organisation (WHO (2005 reported that at least 260 mothers and babies die every day in South Africa. Most of these deaths are attributed to low standards of maternal and infant care. Research has shown that one way of reducing the maternal and infant mortality rates in hospitals is to improve the standard of care.Research purpose: The Perinatal Education Programme (PEP has been introduced in the Western Cape in South Africa, and the main aim of this evaluation was to provide information regarding the effectiveness of perinatal training in a single maternity hospital in this province.Motivation for the study: There are a few evaluation studies of the PEP in different South African contexts. These evaluations have shown that the programme was effective in improving the knowledge of midwives. The current evaluation was motivated by the need for more research on the programme’s effectiveness.Research design, approach and method: A quasi-experimental design was used to determine knowledge and skills acquisition of midwives. The sample consisted of 42 midwives. Programme records and questionnaire results were used as data.Main findings: This evaluation showed that the PEP is an effective programme endorsed by participants and supervisors alike.Practical/managerial implications: This specific hospital added group facilitation to the self-study mode of the programme. This mode of study produced additional increases in knowledge, skills and group work.Contributions/value-add: The evaluation has provided sound evidence for programme managers to increase programme coverage and continue the good work already evident from the results.

  15. Mortalidade perinatal e evitabilidade: revisão da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Lansky

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, realizou-se uma revisão da literatura sobre mortalidade perinatal com maior enfoque na evitabilidade desses óbitos. Foram pesquisadas, sobretudo, publicações da década de 90 nas bases Medline e Lilacs (América Latina e Caribe. Discutiram-se as dificuldades para a realização de estudos nesta área, ainda em número restrito no Brasil, em decorrência do grande subregistro de óbitos fetais e da má qualidade da informação nas declarações de óbitos. Foram apresentadas as principais propostas de classificação dos óbitos perinatais baseadas em enfoque de evitabilidade, com destaque para a classificação de Wigglesworth. Nesta abordagem, os óbitos perinatais foram relacionados a momentos específicos da assistência, sendo evidenciadas as possibilidades de sua prevenção. Recomenda-se o enfoque de evitabilidade para a abordagem da mortalidade perinatal no Brasil, dado que as taxas são ainda elevadas, a maioria dos óbitos é considerada evitável e poderia ser prevenida com a melhoria da assistência pré-natal, ao parto e ao recém-nascido, não apenas quanto à sua resolubilidade clínica, mas também à organização da assistência em sistemas hierarquizados e regionalizados, assegurando o acesso da gestante e do recém-nascido em tempo oportuno a serviços de qualidade.

  16. Childhood adversity, social support, and telomere length among perinatal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Amanda M; Kowalsky, Jennifer M; Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue; Christian, Lisa M

    2018-01-01

    Adverse perinatal health outcomes are heightened among women with psychosocial risk factors, including childhood adversity and a lack of social support. Biological aging could be one pathway by which such outcomes occur. However, data examining links between psychosocial factors and indicators of biological aging among perinatal women are limited. The current study examined the associations of childhood socioeconomic status (SES), childhood trauma, and current social support with telomere length in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in a sample of 81 women assessed in early, mid, and late pregnancy as well as 7-11 weeks postpartum. Childhood SES was defined as perceived childhood social class and parental educational attainment. Measures included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and average telomere length in PBMCs. Per a linear mixed model, telomere length did not change across pregnancy and postpartum visits; thus, subsequent analyses defined telomere length as the average across all available timepoints. ANCOVAs showed group differences by perceived childhood social class, maternal and paternal educational attainment, and current family social support, with lower values corresponding with shorter telomeres, after adjustment for possible confounds. No effects of childhood trauma or social support from significant others or friends on telomere length were observed. Findings demonstrate that while current SES was not related to telomeres, low childhood SES, independent of current SES, and low family social support were distinct risk factors for cellular aging in women. These data have relevance for understanding potential mechanisms by which early life deprivation of socioeconomic and relationship resources affect maternal health. In turn, this has potential significance for intergenerational transmission of telomere length. The predictive value of

  17. The success of cardiotocography in predicting perinatal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpaslan Kaban

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The determination of the fetal condition duringlabor is important to minimize fetal death due to asphyxiaand the neurological sequelae of fetal hypoxia.This study evaluated the success of fetal cardiotocographyin predicting perinatal consequences.Materials and methods: This study enrolled 101 full-termpregnant women admitted for delivery to Vakif GurebaTraining and Research Hospital between October 2009and February 2010. Women were included if they wereaged 18-45 years and within 36-41 weeks of gestation.During a 20-min period of fetal monitoring, a change inFHR (fetal heart rate lasting for 15 s or two elevated runsof 15 beats was evaluated as a reactive NST (non-stresstest. The umbilical artery pH was used as the “gold standard”for assessing fetal asphyxia.Results: The mean age of the women included in thestudy was 27.82 ± 5.29 years, the average parity was1.09± 0.96. The pH was normal in 85 neonates, while 13 hadfetal asphyxia. No significant difference in umbilical cordblood pH, pO2, or pCO2 was observed between these twogroups (p = 0.497, p = 0.722, and p = 0.053, respectively.No significant difference in maternal age, parity, or birthweight was found between the group with fetal distressbased on CTG (cardiotocography and the normal group.Conclusion: Cardiotocography is an important test duringlabor for labor management, it is insufficient for predictingthe perinatal outcome. Therefore, labor should beevaluated on an individualized basis. J Clin Exp Invest2012; 3(2: 168-171

  18. Patterns of cell death in the perinatal mouse forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Morgan; Shah, Charisma; Morse, Kiriana A; Miloro, Stephen A; Holmes, Melissa M; Ahern, Todd H; Forger, Nancy G

    2017-01-01

    The importance of cell death in brain development has long been appreciated, but many basic questions remain, such as what initiates or terminates the cell death period. One obstacle has been the lack of quantitative data defining exactly when cell death occurs. We recently created a "cell death atlas," using the detection of activated caspase-3 (AC3) to quantify apoptosis in the postnatal mouse ventral forebrain and hypothalamus, and found that the highest rates of cell death were seen at the earliest postnatal ages in most regions. Here we have extended these analyses to prenatal ages and additional brain regions. We quantified cell death in 16 forebrain regions across nine perinatal ages from embryonic day (E) 17 to postnatal day (P) 11 and found that cell death peaks just after birth in most regions. We found greater cell death in several regions in offspring delivered vaginally on the day of parturition compared with those of the same postconception age but still in utero at the time of collection. We also found massive cell death in the oriens layer of the hippocampus on P1 and in regions surrounding the anterior crossing of the corpus callosum on E18 as well as the persistence of large numbers of cells in those regions in adult mice lacking the pro-death Bax gene. Together these findings suggest that birth may be an important trigger of neuronal cell death and identify transient cell groups that may undergo wholesale elimination perinatally. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:47-64, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Effects of a brief psychoanalytic intervention for perinatal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanzer, Nathalie; Sancho Rossignol, Ana; Righetti-Veltema, Marion; Knauer, Dora; Manzano, Juan; Palacio Espasa, Francisco

    2012-08-01

    This pilot study explores the effects of a brief individual psychoanalytic therapy on perinatal depressive symptoms. This intervention is based on the Geneva's mother-infant intervention model. A sample of 129 pregnant women was recruited in Geneva (Switzerland) and screened for depressive symptoms with two instruments: the 'Edinburgh postnatal depression scale' (EPDS) and the 'Dépistage anténatal de la dépression postnatale'. A group of 40 women presenting depressive symptoms (treatment group) participated in a four-session intervention called 'Psychotherapy centred on parenthood (PCP)'. It consists in two antenatal and two postnatal sessions and is focussed on changing problematic representations of parenthood. This treatment group was compared to a control group of 88 women without depressive symptoms and following the usual obstetrical care. The main outcome measure was EPDS at 3 and 6 months after delivery. The 'Global assessment functioning scale' was administered at the end of each therapeutic session. The 'Parent-infant relationship global assessment scale' was administered at the two postnatal sessions in order to explore if PCP was also effective in preventing the potential negative effects of depression on mother-infant relationship. Results show that in the treatment group (N = 31), EPDS scores dropped from 12.8 to 4.8; none of these women met the EPDS cut-off score of 12 at 3 and 6 months postpartum. Mother-infant relationship was well adapted for all 31 dyads at the end of the intervention. These results suggest that PCP is a promising intervention for treating perinatal depression and helping mothers engaging in parenting.

  20. Clinical characteristics and perinatal outcome of fetal hydrops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Wonkyung; Paik, E Sun; An, Jung-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Choi, Suk-Joo; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jong-Hwa

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the clinical characteristics of fetal hydrops and to find the antenatal ultrasound findings predictive of adverse perinatal outcome. This is a retrospective study of 42 women with fetal hydrops who delivered in a tertiary-referral center from 2005 to 2013. Fetal hydrops was defined as the presence of fluid collection in ≥2 body cavities: ascites, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and skin edema. Predictor variables recorded included: maternal characteristics, gestational age at diagnosis, ultrasound findings, and identifiable causes. Primary outcome variables analyzed were fetal death and neonatal death. The mean gestational age at diagnosis was 29.3±5.4 weeks (range, 18 to 39 weeks). The most common identifiable causes were cardiac abnormality (10), followed by syndrome (4), aneuploidy (3), congenital infection (3), twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (3), non-cardiac anormaly (2), chorioangioma (2), inborn errors of metabolism (1), and immune hydrops by anti-E antibody isoimmunization (1). Thirteen cases had no definite identifiable causes. Three women elected termination of pregnancy. Fetal death occurred in 4 cases. Among the 35 live-born babies, only 16 survived (54.0% neonatal mortality rate). Fetal death and neonatal mortality rate was not significantly associated with Doppler velocimetry indices or location of fluid collection, but increasing numbers of fluid collection site was significantly associated with a higher risk of neonatal death. The incidence of fetal hydrops in our retrospective study was 24.4 per 10,000 deliveries and the perinatal mortality rate was 61.9% (26/42). The number of fluid collection sites was the significant antenatal risk factor to predict neonatal death.

  1. Perinatal staff perceptions of safety and quality in their service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinni, Suzanne V; Wallace, Euan M; Cross, Wendy M

    2014-11-28

    Ensuring safe and appropriate service delivery is central to a high quality maternity service. With this in mind, over recent years much attention has been given to the development of evidence-based clinical guidelines, staff education and risk reporting systems. Less attention has been given to assessing staff perceptions of a service's safety and quality and what factors may influence that. In this study we set out to assess staff perceptions of safety and quality of a maternity service and to explore potential influences on service safety. The study was undertaken within a new low risk metropolitan maternity service in Victoria, Australia with a staffing profile comprising midwives (including students), neonatal nurses, specialist obstetricians, junior medical staff and clerical staff. In depth open-ended interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire were conducted with 23 staff involved in the delivery of perinatal care, including doctors, midwives, nurses, nursing and midwifery students, and clerical staff. Data were analyzed using naturalistic interpretive inquiry to identify emergent themes. Staff unanimously reported that there were robust systems and processes in place to maintain safety and quality. Three major themes were apparent: (1) clinical governance, (2) dominance of midwives, (3) inter-professional relationships. Overall, there was a strong sense that, at least in this midwifery-led service, midwives had the greatest opportunity to be an influence, both positively and negatively, on the safe delivery of perinatal care. The importance of understanding team dynamics, particularly mutual respect, trust and staff cohesion, were identified as key issues for potential future service improvement. Senior staff, particularly midwives and neonatal nurses, play central roles in shaping team behaviors and attitudes that may affect the safety and quality of service delivery. We suggest that strategies targeting senior staff to enhance their performance in

  2. Words in Maternity Wards: An Aproximation to Perinatal Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Oiberman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The acknowledgment that just born babies interact with human and physical contexts originated changes in behaviors of health teems working in maternity wards settings. Concepts such as initial interactions, attachment, dyads, maternal vulnerability, behavioral competences of the just born babies and their applications to perinatal psychology, marked a transformation in different professionals involved in birth’s approaches. From one side, it can be said that medicalization of the birth act in Western societies had allowed to minimize risk factors. But this progress had been carried out without taking into account emotional expressions. The introduction of psychological interventions in neonatal periods is a new field of knowledge. History shows that in different periods and cultures there were amulets, potions and other elements associated with magic that were used to swear baby or mother’s death risk during childbirth. All these practices were taken the place of words, in a hard emotional moment: parturition. It was necessary to walk a long and difficult road for Perinatal Psycholy to recuperate the ancient place of old good women and incorporate words in maternity wards, knowing that the main scenery is first occupied by the mother’s body and then by the baby. Our daily job in a maternity ward, working together with pediatricians and neonatologists, allowed us to verify that words come out when psychologists themselves “include their body” as well as do mothers, babies and the medical teem. Words contribute to facilitate emotional expressions related to motherhood and place the baby in the family history, making able his or her “psychological birth”. 

  3. Perinatal programming of neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting feeding behavior and stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Spencer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding behavior is closely regulated by neuroendocrine mechanisms that can be influenced by stressful life events. However, the feeding response to stress varies among individuals with some increasing and others decreasing food intake after stress. In addition to the impact of acute lifestyle and genetic backgrounds, the early life environment can have a life-long influence on neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting stress to feeding behavior and may partially explain these opposing feeding responses to stress. In this review I will discuss the perinatal programming of adult hypothalamic stress and feeding circuitry. Specifically I will address how early life (prenatal and postnatal nutrition, early life stress, and the early life hormonal profile can program the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, the endocrine arm of the body’s response to stress long-term and how these changes can, in turn, influence the hypothalamic circuitry responsible for regulating feeding behavior. Thus, over- or under-feeding and / or stressful events during critical windows of early development can alter glucocorticoid (GC regulation of the HPA axis, leading to changes in the GC influence on energy storage and changes in GC negative feedback on HPA axis-derived satiety signals such as corticotropin-releasing-hormone. Furthermore, peripheral hormones controlling satiety, such as leptin and insulin are altered by early life events, and can be influenced, in early life and adulthood, by stress. Importantly, these neuroendocrine signals act as trophic factors during development to stimulate connectivity throughout the hypothalamus. The interplay between these neuroendocrine signals, the perinatal environment, and activation of the stress circuitry in adulthood thus strongly influences feeding behavior and may explain why individuals have unique feeding responses to similar stressors.

  4. Antenatal umbilical coiling index as a predictor of perinatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Ankita; Nanda, Smiti; Sen, Jyotsna

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the relationship between sonographic measurements of umbilical cord coiling index during late second trimester of pregnancy and perinatal outcome. This prospective study was conducted on two hundred pregnant women with uncomplicated, singleton pregnancy between 20 to 24 weeks of gestation. The antenatal umbilical coiling index (UCI) was calculated by doing a transabdominal ultrasound at the time of induction into the study as the reciprocal of the pitch of one complete vascular coil. The patients were followed up till delivery and any adverse antenatal and/or perinatal event was noted. The mean value for the UCI was noted to be 0.36 + 0.07 coils/cm with a 95% CI of 0.35-0.37. The values for the 10th and the 90th percentile were 0.26 and 0.46 coils/cm respectively. Accordingly the cases were divided into three groups- hypocoiled (UCI UCI between 10th-90th percentile)-162 and hypercoiled (UCI >90th percentile)-20. Hypocoiling was observed to be significantly associated with preterm labour pains (P value 0.0344), oligohydramnios (P value 0.0021), intrapartum foetal heart rate abnormalities (P value 0.0012), instrumental vaginal delivery (P value 0.0275) and low birth weight (P value 0.0344). Hypercoiling was found to be significantly associated with intrauterine growth restriction (P value 0.0323), foetal heart rate abnormalities during labour (0.0399) and low birth weight (P value 0.0095). Abnormal umbilical coiling index in the form of either hypo- or hypercoiling is associated with several adverse antenatal and neonatal outcomes.

  5. Risk factors for neonatal sepsis and perinatal death among infants enrolled in the prevention of perinatal sepsis trial, Soweto, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Stephanie J; Cutland, Clare L; Zell, Elizabeth R; Kuwanda, Locadiah; Buchmann, Eckhart J; Velaphi, Sithembiso C; Groome, Michelle J; Madhi, Shabir A

    2012-08-01

    Factors associated with neonatal sepsis, an important cause of child mortality, are poorly described in Africa. We characterized factors associated with early-onset (days 0-2 of life) and late-onset (days 3-28) -sepsis and perinatal death among infants enrolled in the Prevention of Perinatal Sepsis Trial (NCT00136370 at ClinicalTrials.gov), Soweto, South Africa. Secondary analysis of 8011 enrolled mothers and their neonates. Prenatal and labor records were abstracted and neonatal wards were monitored for hospitalized Prevention of Perinatal Sepsis-enrolled neonates. Endpoint definitions required clinical and laboratory signs. All univariate factors associated with endpoints at P perinatal period. Factors associated with early-onset sepsis included preterm delivery [adjusted relative risk (aRR) = 2.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4-4.8]; low birth weight (perinatal death and culture-confirmed sepsis. MSAF (aRR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1-5.0) was associated with late-onset sepsis. Preterm and low birth weight were important sepsis risk factors. MSAF and first birth were also associated with sepsis and death, warranting further exploration. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis did not protect against all-cause sepsis or death, underscoring the need for alternate prevention strategies.

  6. Immunity to Measles, Mumps, and Rubella in US Children With Perinatal HIV Infection or Perinatal HIV Exposure Without Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siberry, George K.; Patel, Kunjal; Bellini, William J.; Karalius, Brad; Purswani, Murli U.; Burchett, Sandra K.; Meyer, William A.; Sowers, Sun Bae; Ellis, Angela; Van Dyke, Russell B.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Children with perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (PHIV) may not be protected against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) because of impaired initial vaccine response or waning immunity. Our objectives were to estimate seroimmunity in PHIV-infected and perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children and identify predictors of immunity in the PHIV cohort. Methods. PHIV and HEU children were enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) at ages 7–15 years from 2007 to 2009. At annual visits, demographic, laboratory, immunization, and clinical data were abstracted and serologic specimens collected. Most recent serologic specimen was used to determine measles seroprotection by plaque reduction neutralization assay and rubella seroprotection and mumps seropositivity by enzyme immunoassay. Sustained combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was defined as taking cART for at least 3 months. Results. Among 428 PHIV and 221 HEU PHACS participants, the prevalence was significantly lower in PHIV children for measles seroprotection (57% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 52%–62%] vs 99% [95% CI, 96%–100%]), rubella seroprotection (65% [95% CI, 60%–70%] vs 98% [95% CI, 95%–100%]), and mumps seropositivity (59% [95% CI, 55%–64%] vs 97% [95% CI, 94%–99%]). On multivariable analysis, greater number of vaccine doses while receiving sustained cART and higher nadir CD4 percentage between last vaccine dose and serologic testing independently improved the cumulative prediction of measles seroprotection in PHIV. Predictors of rubella seroprotection and mumps seropositivity were similar. Conclusions. High proportions of PHIV-infected children, but not HEU children, lack serologic evidence of immunity to MMR, despite documented immunization and current cART. Effective cART before immunization is a strong predictor of current seroimmunity. PMID:26060291

  7. Perinatal outcomes following an earlier post-term labour induction policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, M.; Lidegaard, Ø; Skovlund, C W

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the changes in perinatal outcomes in children born from 37 weeks of gestation after implementation of a more proactive labour induction practice from 2009. DESIGN: Register-based cohort study. SETTING: Denmark, 2000-12. POPULATION: Newborns from 37 weeks of gestation. METHODS......: Perinatal outcomes were estimated using a logistic regression analysis with adjustment for gestational age, maternal age, parity, plurality, smoking and body mass index. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Perinatal outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 770 926 infants were included. Labour induction from 37 weeks increased.......65-0.71). However, the risk of shoulder dystocia increased by 32%; OR 1.32 (1.21-1.44), whereas the risk of peripheral nerve injuries was reduced by 43%; OR 0.57 (0.45-0.73). CONCLUSION: The results suggest an overall improvement in perinatal outcomes as a result of a more proactive post-term labour induction...

  8. Perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins and its effect on neonatal neurological development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M.; Koopman-Esseboom, C.; Fidler, V.; Hadders-Algra, M.; Paauw, C.G. van der; Tuinstra, L.G.M.Th.; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.; Sauer, P.J.J.; Touwen, B.C.L.; Boersma, E.R.

    1995-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) are widespread environmental contaminants which are neurotoxic in animals. Perinatal exposure to PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs occurs prenatally via the placenta and postnatally via breast

  9. Plasticity in the developing brain: intellectual, language and academic functions in children with ischaemic perinatal stroke

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ballantyne, Angela O; Spilkin, Amy M; Hesselink, John; Trauner, Doris A

    2008-01-01

    .... This study aimed to examine the stability of intellectual, academic and language functioning during development in children with perinatal stroke, and to resolve the inconsistencies raised in previous studies...

  10. Cerebellar cytokine expression in a rat model for fetal asphyctic preconditioning and perinatal asphyxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlassaks, Evi; Brudek, Tomasz; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2014-01-01

    Asphyctic brain injury is a major cause of neuronal inflammation in the perinatal period. Fetal asphyctic preconditioning has been shown to modulate the cerebral inflammatory cytokine response, hereby protecting the brain against asphyctic injury at birth. This study was designated to examine...... the effects of perinatal asphyxia and fetal asphyctic preconditioning on the inflammatory cytokine response in the cerebellum. Fetal asphyxia was induced at embryonic day 17 by clamping the uterine vasculature for 30 min. At term birth, global perinatal asphyxia was induced by placing the uterine horns...... was decreased 96 h postfetal asphyxia. When applied as preconditioning stimulus, fetal asphyxia attenuates the cerebellar cytokine response. These results indicate that sublethal fetal asphyxia may protect the cerebellum from perinatal asphyxia-induced damage via inhibition of inflammation....

  11. Failed Lactation and Perinatal Depression: Common Problems with Shared Neuroendocrine Mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewen, Karen; Pedersen, Cort A.; Propper, Cathi; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In the early postpartum period, mother and infant navigate a critical neuroendocrine transition from pregnancy to lactation. Two major clinical problems that occur during this transition are failed lactation and perinatal mood disorders. These disorders often overlap in clinical settings. Failed lactation is common. Although all major medical organizations recommend 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding, only 13% of women in the United States achieve this recommendation. Perinatal mood disorders affect 10% of mothers, with substantial morbidity for mother and child. We hypothesize that shared neuroendocrine mechanisms contribute to both failed lactation and perinatal mood disorders. In this hypothesis article, we discuss data from both animal models and clinical studies that suggest neuroendocrine mechanisms that may underlie these two disorders. Research to elucidate the role of these underlying mechanisms may identify treatment strategies both to relieve perinatal depression and to enable women to achieve their infant feeding goals. PMID:22204416

  12. Intestinal microbiota development in preterm neonates and effect of perinatal antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleya, Silvia; Sánchez, Borja; Milani, Christian; Duranti, Sabrina; Solís, Gonzalo; Fernández, Nuria; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Ventura, Marco; Margolles, Abelardo; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    To assess the establishment of the intestinal microbiota in very low birthweight preterm infants and to evaluate the impact of perinatal factors, such as delivery mode and perinatal antibiotics. We used 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence-based microbiota analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the establishment of the intestinal microbiota. We also evaluated factors affecting the microbiota, during the first 3 months of life in preterm infants (n = 27) compared with full-term babies (n = 13). Immaturity affects the microbiota as indicated by a reduced percentage of the family Bacteroidaceae during the first months of life and by a higher initial percentage of Lactobacillaceae in preterm infants compared with full term infants. Perinatal antibiotics, including intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis, affects the gut microbiota, as indicated by increased Enterobacteriaceae family organisms in the infants. Prematurity and perinatal antibiotic administration strongly affect the initial establishment of microbiota with potential consequences for later health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Satisfaction and sustainability: a realist review of decentralized models of perinatal surgery for rural women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kornelsen, Jude; McCartney, Kevin; Williams, Kim

    2016-01-01

    This article was developed as part of a larger realist review investigating the viability and efficacy of decentralized models of perinatal surgical services for rural women in the context of recent...

  14. Causes of death and associated conditions (Codac) - a utilitarian approach to the classification of perinatal deaths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Froen, J. Frederik; Pinar, Halit; Flenady, Vicki; Bahrin, Safiah; Charles, Adrian; Chauke, Lawrence; Day, Katie; Duke, Charles W.; Facchinetti, Fabio; Fretts, Ruth C.; Gardener, Glenn; Gilshenan, Kristen; Gordijn, Sanne J.; Gordon, Adrienne; Guyon, Grace; Harrison, Catherine; Koshy, Rachel; Pattinson, Robert C.; Petersson, Karin; Russell, Laurie; Saastad, Eli; Smith, Gordon C. S.; Torabi, Rozbeh

    2009-01-01

    A carefully classified dataset of perinatal mortality will retain the most significant information on the causes of death. Such information is needed for health care policy development, surveillance and international comparisons, clinical services and research. For comparability purposes, we propose

  15. Treatment of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis during pregnancy and risk of perinatal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casau, Nathalie C; Hewins, Mary Ellen; Zaleznik, Dori F

    2002-01-01

    A pregnant woman from Nantucket Island, MA was diagnosed with human granulocytic ehrlichiosis at 34 weeks gestation. We describe the diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas involved and discuss the risks of perinatal transmission.

  16. Adverse maternal exposures, methylation of glucocorticoid-related genes and perinatal outcomes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Sairaman; Seddighzadeh, Bobak; Baccarelli, Andrea; Wise, Lauren A; Williams, Michelle; Shields, Alexandra E

    2016-07-01

    Maternal environmental exposures affect perinatal outcomes through epigenetic placental changes. We examine the literature addressing associations between adverse maternal exposures, perinatal outcomes and methylation of key genes regulating placental cortisol metabolism. We searched three databases for studies that examined NR3C1 and HSD11β1/HSD11 β 2 methylation with maternal exposures or perinatal outcomes. Nineteen studies remained after screening. We followed Cochrane's PRISMA reporting guidelines (2009). NR3C1 and HSD11 β methylation were associated with adverse infant neurobehavior, stress response, blood pressure and physical development. In utero exposure to maternal stress, nutrition, preeclampsia, smoking and diabetes were associated with altered NR3C1 and HSD11 β methylation. NR3C1 and HSD11 β methylation are useful biomarkers of specific environmental stressors associated with important perinatal outcomes that determine pediatric and adult disease risk.

  17. Adverse perinatal outcomes for advanced maternal age: a cross‐sectional study of Brazilian births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Karla O. Almeida

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: As a rule, older mothers are at higher risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, which, however, may be mitigated or eliminated, depending on gestational age, parity, and, especially, on the education level of the pregnant woman.

  18. Bridging between professionals in perinatal care: Towards shared care in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthumus, AP; Schölmerich, V.L.N.; Waelput, AJ; Vos, AA; De Jong-Potjer, LC; Bakker, R.; Bonsel, G.J.; Groenewegen, P.; Steegers, EA; Denktas, S

    2013-01-01

    Relatively high perinatal mortality rates in the Netherlands have required a critical assessment of the national obstetric system. Policy evaluations emphasized the need for organizational improvement, in particular closer collaboration between community midwives and obstetric caregivers in

  19. NEUROGENETIC ASPECTS OF PERINATAL HYPOXIC-ISCHEMIC AFFECTIONS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Karkashadze

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenetics is a thriving young science greatly contributing to the generally accepted concept of the brain development in health and disease. Thereby; scientists are not only able to highlight new key points in traditional ideas about the origin of diseases; but also to completely rethink their view on the problem of pathology development. In particular; new data on neurogenetics of perinatal affections of the central nervous system (CNS has appeared. Genetic factors in varying degrees affect perinatal hypoxic-ischemic CNS affections. Prematurity determination stays the most studied among them. Nevertheless; there is increasing evidence of significant epigenetic regulations of neuro-expression caused by hypoxia; malnutrition of a pregnant woman; stress; smoking; alcohol; drugs that either directly pathologically affect the developing brain; or form a brain phenotype sensitive to a perinatal CNS affection. New data obliges to change the approaches to prevention of perinatal CNS affections.

  20. Perinatal outcomes in 6,338 singletons born after intrauterine insemination in Denmark, 2007 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchau, Sara Sofia; Loft, Anne; Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study perinatal outcomes in singletons born after intrauterine insemination (IUI) compared with children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and spontaneous conception (SC), and to assess predictors of poor outcome in singletons born after IUI...

  1. Maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal outcomes in Inner Mongolia, China, Journal

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Bayingnormen is a region located in western Inner Mongolia China with a population that is exposed to a wide range of drinking water Arsenic concentrations. This study evaluated the relationship between maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal endpoints ...

  2. The Association of Cerebral Palsy with Other Disability in Children with Perinatal Arterial Ischemic Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Golomb, Meredith R.; Saha, Chandan; Garg, Bhuwan P.; Azzouz, Faouzi; Williams, Linda S.

    2007-01-01

    The association of cerebral palsy with other disability in children with perinatal stroke has not been well-studied. We examined this association in 111 children with perinatal stroke, 67 with neonatal presentation and 44 with delayed presentation. Seventy-six children (68%) had cerebral palsy, which was hemiplegic in 66 and tri- or quadriplegic in 10. Fifty-five (72%) of the children with cerebral palsy had at least one other disability: 45 (59%) had cognitive/speech impairment which was mod...

  3. Effect of the interpregnancy interval on perinatal outcomes in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Agudelo, Agustin; Belizán, José M; Norton, Maureen H; Rosas-Bermúdez, Anyeli

    2005-08-01

    To estimate whether interpregnancy interval is independently associated with increased risk of perinatal death and other adverse perinatal outcomes. We investigated the effect of interpregnancy interval on perinatal outcomes in 1,125,430 pregnancies recorded in the Perinatal Information System database of the Latin American Center for Perinatology and Human Development, Montevideo, Uruguay, between 1985 and 2004. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for 16 major confounding factors using multiple logistic regression models. Compared with infants with interpregnancy intervals of 18-23 months, those born to women with intervals shorter than 6 months had an increased risk of early neonatal death (adjusted OR 1.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.96), fetal death (adjusted OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.28-1.83), low birth weight (adjusted OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.78-1.90), very low birth weight (adjusted OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.73-2.31), preterm birth (adjusted OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.71-1.89), very preterm birth (adjusted OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.67-2.26), and small for gestational age (adjusted OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.25-1.36). Intervals of 6-11 months and 60 months and longer were also associated with a significantly greater risk for the 7 adverse perinatal outcomes. In Latin America, interpregnancy intervals shorter than 12 months and longer than 59 months are independently associated with increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. These data suggest that spacing pregnancies appropriately could prevent perinatal deaths and other adverse perinatal outcomes in the developing world.

  4. Factors related to main preventable perinatal injuries of public hospital in the Brazilian Federal District.

    OpenAIRE

    Pamella Padilha BRITO; Lissandra Martins SOUZA

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The quality of prenatal care, childbirth and newborn are determinants of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The realization of a adequate prenatal care and skilled birth assistance would reduce the incidence of injuries and perinatal deaths that are largely preventable. Method: Descriptive and exploratory study of quantitative and qualitative nature.  Interview and review of medical records of thirty mothers and newborns were made. The results were chart using the SPSS software,...

  5. Factores asociados a asfixia perinatal en un hospital de Callao, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Romero

    2016-06-01

    Conclusiones: En el hospital nacional estudiado, los principales factores de riesgo para la asfixia perinatal fueron el desprendimiento prematuro de placenta, el trabajo de parto prolongado, la corioamnionitis, la preeclampsia, la restricción de crecimiento intrauterino y recién nacido pretérmino. Los factores protectores para la asfixia perinatal fueron el grado de instrucción superior y el control prenatal adecuado.

  6. High Saturated Fat Diet Induces Gestational Diabetes, Perinatal Skeletal Malformation and Adult-Onset Chronic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Chengya

    2009-01-01

    Adult exposure to high fat diet (HFD) has been linked to increased risk of musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases; however, the contribution of gestational HFD to elevated oxidative stress (OS), perinatal cardiovascular, skeletal, and metabolic dysfunction as well as long-term effects on adult offspring are incompletely understood. Pathophysiologic mechanisms linking gestational HFD, OS, and insulin resistance to perinatal development and adult-onset chronic diseases are exp...

  7. Perinatal exposure to mixtures of anti-androgenic chemicals causes proliferative lesions in rat prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Hadrup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of endogenous or exogenous estrogens during fetal life can induce permanent disturbances in prostate growth and predispose to precancerous lesions. Recent studies have indicated that also early anti-androgen exposure may affect prostate cancer risk. METHODS: We examine...... disrupters relevant for human exposure was found to elicit persistent effects on the rat prostate following perinatal exposure, suggesting that human perinatal exposure to environmental chemicals may increase the risk of prostate cancer later in life. Prostate....

  8. Depression literacy and awareness of psychopathological symptoms during the perinatal period.

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Ana; Silva, Sheila; Canavarro,Maria Cristina

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize women's depression literacy during the perinatal period, including their ability to recognize clinically significant symptoms of depression. DESIGN: A quantitative, cross-sectional, survey design. SETTING: Internet communities and Web sites focused on the topics of pregnancy and motherhood. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 194 women during the perinatal period (32.5% pregnant, 67.5% postnatal) completed the survey; 34.0% had clinically significant ps...

  9. Approaches to health-care provider education and professional development in perinatal depression: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Legere, Laura E.; Wallace, Katherine; Bowen, Angela; McQueen, Karen; Montgomery, Phyllis; Evans, Marilyn

    2017-01-01

    Background Perinatal depression is the most common mental illness experienced by pregnant and postpartum women, yet it is often under-detected and under-treated. Some researchers suggest this may be partly influenced by a lack of education and professional development on perinatal depression among health-care providers, which can negatively affect care and contribute to stigmatization of women experiencing altered mood. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to provide a synthesis of...

  10. Sociodemographic characteristics and perinatal mortality among singletons in North East Tanzania: a registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, N Abu; Lie, R T; Oneko, O; Shao, J; Bergsjø, P; Daltveit, A K

    2008-11-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest known perinatal mortality rates in the World, but few studies have assessed the importance of parental sociodemographic characteristics on perinatal mortality in this region. The aim of this study was to estimate how sociodemographic patterns affect perinatal mortality in Northern Tanzania. A registry-based study using births from 1999 to 2006 at a hospital in North Eastern Tanzania. 14 394 singleton births with birthweight 500 g or higher and a known perinatal survival status. Births of women with residence outside the local district who were referred to the hospital for delivery for medical reasons were excluded. Perinatal mortality was 41.1 per 1000 births. Factors independently associated with higher perinatal mortality were: higher paternal age (> 45) compared to age 26-35 (adjusted relative risk (ARR) 2.0; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.8), low paternal education (only primary) compared to secondary or higher (ARR 1.3; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.7), paternal ethnicity other than Chagga or Pare (ARR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.7), paternal farming occupation (ARR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.2), maternal service occupation (ARR 1.7; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.6), maternal height 150 cm or lower (ARR 1.4; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.8) and residence in the rural or semi-urban area (ARR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.7). There are strong sociodemographic gradients in perinatal mortality in Africa. Paternal social characteristics appear to have stronger influence on perinatal mortality than maternal characteristics. This may reflect social and cultural conditions that need to be considered by policymakers in developing countries.

  11. Depressive symptomatology and grief in Spanish women who have suffered a perinatal loss

    OpenAIRE

    Ridaura, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Perinatal grief differs from other types of mourning. Two goals were set: to describe the progression of the process of grief and the symptoms of depression throughout the year following perinatal loss, and to study its association with socio-economic and obstetric factors. Method: The study involved the participation of 70 women who had suffered a medical termination of pregnancy or a prenatal/postnatal death. Three assessments were made after the loss (after 1 month, 6 months and 1 year) wi...

  12. CROSS-CULTURAL ADAPTATION AND VALIDATION EVIDENCE OF THE PERINATAL GRIEF SCALE

    OpenAIRE

    Paris, Gisele Ferreira; Montigny, Francine de; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to carry out cross-cultural adaptation and validation of evidence Perinatal Grief Scale into Portuguese of Brazil and French of Canada languages. Method: a methodological study involving application of Perinatal Grief Scale from the set of cross-cultural adaptation procedures. The population was all women that had stillbirth in the year 2013 residents in the municipal district of Maringa-Brazil and participants of the Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche en Intervention Famil...

  13. Neonatal seizures triple the risk of a remote seizure after perinatal ischemic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, CK; Glass, HC; Sidney, S; Smith, SE; Fullerton, HJ

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 American Academy of Neurology. To determine incidence rates and risk factors of remote seizure after perinatal arterial ischemic stroke. Methods: We retrospectively identified a population-based cohort of children with perinatal arterial ischemic stroke (presenting acutely or in a delayed fashion) from a large Northern Californian integrated health care system. We determined incidence and predictors of a remote seizure (unprovoked seizure after neonatal period, defined as 28 days of li...

  14. Perinatal nutrition programs neuroimmune function long-term: mechanisms and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Spencer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Our early life nutritional environment can influence several aspects of physiology, including our propensity to become obese. There is now evidence to suggest perinatal diet can also independently influence development of our innate immune system. This review will address three not-necessarily-exclusive mechanisms by which perinatal nutrition can program neuroimmune function long-term: by predisposing the individual to obesity, by altering the gut microbiota, and by inducing epigenetic modifications that alter gene transcription throughout life.

  15. On the Same Page: A Novel Interprofessional Model of Patient-Centered Perinatal Consultation Visits

    OpenAIRE

    Phillippi, Julia C.; Holley, Sharon L.; Schorn, Mavis N.; Lauderdale, Jana; Roumie, Christianne L.; Bennett, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To plan and implement an interprofessional collaborative care clinic for women in midwifery care needing a consultation with a maternal-fetal medicine specialist. DESIGN A community-engaged design was used to develop a new model of collaborative perinatal consultation which was tested with 50 women. Participant perinatal outcomes and semi-structured interviews with 15 women (analyzed using qualitative descriptive analysis) and clinic providers were used to evaluate the model. RESULT...

  16. Using action research to develop midwives' skills to support women with perinatal mental health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Deirdre; Sliney, Annmarie; O'Friel, Aoife; McMackin, Barbara; O'Callaghan, Bernie; Casey, Kate; Courtney, Lisa; Fleming, Valerie; Brady, Vivienne

    2017-05-30

    The aim of the research was to identify and develop midwives' skills to support women with mental health needs during pregnancy, using an action research approach. A review of perinatal mental health services in a large Dublin maternity unit revealed a high number of referred women who 'did not attend' the perinatal mental health service with few guidelines in place to support midwives in identifying and referring women for specialist help. Action research using cooperative inquiry involved a mental health nurse specialist and a team of midwives, who were drawn to each other in mutual concern about an area of practice. Data were gathered from three Cooperative Inquiry meetings, which incorporated one main Action Research Cycle of constructing, planning, taking and evaluating action. Data were analysed using a thematic content analysis framework. Participants experienced varying levels of uncertainty about how to support women with perinatal mental health needs. Cooperative inquiry supported participants in making sense of how they understood perinatal mental health and how they managed challenges experienced when caring for women with perinatal mental health issues. Participants developed a referral pathway, highlighted the significance of education to support women with perinatal mental health issues and identified the value of using open questions to promote conversation with pregnant women about mental health. Midwives value education and support to identify and refer women at risk of perinatal mental health issues. Cooperative inquiry, with a focus on action and shared reflection, facilitated the drawing together of two professional groups with diverse knowledge bases to work together to develop practice in an area of mutual concern. Perinatal mental health is a significant public health issue and midwives need support to make psychosocial assessments and to negotiate access to specialist services where available and when required. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons

  17. Effects of tobacco exposure on perinatal suicidal ideation, depression, and anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Shu-Chuan; Huang, Jian-Pei; Huang, Ya-Li; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have stressed the importance of tobacco exposure for the mood disorders of depression and anxiety. Although a few studies have focused on perinatal women, none have specifically considered the effects of smoking and secondhand smoke exposure on perinatal suicidal ideation. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the relationships of smoking/secondhand smoke exposure status with suicidal ideation, depression, and anxiety from the first trimester to the first month pos...

  18. A systematic review of concepts related to women's empowerment in the perinatal period and their associations with perinatal depressive symptoms and premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Esmeralda R; Yim, Ilona S

    2017-11-08

    The perinatal period, which we here define as pregnancy and the first year postpartum, is a time in women's lives that involves significant physiological and psychosocial change and adjustment, including changes in their social status and decision-making power. Supporting women's empowerment at this particular time in their lives may be an attractive opportunity to create benefits for maternal and infant health outcomes such as reductions in perinatal depressive symptoms and premature birth rates. Thus, we here systematically review and critically discuss the literature that investigates the effects of empowerment, empowerment-related concepts and empowerment interventions on reductions in perinatal depressive symptoms, preterm birth (PTB), and low birthweight (LBW). For this systematic review, we conducted a literature search in PsychInfo, PubMed, and CINAHL without setting limits for date of publication, language, study design, or maternal age. The search resulted in 27 articles reporting on 25 independent studies including a total of 17,795 women. The majority of studies found that, for the most part, measures of empowerment and interventions supporting empowerment are associated with reduced perinatal depressive symptoms and PTB/LBW rates. However, findings are equivocal and a small portion of studies found no significant association between empowerment-related concepts and perinatal depressive symptoms and PTB or LBW. This small body of work suggests, for the most part, that empowerment-related concepts may be protective for perinatal depressive symptoms and PTB/LBW. We recommend that future theory-driven and integrative work should include an assessment of different facets of empowerment, obtain direct measures of empowerment, and address the relevance of important confounders, including for example, ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

  19. Towards Better Understanding of the Pathogenesis of Neuronal Respiratory Network in Sudden Perinatal Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riffat Mehboob

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sudden perinatal death that includes the victims of sudden infant death syndrome, sudden intrauterine death syndrome, and stillbirth are heartbreaking events in the life of parents. Most of the studies about sudden perinatal death were reported from Italy, highlighting two main etiological factors: prone sleeping position and smoking. Other probable contributory factors are prematurity, male gender, lack of breastfeeding, respiratory tract infections, use of pacifiers, infant botulism, extensive use of pesticides and insecticides, etc. However, extensive studies across the world are required to establish the role of these factors in a different subset of populations. Previous studies confirmed the widely accepted hypothesis that neuropathology of the brainstem is one of the main cause of sudden perinatal death. This study is an effort to summarize the neuropathological evaluation of the brainstems and their association to sudden perinatal death. Brainstem nuclei in vulnerable infants undergo certain changes that may alter the sleep arousal cycle, cardiorespiratory control, and ultimately culminate in death. This review focuses on the roles of different brainstem nuclei, their pathologies, and the established facts in this regard in terms of it’s link to such deaths. This study will also help to understand the role of brainstem nuclei in controlling the cardiorespiratory cycles in sudden perinatal death and may provide a better understanding to resolve the mystery of these deaths in future. It is also found that a global initiative to deal with perinatal death is required to facilitate the diagnosis and prevention in developed and as well as developing countries.

  20. Spatial analysis of perinatal mortality rates with geographic information systems in Kocaeli, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, O; Çepni, M S; Etiler, N

    2013-04-01

    To determine the spatial patterns of perinatal mortality in Kocaeli, Turkey using geographic information systems (GIS); to examine whether regional differences exist for the period selected; and whether these differences are linked to regional risk factors. Ecological research. Data were obtained from the linked birth-death records data registry maintained by Kocaeli Provincial Health Directorate. Mortality data are added to the geodatabase on a monthly basis. Spatial patterns of mortality rates were determined with GIS by mapping the case differences in the districts, and spatial autocorrelation was used to examine the spatial pattern of mortality rates in the region. Various risk factors contributing to spatial variation of perinatal mortality were revealed in the region. Districts with high mortality rates were shown to be sensitive to these risk factors. The results of this study confirm the direct link between perinatal mortality and poor environmental conditions in the study region. The analyses applied in the study showed that some complex demographic and socio-economic factors should be associated with perinatal mortality rates to identify the geographic patterns of mortality. Implementation of spatial tools within GIS for mortality data showed the efficiency of GIS in perinatal mortality surveillance. This study also demonstrated the capability and utility of GIS to clarify the geographical distribution of perinatal mortality rates in the study area. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Perinatal hypothyroidism modulates antioxidant defence status in the developing rat liver and heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Dong, Yan; Su, Qing

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant defence status in perinatal hypothyroid rat liver and heart. We found that the proteincarbonyl content did not differ significantly between the three groups both in the pup liver and in the heart. The OH˙ level was significantly decreased in the hypothyroid heart but not in the liver compared with controls. A slight but not significant decrease in SOD activity was observed in both perinatal hypothyroid liver and heart. A significantly increased activity of CAT was observed in the liver but not in the heart of hypothyroid pups. The GPx activity was considerably increased compared with controls in the perinatal hypothyroid heart and was unaltered in the liver of hypothyroid pups. We also found that vitamin E levels in the liver decreased significantly in hypothyroidism and were unaltered in the heart of perinatal hypothyroid rats. The GSH content was elevated significantly in both hypothyroid liver and heart. The total antioxidant capacity was higher in the liver of the hypothyroid group but not in the hypothyroid heart. Thyroxine replacement could not repair the above changes to normal. In conclusion, perinatal hypothyroidism modulates the oxidative stress status of the perinatal liver and heart.

  2. Perinatal growth restriction decreases diuretic action of furosemide in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Barent N; Pearson, Jacob; Mahmood, Tahir; Nguyen, Duc; Thornburg, Kent; Cherala, Ganesh

    2014-04-05

    Perinatal growth restriction programs higher risk for chronic disease during adulthood via morphological and physiological changes in organ systems. Perinatal growth restriction is highly correlated with a decreased nephron number, altered renal function and subsequent hypertension. We hypothesize that such renal maladaptations result in altered pharmacologic patterns for life. Maternal protein restriction during gestation and lactation was used to induce perinatal growth restriction in the current study. The diuretic response of furosemide (2mg/kg single i.p. dose) in perinatally growth restricted rats during adulthood was investigated. Diuresis, natriuresis and renal excretion of furosemide were significantly reduced relative to controls, indicative of decreased efficacy. While a modest 12% decrease in diuresis was observed in males, females experienced 26% reduction. It is important to note that the baseline urine output and natriuresis were similar between treatment groups. The in vitro renal and hepatic metabolism of furosemide, the in vivo urinary excretion of the metabolite, and the expression of renal drug transporters were unaltered. Creatinine clearance was significantly reduced by 15% and 19% in perinatally growth restricted male and female rats, respectively. Further evidence of renal insufficiency was suggested by decreased uric acid clearance. Renal protein expression of sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter, a pharmacodynamic target, was unaltered. In summary, perinatal growth restriction could permanently imprint pharmacokinetic processes affecting drug response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The value of customised centiles in assessing perinatal mortality risk associated with parity and maternal size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardosi, J; Clausson, B; Francis, A

    2009-09-01

    We wanted to compare customised and population standards for defining smallness for gestational age (SGA) in the assessment of perinatal mortality risk associated with parity and maternal size. Population-based cohort study. Sweden. Swedish Birth Registry database 1992-1995 with 354 205 complete records. Coefficients were derived and applied to determine SGA by the fully customised method, or by adjustment for fetal sex only, and using the same fetal weight standard. Perinatal deaths and rates of small for gestational age (SGA) babies within subgroups stratified by parity, body mass index (BMI) and maternal size within the BMI range of 20.0-24.9. Perinatal mortality rates (PMR) had a U-shaped distribution in parity groups, increased proportionately with maternal BMI, and had no association with maternal size within the normal BMI range. For each of these subgroups, SGA rates determined by the customised method showed strong association with the PMR. In contrast, SGA based on uncustomised, population-based centiles had poor correlation with perinatal mortality. The increased perinatal mortality risk in pregnancies of obese mothers was associated with an increased risk of SGA using customised centiles, and a decreased risk of SGA using population-based centiles. The use of customised centiles to determine SGA improves the identification of pregnancies which are at increased risk of perinatal death.

  4. Towards Better Understanding of the Pathogenesis of Neuronal Respiratory Network in Sudden Perinatal Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehboob, Riffat; Kabir, Mahvish; Ahmed, Naseer; Ahmad, Fridoon Jawad

    2017-01-01

    Sudden perinatal death that includes the victims of sudden infant death syndrome, sudden intrauterine death syndrome, and stillbirth are heartbreaking events in the life of parents. Most of the studies about sudden perinatal death were reported from Italy, highlighting two main etiological factors: prone sleeping position and smoking. Other probable contributory factors are prematurity, male gender, lack of breastfeeding, respiratory tract infections, use of pacifiers, infant botulism, extensive use of pesticides and insecticides, etc. However, extensive studies across the world are required to establish the role of these factors in a different subset of populations. Previous studies confirmed the widely accepted hypothesis that neuropathology of the brainstem is one of the main cause of sudden perinatal death. This study is an effort to summarize the neuropathological evaluation of the brainstems and their association to sudden perinatal death. Brainstem nuclei in vulnerable infants undergo certain changes that may alter the sleep arousal cycle, cardiorespiratory control, and ultimately culminate in death. This review focuses on the roles of different brainstem nuclei, their pathologies, and the established facts in this regard in terms of it's link to such deaths. This study will also help to understand the role of brainstem nuclei in controlling the cardiorespiratory cycles in sudden perinatal death and may provide a better understanding to resolve the mystery of these deaths in future. It is also found that a global initiative to deal with perinatal death is required to facilitate the diagnosis and prevention in developed and as well as developing countries.

  5. Experiences with perinatal death reviews in South Africa--the Perinatal Problem Identification Programme: scaling up from programme to province to country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoda, N R; Greenfield, D; Muller, M; Prinsloo, R; Pattinson, R C; Kauchali, S; Kerber, K

    2014-09-01

    The Perinatal Problem Identification Programme (PPIP) was designed and developed in South Africa as a facility audit tool for perinatal deaths. It has been used by only a few hospitals since the late 1990s, but since the country's commitment to achieve Millennium Development Goal 4-the use of PPIP is now mandatory for all facilities delivering pregnant mothers and caring for newborns. To date 588 sites, representing 73% of the deliveries captured by the District Health Information System for South Africa, provide data to the national database at the Medical Research Council Unit for Maternal and Infant Health Care Strategies in Pretoria. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. Umbilical cord blood banking: implications for perinatal care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armson, B Anthony

    2005-03-01

    To evaluate the risks and benefits of umbilical cord blood banking for future stem cell transplantation and to provide guidelines for Canadian perinatal care providers regarding the counselling, procedural, and ethical implications of this potential therapeutic option. Selective or routine collection and storage of umbilical cord blood for future autologous (self) or allogenic (related or unrelated) transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells to treat malignant and nonmalignant disorders in children and adults. Maternal and perinatal morbidity, indications for umbilical cord blood transplantation, short- and long-term risks and benefits of umbilical cord blood transplantation, burden of umbilical cord blood collection on perinatal care providers, parental satisfaction, and health care costs. MEDLINE and PubMed searches were conducted from January 1970 to October 2003 for English-language articles related to umbilical cord blood collection, banking, and transplantation; the Cochrane library was searched; and committee opinions of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists were obtained. The evidence collected was reviewed and evaluated by the Maternal/Fetal Medicine Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC), and recommendations were made using the evaluation of evidence guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Exam. Umbilical cord blood is a readily available source of hematopoietic stem cells used with increasing frequency as an alternative to bone marrow or peripheral stem cells for transplantation in the treatment of malignant and nonmalignant conditions in children and adults. Umbilical cord blood transplantation provides a rich source of hematopoietic stem cells with several advantages, including prompt availability, decreased risk of transmissible viral infections and graft

  7. TIME COURSE MODIFICATIONS INDUCED BY PERINATAL ASPHYXIA IN RAT CNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Capani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal asphyxia (PA induced short and long term biochemical, synaptic, cytoskeletal and astrocytes alterations that has been associated with neuronal cell death following hypoxia . The lack of knowledge about the mechanisms underlying this dysfunction prompted us to investigate the changes in the synapse and neuronal cytoskeleton and related structures. For this study we used a well established murine model of PA. Full-term pregnant rats were rapidly decapitated and the uterus horns were placed in a water bath at 37 °C for different time of asphyxia. When their physiological conditions improved, they were given to surrogate mothers. One month, four month, 6 month and 18 month after PA rats were included in this study. Modifications were analyzed using photooxidation with phalloidin-eosin, conventional electron microscopy (EM, inmunocytochemistry and ethanolic phosphotungstic acid (E-PTA staining combining with electron tomography and 3-D reconstruction techniques and molecular biology studies. After one month of the PA insult, an increase in the F-actin staining in neostriatum and hippocampus synapses was observed using correlative fluorescent electron microscopy for phalloidin-eosin. Mushroom-shaped spines showed the most consistent staining. Strong alterations in the dendrite and astroglial cytoskeleton were found at four months of PA (1. After six months of PA, postsynaptic densities (PSDs of the rat neostriatum are highly modified . We observed an increment of PSDs thickness related with the duration and severity of the hypoxic insult. In addition, PSDs showed and increase in the ubiquitination level. Using 3-d reconstruction and electron tomography we observed showed clear signs of damage in the asphyctic PSDs. These changes are correlated with intense staining for ubiquitin (2. Finally, in 18 months old rat was observed a reduction in the number of synapses in the PA animals related with a decrease in BDNF staining.(3 Using protocols

  8. Asfixia perinatal asociada a la mortalidad neonatal temprana: estudio de población de los óbitos evitables

    OpenAIRE

    Daripa, Mandira; Caldas, Helena Maria G.; Flores, Luis Patricio O.; Waldvogel, Bernadette Cunha; Guinsburg, Ruth; Almeida, Maria Fernanda B. de

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the epidemiological profile of avoidable early neonatal deaths associated with perinatal asphyxia according to region of death in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Population-based cohort study including 2,873 avoidable deaths up to six days of life associated with perinatal asphyxia from January 2001 to December 2003. Perinatal asphyxia was considered if intrauterine hypoxia, birth asphyxia, or meconium aspiration syndrome were written in any line of the original...

  9. Perinatal and maternal complications related to postterm delivery: A national register-based study, 1978-1993

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes G.; Olsen, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    to analyze data. RESULTS: The risk of perinatal and obstetric complications was high in postterm delivery compared with term delivery (adjusted odds ratios between 1.2 and 3.1). The risk of perinatal death was 1.33 (1.05-1.68). CONCLUSION: Postterm delivery was associated with significantly increased risks...... of perinatal and maternal complications in Denmark in the period from 1978 to 1993....

  10. Efeitos da asfixia perinatal sobre os hormônios tireoidianos Effect of perinatal asphyxia on thyroid hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise N. Pereira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar o efeito da asfixia perinatal sobre os hormônios tireóideos. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo de caso-controle, no hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, envolvendo 17 recém-nascidos a termo asfixiados (A e 17 não-asfixiados (N, pareados conforme a cor, sexo, tipo de parto, idade gestacional e peso de nascimento. Foram coletados T4, T3, T4 livre, T3 reverso e TSH do sangue do cordão e do recém-nascido com 18 a 24 horas de vida, entre os que sofreram ou não asfixia perinatal. RESULTADOS: No sangue de cordão, não houve diferença na dosagem dos hormônios tireóideos, com exceção do T3 reverso, que foi mais elevado no grupo que sofreu asfixia [mediana (percentis 25-75 :A= 2(1,4-2; N= 1,41(1,13-1,92; p=0,037]. Com 18 a 24 horas de vida, foram significativamente menores no grupo de asfixiados, com exceção do T3 reverso, que foi semelhante entre os dois grupos [média ± DP: T4 A= 9,79 ± 2,59; N=14,68 ± 3,05; p OBJECTIVE: to verify the effect of perinatal asphyxia on thyroid hormone levels in term newborn infants. METHODS: We carried out a case-control study with 17 term and asphyxiated (A and 17 term and control (N newborn infants at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Patients were paired according to color of skin, sex, type of delivery, gestational age, and weight at birth. We collected umbilical cord plasma T4, T3, free T4, reverse T3, and TSH after 18 to 24 hours of life and from asphyxiated and control newborn infants. RESULTS: There were no differences in thyroid hormones of cord blood, with the exception of reverse T3, which was higher in A than in controls [median (25th-75th percentile: A= 2(1.4-2; N= 1.41 (1.13-1.92; P=0.037]. Thyroid hormone levels were lower in A than in controls on samples collected within 18-24 hours after birth, except for reverse T3, which was similar in both groups [average ± SD: T4 A= 9.79 ± 2.59; N=14.68 ± 3.05; P<0.001; median T3 A= 40.83 (37.4-80.4; N= 164 (56

  11. Perinatal complications, environmental factors and autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić-Maravić Vanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are characterized by qualitative impairment of social interactions, impairment of verbal and nonverbal communication, as well as restricted interests and repetitive behavior. ASD represent a group of complex psychiatric disorders, with both genetic and environmental factors implicated in their etiology. Recent neuroanatomical and epidemiological studies point out to prenatal and early postnatal genesis of ASD. Aim: In this review, we present recent studies that explored the effect of environmental, prenatal and perinatal risk factors on development of ASD. Also, we point out those factors that have been proven to have the strongest association with ASD, and emphasize a very complex interaction of individual factors that might eventually lead to manifestation of this group of disorders. Conclusion: A precise defining of risk factors might provide more insight not only into etiology of ASD, but might also give us a possibility for early recognition and possible prevention of autism spectrum disorders, especially in susceptible individuals. It is also a first step in defining the basis of the gene-environment interaction mechanism, which might enable the development of an individualized therapeutic approach for this group of disorders.

  12. ANRIL Promoter DNA Methylation: A Perinatal Marker for Later Adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lillycrop

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies show a substantial contribution of early life environment to obesity risk through epigenetic processes. We examined inter-individual DNA methylation differences in human birth tissues associated with child's adiposity. We identified a novel association between the level of CpG methylation at birth within the promoter of the long non-coding RNA ANRIL (encoded at CDKN2A and childhood adiposity at age 6-years. An association between ANRIL methylation and adiposity was also observed in three additional populations; in birth tissues from ethnically diverse neonates, in peripheral blood from adolescents, and in adipose tissue from adults. Additionally, CpG methylation was associated with ANRIL expression in vivo, and CpG mutagenesis in vitro inhibited ANRIL promoter activity. Furthermore, CpG methylation enhanced binding to an Estrogen Response Element within the ANRIL promoter. Our findings demonstrate that perinatal methylation at loci relevant to gene function may be a robust marker of later adiposity, providing substantial support for epigenetic processes in mediating long-term consequences of early life environment on human health.

  13. Perinatal asphyxia and medical professional liability: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Verzeletti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of medical professional liability, obstetrics is one of the most involved medical specialties because the unfavorable outcome of a pregnancy is difficult to accept for parents, who tend to reduce it to inappropriate care that occurred during pregnancy or birth. 32 cases of perinatal asphyxia were evaluated by the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Brescia during the period between 1999 and 2014 (13 in Civil Court and 19 in Penal Court. 9 out of the 32 pregnancies were twins, so the considerations were carried out on a total of 41 fetuses/newborns. Profiles of inadequacy were identified in 66% of cases (85% of the cases evaluated in Civil Court; 53% of the cases evaluated in Penal Court. The existence of a causal relationship between the medical conduct and the onset of asphyxia was recognized in 79% of civil cases and in 38% of penal cases. There is a “greater rigor” in the verification of causal relationship and malpractice profiles in penal cases compared to civil ones: this is in harmony with the most recent Italian Court decisions, characterized by compelling suspect’s protection in the presence of a reasonable doubt in criminal matters and by victim’s protection in civil ones.

  14. [Neurological consequences following perinatal asphyxia in preschool age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabieva, T N

    2009-01-01

    Various groups have been addressing the question of whether perinatal asphyxia (PA) affects on newborn health and nervous system. It is widely accepted that severe PA causes motor and cognitive alterations and leads to a variety of brain disorders: cerebral palsy, epilepsy, mental retardation as well as psychiatric deficits. At the same time it was established, that large percentage of children, surviving PA didn't demonstrate apparent sequelae, but mild physical and mental delay in future. With the purpose of disclose further consequences of PA on child development, we examine 20 children (6 years old) surviving mild or moderate PA without severe neurological pathology. In most cases we revealed muscle tone disturbances, physical development and growth retardation, speech pathology in the form of dyslaliya and speech delay. Intact cognitive capacities in these children combine with limited information content. Our investigation discovered, that the presence of certain psychoneurological characteristics such as hyperexcitability, irritability, timidity, aggressiveness; reduced activity, concentration and motivation -- are the consequences of survived birth trauma. These characteristics producing undue fatiguability, inattention, restlessness and diminished working-capacity, can pose additional problems in education process. In the absence of individual approach without taking into account emotional and motivational peculiarities, this category of children could not completely realize their intact cognitive capacities and represent risk group for further mild retardation.

  15. Cocaine use in pregnancy: perinatal morbidity and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasnoff, I J; Burns, K A; Burns, W J

    1987-01-01

    With the increasing use of cocaine in the United States, there has been growing concern regarding its effects on the fetuses and neonates of pregnant cocaine abusers. Fifty-two cocaine-using women enrolled in a comprehensive perinatal addiction program were evaluated and compared with 73 women who had used narcotics in the past and were maintained on methadone during pregnancy. The groups were similar in maternal age, socioeconomic status, number of pregnancies and cigarette, marijuana and alcohol use. The cocaine-using women had a significantly higher rate of premature labor, precipitous labor, abruptio placentae, fetal monitor abnormality and fetal meconium staining than the women in the methadone group. Neonatal gestational age, birth weight, length and head circumference were not affected by cocaine use compared to methadone use. However, the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale revealed that infants exposed to cocaine had significant depression of organizational response to environmental stimuli (state organization) when compared to methadone-exposed infants. In another aspect of the study, an increased rate of SIDS (15%) was found for 66 cocaine-exposed infants as compared to a 4% rate of SIDS in 50 methadone-exposed infants.

  16. Nurses’ Experiences of Grieving When There Is a Perinatal Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Jonas-Simpson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many nurses grieve when patients die; however, nurses’ grief is not often acknowledged or discussed. Also, little attention is given to preparing nurses for this experience in schools of nursing and in orientations to health care organizations. The purpose of this research was to explore obstetrical and neonatal nurses’ experiences of grieving when caring for families who experience loss after perinatal death. A visual arts-informed research method through the medium of digital video was used, informed by human science nursing, grief concepts, and interpretive phenomenology. Five obstetrical nurses and one neonatal intensive care nurse who cared for bereaved families voluntarily participated in this study. Nurses shared their experiences of grieving during in-depth interviews that were professionally audio- and videotaped. Data were analyzed using an iterative process of analysis-synthesis to identify themes and patterns that were then used to guide the editing of the documentary. Thematic patterns identified throughout the data were growth and transformation amid the anguish of grief, professional and personal impact, and giving–receiving meaningful help. The thematic pattern of giving–receiving meaningful help was made up of three thematic threads: support from colleagues; providing authentic, compassionate, quality care; and education and mentorship. Nurses’ grief is significant. Nurses who grieve require acknowledgment, support, and education. Supporting staff through their grief may ultimately have a positive impact on quality of work life and home life for nurses and quality of care for bereaved families.

  17. Hippocampal Dendritic Spines Modifications Induced by Perinatal Asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Saraceno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal asphyxia (PA affects the synaptic function and morphological organization. In previous works, we have shown neuronal and synaptic changes in rat neostriatum subjected to hypoxia leading to long-term ubi-protein accumulation. Since F-actin is highly concentrated in dendritic spines, modifications in its organization could be related with alterations induced by hypoxia in the central nervous system (CNS. In the present study, we investigate the effects of PA on the actin cytoskeleton of hippocampal postsynaptic densities (PSD in 4-month-old rats. PSD showed an increment in their thickness and in the level of ubiquitination. Correlative fluorescence-electron microscopy photooxidation showed a decrease in the number of F-actin-stained spines in hippocampal excitatory synapses subjected to PA. Although Western Blot analysis also showed a slight decrease in β-actin in PSD in PA animals, the difference was not significant. Taken together, this data suggests that long-term actin cytoskeleton might have role in PSD alterations which would be a spread phenomenon induced by PA.

  18. PERINATAL DEVELOPMENT OF PIG’S DIGESTIVE TRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Krstanović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal development of the digestive system of piglets is a complex process characterized by numerous changes in the structural and functional level caused by the action of various factors. As the main organ in which digestion and absorption take place, the small intestine is most affected by these changes. During parturition the digestive system is colonized by numerous microorganisms which further stimulate the structural and immune development acting as a part of the protective barrier lining. Colostrum intake passively immunizes and promotes the development of the digestive system. The enzymatic system of piglets is undeveloped after parturition and adapted to colostrum and milk digestion developing gradually due to the interaction of food ingredients, microbiota and genes. After weaning piglets stop to eat temporarily and a short delay in growth and invasion of intestinal structure and function occure. In order to prepare the digestive system for weaning, it is important to start feeding piglets with high quality, hygienic and balanced forage on time.

  19. [Perinatal management of twins with discordant congenital defects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai-yan; Xing, Ai-yun; You, Yong; Liu, Xing-hui; Wang, Xiao-dong

    2014-11-01

    To review the outcomes of perinatal management of twins with discordant congenital defects. We retrospectively examined the cases of twins with discordant congenital defects treated in the West China Second University Hospital from December 2011 to December 2013. There were 26 cases of twins (14 dichorionic and 12 monochorionic) with one anomalous fetus. Of those twins, 16 were conceived by nature and 10 by in vitro fertilization and embryo tansfer (IVF-ET). Counselling services were offered to the parents by a multidisciplinary team about options of pregnancy. Termination of pregnancy was chosen on three monochorionic twins. Twelve pairs of twin were delivered at 26(+3)-37(+6) weeks gestation. One pair ended with neonatal death, and another one with gastroschisis was given intrapartum fetal operation. Selective termination was chosen on 11 cases using intracardiac injection of potassium chloride under ultrasonographic guidance (9 cases) or bipolar cord coagulation (2 cases). This resulted in ten live births delivered at 25(+5)-38(+4) gustation and one neonatal death. Early diagnosis of twins with discordant congenital defects is important. Multidisciplinary counselling services to parents are recommended for determination of options. Intensive prenatal care is essential in management of twins with discordant congenital defects.

  20. Modelo de gerencia para toma de decisiones en salud perinatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Mejía López

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el interés de revisar las estadísticas de salud perinatal a través del análisis de la mortalidad, se propone una metodología de análisis transferida por el CDC de Atlanta y adaptada por el grupo de investigadores de CEMIYA. Esta metodología contempla la fase de gerencia, la conceptualización de la vigilancia epidemiológica y la identificación de los actores del sistema general de seguridad social de salud, además de utilizar herramientas epidemiológicas descriptivas (tasas y proporciones las cuales definen cuantitativamente el problema. Propone el modelo variables de fácil recolección contenidas en los registros vitales de obligatorio diligenciamiento. Por último ilustra las causas básicas y directas de defunción permitiendo definir intervenciones específicas que apuntan a la solución de los problemas identificados. El caso permite que el lector se introduzca en la instrumentación del modelo con cifras de su institución o región de acuerdo con los datos disponibles.

  1. Keeping safe: teenagers' strategies for dealing with perinatal violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renker, Paula Rinard

    2003-01-01

    To identify strategies adolescents use to cope with and keep safe from perinatal violence. Exploratory descriptive design incorporating qualitative content analysis. A semistructured interview guide was used to inquire about coping strategies. 20 nonpregnant teenagers between the ages of 18 and 20 years who experienced violence before, during, or after a prior pregnancy, regardless of outcome, were recruited for this study from community advertising and two outpatient gynecologic clinics. The teenagers described experiences of rape, stalking, and physical and sexual violence. They identified perpetrators as family members, nonintimate social acquaintances, and male and female intimate partners. Five themes were identified that described the teenagers' experiences with "Keeping Safe," including Losing Ground: Moving Backward; Minimizing Damage: Decreasing the Impact and the Severity of Violence; Keeping Away: Drawing Inward and Moving On; Getting Help: Reaching Out to Others; and Taking Charge: Being Proactive. The teenagers were actively engaged in developing creative strategies to minimize stress and the severity of violence in their lives. They also incorporated maladaptive behaviors that further increased their jeopardy. Asking about the ways that teenagers deal with violence might assist health care workers to proactively minimize damage from ineffective coping mechanisms.

  2. Perinatal outcomes and unconventional natural gas operations in Southwest Pennsylvania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaina L Stacy

    Full Text Available Unconventional gas drilling (UGD has enabled extraordinarily rapid growth in the extraction of natural gas. Despite frequently expressed public concern, human health studies have not kept pace. We investigated the association of proximity to UGD in the Marcellus Shale formation and perinatal outcomes in a retrospective cohort study of 15,451 live births in Southwest Pennsylvania from 2007-2010. Mothers were categorized into exposure quartiles based on inverse distance weighted (IDW well count; least exposed mothers (first quartile had an IDW well count less than 0.87 wells per mile, while the most exposed (fourth quartile had 6.00 wells or greater per mile. Multivariate linear (birth weight or logistical (small for gestational age (SGA and prematurity regression analyses, accounting for differences in maternal and child risk factors, were performed. There was no significant association of proximity and density of UGD with prematurity. Comparison of the most to least exposed, however, revealed lower birth weight (3323 ± 558 vs 3344 ± 544 g and a higher incidence of SGA (6.5 vs 4.8%, respectively; odds ratio: 1.34; 95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.63. While the clinical significance of the differences in birth weight among the exposure groups is unclear, the present findings further emphasize the need for larger studies, in regio-specific fashion, with more precise characterization of exposure over an extended period of time to evaluate the potential public health significance of UGD.

  3. Perinatal factors, growth and development, and osteosarcoma risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, R; Masters, M N; Joshipura, K; Douglass, C; Cole, B F; Hoover, R N

    2006-12-04

    Osteosarcoma incidence patterns suggest an aetiologic role for perinatal factors, and growth and development. Osteosarcoma patients (n = 158) and controls with benign orthopaedic conditions (n = 141) under age 40 were recruited from US orthopaedic surgery departments. Exposures were ascertained by interview, birth, and growth records. Age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Current height and age- and sex-specific height percentiles were not associated with osteosarcoma risk. Male cases, however, appeared to have an earlier adolescent growth period, and earlier attainment of final height (OR = 7.1; 95% CI = 1.6-50 for puberty appeared protective with ORs of 0.41 (95% CI 0.18-0.89) and 0.68 (95% CI 0.31-1.5) for developing facial and pubic hair, respectively. High birth weight was associated with an elevated osteosarcoma risk (OR = 3.9; CI = 1.7-10 for 4000 g vs 3000-3500 g), although there was no trend in risk with increasing weight. These data provide some evidence that osteosarcoma is related to size at birth and in early adolescence, while earlier puberty in male subjects may be protective.

  4. Identification and Treatment of Adolescents With Perinatal Anxiety and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Linda Paine; Austin-Ketch, Tammy; Volpe, Ellen M; Campbell-Heider, Nancy

    2017-06-01

    Perinatal mood and anxiety disorders (PMAD) are the most common, yet under-diagnosed and undertreated complication of pregnancy, affecting up to 50% of pregnant and parenting teens. PMAD are a global health issue that can have devastating effects on the mental, physical, emotional, developmental health, and social life of the mother, infant, and family. Adolescents present with similar symptoms of PMAD as their adult counterparts, but also experience isolation from their peer group and lack of resources and coping strategies, as well as difficulty sleeping and lack of concentration and ability to focus. Nurses and nurse practitioners are in an ideal position to assess preexisting risk factors for PMAD. The current applied evidence-based article addresses the diagnosis of PMAD, provides a conceptual framework for understanding the intra- and interpersonal dynamics affecting teens with PMAD, and suggests a new screening tool to guide diagnosis. An easy to recall mnemonic for diagnosis and referral (SAIL AHEAD) is proposed. By using the SAIL AHEAD mnemonic, providers will impact adolescents' parenting success and resiliency, thereby enhancing their future success in life. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(6), 23-29.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Perinatal morbidity associated with violence experienced by pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, A B; Wiemann, C M; Wilkinson, G S; Jones, W A; Anderson, G D

    1994-06-01

    We investigated whether physical assault is independently associated with an adverse obstetric outcome. We compared the perinatal outcomes of 32 indigent women who reported being physically abused during pregnancy with those of 352 control subjects who denied ever being assaulted. Patients were classified into the appropriate category on the basis of a structured interview. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the relative risk of adverse outcome while adjusting for confounders. Women assaulted in the current pregnancy were twice as likely to have preterm labor as compared with those who denied assault. In addition, crude odds ratios showed a twofold increased risk of chorioamnionitis in assault victims. No difference between abused and nonabused women was noted in the prevalence of preterm delivery, pregnancy-induced hypertension, cesarean section, meconium staining, infant birth weight, Apgar scores, intrauterine growth retardation, fetal distress, fetal death, neonatal seizures, sepsis, or admission to the intensive care unit. This study demonstrates that physical assault during pregnancy is associated with preterm labor and chorioamnionitis. Screening for ongoing assault should be incorporated into routine prenatal care to identify women at risk of complications.

  6. Lung eicosanoids in perinatal rats with congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ijsselstijn

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal levels of pulmonary eicosanoids have been reported in infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPH and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH. We hypothesized that a dysbalance of vasoconstrictive and vasodilatory eicosanoids is involved in PPH in CDH patients. The levels of several eicosanoids in lung homogenates and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of controls and rats with CDH were measured after caesarean section or spontaneous birth. In controls the concentration of the stable metabolite of prostacyclin (6-keto-PGF1α, thromboxane A2 (TxB2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 decreased after spontaneous birth. CDH pups showed respiratory insufficiency directly after birth. Their lungs had higher levels of 6- keto-PGF1α, reflecting the pulmonary vasodilator prostacyclin (PGI2, than those of controls. We conclude that in CDH abnormal lung eicosanoid levels are present perinatally. The elevated levels of 6-keto-PGF1α in CDH may reflect a compensation mechanism for increased vascular resistance.

  7. An European concerted action investigating the validity of perinatal mortality as an outcome indicator for the quality of antenatal and perinatal care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardus, J.H.; Graafmans, W.C.; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Amelink-Verburg, M.P.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Mackenbach, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the concepts, objectives, design, and data analysis procedures of the EuroNatal study are described. This sutdy started in 1996 and is a concerted action including 14 countries in Europe. The EuroNatal study aims at determining the validity of national perinatal mortality rates as an

  8. Perinatal mental health service provision in Switzerland and in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel Castro, Rita T; Schroeder, Katrin; Pinard, Claudia; Blöchlinger, Patricia; Künzli, Hansjörg; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Kammerer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of maternal perinatal-psychiatric disorders as well as their effect on the baby is well recognised. Increasingly well researched specialised treatment methods can reduce maternal morbidity, positively affect mother-baby bonding and empower women's confidence as a mother. Here, we aimed to compare guidelines and the structure of perinatal-psychiatric service delivery in the United Kingdom and in Switzerland from the government's perspective. Swiss cantons provided information regarding guidelines and structure of service delivery in 2000. A subsequent survey using the same questionnaire was carried out in 2007. In the UK, similar information was accessed through published reports from 2000-2012. Guidelines for perinatal psychiatry exist in the UK, whereas in Switzerland in 2000 none of the 26 cantons had guidelines, and in 2007 only one canton did. Joint mother-baby admissions on general psychiatric wards were offered by 92% of the Swiss cantons. In the UK, pregnant women and joint mother-baby admissions are only advised onto specialised perinatal-psychiatric units. In Switzerland, in 2007, three specialised units (max. 24 beds) were in place corresponding to 1 unit per 2.5 million people, while in the UK there were 22 mother-baby units (168 beds) in 2012 (1 unit per 2.8 million). In the UK, less than 50% of trusts provided specialised perinatal-psychiatric health care. The main difference between the UK and Switzerland was the absence of guidelines, regular assessment and plans for future development of perinatal psychiatry in Switzerland. There are still geographical differences in the provision of perinatal-psychiatric services in the UK.

  9. Intrapartum electronic fetal heart rate monitoring and the prevention of perinatal brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ernest M; Petersen, Scott M; Christo, Dana K; Fox, Harold E

    2006-09-01

    Electronic fetal heart rate monitoring (EFM) is the most widely used method of intrapartum surveillance, and our objective is to review its ability to prevent perinatal brain injury and death. Studies that quantified intrapartum EFM and its relation to specific neurologic outcomes (seizures, periventricular leukomalacia, cerebral palsy, death) were eligible for inclusion. MEDLINE was searched from 1966 to 2006 for studies that examined the relationship between intrapartum EFM and perinatal brain injury using these MeSH and text words: "cardiotocography," "electronic fetal monitoring," "intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring," "intrapartum fetal monitoring," and "fetal heart rate monitoring." This search strategy identified 1,628 articles, and 41 were selected for further review. Articles were excluded for the following reasons: in case reports, letters, commentaries, and review articles, intrapartum EFM was not quantified, or specific perinatal neurologic morbidity was not measured. Three observational studies and a 2001 meta-analysis of 13 randomized controlled trials were selected for determination of the effect of intrapartum EFM on perinatal brain injury. Electronic fetal monitoring was introduced into widespread clinical practice in the late 1960s based on retrospective studies comparing its use to historical controls where auscultation was performed in a nonstandardized manner. Case-control studies have shown correlation of EFM abnormalities with umbilical artery base excess, but EFM was not able to identify cerebral white matter injury or cerebral palsy. Of 13 randomized controlled trials, one showed a significant decrease in perinatal mortality with EFM compared with auscultation. Meta-analysis of the randomized controlled trials comparing EFM with auscultation have found an increased incidence of cesarean delivery and decreased neonatal seizures but no effect on the incidence of cerebral palsy or perinatal death. Although intrapartum EFM abnormalities

  10. Análisis del comportamiento de la mortalidad materna y perinatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Uribe-Meneses

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se orientó a identificar las causas, calcular la tasa y caracterizar los casos de mortalidad materna y perinatal en la Empresa Social del Estado Hospital Regional Noroccidental del departamento Norte de Santander, entre los años 2006 a 2009. La investigación es de carácter cuantitativo, descriptivo, con enfoque retrospectivo. Se emplearon los siguientes instrumentos para la recolección de información: Ficha SIVIGILA de notificación mortalidad materno perinatal del Instituto Nacional de Salud, encuesta de visita de campo del protocolo para la vigilancia de la mortalidad materno-perinatal del Instituto Nacional de Salud, historias clínicas de cada uno de los casos objeto de estudio. La población es tomada del total de muertes maternas y perinatales de procedencia de la Empresa Social del Estado Hospital Regional Noroccidental del departamento Norte de Santander, la muestra está representada en el 100% de los de casos de mortalidad materna y perinatal de la ESE, que en total son 65 casos, 7 de mortalidad materna y 58 de mortalidad perinatal. Entre las causas identificadas como más prevalentes para la mortalidad materna fueron la eclampsia y/ pre-eclampsia, y la causa de mortalidad perinatal fue el síndrome de dificultad respiratoria, la tasa más alta de mortalidad materna la presentó el municipio del Carmen con 1.49 y convención con 1.41 por 10.000 MEF y la tasa de mortalidad perinatal la presentó el municipio del Carmen con una tasa de 29.65 por 1.000 nacidos vivos.

  11. Perinatal exposure to HIV among children born in Australia, 1982-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Ann M; Zurynski, Yvonne A; Wand, Handan C; Giles, Michelle L; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Ziegler, John B; Kaldor, John M

    2009-04-20

    To describe the pattern of perinatal HIV exposure and outcomes among children born in Australia, 1982-2006. National surveillance for perinatal HIV exposure. Women with HIV infection and their perinatally exposed children. Trends in the age-standardised rate of perinatal exposure, uptake of interventions by women with an antenatal HIV diagnosis, and rate of mother-to-child transmission. Between 1982 and 2006, there were 354 reported cases of perinatal HIV exposure among children born in Australia. The age-standardised rate of perinatal exposure per 100,000 live births increased from 2.3 (1982-1986) to 5.1 (1991-1998), 9.9 (1999-2002) and 8.3 (2003-2006). Among children whose mother was diagnosed antenatally, the mother-to-child transmission rate declined significantly, from 25% (4/16; 95% CI, 7%-52%) in 1987-1990 to 5% (4/82; 95% CI, 1%-12%) in 2003-2006 (P < 0.001). The rate declined from 8% (4/51; 95% CI, 2%-19%) in 1987-1998 to 1% (2/151; 95% CI, 0.2%-5%) in 1999-2006 among children whose mother used at least two interventions. Mother-to-child transmission remained high among children born to women diagnosed postnatally (39/87, 45%; 95% CI, 34%-56%) and to women diagnosed antenatally who used no interventions (7/15, 47%; 95% CI, 21%-73%). The increasing rate of perinatal exposure and the decreasing rate of mother-to-child transmission among children whose mothers' HIV infection was diagnosed antenatally were temporally associated with use of interventions for minimising mother-to-child transmission. Mother-to-child transmission remained high when the mother's HIV infection was not known during pregnancy.

  12. Representations of rituals and care in perinatal death in British midwifery textbooks 1937-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Joan; Taylor, Julie; Greene, Alexandra

    2008-09-01

    to assess the evolution of attitudes and practices relating to perinatal loss through an analysis of British midwifery textbooks. a literature review of midwifery textbooks, written or edited by midwives, published in the UK after 1902, and a critical analysis of textbooks to determine the ideological and professional standpoints presented to readers. the rhetoric and ritual relating to perinatal loss as portrayed in British midwifery textbooks has changed, with the most dramatic changes taking place in the past 30 years. Evidence to support the changes is largely anecdotal, and little reference is made to research relating to perinatal death. The 'dirty' elements of perinatal death relating to the decay that takes place in the baby's body after death are not addressed. The critique of psychological theory relating to loss is absent, as are alternatives to the model proposed by Kübler Ross. Cultural aspects of loss and bereavement are rarely addressed. the review of midwifery textbooks suggests that an ideological shift has taken place in relation to perinatal loss. The changing demographic trends, and the shift of birth and death from home to hospital, have altered the expectations and experiences of parents and professionals. Midwifery textbooks provide readers with a prescribed and formulaic approach to perinatal loss. the absence of information relating to the appearance of the dead baby, together with the lack of clinical exposure, may mean that midwives are unable to provide parents with appropriate information. The lack of reference to an evidence base that may conflict with the ideology presented in the midwifery textbooks leaves readers with an incomplete understanding of the professional issues relating to perinatal loss.

  13. Gestational age-specific perinatal mortality rates for assisted reproductive technology (ART) and other births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, Abrar A; Wang, Alex Y; Hilder, Lisa; Li, Zhuoyang; Lui, Kei; Farquhar, Cindy; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2018-02-01

    Is perinatal mortality rate higher among births born following assisted reproductive technology (ART) compared to non-ART births? Overall perinatal mortality rates in ART births was higher compared to non-ART births, but gestational age-specific perinatal mortality rate of ART births was lower for very preterm and moderate to late preterm births. Births born following ART are reported to have higher risk of adverse perinatal outcomes compared to non-ART births. This population-based retrospective cohort study included 407 368 babies (391 952 non-ART and 15 416 ART)-393 491 singletons and 10 877 twins or high order multiples. All births (≥20 weeks of gestation and/or ≥400 g of birthweight) in five states and territories in Australia during the period 2007-2009 were included in the study, using National Perinatal Data Collection (NPDC). Primary outcome measures were rates of stillbirth, neonatal and perinatal deaths. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to estimate the likelihood of perinatal death. Rates of multiple birth and low birthweight were significantly higher in ART group compared to the non-ART group (P ART births (16.5 per 1000 births, 95% CI 14.5-18.6), compared to non-ART births (11.3 per 1000 births, 95% CI 11.0-11.6) (AOR 1.45, 95% CI 1.26-1.68). However, gestational age-specific perinatal mortality rate of ART births (including both singletons and multiples) was lower for very preterm (ART births. Congenital abnormality and spontaneous preterm were the most common causes of neonatal deaths in both ART and non-ART group. Due to different cut-off limit for perinatal period in Australia, the results of this study should be interpreted with cautions for other countries. Australian definition of perinatal period commences at 20 completed weeks (140 days) of gestation and ends 27 completed days after birth which is different from the definition by World Health Organisation (commences at 22 completed weeks (154 days) of

  14. [Causes of stillbirths and perinatal death in Poland between 2007-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troszyński, Michał; Maciejewski, Tomasz; Wilczyfiska, Anna; Banach, Beata

    2011-08-01

    There has been significant improvement in perinatal care in the last two decades. Indicators representing the status of perinatal care are the frequency of stillbirths and deaths in the early postnatal period. In recent years the level of perinatal care of the mother remains stable while the level of perinatal deaths have been slightly decreasing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of stillbirths and early neonatal deaths. The study included Polish women who delivered in 12 regions of Poland between 2007-2009. Data were collected with the use of MZ 25 forms. There were 1214818 children delivered in Poland in years 2007-2009. Our data were collected in 12 regions, what amounts to about half of all deliveries. Perinatal death rate decreased during the last 12 years from 10,8 per thousand in year 1999 to 7,6 per thousand in 2008; 7, 19 per thousand in 2009; 6,79 per thousand in 2010, what was 4 per thousand in 12 year. 2484 deaths were divided into 9 groups according to ICD- 10 causes of deaths. 26,6% causes of deaths were unknown. Malformations were causes of 24% deaths, placental disorders--12%. Perinatal deaths of newborns--1412 cases were caused mostly by malformations--30,8%, disorders during pregnancy--35,4% and disorders of the pulmonary system--13%. Detailed analyses of each neonatal death and perinatal death in the first few hours after the deaths, performed by in the team of obstetricians and neonatologists, with specialists like pathomorphologists and geneticians, have great impact on the final correct cease description and determining the cause of death. It is also helpful in educating doctors and preparing proper equipment for hospitals. Our data showed the necessity to involve changes in perinatal care system. In will be helpful in early detections of malformations and redistribution of pregnant women with sick fetuses to Il level hospitals. There exists a need to introduce a compulsory detailed analyses of perinatal deaths in

  15. The Perinatal Risk Index: Early Risks Experienced by Domestic Adoptees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; De Araujo-Greecher, Marielena; Miller, Emily S; Massey, Suena H; Mayes, Linda C; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S; Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess comprehensively the prevalence of perinatal risks experienced by a potentially high-risk yet understudied population of children domestically adopted in the United States. Data are from participant report and medical records from mothers (n = 580) who completed a domestic adoption placement with nonrelatives at or near birth (Mean placement age = 7 days). We describe a comprehensive measure of perinatal risks, including divergences from previous assessment tools and the incorporation of multiple reporters, and report the prevalence of various types of perinatal risks. The prevalence of each specific risk factor was generally low, although several risks were more prevalent in this sample than estimates from nationally representative publicly available data. Nearly the entire sample (99%) experienced some type of risk exposure. Birth mothers who placed their children for adoption domestically in the US experience higher levels of perinatal risks than the national average, but not for all specific types of risk. Thus, the developmental trajectories of children adopted domestically may systematically differ from the general population to the extent that these specific perinatal risks impact development.

  16. Pathophysiology and neuroprotection of global and focal perinatal brain injury: lessons from animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titomanlio, Luigi; Fernández-López, David; Manganozzi, Lucilla; Moretti, Raffaella; Vexler, Zinaida S; Gressens, Pierre

    2015-06-01

    Arterial ischemic stroke occurs more frequently in term newborns than in the elderly, and brain immaturity affects mechanisms of ischemic injury and recovery. The susceptibility to injury of the brain was assumed to be lower in the perinatal period as compared with childhood. This concept was recently challenged by clinical studies showing marked motor disabilities after stroke in neonates, with the severity of motor and cortical sensory deficits similar in both perinatal and childhood ischemic stroke. Our understanding of the triggers and the pathophysiological mechanisms of perinatal stroke has greatly improved in recent years, but many factors remain incompletely understood. In this review, we focus on the pathophysiology of perinatal stroke and on therapeutic strategies that can protect the immature brain from the consequences of stroke by targeting inflammation and brain microenvironment. Studies in neonatal rodent models of cerebral ischemia have suggested a potential role for soluble inflammatory molecules as important modulators of injury and recovery. A great effort is underway to investigate neuroprotective molecules based on our increasing understanding of the pathophysiology. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of new insights concerning pathophysiology of focal and global perinatal brain injury and their implications for new therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, N; Rijntjes, E; van de Heijning, B J M

    2008-11-01

    A lack of thyroid hormone, i.e. hypothyroidism, during early development results in multiple morphological and functional alterations in the developing brain. In the present study, behavioural effects of perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism were assessed during development in both male and female offspring of hypothyroid rats. To induce hypothyroidism, dams and offspring were fed an iodide-poor diet and drinking water with 0.75% sodium perchlorate; dams starting 2 weeks prior to mating and pups either until the day of killing (chronic hypothyroidism) or only until weaning (perinatal hypothyroidism) to test for reversibility of the effects observed. Neuromotor competence, locomotor activity and cognitive function were monitored in the offspring until postnatal day 71 and were compared with age-matched control rats. Early neuromotor competence, as assessed in the grip test and balance beam test, was impaired by both chronic and perinatal hypothyroidism. The open field test, assessing locomotor activity, revealed hyperactive locomotor behavioural patterns in chronic hypothyroid animals only. The Morris water maze test, used to assess cognitive performance, showed that chronic hypothyroidism affected spatial memory in a negative manner. In contrast, perinatal hypothyroidism was found to impair spatial memory in female rats only. In general, the effects of chronic hypothyroidism on development were more pronounced than the effects of perinatal hypothyroidism, suggesting the early effects of hypothyroidism on functional alterations of the developing brain to be partly reversible and to depend on developmental timing of the deficiency.

  18. Modifiable partner factors associated with perinatal depression and anxiety: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Pamela D; Milne, Lisa C; Cairns, Kathryn E; Lewis, James; Whelan, Thomas A

    2015-06-01

    Perinatal distress is a significant public health problem that adversely impacts the individual and their family. The primary objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to identify factors that partners can modify to protect each other from developing perinatal depression and anxiety. In accordance with the PRISMA statement, we reviewed the risk and protective factors associated with perinatal depression and anxiety symptoms that partners can potentially modify without professional assistance (PROSPERO reference CRD42014007524). Participants were new or expectant parents aged 16 years or older. The partner factors were sub-grouped into themes (e.g., instrumental support) based on a content analysis of the scale items and measure descriptions. A series of meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the pooled effect sizes of associations. We included 120 publications, reporting 245 associations with depression and 44 with anxiety. Partner factors with sound evidence that they protect against both perinatal depression and anxiety are: emotional closeness and global support. Partner factors with a sound evidence base for depression only are communication, conflict, emotional and instrumental support, and relationship satisfaction. This review is limited by the lack of generalizability to single parents and the inability to systematically review moderators and mediators, or control for baseline symptoms. The findings suggest that future prevention programs targeting perinatal depression and anxiety should aim to enhance relationship satisfaction, communication, and emotional closeness, facilitate instrumental and emotional support, and minimize conflict between partners. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of perinatal outcomes in pregnant women with preterm premature rupture of membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sandro Rolland Souza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Objective: To determine the association between amniotic fluid index (AFI and perinatal outcomes in preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM. Method: A retrospective cohort study was conducted between 2008 and 2012. 86 pregnant women were included, with a diagnosis of PPROM and gestational age from 24 to 35 weeks. Women who presented hypertensive disorders, diabetes, fetuses with birth defects and infection at admission were excluded. To determine the association between AFI and perinatal outcomes, chi-square and Fisher’s exact test were used if necessary, as well as risk ratio (RR and 95% confidence intervals (95CI. Correlation between AFI and perinatal outcomes was determined by using simple linear regression, and AFI progression during pregnancy was analyzed by Z-test. Results: When comparing newborns presenting ultrasound with AFI5cm, there was a higher frequency of perinatal mortality when the AFI was lower than 5 cm. However, when the oligohydramnios was diagnosed as severe (AFI3cm. There was a positive correlation between AFI and gestational age at delivery, birth weight and Apgar scores at minutes 1 and 5. There was also a decrease in amniotic fluid volume with increased gestational age. Conclusion: The presence of severe oligohydramnios after PPROM contributed to a higher frequency of perinatal complications and death.

  20. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF INTERVENTIONS TARGETING PATERNAL MENTAL HEALTH IN THE PERINATAL PERIOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominov, Holly; Pilkington, Pamela D; Giallo, Rebecca; Whelan, Thomas A

    2016-05-01

    Interventions targeting parents' mental health in the perinatal period are critical due to potential consequences of perinatal mental illness for the parent, the infant, and their family. To date, most programs have targeted mothers. This systematic review explores the current status and evidence for intervention programs aiming to prevent or treat paternal mental illness in the perinatal period. Electronic databases were systematically searched to identify peer-reviewed studies that described an intervention targeting fathers' mental health in the perinatal period. Mental health outcomes included depression, anxiety, and stress as well as more general measures of psychological functioning. Eleven studies were identified. Three of five psychosocial interventions and three massage-technique interventions reported significant effects. None of the couple-based interventions reported significant effects. A number of methodological limitations were identified, including inadequate reporting of study designs, and issues with the timing of interventions. The variability in outcomes measures across the studies made it difficult to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the interventions. Father-focused interventions aimed at preventing perinatal mood problems will be improved if future studies utilize more rigorous research strategies. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  1. New Fathers' Perinatal Depression and Anxiety-Treatment Options: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Anthony P; McNeil, Karen A; Fletcher, Richard; Conrad, Agatha; Wilson, Amanda J; Jones, Donovan; Chan, Sally W

    2017-07-01

    More than 10% of fathers experience depression and anxiety during the perinatal period, but paternal perinatal depression (PPND) and anxiety have received less attention than maternal perinatal mental health problems. Few mainstream treatment options are available for men with PPND and anxiety. The aim of this literature review was to summarize the current understanding of PPND and the treatment programs specifically designed for fathers with perinatal depression. Eight electronic databases were searched using a predefined strategy, and reference lists were also hand searched. PPND and anxiety were identified to have a negative impact on family relationships, as well as the health of mothers and children. Evidence suggests a lack of support and tailored treatment options for men having trouble adjusting to the transition to fatherhood. Of the limited options available, cognitive behavioral therapy, group work, and blended delivery programs, including e-support approaches appear to be most effective in helping fathers with perinatal depression and anxiety. The review findings have important implications for the understanding of PPND and anxiety. Future research is needed to address the adoption of father-inclusive and father-specific models of care to encourage fathers' help-seeking behavior. Inclusion of male-specific requirements into support and treatment options can improve the ability of services to engage new fathers. Psychotherapeutic intervention could assist to address the cognitive differences and dissonance for men adjusting to the role of father, including male identity and role expectations.

  2. Obstetrical and perinatal outcomes in patients with or without obstetric analgesia during labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piedrahíta-Gutiérrez, Dany Leandro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe and compare the obstetric and perinatal outcomes in patients with or without obstetric analgesia during labor, and to determine whether such analgesia is associated with adverse maternal or perinatal outcomes. Methodology: Comparative, retrospective, descriptive study, between January and November 2014, that included 502 healthy patients with normal pregnancies, out of which 250 received obstetric analgesia. The groups were compared as to maternal and perinatal outcomes. Results: Young, single and nulliparous mothers predominated; delivery was vaginal in 86 % of the cases, and by caesarean section in 14 %. Obstetric analgesia was associated with longer duration of the second stage of labor, instrumental delivery and cesarean section due to arrest of dilatation or fetal bradycardia; however, it was not related with higher incidence of postpartum hemorrhage or adverse perinatal outcomes such as meconium-stained amniotic fluid, Apgar under 5 at one minute or under 7 at 5 minutes, the need for neonatal resuscitation or for admission to NICU. Conclusion: Obstetric analgesia increases the duration of the second stage of labor and can increase the rate of caesarean sections and instrumental delivery, but it is not associated with adverse maternal or perinatal outcomes. Therefore, its use in labor is justified.

  3. Perinatal distress and depression in Malawi: an exploratory qualitative study of stressors, supports and symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Robert C; Umar, Eric; Gleadow-Ware, Selena; Creed, Francis; Bristow, Katie

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative studies have demonstrated that depression and anxiety in the perinatal period are common amongst women in low- and middle-income countries and are associated with a range of psychosocial and health-related stressors. In this exploratory qualitative study conducted in southern Malawi, we investigated the thoughts and emotions experienced by women in pregnancy and the postnatal period, their expectations of support from husband and others, problems and difficulties faced and the impact of these on psychological wellbeing. We conducted 11 focus group discussions with a total of 98 parous women. A thematic analysis approach was used. Three major themes were identified: pregnancy as a time of uncertainty, the husband (and others) as support and stressor, and the impact of stressors on mental health. Pregnancy was seen as bringing uncertainty about the survival and wellbeing of both mother and unborn child. Poverty, lack of support, HIV, witchcraft and child illness were identified as causes of worry in the perinatal period. Husbands were expected to provide emotional, financial and practical support, with wider family and friends having a lesser role. Infidelity, abuse and abandonment were seen as key stressors in the perinatal period. Exposure to stressors was understood to lead to altered mental states, the symptoms of which are consistent with the concept of common perinatal mental disorder. This study confirms and expands on evidence from quantitative studies and provides formative data for the development of a psychosocial intervention for common perinatal mental disorder in Malawi.

  4. Development, reliability, and validity of the Alberta Perinatal Stroke Project Parental Outcome Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemister, Taryn B; Brooks, Brian L; Kirton, Adam

    2014-07-01

    Perinatal stroke is a leading cause of cerebral palsy and lifelong disability, although parent and family outcomes have not yet been studied in this specific population. The Alberta Perinatal Stroke Project Parental Outcome Measure was developed as a 26-item questionnaire on the impact of perinatal stroke on parents and families. The items were derived from expert opinion and scientific literature on issues salient to parents of children with perinatal stroke, including guilt and blame, which are not well captured in existing measures of family impact. Data were collected from 82 mothers and 28 fathers who completed the Parental Outcome Measure and related questionnaires (mean age, 39.5 years; mean child age, 7.4 years). Analyses examined the Parental Outcome Measure's internal consistency, test-retest reliability, validity, and factor structure. The Parental Outcome Measure demonstrated three unique theoretical constructs: Psychosocial Impact, Guilt, and Blame. The Parental Outcome Measure has excellent internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.91) and very good test-retest reliability more than 2-5 weeks (r = 0.87). Regarding validity, the Parental Outcome Measure is sensitive to condition severity, accounts for additional variance in parent outcomes, and strongly correlates with measures of anxiety, depression, stress, quality of life, family functioning, and parent adjustment. The Parental Outcome Measure contributes to the literature as the first brief measure of family impact designed for parents of children with perinatal stroke. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Breastfeeding and perinatal exposure, and the risk of asthma and allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, Caroline J; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2016-06-01

    Exposures during the perinatal period, a phase of rapid development, may have a profound and sustained effect on disease risk. In particular, perinatal exposures may influence the development and maturation of the infant immune system and the risk of allergic disease. We aimed to summarize the current literature on perinatal exposures and the risk of asthma and allergic disease Increased risk of offspring wheeze or asthma was found for: maternal obesity and hypertension during pregnancy; febrile illness, gynaecological, and viral respiratory infections in pregnancy; exposure to bisphenol A and phthalates in pregnancy and childhood; exposure to smoking in utero; low birth weight; caesarean section and neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia. Reduced risk of offspring atopic eczema was found for hookworm infection in pregnancy and reduced risk of offspring wheeze was associated with increased pregnancy dietary intake of vitamin E and zinc. Higher levels of selenium in pregnancy were associated with less risk of asthma in genetically susceptible offspring. Early life pet ownership was associated with a decrease in atopic asthma but an increase in nonatopic asthma risk. A diverse range of exposures were associated with allergic disease risk, highlighting the susceptibility of children during the perinatal period. Clinicians should reinforce public health messages concerning maternal obesity, smoking, and breastfeeding. The infant gut microbiome is emerging as an important hypothesis, which may mediate the relationship between many perinatal exposures and allergic disease.

  6. Development and internal validation of a multivariable model to predict perinatal death in pregnancy hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Beth A; Groen, Henk; Ukah, U Vivian; Ansermino, J Mark; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Grobman, William; Hall, David R; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Magee, Laura A; von Dadelszen, Peter

    2015-10-01

    To develop and internally validate a prognostic model for perinatal death that could guide community-based antenatal care of women with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) in low-resourced settings as part of a mobile health application. Using data from 1688 women (110 (6.5%) perinatal deaths) admitted to hospital after 32weeks gestation with a HDP from five low-resourced countries in the miniPIERS prospective cohort, a logistic regression model to predict perinatal death was developed and internally validated. Model discrimination, calibration, and classification accuracy were assessed and compared with use of gestational age alone to determine prognosis. Stillbirth or neonatal death before hospital discharge. The final model included maternal age; a count of symptoms (0, 1 or ⩾2); and dipstick proteinuria. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.75 [95% CI 0.71-0.80]. The model correctly identified 42/110 (38.2%) additional cases as high-risk (probability >15%) of perinatal death compared with use of only gestational age perinatal death and who would benefit from transfer to facility-based care. This model requires external validation and assessment in an implementation study to confirm performance. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pre- and Perinatal Risk for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Does Neuropsychological Weakness Explain the Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggs, Kelsey; Elmore, Alexis L; Nigg, Joel T; Nikolas, Molly A

    2016-11-01

    Etiological investigations of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behavior problems support multiple causal pathways, including involvement of pre- and perinatal risk factors. Because these risks occur early in life, well before observable ADHD and externalizing symptoms emerge, the relation between risk and symptoms may be mediated by neurodevelopmental effects that manifest later in neuropsychological functioning. However, potential dissociable effects of pre/perinatal risk elements on ADHD and familial confounds must also be considered to test alternative hypotheses. 498 youth aged 6-17 years (55.0 % male) completed a multi-stage, multi-informant assessment including parent and teacher symptom reports of symptoms and parent ratings of pre/perinatal health risk indicators. Youth completed a neuropsychological testing battery. Multiple mediation models examined direct effects of pre- and perinatal health risk on ADHD and other disruptive behavior disorder symptoms and indirect effects via neuropsychological functioning. Parental ADHD symptoms and externalizing status was covaried to control for potential familial effects. Effects of prenatal substance exposure on inattention were mediated by memory span and temporal processing deficits. Further, effects of perinatal health risk on inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and ODD were mediated by deficits in response variability and temporal processing. Further, maternal health risks during pregnancy appeared to exert direct rather than indirect effects on outcomes. Results suggest that after controlling for familial relatedness of ADHD between parent and child, early developmental health risks may influence ADHD via effects on neuropsychological processes underpinning the disorder.

  8. The Perinatal Risk Index: Early Risks Experienced by Domestic Adoptees in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Marceau

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess comprehensively the prevalence of perinatal risks experienced by a potentially high-risk yet understudied population of children domestically adopted in the United States. Data are from participant report and medical records from mothers (n = 580 who completed a domestic adoption placement with nonrelatives at or near birth (Mean placement age = 7 days. We describe a comprehensive measure of perinatal risks, including divergences from previous assessment tools and the incorporation of multiple reporters, and report the prevalence of various types of perinatal risks. The prevalence of each specific risk factor was generally low, although several risks were more prevalent in this sample than estimates from nationally representative publicly available data. Nearly the entire sample (99% experienced some type of risk exposure. Birth mothers who placed their children for adoption domestically in the US experience higher levels of perinatal risks than the national average, but not for all specific types of risk. Thus, the developmental trajectories of children adopted domestically may systematically differ from the general population to the extent that these specific perinatal risks impact development.

  9. Tobacco control policies and perinatal health: a national quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelen, Myrthe J; Sheikh, Aziz; Kok, Marjolein; Hajenius, Petra; Zimmermann, Luc J; Kramer, Boris W; Hukkelhoven, Chantal W; Reiss, Irwin K; Mol, Ben W; Been, Jasper V

    2016-04-22

    We investigated whether changes in perinatal outcomes occurred following introduction of key tobacco control policies in the Netherlands: smoke-free legislation in workplaces plus a tobacco tax increase and mass media campaign (January-February 2004); and extension of the smoke-free law to the hospitality industry, accompanied by another tax increase and mass media campaign (July 2008). This was a national quasi-experimental study using Netherlands Perinatal Registry data (2000-2011; registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02189265). Primary outcome measures were: perinatal mortality, preterm birth, and being small-for-gestational age (SGA). The association with timing of the tobacco control policies was investigated using interrupted time series logistic regression analyses with adjustment for confounders. Among 2,069,695 singleton births, there were 13,027 (0.6%) perinatal deaths, 116,043 (5.6%) preterm live-births and 187,966 (9.1%) SGA live-births. The 2004 policies were not associated with significant changes in the odds of developing any of the primary outcomes. After the 2008 policy change, a -4.4% (95% CI -2.4; -6.4, p < 0.001) decrease in odds of being SGA was observed. A reduction in SGA births, but not preterm birth or perinatal mortality, was observed in the Netherlands after extension of the smoke-free workplace law to bars and restaurants in conjunction with a tax increase and mass media campaign.

  10. 2010 perinatal GBS prevention guideline and resource utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sagori; Dukhovny, Dmitry; Mao, Wenyang; Eichenwald, Eric C; Puopolo, Karen M

    2014-02-01

    To quantify differences in early-onset sepsis (EOS) evaluations, evaluation-associated resource utilization, and EOS cases detected, when comparing time periods before and after the implementation of an EOS algorithm based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2010 guidelines for prevention of perinatal Group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease. Retrospective cohort study of infants born at ≥36 weeks' gestation from 2009 to 2012 in a single tertiary care center. One 12-month period during which EOS evaluations were based on the CDC 2002 guideline was compared with a second 12-month period during which EOS evaluations were based on the CDC 2010 guideline. A cost minimization analysis was performed to determine the EOS evaluation-associated costs and resources during each time period. During the study periods, among well-appearing infants ≥36 weeks' gestation, EOS evaluations for inadequate GBS prophylaxis decreased from 32/1000 to <1/1000 live births; EOS evaluation-associated costs decreased by $6994 per 1000 live births; and EOS evaluation-associated work hours decreased by 29 per 1000 live births. We found no increase in EOS evaluations for other indications, total NICU admissions, frequency of infants evaluated for symptoms before hospital discharge, or incidence of EOS during the 2 study periods. Implementation of an EOS algorithm based on CDC 2010 GBS guidelines resulted in a 25% decrease in EOS evaluations performed among well-appearing infants ≥36 weeks' gestation, attributable to decreased evaluation of infants born in the setting of inadequate indicated GBS prophylaxis. This resulted in significant changes in EOS evaluation-associated resource expenditures.

  11. Parenting considerations in young adults with perinatally acquired HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeli, Michael; Greenhalgh, Clare; Frize, Graham; Foster, Caroline; Fidler, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of children born with perinatally acquired HIV (PAH) are surviving into late adolescence and early adulthood. At this developmental stage, developing intimate relationships and having children are potentially important goals with associated normative challenges. Young people with PAH face a variety of additional HIV-related stressors that may be associated with relationships and parenting. These may include managing HIV disclosure to their partner and adherence to antiretroviral medication to (a) prevent transmission to partners and future offspring and (b) maintain their own health. Some of these challenges may be impacted upon by issues associated with having been born with HIV, for example, managing long-standing secrecy about HIV and having been told from a young age that life expectancy could be shortened. To date, there has been limited research into the procreational and parenting reflections of young people with PAH. This study examined the hopes and the concerns that a group of young people with PAH have regarding having children. Seven participants (five females and two males) currently or previously in an intimate relationship, aged 18-23 years, two of whom were parents, were recruited from a UK hospital clinic. They were interviewed using a semi-structured interview, with data analysed according to the principles of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Four main themes were elicited: the perceived impact of having a child on intimate relationships, the effect of normative beliefs on parenting intentions and expectations, the thoughts and feelings about disclosing parental HIV status to one's children in the future, and the perceived impact of HIV on procreational intentions. Implications for supporting young people with PAH in parenting decision-making are explored.

  12. Meckel Syndrome: Genetics, Perinatal Findings, and Differential Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Meckel syndrome (MKS is a lethal, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by occipital encephalocele, bilateral renal cystic dysplasia, hepatic ductal proliferation, fibrosis and cysts, and polydactyly. Genetic heterogeneity of MKS has been established by three reported MKS loci, i.e., MKS1 on 17q23, MKS2 on 11q13, and MKS3 on 8q21.13-q22.1. MKS1 encodes a component of flagellar apparatus basal body proteome, which is associated with ciliary function. MKS3 encodes a seven-transmembrane receptor protein, meckelin. The identification of the MKS3 gene as well as the MKS1 gene enables molecular genetic testing for at-risk families, and allows accurate genetic counseling, carrier testing, and prenatal diagnosis. Pregnancies with MKS fetuses may be associated with an elevated maternal serum α-fetoprotein level and an abnormal screening result in the second-trimester maternal serum screening test. The classic MKS triad of occipital encephalocele, postaxial polydactyly, and bilateral enlarged multicystic kidneys can be diagnosed before the 14th gestational weeks by ultrasonography. However, later in pregnancy, severe oligohydramnios may make the diagnosis of polydactyly and encephalocele difficult. Differential diagnosis for MKS includes autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, trisomy 13, Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, hydrolethalus syndrome, Senior-Loken syndrome, Joubert syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, and oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1. This article provides an overview of genetics, perinatal findings, and differential diagnosis of MKS. The ciliopathy underlies the pathogenesis of MKS. Prenatal diagnosis of bilateral enlarged multicystic kidneys should alert MKS and prompt a thorough investigation of central nervous system malformations and polydactyly.

  13. Tubal Factor Infertility and Perinatal Risk After Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawwass, Jennifer F.; Crawford, Sara; Kissin, Dmitry M.; Session, Donna R.; Boulet, Sheree; Jamieson, Denise J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess trends of tubal factor infertility and to evaluate risk of miscarriage and delivery of preterm or low birth weight (LBW) neonates among women with tubal factor infertility using assisted reproductive technology (ART). METHODS We assessed trends of tubal factor infertility among all fresh and frozen, donor, and nondonor ART cycles performed annually in the United States between 2000 and 2010 (N=1,418,774) using the National ART Surveillance System. The data set was then limited to fresh, nondonor in vitro fertilization cycles resulting in pregnancy to compare perinatal outcomes for cycles associated with tubal compared with male factor infertility. We performed bivariate and multivariable analyses controlling for maternal characteristics and calculated adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS The percentage of ART cycles associated with tubal factor infertility diagnoses decreased from 2000 to 2010 (26.02–14.81%). Compared with male factor infertility, tubal factor portended an increased risk of miscarriage (14.0% compared with 12.7%, adjusted RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04–1.12); risk was increased for both early and late miscarriage. Singleton neonates born to women with tubal factor infertility had an increased risk of pre-term birth (15.8% compared with 11.6%, adjusted RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.20–1.34) and LBW (10.9% compared with 8.5%, adjusted RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.20–1.36). Significant increases in risk persisted for early and late preterm delivery and very low and moderately LBW delivery. A significantly elevated risk was also detected for twin, but not triplet, pregnancies. CONCLUSION Tubal factor infertility, which is decreasing in prevalence in the United States, is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, preterm birth, and LBW delivery as compared with couples with male factor infertility using ART. PMID:23812461

  14. Maternal and perinatal risk factors for childhood leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zack, M.; Adami, H.O.; Ericson, A. (Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1991-07-15

    This report describes an exploratory population-based study of maternal and perinatal risk factors for childhood leukemia in Sweden. The Swedish National Cancer Registry ascertained 411 cases in successive birth cohorts from 1973 through 1984 recorded in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. Using the latter, we matched five controls without cancer to each case by sex and month and year of birth. Mothers of children with leukemia were more likely to have been exposed to nitrous oxide anesthesia during delivery than mothers of controls (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0, 1.6). Children with leukemia were more likely than controls to have Down's syndrome (OR = 32.5; 95% CI = 7.3, 144.0) or cleft lip or cleft palate (OR = 5.0; 95% CI = 1.0, 24.8); to have had a diagnosis associated with difficult labor but unspecified complications (OR = 4.5; 95% CI = 1.1, 18.2) or with other conditions of the fetus or newborn (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1, 2.1), specifically, uncomplicated physiological jaundice (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.2, 2.9); or to have received supplemental oxygen (OR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.3, 1.3, 4.9). Because multiple potential risk factors were analyzed in this study, future studies need to check these findings. The authors did not confirm the previously reported higher risks for childhood leukemia associated with being male, having a high birth weight, or being born to a woman of advanced maternal age.

  15. Deprivation, occupational hazards and perinatal outcomes in pregnant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrotin, J-B; Vaissière, M; Etaix, M; Dziurla, M; Radauceanu, A; Malard, S; Lafon, D

    2017-01-01

    Recent global economic difficulties have widened social inequalities, but their impact on pregnant workers is not known. To investigate the association between deprivation, exposure to occupational hazards and adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnant workers. A cross-sectional study performed in 2014 in French occupational health services. Eligible workers were women who had worked during their pregnancy and had a medical visit by occupational health physicians (OHPs) after delivery and at the time of returning to work. Deprivation was measured using the EPICES scale (Evaluation of Precariousness and Inequalities in Health Examination Centres). Information on birth outcomes was self-reported. Occupational risks for pregnancy were assessed by OHPs. Jobs were coded by the occupational health team using standardized French nomenclature. The groups (deprivation/no deprivation) were compared using univariate (chi-squared test) and multivariate Poisson regression analyses. Of 1402 pregnant workers, 293 (21%) were classed as deprived. This group more frequently encountered occupational hazards, particularly for physical exposures (P occupational hazards of three or more for pregnancy [adjusted relative risk (RRa) = 4.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-7.9]. Our findings suggest that deprivation and exposure to three or more occupational hazards during pregnancy cumulatively increased the risk of pre-term birth (RRa = 3.9; 95% CI 1.2-12.4). Our data suggest that deprived pregnant workers are an occupationally vulnerable group. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Hemodynamic and metabolic correlates of perinatal white matter injury severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Riddle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although the spectrum of perinatal white matter injury (WMI in preterm infants is shifting from cystic encephalomalacia to milder forms of WMI, the factors that contribute to this changing spectrum are unclear. We hypothesized that the variability in WMI quantified by immunohistochemical markers of inflammation could be correlated with the severity of impaired blood oxygen, glucose and lactate. METHODS: We employed a preterm fetal sheep model of in utero moderate hypoxemia and global severe but not complete cerebral ischemia that reproduces the spectrum of human WMI. Since there is small but measurable residual brain blood flow during occlusion, we sought to determine if the metabolic state of the residual arterial blood was associated with severity of WMI. Near the conclusion of hypoxia-ischemia, we recorded cephalic arterial blood pressure, blood oxygen, glucose and lactate levels. To define the spectrum of WMI, an ordinal WMI rating scale was compared against an unbiased quantitative image analysis protocol that provided continuous histo-pathological outcome measures for astrogliosis and microgliosis derived from the entire white matter. RESULTS: A spectrum of WMI was observed that ranged from diffuse non-necrotic lesions to more severe injury that comprised discrete foci of microscopic or macroscopic necrosis. Residual arterial pressure, oxygen content and blood glucose displayed a significant inverse association with WMI and lactate concentrations were directly related. Elevated glucose levels were the most significantly associated with less severe WMI. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that under conditions of hypoxemia and severe cephalic hypotension, WMI severity measured using unbiased immunohistochemical measurements correlated with several physiologic parameters, including glucose, which may be a useful marker of fetal response to hypoxia or provide protection against energy failure and more severe WMI.

  17. Hemodynamic and metabolic correlates of perinatal white matter injury severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Art; Maire, Jennifer; Cai, Victor; Nguyen, Thuan; Gong, Xi; Hansen, Kelly; Grafe, Marjorie R; Hohimer, A Roger; Back, Stephen A

    2013-01-01

    Although the spectrum of perinatal white matter injury (WMI) in preterm infants is shifting from cystic encephalomalacia to milder forms of WMI, the factors that contribute to this changing spectrum are unclear. We hypothesized that the variability in WMI quantified by immunohistochemical markers of inflammation could be correlated with the severity of impaired blood oxygen, glucose and lactate. We employed a preterm fetal sheep model of in utero moderate hypoxemia and global severe but not complete cerebral ischemia that reproduces the spectrum of human WMI. Since there is small but measurable residual brain blood flow during occlusion, we sought to determine if the metabolic state of the residual arterial blood was associated with severity of WMI. Near the conclusion of hypoxia-ischemia, we recorded cephalic arterial blood pressure, blood oxygen, glucose and lactate levels. To define the spectrum of WMI, an ordinal WMI rating scale was compared against an unbiased quantitative image analysis protocol that provided continuous histo-pathological outcome measures for astrogliosis and microgliosis derived from the entire white matter. A spectrum of WMI was observed that ranged from diffuse non-necrotic lesions to more severe injury that comprised discrete foci of microscopic or macroscopic necrosis. Residual arterial pressure, oxygen content and blood glucose displayed a significant inverse association with WMI and lactate concentrations were directly related. Elevated glucose levels were the most significantly associated with less severe WMI. Our results suggest that under conditions of hypoxemia and severe cephalic hypotension, WMI severity measured using unbiased immunohistochemical measurements correlated with several physiologic parameters, including glucose, which may be a useful marker of fetal response to hypoxia or provide protection against energy failure and more severe WMI.

  18. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy and perinatal results: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Sbrana

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a significant social problem that may be associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. The aim of this study was to describe alcohol consumption during pregnancy and to study its association with low birth weight, newborns small for gestational age and preterm birth. DESIGN AND SETTING: Nested cohort study, in the city of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: 1,370 women and their newborns were evaluated. A standardized questionnaire on health and lifestyle habits was applied to the mothers. Anthropometry was performed on the newborns. Alcohol consumption was defined as low, moderate or high, as defined by the World Health Organization. Adjusted logistic regression analysis was used. RESULTS: 23% of the women consumed alcohol during pregnancy. Consumption mainly occurred in the first trimester (14.8% and decreased as the pregnancy progressed. The median alcohol intake was 3.89 g (interquartile range, IQR = 8 g per day. In the unadjusted analysis, alcohol consumption increased the risk of low birth weight almost twofold (odds ratio, OR 1.91; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.25-2.92. The risk was lower in the adjusted analysis (OR 1.62; 95% CI: 1.03-2.54. Alcohol consumption did not show associations with small for gestational age or preterm birth. There was greater risk of low birth weight and newborns small for gestational age and preterm birth among mothers who were both smokers and drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: The alcohol consumption rate during pregnancy was 23% and was independently associated with low birth weight, but there was no risk of newborns small for gestational age or preterm birth.

  19. Risk factors and adverse perinatal outcome associated with low birth weight in Northern Tanzania: a registry-based retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesta Mitao

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Low birth weight is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. Early identification of risk factors for low birth weight through prenatal surveillance of high risk pregnant women may help to prevent these adverse perinatal outcomes.

  20. Low risk of adverse obstetrical and perinatal outcome in pregnancies complicated by asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Nilas, Lisbeth; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma in pregnancy have been associated with an increased risk of pregnancy complications. Our aim was to estimate incidence and describe risk factors for adverse obstetrical and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women with asthma. METHODS: Women enrolled in the Management of Asthma...... during Pregnancy (MAP) program were each matched with three controls (i.e. consecutive women giving birth at our obstetrical service). Asthma severity was classified according to treatment step. Data on obstetrical and perinatal outcomes were obtained from medical records. Logistic regression analysis...... of adverse obstetrical and perinatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by asthma is low compared to non-asthmatic women. Our observations suggest that enrollment into an asthma management program has a positive impact on overall pregnancy outcome....